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Sample records for adolescent psychiatry residency

  1. A Survey of Addiction Training in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Residency Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldbaum, Marjorie; Galanter, Marc; Dermatis, Helen; Greenberg, William M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Childhood and adolescence represent a critical period for the potential initiation of substance use, and thus it is important that child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) residents learn to screen, assess, refer, and/or treat children and adolescents who have substance abuse diagnoses. Method: The authors conducted a survey by mail of…

  2. Promoting Scholarship during Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Residency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mezzacappa, Enrico; Hamoda, Hesham M.; DeMaso, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In 2003, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) drew attention to the critical national shortage of psychiatrist-researchers and the need for competency-based curricula to promote research training during psychiatry residency as one way to address this shortage at the institutional level. Here, the authors report on the adaptation,…

  3. A Practical Approach to Implementing the Core Competencies in a Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Residency Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingle, Arden D.; Sexson, Sandra B.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe the development and implementation of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's core competencies in a child and adolescent psychiatry residency program. Method: The authors identify the program's organizational approach and participants and detail various strategies and methods of defining,…

  4. The Differential Impact of Clerk Interest and Participation in a Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clerkship Rotation upon Psychiatry and Pediatrics Residency Matches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Mark D.; Szatmari, Peter; Eva, Kevin W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors evaluated the differential impact of clerk interest and participation in a Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (CAP) clerkship rotation upon psychiatry and pediatrics residency matches. Method: Authors studied clerks from the McMaster University M.D. program graduating years of 2005-2007. Participants were categorized as 1)…

  5. Teaching Forensic Psychiatry to General Psychiatry Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Catherine F.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requires that general psychiatry residency training programs provide trainees with exposure to forensic psychiatry. Limited information is available on how to develop a core curriculum in forensic psychiatry for general psychiatry residents and few articles have been…

  6. Factors Affecting Recruitment into Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Jon A.; Lewis, John E.; Katyal, Shalini

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors studied the factors affecting the recruitment into child and adolescent psychiatry training in the United States. Methods: Medical students (n = 154) and general and child and adolescent psychiatry residents (n = 111) completed a questionnaire to evaluate career choice in child psychiatry (n = 265). Results: Compared with…

  7. Models of Integrated Training in Psychiatry and Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sexson, Sandra B.; Thomas, Christopher R.; Pope, Kayla

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies indicate declining interest in child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) as a career choice during psychiatry residency training. Programs have developed integrated training in psychiatry and CAP as a means to address the workforce shortage in CAP, but little is known about the number or nature of these training tracks.…

  8. Medical Decision-Making by Psychiatry Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Mallakh, Rif; Zinner, Jill; Mackey, Amanda; Tamas, Rebecca L.; Martin, Chanley M.; Dalton, Jerad; Dhaliwal, Nitu; Luddington, Nicole; Numan, Farhad U.; Nunes, Ross; Taylor, Stephen; Ye, Lu

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Several conspiring factors have resulted in an increase in the level of medical burden in psychiatric patients. Psychiatry residents require increasing levels of medical sophistication. To assess the medical decision-making of psychiatry residents, the authors examined the outcome in subjects initially seen in the emergency psychiatric…

  9. Psychiatry Residency Training around the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zisook, Sidney; Balon, Richard; Bjorksten, Karin S.; Everall, Ian; Dunn, Laura; Ganadjian, Krauz; Jin, Hua; Parikh, Sagar; Sciolla, Andres; Sidhartha, Tanuj; Yoo, Tai

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors compare and contrast psychiatry residency training in the United States to that in Canada and selected countries in South America, Europe, and Asia. Method: Nine individuals who are intimately familiar with psychiatry residency training in the United States (primarily chairs, training directors, associate training directors,…

  10. Putting "Rural" into Psychiatry Residency Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, William A.; Pomerantz, Andrew; Schwartz, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Evidence indicates disparities in the number of psychiatrists practicing in rural America compared to urban areas suggesting the need for a greater emphasis on rural psychiatry in residency training programs. The authors offer suggestions for integrating a rural focus in psychiatry residency training to foster greater competency and…

  11. The role of a research seminar for child psychiatry residents.

    PubMed

    Paniagua, F A; Pumariega, A J; O'Boyle, M; Meyer, W J

    1993-03-01

    A major problem confronting the field of child and adolescent psychiatry is the development of teaching strategies to stimulate research activities and an appreciation of research. A teaching approach is described which emphasizes major research concepts using a programmed instruction method and illustrating these concepts with clinical cases. Fourteen child psychiatry residents participated in the seminar during a 3-year period. Overall, trainees' evaluation of the seminar was positive, and they demonstrated a high level of understanding across major research topics. In addition, the seminar may have contributed to an increased preference for academic careers by graduating residents.

  12. Intertwining Psychiatry Residency Training and Ethics in the College Setting.

    PubMed

    Sondheimer, Adrian

    2015-10-01

    An ethical responsibility exists, currently unaddressed, for mandated psychiatry residency training with college student populations. Such training brings numerous potential benefits, including exposure to specific disorders and administrative structures. As well, individual cases pose ethical dilemmas unique to this developmental stage, which segues seamlessly from that of adolescence. Relevant case illustrations are employed. Likewise, psychiatric education oversight bodies are urged to fulfill their ethical obligations to provide pertinent training.

  13. Annotated Psychodynamic Bibliography for Residents in Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    CALIGOR, EVE

    1996-01-01

    The author provides an annotated bibliography to introduce psychodynamic psychotherapy and psychoanalysis to residents in psychiatry. The emphasis of the selection is on relevance to practice. The entries are grouped by topic, levels of difficulty are noted, and readings are identified as being of either current or historic relevance. PMID:22700303

  14. Educating psychiatry residents in neuropsychiatry and neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Sheldon

    2013-06-01

    Neuropsychiatry and psychiatric neuroscience should be part of the general psychiatry curriculum so that graduate psychiatrists will be able to allow their patients the benefit of neuroscientifically informed diagnosis and treatment. Current neurology and neuroscience educational requirements for US psychiatry training are reviewed. The draft milestone requirements for clinical neuroscience training as part of the US Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's Next Accreditation System are also provided. Suggestions for the neuropsychiatric and neuroscience content of psychiatry residency training are made, along with a description of pedagogic methods and resources. Survey data are reviewed indicating agreement by programme directors with the importance of neuroscience training and an increase in the amount of time devoted to this area. Faculty staff development in neuropsychiatry and neuroscience literacy will be needed to provide high quality training in these areas.

  15. The Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Trials Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, John S.; Silva, Susan G.; Compton, Scott; Anthony, Ginger; DeVeaugh-Geiss, Joseph; Califf, Robert; Krishnan, Ranga

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The current generation of clinical trials in pediatric psychiatry often fails to maximize clinical utility for practicing clinicians, thereby diluting its impact. Method: To attain maximum clinical relevance and acceptability, the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Trials Network (CAPTN) will transport to pediatric psychiatry the practical…

  16. Survey of Threats and Assaults by Patients on Psychiatry Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dvir, Yael; Moniwa, Emiko; Crisp-Han, Holly; Levy, Dana; Coverdale, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors sought to determine the prevalence of threats and assaults by patients on psychiatry residents, their consequences, and the perceived adequacy of supports and institutional responses. Method: Authors conducted an anonymous survey of 519 psychiatry residents in 13 psychiatry programs across the United States. The survey…

  17. Teaching Psychiatry Residents to Teach: A National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp-Han, Holly; Chambliss, R. Bryan; Coverdale, John

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Because there have been no previously published national surveys on teaching psychiatry residents about how to teach, the authors surveyed United States psychiatry program directors on what and how residents are taught about teaching. Methods: All psychiatry training programs across the United States were mailed a semistructured…

  18. Teaching "Global Mental Health:" Psychiatry Residency Directors' Attitudes and Practices regarding International Opportunities for Psychiatry Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belkin, Gary S.; Yusim, Anna; Anbarasan, Deepti; Bernstein, Carol Ann

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors surveyed Psychiatry Residency Training Directors' (RTDs') attitudes about the role and feasibility of international rotations during residency training. Method: A 21-question survey was electronically distributed that explored RTDs' beliefs about the value, use, and availability of international clinical and research…

  19. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    MedlinePlus

    ... aacap.org for questions. Be CAPtivated - Child and Adolescent Psychiatry as a Career AACAP's Current Award Opportunities ... More... AACAP Workforce Maps More... Delirium in Children & Adolescents More... Issues to Consider When Engaging Asian American ...

  20. The Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Match: Problems and Potential Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascherman, Lee I.; Lamps, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Match was instituted in 1996 to establish fair and uniform resident recruitment practices. METHOD: The impetus for its use was the desire to protect applicants and training programs from premature decisions based on fears of not securing a training position or not filling a program. RESULTS: However,…

  1. How Prepared Are Psychiatry Residents for Treating Nicotine Dependence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prochaska, Judith J.; Fromont, Sebastien C.; Hall, Sharon M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Nicotine dependence is the most prevalent substance abuse disorder among adult psychiatric patients and a leading cause of death and disability. The authors examined the extent to which psychiatry residents are prepared to treat nicotine dependence in clinical practice. Methods: Residents from five psychiatry residency programs in…

  2. Formal Training in Women's Issues in Psychiatry: A Survey of Psychiatry Residency Training Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Liza H.; Epstein, Steven A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe the availability of formal residency training opportunities in women's issues in psychiatry and explore the potential relationships between the availability of training and characteristics of residency programs. Method: The authors surveyed psychiatry residency training directors to identify program characteristics…

  3. A Developmental Model for Enhancing Research Training during Psychiatry Residency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Andrew R.; Tew, James D., Jr.; Reynolds, Charles F., III; Pincus, Harold A.; Ryan, Neal; Nash, Kenneth; Kupfer, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe a developmental model for enhancing residency research training for careers in academic psychiatry. Over the past 10 years, the University of Pittsburgh Department of Psychiatry has developed a research track (RT) for its residents. While the Department's plan has been to address the critical need of training…

  4. Characteristics of Combined Family Practice-Psychiatry Residency Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rachal, James; Lacy, Timothy J.; Warner, Christopher H.; Whelchel, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate how family practice-psychiatry residency programs meet the challenges of rigorous accreditation demands, clinical supervision, and boundaries of practice. Method: A 54-question survey of program directors of family practice-psychiatry residency programs outlining program demographic data, curricula, coordination, resident…

  5. Screening for Psychopathology Symptoms in Mexican Psychiatry Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rios, Francisco Javier Mesa; Munoz, Maria Del Carmen Lara

    2011-01-01

    Background: Various rates of alcoholism, drug abuse, mental illness, and suicide among physician have been reported, generally higher than those in the general population. Psychiatry residents, as other specializing physicians, seem to be prone to suffering them. The prevalence of psychological symptoms among psychiatry residents has not been…

  6. Burden and Stress among Psychiatry Residents and Psychiatric Healthcare Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Ishara, Sergio; Bandeira, Marina

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The authors compared the levels of job burden and stress in psychiatry residents with those of other healthcare professionals at inpatient and outpatient psychiatric hospitals in a medium-sized Brazilian city. Method: In this study, the levels of job burden and stress of 136 healthcare workers and 36 psychiatry residents from six various…

  7. An Investigation of Psychiatry Residents' Important Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Jody

    2011-01-01

    This research study was conducted to explore the phenomenon of the third-year experiences of the psychiatry residents. A review of the literature identified themes and subthemes related to the third-year of psychiatry education. The study was conducted at a university health science center. Data were collected from five residents using participant…

  8. Evaluation of Professional Role Competency during Psychiatry Residency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grujich, Nikola N.; Razmy, Ajmal; Zaretsky, Ari; Styra, Rima G.; Sockalingam, Sanjeev

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors sought to determine psychiatry residents' perceptions on the current method of evaluating professional role competency and the use of multi-source feedback (MSF) as an assessment tool. Method: Authors disseminated a structured, anonymous survey to 128 University of Toronto psychiatry residents, evaluating the current mode of…

  9. The Chief Resident in Psychiatry: Roles and Responsibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Russell F.; Schwartz, Eric; Servis, Mark; Cox, Paul D.; Lai, Alan; Hales, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Psychiatric residency programs have had chief residents for many years, and several articles previously published describe the chief residents' unique role as both faculty and resident. This article describes chief resident roles and responsibilities and explores trends in academic psychiatry departments from 1995 to 2006. Methods: The…

  10. A survey of state financing of psychiatry residency programs.

    PubMed

    Magen, J G; Banazak, D A; Dahn, J

    1998-09-01

    With upcoming cuts in graduate medical education funding, it is likely that many psychiatry residencies will be searching for new sources of revenue. State funding of residency programs is one possible avenue. The authors surveyed all Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited psychiatry residency programs to assess the present dimensions of state funding. Some programs in both publicly funded and private settings receive large proportions of their budgets from the state. Service commitments are common. State support of psychiatry residency education is currently an important source of funding and could become even more important in the near future. PMID:24442943

  11. Psychiatry Residency Education in Canada: Past, Present and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saperson, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This article provides a brief overview of the history of psychiatry residency training in Canada,and outlines the rationale for the current training requirements, changes to the final certification examination,and factors influencing future trends in psychiatry education and training. Method: The author compiled findings and reports on…

  12. Fifty Years in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werry, John

    2013-01-01

    John Werry completed training in child and adolescent psychiatry at McGill University in Montreal, and has been a world renowned leader in children's mental health. Drawing on a half century of work in Canada, the United States, and his native New Zealand, he shares his reflections and vision for the future in the interview given for this…

  13. A resident's experience in cross cultural/community psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Brinda S; Cutler, David L

    2005-10-01

    This report examines a psychiatric resident's consultation experience in a community psychiatry rotation serving South Asian women victims of intimate partner violence. It explores experiences related to negotiating and developing a partnership between culturally specific domestic violence services and community mental health services. It also discusses the resident's progression from consultant to administrator and ultimately to the rotation's termination. PMID:16142541

  14. A Neurosciences-in-Psychiatry Curriculum Project for Residents in Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunstone, David C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The author describes a 20-session, student-centered course relating contemporary neuroscience to psychiatry for second-year psychiatric residents. Methods: Twenty residents who took the course (2003-2007) completed pre- and postcourse surveys and were contacted for more remote follow-up regarding the course. Results: Survey results are…

  15. Psychiatry residency education in Canada: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Saperson, Karen

    2013-07-01

    OBJECTIVE This article provides a brief overview of the history of psychiatry residency training in Canada, and outlines the rationale for the current training requirements, changes to the final certification examination, and factors influencing future trends in psychiatry education and training. METHOD The author compiled findings and reports on residency education in Canada from current and historical sources. RESULTS Residency training in psychiatry in Canada has undergone significant change in the past 5 years, moving from an "apprenticeship" model to a competency-based curriculum with explicit expectations for the acquisition of key, defined competencies. CONCLUSION Continuous evaluation of teaching methodologies, increasing use of innovative and creative medical education techniques, flexible curricula, and increasingly rigorous standards of accreditation are some of the factors likely to continue to shape the future.

  16. Ethics in child and adolescent forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Ratner, Richard A

    2002-10-01

    Ethical concerns are ever present in the practice of all branches of psychiatry. They are likely to be more acute and commonplace in the practice of child and adolescent psychiatry because of the complication introduced by the immaturity of the patient. Children, depending on their age and developmental stage, may be incapable of giving meaningful consent, and situations in which breaking confidentiality must be considered arise more often. The field of forensic psychiatry is fundamentally different from clinical psychiatry because of the universal involvement of third parties and because interactions with evaluees do not occur within the context of a doctor patient relationship. Arguably, these conditions compel the forensic psychiatrist to function as a double agent. According to Appelbaum, an influential psychiatric ethicist, forensic practice calls for a different set of ethical guidelines that, while humane, do not either imply or derive from the existence of a doctor patient relationship. Others argue that a mix of forensic and clinical ethics is more appropriate. New developments in psychiatry, including the use of the Internet for E-mail and telepsychiatry, require continuing vigilance by the profession so that ethical standards can evolve to cover new circumstances at the frontiers of psychiatric practice.

  17. Integration of a token economy into a child and adolescent psychiatry training clinic.

    PubMed

    Dulcan, M K; Mannarino, A P; Borcherding, B G

    1991-12-01

    We developed a token economy pilot program in which reinforcers were provided by a university outpatient child and adolescent psychiatry clinic to address two problems common to psychiatry training programs: 1) psychiatric residents have insufficient opportunity to learn to use behavior modification techniques with outpatients, and 2) many patients and their parents seen in training clinics are poorly motivated and noncompliant with treatment, which leads to psychiatry resident discouragement and frustration. The rationale for the program is presented from the perspective of both the resident and the patient. The implementation of the program with 25 cases is described, including potential and actual difficulties. One case treated by a psychiatry resident is presented in more detail.

  18. [Specialized training in geriatric psychiatry during residency in France].

    PubMed

    Lepetit, Alexis; Lavigne, Benjamin; Legros, Emilie; Herrmann, Mathieu; Sebbane, Déborah

    2014-09-01

    Aging of the population is a growing concern in developed countries. Therefore, geriatric psychiatry has gradually emerged from general psychiatry. Many names have been proposed to term this sub-specialty: old age psychiatry (OAP), psychogeriatrics, geropsychiatry. A working group of the French federation of psychiatric trainees (AFFEP) set up an inventory of the theoretical instruction and clinical practice of OAP during the training of psychiatrists in France. Methods. A survey of both academic teaching and practical training for OAP was carried out in the 28 local AFFEP representatives of every French medical residency district, including overseas. We assessed the supply of general courses and seminars devoted to OAP during the training of French residents in psychiatry, and the offer of university or inter-university degrees as well as the possibility of specialized internship in every residency district. Results. 96% of French medical residency districts offered general courses of OAP with a mean volume of 11.5 hours along the four years of psychiatric training in France. Fifty percent of medical residency districts proposed at least one seminar devoted to OAP. Half of medical residency districts also offer a specialized university or inter-university degree. Concerning clinical practice, 86% of medical residency districts had one internship dedicated to OAP, in 39% of cases in teaching hospitals. Conclusion. Nationwide, there is an overall effort to make OAP available to French psychiatric residents by general courses and internship, but some disparity appeared in academic teaching (i.e. offering seminars and university/inter-university degrees) according to various residency districts.

  19. A Novel Approach to Medicine Training for Psychiatry Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onate, John; Hales, Robert; McCarron, Robert; Han, Jaesu; Pitman, Dorothy

    2008-01-01

    Objective: A unique rotation was developed to address limited outpatient internal medicine training in psychiatric residency by the University of California, Davis, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, which provides medical care to patients with mental illness. Methods: The number of patients seen by the service and the number of…

  20. Implementing Interpersonal Psychotherapy in a Psychiatry Residency Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtmacher, Jonathan; Eisendrath, Stuart J.; Haller, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for depression is a brief, well researched treatment for acute major depression. This article describes the implementation of IPT as an evidence-based treatment for depression in a psychiatry residency program. Method: The authors tracked the implementation process over 5 years as interpersonal…

  1. A Survey of the Interactions between Psychiatry Residency Programs and the Pharmaceutical Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varley, Christopher K.; Jibson, Michael D.; McCarthy, Mary; Benjamin, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors report a survey of the American Association of Directors of Psychiatry Residency Training (AADPRT) on interactions between the pharmaceutical industry and psychiatry residency programs. METHODS: American Association of Directors of Psychiatry Residency Training membership was anonymously surveyed by e-mail and by paper…

  2. Training in Tobacco Treatments in Psychiatry: A National Survey of Psychiatry Residency Training Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prochaska, Judith J.; Fromont, Sebastien C.; Louie, Alan K.; Jacobs, Marc H.; Hall, Sharon M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Nicotine dependence is the most prevalent substance abuse disorder among adult psychiatric patients and is a leading cause of death and disability. This study examines training in tobacco treatment in psychiatry residency programs across the United States. Method: The authors recruited training directors to complete a survey of their…

  3. Family Therapy Training in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Fellowship Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rait, Douglas Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study describes the current state of family therapy training in a sample of child and adolescent psychiatry fellowship programs. Method: Child and adolescent psychiatry fellows (N = 66) from seven training programs completed a questionnaire assessing demographics, family therapy training experiences, common models of treatment and…

  4. [Pharmacovigilance in child and adolescent psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Egberts, Karin; Karwautz, Andreas; Plener, Paul L; Mehler-Wex, Claudia; Kölch, Michael; Dang, Su-Yin; Taurines, Regina; Romanos, Marcel; Gerlach, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Rational pharmacotherapy is a challenging task in child and adolescent psychiatry. Increasing prescription numbers contrast with the uncertainties of safety and efficacy issues. The lack of clinical (authorization) trials often implies a non- age-specific use of drugs. However, young patients show particular metabolic conditions and a higher vulnerability for adverse drug reactions. Thus it seems mandatory to create age-specific pharmacological data about efficacy and safety of psychotropic drug use in minors. Legislation authorities became aware of this situation and introduced European and national scientific pharmacovigilance regulations and programmes accordingly in order to continuously evaluate the benefit-risk-ratio, detect, collect, minimize, and prevent adverse effects of drugs by appropriate measures, e.g., therapeutic drug monitoring. In this paper the principles and needs of pharmacovigilance in child and adolescent psychiatry are discussed. Furthermore a large multicenter clinical trial («TDM-VIGIL»), funded by the German Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices, is presented, which appeals to collect epidemiological prescription and safety data of psychotropic drugs in children and adolescents using an internet-based data infrastructure (patient registry).

  5. Ethical issues in child and adolescent psychiatry.

    PubMed Central

    Green, J; Stewart, A

    1987-01-01

    This paper concerns the special ethical problems in child and adolescent psychiatry which relate to the child as a developing being. Two themes are discussed--the sense of responsibility in the child, and the therapist's responsibility towards the child. As a background to understanding the former, ideas on moral and cognitive development are reviewed. The therapist's responsibility is discussed in relation to different styles of therapy and the ethical issues they raise. The article concludes with a number of suggested ethical principles. PMID:3572994

  6. Is Psychiatry Scientific? A Letter to a 21st Century Psychiatry Resident

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    During the development of the DSM-5, even the lay press questioned psychiatr's scientific validity. This review provides 21st century psychiatry residents with ways of answering these attacks by defining the concepts and history of psychiatry (a branch of medicine), medicine and science. Psychiatric language has two levels: first, describing symptoms and signs (19th century descriptive psychopathology developed in France and Germany), and second, describing disorders (psychiatric nosology was developed in the early 20th century by Kraepelin and resuscitated by the US neo-Kraepelinian revolution leading to the DSM-III). Science is a complex trial-and-error historical process that can be threatened by those who believe too much in it and disregard its limitations. The most important psychiatric advances, electroconvulsive therapy and major psychopharmacological agents, were discovered by "chance", not by scientific planning. Jaspers's General Psychopathology is a complex 100-year-old book that describes: 1) psychiatric disorders as heterogeneous and 2) psychiatry as a hybrid scientific discipline requiring a combination of understanding (a social science method) and explanation (a natural science method). In the 21st century Berrios reminds us of psychiatry's unfortunate methodological issues due to hybrid symptoms and disorders, some of which are better understood as problems in communication between interacting human beings; in those situations neuroscience methods such as brain imaging make no sense. A new language is needed in psychiatry. East Asian psychiatry residents, who are not particularly attached to the antiquated language currently used, may be particularly equipped for the task of recreating psychiatric language using 21st century knowledge. PMID:24302942

  7. Is psychiatry scientific? A letter to a 21st century psychiatry resident.

    PubMed

    de Leon, Jose

    2013-09-01

    During the development of the DSM-5, even the lay press questioned psychiatr's scientific validity. This review provides 21st century psychiatry residents with ways of answering these attacks by defining the concepts and history of psychiatry (a branch of medicine), medicine and science. Psychiatric language has two levels: first, describing symptoms and signs (19th century descriptive psychopathology developed in France and Germany), and second, describing disorders (psychiatric nosology was developed in the early 20th century by Kraepelin and resuscitated by the US neo-Kraepelinian revolution leading to the DSM-III). Science is a complex trial-and-error historical process that can be threatened by those who believe too much in it and disregard its limitations. The most important psychiatric advances, electroconvulsive therapy and major psychopharmacological agents, were discovered by "chance", not by scientific planning. Jaspers's General Psychopathology is a complex 100-year-old book that describes: 1) psychiatric disorders as heterogeneous and 2) psychiatry as a hybrid scientific discipline requiring a combination of understanding (a social science method) and explanation (a natural science method). In the 21st century Berrios reminds us of psychiatry's unfortunate methodological issues due to hybrid symptoms and disorders, some of which are better understood as problems in communication between interacting human beings; in those situations neuroscience methods such as brain imaging make no sense. A new language is needed in psychiatry. East Asian psychiatry residents, who are not particularly attached to the antiquated language currently used, may be particularly equipped for the task of recreating psychiatric language using 21st century knowledge. PMID:24302942

  8. Evaluating the Workload of On-Call Psychiatry Residents: Which Activities Are Associated with Sleep Loss?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Brian K.; Cooke, Erinn O.; Sharfstein, Steven S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to review the workload inventory of on-call psychiatry residents and to evaluate which activities were associated with reductions in on-call sleep. Method: A prospective cohort study was conducted, following 20 psychiatry residents at a 231-bed psychiatry hospital, from July 1, 2008 through June 30, 2009.…

  9. Evaluating Psychiatry Residents as Physician-Managers: Development of an Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sockalingam, Sanjeev; Stergiopoulos, Vicky; Maggi, Julie D.; Zaretsky, Ari; Stovel, Laura; Hodges, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: With the emergence of physician-manager (PM) curricula in medical education, more effective assessment tools are needed to evaluate psychiatry trainees in this role. The aim of this study was to determine psychiatry residents', program directors', and PM educators' perceptions about PM role-assessment. Methods: Psychiatry residents at…

  10. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Training: A Global Perspective.

    PubMed

    Mian, Ayesha I; Milavić, Gordana; Skokauskas, Norbert

    2015-10-01

    Training programs aim to produce child and adolescent psychiatry professionals who are competent at both clinical work as well as health promotion through teaching and research. Child psychiatry training programs not only offer training in teaching the clinical skills of the discipline of child and adolescent psychiatry but also strive to help with the development of professionalism, ethical behaviors, and leadership skills in their trainees. Ultimately, it is the children of the world who stand to gain by having a skilled work force that adheres to the highest global standards when it comes to the provision of mental health services.

  11. Sex Education for Male Adolescent Sex Offenders in a Group Setting Led by General Psychiatry Residents: A Literature Review and Example in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, R. Gregg; Boyd, Mary S.

    2009-01-01

    Male adolescents have been credited with a significant percentage of sex crimes in recent years. They are a heterogeneous population with offenses spanning the same range found among adult offenders. A lack of interpersonal social skills relevant to intimate relationships and inaccurate knowledge regarding appropriate sexual behaviors contribute…

  12. Hidden ethical dilemmas in psychiatric residency training: the psychiatry resident as dual agent.

    PubMed

    Hoop, Jinger G

    2004-01-01

    In addition to learning about confidentiality, civil commitment, informed consent, and other ethical issues, psychiatry residents must deal with less visible ethical dilemmas that arise from the training process itself. Residents grapple with three inherent conflicting duties between their dual roles as physician and learner, as physician and supervisee, and as physician and employee of a training institution. These conflicts must be negotiated at a time of high stress, when residents are plagued with self-doubt, fear, fatigue, and other vulnerabilities that can lead good doctors to make ethically dubious decisions. While such conflicts and stressors are common to residency training in most specialties, they may be heightened in psychiatric residency. This paper proposes a model for understanding covert elements of ethical decision making during psychiatric residency and recommends strategies training programs can use to help residents navigate an ethical minefield. PMID:15507552

  13. [Inclusion - pediatric and adolescent psychiatry aspects].

    PubMed

    Warnke, Andreas

    2015-07-01

    The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities became legally binding in Germany in March 2009. “Inclusion” is the major concept–all people with any kind of handicap must have the same rights to full and effective participation and inclusion in society. Preceding inclusion come adjustments in society with regard to ethical, legislative, administrative, conceptual, structural, economical, and thus also to healthcare-political frameworks, in order to make disabilities are as far as possible no longer a handicap in an individual’s everyday life. This review first outlines the present social status influencing the development of children, a child’s welfare, and especially the healthcare of children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders and conditions indicating barriers to inclusion. It focuses on those articles of the UN convention which are relevant with regard to ethical attitude, epidemiology, healthcare framework, diagnostics, therapy, teaching, and research with respect to child and adolescent psychiatry. The analysis points to a significant backlog demand in child psychiatric healthcare, teaching, and research.

  14. Does Psychiatry Residency Training Reflect the "Real World" of Psychiatry Practice? A Survey of Residency Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Timothy; Fava, Maurizio; Alpert, Jonathan E.; Vorono, Sienna; Sanders, Kathy M.; Mischoulon, David

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors determine whether Massachusetts General Hospital's residency graduates believed their training reflected their current practice activities. Method: The authors surveyed 134 graduates from MGH and MGH-McLean residency classes from 1983 to 2003. Subjects ranked their satisfaction with different components of training on a…

  15. Psychiatry residents and dynamic psychiatry: two narratives, a survey, and some ideas to enhance recruitment.

    PubMed

    Katz, Debra A; Tuttle, Jeffrey P; Housman, Beth T

    2011-01-01

    Psychiatric residency has undergone a major shift over the past 50 years with increasing emphasis on psychopharmacology evidence-based treatments, and competency-based requirements which has led to concerns that psychodynamic knowledge and skills are in jeopardy. Narratives of two residents who developed strong interest in psychodynamic psychotherapy and psychoanalytic training are presented to illustrate the important influences on their identities as psychodynamically oriented psychiatrists. Results from a recent survey of U.S. residents regarding psychodynamic psychiatry indicate that they value psychodynamic psychotherapy, want to incorporate psychotherapy into their careers as psychiatrists, and strongly endorse personal psychotherapy but view their psychodynamic skills as weak. Recommendations about how to enhance education and interest include (1) building or strengthening relationships with mentors, supervisors, and teachers, (2) emphasizing the importance of psychodynamic understanding of patients whether or not the resident is functioning as a therapist, (3) using psychopharmacology to engage residents in thinking psychodynamically, (4) encouraging personal psychotherapy for residents and helping find ways to make it affordable, (5) utilizing awards, visiting scholars, specialized programs, and distance learning, especially for programs without adequate resources, and (6) encouraging clinicians to become familiar with the research base in psychodynamic psychotherapy to correct biases and misperceptions. PMID:21434747

  16. Improving Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Education for Medical Students: An Inter-Organizational Collaborative Action Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Geraldine S.; Stock, Saundra; Briscoe, Gregory W.; Beck, Gary L.; Horton, Rita; Hunt, Jeffrey I.; Liu, Howard Y.; Rutter, Ashley Partner; Sexson, Sandra; Schlozman, Steven C.; Stubbe, Dorothy E.; Stuber, Margaret L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A new Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Medical Education (CAPME) Task Force, sponsored by the Association for Directors of Medical Student Education in Psychiatry (ADMSEP), has created an inter-organizational partnership between child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) educators and medical student educators in psychiatry. This paper…

  17. Improving Psychiatry Residents' Attitudes Toward Individuals Diagnosed with Substance Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Avery, Jonathan; Zerbo, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Special attention needs to be paid to the attitudes of psychiatry residents toward individuals diagnosed with substance use disorders. The attitudes of trainees may be worse toward these individuals than toward individuals with other diagnoses, and these attitudes may worsen over time. While psychiatry residencies are increasingly teaching residents about how to diagnosis and treat individuals diagnosed with substance use disorders, more attention needs to be paid to educating residents about common attitudes toward these individuals. We recommend that psychiatry residency programs start with basic educational didactics and reflection exercises on attitudes toward individuals diagnosed with substance use disorders and that programs try to form a positive "hidden curriculum" in their institutions.

  18. Poor Intentions or Poor Attention: Misrepresentation by Applicants to Psychiatry Residency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Jason P.; Borus, Jonathan F.; Chang, Grace; Greenberg, William E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the veracity of self-reported data by applicants to psychiatry residency. Methods: The authors reviewed the reported publications of all applicants to a psychiatry residency training program over a 2-year span. Results: Nine percent of applicants reporting publications were found to have misrepresented them.…

  19. Preparing International Medical Graduates for Psychiatry Residency: A Multi-Site Needs Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sockalingam, Sanjeev; Hawa, Raed; Al-Battran, Mazin; Abbey, Susan E.; Zaretsky, Ari

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Despite the growing number of international medical graduates (IMGs) training in medicine in Canada and the United States, IMG-specific challenges early in psychiatry residency have not been fully explored. Therefore, the authors conducted a needs-assessment survey to determine the needs of IMGs transitioning into psychiatry residency.…

  20. Using Simulation to Train Junior Psychiatry Residents to Work with Agitated Patients: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigman, Daniel; Young, Meredith; Chalk, Colin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This article examines the benefit and feasibility of introducing a new, simulation-based learning intervention for junior psychiatry residents. Method: Junior psychiatry residents were invited to participate in a new simulation-based learning intervention focusing on agitated patients. Questionnaires were used to explore the success of…

  1. Child Welfare Training in Child Psychiatry Residency: A Program Director Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Terry G.; Cox, Julia R.; Walker, Sarah C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study surveys child psychiatry residency program directors in order to 1) characterize child welfare training experiences for child psychiatry residents; 2) evaluate factors associated with the likelihood of program directors' endorsing the adequacy of their child welfare training; and 3) assess program directors'…

  2. Patient Suicides in Psychiatric Residencies and Post-Vention Responses: A National Survey of Psychiatry Chief Residents and Program Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Al; Moran, Scott; Shoemaker, Richard; Bradley, John

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This report focuses on post-vention measures taken by U.S. psychiatry residencies when a resident-in-training experiences a patient suicide. Methods: A survey distributed to program directors and chief residents obtained an estimate of the frequency of psychiatric residents' experiencing a patient suicide and the frequency of numerous…

  3. Residency Training in Emergency Psychiatry: A Model Curriculum Developed by the Education Committee of the American Association for Emergency Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brasch, Jennifer; Glick, Rachel Lipson; Cobb, Thomas G.; Richmond, Janet

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Describe training goals, objectives and requirements in emergency psychiatry to assist residency programs in developing comprehensive training programs to ensure psychiatric residents acquire the necessary skills and knowledge to competently assess and manage patients with psychiatric emergencies. Methods: The American Association for…

  4. Neurology Didactic Curricula for Psychiatry Residents: A Review of the Literature and a Survey of Program Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Claudia L.; Walaszek, Art

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Minimal literature exists on neurology didactic instruction offered to psychiatry residents, and there is no model neurology didactic curriculum offered for psychiatry residency programs. The authors sought to describe the current state of neurology didactic training in psychiatry residencies. Methods: The authors electronically…

  5. Assessing Professionalism and Ethics Knowledge and Skills: Preferences of Psychiatry Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrero, Isis; Bell, Michael; Dunn, Laura B.; Roberts, Laura Weiss

    2013-01-01

    Background: Professionalism is one of the fundamental expectations and a core competency in residency education. Although programs use a variety of evaluative methods, little is known about residents' views of and preferences regarding various methods of assessment. Method: The authors surveyed residents at seven psychiatry residency programs…

  6. A 4-Year Curriculum on Substance Use Disorders for Psychiatry Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannucci, Rocco; Sanders, Kathy; Greenfield, Shelly F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe an addiction psychiatry curriculum integrated in a general psychiatry training program to demonstrate comprehensive and practical approaches to educating general psychiatric residents on the recognition and treatment of substance use disorders. Methods: The Massachusetts General Hospital/McLean Hospital adult…

  7. Ethics and risk management in administrative child and adolescent psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Sondheimer, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    This article examines ethics (the philosophic study of "doing the right thing") and risk management (the practice that seeks to manage the likelihood of "doing the wrong thing") and the relationship between them in the context of administrative child and adolescent psychiatry. Issues that affect child and adolescent psychiatrists who manage staff and business units and clinical practitioners who treat and manage individual patients are addressed. Malpractice, budgeting, credentialing, boundaries, assessment, documentation, treatment, research, dangerousness, and confidentiality are among the topics reviewed.

  8. Psychiatry in the Deep South: A Pilot Study of Integrated Training for Psychiatry Residents and Seminary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuck, Craig; Campbell, Nioaka; Bragg, John; Moran, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe an interdisciplinary training experience developed for psychiatry residents and seminary students that assessed each group's beliefs and attitudes toward the other's profession. The training was designed to enhance awareness, positive attitudes, and interaction between the disciplines. Methods: From 2005 to 2008,…

  9. A Day in the Life of a Psychiatry Resident: A Pilot Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilty, Donald M.; Maynes, Sonya M.; Kellner, Maria; Clark, Marilyn S.; Bourgeois, James A.; Servis, Mark E.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The topic "A Day in the Life of a Psychiatry Resident" is an opportunity to explore residents' experiences to inform the delivery of education. Methods: An open-ended, qualitative approach was used in a pilot project to explore contemporary residents' experiences with education, similar to a patient-centered model of health care.…

  10. Improving Psychiatry Residents' Attitudes Toward Individuals Diagnosed with Substance Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Avery, Jonathan; Zerbo, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Special attention needs to be paid to the attitudes of psychiatry residents toward individuals diagnosed with substance use disorders. The attitudes of trainees may be worse toward these individuals than toward individuals with other diagnoses, and these attitudes may worsen over time. While psychiatry residencies are increasingly teaching residents about how to diagnosis and treat individuals diagnosed with substance use disorders, more attention needs to be paid to educating residents about common attitudes toward these individuals. We recommend that psychiatry residency programs start with basic educational didactics and reflection exercises on attitudes toward individuals diagnosed with substance use disorders and that programs try to form a positive "hidden curriculum" in their institutions. PMID:26146757

  11. Mind the Gap: Promoting Careers in Academic Research to Psychiatry Residents

    PubMed Central

    Posporelis, Sotirios; Sawa, Akira; Smith, Gwenn S.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Lyketsos, Constantine G.; Chisolm, Margaret S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective With the shift of interest in psychiatry towards patient-oriented research with clinically relevant outcomes, there is a critical need for well-trained psychiatrist-scientists. The authors report on two developmentally-tailored, longitudinal research training curricula designed to use peer mentoring to bridge the gap between physicians and scientists, and to promote careers in academic research. Methods The authors instituted two independent research training curricula, one for first-year and one for second-to-fourth year psychiatry residents, spanning two campuses of one institutional residency training program. Each curriculum’s participants included psychiatry residents and peer scientific investigators, and both were attended by senior scientists and departmental leaders. The authors developed and administered an anonymous survey at the end of the first cycle of the first-year resident curriculum to assess participant attitudes. Results The first-year and second-to-fourth-year resident curricula have been implemented for 3and 2 years respectively. The authors observed overall participant satisfaction with the first-year curricula, independent of trainee status. Furthermore, first-year psychiatry residents reported increased interest in academic research careers after exposure to the curricula. Conclusions Results suggest it is possible to encourage academic research careers using peer mentoring, an innovative approach that requires minimal funding, little disruption to the residents’ schedule, and engages the gamut of individuals involved in psychiatry care and research: psychiatrists-in-training and young non-clinician scientists-in-training. PMID:24497181

  12. Results of a Multisite Survey of U.S. Psychiatry Residents on Education in Professionalism and Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Shaili; Dunn, Laura B.; Warner, Christopher H.; Roberts, Laura Weiss

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors assess the perspectives of psychiatry residents about the goals of receiving education in professionalism and ethics, how topics should be taught, and on what ethical principles the curriculum should be based. Method: A written survey was sent to psychiatry residents (N = 249) at seven U.S. residency programs in Spring 2005.…

  13. Sport psychiatry in childhood and adolescence: an overview.

    PubMed

    Eppright, T D; Sanfacon, J A; Beck, N C; Bradley, J S

    1997-01-01

    This review explores the importance and relevance of sport during childhood and adolescence, utilizing traditional stage theories of development. The literature supports the notion that sport is a necessary study as a health issue and a preventative tool in the field of psychiatry. Play and sport in childhood and adolescence enhance development physically, mentally, and socially. Participating in athletics encourages the development of leadership skills, self-esteem, muscle development and overall physical health. There is a lack of literature in the important area of sport psychiatry especially when considering beneficial, not deficit oriented youth athletic development. Child psychiatrists need to begin researching sport in order to develop a comprehensive understanding of how athletics can enhance the mental and physical health of youth. PMID:9494234

  14. Impact of an Enduring War on Two Military Psychiatry Residency Programs.

    PubMed

    Groom, Rhianon M; Carr, Russell B; Leong, Stephanie L; Hornbaker-Park, Michelle B

    2015-08-01

    Four active duty military psychiatrists at different points in their careers were asked to reflect on the impact that the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan had on their respective training in military psychiatry residency programs. The result is an inside look from four unique perspectives on how military psychiatry residency training adapted over time to prepare their graduates to practice psychiatry in a wartime setting as many graduates went to the front lines of war shortly after graduation. This article will provide an understanding of the challenges faced by these residency programs striving to meet the behavioral health needs created by war while balancing this with ongoing ACGME requirements, how those challenges were met, and the impact it had on residents.

  15. Impact of an Enduring War on Two Military Psychiatry Residency Programs.

    PubMed

    Groom, Rhianon M; Carr, Russell B; Leong, Stephanie L; Hornbaker-Park, Michelle B

    2015-08-01

    Four active duty military psychiatrists at different points in their careers were asked to reflect on the impact that the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan had on their respective training in military psychiatry residency programs. The result is an inside look from four unique perspectives on how military psychiatry residency training adapted over time to prepare their graduates to practice psychiatry in a wartime setting as many graduates went to the front lines of war shortly after graduation. This article will provide an understanding of the challenges faced by these residency programs striving to meet the behavioral health needs created by war while balancing this with ongoing ACGME requirements, how those challenges were met, and the impact it had on residents. PMID:25739934

  16. Training Psychiatry Residents in Quality Improvement: An Integrated, Year-Long Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbuckle, Melissa R.; Weinberg, Michael; Cabaniss, Deborah L.; Kistler; Susan C.; Isaacs, Abby J.; Sederer, Lloyd I.; Essock, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe a curriculum for psychiatry residents in Quality Improvement (QI) methodology. Methods: All PGY3 residents (N=12) participated in a QI curriculum that included a year-long group project. Knowledge and attitudes were assessed before and after the curriculum, using a modified Quality Improvement Knowledge Assessment…

  17. Preparing for a Successful Psychiatry Residency Review Committee Site Visit: A Guide for New Training Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatia, Shashi K.; Bhatia, Subhash C.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: New residency training directors are often faced with multiple competing tasks such as meeting Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Psychiatry Program Requirements and achieving successful completion of residency review committee (RRC) site visits. For many years, the authors have presented workshops on this…

  18. Wilderness Adventure Therapy in Adolescent Psychiatry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Simon; O'Donnell, Matthew

    The Brief Intervention Program (BIP) is a mental health day program in Melbourne (Australia) for adolescents with severe mental health problems who are at risk for suicide. The 10-week program serves closed groups of 6-8 adolescents aged 13-18 years and has 3 phases: engagement and orientation (week 1), treatment (weeks 2-9), and integration (week…

  19. Exposure to Child and Adolescent Psychiatry for Medical Students: Are There Optimal "Teaching Perspectives"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Jeffrey; Barrett, Rowland; Grapentine, W. Lex; Liguori, Gina; Trivedi, Harsh K.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The ability to develop quality medical student exposures in child and adolescent psychiatry is critical to the professional development of these future physicians and to the growth of recruitment efforts into the field. This study identifies teaching perspectives among child and adolescent psychiatry faculty to determine whether there…

  20. Addressing the Effects of Culture on the Boundary-Keeping Practices of Psychiatry Residents Educated outside of the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Gary E.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The author sought to develop a curriculum for international medical graduate (IMG) psychiatry residents that addresses their culture-based deviations from normative boundary-keeping practices common to U.S.-based psychotherapy practices. Methods: A group consisting of 12 IMG psychiatry residents and one United States graduate (USG)…

  1. Overview of integrative medicine in child and adolescent psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Simkin, Deborah R; Popper, Charles W

    2013-07-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) defies simple definition, because the distinction between CAM and conventional medicine is largely arbitrary and fluid. Despite inconclusive data on the efficacy and safety of many CAM treatments in child and adolescent psychiatry, there are enough data on certain treatments to provide guidance to clinicians and researchers. CAM treatments, as adjunctive therapy or monotherapy, can be clinically beneficial and sensible. The low stigma and cost-competitiveness of many CAM psychiatric treatments are highly attractive to children and parents. Physicians need to be knowledgeable about CAM treatments to provide clinically valid informed consent for some conventional treatments.

  2. Training Pediatric Residents and Pediatricians about Adolescent Mental Health Problems: A Proof-of-Concept Pilot for a Proposed National Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutner, Lawrence; Olson, Cheryl K.; Schlozman, Steven; Goldstein, Mark; Warner, Dorothy; Beresin, Eugene V.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This article presents a DVD-based educational program intended to help pediatric residents and practicing pediatricians recognize and respond to adolescent depression in busy primary care settings. Methods: Representatives from pediatrics and adolescent medicine, child and adolescent psychiatry and psychology, and experts in the…

  3. Evaluation of an Evidence-Based Tobacco Treatment Curriculum for Psychiatry Residency Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prochaska, Judith J.; Fromont, Sebastien C.; Leek, Desiree; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Louie, Alan K.; Jacobs, Marc H.; Hall, Sharon M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Smokers with mental illness and addictive disorders account for nearly one in two cigarettes sold in the United States and are at high risk for smoking-related deaths and disability. Psychiatry residency programs provide a unique arena for disseminating tobacco treatment guidelines, influencing professional norms, and increasing access…

  4. Associate Residency Training Directors in Psychiatry: Demographics, Professional Activities, and Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbuckle, Melissa R.; DeGolia, Sallie G.; Esposito, Karin; Miller, Deborah A.; Weinberg, Michael; Brenner, Adam M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to characterize associate training director (ATD) positions in psychiatry. Method: An on-line survey was e-mailed in 2009 to all ATDs identified through the American Association of Directors of Psychiatric Residency Training (AADPRT). Survey questions elicited information regarding demographics,…

  5. Trends in Psychotherapy Training: A National Survey of Psychiatry Residency Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sudak, Donna M.; Goldberg, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors sought to determine current trends in residency training of psychiatrists. Method: The authors surveyed U.S. general-psychiatry training directors about the amount of didactic training, supervised clinical experience, and numbers of patients treated in the RRC-mandated models of psychotherapy (psychodynamic,…

  6. Web-Based Simulation in Psychiatry Residency Training: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorrindo, Tristan; Baer, Lee; Sanders, Kathy M.; Birnbaum, Robert J.; Fromson, John A.; Sutton-Skinner, Kelly M.; Romeo, Sarah A.; Beresin, Eugene V.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Medical specialties, including surgery, obstetrics, anesthesia, critical care, and trauma, have adopted simulation technology for measuring clinical competency as a routine part of their residency training programs; yet, simulation technologies have rarely been adapted or used for psychiatry training. Objective: The authors describe…

  7. Recruiting Researchers in Psychiatry: The Influence of Residency vs. Early Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberman, Edward K.; Belitsky, Richard; Bernstein, Carol Ann; Cabaniss, Deborah L.; Crisp-Han, Holly; Dickstein, Leah J.; Kaplan, Alan S.; Hilty, Donald M.; Nadelson, Carol C.; Scheiber, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The declining numbers of clinician-researchers in psychiatry and other medical specialties has been a subject of growing concern. Residency training has been cited as an important factor in recruiting new researchers, but there are essentially no data to support this assertion. This study aimed to explore which factors have influenced…

  8. Training in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Psychiatry Residency: An Overview for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sudak, Donna M.

    2009-01-01

    In January 2001, Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education accredited general psychiatry training programs were charged with the requirement to train residents in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to a level of competence. Programs were given the responsibility to delineate standards for trainees, to determine measures of competence,…

  9. How Animal Models Inform Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Hanna E.; Vaccarino, Flora M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Every available approach should be utilized to advance the field of child and adolescent psychiatry. Biological systems are important for the behavioral problems of children. Close examination of non-human animals and the biology and behavior they share with humans is an approach that must be used to advance the clinical work of child psychiatry. Method We review here how model systems are used to contribute to significant insights into childhood psychiatric disorders. Model systems have not only demonstrated causality of risk factors for psychiatric pathophysiology but have also allowed child psychiatrists to think in different ways about risks for psychiatric disorders and multiple levels that might be the basis of recovery and prevention. Results We present examples of how animal systems are utilized to benefit child psychiatry, including through environmental, genetic, and acute biological manipulations. Animal model work has been essential in our current thinking about childhood disorders, including the importance of dose and timing of risk factors, specific features of risk factors that are significant, neurochemistry involved in brain functioning, molecular components of brain development, and the importance of cellular processes previously neglected in psychiatric theories. Conclusion Animal models have clear advantages and disadvantages that must both be considered for these systems to be useful. Coupled with increasingly sophisticated methods for investigating human behavior and biology, animal model systems will continue to make essential contributions to our field. PMID:25901771

  10. Effect of changing journal clubs from traditional method to evidence-based method on psychiatry residents

    PubMed Central

    Faridhosseini, Farhad; Saghebi, Ali; Khadem-Rezaiyan, Majid; Moharari, Fatemeh; Dadgarmoghaddam, Maliheh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Journal club is a valuable educational tool in the medical field. This method follows different goals. This study aims to investigate the effect on psychiatry residents of changing journal clubs from the traditional method to the evidence-based method. Method This study was conducted using a before–after design. First- and second-year residents of psychiatry were included in the study. First, the status quo was evaluated by standardized questionnaire regarding the effect of journal club. Then, ten sessions were held to familiarize the residents with the concept of journal club. After that, evidence-based journal club sessions were held. The questionnaire was given to the residents again after the final session. Data were analyzed through descriptive statistics (frequency and percentage frequency, mean and standard deviation), and analytic statistics (paired t-test) using SPSS 22. Results Of a total of 20 first- and second-year residents of psychiatry, the data of 18 residents were finally analyzed. Most of the subjects (17 [93.7%]) were females. The mean overall score before and after the intervention was 1.83±0.45 and 2.85±0.57, respectively, which showed a significant increase (P<0.001). Conclusion Moving toward evidence-based journal clubs seems like an appropriate measure to reach the goals set by this educational tool. PMID:27570469

  11. Psychiatry, War, and the Learning Needs of Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munshi, Alpna; Woods, Nicole; Hodges, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors sought to determine the learning needs, experiences, and attitudes of psychiatric residents in relation to war and mental health; to discover if residents in their training program have had clinical experiences with patients affected by war and if they believed that they were adequately trained to deal with these encounters;…

  12. Test blueprints for psychiatry residency in-training written examinations in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Gaffas, Eisha M; Sequeira, Reginald P; Namla, Riyadh A Al; Al-Harbi, Khalid S

    2012-01-01

    Background The postgraduate training program in psychiatry in Saudi Arabia, which was established in 1997, is a 4-year residency program. Written exams comprising of multiple choice questions (MCQs) are used as a summative assessment of residents in order to determine their eligibility for promotion from one year to the next. Test blueprints are not used in preparing examinations. Objective To develop test blueprints for the written examinations used in the psychiatry residency program. Methods Based on the guidelines of four professional bodies, documentary analysis was used to develop global and detailed test blueprints for each year of the residency program. An expert panel participated during piloting and final modification of the test blueprints. Their opinion about the content, weightage for each content domain, and proportion of test items to be sampled in each cognitive category as defined by modified Bloom’s taxonomy were elicited. Results Eight global and detailed test blueprints, two for each year of the psychiatry residency program, were developed. The global test blueprints were reviewed by experts and piloted. Six experts participated in the final modification of test blueprints. Based on expert consensus, the content, total weightage for each content domain, and proportion of test items to be included in each cognitive category were determined for each global test blueprint. Experts also suggested progressively decreasing the weightage for recall test items and increasing problem solving test items in examinations, from year 1 to year 4 of the psychiatry residence program. Conclusion A systematic approach using a documentary and content analysis technique was used to develop test blueprints with additional input from an expert panel as appropriate. Test blueprinting is an important step to ensure the test validity in all residency programs. PMID:23762000

  13. Increasing Interest in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in the Third-Year Clerkship: Results from a Post-Clerkship Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Erin; Hollar, David; Lindsey, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors aimed to determine whether a structured clinical experience in child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) during the third-year psychiatry clerkship would impact interest in pursuing careers in psychiatry and CAP. Methods: The authors constructed and administered a post-rotation survey, the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry…

  14. How Long Do Adolescents Wait for Psychiatry Appointments?

    PubMed

    Steinman, Kenneth J; Shoben, Abigail B; Dembe, Allard E; Kelleher, Kelly J

    2015-10-01

    Appointment wait times are a neglected dimension of children's access to psychiatry. We systematically examined how long an adolescent waits for a new patient appointment with a psychiatrist for routine medication management. From state directories, we identified 578 providers of adolescent psychiatric care in Ohio. Researchers posing as parents telephoned randomly selected offices, seeking care for a hypothetical 14-year-old patient under different scenarios. Overall, we measured 498 wait times at 140 unique offices. The median wait time was 50 days (interquartile range = 29-81 days). In adjusted models, adolescents with Medicaid waited longer than those with private insurance, especially during the spring (geometric mean = 50.9 vs. 41.9 days; p = 0.02). Wait times also varied markedly by region, with geometric means ranging from 22.4 to 75.1 days (p < 0.01). This study demonstrates that adolescents often experience lengthy wait times for routine care. This methodology represents a useful approach to real-time monitoring of psychiatric services. PMID:26108305

  15. Clinical Skills Verification, Formative Feedback, and Psychiatry Residency Trainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalack, Gregory W.; Jibson, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe the implementation of Clinical Skills Verification (CSV) in their program as an in-training assessment intended primarily to provide formative feedback to trainees, strengthen the supervisory experience, identify the need for remediation of interviewing skills, and secondarily to demonstrating resident competence…

  16. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Accommodations for Psychiatry Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Harold Walker; Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; Brenes, Gretchen A.; Silvia, Loretta; Rosenquist, Peter B.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: With the increase in diagnosis and treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults, it is expected that more resident physicians will require accommodations so that their academic performance and clinical competency can be measured adequately. The authors provide an overview of the requirements and issues…

  17. Suicide Response Guidelines for Residency Trainees: A Novel Postvention Response for the Care and Teaching of Psychiatry Residents who Encounter Suicide in Their Patients.

    PubMed

    Cazares, Paulette T; Santiago, Patcho; Moulton, David; Moran, Scott; Tsai, Albert

    2015-08-01

    Suicide is an event that is almost universally encountered by psychiatrists and psychiatry residents. Because psychiatric patients are at a higher risk for completing suicide than patients of other specialties, psychiatry residents are at risk for experiencing the suicide of a patient during their training. A review of the literature shows that there is continually growing research into the negative emotional effects of patient suicides on psychiatry residents and the need for clear response protocols when a suicide occurs, also known as postvention protocols. However, there are no Graduate Medical Education requirements to specifically train psychiatry residents about this, even with a well-voiced desire by residents to receive this training. In the National Capitol Consortium Psychiatry Residency, encounters with patient suicides by residents in a time of war led us to a place in which interventions were designed and instituted to care for the caregiver, in this case focusing on psychiatry trainees. Our process and product, described here, offers an example of a systematic postvention response. It addresses aspects of what is known in the research base, combined with acknowledgement of the human response and the institutional need for a consistent and objective response.

  18. Suicide Response Guidelines for Residency Trainees: A Novel Postvention Response for the Care and Teaching of Psychiatry Residents who Encounter Suicide in Their Patients.

    PubMed

    Cazares, Paulette T; Santiago, Patcho; Moulton, David; Moran, Scott; Tsai, Albert

    2015-08-01

    Suicide is an event that is almost universally encountered by psychiatrists and psychiatry residents. Because psychiatric patients are at a higher risk for completing suicide than patients of other specialties, psychiatry residents are at risk for experiencing the suicide of a patient during their training. A review of the literature shows that there is continually growing research into the negative emotional effects of patient suicides on psychiatry residents and the need for clear response protocols when a suicide occurs, also known as postvention protocols. However, there are no Graduate Medical Education requirements to specifically train psychiatry residents about this, even with a well-voiced desire by residents to receive this training. In the National Capitol Consortium Psychiatry Residency, encounters with patient suicides by residents in a time of war led us to a place in which interventions were designed and instituted to care for the caregiver, in this case focusing on psychiatry trainees. Our process and product, described here, offers an example of a systematic postvention response. It addresses aspects of what is known in the research base, combined with acknowledgement of the human response and the institutional need for a consistent and objective response. PMID:26063679

  19. Academic Training in a Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Fellowship: A Curriculum Based on Leadership Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivany, Christopher G.; Russell, Robert K.; Vanessa, Venezia A.; Saito, Albert Y.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe how one child and adolescent psychiatry fellowship program responded to emerging trends in clinical practice which increasingly demand that child and adolescent psychiatrists lead their colleagues through instruction and supervision. Methods: Data from surveys of recent graduates of child and adolescent training…

  20. [Psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Guex, Patrice; Conus, Philippe; Pomini, Valentino; Kramer, Ueli; Bonsack, Charles; Eap, Chin

    2011-01-19

    The novelties in clinical psychiatry are close to somatic medicine adaptation. The clinical staging concept in psychiatry (as in cancerology) is the result of an early intervention strategy in psychotic disorders. A differentiated mode of understanding of the phases of psychiatric disorders allows a prevention oriented approach. Individualized therapeutic programmes in accordance with specific problematics favors the orientation towards focalised follow-ups, for instance CBT programmes on Internet may be proposed to patients motivated and rather autonomous. Others, on the contrary, less accessible to health care should benefit of the support of a mobile team and specific coaching to return to vocational services. Systematic follow-up of the metabolic syndrome, often induced by atypical antipsychotics, belongs to those basic adjustment processes. PMID:21400949

  1. Teaching child and adolescent psychiatry to undergraduate medical students - A survey in German-speaking countries

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective To conduct a survey about teaching child and adolescent psychiatry to undergraduate medical students in German-speaking countries. Methods A questionnaire was sent to the 33 academic departments of child and adolescent psychiatry in Germany, Austria, and the German-speaking part of Switzerland. Results All departments responded. For teaching knowledge, the methods most commonly reported were lectures and case presentations. The most important skills to be taught were thought to be how to assess psychopathology in children and how to assess families. For elective courses, the departments reported using a wide range of teaching methods, many with active involvement of the students. An average of 34 hours per semester is currently allocated by the departments for teaching child and adolescent psychiatry to medical students. Required courses are often taught in cooperation with adult psychiatry and pediatrics. Achievement of educational objectives is usually assessed with written exams or multiple-choice tests. Only a minority of the departments test the achievement of skills. Conclusions Two ways of improving education in child and adolescent psychiatry are the introduction of elective courses for students interested in the field and participation of child and adolescent psychiatrists in required courses and in longitudinal courses so as to reach all students. Cooperation within and across medical schools can enable departments of child and adolescent psychiatry, despite limited resources, to become more visible and this specialty to become more attractive to medical students. Compared to the findings in earlier surveys, this survey indicates a trend towards increased involvement of academic departments of child and adolescent psychiatry in training medical students. PMID:20653973

  2. Exposing Medical Students to Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: A Case-Based Seminar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Jeremy S.; Lake, MaryBeth

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Despite a documented shortage of child and adolescent psychiatrists, few studies have examined whether including child and adolescent psychiatry didactics in a medical school curriculum can stimulate appreciation and interest among students, possibly leading more students to choose careers in this specialty. Methods: The authors…

  3. Religion and spirituality in child and adolescent psychiatry: a new frontier.

    PubMed

    Josephson, Allan M; Dell, Mary Lynn

    2004-01-01

    This article introduces the interface between child and adolescent psychiatry and religion and spirituality. Developmental psychopathology has become increasingly diverse in its study of risk and protective factors for child and adolescent psychopathology. The effect of religion and spirituality on clinical conditions is among those factors. This review addresses (1) historical aspects of the relationship between psychiatry and religion/spirituality, (2) definitional issues, and (3) unique factors in child and adolescent work. Considering these factors and some general principles of intervention, it prepares the reader for other articles in this issue. The article concludes with some observations on the "secular family".

  4. Sexuality training for psychiatry residents: a national survey of training directors.

    PubMed

    Sansone, R A; Wiederman, M W

    2000-01-01

    The current status of training in human sexuality is relevant to all health care professionals. The purpose of the current study was to determine the extent of sexuality training offered in psychiatric residency programs. The training directors of psychiatry residencies were surveyed with regard to the number of expert faculty in sexuality training as well as resident exposure to seven related curricular areas. Of the 69 respondents, the majority reported expert faculty in sexual dysfunctions, sex therapy, therapy with gay/lesbian patients, and HIV/AIDS. For each sexuality topic, approximately 80% of programs reported curricula offerings through either didactics or clinical rotations. For didactics, most topics were presented in the context of a broader course. With the exception of HIV/AIDS, it was rare for programs to offer a clinical rotation involving sexuality issues. In conclusion, the majority of training programs in psychiatry provide curriculum offerings in sexuality training, primarily through didactic education. Results are discussed with regard to comparison to training in professional psychology and the need for assessment of sexuality training in health care professions generally. PMID:10929573

  5. Child and adolescent psychiatry in general children's hospitals. A survey of chairs of psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Campo, J V; Kingsley, R S; Bridge, J; Mrazek, D

    2000-01-01

    This article characterizes the academic, administrative, clinical service, and fiscal characteristics of departments of psychiatry in traditional children's hospitals to determine the characteristics of fiscally successful programs. A survey of chairs of psychiatry from short-term general children's hospitals was conducted based on 38 questions addressing the descriptive characteristics of their respective departments. The characteristics of psychiatry programs identified as fiscally successful were compared to those of programs that required subsidy. Nine of 45 eligible children's hospitals (20%) did not have a department or section of psychiatry, and surveys were returned by 35 of 36 department chairs (97% response). Considerable variation exists in the academic, administrative, clinical services, and fiscal characteristics of programs, although over half are operating at a deficit. Fiscal success was associated with availability of inpatient and intermediate levels of psychiatric care, better integration of the psychiatry program within the children's hospital, and adequate fiscal information being provided to the psychiatry chair. Additional research regarding the potential of psychiatric services to generate clinical success and cost savings is warranted. Pediatric health care professionals and third-party payers should be educated regarding the relevance of psychiatric services within children's hospitals and in physically ill children.

  6. Systems-Based Aspects in the Training of IMG or Previously Trained Residents: Comparison of Psychiatry Residency Training in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, India, and Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Gaurav; Mazhar, Mir Nadeem; Uga, Aghaegbulam; Punwani, Manisha; Broquet, Karen E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: International medical graduates (IMGs) account for a significant proportion of residents in psychiatric training in the United States. Many IMGs may have previously completed psychiatry residency training in other countries. Their experiences may improve our system. Authors compared and contrasted psychiatry residency training in the…

  7. Impact of a Metabolic Screening Bundle on Rates of Screening for Metabolic Syndrome in a Psychiatry Resident Outpatient Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiechers, Ilse R.; Viron, Mark; Stoklosa, Joseph; Freudenreich, Oliver; Henderson, David C.; Weiss, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Although it is widely acknowledged that second-generation antipsychotics are associated with cardiometabolic side effects, rates of metabolic screening have remained low. The authors created a quality-improvement (QI) intervention in an academic medical center outpatient psychiatry resident clinic with the aim of improving rates of…

  8. Training of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Fellows in Autism and Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrus, Natasha; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Hellings, Jessica A.; Stigler, Kimberly A.; Szymanski, Ludwik; King, Bryan H.; Carlisle, L. Lee; Cook, Edwin H., Jr.; Pruett, John R., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability can be clinically complex and often have limited access to psychiatric care. Because little is known about post-graduate clinical education in autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability, we surveyed training directors of child and adolescent psychiatry fellowship…

  9. Prevention in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: The Reduction of Risk for Mental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, David, Ed.; And Others

    The book describes Project Prevention, an interdisciplinary project developed by the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, to identify risk factors for mental disorders and preventive interventions. After an introductory chapter, the following eight chapters cover: the scope of Project Prevention; children at high risk (e.g.,…

  10. Team-based learning for psychiatry residents: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Team-based learning (TBL) is an effective teaching method for medical students. It improves knowledge acquisition and has benefits regarding learner engagement and teamwork skills. In medical education it is predominately used with undergraduates but has potential benefits for training clinicians. The aims of this study were to examine the impact of TBL in a sample of psychiatrists in terms of classroom engagement, attitudes towards teamwork, learner views and experiences of TBL. Methods Forty-four psychiatry residents participated in an Addictions Psychiatry TBL module. Mixed-methods were used for evaluation. Self-rated measures of classroom engagement (Classroom Engagement Survey, CES) were compared with conventional lectures, and attitudes regarding the value of teams (Value of Teams Scale, VTS) were compared before and after the module. Independent t-tests were used to compare ‘lecture’ CES scores with TBL CES scores and pre and post scores for the VTS. Feedback questionnaires were completed. Interviews were conducted with a subset of residents and transcripts analysed using thematic analysis. Results Twenty-eight residents completed post-course measures (response rate 63.6%). Seven participants volunteered for qualitative interviews–one from each team. There was a significant difference in the mean CES score lectures compared to TBL (p < 0.001) but no difference was found in mean VTS score pre and post for either subscale (p = 0.519; p = 0.809). All items on the feedback questionnaire were positively rated except two regarding session preparation. The qualitative analysis generated seven themes under four domains: ‘Learning in teams’, ‘Impact on the individual learner’, ‘Relationship with the teacher’ and ‘Efficiency and effectiveness of the learning process’. Conclusions In this group of residents, TBL significantly improved learner-rated classroom engagement and seemed to promote interactivity between learners

  11. [Major obstacles in the development of child and adolescent psychiatry in Hungary].

    PubMed

    Kalmar, Sandor

    2016-06-01

    The author ascertains that healthy personality development faces increasingly serious obstacles and consequently the number of children in need of mental healthcare is on the rise. Child and adolescent psychiatry has drawn increasing appreciation, however, it is only formal and deficient in Hungary today and cannot assure optimal mental care according to the principles of evidence-based medicine. The author emphasizes that 75% of the first manifestation of the psychiatric disorders occurs during adolescence and young adulthood. In spite of legal regulation, several deficiencies hinder the development of children into healthy adults. The author analyses the most important obstacles in the development of child and adolescent Psychiatry. The author emphasizes the role of keypersons, describes the situation of and problems faced by Hungarian child psychiatric care. The author lists in detail the most important contradictions, deficiencies and obstacles and outlines suggestions for resolving the present crisis. The author emphasizes (1) the responsibility of institutions, and people dealing with society and children, and the disinterest of competent authorities. (2) The somatic, mental, cultural and spiritual ignorance/illiteracy among parents, teachers, healthcare workers, and the general population partly related to crises among the pedagogues. (3) The lack of holistic approach to treatment of children suffering from mental disorder. (4) The importance and the lack of knowledge concerning central nervous system function in child psychiatry. (5) Application of evidence-based medicine in child and adolescent psychiatry based on understanding the relationship between central nervous system alterations and mental functions. (6) Respecting keypersons' competence limits. (7) Immediate development of inpatient and outpatient child and adolescent psychiatry in the whole country. (8) Reform of child psychiatry board exam. (9) Development of currently missing textbooks and

  12. What Do Psychiatric Residents Think of Addiction Psychiatry as a Career?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, John A., Jr.; Karam-Hage, Maher; Levinson, Marjorie; Craig, Thomas; Eld, Beatrice

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors attempt to better understand the recent decline in the number of applicants to addiction psychiatry training. Methods: The Corresponding Committee on Training and Education in Addiction Psychiatry of APA's Council on Addiction Psychiatry sent out a 14-question anonymous e-mail survey to all postgraduate-year 2 (PGY-2)…

  13. Drug monitoring in child and adolescent psychiatry for improved efficacy and safety of psychopharmacotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Mehler-Wex, Claudia; Kölch, Michael; Kirchheiner, Julia; Antony, Gisela; Fegert, Jörg M; Gerlach, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    Most psychotropic drugs used in the treatment of children and adolescents are applied "off label" with a direct risk of under- or overdosing and a delayed risk of long-term side effects. The selection of doses in paediatric psychiatric patients requires a consideration of pharmacokinetic parameters and the development of central nervous system, and warrants specific studies in children and adolescents. Because these are lacking for most of the psychotropic drugs applied in the Child and Adolescent and Psychiatry, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is a valid tool to optimise pharmacotherapy and to enable to adjust the dosage of drugs according to the characteristics of the individual patient. Multi-centre TDM studies enable the identification of age- and development-dependent therapeutic ranges of blood concentrations and facilitate a highly qualified standardized documentation in the child and adolescent health care system. In addition, they will provide data for future research on psychopharmacological treatment in children and adolescents, as a baseline for example for clinically relevant interactions with various co-medications. Therefore, a German-Austrian-Swiss "Competence Network on Therapeutic Drug Monitoring in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry" was founded [1] introducing a comprehensive internet data base for the collection of demographic, safety and efficacy data as well as blood concentrations of psychotropic drugs in children and adolescents. PMID:19358696

  14. [Structural quality in inpatient and daycare child and adolescent psychiatry- indicators for planning future staff ratios for the era following the Psychiatry Personnel Act].

    PubMed

    Schepker, Renate; Fegert, Jörg M; Becker, Katja

    2015-11-01

    The German Psychiatry Personnel Act, which went into effect in 1990, has led to a decrease in the number of child and adolescent psychiatry inpatient beds, to a decrease in the length of stay, and to an increase in inpatient psychotherapy. Today, this act is outdated~ for a number of reasons, such as changes in the morbidity of the population, the rising number of emergencies, and new professional standards such as documentation. In addition, new legal provisions and conventions (like the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child) necessitate a complete reevaluation. Child and adolescent psychiatry needs a normative act to enable the necessary implementation. Many different rationales are available to support the debate.

  15. [The meaning of bibliotherapy and expressive writing in child and adolescent psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Blechinger, Tobias; Klosinski, Gunther

    2011-01-01

    Child- and adolescent psychiatry is a good field for the application of creative and playful therapies. Bibliotherapy and expressive writing are two examples of them. The effectiveness of both, for different types of disorders, has been proved in many studies. Up until today it was unknown just how prevalent these therapies are within child and adolescent psychiatry in the german speaking countries. The following article summarizes the results of a survey conducted in 122 child and adolescence psychiatric clinics in Germany, Austria and Switzerland to gain more information about their use. The survey takes into account the frequency of application of bibliotherapy and expressive writing therapies depending on age and type of disorder, preferences amongst patient groups, as well as specific approaches. More than half of the surveyed child and adolescent psychiatries are using at least one of the two therapies. They are used on an irregular and non-systematic basis and rather symptom- than diagnosis-orientated. Bibliotherapy and expressive writing are dynamic therapies which can be used in manifold ways. Reading and writing are two of the main pillars of our educational system and can be utilized within a therapeutic setting. Provided that the patient is not suffering from severe cognitive or mental limitations, the spoken and written word can leave deep imprints within the patient's, but also the therapist's, soul.

  16. [Homicides by adolescents and young adults from the viewpoint of the adolescent psychiatry expert].

    PubMed

    Strehlow, U; Piesiur-Strehlow, B; Müller-Küppers, M

    1988-06-01

    From 1966 to 1986, the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry of the Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Heidelberg gave expert opinions at the request of criminal courts in 37 cases involving homicide and 8 attempted homicide. Eighteen of the offenders were between 14 and 17 years old ("Jugendliche" under German law), 17 between 18 and 20 ("Heranwachsende") and 2 over 20. The largest group (N = 18) consisted of maladjusted male adolescents who had grown up in disadvantageous surroundings, had limited education and, not infrequently following the example of other members of their families, tended to show aggressive behaviour, intolerance to frustration, emotional instability and uncontrolled drinking. The questions the expert was asked by the court were mainly concerned with: liability for crime (section 3 JGG), applicability of juvenile law to offenders aged 18 to 20 years (section 105 JGG) penal responsibility (section 20 and 21 StBG or section 51, Section 1 and 2 StGB a.F.), and measures under section 63 StGB. The court took the expert's position in 28 of the 33 decisions which we were able to obtain for examination; 2 other proceedings were quashed. The juridical classification of the homicides was attempted or completed first-degree murder in 17 and attempted or completed second-degree murder in 6 cases.

  17. Training of child and adolescent psychiatry fellows in autism and intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Marrus, Natasha; Veenstra-Vanderweele, Jeremy; Hellings, Jessica A; Stigler, Kimberly A; Szymanski, Ludwik; King, Bryan H; Carlisle, L Lee; Cook, Edwin H; Pruett, John R

    2014-05-01

    Patients with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability can be clinically complex and often have limited access to psychiatric care. Because little is known about post-graduate clinical education in autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability, we surveyed training directors of child and adolescent psychiatry fellowship programs. On average, child and adolescent psychiatry directors reported lectures of 3 and 4 h per year in autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability, respectively. Training directors commonly reported that trainees see 1-5 patients with autism spectrum disorder or intellectual disability per year for outpatient pharmacological management and inpatient treatment. Overall, 43% of directors endorsed the need for additional resources for training in autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability, which, coupled with low didactic and clinical exposure, suggests that current training is inadequate.

  18. Difficulties in postgraduate training of foreign paediatric residents and interns in child psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Lassers, E; Nordan, R

    1975-12-01

    In a new program of teaching and consultation in child psychiatry for paediatric interns and residents, many of them of foreign birth, several approaches were tried: individual case consultation; screening conferences; experiential groups; didactic sessions. None succeeded very well. As a result of this experience, however, we have been able to identify some of the problems of the foreign students (and our own), which made the more usual educational approaches ineffective with them, and to determine better approaches. Some of the students had personal problems of adjustment, most were relatively unfamiliar with the culture, others could not communicat adequately and had scant psychiatric knowledge, and almost all were accustomed to an entirely different student-teacher relation. The most effective way of dealing with these problems was found to be through one-to-one supervision and consultation. Didactic sessions were changed to focus on specific ways to handle specific problems, with only simple, not very theoretical reading material used. With the growth of personal relations, informal consultation and teaching increased, and the formal programme became more successful.

  19. Cinema in the training of psychiatry residents: focus on helping relationships

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Medical schools are currently charged with a lack of education as far as empathic/relational skills and the meaning of being a health-care provider are concerned, thus leading to increased interest in medical humanities. Discussion Medical humanities can offer an insight into human illness and in a broader outlook into human condition, understanding of one self, responsibility. An empathic relation to patients might be fostered by a matching approach to humanities and sciences, which should be considered as subjects of equal relevance, complementary to one another. Recently, movies have been used in medical – especially psychiatric - trainees education, but mainly within the limits of teaching a variety of disorders. A different approach dealing with the use of cinema in the training of psychiatry residents is proposed, based on Jung and Hillman’s considerations about the relation between images and archetypes, archetypal experience and learning. Summary Selected full-length movies or clips can offer a priceless opportunity to face with the meaning of being involved in a care-providing, helping profession. PMID:23800186

  20. International medical graduates in child and adolescent psychiatry: adaptation, training, and contributions.

    PubMed

    Gogineni, R Rao; Fallon, April E; Rao, Nyapati R

    2010-10-01

    This article reviews, consolidates, and enhances current knowledge about the issues and problems child and adolescent psychiatry international medical graduates face. Their training, work force issues, and establishment and advancement of professional identity are presented. Acculturation and immigration dynamics include facing prejudice and discrimination, social mirroring, and difficulties with language. Treatment issues are discussed with a special focus on therapeutic alliance, resistance, transference, countertransference, and child rearing practices. Recommendations for training and future goals are considered.

  1. A Pilot Use of Team-Based Learning in Psychiatry Resident Psychodynamic Psychotherapy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touchet, Bryan K.; Coon, Kim A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Demonstrating psychotherapy competency in trainees will test the resources of psychiatry training programs. The authors outline the phases of team-based learning (TBL). Methods: The University of Oklahoma College of Medicine, Tulsa (OUCM-T), Department of Psychiatry reorganized its psychodynamic psychotherapy didactic course using TBL.…

  2. Concluding the Series on Evidence-Based Practice: The Spread of Excellence in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, John D.

    2008-01-01

    The child and adolescent psychiatry community has been using large systems of information and new technologies to improve its performance.Evidence-based approach is used by practitioners to find and implement feasible therapies and medication. The different procedures involved of evidence-based practice, as used in child and adolescent psychology,…

  3. Innovative Training with Virtual Patients in Transcultural Psychiatry: The Impact on Resident Psychiatrists’ Confidence

    PubMed Central

    Pantziaras, Ioannis; Fors, Uno; Ekblad, Solvig

    2015-01-01

    Background Virtual patients are now widely accepted as efficient and safe training tools in medical education, but very little is known about their implementation in psychiatry, especially in transcultural clinical care of traumatized refugee patients. Objective This study aimed at assessing the impact of training with a virtual patient on confidence in providing clinical care for traumatized refugee patients. Methods The authors developed an educational tool based on virtual patient methodology portraying the case of “Mrs. K”, a traumatized refugee woman with symptoms of PTSD and depression. A group (N=32) of resident psychiatrists tested the system and their confidence in different aspects of providing clinical care for this patient group was evaluated pre- and post-test by using a validated confidence questionnaire. Cronbach’s α was calculated for all clusters. Changes between pre- and post-test were compared by using the matched-pair t-test, binomial distribution for exact significance test and a calculation of effect sizes (Cohen’s d). Results A statistically significant improvement was exhibited in overall confidence (mean Δ: 0.34; p<0.0001; d: 0.89) as well as in four more specific domains of clinical care, with the area of identifying and evaluating trauma-related diagnoses and disability showing the most prominent improvement (mean Δ: 0.47; p<0.0001; d: 1.00). Conclusions This VP-system can lead to physicians’ improvement of confidence in providing transcultural clinical care for traumatized refugee patients. Further research is required to investigate improvement in actual performance and cognitive outcomes with several VPs and in a long-term effect perspective. PMID:25794169

  4. Using and teaching evidence-based medicine: the Duke University child and adolescent psychiatry model.

    PubMed

    March, John S; Chrisman, Allan; Breland-Noble, Alfiee; Clouse, Kelly; D'Alli, Richard; Egger, Helen; Gammon, Pat; Gazzola, Marta; Lin, Anne; Mauro, Christian; Rana, Aasim; Ravi, Himabindu; Srirama, Madhanika; Su, Hansen; Thrall, Grace; van de Velde, Polly

    2005-04-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is defined as a set of processes that facilitate the conscientious, explicit, and judicious integration of individual clinical expertise with the best available external clinical evidence from systematic research in making decisions about the care of individual patients. EBM focuses not only on grading the strength of the evidence but also on the processes and tools that are necessary for clinicians to continually upgrade their knowledge and skills for those problems encountered in daily practice. This article, authored by members of the Duke Pediatric Psychiatry EBM Seminar Team, (1) describes EBM as applied to the training of child and adolescent psychiatrists in the Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry at Duke University Medical Center; (2) presents a simplified discussion of EBM as a technology for training and patient care; (3) discusses the basic principles and procedures for teaching EBM in the setting of a multidisciplinary training program; and (4) briefly mentions two training and research initiatives that are furthered by incorporating EBM.

  5. A proposed solution to integrating cognitive-affective neuroscience and neuropsychiatry in psychiatry residency training: The time is now.

    PubMed

    Torous, John; Stern, Adam P; Padmanabhan, Jaya L; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Perez, David L

    2015-10-01

    Despite increasing recognition of the importance of a strong neuroscience and neuropsychiatry education in the training of psychiatry residents, achieving this competency has proven challenging. In this perspective article, we selectively discuss the current state of these educational efforts and outline how using brain-symptom relationships from a systems-level neural circuit approach in clinical formulations may help residents value, understand, and apply cognitive-affective neuroscience based principles towards the care of psychiatric patients. To demonstrate the utility of this model, we present a case of major depressive disorder and discuss suspected abnormal neural circuits and therapeutic implications. A clinical neural systems-level, symptom-based approach to conceptualize mental illness can complement and expand residents' existing psychiatric knowledge. PMID:26054985

  6. A proposed solution to integrating cognitive-affective neuroscience and neuropsychiatry in psychiatry residency training: The time is now.

    PubMed

    Torous, John; Stern, Adam P; Padmanabhan, Jaya L; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Perez, David L

    2015-10-01

    Despite increasing recognition of the importance of a strong neuroscience and neuropsychiatry education in the training of psychiatry residents, achieving this competency has proven challenging. In this perspective article, we selectively discuss the current state of these educational efforts and outline how using brain-symptom relationships from a systems-level neural circuit approach in clinical formulations may help residents value, understand, and apply cognitive-affective neuroscience based principles towards the care of psychiatric patients. To demonstrate the utility of this model, we present a case of major depressive disorder and discuss suspected abnormal neural circuits and therapeutic implications. A clinical neural systems-level, symptom-based approach to conceptualize mental illness can complement and expand residents' existing psychiatric knowledge.

  7. Clinical neuropsychology within adolescent and young-adult psychiatry: conceptualizing theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Allott, Kelly; Proffitt, Tina-Marie; McGorry, Patrick D; Pantelis, Christos; Wood, Stephen J; Cumner, Marnie; Brewer, Warrick J

    2013-01-01

    Historically, clinical neuropsychology has made significant contributions to the understanding of brain-behavior relationships, particularly in neurological conditions. During the past several decades, neuropsychology has also become established as an important discipline in psychiatric settings. Cognition is increasingly recognized as being core to psychiatric illnesses and predictive of functional outcomes, augmenting theories regarding symptomatology and illness progression. Adult-type psychiatric disorders (including schizophrenia and other psychotic, mood, anxiety, eating, substance-related, and personality disorders) typically emerge during adolescence or young adulthood, a critical neurodevelopmental period. Clinical neuropsychological assessment in adolescent psychiatric patients is particularly valuable in informing clinical formulation and intervention and can be therapeutic across a number of levels. This article articulates the theoretical considerations and practical challenges and applications of clinical neuropsychology within adolescent and young-adult psychiatry. The importance of considering the neurodevelopmental context and its relationship to current theoretical models underpinning clinical practice are discussed.

  8. Child and adolescent psychiatry leadership in public mental health, child welfare, and developmental disabilities agencies.

    PubMed

    Zachik, Albert A; Naylor, Michael W; Klaehn, Robert L

    2010-01-01

    Child and adolescent psychiatrists are in a unique position to provide administrative and clinical leadership to public agencies. In mental health, services for children and adolescents in early childhood, school, child welfare, and juvenile justice settings, transition-aged youth programs, workforce development, family and youth leadership programs, and use of Medicaid waivers for home- and community-based service system development are described. In child welfare, collaboration between an academic child psychiatry department and a state child welfare department is described. In developmental disabilities, the role of the child and adolescent psychiatrist administrator is described providing administrative leadership, clinical consultation, quality review, and oversight of health and behavioral health plans for persons with developmental disabilities.

  9. Psychotropic drug prescribing in child and adolescent learning disability psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Bramble, David

    2007-07-01

    This postal questionnaire study investigated the prescribing practices of a group of senior British psychiatrists who have responsibilities for children and adolescents with learning disabilities (mental retardation). The study revealed that all of the clinicians surveyed (n = 16) were prescribing psychotropic medication; psychostimulants and major tranquillizers represented the most frequently prescribed classes and, respectively, methylphenidate, risperidone, melatonin, sodium valproate and carbamazepine were the most frequently employed specific agents. Most patients were receiving monotherapy. Many (14/16) clinicians reported difficulties in shared-care prescribing arrangements with General Practitioners. The study concludes that psychopharmacology is an established part of the psychiatric management of learning disabled children but acknowledges the need for the elaboration of clinical governance standards to this area of practice.

  10. Psychotropic drug prescribing in child and adolescent learning disability psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Bramble, David

    2007-07-01

    This postal questionnaire study investigated the prescribing practices of a group of senior British psychiatrists who have responsibilities for children and adolescents with learning disabilities (mental retardation). The study revealed that all of the clinicians surveyed (n = 16) were prescribing psychotropic medication; psychostimulants and major tranquillizers represented the most frequently prescribed classes and, respectively, methylphenidate, risperidone, melatonin, sodium valproate and carbamazepine were the most frequently employed specific agents. Most patients were receiving monotherapy. Many (14/16) clinicians reported difficulties in shared-care prescribing arrangements with General Practitioners. The study concludes that psychopharmacology is an established part of the psychiatric management of learning disabled children but acknowledges the need for the elaboration of clinical governance standards to this area of practice. PMID:17446203

  11. Management in child and adolescent psychiatry: how does it look in the Balkans?

    PubMed

    Pejovic-Milovancevic, M; Miletic, V; Anagnostopoulos, D; Raleva, M; Stancheva, V; Burgic-Radmanovic, M; Barac-Otasevic, Z; Ispanovic, V

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the situation of child and adolescent psychiatry in the following Balkan countries: Greece, Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, FYROM, and Montenegro. With the exception of Greece, these countries are new democracies, with their mental health services in a transitional stage of organization. Overall, they have initiated programmes to move psychiatric care towards deinstitutionalization, developing outpatient infrastructures to handle psychiatric disorders. Child psychiatry as a specialization is still less developed than adult psychiatry at a significant, albeit different degree among these countries. The number of mental health services offered to children and adolescents is deemed insufficient, and the type of services limited and lacking. This situation is also reflected in the small number of child psychiatrists and other mental health specialists for children and adolescents, as well as in the complete lack (Montenegro) or deficiency of special programmes and actions for children and adolescents. The same also applies to mental health legislation. Greece is the exception in the development of the entire spectrum of services, the number of specialists, and the establishment of an adequate legislation framework reinforced by the incorporation of all international treaties on children's rights; although the recent economic crisis has affected the country negatively, threatening with regression to pre-reformational practices. Children and adolescents in need of mental health care have been increasing in all countries. The effect of violent and sudden changes taking place in most countries is a major factor for the emergence of increased and stress-related psychopathology and psychosocial problems in children and families. In all countries, there is a significant development of nongovernmental organizations undertaking a large part of reformation work. There is also the disconcerting phenomenon of professional exhaustion and the

  12. A Model CSMH Curriculum for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Training Programs.

    PubMed

    Derenne, Jennifer; Martel, Adele

    2015-10-01

    Child and adolescent psychiatrists (CAP) care for high school students preparing to enter college. They also may continue to see students while on school vacations and may care for college students in various settings (emergency room, inpatient hospital unit, private practice, college student health service, or counseling center). As increasing numbers of students with mental health diagnoses pursue secondary education, CAP need to be knowledgeable about campus systems of care, principles of transition, and privacy and educational laws affecting college students. This article describes an informal needs assessment of general CAP members of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and details the results of a survey of CAP program directors on training opportunities in college student mental health (CSMH). The authors present a sample curriculum for a clinical rotation in CSMH, as well as providing ideas for core didactic lectures, and proposing the development of online resources to reduce the burden of creating new lectures and standardize experiences among training programs.

  13. [Treatment of acute crisis in child and adolescent psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Walter, Joachim; Hoffmann, Sascha; Romer, Georg

    2005-01-01

    Crises from the child and adolescent psychiatric point of view must be considered as unique or repeated moments of basic questioning of self-focused and relational perception. Hospitalisation if necessary depends on a well prepared social, legal, physical and cooperative framework. Patients, their family or social environment are in need of clarity, structure, and a professional counterpart willing to engage responsibly within an inpatient or--mostly--outpatient framework. He must adapt his diagnostic or therapeutic action to the patient's experience of fear, loss of orientation and insecurity. Then a crisis may be experienced like a bonding experience. Concerning the capacity of action confronted to psychiatric crisis the authors stress the importance of the scenic understanding, expressed symptoms and the acted-out crisis dynamics more than diagnostic classification. The diagnostic and decisive process of atunement to the patient in crisis is being described. A model for psychodynamic understanding of perception of and action towards crisis is proposed, which allows describing the interference between relational dynamics and intra-psychic conflicts leading to crisis. This can then be used as therapeutical focus for the crisis intervention or a consecutive psychotherapeutic treatment.

  14. Amantadine: a review of use in child and adolescent psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Hosenbocus, Sheik; Chahal, Raj

    2013-02-01

    Résumé OBJECTIF: Passer en revue, résumer et discuter la littérature publiée sur la pharmacologie et l’utilisation de l’amantadine en pédopsychiatrie. MÉTHODE: Une recherche de la littérature dans plusieurs bases de données (PubMed, Psychinfo, CINAHL, Medline, PsycARTICLES, Biomedical Reference Collection et Academis Search Complete) a été menée avec le mot clé « amantadine » avec des limites: langue anglaise, essais sur des humains, tous les enfants (de 0 à 18 ans). Des articles additionnels pertinents ont été relevés dans les bibliographies. Étant donné la quantité limitée d’information obtenue, la recherche s’est élargie et a inclus « tous les enfants et les adultes », et l’information pertinente a été saisie. RÉSULTATS: L’utilisation de l’amantadine pour traiter les troubles neuro-développementaux chez les enfants est due à son effet antagoniste au recepteur N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). L’effet de l’amantadine sur le système glutamatergique des neurotransmetteurs, jouer un rôle important dans de nombreux troubles psychiatriques. La majorité des études relevées étaient des études ouvertes et seulement deux étaient des études contrôlées d’enfants et d’adolescents. Un essai randomisé contrôlé rendait compte des effets bénéfiques du contrôle des symptômes d’irritabilité et d’hyperactivité chez les enfants souffrant d’un trouble autiste. Un autre essai randomisé contrôlé, une étude de comparaison directe avec le méthylphénidate, a constaté un effet statistiquement significatif sur le trouble de déficit de l’attention avec hyperactivité (TDAH). Deux autres études ouvertes constataient aussi des effets positifs sur le TDAH. Une étude pilote sur des enfants souffrant d’énurésie constatait une réduction significative de la fréquence de l’incontinence. Ouvertes pour la plupart, les études sur les adultes, relativement aux enfants et aux adolescents, rapportaient une

  15. Adventure-Based Experiential Therapy with Inpatients in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: An Approach to Practicability and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckstein, Florian; Rüth, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the use of adventure-based experiential therapy (AET) with child and adolescent psychiatry inpatients. AET environments, indications, practicality, therapeutic effects and research are outlined and clinical findings are reported. Activities such as rock-climbing, exploring a creek and caving are discussed and the limitations…

  16. Implementation of Problem-Based Learning in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: Shared Experiences of a Special-Interest Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skokauskas, Norbert; Guerrero, Anthony P. S.; Hanson, Mark D.; Coll, Xavier; Paul, Moli; Szatmari, Peter; Tan, Susan M. K.; Bell, Cathy K.; Hunt, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objective: Problem-based learning (PBL) represents a major development and change in educational practice that continues to have a large impact across subjects and disciplines worldwide. It would seem that child and adolescent psychiatry, because of its inherently integrative, bio-psycho-social nature and emphasis on teamwork and…

  17. Using Film as the Basis of an American Culture Course for First-Year Psychiatry Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierles, Frederick S.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There is a developing literature on the use of movies for educating psychiatric residents. This may be the first report of the use of film as the basis of a psychiatric resident acculturation course. METHOD: The author describes an American culture course for PGY-1 psychiatric residents and presents satisfaction and construct validity…

  18. Attitudes and Behaviors of Psychiatry Residents toward Pharmaceutical Representatives before and after an Educational Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Melinda L.; Rosenbaum, Julie R.; Rohrbaugh, Robert M.; Rosenheck, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to determine the effect of an educational seminar on interactions with pharmaceutical representatives on residents' attitudes and behavior. METHOD: A controlled trial of an educational intervention was conducted. Residents at a university-affiliated residency program (N=32) were divided into two groups: one group…

  19. The practice of child and adolescent psychiatry: a survey of early-career psychiatrists in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Tateno, Masaru; Uchida, Naoki; Kikuchi, Saya; Kawada, Ryosaku; Kobayashi, Seiju; Nakano, Wakako; Sasaki, Ryuji; Shibata, Keisuke; Shirasaka, Tomohiro; Suzuki, Muneyuki; Uehara, Kumi; Saito, Toshikazu

    2009-01-01

    Background Child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP), a subspecialty of psychiatry in Japan, is facing a serious workforce shortage. To resolve this situation, the Japanese government has organized a task force and has been working to increase psychiatrists' clinical skills to improve care for children and adolescents with mental health problems. Using an online questionnaire system, the authors have conducted a survey to investigate the perceptions, experiences, and interests of early-career psychiatrists in CAP. Methods The subjects of this study were 182 psychiatrists in Japan whose individual clinical experiences did not exceed 15 years. The authors of this study created an online questionnaire system and e-mailed the URL and login password to all subjects. Respondents anonymously answered the questions. Most questions required an answer indicating a level of agreement scored on a nine-point scale. Responding to the questionnaire was considered to constitute consent, and all respondents' privacy was carefully protected. Results The mean age and clinical psychiatric experience of the subjects were found to be 33.1 ± 4.5 years and 5.43 ± 3.5 years, respectively. On a nine-point scale (with nine being the highest), experience and interest in CAP measured 3.05 ± 1.9 and 5.34 ± 2.5, respectively; further, these two factors showed significant correlation (r = 0.437, p < 0.0001). The mean score for the early-career psychiatrists' confidence in their ability to diagnose and appropriately treat was notably low, at 3.13 ± 1.9. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that early-career psychiatrists self-evaluated their CAP clinical experience as insufficient, and these clinicians' CAP experiences and interests correlated significantly. Therefore, in order to improve child and adolescent medical care, we need to expose young psychiatrists to sufficient CAP cases and explore the factors that could attract them to this field. PMID:19785745

  20. The Adult Learner Rediscovered: Psychiatry Residents' Push for Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Training and a Learner-Driven Model of Educational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Keri-Leigh

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study surveyed residents' experiences learning an emerging area of demand in psychiatry at a time when there is a lag in training resources. Unexpectedly, the data generated useful evidence in support of adult learning theory. The result is a post hoc examination of learner attitudes and activities during the spread of a new…

  1. How to assess quality of life in child and adolescent psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Karow, Anne; Barthel, Dana; Klasen, Fionna

    2014-06-01

    This article provides an overview of the conceptual foundations of measuring health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children and adolescents in child and adolescent psychiatry, and of the current state of research in this field. The available procedures for determining quality of life are presented according to their areas of use and their psychometric characteristics. The internationally available generic instruments for measuring HRQoL in children are identified and assessed in terms of their strengths and weaknesses with regard to selected criteria. As a result, seven generic HRQoL instruments and two utility procedures have been identified which satísfy the following criteria: (i) psychometric qualíty; (ii) age-appropriate measurement; (iii) versions for self-reporting and external rating; and (iv) cross-cultural measurement. The identified instruments satisfy the individual criteria to different degrees. They are increasingly being used in health services research, treatment studies, and epidemiological research; however, they are not yet widely used as part of the clinical routine in child and adolescent psychiatrics.

  2. How to assess quality of life in child and adolescent psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Karow, Anne; Barthel, Dana; Klasen, Fionna

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the conceptual foundations of measuring health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children and adolescents in child and adolescent psychiatry, and of the current state of research in this field. The available procedures for determining quality of life are presented according to their areas of use and their psychometric characteristics. The internationally available generic instruments for measuring HRQoL in children are identified and assessed in terms of their strengths and weaknesses with regard to selected criteria. As a result, seven generic HRQoL instruments and two utility procedures have been identified which satísfy the following criteria: (i) psychometric qualíty; (ii) age-appropriate measurement; (iii) versions for self-reporting and external rating; and (iv) cross-cultural measurement. The identified instruments satisfy the individual criteria to different degrees. They are increasingly being used in health services research, treatment studies, and epidemiological research; however, they are not yet widely used as part of the clinical routine in child and adolescent psychiatrics. PMID:25152654

  3. US Military Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Training Programs and Careers of Military Child Psychiatrists.

    PubMed

    Weston, Christina G; Dougherty, Joseph G; Nelson, Suzie C; Baker, Matthew J; Chow, Jennifer C

    2015-08-01

    Military child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) fellowship programs offer educational experiences universal to all civilian training programs in the USA. They also offer unique training opportunities not found in civilian CAP fellowships in order to prepare graduates to serve the needs of military families. Military-specific curricula and exposures prepare trainees to address various issues faced by military families, in contending with frequent military moves, parental deployments, and disrupted social ties. Curricula are also designed to provide the psychiatrist with a greater understanding of the rigors of military service. CAP training and subsequent assignments prepare military psychiatrists for diverse career paths in the military environment. CAP military careers often include duties in addition to treating patients. Administrative roles, academic teaching positions, as well as school consultation positions are all career options available to military CAP.

  4. The Role of Personal Therapy in Psychiatric Residency Training: A Survey of Psychiatry Training Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habl, Samar; Mintz, David L.; Bailey, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors examine the current place of personal therapy for residents in U.S. training programs. Methods: All U.S. training directors were provided an anonymous survey assessing current attitudes and practices with regard to personal therapy and training director perception of their residents' use of therapy. Results: Training…

  5. Family Skills for General Psychiatry Residents: Meeting ACGME Core Competency Requirements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Ellen M.; Heru, Alison M.; Grunebaum, Henry; Rolland, John; Wood, Beatrice; Bruty, Heidi

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The authors discuss the knowledge, attitudes, and skills needed for a resident to be competent in supporting and working with families, as mandated by the residency review committee (RRC) core competencies. Methods: The RRC core competencies, as they relate to patients and their families, are reviewed. The Group for Advancement of…

  6. Off-Label Prescription of Psychopharmacological Drugs in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Braüner, Julie Vestergaard; Johansen, Lily Manzello; Roesbjerg, Troels; Pagsberg, Anne Katrine

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to describe the frequency of off-label prescriptions of psychopharmacological drugs in a child and adolescent psychiatric setting. A cross-sectional study was conducted on November 1, 2014, including all inpatients and outpatients at the Mental Health Centre for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Capital Region of Denmark, aged 0 to 17 years receiving medical treatment with antidepressants, antipsychotic agents, benzodiazepines, melatonin and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication. We included a total of 5555 prescriptions representing 2932 patients. The main findings were that 32.3% of all prescriptions were off-label, and 41.6% of subjects received at least 1 off-label prescription. The most frequent off-label category was low age, 72.2%, meaning that the drug was not approved for the age group of the patient. The off-label rates for each drug class were as follows: melatonin, 100%; antipsychotic agents, 95.6%; benzodiazepines, 72.5%; antidepressants, 51.1%; and ADHD medication, 2.7%. Prescription of 2 or more psychopharmacological drugs per patient was common (31.5%). The group of subjects with 4 or more prescriptions (n = 36) was characterized by a higher frequency of inpatients, older age, and a different distribution of diagnoses. This study found a frequent use of off-label prescriptions when treating children and adolescents with psychopharmacological drugs other than ADHD medication. In addition, prescription of more than 1 psychotropic drug is common. These findings support the need for extending the evidence base for psychopharmacologic treatment in children and adolescents.

  7. Off-Label Prescription of Psychopharmacological Drugs in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Braüner, Julie Vestergaard; Johansen, Lily Manzello; Roesbjerg, Troels; Pagsberg, Anne Katrine

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to describe the frequency of off-label prescriptions of psychopharmacological drugs in a child and adolescent psychiatric setting. A cross-sectional study was conducted on November 1, 2014, including all inpatients and outpatients at the Mental Health Centre for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Capital Region of Denmark, aged 0 to 17 years receiving medical treatment with antidepressants, antipsychotic agents, benzodiazepines, melatonin and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication. We included a total of 5555 prescriptions representing 2932 patients. The main findings were that 32.3% of all prescriptions were off-label, and 41.6% of subjects received at least 1 off-label prescription. The most frequent off-label category was low age, 72.2%, meaning that the drug was not approved for the age group of the patient. The off-label rates for each drug class were as follows: melatonin, 100%; antipsychotic agents, 95.6%; benzodiazepines, 72.5%; antidepressants, 51.1%; and ADHD medication, 2.7%. Prescription of 2 or more psychopharmacological drugs per patient was common (31.5%). The group of subjects with 4 or more prescriptions (n = 36) was characterized by a higher frequency of inpatients, older age, and a different distribution of diagnoses. This study found a frequent use of off-label prescriptions when treating children and adolescents with psychopharmacological drugs other than ADHD medication. In addition, prescription of more than 1 psychotropic drug is common. These findings support the need for extending the evidence base for psychopharmacologic treatment in children and adolescents. PMID:27529772

  8. Training in a Clozapine Clinic for Psychiatry Residents: A Plea and Suggestions for Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freudenreich, Oliver; Henderson, David C.; Sanders, Kathy M.; Goff, Donald C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The authors sought to develop a model educational clinic and curriculum for psychiatric residents, to increase knowledge and comfort about clozapine prescribing. This matters because clozapine is an important evidence-based treatment for refractory schizophrenia that remains underutilized in clinical practice. Method: This is a…

  9. Work Hours Regulations for House Staff in Psychiatry: Bad or Good for Residency Training?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasminsky, Sonya; Lomonaco, Allison; Auchincloss, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The movement to limit work hours for house staff has gained momentum in recent years. The authors set out to review the literature on work hours reform, particularly as it applies to psychiatric residency training, and to provide two different viewpoints on the controversy. Methods: The authors present the historical background of work…

  10. Racism as a response to change. The introduction of residents onto a psychiatry ward.

    PubMed

    Blank, R J; Silk, K R

    1979-07-01

    An outbreak of violence among inpatients coincident with the beginning of a residency training program is described. The phenomenon is viewed as an example of covert staff disagreement resulting in the scapegoating of black patients. Suggestions are made as to how to avoid the occurrence of similar phenomena through a process of re-education of ward staff.

  11. Addiction Training Scale: Pilot Study of a Self-Report Evaluation Tool for Psychiatry Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattar, S. Pirzada; Madison, James; Markert, Ronald J.; Bhatia, Subhash C.; Petty, Frederick

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol and drug dependence disorders have become common public health hazards. Psychiatrists encounter these problems in a major portion of their patients. However, recent data suggest that their training does not provide them the confidence to treat these disorders. Current methods of evaluating residents fail to adequately ascertain…

  12. Integrating Systems-Based Practice, Community Psychiatry, and Recovery into Residency Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeMelle, Stephanie; Arbuckle, Melissa R.; Ranz, Jules M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Behavioral health services involving multiple systems of care are increasingly being provided in community as well as hospital settings. Residents therefore should be familiar with multiple systems and the role of the psychiatrist in these systems. The authors describe a curriculum incorporating principles of systems-based practice…

  13. Adolescent Depression: Evaluating Pediatric Residents' Knowledge, Confidence, and Interpersonal Skills Using Standardized Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewy, Colleen; Sells, C. Wayne; Gilhooly, Jennifer; McKelvey, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors aim to determine whether pediatric residents used DSM-IV criteria to diagnose major depressive disorder and how this related to residents' confidence in diagnosis and treatment skills before and after clinical training with depressed adolescents. Methods: Pediatric residents evaluated two different standardized patients…

  14. Adolescent Career Development in Urban-Residing Aboriginal Families in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Sheila K.; Young, Richard A.; Stevens, Alison; Spence, Wayne; Deyell, Stewart; Easterbrook, Adam; Brokenleg, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how urban-residing Aboriginal adolescent-parent dyads (n = 11) jointly constructed and acted on goals and strategies with their social supports (n = 17) to facilitate the adolescents' career development. A modified protocol following the qualitative action-project method was used. A discrete joint…

  15. Crime and Psychiatry*

    PubMed Central

    Matcheswalla, Yusuf; De Sousa, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatry and crime are linked in certain ways. On one hand, we have criminal offenders with serious psychopathology; and on the other hand, we have psychiatric patients who may commit criminal offences during the influence of a psychiatric disorder. The psychiatrist in practice has to come in contact with the criminal justice system at some point of time in his career. Forensic psychiatry under whose realm these issues reside is a branch yet underdeveloped in India. The present paper reviews the inter-relationship between crime and psychiatry and the factors involved therein. PMID:25838733

  16. Factors Influencing the Choice of a Psychiatric Residency Program: A Survey of Applicants to the Johns Hopkins Residency Program in Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davydow, Dimitry; Bienvenu, Joseph; Lipsey, John; Swartz, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors set out to determine what general factors are important in the selection of a psychiatric residency program, the views applicants have of several aspects of the Johns Hopkins Hospital Psychiatric Residency Program, and what relationships exist among these elements. Methods: A survey mailed to Johns Hopkins Hospital…

  17. Borderline personality disorder in adolescents: the He-who-must-not-be-named of psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Larrivée, Marie-Pier

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the possibility and pertinence of diagnosing borderline personality disorder in adolescents. The etiology and clinical manifestations of this disorder in adolescents are discussed, and its management is addressed in terms of psychotherapy, pharmacology, hospitalization issues, and family involvement considerations. PMID:24174891

  18. Borderline personality disorder in adolescents: the He-who-must-not-be-named of psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Larrivée, Marie-Pier

    2013-06-01

    This article reviews the possibility and pertinence of diagnosing borderline personality disorder in adolescents. The etiology and clinical manifestations of this disorder in adolescents are discussed, and its management is addressed in terms of psychotherapy, pharmacology, hospitalization issues, and family involvement considerations.

  19. Adolescents and the Media: Medical and Psychological Impact. Developmental Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry, Volume 33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strasburger, Victor C.

    Aimed at primary care physicians and nurses, educators, and parents, this book reviews media effects on adolescent behavior and psychology. The book notes that television is a powerful medium to which adolescents are uniquely susceptible and how studies have shown television's ability to shape social attitudes. Theories of how television affects…

  20. [Qualitative research approaches in practical use in child and adolescent psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Fegert, J; Gerwert, U

    1993-10-01

    Experimental study designs and quantitative analysis are dominating the methodology of child psychiatric research. Sometimes the "box of tools" consisting of standardized software packages for statistical analysis seems to lead to a regrettable uniformity in research strategies. Elaborated sociological research concepts in the tradition of Max Weber and the "Chicago school" could close the scientific gap between quantitative studies on large samples and simple case-reports. They are excellent instruments for generating hypothesis on relatively rare clinical problems or in new fields of child psychiatric research. Based on a review of the literature potential applications of qualitative methodology in child psychiatry will be discussed.

  1. Clinical thinking in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Wells, Lloyd A

    2015-06-01

    I discuss the lack of precision in the term 'clinical reasoning' and its relationship to evidence-based medicine and critical thinking. I examine critical thinking skills, their underemphasis in medical education and successful attempts to remediate them. Evidence-based medicine (and evidence-based psychiatry) offer much but are hampered by the ubiquity and flaws of meta-analysis. I explore views of evidence-based medicine among psychiatry residents, as well as capacity for critical thinking in residents before and after a course in philosophy. I discuss decision making by experienced doctors and suggest possible futures of this issue.

  2. [Parameters of physical and mental development of children and adolescents residing near enterprise for radioactive waste processing and stationary storage].

    PubMed

    Kirillov, V F; Popova, O L; Mikhaĭlov, A I; Kuznetsova, A I; Prokazova, L P; Pronina, T K; Varfolomeeva, I G

    2005-01-01

    Operation of enterprise for radioactive waste processing and disposal does not influence negatively physical and mental development of children and adolescents residing in the area under observation. In some parameters, physical and mental development of children and adolescents residing in the area under observation surpasses that in reference area--that could be due to social and economic peculiarities. PMID:16381481

  3. Competency of Psychiatric Residents in the Treatment of People with Severe Mental Illness before and after a Community Psychiatry Rotation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Melinda; Romero-Gonzalez, Mauricio; Gonzalez, Gerardo; Klee, Anne; Kirwin, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Psychiatric rehabilitation is an evidence-based service with the goal of recovery for people with severe mental illness. Psychiatric residents should understand the services and learn the principles of psychiatric rehabilitation. This study assessed whether a 3-month rotation in a psychiatric rehabilitation center changes the competency…

  4. Disparities in Adolescents' Residence in Neighborhoods Supportive of Physical Activity - United States, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Watson, Kathleen B; Harris, Carmen D; Carlson, Susan A; Dorn, Joan M; Fulton, Janet E

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, only 27% of adolescents in grades 9-12 met the current federal guideline for aerobic physical activity (at least 60 minutes of physical activity each day*), and sex and racial/ethnic disparities in meeting the guideline exist (1). The Community Preventive Services Task Force has recommended a range of community-level evidence-based approaches(†) to increase physical activity by improving neighborhood supports for physical activity.(§) To assess the characteristics of adolescents who live in neighborhoods that are supportive of physical activity, CDC analyzed data on U.S. children and adolescents aged 10-17 years (defined as adolescents for this report) from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH). Overall, 65% of U.S. adolescents live in neighborhoods supportive of physical activity, defined as neighborhoods that are perceived as safe and have sidewalks or walking paths and parks, playgrounds, or recreation centers. Adolescents who were Hispanic and non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity; who lived in lower-income households, households with less educated parents, and rural areas; or who were overweight or obese were less likely to live in neighborhoods supportive of physical activity than were white adolescents and adolescents from higher income households, with a more highly educated parent, living in urban areas, and not overweight or obese. Within demographic groups, the largest disparity in the percentage of adolescents living in these neighborhoods was observed between adolescents living in households with a family income <100% of the Federal Poverty Level (FPL) (51%) and adolescents living in households with a family income ≥400% of the FPL (76%). Efforts to improve neighborhood supports, particularly in areas with a substantial percentage of low-income and minority residents, might increase physical activity among adolescents and reduce health disparities.

  5. Perspectives on US Domestic Violence Emergency Shelters: What Do Young Adolescent Residents and Their Mothers Say?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chanmugam, Amy

    2011-01-01

    As part of a larger qualitative study using Life Story methods, an ethnically diverse, purposive sample (n = 27) of young adolescents (ages 12-14) and their mothers residing in four US domestic violence emergency shelters were interviewed about their perspectives of shelter life. Youth reported aspects they liked, most often expressing that they…

  6. Treating Children and Adolescents in Residential and Inpatient Settings. Developmental Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry. Volume 36.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Robert D.; Campbell, Nancy R.

    This book examines the various components of hospital, residential, and outpatient treatments for children and adolescents with mental disorders. Options and settings for residential care are presented, including the principles and practical issues, such as providing continuing education, that underlie the decision making for placement of youth in…

  7. [Gender identity disorder and related sexual behavior problems in children and adolescents: from the perspective of development and child psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The present paper reviews the theoretical and empirical literature on children and adolescents with gender identity disorder. The organizational framework underlying this review is one that presents gender behavior in children and adolescents as a continuum rather than as a dichotomy of normal versus abnormal categories. Theories of normative gender development, prevalence, assessment, developmental trajectories, and comorbidity were investigated. There is a greater fluidity and likelihood of change in the pre-pubertal period. It was reported that the majority of affected children had been eventually developing a homosexual orientation. As an approach to determine the prevalence of GID in clinical samples in our child psychiatry clinic, screening instruments that include items on cross-gender or cross-sex identification were used. We applied the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Of the 113 items in the Japanese version of the CBCL, there are two measures of cross-gender identification: "behaves like opposite sex" and "wishes to be opposite sex." Like the other items, they are scored on a 3-point scale of: 0-not true, 1- somewhat true, and 2-very true. Our study of 323 clinically-referred children aged 4-15 years reported that, among the boys, 9.6% assigned a score of 1 (somewhat true) or a score of 2 (very true) to the two items. The corresponding rates for the clinically-referred girls were 24.5%. The item of diagnosis of GID in our clinical sample was significantly higher than in non-referred children, reported as 2-5% using the same method. Two clinical case histories of screened children are also presented. Both of them were diagnosed with PDDNOS. Together with the literature review, most of the gender-related symptoms in autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) could be related to the behavioral and psychological characteristics of autism as shown in case histories. ASD subjects in adolescence can sometimes develop a unique confusion of identity that occasionally

  8. Adverse effects of psychological therapy: An exploratory study of practitioners' experiences from child and adolescent psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Ulf; Johanson, Josefin; Nilsson, Elin; Lindblad, Frank

    2016-07-01

    The scientific knowledge about adverse effects of psychological therapies and how such effects should be detected is limited. It is possible that children and adolescents are particularly vulnerable and need specific support in order to express adverse effects. In this exploratory study, we used a qualitative approach to explore practitioners' experiences of this phenomenon. Fourteen practitioners providing psychological therapy within the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Service were interviewed. Qualitative content analysis was applied to the data. Four overarching categories brought up by the practitioners were identified: vagueness of the concept (reflecting that the concept was novel and hard to define), psychotherapist-client interaction (encompassing aspects of the interaction possibly related to adverse effects), consequences for the young person (including a range of emotional, behavioural and social consequences) and family effects (e.g. professional complications and decreased autonomy for the parent). Professional discussions on these issues could improve psychological therapy for children and adolescents. Based on our findings and previous research, we propose three basic aspects to consider when adverse effects are detected and managed in this context: typology (form, severity and duration), aetiology (hypothesis about the causes) and perspective (adverse effects seen from the points of view of different interested parties).

  9. [Teaching child and adolescent psychiatry and psychotherapy in Germany-inventory and implications].

    PubMed

    Becker, Katja; Resch, Franz; Fegert, Jörg M; Häßler, Frank

    2013-07-01

    Einleitung: Wissen über kinder- und jugendpsychiatrische Störungen, deren Diagnostik und Therapie, Kenntnisse über Risiken devianter Entwicklungen, sowie das Erlernen von Fertigkeiten im adäquaten Umgang mit Kindern und Jugendlichen gehören in jede Medizinerausbildung. Die vorliegende Arbeit ist eine Bestandsaufnahme der Lehre im Fach Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie (KJP) an den medizinischen Fakultäten in Deutschland. Methodik: Es wurden alle Lehrstuhlinhaber für KJP befragt zur Einbindung in die Pflichtlehre, zu den Lehrangeboten für KJP vor Ort und zu Lehrangeboten für andere Fachbereiche. Ergebnisse: An 25 von 26 medizinischen Fakultäten mit Lehrstuhl für KJP ist das Fach KJP bereits in die Pflichtlehre für Mediziner integriert. Die Vorlesung wird entweder als eigenständige KJP-Vorlesung gehalten oder ist in die Vorlesung Psychiatrie, Pädiatrie und/oder Psychosomatik integriert. Die durchschnittlich 1.2 Semesterwochenstunden umfassende Hauptvorlesung (Range von 0.1 bis 2 SWS; entsprechend 2 bis 28 Unterrichtseinheiten KJP pro Semester) wird durch zahlreiche weitere Lehrangebote ergänzt, wie Praktika, vertiefende Veranstaltungen und Wahlpflichtfachangebote. Das KJP-Wahltertial des Praktischen Jahrs kann an allen Orten mit KJP-Lehrstuhl absolviert werden. Oft wird KJP-Lehre auch für andere Fachbereiche angeboten, am häufigsten für Studierende der Psychologie und der Pädagogik. Schlussfolgerung: Ein übergeordnetes Ziel sollte es sein, KJP aufgrund ihrer Bedeutung als Approbationsfach in der ärztlichen Ausbildungsordnung zu verankern und zukünftig an allen 35 Universitäten mit Fachbereich Medizin in Deutschland zu lehren.

  10. [Concept of budget-based remuneration system for the fields of psychiatry and psychotherapy, psychosomatic medicine and psychotherapy, child and adolescent psychiatry and psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    A new remuneration system is currently being developed for the hospital care of people with mental disorders. Last year, because of sharp criticism the option phase of the planned Flat-rate Charges in Psychiatry and Psychosomatics (Pauschalierende Entgelte Psychiatrie und Psychosomatik, PEPP) was extended by 2 years. During this time the Federal Ministry of Health wants to look for alternatives and possible starting points for the further development of care. Now, 16 scientific professional associations and organisations have presented a joint concept for a sustainable solution: the budget-based remuneration system. The system is suitable for ensuring that people with mental disorders are treated according to their particular needs and for promoting the appropriate further development of regional care in all treatment settings. It corresponds with the objectives as formulated in Section 17d of the Hospital Finance Act (Krankenhausfinanzierungsgesetz, KHG) and translates the PEPP system, which is currently being developed and focusses on average prices, into a performance-oriented, transparent budgetary system. The fundamental principle is the separation of the individual hospitals' budgeting on the basis of evidence-based, feature- and performance-related modules and billing in the form of advance payments from the agreed budget.

  11. Child Maltreatment Prevention and the Scope of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Constantino, John N

    2016-04-01

    Child maltreatment is one of the most deleterious known influences on the mental health and development of children. This article briefly reviews a complement of methods that are ready to incorporate into child and adolescent psychiatric practice, by having been validated either with respect to the prevention of child maltreatment or with respect to adverse outcomes associated with maltreatment (and primarily focused on enhancing the caregiving environment); they are feasible for integration into clinical decision making, and most importantly, can be included in the training of the next generation of clinicians. PMID:26980121

  12. An Assigned Teaching Resident Rotation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels-Brady, Catherine; Rieder, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors' adult psychiatry residency training program identified several educational needs for residents at their institution. Junior residents needed enhanced learning of clinical interviewing skills and learning connected to the inpatient psychiatry ward rotations, and senior residents needed opportunities to prepare for the…

  13. Challenges to academic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Pardes, H; Pincus, H A

    1983-09-01

    Economic constraints, effects of retrenchments in federal health policy, and increased competition for resources are challenging all sectors of academic medicine. Departments of psychiatry are at particular risk during this era for reasons including the lack of a sound research and research training base in many psychiatry departments; the small number of students entering the field and implications therein for the availability of residency slots in psychiatry; and patterns of allocating resources within academic medical centers which, combined with biases in reimbursement policy toward cognitively based specialties, threaten the economic strength of psychiatric departments. A conceptual model based on marketing principles is proposed to aid in identifying and capitalizing on the unique strengths of the field.

  14. Using virtual worlds for role play simulation in child and adolescent psychiatry: an evaluation study

    PubMed Central

    Vallance, Aaron K.; Hemani, Ashish; Fernandez, Victoria; Livingstone, Daniel; McCusker, Kerri; Toro-Troconis, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Aims and method To develop and evaluate a novel teaching session on clinical assessment using role play simulation. Teaching and research sessions occurred sequentially in computer laboratories. Ten medical students were divided into two online small-group teaching sessions. Students role-played as clinician avatars and the teacher played a suicidal adolescent avatar. Questionnaire and focus-group methodology evaluated participants’ attitudes to the learning experience. Quantitative data were analysed using SPSS, qualitative data through nominal-group and thematic analyses. Results Participants reported improvements in psychiatric skills/knowledge, expressing less anxiety and more enjoyment than role-playing face to face. Data demonstrated a positive relationship between simulator fidelity and perceived utility. Some participants expressed concern about added value over other learning methods and non-verbal communication. Clinical implications The study shows that virtual worlds can successfully host role play simulation, valued by students as a useful learning method. The potential for distance learning would allow delivery irrespective of geographical distance and boundaries. PMID:25285217

  15. Complementary Psychosocial Interventions in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: Pet Assisted Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chandramouleeswaran, Susmita; Russell, Paul Swamidhas Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    Pet assisted therapy (PAT) is a form of complementary psychosocial intervention used in the field of mental health and disability. The form of therapy has the potential to augment the other forms of psychotherapies and pharmacotherapy. This article is an overview of history and clinical origins of PAT, classification and therapy models, scientific basis, the current use in specific disorders, preventive and diagnostic role as well as the potential risks among children and adolescents with mental health needs with a special focus on the Indian needs. A systematic electronic search strategy was undertaken to identify the intervention effectiveness of PAT in MedLine (PubMed), cochrane database of systematic reviews, high-wire press and Google Scholar. We augmented our electronic search with a search of additional articles in reference lists of retrieved articles, as well as a hand search available journals that were not indexed in any electronic database in consultation with colleagues and experts. To qualify for inclusion, studies were required to meet predetermined criteria regarding study design, study population, interventions evaluated and outcome measured to reduce the publication bias. PMID:24701004

  16. The Place of Psychotherapy in Contemporary Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Tavakoli, Saman

    2014-01-01

    Psychotherapy has long been an essential component of clinical psychiatry and many young physicians choose to train in psychiatry residency programs in order to acquire necessary knowledge and skills, and become competent psychotherapists. Recent advances in psychopharmacology and neuroscience, and growing dominance of managed care and evidence-based medicine have had dramatic impacts on health care delivery systems and clinical psychiatry practice. Despite these changes in the field of mental health, psychotherapy still remains a crucial part of clinical psychiatry and comprises a great proportion of psychiatrists’ clinical practice. Hence, accreditation agencies and regulatory bodies determine compulsory minimum requirements for psychiatry residency programs to ensure that residents, at the end of their specialty training, can demonstrate competence in managing their patients through applying different approaches of psychotherapy. PMID:25798167

  17. [Placement of children and adolescents following seclusion and restraint actions–a study on family-court approvals of minors in youth welfare, child and adolescent psychiatry and jail according to Para. 1631 German Civil Code].

    PubMed

    Kölch, Michael; Vogel, Harald

    2016-01-01

    According to German law (Para. 1631b German Civil Code), the placement of children and adolescents following seclusion and restraint actions must be approved by a family court. We analyzed the family court data of a court district in Berlin (Tempelhof-Kreuzberg) concerning cases of “placement of minors” between 2008 and 2011. A total of 474 such procedures were discovered. After data clearing and correction of cases (e. g., because of emergency interventions of the youth welfare system taking children into custody according to Para. 42, German Civil Code VIII), 376 cases remained. Of these 376 procedures in the years 2008 to 2011, 127 cases concerned children and adolescents according to Para. 1631b German Civil Code, and 249 procedures were settled either by dismissal, withdrawal or by repealing the initial decision to place the child with restrain or seclusion by means of an interim order or by filing an appeal against the final decision. Of the 127 procedures, 68 concerned girls, who were on average slightly younger than boys (14.5 years vs. 15.1 years). In two thirds of the procedures, the children and adolescents were German citizens. The majority of youths involved were living at home at the time of the procedure, but in 15 % of the case the youths were homeless. Most of the adolescents were treated with restraint in child and adolescent psychiatry. The most frequently quoted reasons for seclusion were substance abuse, suicide risk and running away from home/being homeless. PMID:26864226

  18. [Placement of children and adolescents following seclusion and restraint actions–a study on family-court approvals of minors in youth welfare, child and adolescent psychiatry and jail according to Para. 1631 German Civil Code].

    PubMed

    Kölch, Michael; Vogel, Harald

    2016-01-01

    According to German law (Para. 1631b German Civil Code), the placement of children and adolescents following seclusion and restraint actions must be approved by a family court. We analyzed the family court data of a court district in Berlin (Tempelhof-Kreuzberg) concerning cases of “placement of minors” between 2008 and 2011. A total of 474 such procedures were discovered. After data clearing and correction of cases (e. g., because of emergency interventions of the youth welfare system taking children into custody according to Para. 42, German Civil Code VIII), 376 cases remained. Of these 376 procedures in the years 2008 to 2011, 127 cases concerned children and adolescents according to Para. 1631b German Civil Code, and 249 procedures were settled either by dismissal, withdrawal or by repealing the initial decision to place the child with restrain or seclusion by means of an interim order or by filing an appeal against the final decision. Of the 127 procedures, 68 concerned girls, who were on average slightly younger than boys (14.5 years vs. 15.1 years). In two thirds of the procedures, the children and adolescents were German citizens. The majority of youths involved were living at home at the time of the procedure, but in 15 % of the case the youths were homeless. Most of the adolescents were treated with restraint in child and adolescent psychiatry. The most frequently quoted reasons for seclusion were substance abuse, suicide risk and running away from home/being homeless.

  19. Child and adolescent psychiatry: which knowledge and skills do primary care physicians need to have? A survey in general practitioners and paediatricians.

    PubMed

    Lempp, Thomas; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Monika; Bachmann, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Primary care physicians (PCPs) play a key role in the initial assessment and management of children and adolescents with mental health problems. However, it is unclear whether current medical education curricula sufficiently equip PCPs for this task. The aim of this study was to investigate, which child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP)-related skills and knowledge PCPs say they require in their daily practice. A questionnaire was generated, employing a modified two-step Delphi approach. Besides socio-demographic items, the questionnaire contained 17 CAP-related knowledge items and 13 CAP-related skills items, which had to be rated by importance in daily practice. The questionnaire was distributed to 348 office-based paediatricians and 500 general practitioners (GPs) in Germany. The overall return rate was 51.3% (435/848). Regarding CAP-related knowledge, both paediatricians and GPs rated somatoform disorders and obesity as highly important for daily practice. Moreover, paediatricians also deemed regulatory disorders during infancy (e.g. crying, sleep disorders) as important, while GPs assessed knowledge on paediatric depression as relevant. For paediatricians and GPs, the most relevant CAP-related skills were communicating with children and adolescents and their parents. Additionally, paediatricians rated differentiating between non-pathologic and clinically relevant behaviour problems very relevant, while GPs considered basic psychotherapeutic skills essential. The CAP-related knowledge and skills perceived relevant for doctors in primary care differ from the majority of current medical school CAP curricula, which cover mainly typical, epitomic CAP disorders and are predominantly knowledge-oriented. Therefore, medical education in CAP should be amended to reflect the needs of PCPs to improve healthcare for children and adolescents with mental health problems.

  20. Digital psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Tang, S; Helmeste, D

    2000-02-01

    The American managed care movement has been viewed as a big experiment and is being watched closely by the rest of the world. In the meanwhile, computer-based information technology (IT) is changing the practice of medicine, much more rapidly than managed care. A New World of digitized knowledge and information has been created. Although literature on IT in psychiatry is largely absent in peer-reviewed psychiatric journals, IT is finding its way into all aspects of medicine, particularly psychiatry. Telepsychiatry programs are becoming very popular. At the same time, medical information sites are flourishing and evolving into a new health-care industry. Patient-physician information asymmetry is decreasing as patients are gaining easy access to medical information hitherto only available to professionals. Thus, psychiatry is facing another paradigm shift, at a time when most attention has been focused on managed care. In this new digital world, knowledge and information are no longer the sole property of professionals. Value will migrate from traditional in-person office-based therapy to digital clinical products, from in-person library search and classroom didactic instruction to interactive on-line searches and distance learning. In this time of value migration, psychiatrists have to determine what their 'distinctive competence' is and where best to add value in the health-care delivery value chain. The authors assess the impact of IT on clinical psychiatry and review how clinical practice, education and research in psychiatry are expected to change in this emerging digital world. PMID:15558872

  1. Gateway Polydrug Use among Puerto Rican and Dominican Adolescents Residing in New York City: The Moderating Role of Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Jennifer A.; Botvin, Gilbert J.; Diaz, Tracy

    2002-01-01

    Examines polydrug use among adolescents residing in an inner-city region by Hispanic ethnicity (Puerto Rican versus Dominican) and gender. Results indicate that in the first year of middle school, gender moderated the effect of Hispanic ethnicity on lifetime polydrug use. Concludes that both Hispanic ethnicity and gender mattered in determining…

  2. Computational Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Jing; Krystal, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders such as autism and schizophrenia arise from abnormalities in brain systems that underlie cognitive, emotional and social functions. The brain is enormously complex and its abundant feedback loops on multiple scales preclude intuitive explication of circuit functions. In close interplay with experiments, theory and computational modeling are essential for understanding how, precisely, neural circuits generate flexible behaviors and their impairments give rise to psychiatric symptoms. This Perspective highlights recent progress in applying computational neuroscience to the study of mental disorders. We outline basic approaches, including identification of core deficits that cut across disease categories, biologically-realistic modeling bridging cellular and synaptic mechanisms with behavior, model-aided diagnosis. The need for new research strategies in psychiatry is urgent. Computational psychiatry potentially provides powerful tools for elucidating pathophysiology that may inform both diagnosis and treatment. To achieve this promise will require investment in cross-disciplinary training and research in this nascent field. PMID:25442941

  3. [Children and adolescents at risk. A Study by the Child Psychiatry Department of Armand Trousseau hospital in Paris].

    PubMed

    Messerschmitt, P; Bohu, D; Charritat, J L

    2004-03-01

    Along the 12 months of 2002, our Child Psychiatry Department received 109 young patients "at risk", under 17 years old. A detailed study of 103 files evaluates the danger they ran in three fields, suicide, abuse and neglect, and psychiatric pathology. With an original "danger scale", the multidisciplinary team completes three assessments: the danger before hospitalisation (background), the present professional action (diagnosis, care, police and justice connections...), estimation of the risk after treatment. In most cases, patients situations are severe, they have lasted for a long time (more than 6 months), and they were already taken on charge. The hospital psychiatric intervention, even for a short time, means to us to interfere whatever the proceedings: medical care, institutions, justice... PMID:14992779

  4. The World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for the treatment of adolescent sexual offenders with paraphilic disorders

    PubMed Central

    Thibaut, Florence; Bradford, John M. W.; Briken, Peer; De La Barra, Flora; Häßler, Frank; Cosyns, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The primary aim of these guidelines was to evaluate the role of pharmacological agents in the treatment of adolescents with paraphilic disorders who are also sexual offenders or at-risk of sexual offending. Psychotherapeutic and psychosocial treatments were also reviewed. Adolescents with paraphilic disorders specifically present a different therapeutic challenge as compared to adults. In part, the challenge relates to adolescents being in various stages of puberty and development, which may limit the use of certain pharmacological agents due to their potential side effects. In addition, most of the published treatment programmes have used cognitive behavioural interventions, family therapies and psychoeducational interventions. Psychological treatment is predicated in adolescents on the notion that sexually deviant behaviour can be controlled by the offender, and that more adaptive behaviours can be learned. The main purposes of these guidelines are to improve the quality of care and to aid physicians in their clinical decisions. These guidelines brought together different expert views and involved an extensive literature research. Each treatment recommendation was evaluated and discussed with respect to the strength of evidence for efficacy, safety, tolerability and feasibility. An algorithm is proposed for the treatment of paraphilic disorders in adolescent sexual offenders or those who are at risk. PMID:26595752

  5. A systematic chart review of the naturalistic course and treatment of early-onset bipolar disorder in a child and adolescent psychiatry center.

    PubMed

    Rajeev, J; Srinath, Shoba; Girimaji, Satish; Seshadri, Shekhar P; Singh, Pritpal

    2004-01-01

    Studies on the naturalistic course of early-onset bipolar disorder are few and studies evaluating the efficacy of pharmacotherapy consist largely of open trials of thymoleptics and neuroleptics on small samples. The current study was undertaken to map the course of the disorder and the prevailing prescribing practice in early-onset bipolar disorder at a child and adolescent psychiatry center in India. A chart review of 139 children and adolescents (<16 years) with a DSM-IV diagnosis of bipolar disorder-mania was performed and the baseline demographic and clinical characteristics, episode characteristics, and treatment and follow-up details were collected and the data analyzed. The index episode remitted in all 133 (96%) subjects for whom the information was available. One hundred twenty-five (90%) subjects received thymoleptics for the index episode, of which lithium was used in 85%. Valproate was the next most commonly used thymoleptic (18%). Eighteen (13%) subjects received combination thymoleptics. Sixty-eight percent received neuroleptics either alone or as adjuncts in the acute phase. During the follow-up period, which ranged from 3 to 56 months (mean +/- SD, 15 +/- 14), 35% of subjects relapsed, 89% within the first 2 years. Twenty-eight percent of subjects relapsed despite being on apparently adequate doses of lithium. The limitations of the study are that it is retrospective in nature, and that structured diagnostic tools and rating scales were not used. We conclude that lithium is the most commonly used thymoleptic in early-onset bipolar disorder. Lithium alone or in combination with neuroleptics appears to have good efficacy in the acute phase of the disorder. The majority of relapses occurred in the first 2 years and the efficacy of currently used thymoleptics in prophylaxis is uncertain.

  6. [Sleep psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Chiba, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disorders are serious issues in modern society. There has been marked scientific interest in sleep for a century, with the discoveries of the electrical activity of the brain (EEG), sleep-wake system, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and circadian rhythm system. Additionally, the advent of video-polysomnography in clinical research has revealed some of the consequences of disrupted sleep and sleep deprivation in psychiatric disorders. Decades of clinical research have demonstrated that sleep disorders are intimately tied to not only physical disease (e. g., lifestyle-related disease) but psychiatric illness. According to The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (2005), sleep disorders are classified into 8 major categories: 1) insomnia, 2) sleep-related breathing disorders, 3) hypersomnias of central origin, 4) circadian rhythm sleep disorders, 5) parasomnias, 6) sleep-related movement disorders, 7) isolated symptoms, and 8) other sleep disorders. Several sleep disorders, including obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder, sleepwalking, REM sleep behavior disorder, and narcolepsy, may be comorbid or possibly mimic numerous psychiatric disorders, and can even occur due to psychiatric pharmacotherapy. Moreover, sleep disorders may exacerbate underlying psychiatric disorders when left untreated. Therefore, psychiatrists should pay attention to the intimate relationship between sleep disorders and psychiatric symptoms. Sleep psychiatry is an academic field focusing on interrelations between sleep medicine and psychiatry. This mini-review summarizes recent findings in sleep psychiatry. Future research on the bidirectional relation between sleep disturbance and psychiatric symptoms will shed light on the pathophysiological view of psychiatric disorders and sleep disorders. PMID:24050022

  7. [Social psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Miéville, C

    1978-01-01

    The author attempts an analysis of some of the socio-cultural elements which have marked the birth of (modern?) psychiatry and which have consequently influenced the education, identity and ethical values of the practitioner who choses to become a psychiatrist. The author draws attention to the problem of the psychiatrist's autonomy by stressing the important relationship between autonomy (or lack of autonomy) and the dominant political ideologies. Such relationship appears more clearly when the psychiatrist uncritically accepts to become "the psychiatric expert" in criminal and civil law, suicide, sex, death, etc., in other words, whenever accepting the role of "managerial technician". It is evident that the psychiatrist cannot renounce the social responsibilities which fall upon him because of his understanding and analysis of human behaviour, but it is also evident that a redefinition of the psychiatrist's role in society is called for. Such a re-definition will be possible only by the permanent exercise of self-criticism, honesty towards oneself, moral integrity and the capacity to differentiate between true autonomy and the illusion of autonomy when operating in the name of an official psychiatry which is often also a vehicle for the enforcement of a political ideology.

  8. Alcohol consumption and binge drinking in adolescents: comparison of different migration backgrounds and rural vs. urban residence - a representative study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    descent (23.6% vs. 57.4%). However, in those adolescents who consumed alcohol in the last 4 weeks, binge drinking is very prominent across the cultural backgrounds. Conclusions Binge drinking is a common problem behavior in German adolescents. Obviously adolescents with rural residence have fewer alternatives for engaging in interesting leisure activities than adolescents living in cities. This might be one reason for the more problematic consumption patterns there. Common expectations concerning drinking behavior of adolescents of certain cultural backgrounds ('migrants with Russian background drink more'/'migrants from Arabic respectively Oriental-Islamic countries drink less') are only partly affirmed. Possibly, the degree of acculturation to the permissive German alcohol culture plays a role here. PMID:21299841

  9. Child Psychiatry: What Are We Teaching Medical Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingle, Arden D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The author describes child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) undergraduate teaching in American and Canadian medical schools. Methods: A survey asking for information on CAP teaching, student interest in CAP, and opinions about the CAP importance was sent to the medical student psychiatry director at 142 accredited medical schools in the…

  10. Computational psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Montague, P Read; Dolan, Raymond J; Friston, Karl J; Dayan, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Computational ideas pervade many areas of science and have an integrative explanatory role in neuroscience and cognitive science. However, computational depictions of cognitive function have had surprisingly little impact on the way we assess mental illness because diseases of the mind have not been systematically conceptualized in computational terms. Here, we outline goals and nascent efforts in the new field of computational psychiatry, which seeks to characterize mental dysfunction in terms of aberrant computations over multiple scales. We highlight early efforts in this area that employ reinforcement learning and game theoretic frameworks to elucidate decision-making in health and disease. Looking forwards, we emphasize a need for theory development and large-scale computational phenotyping in human subjects.

  11. Society for Women in Academic Psychiatry: A Peer Mentoring Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seritan, Andreea L.; Bhangoo, Robinder; Garma, Sylvia; DuBe, Jane; Hales, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Despite an increasing presence of women in medicine, the percentage of women in academic psychiatry remains low. At the University of California, Davis, women represent two-thirds of psychiatry residents; however, the percentage of female faculty is one-third. This article presents a novel approach to the academic gender gap problem.…

  12. Using the Technique of Journal Writing to Learn Emergency Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhuvaneswar, Chaya; Stern, Theodore; Beresin, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors discuss journal writing in learning emergency psychiatry. Methods: The journal of a psychiatry intern rotating through an emergency department is used as sample material for analysis that could take place in supervision or a resident support group. A range of articles are reviewed that illuminate the relevance of journal…

  13. Therapeutic Uses of the WebCam in Child Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chlebowski, Susan; Fremont, Wanda

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors provide examples for the use of the WebCam as a therapeutic tool in child psychiatry, discussing cases to demonstrate the application of the WebCam, which is most often used in psychiatry training programs during resident supervision and for case presentations. Method: Six cases illustrate the use of the WebCam in individual…

  14. Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) for Alcohol and Other Drug Use among Adolescents: Evaluation of a Pediatric Residency Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Sheryl A.; Martel, Shara; Pantalon, Michael; Martino, Steve; Tetrault, Jeanette; Thung, Stephen F.; Bernstein, Steven L.; Auinger, Peggy; Green, Michael L.; Fiellin, David A.; O'Connor, Patrick G.; D'Onofrio, Gail

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the integration of a screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) curriculum for alcohol and other drug use into a pediatric residency program. Pediatric and medicine/pediatric residents in an adolescent medicine rotation located in an urban teaching hospital participated in the…

  15. Undergraduate Child Psychiatry Teaching in Melbourne, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, Jenny K.; McCallum, Zoe; Bevan, Catherine; Vance, Alasdair

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The teaching of child psychiatry in Australian medical schools is under review: the content, the placement of the field within medical curricula, and the appropriate teaching and learning methods are all contested. The authors developed a 1-day program in the 9-week child and adolescent health course conducted in the final two semesters…

  16. [Equine-assisted therapy in child psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Ansorge, Jessie; Sudres, Jean-Luc

    2011-01-01

    The use of a horse or pony as a therapeutic tool is often presented in the media as a recent phenomenon. A survey of 103 institutions shows that it is in fact an approach well rooted in child and adolescent psychiatry. However, professionals who use equine-assisted therapy are calling for an assessment to be carried out enabling them to hone their practices.

  17. Factors Influencing Expectations of Physical Activity for Adolescents Residing in Appalachia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, Rebecca L.; Nabors, Laura; King, Keith; Vidourek, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Background: Appalachian adolescents are at an increased risk for sedentary behavior; little research has addressed this concern. Purpose: This study examined adolescents' expectations for engaging in physical activity (PA), chiefly expectations for relaxation and fitness. Independent variables were self-efficacy expectations (SEEs) to…

  18. Adolescent Pornography Use and Dating Violence among a Sample of Primarily Black and Hispanic, Urban-Residing, Underage Youth

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, Emily F.; Adhia, Avanti

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was designed to characterize the pornography viewing preferences of a sample of U.S.-based, urban-residing, economically disadvantaged, primarily Black and Hispanic youth (n = 72), and to assess whether pornography use was associated with experiences of adolescent dating abuse (ADA) victimization. The sample was recruited from a large, urban, safety net hospital, and participants were 53% female, 59% Black, 19% Hispanic, 14% Other race, 6% White, and 1% Native American. All were 16–17 years old. More than half (51%) had been asked to watch pornography together by a dating or sexual partner, and 44% had been asked to do something sexual that a partner saw in pornography. Adolescent dating abuse (ADA) victimization was associated with more frequent pornography use, viewing pornography in the company of others, being asked to perform a sexual act that a partner first saw in pornography, and watching pornography during or after marijuana use. Approximately 50% of ADA victims and 32% of non-victims reported that they had been asked to do a sexual act that their partner saw in pornography (p = 0.15), and 58% did not feel happy to have been asked. Results suggest that weekly pornography use among underage, urban-residing youth may be common, and may be associated with ADA victimization. PMID:26703744

  19. Adolescent Pornography Use and Dating Violence among a Sample of Primarily Black and Hispanic, Urban-Residing, Underage Youth.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Emily F; Adhia, Avanti

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was designed to characterize the pornography viewing preferences of a sample of U.S.-based, urban-residing, economically disadvantaged, primarily Black and Hispanic youth (n = 72), and to assess whether pornography use was associated with experiences of adolescent dating abuse (ADA) victimization. The sample was recruited from a large, urban, safety net hospital, and participants were 53% female, 59% Black, 19% Hispanic, 14% Other race, 6% White, and 1% Native American. All were 16-17 years old. More than half (51%) had been asked to watch pornography together by a dating or sexual partner, and 44% had been asked to do something sexual that a partner saw in pornography. Adolescent dating abuse (ADA) victimization was associated with more frequent pornography use, viewing pornography in the company of others, being asked to perform a sexual act that a partner first saw in pornography, and watching pornography during or after marijuana use. Approximately 50% of ADA victims and 32% of non-victims reported that they had been asked to do a sexual act that their partner saw in pornography (p = 0.15), and 58% did not feel happy to have been asked. Results suggest that weekly pornography use among underage, urban-residing youth may be common, and may be associated with ADA victimization. PMID:26703744

  20. Adolescent Pornography Use and Dating Violence among a Sample of Primarily Black and Hispanic, Urban-Residing, Underage Youth.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Emily F; Adhia, Avanti

    2015-12-23

    This cross-sectional study was designed to characterize the pornography viewing preferences of a sample of U.S.-based, urban-residing, economically disadvantaged, primarily Black and Hispanic youth (n = 72), and to assess whether pornography use was associated with experiences of adolescent dating abuse (ADA) victimization. The sample was recruited from a large, urban, safety net hospital, and participants were 53% female, 59% Black, 19% Hispanic, 14% Other race, 6% White, and 1% Native American. All were 16-17 years old. More than half (51%) had been asked to watch pornography together by a dating or sexual partner, and 44% had been asked to do something sexual that a partner saw in pornography. Adolescent dating abuse (ADA) victimization was associated with more frequent pornography use, viewing pornography in the company of others, being asked to perform a sexual act that a partner first saw in pornography, and watching pornography during or after marijuana use. Approximately 50% of ADA victims and 32% of non-victims reported that they had been asked to do a sexual act that their partner saw in pornography (p = 0.15), and 58% did not feel happy to have been asked. Results suggest that weekly pornography use among underage, urban-residing youth may be common, and may be associated with ADA victimization.

  1. Behavior modification in a residence and school for adolescent boys: a team approach.

    PubMed

    Scallon, R J; Vitale, J; Eschenauer, R

    1976-01-01

    A behavior modification program emphasizing close communication and cooperation between educators and child care workers has proved effective in a school for adolescent boys with learning and behavior problems.

  2. Internal exposure to pollutants measured in blood and urine of Flemish adolescents in function of area of residence.

    PubMed

    Schroijen, C; Baeyens, W; Schoeters, G; Den Hond, E; Koppen, G; Bruckers, L; Nelen, V; Van De Mieroop, E; Bilau, M; Covaci, A; Keune, H; Loots, I; Kleinjans, J; Dhooge, W; Van Larebeke, N

    2008-04-01

    The Centre for Environment and Health in Flanders, the Northern part of Belgium, started a biomonitoring program on adolescents in 2003. 1679 adolescents residing in nine areas with different patterns of pollution participated in the study. Possible confounding effects of lifestyle and personal characteristics were taken into account. The geometric mean levels of cadmium and lead in whole blood amounted to 0.36 and 21.7 microg l(-1), those of PCBs, DDE and HCB in serum to 68, 94 and 20.9 ng g(-1) fat, and those of 1-hydroxypyrene and t,t'-muconic acid in urine to 88 ng g(-1) creatinine and 72 microg g(-1) creatinine. Significant regional differences in internal lead, cadmium, PCBs, DDE and HCB exposure were observed in function of area of residence, even after adjustment for age, sex, smoking (and body mass index for the chlorinated compounds). Compared to a reference mean, internal exposure was significantly higher in one or more of the areas: Cd and Pb in the Antwerp agglomeration, Cd in the Antwerp harbour, PCBs in the Ghent agglomeration, PCBs, DDE and HCB in the Ghent harbour, Cd, PCBs, DDE and HCB in the rural area, DDE in Olen and in the Albert canal areas. Adolescents living in an area with intensive fruit cultivation (showing overall the lowest values) and, surprisingly, in areas around household waste incinerators (average of six areas), had no significantly increased internal exposures. Subjects from separate areas around waste incinerators showed significant differences in body load of various environmental contaminants. PMID:18221770

  3. [The indicators of local immunity of pharynx in adolescents with chronic pathology of upper respiratory ways residing in conditions of anthropogenic load].

    PubMed

    Masnavieva, L B; Nesmeianova, N N; Kudaeva, I V; Tikhonova, I V

    2014-10-01

    The indicators of local immunity of pharynx in adolescents with chronic pathology of upper respiratory ways residing in conditions of higher level pollution of atmosphere air. It is established that under development of pathology against the background of impact of environmental factors increasing of levels of secretory immune globulin A and lactoferrin occur. It is established too that under chronic pathology of upper respiratory ways at the stage of remission in adolescents residing in conditions of higher level pollution ofatmosphere air inter-dependencies between factors of local defense (secretory immune globulin A and lysozyme) and aggregate microbial germination are damaged. PMID:25884077

  4. [The indicators of local immunity of pharynx in adolescents with chronic pathology of upper respiratory ways residing in conditions of anthropogenic load].

    PubMed

    Masnavieva, L B; Nesmeianova, N N; Kudaeva, I V; Tikhonova, I V

    2014-10-01

    The indicators of local immunity of pharynx in adolescents with chronic pathology of upper respiratory ways residing in conditions of higher level pollution of atmosphere air. It is established that under development of pathology against the background of impact of environmental factors increasing of levels of secretory immune globulin A and lactoferrin occur. It is established too that under chronic pathology of upper respiratory ways at the stage of remission in adolescents residing in conditions of higher level pollution ofatmosphere air inter-dependencies between factors of local defense (secretory immune globulin A and lysozyme) and aggregate microbial germination are damaged.

  5. [(Community) psychiatry, a parenthesis?].

    PubMed

    Bucheron, Bastien

    2015-01-01

    Beyond an a priori antagonism between these two notions, alienism and mental health cultivate analogies as to the place to which they assign mental health. Is community psychiatry not therefore simply a parenthesis in the history of psychiatry? The question is raised therefore regarding the place given to subjectivity and complexity. What must be done to ensure that this parenthesis of community psychiatry does not close? It is perhaps a case of making use of the tools which institutional psychotherapy has developed to keep the community psychiatry spirit alive.

  6. Space Psychology and Psychiatry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanas, N.; Manzey, D.

    2003-09-01

    This book deals with psychological, psychiatric, and psychosocial issues that affect people who live and work in space. Unlike other books that focus on anecdotal reports and ground-based simulation studies, this book emphasizes the findings from psychological research conducted during actual space missions. Both authors have been active in such research. What is presented in this readable text has previously been found only in scientific journal articles. Topics that are discussed include: behavioral adaptation to space; human performance and cognitive effects; crewmember interactions; psychiatric responses; psychological counter-measures related to habitability factors, work-design, selection, training, and in-flight monitoring and support; and the impact of expeditionary missions to Mars and beyond. People finding this book of interest will include: psychology and social science students and professors in universities; medical students and residents in psychiatry and aerospace medicine; human factors workers in space and aviation professions; individuals involved with isolated environments on Earth (e.g., the Antarctic, submarines); aerospace workers in businesses and space agencies such as NASA and ESA; and anyone who is interested in learning the facts about the human side of long-duration space missions. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1341-8

  7. Gender differences in career paths in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Krener, P

    1994-03-01

    Although psychiatry has one of the highest proportions of women entering its residency programs, women have not assumed a proportionate amount of academic or research leadership positions in the field. This literature review identifies three general groups of models that explain disparities between men's and women's careers, but these do not fully account for observed differences in psychiatric practice and academic progression of women in psychiatry. Gender differences in career paths in psychiatry are not only affected by individual traits and choices, but also by economic factors. Theories based on organizational discrimination, and systems and market factors are also reviewed. No single explanatory model accounts for disparities between the careers of men and those of women. Because psychiatric practice patterns may be broadly distributed across labor sectors, more diverse career patterns are possible in psychiatry than in more constrained and traditional fields. Research on gender differences in psychiatry careers must consider not only the individual work style and choice, but also the position of individuals within the organization and the position of those organizations across the labor market.

  8. Sexual Education for Psychiatric Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Stephen B.; Scott, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors seek to promote sexuality curriculum development in departments of psychiatry. Methods: The authors first focus on educational philosophy about what residents can be taught about sexual topics and then provide numerical and narrative resident evaluation data following a 6-month, half day per week rotation in a sexuality…

  9. History of psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Shorter, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review The present review examines recent contributions to the evolving field of historical writing in psychiatry. Recent findings Interest in the history of psychiatry continues to grow, with an increasing emphasis on topics of current interest such as the history of psychopharmacology, electroconvulsive therapy, and the interplay between psychiatry and society. The scope of historical writing in psychiatry as of 2007 is as broad and varied as the discipline itself. Summary More than in other medical specialties such as cardiology or nephrology, treatment and diagnosis in psychiatry are affected by trends in the surrounding culture and society. Studying the history of the discipline provides insights into possible alternatives to the current crop of patent-protected remedies and trend-driven diagnoses. PMID:18852567

  10. [Equine-assisted therapy in child psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Ansorge, Jessie; Sudres, Jean-Luc

    2011-01-01

    The use of a horse or pony as a therapeutic tool is often presented in the media as a recent phenomenon. A survey of 103 institutions shows that it is in fact an approach well rooted in child and adolescent psychiatry. However, professionals who use equine-assisted therapy are calling for an assessment to be carried out enabling them to hone their practices. PMID:22165335

  11. "Hay que ponerse en los zapatos del joven": adaptive parenting of adolescent children among Mexican-American parents residing in a dangerous neighborhood.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Santiago, Michelle; Ramírez García, Jorge I

    2011-03-01

    We examined parenting of adolescents with Consensual Qualitative Research analyses of five 90-minute focus groups with 45 Mexican immigrant parents residing in a high-crime and low-income neighborhood. Parents identified gangs as their major challenge in parenting. Relatedly, they endorsed control-oriented practices to ensure the safety of their adolescents. In addition, parents used practices that aimed to build strong, trusting relationships with their adolescents. The co-occurrence of parenting strategies that promote strong parent-adolescent bonds along with strict monitoring highlights the need to conceptualize parenting with both controlling as well as supportive dimensions. Moreover, the parents' narratives pertaining to the dangers in their neighborhood suggest that interventions for Latino families should be not only consistent with their cultural heritage, but also grounded in the families' local neighborhood contexts.

  12. The future of community psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Carl I; Feiner, Joel S; Huffine, Charles; Moffic, H Steven; Thompson, Kenneth S

    2003-10-01

    Leaders of national groups that have focused on issues of community and social psychiatry present their ideas about the future of psychiatry. They identify five areas: theory development; the relevance of community psychiatry in the 21st century; education and training; the relationship between community psychiatry and health maintenance organizations; and role of community psychiatry in bridging medical science with humanism. The unifying theme for these topics is that community psychiatry can be a vehicle for modifying general psychiatry's propensity towards individualism and reductionism by offering a more holistic and integrative approach to illness and well-being.

  13. Do the Personalities of International and U.S. Medical Graduates in Psychiatry Differ? A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaidya, Nutan; Sierles, Frederick S.; Sandu, Ioana C.; Silberman, Edward K.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To compare personality traits of psychiatry residents with various characteristics. Method: The authors administered Cloninger's personality inventory to residents at two schools. Results: There were no trait differences between international medical graduates (IMGs) and U.S. medical graduates (USMGs) or those for whom psychiatry was a…

  14. Historicizing Indian psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Amit Ranjan

    2005-01-01

    Our historical endeavour to map Indian psychiatry has largely remained linear, positivistic and evolutionary. Whether it starts from the ancient times or modern, it shows our past as a tale of victory for the western science, without questioning the borrowed paradigm. The use of historical methods for serious enquiry of psychiatry has been ignored. Emergence of a new genre of historicism that is critical of both colonialism and psychiatry as a universal science, has raised hopes to critically review the emergence of psychiatric knowledge. PMID:20711299

  15. Sexual Health Education: A Psychiatric Resident's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waineo, Eva; Arfken, Cynthia L.; Morreale, Mary K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This report discusses psychiatric residents' perceptions of sexual health education and their opinions regarding curricular improvements. Methods: An anonymous, web-based survey was sent to residents in one general psychiatry program (N = 33). The response rate was 69.7%. Results: Residents reported inadequate experience in multiple…

  16. Postmortem studies in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Bracha, H S; Kleinman, J E

    1984-09-01

    Neurochemical postmortem examination of brain tissue may never be completely replaced as a research tool in psychiatry. This method has already provided support for the hypotheses relating norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, peptides, and hemisphere asymmetries to psychiatric syndromes.

  17. The association between Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and Psychiatry as the specialty choice

    PubMed Central

    Richard, George; Durkin, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this pilot study is to examine the association between Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and prospective psychiatry residents. Methods Forty-six American medical schools were contacted and asked to participate in this study. Data were collected and an aggregated list was compiled that included the following information: date of MBTI administration, academic year, MBTI form/version, residency match information and student demographic information. The data includes 835 American medical students who completed the MBTI survey and matched into a residency training program in the United States. All analyses were performed using R 3.1.2. Results The probability of an introvert matching to a psychiatry residency is no different than that of an extravert (p= 0.30). The probability of an intuitive individual matching to a psychiatry residency is no different than that of a sensing type (p=0.20). The probability of a feeling type matching to a psychiatry residency is no different than that of a thinking type (p= 0.50). The probability of a perceiving type matching to a psychiatry residency is no different than that of a judging type (p= 0.60). Conclusions Further analyses may elicit more accurate information regarding the personality profile of prospective psychiatry residents. The improvement in communication, team dynamics, mentor-mentee relationships and reduction in workplace conflicts are possible with the awareness of MBTI personality profiles. PMID:26851600

  18. Screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) for alcohol and other drug use among adolescents: evaluation of a pediatric residency curriculum.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Sheryl A; Martel, Shara; Pantalon, Michael; Martino, Steve; Tetrault, Jeanette; Thung, Stephen F; Bernstein, Steven L; Auinger, Peggy; Green, Michael L; Fiellin, David A; O'Connor, Patrick G; D'Onofrio, Gail

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the integration of a screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) curriculum for alcohol and other drug use into a pediatric residency program. Pediatric and medicine/pediatric residents in an adolescent medicine rotation located in an urban teaching hospital participated in the study. Main outcome measures were pre- and post-training knowledge scores, performance of the Brief Negotiation Interview (BNI), training satisfaction, and adoption of the BNI into clinical practice. Thirty-four residents were trained. Significant pre- to post-training improvements were seen in knowledge scores (P < .001) and performance as measured by the BNI Adherence Scale (P < .001). Residents reported high satisfaction immediately post-training and at 30 days on a 1-5 Likert scale: mean 1.41 to 1.59 (1 = very satisfied) (P = 0.23). Over a 9-month period, 53% of residents documented performing at least 1 BNI, of which 2/3 reported ≥2 BNIs in a subsequent clinical setting. The results show that integrating a SBIRT curriculum into a pediatric residency program increases residents' knowledge and skills.

  19. [Involuntary treatment in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Hohendorf, Gerrit

    2014-07-01

    Involuntary treatment in psychiatry should be reflected under the German constitutional right of self-determination und the ethical principles of autonomy and beneficience. Forced treatment in psychiatry should be applied only as a last resort. A narrative perspective reconstructs the case of Gustl Mollath who was hospitalized in forensic-psychiatric institutions because of an alleged delusion. Psychiatric experts should be aware of the potential of misuse when defining what is real and what seems to be a delusion. PMID:24983576

  20. Psychiatry and Emergency Medicine: Medical Student and Physician Attitudes toward Homeless Persons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Ann; Roman, Brenda; Borges, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to explore changes in medical students' attitudes toward homeless persons during the Psychiatry and Emergency Medicine clerkships. Simultaneously, this study explored attitudes toward homeless persons held by Psychiatry and Emergency Medicine residents and faculty in an attempt to uncover the "hidden…

  1. Clinical Skills Verification in General Psychiatry: Recommendations of the ABPN Task Force on Rater Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jibson, Michael D.; Broquet, Karen E.; Anzia, Joan Meyer; Beresin, Eugene V.; Hunt, Jeffrey I.; Kaye, David; Rao, Nyapati Raghu; Rostain, Anthony Leon; Sexson, Sandra B.; Summers, Richard F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN) announced in 2007 that general psychiatry training programs must conduct Clinical Skills Verification (CSV), consisting of observed clinical interviews and case presentations during residency, as one requirement to establish graduates' eligibility to sit for the written certification…

  2. Teaching Evidence-Based Psychiatry: Integrating and Aligning the Formal and Hidden Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agrawal, Sacha; Szatmari, Peter; Hanson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors argue that adopting evidence-based psychiatry will require a paradigm shift in the training of psychiatry residents, and offer some suggestions for how this transformation might be achieved. Methods: The authors review the growing literature that addresses how best to teach evidence-based medicine and highlight several…

  3. The Costs and Benefits of Active Coping for Adolescents Residing in Urban Poverty.

    PubMed

    Carothers, Kristin J; Arizaga, Jessica A; Carter, Jocelyn Smith; Taylor, Jeremy; Grant, Kathryn E

    2016-07-01

    The present study addresses the lack of specificity and diversity highlighted in recent stress literature reviews by examining active coping in relationships between exposure to violence and internalizing and externalizing symptoms in a sample of urban youth from predominantly low-income, African American and Latino backgrounds. Two hundred and forty-one youth (mean age at Time 1 = 13 years; 66 % female; 41 % African American, 28 % Latino, 14 % European American, 6 % Asian American, 7 % mixed/biracial, 1 % American Indian/native American, .5 % Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, 2 % other) and their parents participated in this three-wave study. Hierarchical regression analyses tested for moderation, and a cross lag panel path analysis tested for mediation. The results provide greater support for active coping as a variable that changes the relationship between exposure to community violence and externalizing symptoms, or moderation, rather than one that explains or mediates it. Further, specificity did not emerge for type of psychological outcome but did emerge for gender, such that active coping exacerbated the association between exposure to community violence and both internalizing and externalizing symptoms for girls, but not boys. These findings highlight the importance of contextual and demographic factors in influencing stress and coping processes during adolescence. PMID:27138173

  4. [Hundred years' psychiatry in Korea (1899-1999)].

    PubMed

    Rhi, B Y

    1999-01-01

    The western medical knowledges of the human anatomy and physiology including knowledges of central nervous system have probably been introduced into Korea by Prince Sohyŏn Seja in 1645. The authentic education for the western medicine at the governmental and private medical schools, however, originated from 1899 and the education of mental disease was included in curriculum of Tai-Han-uiwon, the governmental medical school before 1910. In 1913 the first department of psychiatry (Department of Mental Disease) was established at the Chongdokbu-uiwon, the clinic of the Japanese colonial government, the former Korean governmental hospital which has later developed to the Kyŏngs ŏng Imperial University Hospital. On the other hand, there was in Severance Hospital Medical College, one Australian missionary psychiatrist McLaren, who has served at Paton Memorial Hospital in Jinju, Korea from 1911, taught neurology and psychiatry from 1913 at Severance Hospital Medical College, established psychiatry ward in 1923 at the Hospital, conducted the ward in humanistic way until 1940. It was the German psychiatry which the Japanese psychiatrists have brought to the Korean peninsula and it remained as major trends of psychiatry in Korea during the Japanese occupation between 1911 and 1945. The academic levels of Kyŏngsŏng Imperial University in psychiatry as well as the quality of mental care seemed to be almost equivocal to the psychiatry in Japan. However, psychiatrists scope of social psychiatric issues and of the research interests seemed to be somewhat narrow. Due to the political discrimination for the Korean students, the Koreans had less opportunity for the promotion at the university than Japanese residents in Korea. In 1945, after the end of the Pacific War only about 11 Korean psychiatrists were left in Korea, who organized Korean Neuropsychiatric Association. The Department of Neuropsychiatry of Seoul National University (former Department of Neurology and

  5. Forensic psychiatry fellowship training: developmental stages as an educational framework.

    PubMed

    Pinals, Debra A

    2005-01-01

    As an official subspecialty of psychiatry, forensic psychiatry residency training must meet the requirements established by the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education. Attendant to these requirements is the expectation that graduates demonstrate core competencies in general areas common to all medical training programs but delineated for each specialty. In forensic psychiatry, trainees must learn to move from the role of healer to objective evaluator on behalf of third parties, a task that differs from general medical care and treatment. Thus, it is important for educators to maintain awareness of the experience of trainees as they adapt to forensic psychiatry, while understanding core competency requirements. This article outlines stages of development of forensic psychiatry fellows as a model for characterizing learning objectives and for supervising trainees in forensic psychiatry fellowship programs. These stages of development include (1) transformation, (2) growth of confidence and adaptation, and (3) identification and realization. Training directors and trainees can utilize this theoretical framework as a basis on which to establish parameters for core competency attainment and supervisory and assessment methods for forensic psychiatry training.

  6. Use of Dialectical Behavior Therapy in Borderline Personality Disorder: A View from Residency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Binali; Dunlop, Boadie W.; Ninan, Philip T.; Bradley, Rebekah

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe the use of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) in treating borderline personality disorder during psychiatry residency, and assess the status of DBT education within psychiatry residencies in the United States. Method: The authors present a patient with borderline personality disorder treated by a resident using DBT,…

  7. [Can psychiatry become neuropsychiatry?].

    PubMed

    Slosarczyk, Mariusz

    2005-01-01

    Today more and more often there are prognoses that in the future psychiatry will have been absorbed by neurology. It would be thanks to the stormy progress of research on the neurophysiological, genetic and molecular foundations of mental disorders. The aim of the article is to assess the possibility as well as the supposed consequences of such an evolution of psychiatry. The considerations concern the peculiarity of the object of interest and the methods used in psychiatry in relation to the neurological object and methodology. This way the appraisal of raison d'etre of one common science: neuropsychiatry becomes possible. The question of fundamental importance for the evaluation of similarities and differences between the psychiatric and neurological perspectives is the way the psychophysical issue and especially the problem of the mind-brain relation are approached. The article presents the manners of solving these problems proposed by the contemporary philosophy of the mind. Together with parting with the full of errors and simplifications heritage of Descartes it appears the necessity to regard the presence of subjective mental states both conscious and unconscious in model of mind-brain relation. The example of such a solution is the biological naturalism of John Searle. The psychical life of the man in its subjective dimension remains the peculiar area of interests for psychiatry irrespective of the progress in research on the biological base of mental disorders. The especially valuable cognitive and therapeutic tool in this aspect is psychotherapy constituting the integral part of psychiatry. The present state of knowledge does not indicate that the psychotherapeutic wing of psychiatry can lose its importance and rather somewhat the contrary. The progress of neurobiology does not have to threaten the autonomy of psychiatry by any means and the maintenance of this autonomy depends decisively on the psychiatrists themselves. PMID:15881619

  8. ["Euthanasia" of children in Nazi Germany - the case of Günter Nevermannn. On the responsibility of childhood and adolescent psychiatry in the past, the present, and the future].

    PubMed

    Haack, Kathleen; Häßler, Frank; Kumbier, Ekkehardt

    2013-05-01

    «Euthanasia» was the cynical euphemism used by the Nazis to refer to the systematic murder of hundreds of thousands of mentally sick and handicapped people between 1939 and 1945, at least 6,000 of whom were children. Based on the example of Günter Nevermann, this paper provides insight into the complex acts of registering, selecting, and targeting children labelled as "inferior" and "unworthy to live." This case clearly shows that Nazi doctors were not necessarily enmeshed in some tragic conflict. Rather, apparently without any qualms, they sacrificed the sick children who had been entrusted to their care, for the ideal of obtaining a "racially healthy corpus," a term used without being questioned. Most of the perpetrators were never brought to justice, and not a few of them later held managerial positions in child and adolescent psychiatry in the two German states. Many of them were members or even honorary members of the "Deutsche Gesellschaft für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie, Psychosomatik und Psychotherapie e. V." in its present or previous form. We feel it is necessary to inform the public effectively about this state of affairs, to discover what really happened and to determine who was responsible.

  9. [Future prospects in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Pöldinger, W

    1975-01-01

    A questionnaire on the future aspects of psychiatry was submitted to 234 psychiatrists, 111 other doctors and 78 nonmedical persons, that is to a total of 423 people. These were further classified according to their principal activity in private practice, clinical work, research or other fields. It was found that opinions did not differ materially within these subdivisions. It was particularly notable that over two-thirds of those questioned regard the future with optimism. Similarly, some two-thirds take an interest in futurology. There was general agreement that in 1985 the greatest problem in psychiatry will be psychosomatic disorders, neuroses and toxicomania, in that order. Biochemistry and pharmacology were considered decisive for progress in psychiatry. Over one half of those questioned also thought that in 1985 the most important method of treatment in psychiatry would be pharmacotherapy. More than two-thirds of those polled think that in 1985 a computer will be standard equipment in any research hospital and that, by 1985, psychiatry's standing will be improved as compared with today. As a corollary, the investigation was aimed at establishing to what extent the future-oriented and those-not-so-oriented differed in this opinion poll. Our working hypothesis that of the recipients of the questionnaire those with children are more future-oriented than those without children was not confirmed. But the future-oriented differed from those-not-so-oriented mainly in that they regard the future with optimism.

  10. The Best of Both Worlds: Psychiatry Training at Combined Civilian-Military Programs.

    PubMed

    Welton, Randon S; Hamaoka, Derrick A; Broderick, Pamela J; Schillerstrom, Jason E

    2015-08-01

    Air Force psychiatry faces the task of training competent military psychiatrists in an era of continuing reductions. Beginning in the 1980s, the Air Force started collaborating with University partners to create hybrid training programs, civilian-military psychiatry residencies. These mergers provide stability for Air Force psychiatry training in the face of increased operational missions and uncertain military recruiting. As a result of these combined programs, Air Force psychiatry residents gain access to a broader range of civilian clinical experience and expertise while maintaining a focus on distinctive military requirements. The combining of programs opens up options for academic activities which may not have otherwise existed. Both military and civilian residents benefit from the occupational psychiatry experiences available within military clinical sites. These programs give civilian residents a chance to assist active duty members and their families and provide insight into the military "lifecycle." These collaborations benefit the universities by providing access to a larger pool of residents and faculty. The synthesis of the military and civilian programs raises some ongoing obstacles such as civilian residents' ability to gain access to military resources. The programs must also accommodate separate mechanisms for selecting residents (the National Residency Matching Program versus the Joint Selection Board for Graduate Medical Education). Military residents must also comply with military standards and requirements while maintaining the universities' standards of conduct and professionalism. Merging military training programs into university programs creates a vibrant opportunity to create exceptional military and civilian psychiatrists.

  11. British military forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Turner, Mark A; Neal, Leigh A

    2004-04-01

    Military psychiatry has recently generated a lot of interest. In contrast there is virtually no literature on military forensic psychiatry. The first section of the paper is a brief review of British military psychiatric services and recent data on the prevalence of mental illness in British armed forces personnel. The second section summarizes the relevant aspects of the British military judicial and penal systems including the practice of summary justice, the court martial system, and sentencing and corrective training. The third section of the paper addresses issues which are particular to forensic psychiatry, including mental defences in relation to the military, the military offences of malingering and impersonation, risk assessment in military contexts and the notion of 'temperamental unsuitability' to military service. PMID:15176622

  12. Mental illness: psychiatry's phlogiston.

    PubMed

    Szasz, T

    2001-10-01

    In physics, we use the same laws to explain why airplanes fly, and why they crash. In psychiatry, we use one set of laws to explain sane behaviour, which we attribute to reasons (choices), and another set of laws to explain insane behaviour, which we attribute to causes (diseases). God, man's idea of moral perfection, judges human deeds without distinguishing between sane persons responsible for their behaviour and insane persons deserving to be excused for their evil deeds. It is hubris to pretend that the insanity defence is compassionate, just, or scientific. Mental illness is to psychiatry as phlogiston was to chemistry. Establishing chemistry as a science of the nature of matter required the recognition of the non-existence of phlogiston. Establishing psychiatry as a science of the nature of human behaviour requires the recognition of the non-existence of mental illness.

  13. Mental illness: psychiatry's phlogiston

    PubMed Central

    Szasz, T

    2001-01-01

    In physics, we use the same laws to explain why airplanes fly, and why they crash. In psychiatry, we use one set of laws to explain sane behaviour, which we attribute to reasons (choices), and another set of laws to explain insane behaviour, which we attribute to causes (diseases). God, man's idea of moral perfection, judges human deeds without distinguishing between sane persons responsible for their behaviour and insane persons deserving to be excused for their evil deeds. It is hubris to pretend that the insanity defence is compassionate, just, or scientific. Mental illness is to psychiatry as phlogiston was to chemistry. Establishing chemistry as a science of the nature of matter required the recognition of the non-existence of phlogiston. Establishing psychiatry as a science of the nature of human behaviour requires the recognition of the non-existence of mental illness. Key Words: Agency • alchemy • behaviour • cause • chemistry • dignity PMID:11579183

  14. Mental illness: psychiatry's phlogiston.

    PubMed

    Szasz, T

    2001-10-01

    In physics, we use the same laws to explain why airplanes fly, and why they crash. In psychiatry, we use one set of laws to explain sane behaviour, which we attribute to reasons (choices), and another set of laws to explain insane behaviour, which we attribute to causes (diseases). God, man's idea of moral perfection, judges human deeds without distinguishing between sane persons responsible for their behaviour and insane persons deserving to be excused for their evil deeds. It is hubris to pretend that the insanity defence is compassionate, just, or scientific. Mental illness is to psychiatry as phlogiston was to chemistry. Establishing chemistry as a science of the nature of matter required the recognition of the non-existence of phlogiston. Establishing psychiatry as a science of the nature of human behaviour requires the recognition of the non-existence of mental illness. PMID:11579183

  15. Molecular psychiatry of zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Adam Michael; Ullmann, Jeremy F.P.; Norton, William H.J.; Brennan, Caroline H.; Parker, Matthew O.; Gerlai, Robert; Kalueff, Allan V.

    2014-01-01

    Due to their well-characterized neural development and high genetic homology to mammals, zebrafish (Danio rerio) have emerged as a powerful model organism in the field of biological psychiatry. Here, we discuss the molecular psychiatry of zebrafish, and its implications for translational neuroscience research and modeling CNS disorders. In particular, we outline recent genetic and technological developments allowing for in-vivo examinations, high-throughput screening and whole-brain analyses in larval and adult zebrafish. We also summarize the application of these molecular techniques to the understanding of neuropsychiatric disease, outlining the potential of zebrafish for modeling complex brain disorders, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), aggression, post-traumatic stress and substance abuse. Critically evaluating the advantages and limitations of larval and adult fish tests, we suggest that zebrafish models become a rapidly emerging new field in modern biological psychiatry research. PMID:25349164

  16. Child Psychiatry Takes to the Streets: A Developmental Partnership between a University Institute and Children and Adolescents from the Streets of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scivoletto, Sandra; da Silva, Thiago Fernando; Rosenheck, Robert Alan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: High levels of domestic violence, mental illness, and alienation from authorities are associated with high incidence of children/adolescents living on the streets in low and middle income countries. The Equilibrium Project (Programa Equilibrio) was created to facilitate social reintegration through a virtual partnership between an…

  17. Consultation-liaison psychiatry training and supervision results in fewer recommendations for constant observation.

    PubMed

    Jin, C; Novik, S; Saravay, S

    2000-01-01

    In this study, we tested two hypotheses. First, that consultation-liaison (C-L)-trained psychiatry residents would order constant observation (CO) less frequently than psychiatry residents untrained in C-L. Second, we predicted that CO would be ordered less frequently under circumstances when experienced C-L psychiatry attending and fellows would be available to supervise psychiatry residents training in C-L. We reviewed a total of 138 consultations during a 6-month period. Constant observation was recommended in 31 cases (22.5%). Consultations were done by residents who had received training in C-L psychiatry (n=34) and by residents who were not trained in C-L (n=34). Residents not trained in C-L had a significantly higher percentage of CO orders (44.1%) compared to those trained in C-L (15.4%) (chi(2)=12.1, df=1, P<0.001). Because C-L-trained residents provided regular-hour and after-hour consults while residents without C-L training provided only after-hour consults, we also separately analyzed data from the 102 after-hour cases. We again found that residents with C-L training had a significantly lower rate of ordering CO (22.1%) than those who had not yet received C-L psychiatry training (44.1%) (chi(2)=5.31, df=1, P<0.05). We also found that C-L-trained residents ordered CO less frequently during regular hour consults (2.8%) when experienced staff are available in supervision compared to after hours (22.1%) (chi(2)=6.72, df=1, P<0.01). Our findings suggest that training in C-L psychiatry has a significant impact on the use of constant observation for patients in the general hospital thereby reducing the cost of care. PMID:11020542

  18. [Sophrology and psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Diehr, Jan

    2016-01-01

    A relatively new discipline in the field of human sciences, sophrology seeks, through a physical as well as mental approach, to awaken awareness while energising the patient's resources and capacities. In psychiatry, it favours the development of body awareness and the positive activation of the mental structures, for the greater wellbeing of the patient.

  19. [Sophrology and psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Diehr, Jan

    2016-01-01

    A relatively new discipline in the field of human sciences, sophrology seeks, through a physical as well as mental approach, to awaken awareness while energising the patient's resources and capacities. In psychiatry, it favours the development of body awareness and the positive activation of the mental structures, for the greater wellbeing of the patient. PMID:27615699

  20. Epistemology of psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Marková, Ivana S; Berrios, German E

    2012-01-01

    In historical and epistemological terms, psychiatry is a new discipline born during the 19th century. Rooted in both the natural and social sciences, psychiatric objects of inquiry, namely mental symptoms and mental disorders, are hybrid, constituted by the blending of components arising from disparate sources of knowledge ranging from the biological to the semantic in its widest sense. This poses problems for psychiatric research and therapy. Whilst conventional pluralism may be a convenient approach to manage aspects of psychiatric practice, it lacks the capacity to analyse psychiatric objects in their entirety. For the latter, psychiatry demands a new, tailored regional epistemology. This paper outlines the main features of an epistemology specific to the needs of psychiatry. It highlights the relational approach that needs to be taken and illustrates the usefulness of this approach by analysing the structure of psychiatric objects, exploring the manner in which they may be inscribed in the brain, and identifying the need to periodically recalibrate the language of psychiatry.

  1. Patterns of drug and alcohol use associated with lifetime sexual revictimization and current posttraumatic stress disorder among three national samples of adolescent, college, and household-residing women.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kate; Resnick, Heidi S; Danielson, Carla Kmett; McCauley, Jenna L; Saunders, Benjamin E; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2014-03-01

    Sexual revictimization (experiencing 2 or more rapes) is prevalent and associated with increased risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use. However, no national epidemiologic studies have established the prevalence or relative odds of a range of types of substance use as a function of sexual victimization history and PTSD status. Using three national female samples, the current study examined associations between sexual revictimization, PTSD, and past-year substance use. Participants were 1763 adolescent girls, 2000 college women, and 3001 household-residing women. Rape history, PTSD, and use of alcohol, marijuana, other illicit drugs, and non-medical prescription drugs were assessed via structured telephone interviews of U.S. households and colleges in 2005-2006. Chi-square and logistic regression were used to estimate the prevalence and odds of past-year substance use. Relative to single and non-victims: Revictimized adolescents and household-residing women reported more other illicit and non-medical prescription drug use; revictimized college women reported more other illicit drug use. Past 6-month PTSD was associated with increased odds of drug use for adolescents, non-medical prescription drug use for college women, and all substance use for household-residing women. Revictimization and PTSD were associated with more deviant substance use patterns across samples, which may reflect self-medication with substances. Findings also could be a function of high-risk environment or common underlying mechanisms. Screening and early intervention in pediatric, primary care, and college clinics may prevent subsequent rape, PTSD, and more severe substance use.

  2. Attracting young academics into the field of psychiatry and psychotherapy in Switzerland--the Zurich 'Study Focus on Psychiatry' and training concept for medical psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Gerke, Wolfgang; Rufer, Michael; Schnyder, Ulrich

    2013-08-01

    For several years the demand regarding psychiatrists in Switzerland can only be satisfied by recruiting colleagues from other countries. Given the global increase of mental disorders, initiatives encouraging young academics to choose psychiatry as their speciality, and enhancing the attractiveness of our field, are urgently needed. Two projects for the promotion of young academics are presented in this paper, one working with medical students, the other with residents in psychiatry. The Zurich 'Study Focus on Psychiatry' provides medical students with knowledge and key competencies in psychiatry at an early stage of their undergraduate training. This way, students are offered an opportunity to have a thorough look into psychiatry as a clinical specialism and as a science. The three-year psychotherapy training curriculum in medical psychotherapy provides residents in psychiatry and psychotherapy with specific training in either cognitive behavioural, or psychodynamic, or systemic psychotherapy. Additionally, and independent of the psychotherapeutic orientation they have chosen, all trainees attend joint sessions focusing on generic elements of psychotherapy and facilitating a hands-on transfer of psychotherapeutic principles into their clinical routine. These two projects aim at enhancing the attractiveness of psychiatry and psychotherapy as a speciality, and thus contributing to the promotion of young academics.

  3. General psychiatric residents and corrections: moving forensic education beyond the classroom.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Carl E

    2014-12-01

    Mental illness in the criminal justice system is one of the most important and underserved public health challenges in psychiatry today, but few general psychiatry residency programs offer clinical education in correctional psychiatry. Developing such rotations might seem intimidating to educational leaders unfamiliar with the criminal justice system, but a variety of potential solutions exist for residency programs to offer this increasingly important clinical training. PMID:25124881

  4. Psychiatry in former socialist countries: implications for north korean psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Su; Park, Sang Min; Jun, Jin Yong; Kim, Seog Ju

    2014-10-01

    Very little information is available regarding psychiatry in North Korea, which is based on the legacy of Soviet psychiatry. This paper reviews the characteristics of psychiatry in former socialist countries and discusses its implications for North Korean psychiatry. Under socialism, psychiatric disorders were attributed primarily to neurophysiologic or neurobiological origins. Psychosocial or psychodynamic etiology was denied or distorted in line with the political ideology of the Communist Party. Psychiatry was primarily concerned with psychotic disorders, and this diagnostic category was sometimes applied based on political considerations. Neurotic disorders were ignored by psychiatry or were regarded as the remnants of capitalism. Several neurotic disorders characterized by high levels of somatization were considered to be neurological or physical in nature. The majority of "mental patients" were institutionalized for a long periods in large-scale psychiatric hospitals. Treatment of psychiatric disorders depended largely on a few outdated biological therapies. In former socialist countries, psychodynamic psychotherapy was not common, and psychiatric patients were likely to experience social stigma. According to North Korean doctors living in South Korea, North Korean psychiatry is heavily influenced by the aforementioned traditions of psychiatry. During the post-socialist transition, the suicide rate in many of these countries dramatically increased. Given such mental health crises in post-socialist transitional societies, the field of psychiatry may face major challenges in a future unified Korea. PMID:25395966

  5. Psychiatry in Former Socialist Countries: Implications for North Korean Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young Su; Park, Sang Min; Jun, Jin Yong

    2014-01-01

    Very little information is available regarding psychiatry in North Korea, which is based on the legacy of Soviet psychiatry. This paper reviews the characteristics of psychiatry in former socialist countries and discusses its implications for North Korean psychiatry. Under socialism, psychiatric disorders were attributed primarily to neurophysiologic or neurobiological origins. Psychosocial or psychodynamic etiology was denied or distorted in line with the political ideology of the Communist Party. Psychiatry was primarily concerned with psychotic disorders, and this diagnostic category was sometimes applied based on political considerations. Neurotic disorders were ignored by psychiatry or were regarded as the remnants of capitalism. Several neurotic disorders characterized by high levels of somatization were considered to be neurological or physical in nature. The majority of "mental patients" were institutionalized for a long periods in large-scale psychiatric hospitals. Treatment of psychiatric disorders depended largely on a few outdated biological therapies. In former socialist countries, psychodynamic psychotherapy was not common, and psychiatric patients were likely to experience social stigma. According to North Korean doctors living in South Korea, North Korean psychiatry is heavily influenced by the aforementioned traditions of psychiatry. During the post-socialist transition, the suicide rate in many of these countries dramatically increased. Given such mental health crises in post-socialist transitional societies, the field of psychiatry may face major challenges in a future unified Korea. PMID:25395966

  6. Psychiatry and music

    PubMed Central

    Nizamie, Shamsul Haque; Tikka, Sai Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Vocal and/or instrumental sounds combined in such a way as to produce beauty of form, harmony and expression of emotion is music. Brain, mind and music are remarkably related to each other and music has got a strong impact on psychiatry. With the advent of music therapy, as an efficient form of alternative therapy in treating major psychiatric conditions, this impact has been further strengthened. In this review, we deliberate upon the historical aspects of the relationship between psychiatry and music, neural processing underlying music, music's relation to classical psychology and psychopathology and scientific evidence base for music therapy in major psychiatric disorders. We highlight the role of Indian forms of music and Indian contribution to music therapy. PMID:24891698

  7. Reflexions on the identity and the practice of child psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Terziev, D

    2013-01-01

    Τhe issue of the professional identity is salient for any medical discipline but especially for these, like child psychiatry and perhaps psychiatry, where the professional is the principal "instrument" in the assessment and in providing interventions. The Ericksonian view on identity implies self-sameness, continuity and synthesis which the child psychiatry as a specialty and child psychiatrists as professionals are to achieve more or less successfully. As a professional, the child psychiatrist is directed to the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric disorders and associated problems in children and adolescents viewing children as developing biopsychological entities being in ongoing co-influencing interaction with their immediate and wider societal contexts. As a discipline, child and adolescent psychiatry needs to integrate developmental biological and psychological aspects, and holistic child-centered and family-focused perspectives. Child psychiatry is to integrate not only various aspects of the child as individual and of his environments as they are, but also in their diachronic dimension. As child psychiatrists, in my view, we must keep integrated in our professional armamentarium the consideration for intra- and interpersonal processes. In that perspective, of special value is the appreciation of setting, of timing, and of interpersonal processes in their interaction with intrapersonal ones. In addition, being both child-centered and family-focused, we need a systemic literacy to look at the families and of children as part of them. Apart from evidence-based information and clinical skills, we need some mature attitude to helpfully use our knowledge and skills. This attitude can transcend the state of the art professional algorithms; rather it integrates and not just imitates them. It cautions against too much enthusiasm in following the pendulum. It implies awareness of some reasonable limit to the urge to change the children and families. In

  8. Mumbai Psychiatry: Current Obstacles*

    PubMed Central

    Bagadia, Sanjay V.

    2015-01-01

    Mumbai, like any other Metro city, has its own share of contentious issues influencing psychiatric management. These could be old ongoing issues like myths about medications, electroconvulsive therapy and counselling, or newer ones like our stand on homosexuality and crime related to psychosocial factors. A range of these issues is considered in this paper along with some possible solutions. Getting due credit and status for psychiatry as a medical branch is also a challenge we need to address. PMID:25838737

  9. [Psychiatry as a profession].

    PubMed

    Häfner, H

    2002-01-01

    With reference to Max Weber's timeless analysis of science and politics as a profession, the present paper describes the philosophical background and historical development of the tasks and tools, institutionalization, and socialization of psychiatry as a profession. In the mid twentieth century, psychiatrists' emergence from ideological confinement in asylums, where they were separated from urban culture and medicine in general, finally allowed them to benefit from accumulating knowledge and technological progress in the field of medicine. After its transition from a custodial to a therapeutic discipline, psychiatry has acquired a variety of new fields of action and duties that require a high degree of expertise on psychological and biological levels. At the same time, people have increasingly come to expect relief not only from disease, but also from manifold problems of everyday life. As a consequence, there has been an inflationary growth of professional psychiatric and psychotherapeutic and nonprofessional services. The professional requirements that psychiatrists should meet have also increased quantitatively and qualitatively in the wake of the historical change from a caring, paternalistic attitude towards the mentally ill to a therapeutic partnership. To a greater degree than physicians working in other medical fields, psychiatrists get personally involved with their patients. As a consequence, the mental burden of their profession is at times immense. For this reason, the ethics of a medical profession has special implications for psychiatrists. The fascinating advances in therapeutic methods, neurobiological knowledge, and the increasingly differentiated diagnostic tools, e.g., noninvasive investigation of the morphology and functioning of the brain, have turned psychiatry into one of the most interesting contemporary professions. Psychiatry is now facing an enormous challenge of meeting the standards of expertise.

  10. Training Groups and Foreign-Born Psychiatric Medical Residents in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Andrea; Juthani, Nalini

    1991-01-01

    About two-thirds of all psychiatry residents are foreign-born medical graduates. Discusses the operation, content, focus, challenges, and benefits of a training group experience for the psychiatry residents at Bronx Lebanon Hospital. The goals are to aid acculturation, improve group psychotherapeutic skills, encourage self-awareness, and promote…

  11. PSYCHIATRY AND THE LAW

    PubMed Central

    Zeifert, Mark

    1957-01-01

    In Rex vs. Arnold (1724) it was held that to avail himself of the defense of insanity “a man must be totally deprived of his understanding and memory, so as not to know what he is doing, no more than an infant, a brute, or a wild beast.” Although there has been some modification of this formula in most jurisdictions, the courts still operate under the McNaghten Rule (1843) which is no more logical and actually is more difficult to apply. That such a situation exists in 1956 is a reflection on the indifference of society—and particularly the courts which it elects—as well as on the failure of modern psychiatry to communicate its viewpoint to society. If we are to correct the sad formulae of the “right and wrong” and “policeman at the elbow” tests, we must have more study and better methods of communication in this area. A similar state of confusion exists in the methods of commitment of mentally ill people to psychiatric hospitals. The methods prescribed by law are archaic and cruel—and again reflect the failure of modern psychiatry to communicate its understanding to the legislatures and courts. There are many other areas of conflict between law (which looks to the past for its insights) and psychiatry (which seeks for its concepts in the current scientific advances). PMID:13383383

  12. Psychiatry and the law.

    PubMed

    ZEIFERT, M

    1957-01-01

    In Rex vs. Arnold (1724) it was held that to avail himself of the defense of insanity "a man must be totally deprived of his understanding and memory, so as not to know what he is doing, no more than an infant, a brute, or a wild beast." Although there has been some modification of this formula in most jurisdictions, the courts still operate under the McNaghten Rule (1843) which is no more logical and actually is more difficult to apply. That such a situation exists in 1956 is a reflection on the indifference of society-and particularly the courts which it elects-as well as on the failure of modern psychiatry to communicate its viewpoint to society. If we are to correct the sad formulae of the "right and wrong" and "policeman at the elbow" tests, we must have more study and better methods of communication in this area.A similar state of confusion exists in the methods of commitment of mentally ill people to psychiatric hospitals. The methods prescribed by law are archaic and cruel-and again reflect the failure of modern psychiatry to communicate its understanding to the legislatures and courts. There are many other areas of conflict between law (which looks to the past for its insights) and psychiatry (which seeks for its concepts in the current scientific advances).

  13. Prison psychiatry and professional responsibility.

    PubMed

    Smith, C E

    1987-05-01

    Professional responsibility is a multifaceted concept embracing elements of technical competence and accountability. It may seem anachronistic to examine professional responsibility in the context of prison psychiatry, which is a relatively unpopular and often controversial health service activity. Upon closer scrutiny, however, it appears that prison psychiatry presents a paradigm of the uncertainties, conflicts, and dilemmas which underlie current concerns about professional responsibility in psychiatry. In this paper, the author examines some of these issues and proposes some tentative answers, focusing on the critical question of the proper roles of psychiatry in prisons.

  14. Treatment resistance and psychodynamic psychiatry: concepts psychiatry needs from psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Plakun, Eric

    2012-06-01

    Over the last 30 years psychiatry and psychoanalysis have moved in substantially divergent directions. Psychiatry has become rich in methodology but conceptually limited, with a drift toward biological reductionism. Psychoanalysis has remained relatively limited in methodology, but conceptually rich. The rich methodology of psychiatry has led to major contributions in discovering gene by environment interactions, the importance of early adversity, and to recognition of the serious problem posed by treatment resistance. However, psychiatry's biologically reductionistic conceptual focus interferes with the development of a nuanced clinical perspective based on emerging knowledge that might help more treatment resistant patients become treatment responders. This article argues that recognition of the problem of treatment resistance in psychiatry creates a need for it to reconnect with the conceptual richness of psychoanalysis in order to improve patient care. Psychodynamic psychiatry is defined as the relevant intersection of psychiatry and psychoanalysis where this reconnection can occur. I will suggest selected aspects of psychoanalysis that are especially relevant to psychiatry in improving outcomes in work with treatment resistant patients.

  15. An Educational Intervention to Improve Residents' Inpatient Charting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinsley, Joyce A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This report describes an educational intervention designed to improve psychiatry residents' inpatient charting skills. Methods: The residency training committee formed a multidisciplinary team to study the problem by using quality improvement principles. The team hypothesized that residents' charting would improve with education about…

  16. [Forensic psychiatry. Its relations to clinical psychiatry and criminology].

    PubMed

    Kröber, H-L

    2005-11-01

    A basic task of psychiatry is to identify and treat mentally disordered persons at risk of committing crimes. Psychiatry has an important function in preserving social peace, law, and order. How the psychiatric world handles this duty has changed with time. There have been very important changes from asylums to mental hospitals and from voluntary or involuntary inpatient treatment to outpatient care; but clinical psychiatry cannot give up forensic psychiatry. As a result of developments, inpatient care in mental hospitals often concentrates on crisis management, risk assessment, and risk management. On the other hand, forensic psychiatry has made great efforts in recent decades with special therapies for mentally disturbed criminals and collaborated closely with criminologists in developing instruments for risk assessment and prognosis of repeat offenses.

  17. Financing Academic Departments of Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liptzin, Benjamin; Meyer, Roger E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe the many financial challenges facing academic departments of psychiatry and the resulting opportunities that may arise. Method: The authors review the history of financial challenges, the current economic situation, and what may lie ahead for academic departments of psychiatry. Results: The current environment has…

  18. [Two Nobel prizes for psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Knezević, Aleksandar; Knezević, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    It was pointed out that both Nobel prizes for medicine in the field of psychiatry have lost their importance in contemporary medicine. Modern achievements in psychiatry have suppresed both psychosurgery of Egas Moniz and malaria treatment of Wagner-Jauregg as methods in the treatment of mental diseases. PMID:19368289

  19. Ethics and forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Wettstein, Robert M

    2002-09-01

    This article has attempted to outline some of the important ethical issues faced by the psychiatrist in the forensic role. Much of forensic psychiatry is practiced by general psychiatrists without specific forensic training who must thereby familiarize themselves with the problem areas likely to be encountered in this work. They should also be knowledgeable about the ethics guidelines prepared by forensic psychology and forensic psychiatry organizations that are subject to frequent modification. Ethical problems often occur when psychiatrists exceed their expertise, their role as contracted, or the actual facts in the case. Psychiatric experts usually represent just a small part of most litigation, and an attitude of humility rather than grandiosity is appropriate. Expert witnesses serve as educators rather than decision makers in the case [21]. Given the complexity and uncertainty of medical decision making generally, whether in clinical or forensic medicine, forensic psychiatric opinions should be appropriately qualified by their limitations, acknowledged affirmatively rather than only on cross-examination. Expert witnesses commonly take an oath to "tell the truth, the whole truth." Forensic psychiatrists are not experts in moral matters and should not be rendering moral judgments or misusing their authority as psychiatrists to advance their own political or social ideology [19]. Testimony should be based on data and theory generally accepted in the profession, recognizing that there will always be minority views. Psychiatrists, however, should not be testifying based upon idiosyncratic views unsupported by at least a respectable minority of the profession. As in clinical psychiatry, complex or challenging forensic cases often require consultation from a knowledgeable colleague.

  20. PSYCHIATRY-PAST, PRESENT & FUTURE

    PubMed Central

    Doongaji, Dinshaw R.

    1997-01-01

    An overview of psychiatry during the last three decades as practised in a general teaching hospital is presented. Psychiatry as an academic subject has matured tremendously during this period. The empirical treatments of the 1950s and the 1960s which evoke nostalgic memories, have been replaced by modern methods of treatment. However, there is a need to exercise caution against the blind acceptance of new and sophisticated research findings in biological psychiatry. Inspite of the bright future facing psychiatry, the identity of psychiatry as a medical discipline must be preserved at all cost. Psychiatrists should also realise the dangers of gradual fractionation and impersonalisation which threatens the speciality, and makes all possible efforts to prevent this. PMID:21584054

  1. Meditation and psychiatry.

    PubMed

    McGee, Michael

    2008-01-01

    How might meditation promote wellness and healing from psychiatric illness? How might it contribute to the practice of psychiatry? This review of the literature attempts to answer these questions. Meditation is the consciously willed practice of two actions, attending and abstaining, that all people spontaneously perform to a greater or lesser degree. Psychological health may correlate in part with the degree to which we naturally perform these actions. This review analyzes the nature of meditation and its therapeutic benefits. It then concludes with a summary of the issues pertinent to the adjunctive use of meditation in psychiatric care.

  2. Meditation and Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    How might meditation promote wellness and healing from psychiatric illness? How might it contribute to the practice of psychiatry? This review of the literature attempts to answer these questions. Meditation is the consciously willed practice of two actions, attending and abstaining, that all people spontaneously perform to a greater or lesser degree. Psychological health may correlate in part with the degree to which we naturally perform these actions. This review analyzes the nature of meditation and its therapeutic benefits. It then concludes with a summary of the issues pertinent to the adjunctive use of meditation in psychiatric care. PMID:19727302

  3. Teaching psychodynamic therapy to hardworking psychiatric residents.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Douglas H

    2006-01-01

    In practice, the classroom teaching of sequentially developing elements of theory and practice in psychodynamic psychiatry to hardworking residents can founder on residents' frequent absences, on-call pages, late arrivals, and early departures. These obstacles can be partially overcome by focusing narrowly on topics that can be explored within the length of a single lecture. Introduction to dynamic psychiatry can be accomplished in this teaching milieu through application of pedagogical techniques of humor, sharply delineated case material, surprise, group participation, demonstrated immediacy of application, theater, and an avoidance of arcane terminology or nuanced theoretical differences. PMID:16548755

  4. The art of psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    BLOCH, SIDNEY

    2005-01-01

    Psychiatrists would undoubtedly support the notion of promoting such qualities as empathy, sensitivity and caring in the pursuit of good clinical practice. However, cultivating what we may call the "art of psychiatry" is not straightforward, since the qualities that constitute it are elusive. I propose that the means by which we can accomplish the goal of relating empathically and compassionately to our patients and their families is by regarding the humanities and the sciences as of equal relevance and as complementary. The humanities, particularly literature, the visual arts, film and music, are most suited to promoting empathic skills when they are woven into the clinical scenario. Examples are provided to demonstrate how this may be achieved. Were we to succeed in highlighting the art of psychiatry in our educational programs, and as part of continuing professional development, I surmise that our patients and their families would be the beneficiaries. We cannot merely vow to act empathically and sensitively. Instead, we should embark on a lifelong journey through the wonderful world of literature, the visual arts, film and music. The experience will not only prove appealing and engaging, but it will also go far to enrich our personal and professional lives. PMID:16633530

  5. Forensic psychiatry in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Chan, Lai Gwen; Tomita, Todd

    2013-12-01

    Singapore is a geographically small nation-state that has transformed itself from a third-world country to a developed nation after attaining political independence 46 years ago. The pace of change has been tremendous and mental health care is no exception. This paper provides an overview of mental health care and a review of key mental health legislation, including a National Mental Health Blueprint that was rolled out in 2007. On this background, the paper focuses on a description of forensic psychiatric services in Singapore. The role of the Department of Forensic Psychiatry at the Institute of Mental Health, which is the only forensic psychiatry department in the country, will be highlighted. Civil commitment and the treatment of unfit accused persons and insanity acquittees is reviewed. The role of forensic psychiatric assessments in the Singapore courts is examined. The application of the insanity and diminished responsibility defenses are reviewed. A trend is identified in the Singapore courts towards a more rehabilitation-focused sentencing approach and the role that forensic psychiatric assessments play in cases involving mentally disordered offenders is highlighted.

  6. Barriers to optimal care between physicians and lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning adolescent patients.

    PubMed

    Kitts, Robert Li

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this article was to identify barriers to optimal care between physicians and LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning) adolescents. To this end, 464 anonymous, self-administered surveys were distributed in 2003 to residents and attending physicians in pediatrics, internal medicine, obstetrics-gynecology, psychiatry, emergency medicine, and family practice at Upstate Medical University. The survey included questions pertaining to practice, knowledge, and attitude pertaining to lesbian, gay, transgender, or questioning (LGBTQ) adolescents. One hundred eight four surveys were returned. The majority of physicians would not regularly discuss sexual orientation, sexual attraction, or gender identity while taking a sexual history from a sexually active adolescent. As well, the majority of physicians would not ask patients about sexual orientation if an adolescent presented with depression, suicidal thoughts, or had attempted suicide. If an adolescent stated that he or she was not sexually active, 41% of physicians reported that they would not ask additional sexual health-related questions. Only 57% agreed to an association between being a LGBTQ adolescent and suicide. The majority of physicians did not believe that they had all the skills they needed to address issues of sexual orientation with adolescents, and that sexual orientation should be addressed more often with these patients and in the course of training. This study concludes that barriers in providing optimal care for LGBTQ adolescents can be found with regard to practice, knowledge, and attitude regardless of medical field and other demographics collected. Opportunities exist to enhance care for LGBTQ adolescents.

  7. The state of psychiatry in Spain.

    PubMed

    Bobes, Julio; Garcia-Portilla, Maria Paz; Bobes-Bascaran, Maria-Teresa; Parellada, Mara; Bascaran, Maria-Teresa; Saiz, Pilar Alejandra; Bousoño, Manuel; Arango, Celso

    2012-08-01

    The 1986 General Health Act and the so-called 'psychiatric reform' were key issues in the development of the mental healthcare system (MHCS) in Spain. The World Health Organization Declaration and Action Plan on Mental Health in 2005 gave it a revitalizing impetus and resulted in the first National Health System (NHS) Mental Health Strategy in 2006. A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, Spanish journals, reference lists, national databases, and European and Spanish official documents to describe the current state of the MHCS in Spain. The main results were: (1) existence of great variability among the autonomous communities with respect to mental health resources and provision of care; (2) lack of national epidemiological information on mental disorders with the exception of substance use disorders and suicide, which comprise powerful longitudinal national data, (3) training in psychiatry is well established, although there is no specialism of child and adolescent psychiatry, and (4) a dramatic increase in scientific productivity in the last decade among research groups, in part due to the creation of the Spanish Mental Health Network, the Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en el Área de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM). Quantifiable and reliable indicators are needed to provide efficient monitoring and analysis of epidemiological events and subsequently to understand the status of the Spanish MHCS.

  8. Who's afraid of forensic psychiatry?

    PubMed

    Miller, R D

    1990-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry has come under mounting criticism from the press and other medical professionals, largely for its participation in the insanity defense. The author argues that the expertise available from the specialty is of increasing importance to psychiatry as a whole, as more and more legal issues become relevant to the practice of general psychiatry, and should be actively encouraged and legitimized rather than ostracized. All psychiatrists should be exposed to forensic principles and practices during their training, and the ability of forensic psychiatrists to serve as transducers between the clinical and the legal/judicial should be increasingly used to present the clinical viewpoint effectively in courts and legislatures.

  9. YouTube and 'psychiatry'.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Robert; Miller, John; Collins, Noel

    2015-12-01

    YouTube is a video-sharing website that is increasingly used to share and disseminate health-related information, particularly among younger people. There are reports that social media sites, such as YouTube, are being used to communicate an anti-psychiatry message but this has never been confirmed in any published analysis of YouTube clip content. This descriptive study revealed that the representation of 'psychiatry' during summer 2012 was predominantly negative. A subsequent smaller re-analysis suggests that the negative portrayal of 'psychiatry' on YouTube is a stable phenomenon. The significance of this and how it could be addressed are discussed.

  10. YouTube and 'psychiatry'.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Robert; Miller, John; Collins, Noel

    2015-12-01

    YouTube is a video-sharing website that is increasingly used to share and disseminate health-related information, particularly among younger people. There are reports that social media sites, such as YouTube, are being used to communicate an anti-psychiatry message but this has never been confirmed in any published analysis of YouTube clip content. This descriptive study revealed that the representation of 'psychiatry' during summer 2012 was predominantly negative. A subsequent smaller re-analysis suggests that the negative portrayal of 'psychiatry' on YouTube is a stable phenomenon. The significance of this and how it could be addressed are discussed. PMID:26755987

  11. Psychiatry and the Palestinian population.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Harvey; Murad, Ibrahim

    2005-01-01

    Some key issues pertaining to Palestinian psychiatry are described. Bearing in mind the geographical location and history of the Palestinian population, the development of psychiatry needs to be seen in the context of the Arab world, on the one hand, and of Israel, on the other. In the Middle Ages, Arab culture and medicine were more developed than in Europe. Aspects of general and forensic psychiatry on the West Bank and Gaza are outlined. Issues pertaining to the death penalty, suicide and suicide bombers are also discussed. The biblically-described relationship between the Arab and Jewish peoples has its resonance today with regard to cohabitation and conflict.

  12. Penalized linear discriminant analysis and Discrete AdaBoost to distinguish human hair metal profiles: The case of adolescents residing near Mt. Etna.

    PubMed

    Abbruzzo, A; Tamburo, E; Varrica, D; Dongarrà, G; Mineo, A

    2016-06-01

    The research focus of the present paper was twofold. First, we tried to document that human intake of trace elements is influenced by geological factors of the place of residence. Second, we showed that the elemental composition of human hair is a useful screening tool for assessing people's exposure to potentially toxic substances. For this purpose, we used samples of human hair from adolescents and applied two robust statistical approaches. Samples from two distinct geological and environmental sites were collected: the first one was characterized by the presence of the active volcano Mt. Etna (ETNA group) and the second one lithologically made up of sedimentary rocks (SIC group). Chemical data were statistically processed by Penalized Linear Discriminant Analysis (pLDA) and Discrete AdaBoost (DAB). The separation between the two groups turned out well, with few overlaps accounting for less than 5%. The chemical variables that better distinguished ETNA group from SIC group were As, Cd, Co, Li, Mo, Rb, Sr, U and V. Both pLDA and DAB allowed us to characterize the elements most closely related to the volcanic contribution (As, U and V) and those (Cd, Co, Li, Mo, Rb and Sr) prevalently influenced by the geology of the area where SIC samples were collected. We conclude that the geological characteristics of the area of residence constitute a key factor in influencing the potential exposure to trace elements. Hair analysis coupled with robust statistical methods can be effectively used as a screening procedure to identify areas at great environmental risk.

  13. Forensic psychiatry in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Tariq; Nizami, Asad Tamizuddin; Hirji, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews existing forensic psychiatric services in Pakistan highlighting the role played by the judicial and the medical fraternity in managing the legal and forensic issues of the population of patients with mental illnesses. Until 2001, all legal and forensic issues were dealt with the mental health legislation of 1912, the Lunacy Act of 1912. This was inherited from the British rulers in the Sub-Continent at the time. The Mental Health Ordinance of 2001 could not sustain following the 18th constitutional amendment in 2010, whereby psychiatric healthcare was devolved to the provinces from the previous federal authority. The article also highlights the difficulties and the barriers in implementation of the forensic psychiatric services in Pakistan at various levels within the healthcare system. This article also delves into the current framework of training in forensic psychiatry for postgraduates as well as the assessments and management schedules for the mentally ill offenders at tertiary care institutions in Pakistan.

  14. Psychiatry and terrorism.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Frederick J; Gold, Joel; Henderson, Schuyler W; Merlino, Joseph P; Norwood, Ann; Post, Jerrold M; Shanfield, Stephen; Weine, Stevan; Katz, Craig L

    2011-08-01

    Terrorism has dominated the domestic and international landscape since 9/11. Like other fields, psychiatry was not well prepared. With the 10th anniversary of the 9/11 attack approaching, it is timely to consider what can be done to prepare before the next event. Much has been learned to provide knowledge and resources. The roles of psychiatrists are challenged by what is known of the causes of, consequences of, and responses to terrorism. Reflecting on knowledge from before and since 9/11 introduces concepts, how individuals become terrorists, how to evaluate the psychiatric and behavioral effects of terrorism, and how to expand treatments, behavioral health interventions, public policy initiatives, and other responses for its victims. New research, clinical approaches, and policy perspectives inform strategies to reduce fear and cope with the aftermath. This article identifies the psychiatric training, skills and services, and ethical considerations necessary to prevent or reduce terrorism and its tragic consequences and to enhance resilience.

  15. Mind, brain, and psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Dalton, R; Forman, M A

    1994-01-01

    The question of how the mind and brain are related has interested philosophers and scientists for over 20 centuries. Psychiatry has approached this question indirectly, from the standpoint of trying to correlate mental and physical functioning. Recent neurobiological advances may help to resolve the mind-body dichotomy. In this paper we review one particular neurobiologically based theory, the theory of neuronal group selection as proposed by Gerald Edelman. We describe the applicability of this theory to the clinical issues of attachment, character pathology, and depression to show how biological and psychological hypotheses of behavior can be assimilated into an integrated approach. We also briefly discuss limitations of Edelman's model, as well as alternative concepts in artificial intelligence, cognitive psychology, and quantum theory.

  16. Cultural psychiatry: a general perspective.

    PubMed

    Alarcón, Renato D

    2013-01-01

    The current scene in the field of cultural psychiatry shows a vigorous growth, multifaceted conceptual and research developments and more relevant clinical presence. After a pertinent definition of the discipline, this chapter examines the contribution of cultural psychiatry to the etiopathogenesis of mental disorders, to the variations of clinical presentations in numerous entities, to psychiatric diagnosis and treatment and to the relatively unexplored rubric of preventive psychiatry. Advanced concepts of neurosciences and technology-based research can find a place in the realm of biocultural correlates. The role of culture in the definition of mental illness, the renewed notions of the old 'culture-bound syndromes', hope, cognition and culture in psychiatric treatments (including the so-called 'cultural therapies'), and resiliency are areas duly examined and discussed. Cultural psychiatry has re-emerged as a reliable body of knowledge aimed at a comprehensive assessment of human beings as patients.

  17. American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry

    MedlinePlus

    ... in your area. Read more » AAGP Journal Official Journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Read more ... RESEARCHERS GMHF Scholars Since my program is so small and there is not much interest among my ...

  18. [Hundred years' psychiatry in Korea (1899-1999)].

    PubMed

    Rhi, B Y

    1999-01-01

    The western medical knowledges of the human anatomy and physiology including knowledges of central nervous system have probably been introduced into Korea by Prince Sohyŏn Seja in 1645. The authentic education for the western medicine at the governmental and private medical schools, however, originated from 1899 and the education of mental disease was included in curriculum of Tai-Han-uiwon, the governmental medical school before 1910. In 1913 the first department of psychiatry (Department of Mental Disease) was established at the Chongdokbu-uiwon, the clinic of the Japanese colonial government, the former Korean governmental hospital which has later developed to the Kyŏngs ŏng Imperial University Hospital. On the other hand, there was in Severance Hospital Medical College, one Australian missionary psychiatrist McLaren, who has served at Paton Memorial Hospital in Jinju, Korea from 1911, taught neurology and psychiatry from 1913 at Severance Hospital Medical College, established psychiatry ward in 1923 at the Hospital, conducted the ward in humanistic way until 1940. It was the German psychiatry which the Japanese psychiatrists have brought to the Korean peninsula and it remained as major trends of psychiatry in Korea during the Japanese occupation between 1911 and 1945. The academic levels of Kyŏngsŏng Imperial University in psychiatry as well as the quality of mental care seemed to be almost equivocal to the psychiatry in Japan. However, psychiatrists scope of social psychiatric issues and of the research interests seemed to be somewhat narrow. Due to the political discrimination for the Korean students, the Koreans had less opportunity for the promotion at the university than Japanese residents in Korea. In 1945, after the end of the Pacific War only about 11 Korean psychiatrists were left in Korea, who organized Korean Neuropsychiatric Association. The Department of Neuropsychiatry of Seoul National University (former Department of Neurology and

  19. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    MedlinePlus

    ... for questions. New Practice Parameters Open for Member Review Review and comment on AACAP's current Practice Parameter draft: ... erohlffs@aacap.org . This draft is for member review only and should not be distributed to others ...

  20. Utilizing VA Information Technology to Develop Psychiatric Resident Prescription Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrbaugh, Robert; Federman, Daniel G.; Borysiuk, Lydia; Sernyak, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Feedback about resident prescription practices allows psychiatry educators to ensure that residents have broad prescribing experience and can facilitate practice-based learning initiatives. The authors report on a procedure utilizing U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs' computerized pharmacy records to efficiently construct…

  1. Survey of Sexual Education among Residents from Different Specialties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morreale, Mary K.; Arfken, Cynthia L.; Balon, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to determine how residents are being educated regarding sexual health, and it assesses attitudes toward sexual education and barriers to evaluating patients' sexuality. Methods: An anonymous Internet survey was sent to 195 residents in family practice, internal medicine, obstetrics and gynecology, and psychiatry at a…

  2. A Longitudinal "Teaching-to-Teach" Curriculum for Psychiatric Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Susan W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Psychiatric residents' self-reported confidence levels related to teaching medical students were assessed before and after a five-part teaching seminar series. Methods: Five 1-hour seminars on teaching medical students in the psychiatry clerkship were presented to second postgraduate year (PGY-2) residents. Topics included how to teach…

  3. Psychiatry and movies.

    PubMed

    Damjanović, Aleksandar; Vuković, Olivera; Jovanović, Aleksandar A; Jasović-Gasić, Miroslava

    2009-06-01

    As one of the most potent and substantial form of mass communication, film exercises a very significant influence upon the perceptions of the audience, especially in relation to mental illness issues, and that perception is very much blurred with populists' misinterpretation and lack of awareness regarding problems faced by persons suffering from mental disorders. Movies such as "Psycho", "One Flew Over Cuckoo's Nest", "Exorcist", despite being valuable in an artistic sense, corroborated and encouraged confusion and undermined the clarity and certainty concerning the fine line separating mental health from mental illness. Modern film makers and movie theoreticians try to overcome these limitations which are often generated by exploitation of stereotypes and myths referring to mentally ill people. This paper defines and discusses the most frequent thematic stereotypes seen in movies which are perpetuating stigmatization of mentally ill people. They are: free-spirited rebel, maniac on a killing spree, seducer, enlightened member of society, narcissistic parasite, beastly person (stereotype of animal sort). Psychiatry and cinematography are linked inseparably not only because they creatively complement each other, but also as an opportunity of mutual influences blending into didactical categories and professional driving forces, benefiting both the filmmakers' and the psychiatrists' professions. PMID:19556954

  4. DRGs and Australian psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Hunter, C E; McFarlane, A C

    1994-03-01

    The introduction of diagnosis related groups (DRGs) as a basis for funding in the United States has revealed several shortcomings in current DRG systems. Overall, DRGs have proven to be poor predictors of cost, accounting for approximately one third of the variation in cost and length of stay for surgical DRGs and falling to less than 10% for medical DRGs. Their ability to contain costs also remains uncertain, with savings associated with reductions in length of stay being offset by increased readmission rates. Given the increasing commitment of government to casemix approaches to funding it is suggested that psychiatry should participate in the process of solving the problems so far identified with DRG systems. Participation would, it is hoped, create a focussed debate about the provision of a "gold standard" of care for all patients. The evaluation and refinement of existing DRGs is urgently needed and could utilise a number of comprehensive data bases which already exist across the country. Alternatives to diagnosis such as functional status and treatment needs should also be explored.

  5. Penalized linear discriminant analysis and Discrete AdaBoost to distinguish human hair metal profiles: The case of adolescents residing near Mt. Etna.

    PubMed

    Abbruzzo, A; Tamburo, E; Varrica, D; Dongarrà, G; Mineo, A

    2016-06-01

    The research focus of the present paper was twofold. First, we tried to document that human intake of trace elements is influenced by geological factors of the place of residence. Second, we showed that the elemental composition of human hair is a useful screening tool for assessing people's exposure to potentially toxic substances. For this purpose, we used samples of human hair from adolescents and applied two robust statistical approaches. Samples from two distinct geological and environmental sites were collected: the first one was characterized by the presence of the active volcano Mt. Etna (ETNA group) and the second one lithologically made up of sedimentary rocks (SIC group). Chemical data were statistically processed by Penalized Linear Discriminant Analysis (pLDA) and Discrete AdaBoost (DAB). The separation between the two groups turned out well, with few overlaps accounting for less than 5%. The chemical variables that better distinguished ETNA group from SIC group were As, Cd, Co, Li, Mo, Rb, Sr, U and V. Both pLDA and DAB allowed us to characterize the elements most closely related to the volcanic contribution (As, U and V) and those (Cd, Co, Li, Mo, Rb and Sr) prevalently influenced by the geology of the area where SIC samples were collected. We conclude that the geological characteristics of the area of residence constitute a key factor in influencing the potential exposure to trace elements. Hair analysis coupled with robust statistical methods can be effectively used as a screening procedure to identify areas at great environmental risk. PMID:27015569

  6. What to Learn and How to Teach It: Five Years of Pre-Meetings for Training Directors in Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pato, Michele T.; Cyr, Rebecca L.; Manley, Lucas N.; Morley, Christopher P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: A multi-year conference grant (R13) supported an annual pre-meeting that served as a forum for psychiatry residency training directors to learn about and develop educational programs in their residencies in the area of scholarly activity. Methods: The authors sought to measure the success of these programs through both a…

  7. A Model for Reintegrating Couples and Family Therapy Training in Psychiatric Residency Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rait, Douglas; Glick, Ira

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors propose a family-systems training model for general residency training programs in psychiatry based on the couples and family therapy training program in Stanford's Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences. Methods: The authors review key elements in couples and family therapy training. Examples are drawn from the…

  8. Geriatrics Education in Psychiatric Residencies: A National Survey of Program Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warshaw, Gregg A.; Bragg, Elizabeth J.; Layde, Joseph B.; Meganathan, Karthikeyan; Brewer, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe the current characteristics of geriatrics training within general psychiatry training programs. Methods: In the fall of 2006, a survey was mailed and made available online to all U.S. psychiatric residency program directors (N=181). Results: The response rate was 54% (n=97). Of the responding psychiatry programs,…

  9. Survey of the Importance of Professional Behaviors among Medical Students, Residents, and Attending Physicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morreale, Mary K.; Balon, Richard; Arfken, Cynthia L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors compared the importance of items related to professional behavior among medical students rotating through their psychiatry clerkship, psychiatry residents, and attending psychiatrists. Method: The authors sent an electronic survey with 43 items (rated on the scale 1: Not at All Important; to 5: Very Important) to medical…

  10. Internet resources for psychiatry and neuropsychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Stone, J; Sharpe, M

    2003-01-01

    Some of the most useful internet resources relevant to psychiatry and neuropsychiatry are summarised. Web sites recommended for professionals and patients are detailed, including where to find evidence based psychiatry, psychiatry news, and professional organisations. Some thoughts on "cyberchondria" and the opportunities that the internet offers for illness transmission are also considered. PMID:12486258

  11. [Training in psychiatry for health teams in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Climent, C E; de Arango, M V; León, C A

    1983-01-01

    About 90% of the 40 million victims of mental disorders in the developing countries receive no treatment, and little progress is being made in this respect. This article examines the use of new strategies for solving the problem. It is obvious that the traditional methods of mental health care have been ineffective and that new programs should now be undertaken that can ensure proper service within the coming decades for those being neglected. Based on the results of a practical experiment carried out in Colombia, the authors, without making any definitive recommendations, point to the usefulness of training auxiliary staff of urban and rural health centers to work as a team (under the supervision of a physician or a graduate nurse) in the care and management of psychiatric patients. They enumerate the advantages offered by training programs on various aspects of mental health for general practitioners (who usually have little interest in psychiatry), psychiatry residents, nurses, and auxiliaries.

  12. Sleep disorders in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Costa e Silva, Jorge Alberto

    2006-10-01

    Sleep is an active state that is critical for our physical, mental, and emotional well-being. Sleep is also important for optimal cognitive functioning, and sleep disruption results in functional impairment. Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder in psychiatry. At any given time, 50% of adults are affected with 1 or more sleep problems such as difficulty in falling or staying asleep, in staying awake, or in adhering to a consistent sleep/wake schedule. Narcolepsy affects as many individuals as does multiple sclerosis or Parkinson disease. Sleep problems are especially prevalent in schizophrenia, depression, and other mental illnesses, and every year, sleep disorders, sleep deprivation, and sleepiness add billions to the national health care bill in industrialized countries. Although psychiatrists often treat patients with insomnia secondary to depression, most patients discuss their insomnia with general care physicians, making it important to provide this group with clear guidelines for the diagnosis and management of insomnia. Once the specific medical, behavioral, or psychiatric causes of the sleep problem have been identified, appropriate treatment can be undertaken. Chronic insomnia has multiple causes arising from medical disorders, psychiatric disorders, primary sleep disorders, circadian rhythm disorders, social or therapeutic use of drugs, or maladaptive behaviors. The emerging concepts of sleep neurophysiology are consistent with the cholinergic-aminergic imbalance hypothesis of mood disorders, which proposes that depression is associated with an increased ratio of central cholinergic to aminergic neurotransmission. The characteristic sleep abnormalities of depression may reflect a relative predominance of cholinergic activity. Antidepressant medications presumably reduce rapid eye movement (REM) sleep either by their anticholinergic properties or by enhancing aminergic neurotransmission. Intense and prolonged dreams often accompany abrupt withdrawal

  13. Psychiatry's second coming.

    PubMed

    Reich, W

    1982-08-01

    American psychiatry is in ideological flux. The established professional approach--the environmentalist one, the one that has concerned itself almost exclusively with the influence of the external environment on development and behavior, that has focused on individual psychology, on childhood, on the search for unconscious motivations, on psychoanalysis, on psychotherapy, on the primacy of feeling and meaning and growing, on Freud--is under serious attack. And a new approach--a biological one, one centered on the brain, on neurochemistry, on pharmacology, on medications--is rapidly gaining adherents, not only among young psychiatrists, but also in the press, among the public, and within a universe of newly hopeful and expectant patients. Some American psychiatrists, particularly those in the environmentalist camp, deny that any changes are taking place at all, or that those changes represent anything important--certainly not a significant challenge to the truth and usefulness of the traditional psychiatric concepts and practices; many of them seem perplexed about the increasing power of biologism and about the rush among younger psychiatrists to embrace it. And the biological psychiatrists themselves, or at least some of them, feel that their time has rightfully come, that their ascendance is, simply, an appropriate and direct result of the truths they bear, the science, the knowledge; they interpret their growing strength as a recognition that their explanations for abnormalities of feeling and thinking and being are more correct than the purely psychological ones, that in explaining those human functions in chemical terms they have finally and successfully brought together the mind and the body, and that the understanding of human behavior in health, as well as its therapy in illness, will ultimately be achieved most quickly and most fully through their methods of research and through their approaches to treatment. PMID:7111528

  14. Cultural psychiatry: international perspectives. Epilogue.

    PubMed

    Fàbrega, H

    2001-09-01

    The psychiatry of the 21st century will have to be different from the psychiatry of the 20th century. The latter began its journey in a socially, compartmentalized world in which sharp categories and boundaries for the definition of mental illness were assumed to be relevant. International psychiatry completed its hegemonic hold over the territory of mental health and illness with a commanding home-stretch run of success borne in the confidence and optimism of its neurobiologic and culture free program and agenda. The world in which psychiatry now exists, however is changing rapidly and will continue to change and so of necessity will the practice of psychiatry need to change. This issue offers a guidelines and a vision of the direction that should be followed. Migration and transnational communication and awareness of cultural differences are changing the character of communities around the world. These changes considered in the context of world wide political economic factors are bringing into close physical and symbolic juxtaposition persons from distinct nations and ethnic groups. Clashes in world views, attitudes, spiritual orientation, and general philosophic and moral outlook are becoming ever-present realities of urban centers around the world. In traditional contexts and among persons who do not physically migrate, the power of communications media manages to psychologically migrate them; that is, to challenge their local, native cultural traditions about mental health with the scientific perspectives about mental health and illness. Advances in the social and cultural sciences have underscored ways in which assumptions of reductionism and universalism need to be chastened with an appreciation of human differences and humane considerations as these relate to mental health problems. The science of psychiatry of the 21st century will have to accomodate to this new creolized world of ethnic pluralism, cultural differences, and clashing perspectives between

  15. [The Beca's in Chilean psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Escobar, E

    2000-07-01

    The Chilean psychiatrists, Manuel and Francisco Beca, father and son, who lived at the turn of the XIX century and in the first half of the XX respectively, dedicated their lives to the care of mental patients and to the teaching of psychiatry, contributing in their own way and time to the development of the specialty in Chile. Manuel Beca, a clinician, published the first mental patient statistics and Francisco, an academic, became professor of Psychiatry at the Catholic University. Although they dedicated themselves to different fields in the area of mental health, such as clinical research and teaching, both have outstanding merits to become a part of the historical memory of Chilean psychiatry. PMID:11050844

  16. History of psychiatry in India

    PubMed Central

    Nizamie, S. Haque; Goyal, Nishant

    2010-01-01

    History is a screen through which the past lightens the present and the present brightens the future. Psychiatry by virtue of its ability to deal with human thoughts and emotions and provide a pathway for healthy minds provides an important platform towards being a mentally sound human being and largely the society. This review takes a sneak peek into the foundations of modern psychiatry in India. The description is largely based on the time frame, which provides a better understanding of the factual information in each period starting from the Vedic era and culminating in the post independence period. PMID:21836719

  17. Child and Adolescent Psychiatrists' Practices in Assisting Their Adolescent Patients Who Smoke to Quit Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, James H.; Sidani, Jaime E.; Price, Joy A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This national study examined the practices and perceptions of smoking cessation activities among child and adolescent psychiatrists. Method: A random sample of child and adolescent psychiatrists was identified from the membership list of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and was mailed a valid and reliable 34-item…

  18. Evolutionary theory, psychiatry, and psychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Stein, Dan J

    2006-07-01

    Darwin's seminal publications in the nineteenth century laid the foundation for an evolutionary approach to psychology and psychiatry. Advances in 20th century evolutionary theory facilitated the development of evolutionary psychology and psychiatry as recognized areas of scientific investigation. In this century, advances in understanding the molecular basis of evolution, of the mind, and of psychopathology, offer the possibility of an integrated approach to understanding the proximal (psychobiological) and distal (evolutionary) mechanisms of interest to psychiatry and psychopharmacology. There is, for example, growing interest in the question of whether specific genetic variants mediate psychobiological processes that have evolutionary value in specific contexts, and of the implications of this for understanding the vulnerability to psychopathology and for considering the advantages and limitations of pharmacotherapy. The evolutionary value, and gene-environmental mediation, of early life programming is potentially a particularly rich area of investigation. Although evolutionary approaches to psychology and to medicine face important conceptual and methodological challenges, current work is increasingly sophisticated, and may prove to be an important foundational discipline for clinicians and researchers in psychiatry and psychopharmacology.

  19. Historical aspects of Mexican psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Bayardo, Sergio Javier Villaseñor

    2016-04-01

    Mexican psychiatry initiated since pre-Hispanic times. Historically, treatments were a mixture of magic, science and religion. Ancient Nahuas had their own medical concepts with a holistic view of medicine, considering men and cosmos as a whole. The first psychiatric hospital appeared in 1566 and a more modern psychiatric asylum emerged until 1910. International exchanges of theoretical approaches started in the National University with the visit of Pierre Janet. There were other important figures that influenced Mexican psychiatry, such as Erich Fromm, Henri Ey, Jean Garrabé and Yves Thoret. Regarding Mexican psychiatrists, some of the most important contributors to Mexican psychiatry were José Luis Patiño Rojas, Manuel Guevara Oropeza and Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz. This article includes excerpts from "Clinical Psychiatry", a book by Patiño Rojas where he tries to understand and describe the inner world experienced by patients with schizophrenia; also, the thesis conducted by Guevara Oropeza ("Psychoanalisis"), which is a critical comparison between the theories of Janet and Freud. Finally, we include "The study of consciousness: current status" by Ramón de la Fuente, which leads us through the initial investigations concerning consciousness, its evolution, and the contributions made by psychology, philosophy and neurobiology.

  20. An Introduction to Child Psychiatry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chess, Stella

    The role of child psychiatry is discussed, and the child is described as a developing organism. Genetic factors in behavior are considered as are the presenting problems. Methods treated involve taking the history, conducting the diagnostic interview, using special diagnostic procedures, and applying diagnostic classification. Problem areas dealt…

  1. Historical aspects of Mexican psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Bayardo, Sergio Javier Villaseñor

    2016-04-01

    Mexican psychiatry initiated since pre-Hispanic times. Historically, treatments were a mixture of magic, science and religion. Ancient Nahuas had their own medical concepts with a holistic view of medicine, considering men and cosmos as a whole. The first psychiatric hospital appeared in 1566 and a more modern psychiatric asylum emerged until 1910. International exchanges of theoretical approaches started in the National University with the visit of Pierre Janet. There were other important figures that influenced Mexican psychiatry, such as Erich Fromm, Henri Ey, Jean Garrabé and Yves Thoret. Regarding Mexican psychiatrists, some of the most important contributors to Mexican psychiatry were José Luis Patiño Rojas, Manuel Guevara Oropeza and Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz. This article includes excerpts from "Clinical Psychiatry", a book by Patiño Rojas where he tries to understand and describe the inner world experienced by patients with schizophrenia; also, the thesis conducted by Guevara Oropeza ("Psychoanalisis"), which is a critical comparison between the theories of Janet and Freud. Finally, we include "The study of consciousness: current status" by Ramón de la Fuente, which leads us through the initial investigations concerning consciousness, its evolution, and the contributions made by psychology, philosophy and neurobiology. PMID:27117799

  2. Adolescent Sociopaths. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapple, Eliot D.

    Presented is the final report of a research project on the programed training and placement of nonpsychotic disturbed adolescents. Eleven chapters cover topics which include the following: psychiatry and the sociopaths and psychopaths; boys dealt with in the project; development of the programed interaction diagnostic interview; disturbances to…

  3. Teaching Hypnosis to Psychiatry Residents and Psychology Interns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holroyd, Jean

    This is a description of a hypnosis training seminar taught at the University of California at Los Angeles to people with training and experience in psychotherapy who are licensed--or to be licensed--mental health professionals. The course described stresses the students' active participation as hypnotists and encourages a rapid transition from…

  4. Residents' Perception of Effectiveness of Twelve Evaluation Methods for Measuring Competency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogbill, Kay K.; O'Sullivan, Patricia S.; Clardy, James

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors assessed residents' perceptions of techniques used to evaluate competency. METHODS: Psychiatry residents from a single program rated 12 evaluation techniques for their effectiveness to measure resident competency. They rated each method for 25 selected skills reflecting the six general competencies. RESULTS: Sixteen…

  5. Teaching Residents Practice-Management Knowledge and Skills: An "in Vivo" Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Laurel Lyn

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This article explores the relevant data regarding teaching psychiatric residents practice management knowledge and skills. This article also introduces a unique program for teaching practice management to residents. Methods: A literature search was conducted through PubMed and "Academic Psychiatry". Additionally residents involved in…

  6. The State of Inpatient Psychiatry for Youth in Ontario: Results of the ONCAIPS Benchmarking Survey

    PubMed Central

    Greenham, Stephanie L.; Persi, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about inpatient psychiatry settings and the services they provide for children and adolescents in Ontario. This paper provides the first broad description of unit characteristics, services provided, and patient characteristics in these settings. Method: Nominated representatives from Ontario hospitals with generic mental health beds (i.e., providing inpatient care across diagnostic groups) for children and adolescents were surveyed regarding data from April 2009 to March 2010. Response rate was 93%. Additional data were extracted from the Ontario Network of Child and Adolescent Inpatient Psychiatry Services (ONCAIPS) Directory and Ministry of Health and Long Term Care (MOHLTC) website. Results: Settings provided primarily crisis services with some planned elective admissions. Higher rates of involuntary admissions, briefer stays, lower interdisciplinary diversity, and lower occupancy were typical of settings with higher proportions of crisis admissions. Services most commonly provided included stabilization, assessment, pharmacotherapy, and mental health education. Bed numbers provincially, beds per staff, and prominence of suicide risk, mood disorders, and utilization of cognitive and behavioural approaches were comparable to trends internationally. Inter-setting disparities were observed in access to inpatient services for different age and diagnostic groups, and availability of psychiatry and different professions. Conclusions: Lack of consistent performance and outcome evaluation, common measures, availability of psychiatry and interdisciplinary supports, and dissimilar treatments provincially, suggest the need to consider potential improvements through systematic monitoring of setting performance and outcomes, and development of provincial best practice standards for staffing and treatment. PMID:24516475

  7. [250 years of English psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Freeman, H

    1996-08-01

    The history of British psychiatry is considered from five main viewpoints: clinical practice, the institutional basis, the legislative basis, lay perspectives of-mental disorder, and European influences. Its philosophical basis can be traced back to the work of the seventeenth-century philosophers. Thomas Hobbes and John Locke. In Scotland, both 'philosophy of mind' and new clinical methods flourished during its Enlightenment; the concept of 'neurosis' was developed by William Cullen. Around 1800, James Prichard's concept of 'moral insanity' became the foundation of modern work on personality disorder and psychopathy. The psychotic illness of King George III, beginning in 1788, led to greater public sympathy for the mentally ill. Attitudes since then have varied, with 'antipsychiatry' becoming very influential in the 1960s. By the mid-eighteenth century, specialised institutions for the mentally ill existed in a number of cities, there were also units attached to charitable general hospitals, but none of these continued after about 1830. The neglect of patients in private madhouses, prisons, and poorhouses led to increasing concern by Parliament, which resulted in the development of public asylums throughout the country. Severe legal restrictions on their activities were modified in 1930 and completely reformed in 1959. From the mid-nineteenth century, French and German influences became increasingly strong, but British universities played no active part in psychiatry until the 1950s. Psycho-analysis did not develop strongly in Britain, where the main contribution was through translation and biography, but some leading analysts came as refugees in the 1930s-as did other psychiatrists from central Europe. Another important influence was that of Adolf Meyer at the Institute of Psychiatry, London, particularly through Sir Aubrey Lewis; physical treatment methods also came to Britain from Europe. In the second half of this century, the most important British

  8. Training in psychiatry throughout Europe.

    PubMed

    Brittlebank, Andrew; Hermans, Marc; Bhugra, Dinesh; Pinto da Costa, Mariana; Rojnic-Kuzman, Martina; Fiorillo, Andrea; Kurimay, Tamas; Hanon, Cecile; Wasserman, Danuta; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan

    2016-03-01

    Psychiatry is the largest medical specialty in Europe. Despite efforts to bring harmonisation, training in psychiatry in Europe continues to be very diverse. The Union Européenne des Médecins Spécialistes (UEMS) has issued as from 2000 a charter of requirements for the training in psychiatry with an additional European Framework for Competencies in Psychiatry in 2009. Yet these have not been implemented throughout Europe. In this paper, the diversity in training throughout Europe is approached from different angles: the cultural differences between countries with regards to how mental health care is considered and founded on, the cultural differences between people throughout Europe in all states. The position of psychotherapy is emphasised. What once was the cornerstone of psychiatry as medical specialty seems to have become a neglected area. Seeing the patient with mental health problems within his cultural context is important, but considering him within his family context. The purpose of any training is enabling the trainee to gain the knowledge and acquire the competencies necessary to become a well-equipped professional is the subject of the last paragraph in which trainees consider their position and early career psychiatrists look back to see whether what they were trained in matches with what they need in the working situation. Common standard for training and certification are a necessity within Europe, for the benefit of the profession of psychiatrist but also for patient safety. UEMS is advised to join forces with the Council of National Psychiatric Associations (NPAs) within the EPA and trainings and early career psychiatrist, to discuss with the users what standards should be implemented in all European countries and how a European board examination could ensure professional quality of psychiatrists throughout the continent.

  9. [New developments in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Conus, Philippe; Herrera, Fabrice; Berney, Sylvie; Gailland, Bénédicte; Beretta, Véronique; Vandenberghe, Frederik; Eap, Chin B

    2016-01-13

    Three issues are discussed: i) While number of psychiatric beds has been reduced in most countries and although treatments proposed in psychiatric hospitals have evolved, they continue to be viewed as asylums implementing constraints. Considering this prevents their adequate use and leads to patients' stigmatisation, promotion of a better knowledge of contemporary hospital treatments is needed. 2) In addition, most psychiatric disorders emerging during adolescence and early adulthood, it is important to develop accessible care on university campuses. 3) While risk of weight gain and metabolic syndrome under neuroleptics or mood stabilisers is known, there is a need for the development of that are easy to identify. A 5% increase in weight during the first month of treatment indicates the risk for important later weight gain. PMID:26946712

  10. [New developments in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Conus, Philippe; Herrera, Fabrice; Berney, Sylvie; Gailland, Bénédicte; Beretta, Véronique; Vandenberghe, Frederik; Eap, Chin B

    2016-01-13

    Three issues are discussed: i) While number of psychiatric beds has been reduced in most countries and although treatments proposed in psychiatric hospitals have evolved, they continue to be viewed as asylums implementing constraints. Considering this prevents their adequate use and leads to patients' stigmatisation, promotion of a better knowledge of contemporary hospital treatments is needed. 2) In addition, most psychiatric disorders emerging during adolescence and early adulthood, it is important to develop accessible care on university campuses. 3) While risk of weight gain and metabolic syndrome under neuroleptics or mood stabilisers is known, there is a need for the development of that are easy to identify. A 5% increase in weight during the first month of treatment indicates the risk for important later weight gain.

  11. Psychiatry movie club: A novel way to teach psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Gurvinder

    2011-07-01

    For decades, films across the world have entertained people and affected their attitudes regarding certain issues and conditions. Documentary films have been used by governments in different parts of the world to educate the general public and promote health and prevent the spread of disease as part of public health programs. Psychiatry as a branch of medicine like the rest of medicine continues to develop. With an increasing awareness among the general population and popularity of films showing various aspects of mental illnesses on the rise, educators and teachers are turning their attention to using films for education of medical students and psychiatric trainees. Although films may be stereotypical and prejudiced, they can be used successfully in teaching psychiatry trainees. In this paper, development of a movie club and its use are described and suggestions made to improve the use of films in this process.

  12. Are psychiatric residents still interested in psychoanalysis? A brief report.

    PubMed

    Damsa, Cristian; Bryois, Christian; Morelli, Dawn; Cailhol, Lionel; Adam, Eric; Coman, Adrian; Stamatoiu, Daniela; Lazignac, Coralie; Freymann, Jean-Richard

    2010-12-01

    In spite of the efficacy of the psychodynamic psychotherapies, the number of young psychiatric residents interested in psychodynamic therapies is decreasing. Our psychoanalytical group, Genden (Genève-Denver), explored the possible reasons for psychiatric residents' hesitation to get psychoanalytic training. Five psychoanalytical psychotherapists met weekly for a year in order to debate that question, focusing on personal feedbacks from all of our 100 residents in psychiatry working with us for at least 4 years. Following the residents' responses, our focus group proposed ten commonsense feedbacks for psychoanalysts regarding stimulating young psychiatric residents' interest in psychoanalytic approaches. PMID:21116291

  13. Psychiatry: the battered child of medicine.

    PubMed

    Greenblatt, M

    1975-01-30

    Psychiatry has had a troubled history. After the French Revolution "moral treatment" brought to America a period of effective and humane hospital treatment, but this progress was corrupted by the Industrial Revolution, and psychiatry was rejected by society as well as by medicine. Although the Freudian enlightenment and the introduction of social psychiatry have led to greater acceptance, today's criticisms are strident. Psychiatry is criticized for imprecise diagnosis, conceptual vagaries, jargon, therapeutic impotence and class bias. The American system of mental-health care is seen by many as a disaster. The federal comprehensive Community Mental Health Act has been aborted at an early stage. Skills involved in the practice of psychotherapy are not unique to the profession. Social ills, over which psychiatry has little control, play a large part in causing mental disability and retardation. Nevertheless, though embattled, psychiatry has contributed to medical practice and to the humane consciousness of society. PMID:1089193

  14. Images of psychiatry and psychiatrists

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, H; Sartorius, N; Liinamaa, T

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study surveyed medical teaching faculty to determine their attitudes toward psychiatry and psychiatrists. Method We conducted a multisite survey of a probability sample of 1057 teaching medical faculty members from 15 academic teaching centers in the United Kingdom, Europe, and Asia stratified by early, middle, and late career stage. The average response rate across countries was 65%. Results The outstanding findings were that 90% of respondents considered that psychiatrists were not good role models for medical students, 84% thought psychiatric patients were unsuitable to be treated outside of specialized facilities, and 73% thought psychiatric patients were emotionally draining. We noted statistically significant differences by country, gender, career stage, and specialty. Conclusion These results highlight why recruitment into psychiatry is problematic in many countries and suggest that greater attention should be given to improving the perception of psychiatrists as good role models and the efficacy of psychiatric treatments. PMID:25495023

  15. Ethics in psychiatry: a framework

    PubMed Central

    LOLAS, FERNANDO

    2006-01-01

    Defining bioethics as the rational use of dialogue in the formulation, justification, and application of ethical principles, with the aim ofgenerating good practices in research, clinical practice, and advocacy, this paper focuses on methods for bioethical deliberation relevantto psychiatry. Stressing that bioethics fuses the two main ethical traditions in Western thought, the deontological and the teleological, thepaper emphasizes the three conditions that any intervention, if considered in the context of bioethics, should fulfil: it should be appropriateto the problem at hand, it should be good (in the sense that it does good to those who receive it but also to those who perform it),and it should be just (in the sense that its outcomes can be generalized to the whole of society). Some implications of these notions for thepractice and teaching of psychiatry are presented. PMID:17139356

  16. The Two Cultures in Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Cleghorn, R. A.

    1965-01-01

    The division between the two cultures of the literary and scientific worlds is considered, as is the division between the two cultures of humanism and somaticism. The development of psychiatric thought important to this latter dichotomy is described through the Age of Enlightenment, the Romantic Movement and the New Enlightenment. The two cultures of our present literary and scientific milieux are equated with the romanticism and somaticism of the past. The development of two cultures in psychiatry is traced, beginning with Freud's attempt to combine science and romanticism, to the present day where one finds some degree of convergence between the somatic and psychoanalytic approaches. Criteria are presented for a greater union of the two cultures in psychiatry. PMID:20328284

  17. Emil Kraepelin and forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Hoff, P

    1998-01-01

    Kraepelin's main positions in forensic psychiatry, that are understandable only in the context of his underlying psychiatric and, especially, nosological theory, are the following: (1) Criminal behavior, especially if repeatedly shown by the same individual, should be regarded as (or, in the strongest version possible, is) mental illness; (2) above all, this viewpoint is due to Kraepelin's broad acceptance of degeneration theory in general, whereas he rejected simplifying concepts like Lombroso's early hypothesis of clinically observable "stigmata degenerations"; (3) Kraepelin voted for the acceptance of diminished responsibility to provide a more differentiated spectrum for the psychiatric expert and the judge; (4) because delinquency, in his view, was closely linked with mental illness, which should be treated instead of (only) being punished, he strictly objected to the death penalty; and (5) he suggested significantly increasing psychiatry's influence on decisions regarding the kind and length of imprisonment.

  18. Secular humanism and "scientific psychiatry".

    PubMed

    Szasz, Thomas

    2006-04-25

    The Council for Secular Humanism identifies Secular Humanism as a "way of thinking and living" committed to rejecting authoritarian beliefs and embracing "individual freedom and responsibility ... and cooperation." The paradigmatic practices of psychiatry are civil commitment and insanity defense, that is, depriving innocent persons of liberty and excusing guilty persons of their crimes: the consequences of both are confinement in institutions ostensibly devoted to the treatment of mental diseases. Black's Law Dictionary states: "Every confinement of the person is an 'imprisonment,' whether it be in a common prison, or in private house, or in the stocks, or even by forcibly detaining one in the public streets." Accordingly, I maintain that Secular Humanism is incompatible with the principles and practices of psychiatry.

  19. Secular humanism and "scientific psychiatry"

    PubMed Central

    Szasz, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The Council for Secular Humanism identifies Secular Humanism as a "way of thinking and living" committed to rejecting authoritarian beliefs and embracing "individual freedom and responsibility ... and cooperation." The paradigmatic practices of psychiatry are civil commitment and insanity defense, that is, depriving innocent persons of liberty and excusing guilty persons of their crimes: the consequences of both are confinement in institutions ostensibly devoted to the treatment of mental diseases. Black's Law Dictionary states: "Every confinement of the person is an 'imprisonment,' whether it be in a common prison, or in private house, or in the stocks, or even by forcibly detaining one in the public streets." Accordingly, I maintain that Secular Humanism is incompatible with the principles and practices of psychiatry. PMID:16759353

  20. The Two Cultures in Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Cleghorn, R A

    1965-07-10

    The division between the two cultures of the literary and scientific worlds is considered, as is the division between the two cultures of humanism and somaticism. The development of psychiatric thought important to this latter dichotomy is described through the Age of Enlightenment, the Romantic Movement and the New Enlightenment. The two cultures of our present literary and scientific milieux are equated with the romanticism and somaticism of the past. The development of two cultures in psychiatry is traced, beginning with Freud's attempt to combine science and romanticism, to the present day where one finds some degree of convergence between the somatic and psychoanalytic approaches. Criteria are presented for a greater union of the two cultures in psychiatry. PMID:20328284

  1. Psychiatric comorbidity in forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Palijan, Tija Zarković; Muzinić, Lana; Radeljak, Sanja

    2009-09-01

    For the past several years a numerous studies in the field of forensic psychiatry confirmed a close relationship between violent offenders and comorbid substance abuse. The comorbid substance abuse in violent offenders was usually unrecognized and misdiagnosed. Furthermore, comorbidity in forensic psychiatry describes the co-occurrence of two or more conditions or psychiatric disorder known in the literature as dual diagnosis and defined by World Health Organization (WHO). In fact, many violent offenders have multiple psychiatric diagnoses. Recent studies have confirmed causal relationship between major psychiatric disorders and concomitant substance abuse (comorbidity) in 50-80% of forensic cases. In general, there is a high level of psychiatric comorbidity in forensic patients with prevalence of personality disorders (50-90%), mood disorders (20-60%) and psychotic disorders (15-20%) coupled with substance abuse disorders. Moreover, the high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities could be found in mentally retarded individuals, as well as, in epileptic patients. Drugs and alcohol abuse can produce serious psychotoxic effects that may lead to extreme violent behavior and consequently to serious criminal offence such as physical assault, rape, armed robbery, attempted murder and homicide, all due to an altered brain function and generating psychotic-like symptoms. Studies have confirmed a significant statistical relevance in causal relationship between substance abuse and violent offences. In terms of forensic psychiatry, the comorbidity strongly contributes in the process of establishing psychiatric diagnosis of diminished mental capacity or insanity at the time of the offence in the course of clinical assessment and evaluation of violent offenders. Today, the primary focus of forensic psychiatry treatment services (in-patient or community) is management of the violent offenders with psychiatric comorbidity which requires a multilevel, evidence based approach to

  2. Forensic psychiatry in private practice.

    PubMed

    Modlin, H C; Felthous, A

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents statistical and explanatory analyses of 637 forensic psychiatry cases in a private practice setting during the past 12 years, highlighting the remarkable variety of clinical and legal issues addressed by forensic psychiatrists. Emphasis is on how and why forensic psychiatrists need to be expert diagnosticians and clinicians, and ways in which they may respond to difficult clinical and legal opinions are recommended.

  3. Psychiatry and humanism in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Niño Amieva, Alejandra

    2016-04-01

    The authors of the present selection of Latin American Psychiatry texts were characterized by a common deep humanistic attitude. These prolific writers were able to establish or extend the scope of the discipline in which they chose to act, questioning the establishment of rigid boundaries within the framework of a rigorous epistemological reflection. Thus the systematizing spirit of Jose Ingenieros' in the context of positivist evolutionism, resulted in the act of founding a discipline that integrated the biological and the social. In the case of Guillermo Vidal his conception of mental health went beyond the biomedical to consider psychotherapies as an emotional commitment, continence and empathic understanding; with regard to César Cabral his formation and extensive clinical practice resulted in a work defined by the inquiring into the theoretical concepts underlying Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology. This brief selection does not exhaust the issues or the level of ideas and discussions of Psychiatry in Argentina, but constitutes a textual corpus representative of a disciplinary conception understood as scientific and humanistic endeavor. PMID:27102381

  4. Psychiatry and humanism in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Niño Amieva, Alejandra

    2016-04-01

    The authors of the present selection of Latin American Psychiatry texts were characterized by a common deep humanistic attitude. These prolific writers were able to establish or extend the scope of the discipline in which they chose to act, questioning the establishment of rigid boundaries within the framework of a rigorous epistemological reflection. Thus the systematizing spirit of Jose Ingenieros' in the context of positivist evolutionism, resulted in the act of founding a discipline that integrated the biological and the social. In the case of Guillermo Vidal his conception of mental health went beyond the biomedical to consider psychotherapies as an emotional commitment, continence and empathic understanding; with regard to César Cabral his formation and extensive clinical practice resulted in a work defined by the inquiring into the theoretical concepts underlying Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology. This brief selection does not exhaust the issues or the level of ideas and discussions of Psychiatry in Argentina, but constitutes a textual corpus representative of a disciplinary conception understood as scientific and humanistic endeavor.

  5. Attitudes of Medical Students toward Psychiatry and Psychiatry as a Career: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Zaza

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The discipline of psychiatry, and psychiatry as a career option, have been negatively regarded by medical students for decades. There is a large amount of literature on attitudes of students and the factors that attract them to and detract from psychiatry. The aim of this article is to systematically review this literature from 1990 to…

  6. Resident recruitment.

    PubMed

    Longmaid, H Esterbrook

    2003-02-01

    This article has introduced the reader to the critical components of successful recruitment of radiology residents. With particular attention to the ACGME institutional and program requirements regarding resident recruitment, and an explanation of the support systems (ERAS and NRMP) currently available to those involved in applicant review and selection, the article has sought to delineate a sensible approach to recruitment. Successful recruiters have mastered the essentials of these programs and have learned to adapt the programs to their needs. As new program directors work with their departments' resident selection committees, they will identify the factors that faculty and current residents cite as most important in the successful selection of new residents. By structuring the application review process, exploiting the power of the ERAS, and crafting a purposeful and friendly interview process, radiology residency directors can find and recruit the residents who best match their programs. PMID:12585436

  7. Positive psychiatry: its time has come.

    PubMed

    Jeste, Dilip V; Palmer, Barton W; Rettew, David C; Boardman, Samantha

    2015-06-01

    Traditionally, psychiatry has been defined and practiced as a branch of medicine focused on the diagnosis and treatment of mental illnesses. Based on growing empirical evidence, we believe that this definition warrants expansion to include the concept of positive psychiatry. In the present article, we provide a critical overview of this emerging field and a select review of relevant scientific literature. Positive psychiatry may be defined as the science and practice of psychiatry that seeks to understand and promote well-being through assessment and interventions involving positive psychosocial characteristics (PPCs) in people who suffer from or are at high risk of developing mental or physical illnesses. It can also benefit nonclinical populations. Positive psychiatry has 4 main components: (1) positive mental health outcomes (eg, well-being), (2) PPCs that comprise psychological traits (resilience, optimism, personal mastery and coping self-efficacy, social engagement, spirituality and religiosity, and wisdom-including compassion) and environmental factors (family dynamics, social support, and other environmental determinants of overall health), (3) biology of positive psychiatry constructs, and (4) positive psychiatry interventions including preventive ones. There are promising empirical data to suggest that positive traits may be improved through psychosocial and biological interventions. As a branch of medicine rooted in biology, psychiatry, especially with the proposed conceptualization of positive psychiatry, is well poised to provide major contributions to the positive mental health movement, thereby impacting the overall health care of the population.

  8. Positive psychiatry: its time has come.

    PubMed

    Jeste, Dilip V; Palmer, Barton W; Rettew, David C; Boardman, Samantha

    2015-06-01

    Traditionally, psychiatry has been defined and practiced as a branch of medicine focused on the diagnosis and treatment of mental illnesses. Based on growing empirical evidence, we believe that this definition warrants expansion to include the concept of positive psychiatry. In the present article, we provide a critical overview of this emerging field and a select review of relevant scientific literature. Positive psychiatry may be defined as the science and practice of psychiatry that seeks to understand and promote well-being through assessment and interventions involving positive psychosocial characteristics (PPCs) in people who suffer from or are at high risk of developing mental or physical illnesses. It can also benefit nonclinical populations. Positive psychiatry has 4 main components: (1) positive mental health outcomes (eg, well-being), (2) PPCs that comprise psychological traits (resilience, optimism, personal mastery and coping self-efficacy, social engagement, spirituality and religiosity, and wisdom-including compassion) and environmental factors (family dynamics, social support, and other environmental determinants of overall health), (3) biology of positive psychiatry constructs, and (4) positive psychiatry interventions including preventive ones. There are promising empirical data to suggest that positive traits may be improved through psychosocial and biological interventions. As a branch of medicine rooted in biology, psychiatry, especially with the proposed conceptualization of positive psychiatry, is well poised to provide major contributions to the positive mental health movement, thereby impacting the overall health care of the population. PMID:26132670

  9. Multidisciplinary teams in consultation-liaison psychiatry: the Yale model.

    PubMed

    Leigh, H

    1987-01-01

    The consultation-liaison service at Yale features integrated teams of psychiatrists, social workers, and clinical nurse specialists working together in both consultation and outpatient settings. The model is based on the tenets that (1) comprehensive evaluation of patients is essential for effective treatment; (2) role definition is necessary for specific disciplines, including the definition of overlapping and separate areas of expertise and practice. The multidisciplinary teams are coordinated by a psychiatric resident, who is supervised by an attending psychiatrist. The role of the resident is that of a diagnostician and coordinating physician. The social worker functions as an expert in family evaluation and treatment, and the nurse specialist functions as supportive therapist and liaison with the nursing staff. The structure of the division of consultation-liaison and ambulatory services at Yale is described and the advantages and disadvantages of the multidisciplinary team concept are discussed in comparison with other models of consultation-liaison psychiatry.

  10. Inequities and psychiatry disability in transition among the elderly population from 1987 to 2006 in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhenjie; Li, Ning; Guo, Chao; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The world will be facing huge population aged 65 and older, accounting for 13% of the total population in the future. Significant disabilities rates reflect an accumulation of health risks. Psychiatry disability is one of the most significant disabilities, because it manifests in cognitive, affective, and behavior disorders that limit one's daily life and restrict their participations. Very few studies have explored the 20 years associations between demographic factors and psychiatry disability among older people in China. In this study, we investigated psychiatry disability transitional association behind China rapid development from 1987 to 2006 among the 60 and older population. Data used 2 nationally represented, population-based data from the China National Sample Surveys on Disability, conducted in 1987 and 2006. The sample size of the current study was 140,008 in 1987 and 354,859 in 2006, respectively. Associations between socioeconomic factors and psychiatry disability were determined by using a logistic regression model. The prevalence of psychiatric disabilities increased from 1987 to 2006. In both surveys, the most common psychiatric disabilities were schizophrenia, schizotypal, and delusional disorders, and they presented the same associations with age increase. Socioeconomic inequities, such as current employment status and marital status, were associated with psychiatry disability in both surveys. These associations remained even after these 2 surveys were combined. The rapidly rising prevalence of psychiatric disorders expected warrants strategies to reduce the burden of these disabilities among females and rural residents. PMID:27603379

  11. Perspective: Upcoming paradigm shifts for psychiatry in clinical care, research, and education.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Eugene H; Zorumski, Charles F

    2012-03-01

    Psychiatry is facing a crisis fueled by a fragmented and inefficient system of care delivery and a disconnection between the state of research and the state of psychiatry education and practice. Many factors contribute to the current state of psychiatric care. Psychiatry is a shortage specialty, and this will become worse in the near future. In addition, financial pressures have led to decreases in psychiatric inpatient and outpatient services and to shorter lengths of hospitalization for even the sickest patients. This has resulted in fragmented care and an overreliance on polypharmacy. To reach the large number of patients needing psychiatric services, health care systems must change and take advantage of collaborative and integrative care models and new technologies. Psychiatrists must learn to partner more effectively with primary care providers to extend their expertise to the greatest number of patients. Currently, psychiatric diagnosis is based on a criteria-based system that was developed in the 1970s. Advances in systems and molecular neuroscience are beginning to elucidate specific brain systems that are dysfunctional in psychiatric illness. This has the potential to revolutionize psychiatric diagnosis and treatment in the future. However, psychiatry has not yet been successful in incorporating the language of this research into clinically meaningful terminology. If neuroscientific progress is to be translated into clinical advances, this must change. Residency programs must better prepare their graduates to keep up with a psychiatry literature that will increasingly use the language of neural circuits to describe psychiatric symptomatology and treatments.

  12. Women and Teaching in Academic Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirshbein, Laura D.; Fitzgerald, Kate; Riba, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This article explores past, present, and future issues for women and teaching in academic psychiatry. A small study of didactic teaching responsibilities along faculty groups in one academic psychiatry department helps to illustrate challenges and opportunities for women in psychiatric teaching settings. Background: Although women have…

  13. Child Psychiatry Curricula in Undergraduate Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Michael Gifford; Giesen, Femke; Walter, Garry

    2008-01-01

    A study to review the amount of time devoted to child psychiatry in undergraduate medical education is conducted. Results conclude that relatively low priority is given to child psychiatry in medical education with suggestions for international teaching standards on the subject.

  14. Attitude towards psychiatry among medical students.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Ashish

    2012-10-01

    The proportion of medical graduates opting for psychiatry in career has been observed to be distinctly less compared to those choosing other specialties. The study was undertaken to find out the attitudes of newly entrant medical students towards psychiatry in comparison to other specialties. Sixty-two students of first year MBBS were administered a questionnaire to assess their attitudes towards various specialties. Only 1 student (1.5%) opted for psychiatry as a career choice, another 2 students (3%) considered it as a strong possibility, 71.5% negated psychiatry as a career choice. Students rated psychiatry significantly lower than other specialties in regards to financially rewarding, enjoyable and satisfying work, intellectually challenging, scientific basis, prestige among others, lifestyle. Psychiatry was also rated as poor on prospects of having a bright and interesting future. The present study suggests that new entrants in medical college harbour a negative attitude towards psychiatry, which has not changed over the last three to four decades. A conscious effort in trying to make psychiatry an active and interesting component of medical education and an improved portrayal of this field in society thereby reducing stigma associated with it would be of immense importance in generating interest in this field among newly entrant medical students. PMID:23738403

  15. The history of Italian psychiatry during Fascism.

    PubMed

    Piazzi, Andrea; Testa, Luana; Del Missier, Giovanni; Dario, Mariopaolo; Stocco, Ester

    2011-09-01

    Specific features characterized Italian psychiatry during Fascism (1922-45), distinguishing it from Nazi psychiatry and giving rise to different operational outcomes, so we have investigated the state of Italian psychiatry during this period. We review the historical situation that preceded it and describe the social and health policies that Fascism introduced following new legislative and regulatory acts. We examine the preventive and therapeutic role played by psychiatry (the electric shock was an Italian invention) and, thanks to the Enciclopedia Italiano published during those years, we are able to highlight psychiatry's relationship to psychology, psychoanalysis, philosophy and religion. The shortcomings of Italian psychiatric research and practice are also seen in terms of what the State failed to do rather than what it did.

  16. Forensic psychiatry: contemporary scope, challenges and controversies.

    PubMed

    Arboleda-Flórez, Julio

    2006-06-01

    Forensic psychiatry is the branch of psychiatry that deals with issues arising in the interface between psychiatry and the law, and with the flow of mentally disordered offenders along a continuum of social systems. Modern forensic psychiatry has benefited from four key developments: the evolution in the understanding and appreciation of the relationship between mental illness and criminality; the evolution of the legal tests to define legal insanity; the new methodologies for the treatment of mental conditions providing alternatives to custodial care; and the changes in attitudes and perceptions of mental illness among the public. This paper reviews the current scope of forensic psychiatry and the ethical dilemmas that this subspecialty is facing worldwide.

  17. Forensic psychiatry: contemporary scope, challenges and controversies

    PubMed Central

    ARBOLEDA-FLÓREZ, JULIO

    2006-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry is the branch of psychiatry that deals with issues arising in the interface between psychiatry and the law, and with the flow of mentally disordered offenders along a continuum of social systems. Modern forensic psychiatry has benefited from four key developments: the evolution in the understanding and appreciation of the relationship between mental illness and criminality; the evolution of the legal tests to define legal insanity; the new methodologies for the treatment of mental conditions providing alternatives to custodial care; and the changes in attitudes and perceptions of mental illness among the public. This paper reviews the current scope of forensic psychiatry and the ethical dilemmas that this subspecialty is facing worldwide. PMID:16946941

  18. ["Great jobs"-also in psychiatry?].

    PubMed

    Spiessl, H; Hübner-Liebermann, B

    2003-09-01

    Against the background of a beginning shortage of psychiatrists, results from interviews with 112 employees of an automotive company with the topic "Great Job" are presented to discuss their relevance to psychiatry. The interviews were analysed by means of a qualitative content analysis. Most employees assigned importance to great pay, constructive collaboration with colleagues, and work appealing to personal interests. Further statements particularly relevant to psychiatry were: successful career, flexible working hours, manageable job, work-life balance, well-founded training, no bureaucracy within the company, and personal status in society. The well-known economic restrictions in health care and the still negative attitude towards psychiatry currently reduce the attraction of psychiatry as a profession. From the viewpoint of personnel management, the attractors of a great job revealed in this study are proposed as important clues for the recruitment of medical students for psychiatry and the development of psychiatric staff.

  19. Some gestalt contributions to psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Clegg, Kathleen A

    2010-07-01

    Gestalt theory and methods support significant behavioral change and personal growth, yet they have not been widely incorporated into modern psychiatric practice. Challenges to employing Gestalt principles in psychiatric practice exist, such as focus on diagnosis to guide treatment planning, key elements of psychiatric training, primacy of medication management in psychiatric practice, and financial pressures. However, the concepts of the co-created relational field in the here and now, the paradoxical theory of change, the cycle of experience, and the use of experiment are Gestalt concepts and methods that can be effectively applied in the modern practice of clinical psychiatry and psychiatric education.

  20. The industrialization of American psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Bittker, T E

    1985-02-01

    Physician surpluses and escalating medical care costs have fostered an alliance among government, corporate America, and health insurers that has inspired medicine's industrialization. These same forces will transform psychiatry into an industry where prospective payment, automation, salaried employment, and central control of clinical activities threaten to become the dominant form of medical practice. Emerging trends suggest that both patients and health professionals will gravitate to various forms of alternative provider organizations in an effort to shield themselves from the economic uncertainties of seeking and providing care. The chronically mentally ill and others requiring extensive treatment risk exclusion from this new system, where cost consciousness may supplant compassion.

  1. Polypharmacy In Psychiatry: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kukreja, Sanjay; Kalra, Gurvinder; Shah, Nilesh; Shrivastava, Amresh

    2013-01-01

    Psychiatric polypharmacy refers to the prescription of two or more psychiatric medications concurrently to a patient. It can be categorised as same-class, multi-class, adjunctive, augmentation and total polypharmacy. Despite advances in psychopharmacology and a better understanding of the principles of therapeutics, its practice is increasing rapidly. The prevalence of polypharmacy in psychiatry varies between 13%-90%. There are various clinical and pharmaco-economic factors associated with it. Dealing with polypharmacy requires an understanding of its associated factors. Education, guidelines and algorithms for the appropriate management of various conditions are effective ways to avoid irrational polypharmacy. PMID:23678240

  2. The Holy Grail of Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Nemeroff, Charles B

    2015-01-01

    "Holy Grail" is a well-known metaphor for the eternal spiritual pursuit for truth and wisdom. It suggests that in order for us to find what no one has found, we must search where few have looked. In 2013, a group led by Helen Mayberg published a groundbreaking paper that sought an answer to one of the most discussed conundrums in psychiatry and neuroscience: Can specific patterns of brain activity indicate how a depressed person will respond to treatment with medication or psychotherapy? Our author examines the findings and discusses their potential impact on treatment for a public health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. PMID:27358663

  3. Cross-Cultural Psychiatric Residency Training: The Oregon Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehnlein, James K.; Leung, Paul K.; Kinzie, John David

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this article is to describe the goals and structure of cross-cultural psychiatric training at Oregon Health and Science University (OHSU). This training in core knowledge, skills, and attitudes of cultural psychiatry over the past three decades has included medical students, residents, and fellows, along with allied…

  4. [Use of informatics technology in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Margariti, M; Papadimitriou, G N

    2012-01-01

    psychiatrist to come to possess a specialized field of knowledge. The Internet also enables psychiatrists, while being at their residence and from their offices and homes in remote areas of a country, or from developing countries to be able to take part relatively easily in continuing medical education programs that are under development in advanced educational centers, eliminating in this way the barrier of distance. Furthermore, telemedicine allows access in health-care to people living in geographically isolated areas with poor medical facilities. The electronic filing systems on the other hand, are also expected in the near future to provide the essential foundation of sharing and managing information material in health care. Apart from the uses of technology in the practice of psychiatry, technology has many uses in Psychiatric Education, providing valuable assistance to both trainees and trainers. Today the educational community has at its disposal a range of devices, operating systems, and web applications useful in medical education. For example, we can mention the existence of technological tools for educational administration and management, evaluation of educational work, tools for creating educational content, and learning outside the confines of the classroom. Developments arising from the use of technology are rapid, and its use brings new applications that have the potential to alter the framework of practicing medicine. However, in many cases, these applications do not go along with the guidelines and principles available to doctors in order to practice their profession in a manner not inconsistent with moral imperatives. The challenge of this new environment is to establish guidelines consistent with the principles of medical ethics.

  5. British psychiatry and its discontents

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Summary Psychiatry in the UK is currently faced with serious difficulties arising from failure in recruiting British doctors and a high rate of early retirement from the specialty. To diagnose the underlying causes, account must be taken of government policies affecting the NHS in general and mental health services in particular. The latter include an excessive run-down of acute hospital beds, as well as projects aimed at changing the clinical role of psychiatrists and promoting mass treatment of milder mental disorders by non-medical personnel. Psychiatrists have reacted to these developments with anger and dismay, but have as yet reached no consensus with regard to either causal factors or appropriate response. Their uncertainty reflects the need for a firmer grasp of the historical background. Modern British psychiatry was effectively created and moulded as an integral part of the NHS. It flourished as long as the public service framework remained intact, but has suffered a decline since the whole structure began to buckle under the pressure of sustained political assaults. A clearer understanding of this vital connection would help to raise psychiatrists' morale and encourage them to establish common ground with medical colleagues and other healthcare professionals. PMID:20929890

  6. Against Explanatory Minimalism in Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The idea that psychiatry contains, in principle, a series of levels of explanation has been criticized not only as empirically false but also, by Campbell, as unintelligible because it presupposes a discredited pre-Humean view of causation. Campbell's criticism is based on an interventionist-inspired denial that mechanisms and rational connections underpin physical and mental causation, respectively, and hence underpin levels of explanation. These claims echo some superficially similar remarks in Wittgenstein's Zettel. But attention to the context of Wittgenstein's remarks suggests a reason to reject explanatory minimalism in psychiatry and reinstate a Wittgensteinian notion of levels of explanation. Only in a context broader than the one provided by interventionism is that the ascription of propositional attitudes, even in the puzzling case of delusions, justified. Such a view, informed by Wittgenstein, can reconcile the idea that the ascription mental phenomena presupposes a particular level of explanation with the rejection of an a priori claim about its connection to a neurological level of explanation.

  7. Against Explanatory Minimalism in Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The idea that psychiatry contains, in principle, a series of levels of explanation has been criticized not only as empirically false but also, by Campbell, as unintelligible because it presupposes a discredited pre-Humean view of causation. Campbell’s criticism is based on an interventionist-inspired denial that mechanisms and rational connections underpin physical and mental causation, respectively, and hence underpin levels of explanation. These claims echo some superficially similar remarks in Wittgenstein’s Zettel. But attention to the context of Wittgenstein’s remarks suggests a reason to reject explanatory minimalism in psychiatry and reinstate a Wittgensteinian notion of levels of explanation. Only in a context broader than the one provided by interventionism is that the ascription of propositional attitudes, even in the puzzling case of delusions, justified. Such a view, informed by Wittgenstein, can reconcile the idea that the ascription mental phenomena presupposes a particular level of explanation with the rejection of an a priori claim about its connection to a neurological level of explanation. PMID:26696908

  8. Timely topics in pediatric psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Dineen Wagner, Karen

    2014-11-01

    This section of Focus on Childhood and Adolescent Mental Health presents findings on an array of topics including inflammation and child and adolescent depression, glutamatergic dysregulation and pediatric psychiatric disorders, predictors of bipolar disorder in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and the continuum between obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). There is increased interest in the role of inflammation in psychiatric disorders. Kim and colleagues conducted a systematic literature review to examine the relationships between inflammatory processes, inflammation, medical conditions, and depression and suicidality in children and adolescents. PMID:25470084

  9. Teaching the Physician-Manager Role to Psychiatric Residents: Development and Implementation of a Pilot Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stergiopoulos, Vicky; Maggi, Julie; Sockalingam, Sanjeev

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe a pilot physician-manager curriculum designed to address the learning needs of psychiatric residents in administrative psychiatry and health systems. Methods: The pilot curriculum includes a junior and a senior toolkit of four workshops each. The junior toolkit introduces postgraduate-year two (PGY-2) residents to…

  10. [Quantification in psychiatry: from psychometrics to quantitative psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Pichot, P

    1994-01-01

    The development of quantitative techniques to analyse psychopathological states is reviewed from the XVIIIth Century till today. As far as back as the XIXth Century, Quetelet, Louis and Galton introduced and advocated the use of quantitative methods in medical and psychological sciences. The advent of psychometry dates back 1905, when Alfred Binet published his Intelligence Scale. The construction of instruments like Wechsler and MMPI scales in the forties starts using psychometry in psychiatry. At end of World War II, historical factors (selection and guidance of military recruits) in conjunction with technical advancements (beginning of psychopharmacology, multivariate statistics development and first computers arrival) favor the growth of quantitative psychopathology that further takes four great different courses: 1. Psychometry proper, 2. Symptom-quantifying assessment scales such as BPRS or Hamilton scales, 3. New nosological models constructed using quantified psychopathological data and mathematical procedures, 4. Diagnostic systems relying on operationalized criteria based on psychopathological quantification, such as DSM III.

  11. A personal journey into cultural psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Westermeyer, Joseph

    2011-04-01

    The two primary audiences for this article are psychiatrists interested in a cultural psychiatry career and academic as well as healthcare leaders who are in a position to support cultural psychiatry training. In addition to describing my own personal journey through cultural psychiatry, this report includes strategic recommendations for becoming a cultural psychiatrist as well as rationales for supporting a cadre of cultural psychiatrists in the coming decades. A World Health Organization (WHO) sponsored program for training clinicians in addictions is described. Finally, the account summarizes those clinical, research, educational, consultative, and leadership roles that cultural training influenced during my career. PMID:21511852

  12. A Marxist approach to psychology and psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Nahem, J

    1982-01-01

    Marxism considers psychology and psychiatry to be young and complex sciences which are powerfully affected by the nature of society. Marxism contributes to these sciences by applying dialectical and historical materialism to their study and development. The Marxist critique of psychology and psychiatry under capitalism identifies the immense harmful effect on them of capitalist class ideology in a number of areas: anti-working class theories, racism, national chauvinism, sexism, theories of fixed evil human nature, and false or one-sided theories. Socialism is held to provide a healthy environment for individual psychological development and to utilize psychology and psychiatry for scientific and humane ends.

  13. Commentary: Is ethical forensic psychiatry an oxymoron?

    PubMed

    Dike, Charles C

    2008-01-01

    The role of psychiatry in the legal arena is grossly misunderstood and even controversial. Some respected psychiatrists and members of the public have argued that the current state of the science of psychiatry is such that it has little to offer the legal system, and consequently, psychiatrists should be banned from the courts. Alan Stone's critique of forensic psychiatry 25 years ago is probably the most pointed. In this article, a summary of four different responses to Alan Stone's critique will be presented and analyzed.

  14. Relational agents in clinical psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Bickmore, Timothy; Gruber, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Relational agents are computational artifacts, such as animated, screen-based characters or social robots, that are designed to establish a sense of rapport, trust, and even therapeutic alliance with patients, using ideal therapeutic relationships between human counselors and patients as role models. We describe the development and evaluation of several such agents designed for health counseling and behavioral-change interventions, in which a therapeutic alliance is established with patients in order to enhance the efficacy of the intervention. We also discuss the promise of using such agents as adjuncts to clinical psychiatry, a range of possible applications, and some of the challenges and ethical issues in developing and fielding them in psychiatric interventions.

  15. Sustainable psychiatry in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Yarlagadda, Sucharita; Maughan, Daniel; Lingwood, Susie; Davison, Phil

    2014-01-01

    Demands on our mental health services are growing as financial pressures increase. In addition, there are regular changes to service design and commissioning. The current political mantra is ‘more and more, of better quality, for less and less, please’. We suggest that mental health services need to actively respond to these constraints and that clinical transformation is needed to move towards a more sustainable system of healthcare. Emphasis on prevention, patient empowerment and leaner, greener services is required alongside more extensive use of technologies. Focusing on these areas will make mental health services more responsive to the challenges we face and serve to future-proof psychiatry in the UK. Services need to be delivered to provide maximum benefit to the health of our patients, but also to our society and the environment. PMID:25505629

  16. [Disaster psychiatry in late life].

    PubMed

    Awata, Shuichi

    2013-10-01

    Disaster preparedness in geriatric psychiatry was proposed on the basis of experience of the Great East Japan Earthquake. 1) Frail or demented elderly should be considered as a special population at risk for disaster victims and addressed in local disaster prevention programs. 2) To response to various psychiatric symptoms(delirium, BPSD, depression, anxiety, insomnia, and posttraumatic stress disorder) caused by medical conditions and rapid environmental changes due to disaster, linkage and coordination systems between psychiatric and medical sections should be established. 3) As a medium- and long-term support for the elderly who lost the community familiar to them, creation of a new community should be promoted in order to prevent depression, alcohol dependence, BPSD, and suicide.

  17. Neuroimaging, culture, and forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Neil K

    2009-01-01

    The spread of neuroimaging technologies around the world has led to diverse practices of forensic psychiatry and the emergence of neuroethics and neurolaw. This article surveys the neuroethics and neurolegal literature on the use of forensic neuroimaging within the courtroom. Next, the related literature within medical anthropology and science and technology studies is reviewed to show how debates about forensic neuroimaging reflect cultural tensions about attitudes regarding the self, mental illness, and medical expertise. Finally, recommendations are offered on how forensic psychiatrists can add to this research, given their professional interface between law and medicine. At stake are the fundamental concerns that surround changing conceptions of the self, sickness, and expectations of medicine. PMID:19535562

  18. Sacred psychiatry in ancient Greece

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    From the ancient times, there are three basic approaches for the interpretation of the different psychic phenomena: the organic, the psychological, and the sacred approach. The sacred approach forms the primordial foundation for any psychopathological development, innate to the prelogical human mind. Until the second millennium B.C., the Great Mother ruled the Universe and shamans cured the different mental disorders. But, around 1500 B.C., the predominance of the Hellenic civilization over the Pelasgic brought great changes in the theological and psychopathological fields. The Hellenes eliminated the cult of the Great Mother and worshiped Dias, a male deity, the father of gods and humans. With the Father's help and divinatory powers, the warrior-hero made diagnoses and found the right therapies for mental illness; in this way, sacerdotal psychiatry was born. PMID:24725988

  19. Primary care psychiatry in Italy.

    PubMed

    Berardi, Domenico; Ferrannini, Luigi; Menchetti, Marco; Vaggi, Marco

    2014-06-01

    In Italy, the importance of integrating primary care and mental health has only recently been grasped. Several reasons may explain this delay: a) until 2005, primary care physicians worked individually instead of in group practices, without any functional network or structured contacts with colleagues; b) community mental health centers with multiprofessional teams were well structured and widespread in several regions but focused on people with severe and persistent mental disorders; and c) specific national government health policies were lacking. Only two regions have implemented explicit policies on this issue. The "G. Leggieri" program started by the Emilia-Romagna region health government in 1999 aims to coordinate unsolicited bottom-up cooperation initiatives developing since the 1980s. In Liguria, a regional work group was established in 2010 to boost the strategic role of collaborative programs between primary care and mental health services. This article describes the most innovative experiences relating to primary care psychiatry in Italy.

  20. [The most important obstacles of the development of Hungarian psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Kalmár, Sándor

    2015-06-01

    A quarter of a century ago the change of the political system in Hungary precipitated a serious value-crisis and caused a lot of harmful effects in nurturing and the development of psychiatry. The author establishes that the attack against psychiatry is more intensive than previously but neither the education and health management nor the psychiatric leadership could cope with these difficulties. It can't be denied that the foundation of lifelong mental health begins in the early life years and about 75% of the first Mental Disorder manifests in adolescence and youth. We are not able to ensure the special rights of every child according to the Hungarian Constitution and the Declaration of the Rights of the Child by the United Nations. The large inequalities within the country, the lack of paramount mental education and nurturing, the lack of essential, consistent eternal values, the lack of required psychiatric care system are huge obstacles of the development of healthy individual and leads to self-destructive behaviour and several, serious physical and mental disorders. The purpose of the author is to call psychiatrists' attention to the main obstacles of the development of Hungarian Psychiatric Care System. The main obstacles of the present psychiatric care system: 1. Unclarified notions, confusion of ideas. 2. Somatic, neurologic, mental, cultural-social and spiritual ignorance. 3. Lack of organization in Mental Education and Psychiatric Care System. 4. Value-crisis in our society despite the fact that the "Council of Wise Men" created a "Scale of the Essential Consistent Eternal Values" for the Hungarian Education System in 2008. 5. Lack of mental health prevention both in education system and health care system. There is no teaching of hygiene lessons in the Hungarian schools. 6. Negligence and selfishness among the population. 7. Disinterest among competent authorities. 8. Leaving the most important possibilities out of consideration. The author establishes

  1. Research in Psychiatry: Concepts and Conceptual Analysis.

    PubMed

    Marková, Ivana S; Berrios, German E

    2016-01-01

    Current research in psychiatry is increasingly focused on empirical studies with methods and technologies adopted from medicine. This paper argues that psychiatry has a different epistemological basis from medicine, and it is on account of this that research in psychiatry demands a different approach, one that perforce focuses on the clarification of concepts central to psychiatric practice. This means undertaking conceptual analysis and conceptual history and only then moving on to empirical study. This paper highlights the crucial epistemological differences between the practice of medicine and psychiatry, showing that the latter is enacted at the level of language and communication. Consequently, the structures of psychiatric objects, namely, mental disorders and mental symptoms, are complexes of meaning derived from heterogeneous sources - both organic and semantic. Conceptual analysis of such structures is essential as ultimately the validity of empirical research is directly dependent on the conceptual clarification of its objects of inquiry. PMID:27463619

  2. [Aeromedical Decision-Making in Psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Weber, F

    2016-09-01

    This paper reviews aeromedical decision-making in psychiatry. It explains the "one-percent rule", the general medical criteria for fitness for flying and how they are applied to psychiatric disorders. PMID:27607071

  3. [A journey in the universe of psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Vaudelet, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    The career development of a nurse in psychiatry from 1968 up until 2004 conveys the evolutions in asylum, care and therapeutics. Working as a nurse in a home for children enables us to see the actual roots of this profession.

  4. Permanent resident

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, John F.

    2016-01-01

    The training of physicians in the past century was based primarily on responsibility and the chain-of-command. Those with the bulk of that responsibility in the fields of pediatrics and internal medicine were residents. Residents trained the medical students and supervised them carefully in caring for patients. Most attending physicians supervised their teams at arm's length, primarily serving as teachers of the finer points of diagnosis and treatment during set periods of the day or week with a perfunctory signature on write-ups or progress notes. Residents endeavored to protect the attending physician from being heavily involved unless they were unsure about a clinical problem. Before contacting the attending physician, a more senior resident would be called. Responsibility was the ultimate teacher. The introduction of diagnosis-related groups by the federal government dramatically changed the health care delivery system, placing greater emphasis on attending physician visibility in the medical record, ultimately resulting in more attending physician involvement in day-to-day care of patients in academic institutions. Without specified content in attending notes, hospital revenues would decline. Although always in charge technically, attending physicians increasingly have assumed the role once dominated by the resident. Using biographical experiences of more than 40 years, the author acknowledges and praises the educational role of responsibility in his own training and laments its declining role in today's students and house staff. PMID:27193992

  5. Permanent resident.

    PubMed

    Fisher, John F

    2016-01-01

    The training of physicians in the past century was based primarily on responsibility and the chain-of-command. Those with the bulk of that responsibility in the fields of pediatrics and internal medicine were residents. Residents trained the medical students and supervised them carefully in caring for patients. Most attending physicians supervised their teams at arm's length, primarily serving as teachers of the finer points of diagnosis and treatment during set periods of the day or week with a perfunctory signature on write-ups or progress notes. Residents endeavored to protect the attending physician from being heavily involved unless they were unsure about a clinical problem. Before contacting the attending physician, a more senior resident would be called. Responsibility was the ultimate teacher. The introduction of diagnosis-related groups by the federal government dramatically changed the health care delivery system, placing greater emphasis on attending physician visibility in the medical record, ultimately resulting in more attending physician involvement in day-to-day care of patients in academic institutions. Without specified content in attending notes, hospital revenues would decline. Although always in charge technically, attending physicians increasingly have assumed the role once dominated by the resident. Using biographical experiences of more than 40 years, the author acknowledges and praises the educational role of responsibility in his own training and laments its declining role in today's students and house staff.

  6. Why is psychiatry prone to fads?

    PubMed

    Paris, Joel

    2013-10-01

    Psychiatry has long been prone to fads. The main reason is that mental illness is poorly understood and can be difficult to treat. Most diagnostic fads have involved the extension of well-known categories into broader spectra. The most prominent treatment fads have involved the overuse of pharmacological interventions and a proliferation of methods for psychotherapy. The best antidote to fads is a commitment to evidence-based psychiatry.

  7. Psychiatry, religious conversion, and medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Post, Stephen G

    1991-09-01

    The interface between religion, psychiatry, and ethics is often a locus for considerable controversy. This article focuses on the response of American psychiatry to religious nonconformism, and to religious conversion generally. At issue is the societal pressure against unpopular religious movements. The author argues for an ethic that conserves the freedom of religious conscience, and that guards against inquisitions in the guise of medical expertise and nosology.

  8. Delpech and the origins of occupational psychiatry.

    PubMed Central

    O'Flynn, R R; Waldron, H A

    1990-01-01

    Auguste-Louis Delpech (1818-80) has been remembered principally as the author of the first detailed description of the serious consequences of exposure to carbon disulphide. A close reading of his work suggests that his reputation has been seriously undervalued. The subsequent development of occupational psychiatry, with its emphasis on the distinction between the organic and the functional, may be traced through publications on carbon disulphide. It is argued that a contemporary approach to occupational psychiatry is long overdue. PMID:2183876

  9. What can philosophy do for psychiatry?

    PubMed Central

    Fulford, Kenneth WM; Stanghellini, Giovanni; Broome, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    This article illustrates the practical impact of recent developments in the philosophy of psychiatry in five key areas: patient-centred practice, new models of service delivery, neuroscience research, psychiatric education, and the organisation of psychiatry as an international science-led discipline focused on patient care. We conclude with a note on the role of philosophy in countering the stigmatisation of mental disorder. PMID:16633476

  10. [Psychiatry, the field of all risks].

    PubMed

    Gilioli, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Mental disorders lead patients along paths of irrationality. Insanity is perceived as excessiveness, often associated with violence. Risk in psychiatry is omnipresent and nursing practice is performed within a narrow safety zone. The media coverage of sensitive situations does not help. Ensuring the patient's recovery, respecting the fundamental principles of individual freedom while assuring the utmost safety of others is the constant challenge facing caregivers in psychiatry.

  11. [Psychiatry, the field of all risks].

    PubMed

    Gilioli, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Mental disorders lead patients along paths of irrationality. Insanity is perceived as excessiveness, often associated with violence. Risk in psychiatry is omnipresent and nursing practice is performed within a narrow safety zone. The media coverage of sensitive situations does not help. Ensuring the patient's recovery, respecting the fundamental principles of individual freedom while assuring the utmost safety of others is the constant challenge facing caregivers in psychiatry. PMID:26143214

  12. Coalescence of psychiatry, neurology, and neuropsychology: from theory to practice.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Miles G; Goldstein, Martin; Katz, David; O'Neil, Sarah Quimby; Joseph, Anthony; Price, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    In a climate of renewed interest in the synergy between neurology and psychiatry, practitioners are increasingly recognizing the importance of exchange and collaboration between these two disciplines. However, there are few working models of interdisciplinary teams that freely share expertise in real time, while providing clinical and academic training to future physicians who specialize in the central nervous system. Over the past 11 years, the McLean Hospital Neuropsychiatry and Behavioral Neurology service has provided proof-of-principle for such collaboration, demonstrating that a team comprising psychiatrists, neurologists, and neuropsychologists can function effectively as a unit while maintaining the autonomy of these three disciplines and also synthesizing their combined knowledge. In addition to delivering enhanced patient care and promoting medical research, this clinical service has provided enriched cross-specialty training for fellows, residents, and medical students. The practical functioning of the team is described, and case vignettes are presented to illustrate the team's collaborative synergism in practice.

  13. Innovative Training in Pediatrics, General Psychiatry, and Child Psychiatry: Background, Outcomes, and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Mary Margaret; Fritz, Gregory K.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The authors describe the history, rationale, and outcomes of combined training programs in pediatrics, psychiatry, and child psychiatry ("triple board"), including narrative feedback from graduates and reflections upon the important components of the program. Methods: This article reviews the background and experiences of triple board…

  14. Attitudes of Medical Students towards Psychiatry: Effects of Training, Courses in Psychiatry, Psychiatric Experience and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhnigk, Olaf; Strebel, Bernd; Schilauske, Joerg; Jueptner, Markus

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The attitudes of medical students towards psychiatry and psychotherapy were examined considering the extent of their education, previous psychiatry experience, the evaluation of the course, their career intentions and socio-demographic variables. Methods: Five hundred and eight medical students in their second, fifth, ninth and tenth…

  15. Divergent Fates of the Medical Humanities in Psychiatry and Internal Medicine: Should Psychiatry Be Rehumanized?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Bret R.; Hellerstein, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine the degree to which the medical humanities have been integrated into the fields of internal medicine and psychiatry, the authors assessed the presence of medical humanities articles in selected psychiatry and internal medicine journals from 1950 to 2000. Methods: The journals searched were the three highest-ranking…

  16. New image of psychiatry, mass media impact and public relations.

    PubMed

    Jakovljević, Miro; Tomić, Zoran; Maslov, Boris; Skoko, Iko

    2010-06-01

    The mass media has a powerful impact on public attitudes about mental health and psychiatry. The question of identity of psychiatry as a medical profession as well as of the future of psychiatry has been the subject of much controversial discussion. Psychiatry today has the historical opportunity to shape the future of mental health care, medicine and society. It has gained in scientific and professional status by the tremendous increase of knowledge and treatment skills. Psychiatry should build up new transdisciplinary and integrative image of a specialized profession, promote it and make it public. Good public relations are very important for the future of psychiatry.

  17. New image of psychiatry, mass media impact and public relations.

    PubMed

    Jakovljević, Miro; Tomić, Zoran; Maslov, Boris; Skoko, Iko

    2010-06-01

    The mass media has a powerful impact on public attitudes about mental health and psychiatry. The question of identity of psychiatry as a medical profession as well as of the future of psychiatry has been the subject of much controversial discussion. Psychiatry today has the historical opportunity to shape the future of mental health care, medicine and society. It has gained in scientific and professional status by the tremendous increase of knowledge and treatment skills. Psychiatry should build up new transdisciplinary and integrative image of a specialized profession, promote it and make it public. Good public relations are very important for the future of psychiatry. PMID:20562738

  18. Recent Stressful Life Events among Bahraini Adolescents with Adjustment Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Ansari, Ahmed; Matar, Ali M.

    1993-01-01

    Retrospectively examined adolescents from two time periods, diagnosed with adjustment disorder (n=72), for type of life stressors that initiated referrals to child psychiatry unit and compared them to control group of 42 referred adolescents with no psychopathology. Disappointment in relationships with family member or friend of opposite sex was…

  19. [Psychiatry and mental health in the Institutp de Seguridad Social para los Trabajadores del Estado. Philosophy of its development].

    PubMed

    Dallal y Castillo, E

    1977-01-01

    In 1972, prepaid medical care for government employees provided by their social security institute, ISSSTE, was reorganized. A division of planning and technical standards was established, within which a Department of Psychiatry was included. Psychiatric care was restructured at three levels: psychiatric hospital, psychiatric OPD at clinic and hospital level and a pilot program in community psychiatry. A three-year psychiatric residency program was established, in addition to participation in other postgraduate, in-service training and monographic courses. Systematic research was started, as well as a publications program, working relationship with other institutions and societies were enhanced. A descriptive example is Child Psychiatry. Most frequent diagnoses are reviewed, and development of services is followed in relation to pediatric departments.

  20. Neurology and psychiatry in Babylon.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Edward H; Wilson, James V Kinnier

    2014-09-01

    We here review Babylonian descriptions of neurological and psychiatric disorders, including epilepsy, stroke, psychoses, obsessive compulsive disorder, phobias, psychopathic behaviour, depression and anxiety. Most of these accounts date from the first Babylonian dynasty of the first half of the second millennium BC, within a millennium and a half of the origin of writing. The Babylonians were remarkably acute and objective observers of medical disorders and human behaviour. Their detailed descriptions are surprisingly similar to modern 19th and 20th century AD textbook accounts, with the exception of subjective thoughts and feelings which are more modern fields of enquiry. They had no knowledge of brain or psychological function. Some neuropsychiatric disorders, e.g. stroke or facial palsy, had a physical basis requiring the attention of a physician or asû, using a plant and mineral based pharmacology; some disorders such as epilepsy, psychoses, depression and anxiety were regarded as supernatural due to evil demons or spirits, or the anger of personal gods, and thus required the intervention of the priest or ašipu; other disorders such as obsessive compulsive disorder and psychopathic behaviour were regarded as a mystery. The Babylonians were the first to describe the clinical foundations of neurology and psychiatry. We discuss these accounts in relation to subsequent and more modern clinical descriptions.

  1. Gray areas in forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Ryans, M M

    1978-08-01

    The field of forensic psychiatry is not always compatible with legalities in our court system, causing some cases to be in a "gray" area. A case is presented, demonstrating shortcomings of the M'Naghten rule, which is meant to protect the mentally ill person from being incarcerated when he is not aware of the nature or the seriousness of the crime of which he stands accused. However, this rule is not applicable when there is awareness, even if the patient is laboring under a delusional system. In the case to be considered, the individual suffers by being given a criminal record instead of being found not guilty by reason of insanity, although the end result is the same.The author feels there should be a much broader interpretation of the M'Naghten rule to encompass the full intent of protecting the mentally ill person but to exclude the sociopath and those with character disorders. The Durham rule is not workable because of this inclusion.

  2. Cultural competency training in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, A; Collazos, F; Ramos, M; Casas, M

    2008-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that the quality of care provided to immigrant and ethnic minority patients is not at the same level as that provided to majority group patients. Although the European Board of Medical Specialists recognizes awareness of cultural issues as a core component of the psychiatry specialization, few medical schools provide training in cultural issues. Cultural competence represents a comprehensive response to the mental health care needs of immigrant and ethnic minority patients. Cultural competence training involves the development of knowledge, skills, and attitudes that can improve the effectiveness of psychiatric treatment. Cognitive cultural competence involves awareness of the various ways in which culture, immigration status, and race impact psychosocial development, psychopathology, and therapeutic transactions. Technical cultural competence involves the application of cognitive cultural competence, and requires proficiency in intercultural communication, the capacity to develop a therapeutic relationship with a culturally different patient, and the ability to adapt diagnosis and treatment in response to cultural difference. Perhaps the greatest challenge in cultural competence training involves the development of attitudinal competence inasmuch as it requires exploration of cultural and racial preconceptions. Although research is in its infancy, there are increasing indications that cultural competence can improve key aspects of the psychiatric treatment of immigrant and minority group patients. PMID:18371580

  3. Neurology and psychiatry in Babylon.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Edward H; Wilson, James V Kinnier

    2014-09-01

    We here review Babylonian descriptions of neurological and psychiatric disorders, including epilepsy, stroke, psychoses, obsessive compulsive disorder, phobias, psychopathic behaviour, depression and anxiety. Most of these accounts date from the first Babylonian dynasty of the first half of the second millennium BC, within a millennium and a half of the origin of writing. The Babylonians were remarkably acute and objective observers of medical disorders and human behaviour. Their detailed descriptions are surprisingly similar to modern 19th and 20th century AD textbook accounts, with the exception of subjective thoughts and feelings which are more modern fields of enquiry. They had no knowledge of brain or psychological function. Some neuropsychiatric disorders, e.g. stroke or facial palsy, had a physical basis requiring the attention of a physician or asû, using a plant and mineral based pharmacology; some disorders such as epilepsy, psychoses, depression and anxiety were regarded as supernatural due to evil demons or spirits, or the anger of personal gods, and thus required the intervention of the priest or ašipu; other disorders such as obsessive compulsive disorder and psychopathic behaviour were regarded as a mystery. The Babylonians were the first to describe the clinical foundations of neurology and psychiatry. We discuss these accounts in relation to subsequent and more modern clinical descriptions. PMID:25037816

  4. Cultural competency training in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, A; Collazos, F; Ramos, M; Casas, M

    2008-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that the quality of care provided to immigrant and ethnic minority patients is not at the same level as that provided to majority group patients. Although the European Board of Medical Specialists recognizes awareness of cultural issues as a core component of the psychiatry specialization, few medical schools provide training in cultural issues. Cultural competence represents a comprehensive response to the mental health care needs of immigrant and ethnic minority patients. Cultural competence training involves the development of knowledge, skills, and attitudes that can improve the effectiveness of psychiatric treatment. Cognitive cultural competence involves awareness of the various ways in which culture, immigration status, and race impact psychosocial development, psychopathology, and therapeutic transactions. Technical cultural competence involves the application of cognitive cultural competence, and requires proficiency in intercultural communication, the capacity to develop a therapeutic relationship with a culturally different patient, and the ability to adapt diagnosis and treatment in response to cultural difference. Perhaps the greatest challenge in cultural competence training involves the development of attitudinal competence inasmuch as it requires exploration of cultural and racial preconceptions. Although research is in its infancy, there are increasing indications that cultural competence can improve key aspects of the psychiatric treatment of immigrant and minority group patients.

  5. [Reform of psychiatry in Spain].

    PubMed

    Pedrosa Gil, F; Luderer, H J

    2000-11-01

    Since the 1980's psychiatric care in Spain changed considerably (Reforma psiquiátrica española). In the course of this reform, many positive results were achieved. An extensive community network of mental health centres was build up which resulted in the majority of psychiatric patients being integrated in the Spanish general health care system and making a better organized mental health care structure possible. New legislation also improved the care and civil rights of patients. An analysis of the experiences of the Spanish psychiatric reform shows that the tendency to retain the old mental hospitals, alongside the other institutions still exists. The process of deinstitutionalization and the original aims of the psychiatric reform cannot only be satisfied by the closure of large psychiatric hospitals as during the reform new aspects and problems as well the great complexity of the task have become apparent. This article together with the details of the Spanish sources gives the German public a good overview of the developments in Spanish psychiatry.

  6. [Where is going philosophy of psychiatry ?].

    PubMed

    Basso, Elisabetta

    2016-12-01

    This contribution provides a critical outline of the current trends in the field of "philosophy of psychiatry" by following their developments in the last decade. The first part of the paper focuses on the evolution of this field from a strictly conceptual approach to a perspective more attentive to the social, practical, and clinical dimension of psychiatry. The second part of the paper points out that the need of a mutual commitment of philosophy and psychiatry is perceived according to different ways by the countries involved in this research area. The paper deals especially with the case of France, where the enthusiasm for the "new philosophy of psychiatry" has not had the same impact on the philosophical scene as in the English speaking countries. In conclusion, the paper shows that the field of philosophy of psychiatry stands as a fertile ground for new forms of interaction between the analytic, and the continental philosophical traditions. This interaction takes place, more particularly, as regards such topics as normativity, language, and interpretation. PMID:27550463

  7. History and current condition of Russian psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Krasnov, Valery N; Gurovich, Isaak

    2012-08-01

    Russian psychiatry has a dramatic history, and until now has been at a transitional stage of development. It is facing problems not only common in world psychiatry, but also specific to eastern Europe, in particular Russia. Starting from the beginning of the 1990s, considerable changes have occurred in psychiatry, especially after 1992 when the law on psychiatric care and guarantees of citizens' rights in its provision was adopted. It became the ideological and legislative basis for reforms. However, there are definite obstacles to structural reforms in psychiatry. They are unfavourable technical conditions in many psychiatric clinics, hypercentralization of psychiatric services, shortage of clinical psychologists and social workers in psychiatry, some difficulties in cooperation between psychiatric and general medical institutions. Economic difficulties in the transition period of Russia's social development prevent the overcoming of these problems. They are being actively discussed and some of them are being gradually solved, e.g. the organization of team work in mental health services, the increasing number of specialists on social work, and the involvement of non-government organizations in psychosocial rehabilitation. PMID:22950772

  8. The scientific foundation of anti-psychiatry.

    PubMed

    van Praag, H M

    1978-08-01

    Anti-psychiatry has exerted a substantial influence on the thoughts of workers in the field of mental hygiene; on those of the psychiatrically trained, but even much more on those without psychiatric training. Consequently it seemed important to me to investigate the strength of the foundation of this school of thought. This has been the objective of this study. The point of crystallization of anti-psychiatry is the labelling theory on the origin of deviant behaviour. The scientific status of anti-psychiatry stands or falls with that of the labelling theory. Since this theory has not been formulated in verifiable hypotheses, I ventured to formulate "theses", and then tested these against empirical obtained data. The results of this study were largely negative. The empirical material does not support the labelling theory, and in many cases even contradicts it. Consequently anti-psychiatry--as a model to explain the development of psychological disorders--has not a leg to stand on. The labelling theory has had great merits as a "sensitizing theory". It has given momentum to innovative tendencies in psychiatry. Now that it has proved to be untenable on its principal points, however, it should be abandoned. It has become a rubber check, which has no scientific buying-power. PMID:696382

  9. [Where is going philosophy of psychiatry ?].

    PubMed

    Basso, Elisabetta

    2016-12-01

    This contribution provides a critical outline of the current trends in the field of "philosophy of psychiatry" by following their developments in the last decade. The first part of the paper focuses on the evolution of this field from a strictly conceptual approach to a perspective more attentive to the social, practical, and clinical dimension of psychiatry. The second part of the paper points out that the need of a mutual commitment of philosophy and psychiatry is perceived according to different ways by the countries involved in this research area. The paper deals especially with the case of France, where the enthusiasm for the "new philosophy of psychiatry" has not had the same impact on the philosophical scene as in the English speaking countries. In conclusion, the paper shows that the field of philosophy of psychiatry stands as a fertile ground for new forms of interaction between the analytic, and the continental philosophical traditions. This interaction takes place, more particularly, as regards such topics as normativity, language, and interpretation.

  10. Physical activity among Norwegian adolescents- a multilevel analysis of how place of residence is associated with health behaviour: the Young-HUNT study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this article is to investigate whether and to what degree participation in physical activity among adolescents is associated with area economic deprivation in the municipality where they live. In the study we took account of aggregated informal social capital at the municipality level and compositional effects due to spatial concentration of individual variables known to be associated with physical activity. These include informal social participation, participation in other cultural activities, and family affluence. Methods The study was based on a secondary analysis of data from the Norwegian HUNT study and municipality characteristics from the Norwegian Social Science Data Service ‘Commune Database’ from 2006. The sample consisted of 8114 adolescents whose ages ranged from 13 to 19. The explanatory power of the independent variables on the dependent variable was assessed using a multilevel analysis in which individuals comprised the first level and were nested within the municipality level. Results The average level of physical activity was not negatively associated with the level of area economic deprivation when we adjusted for informal social participation at the community level. Adjusting for area economic deprivation, we found that informal social participation at the community level was associated with a higher level of participation in physical activity at p< .01. Conclusion For adolescents in a given municipality, informal social participation is more strongly associated with a higher level of physical activity than the degree of area economic deprivation. This finding supports our social capital hypothesis, which states that the amount of social capital is strengthening the individual’s ability to take part in physical activity. PMID:23883144

  11. Training Clinicians in Cultural Psychiatry: A Canadian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirmayer, Laurence J.; Rousseau, Cecile; Guzder, Jaswant; Jarvis, G. Eric

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The authors summarize the pedagogical approaches and curriculum used in the training of clinicians in cultural psychiatry at the Division of Social and Transcultural Psychiatry, McGill University. Method: We reviewed available published and unpublished reports on the history and development of training in cultural psychiatry at McGill…

  12. The rise of liaison psychiatry: challenges and implications for sustainability.

    PubMed

    Udo, Itoro; Odeyale, Foluke; Gash, Amanda; Fossey, Matt

    2016-09-01

    Liaison or general hospital psychiatry is experiencing unprecedented expansion in the UK. A liaison psychiatry team in a typical general hospital may deliver savings of up to £5 million a year. However, liaison psychiatry faces challenges associated with this pace of change, with consequences for its long-term sustainability. PMID:27640655

  13. The Scientific Status of Psychiatry Within Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Nickens, Herbert W.

    1984-01-01

    Psychiatry is in ferment. In the present sluggish economy nonphysician psychotherapists, often charging lower fees, are competing with psychiatrists for patients. At the same time theories and therapies that can be characterized as psychodynamic appear to be on the defensive, increasingly challenged by those with behavioral or psychopharmacologic foundations. A growing emphasis on statistical rigor in research increases this phenomenon. One general response to all of this by the psychiatric profession has been a reassertion of psychiatry's connections and identification with medicine and with science. The author contends that although this response is understandable and may provide some support for the prestige of psychiatry, the issue at hand is fundamentally an epistemologic one. It is a deeply rooted and structural dilemma. PMID:6471110

  14. Neuroimaging in Psychiatry: From Bench to Bedside

    PubMed Central

    Linden, David E. J.; Fallgatter, Andreas J.

    2009-01-01

    This perspective considers the present and the future role of different neuroimaging techniques in the field of psychiatry. After identifying shortcomings of the mainly symptom-focussed diagnostic processes and treatment decisions in modern psychiatry, we suggest topics where neuroimaging methods have the potential to help. These include better understanding of the pathophysiology, improved diagnoses, assistance in therapeutic decisions and the supervision of treatment success by direct assessment of improvement in disease-related brain functions. These different questions are illustrated by examples from neuroimaging studies, with a focus on severe mental and neuropsychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia and depression. Despite all reservations addressed in the article, we are optimistic that neuroimaging has a huge potential with regard to the above-mentioned questions. We expect that neuroimaging will play an increasing role in the future refinement of the diagnostic process and aid in the development of new therapies in the field of psychiatry. PMID:20087437

  15. [Significant events in Polish psychiatry in 2003?].

    PubMed

    Bomba, Jacek

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper was a reflection on the most significant events in Polish psychiatry in 2003. Reform in health care financing and its realisation in 2003 introduced a risk of inhibiting further development of mental health care. The endangerment is a result of allocation of resources, which is inadequate to real costs and promotes in-patient treatment. An additional risk is seen in a project of privatisation of health care institutions. Increasing orientation towards methodology of molecular biology, which is similar to a general global tendency, influences research in psychiatry. Nevertheless the low number of publications resulting from government sponsored studies is disturbing. The situation in forensic psychiatry calls for involvement and studies. Psychiatria Polska published a report indicating low standard of psychiatric expertise for courts and high probability of corruption. The same was reflected in mass media publications later on. Polish Psychiatric Association Board had appointed a special commission to study this problem.

  16. How Health Reform is Recasting Public Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Shaner, Roderick; Thompson, Kenneth S; Braslow, Joel; Ragins, Mark; Parks, Joseph John; Vaccaro, Jerome V

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the fiscal, programmatic, clinical, and cultural forces of health care reform that are transforming the work of public psychiatrists. Areas of rapid change and issues of concern are discussed. A proposed health care reform agenda for public psychiatric leadership emphasizes (1) access to quality mental health care, (2) promotion of recovery practices in primary care, (3) promotion of public psychiatry values within general psychiatry, (4) engagement in national policy formulation and implementation, and (5) further development of psychiatric leadership focused on public and community mental health.

  17. How Health Reform is Recasting Public Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Shaner, Roderick; Thompson, Kenneth S; Braslow, Joel; Ragins, Mark; Parks, Joseph John; Vaccaro, Jerome V

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the fiscal, programmatic, clinical, and cultural forces of health care reform that are transforming the work of public psychiatrists. Areas of rapid change and issues of concern are discussed. A proposed health care reform agenda for public psychiatric leadership emphasizes (1) access to quality mental health care, (2) promotion of recovery practices in primary care, (3) promotion of public psychiatry values within general psychiatry, (4) engagement in national policy formulation and implementation, and (5) further development of psychiatric leadership focused on public and community mental health. PMID:26300038

  18. Transcultural psychiatry, ethnic minorities and marginalization.

    PubMed

    Farrington, A

    Cultural and racial bias has been woven into the fabric of Western psychiatry in its historic development. Western psychiatry emphasizes the medical model as being fundamental to the discipline. Many communities in large cities and industrial areas have become multicultural and multiracial. Culture-bound syndromes are not specific to non-Western ethnic minorities. Black people are overrepresented among psychiatric patients in institutions. Mental health services for ethnic minorities have been haphazard and inconsistent. Cultural experiences and the practical realities of racism are overdue their recognition.

  19. Forensic psychiatry, neuroscience, and the law.

    PubMed

    Silva, J Arturo

    2009-01-01

    The rise of modern neuroscience is transforming psychiatry and other behavioral sciences. Neuroscientific progress also has had major impact in forensic neuropsychiatric practice, resulting in the increased use of neuroscientific technologies in cases of a psychiatric-legal nature. This article is focused on the impact of neuroscientific progress in forensic psychiatry in relation to criminal law. Also addressed are some emerging questions involving the practice of forensic neuropsychiatry. These questions will be reframed by providing alternative perspectives consistent with the objectives of forensic neuropsychiatric practice. The last part of the article is a discussion of potential developments that may facilitate the integration of neuroscientific knowledge in forensic neuropsychiatric practice.

  20. Overview: Ethical issues in contemporary psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Redlich, F; Mollica, R F

    1976-02-01

    The authors survey the ethical problems confronting psychiatry today. They state that with rare exceptions psychiatric intervention can be morally justified only with the potential patient's informed consent. Within this framework, they discuss the fact that today nonpsychiatrists, particularly ethicists, lawyers, legislators, and social scientists, as well as psychiatrists are concerned about medical ethics, specifically regarding the right to be treated, the right not to be treated, the civil rights of psychiatric patients, the ethics of behavior control, the problem of conflicts of interest in therapeutic goals, privacy and confidentiality, the ethics of human experimentation, policy decisions, and psychiatry's relationship to the changing moral value structure of U.S. society.

  1. Why do we need a social psychiatry?

    PubMed

    Ventriglio, Antonio; Gupta, Susham; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2016-07-01

    Human beings are social animals, and familial or social relationships can cause a variety of difficulties as well as providing support in our social functioning. The traditional way of looking at mental illness has focused on abnormal thoughts, actions and behaviours in response to internal causes (such as biological factors) as well as external ones such as social determinants and social stressors. We contend that psychiatry is social. Mental illness and interventions in psychiatry should be considered in the framework of social context where patients live and factors they face on a daily basis. PMID:27369473

  2. Senior Medical Students' Attitudes toward Psychiatry as a Career Choice before and after an Undergraduate Psychiatry Internship in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amini, Homayoun; Moghaddam, Yasaman; Nejatisafa, Ali-Akbar; Esmaeili, Sara; Kaviani, Hosein; Shoar, Saeed; Shabani, Amir; Samimi-Ardestani, Mehdi; Akhlaghi, Amir Abbas Keshavarz; Noroozi, Alireza; Mafi, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The study aimed to assess 1) the attitudes of medical students in the sixth and seventh years (known as interns in Iran) toward psychiatry as a career choice, and 2) the degree of attractiveness of psychiatry as a career choice, with regard to various defined aspects, before and after an undergraduate psychiatry internship (similar to…

  3. Holistic-medical foundations of American psychiatry: a bicentennial.

    PubMed

    Lipowski, Z J

    1981-07-01

    American psychiatry has reached its bicentennial. Holistic-medical foundations have been its hallmark, inspiration, and source of preeminence. Incorporated by psychobiology, the American school, they enabled the growth of psychiatry as a medical specialty and scientific discipline and stimulated unparalleled growth of general hospital psychiatry, psychiatric research and teaching, and psychosomatic medicine and liaison psychiatry. Holistic conceptions, a product of a democratic system and the liberal mind, continue to provide the best framework for psychiatry and an antidote to dogma and fanaticism. PMID:7020433

  4. Assisting Undergraduate Physician Assistant Training in Psychiatry: The Role of Academic Psychiatry Departments.

    PubMed

    Rakofsky, Jeffrey J; Ferguson, Britnay A

    2015-12-01

    Physician assistants (PAs) are medical professionals who practice medicine with the supervision of a physician through delegated autonomy. PA school accreditation standards provide limited guidance for training PAs in psychiatry. As a result, PA students may receive inconsistent and possibly inadequate exposure to psychiatry. Providing broad and in-depth exposure to the field of psychiatry is important to attract PA students to pursue careers in psychiatry and provide a possible solution to the shortage of psychiatrists nationwide. Additionally, this level of exposure will prepare PA students who pursue careers in other fields of medicine to recognize and address their patient's psychiatric symptoms in an appropriate manner. This training can be provided by an academic department of psychiatry invested in the education of PA students. We describe a training model implemented at our university that emphasizes psychiatrist involvement in the preclinical year of PA school and full integration of PA students into the medical student psychiatry clerkship during the clinical years. The benefits and challenges to implementing this model are discussed as well.

  5. Old age psychiatry in the modern age.

    PubMed

    Warner, James P

    2015-11-01

    Old age psychiatry services globally are under threat. The discipline enjoyed its heyday in the two decades bridging the millennium. More recently there has been a move to integrate old age services with those of working age adults, to create 'ageless' services. Evidence is beginning to accumulate that this is a bad idea.

  6. Gait and its assessment in psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    Gait reflects all levels of nervous system function. In psychiatry, gait disturbances reflecting cortical and subcortical dysfunction are often seen. Observing spontaneous gait, sometimes augmented by a few brief tests, can be highly informative. The authors briefly review the neuroanatomy of gait, review gait abnormalities seen in psychiatric and neurologic disorders, and describe the assessment of gait. PMID:20805918

  7. Psychopathology as the basic science of psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Stanghellini, Giovanni; Broome, Matthew R

    2014-09-01

    We argue that psychopathology, as the discipline that assesses and makes sense of abnormal human subjectivity, should be at the heart of psychiatry. It should be a basic educational prerequisite in the curriculum for mental health professionals and a key element of the shared intellectual identity of clinicians and researchers in this field. PMID:25179621

  8. Digital applications: the future in psychiatry?

    PubMed

    Thibaut, Florence

    2016-06-01

    Digital applications and new mobile technologies can change the nature of the psychiatrist-patient relationship and future clinical practice in terms of diagnosis, follow-up, and treatment, but need to be further studied. This issue explores these new approaches in psychiatry. PMID:27489451

  9. Criminal Forensic Psychiatry: A Primer for Psychiatrists.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Scott A

    2016-06-01

    Many mentally ill people are currently held in correctional settings, and general psychiatrists should be familiar with criminal forensic psychiatry in order to understand the legal aspects of the evaluation and treatment of these individuals, especially with regard to competency to stand trial and insanity. This educational activity briefly explains these evaluations and reviews relevant landmark legal cases.

  10. Imaging-Genetics Applications in Child Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To place imaging-genetics research in the context of child psychiatry. Method: A conceptual overview is provided, followed by discussion of specific research examples. Results: Imaging-genetics research is described linking brain function to two specific genes, for the serotonin-reuptake-transporter protein and a monoamine oxidase…

  11. Child Psychiatry: The Past Quarter Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Leon

    The developments in child psychiatry in the past 25 years have been encouraging but represent only a prelude to the significant work that must be done relatively soon to meet the needs of the contemporary child. Before 1940, the desirability of multidisciplinary study of the child had been well established, and child guidance clinics had appeared.…

  12. Sociology in the context of social psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Cooper, B

    1994-01-01

    The author addresses various aspects of the interface between sociology and social psychiatry, among them the labelling process related to mental deviance, problems related to diagnosis and social ethology. The need for interdisciplinary work is emphasized, not least in the context of prevention. It is underlined that effective preventive measures can precede the full causal elucidation of a disease.

  13. Criminal Forensic Psychiatry: A Primer for Psychiatrists.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Scott A

    2016-06-01

    Many mentally ill people are currently held in correctional settings, and general psychiatrists should be familiar with criminal forensic psychiatry in order to understand the legal aspects of the evaluation and treatment of these individuals, especially with regard to competency to stand trial and insanity. This educational activity briefly explains these evaluations and reviews relevant landmark legal cases. PMID:27337424

  14. Educational Supervision Appropriate for Psychiatry Trainee's Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rele, Kiran; Tarrant, C. Jane

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors studied the regularity and content of supervision sessions in one of the U.K. postgraduate psychiatric training schemes (Mid-Trent). Methods: A questionnaire sent to psychiatry trainees assessed the timing and duration of supervision, content and protection of supervision time, and overall quality of supervision. The authors…

  15. A review of psychiatric literature for residency training programs, 1980s.

    PubMed Central

    Malmquist, C; Soth, N

    1984-01-01

    The authors obtained cumulated reading lists from sixteen nationally-recognized psychiatric residency programs to assess the common body of knowledge shared by recent psychiatry graduates and learn which works in psychiatry had survived from an earlier compilation in 1964 (Woods, Pieper, and Frazier, "Basic Psychiatric Literature" [2]. The new list was compiled by consensus, with the working assumptions that books of importance would appear on the list of more than one program and that a book or article's relative usefulness was related to the number of appearances on different residency lists. An updated list for the 1980s is provided from the survey and is compared to the 1964 list compiled from a survey of experts in the field of psychiatry. PMID:6378287

  16. Psychotherapy and psychoanalysts in psychiatric residency training.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Norman A; Notman, Malkah T

    2012-11-01

    There is a renewed interest in teaching psychotherapy in psychiatry training programs in the context of the current accreditation standards for developing competency in psychotherapy. However, meeting the standards requires adequate faculty, expertise, motivation, and patient population to support a substantive didactic and experiential base for residents to develop phase-appropriate competence. Psychoanalysts are in a position to provide capable instruction and supervision in psychodynamic as well as supportive psychotherapy, but they are not evenly distributed in the United States. The psychoanalyst authors investigated the experience of psychiatry residency training programs in eastern Massachusetts and northeast Ohio with regard to their current practice in psychotherapy training in general and psychodynamic psychotherapy in particular. They asked about the time given to formal teaching, therapy experience and supervision, the composition of the faculty, and the presence of psychoanalysts as teachers or supervisors. Personal interviews to clarify aims, attitudes, and needs supplemented responses to the questionnaire. This article describes these findings and the opportunities and challenges that are evident in the current environment of psychiatric training. We found that most programs made substantial efforts to teach psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral therapies, but that supportive therapy received less focused attention. The involvement of psychoanalysts in teaching was generally welcomed in this sample, but was dependent on their availability in the community.

  17. The Task before Psychiatry Today Redux: STSPIR*

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajai R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines six important tasks for psychiatry today, which can be put in short as: Spread and scale up services;Talk;Science,Psychotherapy;Integrate; andResearch excellence. As an acronym, STSPIR. Spread and scale up services: Spreading mental health services to uncovered areas, and increasing facilities in covered areas:Mental disorders are leading cause of ill health but bottom of health agenda;Patients face widespread discrimination, human rights violations and lack of facilities;Need to stem the brain drain from developing countries;At any given point, 10% of the adult population report having some mental or behavioural disorder;In India, serious mental disorders affect nearly 80 million people, i.e. combined population of the northern top of India, including Punjab, Haryana, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh;Combating imbalance between burden of demand and supply of efficient psychiatric services in all countries, especially in developing ones like India, is the first task before psychiatry today. If ever a greater role for activism were needed, this is the field;The need is to scale up effective and cost-effective treatments and preventive interventions for mental disorders.Talk: Speaking to a wider audience about positive contributions of psychiatry: Being aware of, understanding, and countering, the massive anti-psychiatry propaganda online and elsewhere;Giving a firm answer to anti-psychiatry even while understanding its transformation into mental health consumerism and opposition to reckless medicalisation;Defining normality and abnormality;Bringing about greater precision in diagnosis and care;Motivating those helped by psychiatry to speak up;Setting up informative websites and organising programmes to reduce stigma and spread mental health awareness;Setting up regular columns in psychiatry journals around the globe, called ‘Patients Speak’, or something similar, wherein those who have been helped get a chance to voice

  18. Learning to Recognize Ego Defense Mechanisms: Results of a Structured Teaching Experience for Psychiatric Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beresford, Thomas P.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Ego defense mechanism (EDM) recognition can offer a powerful and practical tool in clinical psychiatry. However, recognition skill learning can be difficult to assess and may account for the lack of formal EDM recognition training in residency courses. Method: This study hypothesized that mean test scores would increase significantly…

  19. Neuroimaging Week: A Novel, Engaging, and Effective Curriculum for Teaching Neuroimaging to Junior Psychiatric Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downar, Jonathan; Krizova, Adriana; Ghaffar, Omar; Zaretsky, Ari

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Neuroimaging techniques are increasingly important in psychiatric research and clinical practice, but few postgraduate psychiatry programs offer formal training in neuroimaging. To address this need, the authors developed a course to prepare psychiatric residents to use neuroimaging techniques effectively in independent practice.…

  20. Guidelines, Algorithms, and Evidence-Based Psychopharmacology Training for Psychiatric Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osser, David N.; Patterson, Robert D.; Levitt, James J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe a course of instruction for psychiatry residents that attempts to provide the cognitive and informational tools necessary to make scientifically grounded decision making a routine part of clinical practice. Methods: In weekly meetings over two academic years, the course covers the psychopharmacology of various…

  1. Psychiatric training in primary care medicine residency programs. A national survey.

    PubMed

    Chin, H P; Guillermo, G; Prakken, S; Eisendrath, S

    2000-01-01

    The authors conducted a national survey to investigate the current status of psychiatric training in primary care/internal medicine residencies. Fifty-four residency training directors completed and returned the survey. The survey results show that an average of 99 hours (69.5 hours clinical plus 29.8 hours didactics) is devoted to psychiatric training during the 3 years of primary care/internal medicine residency training. Responding residency training directors indicated that psychiatric training is important (an average of 7 out of 10 on a 10-point rating scale), and 63% of respondents indicated that more training in psychiatry is needed.

  2. Do Medical Students' Attitudes Toward Psychiatry and Their Intention to Pursue Psychiatry as a Career Change During Psychiatric Attachment?

    PubMed Central

    Khajeddin, Niloofar; Riahi, Foroughe; Salehi Veysi, Mhammad; Hoseyni, Hajar; Izadi Mazidi, Sakineh

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the attitudes of medical students toward psychiatry and their intention to pursue psychiatry as a career; and to determine if they change after psychiatric attachment. It also examined the relationship between the students' characteristics and their attitudes in details. Methods: Pre and post-surveys using Likert-type scales were conducted versus 106 medical students of Ahwaz Jondishapour University who entered psychiatric attachment between spring 2007 and spring 2010. They completed a demographic form and an "attitude toward psychiatry" questionnaire with two excess questions which measured their intention to pursue psychiatry as a career in future. Results: The majority of students appeared to have favorable attitudes before the attachment which improved during the course; but they didn't show significant change in their intention to pursue psychiatry as a prospective career. There was a significant correlation between age and change in attitudes. Also the career intention was significantly correlated with their attitudes. Conclusion: The study confirms previous reports that training can change students' attitudes toward psychiatry, but contrasting with them suggests that negative attitudes are not likely to be the main cause of the low career intention to psychiatry. Thus, teaching psychiatry can get the students rid of their negative attitudes but is not enough to encourage them to pursue psychiatry as a career. The authors suggest it is based on poor opportunities for postgraduates in the field and social stigma attached to psychiatry, which needs further studies. PMID:24644470

  3. Textbook of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 3rd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, Jerry M.; Dulcan, Mina K.

    The third edition of this textbook continues its tradition of integrating clinical wisdom and scientific research to improve patient care and advocacy for children and families. Each of the 56 chapters presents a summary of a core topic, blending clinical experience with evidence-based practices in assessment and treatment. Divided into 10 parts,…

  4. Overview of practice management in child and adolescent psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Schreter, Robert K

    2010-01-01

    The manager of a psychiatric practice must create and direct a clinical delivery system, design and oversee the administrative services necessary to support the system, and guide the business operations that contribute to its success. Regardless of the size of the practice, the psychiatrist administrator must handle seven core administrative responsibilities and oversee individual functions and capabilities within each domain. These responsibilities include practice development, clinical services management, medical office operations, clinical management, information management, business management, and risk management. This article provides a roadmap for creating and sustaining successful clinical and administrative endeavors. It can also be used by existing practices as an audit instrument to provide a snapshot of current capabilities so that strengths as well as opportunities for continued growth can be identified.

  5. Psychostimulants and psychiatrists: the Trent Adult Psychiatry Psychostimulant Survey.

    PubMed

    Bramble, D

    2000-03-01

    This study reports upon the results of a postal questionnaire survey of 107 adult psychiatrists which investigated their current use of psychostimulant pharmacotherapy and their attitudes towards the diagnostic status of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood. Of the 88 respondents, only a minority of 11 (12.5%) used psychostimulants in their usual practice, albeit very infrequently (one or two prescriptions per year on average). Methylphenidate hydrochloride ('Ritalin') was the prescribers' most popular agent and 'narcolepsy' was the most frequently cited clinical indication for psychostimulants. ADHD appeared to represent only a very small area of current clinical activity and a minority of clinicians expressed the view that it did not exist in adults. It is concluded that psychostimulant therapy is relatively undeveloped in British adult psychiatry and that the clinical speciality generally appears to be unprepared for the growing numbers of adolescents with ADHD who are currently managed by child psychiatrists and who may require ongoing psychiatric care, including psychostimulant therapy.

  6. Psychostimulants and psychiatrists: the Trent Adult Psychiatry Psychostimulant Survey.

    PubMed

    Bramble, D

    2000-03-01

    This study reports upon the results of a postal questionnaire survey of 107 adult psychiatrists which investigated their current use of psychostimulant pharmacotherapy and their attitudes towards the diagnostic status of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood. Of the 88 respondents, only a minority of 11 (12.5%) used psychostimulants in their usual practice, albeit very infrequently (one or two prescriptions per year on average). Methylphenidate hydrochloride ('Ritalin') was the prescribers' most popular agent and 'narcolepsy' was the most frequently cited clinical indication for psychostimulants. ADHD appeared to represent only a very small area of current clinical activity and a minority of clinicians expressed the view that it did not exist in adults. It is concluded that psychostimulant therapy is relatively undeveloped in British adult psychiatry and that the clinical speciality generally appears to be unprepared for the growing numbers of adolescents with ADHD who are currently managed by child psychiatrists and who may require ongoing psychiatric care, including psychostimulant therapy. PMID:10757256

  7. Neuropsychiatrie of biologische psychiatrie; een toekomstvisie in historisch perspectief.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, W M; Tuinier, S

    1999-06-01

    Neuropsychiatry or Biological Psychiatry There is an urgent need to reconsider the position of psychiatry within the neurosciences because of the exploding knowledge about the relationship between brain and behaviour and the delay in implementation of new findings due to the separation of neurology and psychiatry. Biological psychiatry and psychopharmacology originate from the discovery by chance of psycho-active compounds in the early fifties and have contributed to the scientification of psychiatry. The impact of biological psychiatry for the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, however, is limited as a result of its biased orientation on neurotransmitters and receptors. The neuropsychiatric paradigm integrates knowledge from several domains, such as functional neuroanatomy, genetics and endocrinology and opens new vistas for the involvement of neuronal circuits in the initiation and maintenance of behavioural disturbances. In addition, novel and more specific treatment modalities may emerge.

  8. [Malaise in psychiatry and its history].

    PubMed

    Chebili, S

    2016-04-01

    The main hypothesis of this paper is the presence of malaise in psychiatry. The malaise has two sides: on one hand, the end of psychiatry hegemony that dominated the theoretical field of psychiatry until the 1990s. The loss of influence of psychoanalysis is due to its inability to be submitted to any kind of assessment. On the other hand, the supremacy of neurosciences. The idea is not to underestimate the importance of neurosciences but rather to affirm that they occupy the whole theoretical field of psychiatry. This is an unusual situation that is specific to our time. Indeed, this monism has succeeded to an epistemological dualism that has existed throughout the history of psychiatry. In this article, we'll try to draw a history of dualism in psychiatry. Firstly, with Pinel, we find a tension between a metaphysical philosophical pole and a physiological one. Pinel's philosophy has something to do with Condillac's ideology as Pinel applies the analytical method to mental diseases. Under Cabanis's influence, the author of the famous Rapports du physique et du moral de l'homme, this ideology is under pressure with physiologism. As a materialist, he gives an essential part to the brain that distributes pieces of information throughout the body because he thinks that mind influences body. Secondly, dualism lies between the doctrine of localizations defended by Gall and the theory of degeneration elaborated by Magnan. Gall, in Anatomie et physiologie du système nerveux en général, seeks to know how bumps or hollows that are found on the skull are shaped. Gall is for the theory of delocalizations. He is the counterpart of Magnan who wrote a work about Les Dégénérés, that takes its part in the physiological trend with the famous theory of degeneration. For him, degeneration means the imperfect state of a subject whose cerebral functions are in a noticeably imperfect state. Thirdly, with Henry Ey, dualism starts to be less important. Indeed, he tends a monist

  9. Personalized medicine in psychiatry: problems and promises

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The central theme of personalized medicine is the premise that an individual’s unique physiologic characteristics play a significant role in both disease vulnerability and in response to specific therapies. The major goals of personalized medicine are therefore to predict an individual’s susceptibility to developing an illness, achieve accurate diagnosis, and optimize the most efficient and favorable response to treatment. The goal of achieving personalized medicine in psychiatry is a laudable one, because its attainment should be associated with a marked reduction in morbidity and mortality. In this review, we summarize an illustrative selection of studies that are laying the foundation towards personalizing medicine in major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. In addition, we present emerging applications that are likely to advance personalized medicine in psychiatry, with an emphasis on novel biomarkers and neuroimaging. PMID:23680237

  10. [On the cultural history of psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Schott, H

    2004-08-01

    About 1800, psychiatry was established as a medical discipline with special institutions (madhouses). Therefore, historiography of psychiatry focuses generally on the last 200 years. This contribution will also illustrate aspects of medical and cultural history, which nowadays are mostly supposed to be less important: the premodern concept of melancholy and hypochondria between humoral pathology, demonology, and psychology; the assessment of psychiatric illness as a "creative malady," even complementary to genius; the dialectics of psychiatric therapies between suppression and emancipation, which is especially prominent in the early nineteenth century in regard to "moral treatment" ( psychische Kur in German), a topic stressed vigorously by the "antipsychiatry" movement around 1970; the denunciation of patients and sections of the population by eugenics ( Rassenhygiene in German) and racism (especially toward the Jews) by psychiatrists. Finally, the miraculous mechanisms of mass hysteria of "normal" individuals are questioned. PMID:15340714

  11. A Prescription for "Deprescribing" in Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Swapnil; Cahill, John Daniel

    2016-08-01

    The term "deprescribing," initially coined in geriatric medicine, describes a process of pharmacologic regimen optimization through reduction or cessation of medications for which benefits no longer outweigh risks. Burgeoning rates of polypharmacy, growing appreciation of long-term adverse effects, and a focus on patient-centered practice present specific indications for deprescribing in psychiatry. A strong therapeutic alliance, appropriate timing, and consideration of the meaning of medication for the patient must accompany the following established elements: review of all medications, identification of medications that could be ceased or reduced, collaborative planning of the deprescribing regimen, and provision of review and support to the patient and caregivers. The authors discuss how deprescribing might be adapted for and implemented in psychiatry, identify potential barriers, and make recommendations for future directions. PMID:26975524

  12. Indianization of psychiatry utilizing Indian mental concepts.

    PubMed

    Avasthi, Ajit; Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Most of the psychiatry practice in India is guided by the western concepts of mental health and illness, which have largely ignored the role of religion, family, eastern philosophy, and medicine in understanding and managing the psychiatric disorders. India comprises of diverse cultures, languages, ethnicities, and religious affiliations. However, besides these diversities, there are certain commonalities, which include Hinduism as a religion which is spread across the country, the traditional family system, ancient Indian system of medicine and emphasis on use of traditional methods like Yoga and Meditation for controlling mind. This article discusses as to how mind and mental health are understood from the point of view of Hinduism, Indian traditions and Indian systems of medicine. Further, the article focuses on as to how these Indian concepts can be incorporated in the practice of contemporary psychiatry. PMID:23858244

  13. [Philosophy against psychiatry, right up against it].

    PubMed

    Demazeux, Steeves

    2016-12-01

    Since the early 1990s, there has been a tremendous new interest at the international level for researches at the crossroad between philosophy and psychiatry. This interest has been supported and quite stimulated by the foundation of a dedicated association, as well as by the establishment of a journal and the promotion of a new collection. My aim in this paper is to trace the origins of the so-called "new philosophy of psychiatry" field and to reconstruct its global intellectual dynamics during the past two decades. I try to identify, through the big diversity of the individual contributions, its dominant theoretical orientations but also what may appear as some of its philosophical blind spots.

  14. [On the cultural history of psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Schott, H

    2004-08-01

    About 1800, psychiatry was established as a medical discipline with special institutions (madhouses). Therefore, historiography of psychiatry focuses generally on the last 200 years. This contribution will also illustrate aspects of medical and cultural history, which nowadays are mostly supposed to be less important: the premodern concept of melancholy and hypochondria between humoral pathology, demonology, and psychology; the assessment of psychiatric illness as a "creative malady," even complementary to genius; the dialectics of psychiatric therapies between suppression and emancipation, which is especially prominent in the early nineteenth century in regard to "moral treatment" ( psychische Kur in German), a topic stressed vigorously by the "antipsychiatry" movement around 1970; the denunciation of patients and sections of the population by eugenics ( Rassenhygiene in German) and racism (especially toward the Jews) by psychiatrists. Finally, the miraculous mechanisms of mass hysteria of "normal" individuals are questioned.

  15. [Philosophy against psychiatry, right up against it].

    PubMed

    Demazeux, Steeves

    2016-12-01

    Since the early 1990s, there has been a tremendous new interest at the international level for researches at the crossroad between philosophy and psychiatry. This interest has been supported and quite stimulated by the foundation of a dedicated association, as well as by the establishment of a journal and the promotion of a new collection. My aim in this paper is to trace the origins of the so-called "new philosophy of psychiatry" field and to reconstruct its global intellectual dynamics during the past two decades. I try to identify, through the big diversity of the individual contributions, its dominant theoretical orientations but also what may appear as some of its philosophical blind spots. PMID:27550457

  16. The expert witness in forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Chaplow, D G; Peters, J L; Kydd, R R

    1992-12-01

    Forensic psychiatry operates at the interface of the Justice and Health systems and has been defined as: "That branch of psychiatry which requires special knowledge and training in the law as it relates to the mental state of the offender, or alleged offender" [1]. As a consequence of working in this area, psychiatrists are often called into court to give evidence as "expert witnesses". This article examines some of the professional and legal issues involved in providing expert testimony. Secondly, it aims to outline some practical guidelines for giving evidence in the court-room. The predominant focus is on criminal, rather than civil, proceedings in which the forensic psychiatrist gives expert testimony; however much of the information is also relevant to other psychiatrists and psychologists undertaking this role in the legal arena.

  17. Indianization of psychiatry utilizing Indian mental concepts

    PubMed Central

    Avasthi, Ajit; Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Most of the psychiatry practice in India is guided by the western concepts of mental health and illness, which have largely ignored the role of religion, family, eastern philosophy, and medicine in understanding and managing the psychiatric disorders. India comprises of diverse cultures, languages, ethnicities, and religious affiliations. However, besides these diversities, there are certain commonalities, which include Hinduism as a religion which is spread across the country, the traditional family system, ancient Indian system of medicine and emphasis on use of traditional methods like Yoga and Meditation for controlling mind. This article discusses as to how mind and mental health are understood from the point of view of Hinduism, Indian traditions and Indian systems of medicine. Further, the article focuses on as to how these Indian concepts can be incorporated in the practice of contemporary psychiatry. PMID:23858244

  18. The philosophies of psychiatry: empirical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ralston, Alan S G

    2013-08-01

    The past two decades have seen a surge in cross-disciplinary work in philosophy and psychiatry. Much of this work is necessarily abstract whilst those working in the area are aware of the necessity of relating the theoretical and conceptual work to the vagaries of day-to-day practice. But given the diverse methods and aims of philosophy and psychiatry, crossing the 'communication gap' between the two disciplines is easier said than done. In this article different methods of bridging this gap are presented and commented upon. A number of research studies are reviewed with an eye to the potential they display to develop interdisciplinary theory. An empirical approach to philosophy of practice with special attention to ordinary language use is proposed as a fruitful may forward. PMID:22752587

  19. [Malaise in psychiatry and its history].

    PubMed

    Chebili, S

    2016-04-01

    The main hypothesis of this paper is the presence of malaise in psychiatry. The malaise has two sides: on one hand, the end of psychiatry hegemony that dominated the theoretical field of psychiatry until the 1990s. The loss of influence of psychoanalysis is due to its inability to be submitted to any kind of assessment. On the other hand, the supremacy of neurosciences. The idea is not to underestimate the importance of neurosciences but rather to affirm that they occupy the whole theoretical field of psychiatry. This is an unusual situation that is specific to our time. Indeed, this monism has succeeded to an epistemological dualism that has existed throughout the history of psychiatry. In this article, we'll try to draw a history of dualism in psychiatry. Firstly, with Pinel, we find a tension between a metaphysical philosophical pole and a physiological one. Pinel's philosophy has something to do with Condillac's ideology as Pinel applies the analytical method to mental diseases. Under Cabanis's influence, the author of the famous Rapports du physique et du moral de l'homme, this ideology is under pressure with physiologism. As a materialist, he gives an essential part to the brain that distributes pieces of information throughout the body because he thinks that mind influences body. Secondly, dualism lies between the doctrine of localizations defended by Gall and the theory of degeneration elaborated by Magnan. Gall, in Anatomie et physiologie du système nerveux en général, seeks to know how bumps or hollows that are found on the skull are shaped. Gall is for the theory of delocalizations. He is the counterpart of Magnan who wrote a work about Les Dégénérés, that takes its part in the physiological trend with the famous theory of degeneration. For him, degeneration means the imperfect state of a subject whose cerebral functions are in a noticeably imperfect state. Thirdly, with Henry Ey, dualism starts to be less important. Indeed, he tends a monist

  20. Psychiatry and Law: Past, Present and Future*

    PubMed Central

    Kamath, Ravindra M.

    2015-01-01

    It is important that every citizen knows the law of the state. Psychiatry and law both deal with human behaviour. This paper attempts to highlight the interplay between these two by discussing about various legislations like The Family Courts Act 1984, Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act 1985, Juvenile Justice Act 1986, Consumer Protection Act 1986, Persons with Disability Act 1995, The Maintenance and Welfare of Senior Citizens Act 2007. PMID:25838729

  1. Psychiatry and law: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Kamath, Ravindra M

    2015-01-01

    It is important that every citizen knows the law of the state. Psychiatry and law both deal with human behaviour. This paper attempts to highlight the interplay between these two by discussing about various legislations like The Family Courts Act 1984, Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act 1985, Juvenile Justice Act 1986, Consumer Protection Act 1986, Persons with Disability Act 1995, The Maintenance and Welfare of Senior Citizens Act 2007.

  2. Jung's Contribution to Clinical Psychiatry 1

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, Murdo

    1935-01-01

    This attempt to correlate Jung's work with practical psychiatry is concerned mainly with his conception of clinical types. Jung went far away from the provinces of clinical medicine and psychiatry for his evidence, and the possible cause for this is discussed. He expands his view of introversion and extraversion, and so the suggestion is made that for practical purposes his early limitation of these terms should be maintained. The difficulties encountered in type description by comparison and contrast are emphasized. The value of his conception of basic functions is discussed and criticized. A review is made of the personalities he describes, and a simplification of his resulting classification suggested for practical purposes. The notion is put forward that Jung describes one type in psychological adaptation much better than any others, and it is hinted that his psycho-pathological description of this type in nerve disorder constitutes his main contribution to clinical psychiatry. A review of the treatable nerve disorders suggests that this disorder has received more adequate description from Jung than any other, and reveals a unique method of investigation and therapy. This does not apply to his other descriptions. Possibly some of the vagueness attributed to Jung is because he did not give this disorder an adequate diagnosis, and an explanation for this is offered. The correlation between the simplified classification and the classification of treatable nerve disorders is close, and it is suggested that this constitutes Jung's contribution to clinical psychiatry in general. The application of Jung's principles is of daily help to the practising psychiatrist. PMID:19990325

  3. Hope: a relevant concept for geriatric psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Farran, C J; Popovich, J M

    1990-04-01

    The focus in psychiatry has been on treating people for hopelessness, as opposed to understanding more about maintaining hope. This study reports findings from a study of hope conducted with community-based older adults. A general linear model procedure was used to more clearly understand the relationships among hope and other relevant variables. This model is used as a basis for proposing an intervention model for maintaining hope in older adults. PMID:2192691

  4. Setting up a Death Row Psychiatry Program.

    PubMed

    Yanofski, Jason

    2011-02-01

    Death row psychiatry contains a complex set of clinical, ethical, and legal questions. This Forensic Files column makes a case for correctional institutions starting death row programs to address these issues through uniform policies. A list of the relevant issues is provided. Specific issues discussed include death row psychiatric assessment, considering "justifiable" depression, treating for competency to be executed, and balancing boundaries between clinical and forensic work.

  5. Setting Up Private Practice in Psychiatry*

    PubMed Central

    De Sousa, Alan; De Sousa, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    Setting up a private practice in Mumbai is an onerous task. The present paper looks at the difficulties face by young psychiatrists when starting a private practice in psychiatry. It suggests certain guidelines to be followed to ensure the development of a successful practice. It also suggests methods to gain popularity among patients and society along with the ethics to be followed, knowledge base to be garnered, and the role of using multiple therapies and versatility in private practice. PMID:25838718

  6. Setting up a Death Row Psychiatry Program.

    PubMed

    Yanofski, Jason

    2011-02-01

    Death row psychiatry contains a complex set of clinical, ethical, and legal questions. This Forensic Files column makes a case for correctional institutions starting death row programs to address these issues through uniform policies. A list of the relevant issues is provided. Specific issues discussed include death row psychiatric assessment, considering "justifiable" depression, treating for competency to be executed, and balancing boundaries between clinical and forensic work. PMID:21468293

  7. [From Aboriginal psychological medicine to modern psychiatry in Peru].

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Torres, C

    1995-10-01

    It is traced a succinct development of the Peruvian Psychiatry beginning in the Ancient Peru (aborigen psychological medicine) with the pre-Inca and Inca periods. The most important sources of that epoch are the spanish chronicles and also the archeological and ethnological evidences. Then, it is presented the psychiatry evolution during the colonial and post-colonial time, and finally modern psychiatry in Peru.

  8. Evolutionary psychiatry: a new College special interest group

    PubMed Central

    Abed, Riadh; St John-Smith, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary science remains an overlooked area in psychiatry and medicine. The newly established Royal College of Psychiatrists' Evolutionary Psychiatry Special Interest Group aims to reverse this trend by raising the profile of evolutionary thinking among College members and others further afield. Here we provide a brief outline of the importance of the evolutionary approach to both the theory and practice of psychiatry and for future research. PMID:27752339

  9. A frame of mind from psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Vintiadis, Elly

    2015-11-01

    A distinctive characteristic of psychiatry is that it is a discipline that deals with both the physical and the mental lives of individuals. Largely because of this characteristic, different models are used for different disorders, however, there is still a remnant tendency towards reductionist views in the field. In this paper I argue that the available empirical evidence from psychiatry gives us reasons to question biological reductionism and that, in its place, we should adopt a pluralistic explanatory model that is more suited to the needs of the discipline and to the needs of the patients it is meant to help. This will allow us to retain psychiatry as an autonomous science that can productively co-exist with neuroscience while also giving patients the kind of attention they need. I further argue that this same evidence supports a view of the mind that is anti-reductive and that allows that causation can be both bottom-up and top-down and that such a view is available in emergentism coupled with an interventionist model of causation. PMID:25416523

  10. The third wave of biological psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    In this article I will argue that we are witnessing at this moment the third wave of biological psychiatry. This framework conceptualizes mental disorders as brain disorders of a special kind that requires a multilevel approach ranging from genes to psychosocial mechanisms. In contrast to earlier biological psychiatry approaches, the mental plays a more prominent role in the third wave. This will become apparent by discussing the recent controversy evolving around the recently published DSM-5 and the competing transdiagnostic Research Domain Criteria approach of the National Institute of Mental Health that is build on concepts of cognitive neuroscience. A look at current conceptualizations in biological psychiatry as well as at some discussions in current philosophy of mind on situated cognition, reveals that the thesis, that mental brain disorders are brain disorders has to be qualified with respect to how mental states are constituted and with respect to multilevel explanations of which factors contribute to stable patterns of psychopathological signs and symptoms. PMID:24046754

  11. Nutritional medicine as mainstream in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome; Logan, Alan C; Akbaraly, Tasnime N; Amminger, G Paul; Balanzá-Martínez, Vicent; Freeman, Marlene P; Hibbeln, Joseph; Matsuoka, Yutaka; Mischoulon, David; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Nanri, Akiko; Nishi, Daisuke; Ramsey, Drew; Rucklidge, Julia J; Sanchez-Villegas, Almudena; Scholey, Andrew; Su, Kuan-Pin; Jacka, Felice N

    2015-03-01

    Psychiatry is at an important juncture, with the current pharmacologically focused model having achieved modest benefits in addressing the burden of poor mental health worldwide. Although the determinants of mental health are complex, the emerging and compelling evidence for nutrition as a crucial factor in the high prevalence and incidence of mental disorders suggests that diet is as important to psychiatry as it is to cardiology, endocrinology, and gastroenterology. Evidence is steadily growing for the relation between dietary quality (and potential nutritional deficiencies) and mental health, and for the select use of nutrient-based supplements to address deficiencies, or as monotherapies or augmentation therapies. We present a viewpoint from an international collaboration of academics (members of the International Society for Nutritional Psychiatry Research), in which we provide a context and overview of the current evidence in this emerging field of research, and discuss the future direction. We advocate recognition of diet and nutrition as central determinants of both physical and mental health. PMID:26359904

  12. Computational Phenotyping in Psychiatry: A Worked Example

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Computational psychiatry is a rapidly emerging field that uses model-based quantities to infer the behavioral and neuronal abnormalities that underlie psychopathology. If successful, this approach promises key insights into (pathological) brain function as well as a more mechanistic and quantitative approach to psychiatric nosology—structuring therapeutic interventions and predicting response and relapse. The basic procedure in computational psychiatry is to build a computational model that formalizes a behavioral or neuronal process. Measured behavioral (or neuronal) responses are then used to infer the model parameters of a single subject or a group of subjects. Here, we provide an illustrative overview over this process, starting from the modeling of choice behavior in a specific task, simulating data, and then inverting that model to estimate group effects. Finally, we illustrate cross-validation to assess whether between-subject variables (e.g., diagnosis) can be recovered successfully. Our worked example uses a simple two-step maze task and a model of choice behavior based on (active) inference and Markov decision processes. The procedural steps and routines we illustrate are not restricted to a specific field of research or particular computational model but can, in principle, be applied in many domains of computational psychiatry. PMID:27517087

  13. Intelligence and Birth Order among Children and Adolescents in Psychiatric Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkcaldy, Bruce; Furnham, Adrian; Siefen, Georg

    2009-01-01

    A sample of around 2,500 adolescents in a child and adolescent psychiatry clinic in the region of Munster, Germany had their intelligence assessed. Family size (total number of siblings within a family) was significantly correlated with intelligence score categories (-0.08 and -0.19 for males and females). First borns and only children displayed…

  14. In India, Psychiatry Has Come a Long Way*

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    This Presidential Address of the Bombay Psychiatry Society covers the state of psychiatry in India in 1997. It posits that with the advent of newer brain imaging technologies in India such as computerised tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, single photon emission computerised tomography and brain electrical activity mapping, an era of evidence-based psychiatry in India has arrived. The Address cautions against the dehumanising potential of excessive reliance on technology. The need for a greater emphasis on psychiatry during undergraduate medical education is discussed along with the need to destigmatise psychiatric disorders. Finally, the need to encourage quality research in psychiatric disorders is stressed. PMID:25838728

  15. Men's Identity Development: Issues and Implications for Residence Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, David A.; Livingston, Wade G.; Havice, Pamela A.; Cawthon, Tony W.

    2012-01-01

    Young men struggle with privilege and oppression in college and university residence halls just as they do in other educational and social contexts. While discussions and research about adolescent and adult identity development continue, little attention has focused on how a male student's identity development can impact residence life cultures on…

  16. Initiatives in biological research in Indian psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Shrivatava, Amresh

    2010-01-01

    Biological psychiatry is an exploratory science for mental health. These biological changes provide some explicit insight into the complex area of ‘brain-mind and behavior’. One major achievement of research in biological field is the finding to explain how biological factors cause changes in behavior. In India, we have a clear history of initiatives in research from a biological perspective, which goes back to 1958. In the last 61 years, this field has seen significant evolution, precision and effective utilization of contemporary technological advances. It is a matter of great pride to see that in spite of difficult times in terms of challenges of practice and services, administration, resource, funding and manpower the zest for research was very forthcoming. There was neither dedicated time nor any funding for conducting research. It came from the intellectual insight of our fore fathers in the field of mental health to gradually grow to the state of strategic education in research, training in research, international research collaborations and setting up of internationally accredited centers. During difficult economic conditions in the past, the hypothesis tested and conclusions derived have not been so important. It is more important how it was done, how it was made possible and how robust traditions were established. Almost an entire spectrum of biological research has been touched upon by Indian researchers. Some of these are electroconvulsive therapy, biological markers, neurocognition, neuroimaging, neuroendocrine, neurochemistry, electrophysiology and genetics. A lot has been published given the limited space in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry and other medical journals published in India. A large body of biological research conducted on Indian patients has also been published in International literature (which I prefer to call non-Indian journals). Newer research questions in biological psychiatry, keeping with trend of international standards are

  17. [Perspectives on researches in disaster psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Tomita, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    After experiencing the catastrophic Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami disaster in 2011, Tohoku University founded the International Research Institute of Disaster Science (IRIDeS) in April, 2012. IRIDeS, comprising 7 divisions and 36 laboratories with broad areas of specialization, from the humanities to natural sciences, aims to become a global center for the study of disasters and disaster mitigation, learning from and building upon past lessons in disaster management from Japan and around the world. In IRIDeS, the Department of Disaster Psychiatry is in charge of dealing with issues related to disaster psychiatry, including the psychosocial impact of disasters. Now, at more than 2 and a half years after the catastrophic disaster, the psychological impact actually seems to be getting stronger and wider, whereas the memory of the disaster seems to be waning in other areas of the country. In such a situation, where a number of problems need to be resolved, what can/should we do as psychiatrists? On the other hand, other natural disasters, such as storms and floods, have kept hitting Japan, and catastrophes seem to strike somewhere in the world every year. In addition, we need to prepare for the possibility of a Nankai Trough Quake and an earthquake directly hitting the Tokyo area, which may occur sometime in the future. Considering the situation, we need to establish an education system for disaster psychiatry, and proceed with research to collect useful information to prepare for coming disasters. The aim of our department is to integrate multi-faceted basic and clinical research approaches to investigate the following topics: 1) to identify social, psychological, and biological factors involved in the pathophysiology of and recovery from disaster-related mental health problems; 2) to develop systems for disaster prevention, disaster response, and recovery, considering disaster-related psychiatric and psychological issues; 3) to develop useful tools for the

  18. [Perspectives on researches in disaster psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Tomita, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    After experiencing the catastrophic Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami disaster in 2011, Tohoku University founded the International Research Institute of Disaster Science (IRIDeS) in April, 2012. IRIDeS, comprising 7 divisions and 36 laboratories with broad areas of specialization, from the humanities to natural sciences, aims to become a global center for the study of disasters and disaster mitigation, learning from and building upon past lessons in disaster management from Japan and around the world. In IRIDeS, the Department of Disaster Psychiatry is in charge of dealing with issues related to disaster psychiatry, including the psychosocial impact of disasters. Now, at more than 2 and a half years after the catastrophic disaster, the psychological impact actually seems to be getting stronger and wider, whereas the memory of the disaster seems to be waning in other areas of the country. In such a situation, where a number of problems need to be resolved, what can/should we do as psychiatrists? On the other hand, other natural disasters, such as storms and floods, have kept hitting Japan, and catastrophes seem to strike somewhere in the world every year. In addition, we need to prepare for the possibility of a Nankai Trough Quake and an earthquake directly hitting the Tokyo area, which may occur sometime in the future. Considering the situation, we need to establish an education system for disaster psychiatry, and proceed with research to collect useful information to prepare for coming disasters. The aim of our department is to integrate multi-faceted basic and clinical research approaches to investigate the following topics: 1) to identify social, psychological, and biological factors involved in the pathophysiology of and recovery from disaster-related mental health problems; 2) to develop systems for disaster prevention, disaster response, and recovery, considering disaster-related psychiatric and psychological issues; 3) to develop useful tools for the

  19. Initiatives in biological research in Indian psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Shrivatava, Amresh

    2010-01-01

    Biological psychiatry is an exploratory science for mental health. These biological changes provide some explicit insight into the complex area of 'brain-mind and behavior'. One major achievement of research in biological field is the finding to explain how biological factors cause changes in behavior. In India, we have a clear history of initiatives in research from a biological perspective, which goes back to 1958. In the last 61 years, this field has seen significant evolution, precision and effective utilization of contemporary technological advances. It is a matter of great pride to see that in spite of difficult times in terms of challenges of practice and services, administration, resource, funding and manpower the zest for research was very forthcoming. There was neither dedicated time nor any funding for conducting research. It came from the intellectual insight of our fore fathers in the field of mental health to gradually grow to the state of strategic education in research, training in research, international research collaborations and setting up of internationally accredited centers. During difficult economic conditions in the past, the hypothesis tested and conclusions derived have not been so important. It is more important how it was done, how it was made possible and how robust traditions were established. Almost an entire spectrum of biological research has been touched upon by Indian researchers. Some of these are electroconvulsive therapy, biological markers, neurocognition, neuroimaging, neuroendocrine, neurochemistry, electrophysiology and genetics. A lot has been published given the limited space in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry and other medical journals published in India. A large body of biological research conducted on Indian patients has also been published in International literature (which I prefer to call non-Indian journals). Newer research questions in biological psychiatry, keeping with trend of international standards are

  20. Satisfaction with civilian family medicine residency training

    PubMed Central

    Wolfrom, Brent; Hodgetts, Geoff; Kotecha, Jyoti; Pollock, Emily; Martin, Mary; Han, Han; Morissette, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate satisfaction with civilian residency training programs among serving general duty medical officers within the Canadian Armed Forces. Design A 23-item, cross-sectional survey face-validated by the office of the Surgeon General of the Canadian Armed Forces. Setting Canada. Participants General duty medical officers serving in the Canadian Armed Forces as of February 2014 identified through the Directorate of Health Services Personnel of the Canadian Forces Health Services Group Headquarters. Main outcome measures Satisfaction with and time spent in 7 domains of training: trauma, critical care, emergency medicine, psychiatry, occupational health, sports medicine, and base clinic training. Overall preparedness for leading a health care team, caring for a military population, working in isolated and challenging environments, and being deployed were evaluated on a 5-point Likert scale. Results Among the survey respondents (n = 135, response rate 54%), 77% agreed or strongly agreed that their family medicine residency training was relevant to their role as a general duty medical officer. Most respondents were either satisfied or very satisfied with their emergency medicine training (77%) and psychiatry training (63%), while fewer were satisfied or very satisfied with their sports medicine (47%), base clinic (41%), and critical care (43%) training. Even fewer respondents were satisfied or very satisfied with their trauma (26%) and occupational health (12%) training. Regarding overall preparedness, 57% believed that they were adequately prepared to care for a military patient population, and 52% of respondents believed they were prepared for their first posting. Fewer respondents (38%) believed they were prepared to work in isolated, austere, or challenging environments, and even fewer (32%) believed that residency training prepared them to lead a health care team. Conclusion General duty medical officers were satisfied with many aspects of

  1. The Task before Psychiatry Today Redux: STSPIR*

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajai R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines six important tasks for psychiatry today, which can be put in short as: Spread and scale up services;Talk;Science,Psychotherapy;Integrate; andResearch excellence. As an acronym, STSPIR. Spread and scale up services: Spreading mental health services to uncovered areas, and increasing facilities in covered areas:Mental disorders are leading cause of ill health but bottom of health agenda;Patients face widespread discrimination, human rights violations and lack of facilities;Need to stem the brain drain from developing countries;At any given point, 10% of the adult population report having some mental or behavioural disorder;In India, serious mental disorders affect nearly 80 million people, i.e. combined population of the northern top of India, including Punjab, Haryana, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh;Combating imbalance between burden of demand and supply of efficient psychiatric services in all countries, especially in developing ones like India, is the first task before psychiatry today. If ever a greater role for activism were needed, this is the field;The need is to scale up effective and cost-effective treatments and preventive interventions for mental disorders.Talk: Speaking to a wider audience about positive contributions of psychiatry: Being aware of, understanding, and countering, the massive anti-psychiatry propaganda online and elsewhere;Giving a firm answer to anti-psychiatry even while understanding its transformation into mental health consumerism and opposition to reckless medicalisation;Defining normality and abnormality;Bringing about greater precision in diagnosis and care;Motivating those helped by psychiatry to speak up;Setting up informative websites and organising programmes to reduce stigma and spread mental health awareness;Setting up regular columns in psychiatry journals around the globe, called ‘Patients Speak’, or something similar, wherein those who have been helped get a chance to voice

  2. The Task before Psychiatry Today Redux: STSPIR*.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajai R

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines six important tasks for psychiatry today, which can be put in short as: Spread and scale up services;Talk;Science,Psychotherapy;Integrate; andResearch excellence. As an acronym, STSPIR. Spread and scale up services: Spreading mental health services to uncovered areas, and increasing facilities in covered areas:Mental disorders are leading cause of ill health but bottom of health agenda;Patients face widespread discrimination, human rights violations and lack of facilities;Need to stem the brain drain from developing countries;At any given point, 10% of the adult population report having some mental or behavioural disorder;In India, serious mental disorders affect nearly 80 million people, i.e. combined population of the northern top of India, including Punjab, Haryana, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh;Combating imbalance between burden of demand and supply of efficient psychiatric services in all countries, especially in developing ones like India, is the first task before psychiatry today. If ever a greater role for activism were needed, this is the field;The need is to scale up effective and cost-effective treatments and preventive interventions for mental disorders.TALK: Speaking to a wider audience about positive contributions of psychiatry:Being aware of, understanding, and countering, the massive anti-psychiatry propaganda online and elsewhere;Giving a firm answer to anti-psychiatry even while understanding its transformation into mental health consumerism and opposition to reckless medicalisation;Defining normality and abnormality;Bringing about greater precision in diagnosis and care;Motivating those helped by psychiatry to speak up;Setting up informative websites and organising programmes to reduce stigma and spread mental health awareness;Setting up regular columns in psychiatry journals around the globe, called 'Patients Speak', or something similar, wherein those who have been helped get a chance to voice their

  3. The Task before Psychiatry Today Redux: STSPIR*.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajai R

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines six important tasks for psychiatry today, which can be put in short as: Spread and scale up services;Talk;Science,Psychotherapy;Integrate; andResearch excellence. As an acronym, STSPIR. Spread and scale up services: Spreading mental health services to uncovered areas, and increasing facilities in covered areas:Mental disorders are leading cause of ill health but bottom of health agenda;Patients face widespread discrimination, human rights violations and lack of facilities;Need to stem the brain drain from developing countries;At any given point, 10% of the adult population report having some mental or behavioural disorder;In India, serious mental disorders affect nearly 80 million people, i.e. combined population of the northern top of India, including Punjab, Haryana, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh;Combating imbalance between burden of demand and supply of efficient psychiatric services in all countries, especially in developing ones like India, is the first task before psychiatry today. If ever a greater role for activism were needed, this is the field;The need is to scale up effective and cost-effective treatments and preventive interventions for mental disorders.TALK: Speaking to a wider audience about positive contributions of psychiatry:Being aware of, understanding, and countering, the massive anti-psychiatry propaganda online and elsewhere;Giving a firm answer to anti-psychiatry even while understanding its transformation into mental health consumerism and opposition to reckless medicalisation;Defining normality and abnormality;Bringing about greater precision in diagnosis and care;Motivating those helped by psychiatry to speak up;Setting up informative websites and organising programmes to reduce stigma and spread mental health awareness;Setting up regular columns in psychiatry journals around the globe, called 'Patients Speak', or something similar, wherein those who have been helped get a chance to voice their

  4. Inequities and psychiatry disability in transition among the elderly population from 1987 to 2006 in China: Data based on national surveys.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenjie; Li, Ning; Guo, Chao; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2016-09-01

    The world will be facing huge population aged 65 and older, accounting for 13% of the total population in the future. Significant disabilities rates reflect an accumulation of health risks. Psychiatry disability is one of the most significant disabilities, because it manifests in cognitive, affective, and behavior disorders that limit one's daily life and restrict their participations. Very few studies have explored the 20 years associations between demographic factors and psychiatry disability among older people in China.In this study, we investigated psychiatry disability transitional association behind China rapid development from 1987 to 2006 among the 60 and older population. Data used 2 nationally represented, population-based data from the China National Sample Surveys on Disability, conducted in 1987 and 2006. The sample size of the current study was 140,008 in 1987 and 354,859 in 2006, respectively. Associations between socioeconomic factors and psychiatry disability were determined by using a logistic regression model.The prevalence of psychiatric disabilities increased from 1987 to 2006. In both surveys, the most common psychiatric disabilities were schizophrenia, schizotypal, and delusional disorders, and they presented the same associations with age increase. Socioeconomic inequities, such as current employment status and marital status, were associated with psychiatry disability in both surveys. These associations remained even after these 2 surveys were combined.The rapidly rising prevalence of psychiatric disorders expected warrants strategies to reduce the burden of these disabilities among females and rural residents. PMID:27603379

  5. Shorter Psychiatry Clerkship Length Is Associated with Lower NBME Psychiatry Shelf Exam Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostwick, J. Michael; Alexander, Cara

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to evaluate a recent medical school curriculum change at our institution 3 years ago; specifically: shortening the Psychiatry core clerkship from 4 to 3 weeks and adding an optional 6-week core/elective combination rotation in lieu of the 3-week core. The authors aimed to determine whether clerkship length was…

  6. [Psychiatry with open doors. Part 1: Rational for an open door for acute psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Sollberger, D; Lang, U E

    2014-03-01

    Despite the reform efforts of the last decades modern acute psychiatry still stands between conflicting priorities in everyday practice. The protection of patient autonomy might conflict with a regulatory mandate of psychiatry in societal contexts and the necessity of coercive measures and involuntary treatment might become problematic with respect to presumed but contentious interests of the patient. The conflicts particularly concern questions of involuntary commitment, door closing, coercive and isolation measures. Research on the topic of therapeutic effectiveness of these practices is rare. Accordingly, the practice depends on the federal state, hospital and ward and is very heterogeneous. Epidemiological prognosis predicts an increase of psychiatric disorders; however, simultaneously in terms of medical ethics the warranty of patient autonomy, shared decision-making and informed consent in psychiatry become increasingly more important. This challenges structural and practical changes in psychiatry, particularly in situations of self and third party endangerment which are outlined and a rationale for an opening of the doors in acute psychiatric wards is provided. PMID:23538944

  7. Turnover of First-Time Chairs in Departments of Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Peter F.; Rayburn, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors examine the tenure of first-time Chairs in academic departments of psychiatry in order to stimulate discussion on extant workforce and leadership issues. Method: Data on tenure of Chairs in psychiatry and other nonsurgical specialties were derived from the longitudinal database of the Association of American Medical Colleges…

  8. Medical School Research Pipeline: Medical Student Research Experience in Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balon, Richard; Heninger, George; Belitsky, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The authors discuss the importance of introducing research training in psychiatry and neurosciences to medical students. Methods: A review of existing models of research training in psychiatry with focus on those providing research training to medical students is presented. Results: Two research-training models for medical students that…

  9. Psychiatry Morbidity and Mortality Rounds: Implementation and Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Stuart; Demaso, David R.; Kemler, Beth

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the implementation of psychiatry morbidity and mortality rounds (M&Ms) on the clinical and educational practice in a children's hospital. Methods: Attendees to monthly M&Ms between July 2005 and May 2007 included staff and trainees from psychiatry, psychology, nursing, and social work. Cases were selected based on a…

  10. EPA guidance on improving the image of psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Möller-Leimkühler, A M; Möller, H-J; Maier, W; Gaebel, W; Falkai, P

    2016-03-01

    This paper explores causes, explanations and consequences of the negative image of psychiatry and develops recommendations for improvement. It is primarily based on a WPA guidance paper on how to combat the stigmatization of psychiatry and psychiatrists and a Medline search on related publications since 2010. Furthermore, focussing on potential causes and explanations, the authors performed a selective literature search regarding additional image-related issues such as mental health literacy and diagnostic and treatment issues. Underestimation of psychiatry results from both unjustified prejudices of the general public, mass media and healthcare professionals and psychiatry's own unfavourable coping with external and internal concerns. Issues related to unjustified devaluation of psychiatry include overestimation of coercion, associative stigma, lack of public knowledge, need to simplify complex mental issues, problem of the continuum between normality and psychopathology, competition with medical and non-medical disciplines and psychopharmacological treatment. Issues related to psychiatry's own contribution to being underestimated include lack of a clear professional identity, lack of biomarkers supporting clinical diagnoses, limited consensus about best treatment options, lack of collaboration with other medical disciplines and low recruitment rates among medical students. Recommendations are proposed for creating and representing a positive self-concept with different components. The negative image of psychiatry is not only due to unfavourable communication with the media, but is basically a problem of self-conceptualization. Much can be improved. However, psychiatry will remain a profession with an exceptional position among the medical disciplines, which should be seen as its specific strength. PMID:26874959

  11. Cross-Cultural Issues in Forensic Psychiatry Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layde, Joseph B.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Forensic psychiatry was officially recognized as a subspecialty by the American Board of Medical Specialties in the 1990's. In 1994, the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN) gave its first written examination to certify forensic psychiatrists. In 1996, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) began…

  12. Encompassing Sexual Medicine within Psychiatry: Pros and Cons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segraves, Robert Taylor

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This article examines the positive and negative aspects of psychiatry encompassing sexual medicine within its purview. Methods: MEDLINE searches for the period between 1980 to the present were performed with the terms "psychiatry," "sexual medicine," and "sexual dysfunction." In addition, sexual medicine texts were reviewed for chapters…

  13. The Recruitment Problem in Psychiatry: A Critical Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stampfer, Hans

    2011-01-01

    The continuing shortfall in recruitment to Psychiatry is examined with suggestions for affirmative action. Recruitment may improve in the near future because of the high demand for psychiatrists, the incentives offered, greater competition for other specialties and a pool of international graduates willing to work in Psychiatry. There remains the…

  14. [History of the department of Psychiatry at the University of Montreal].

    PubMed

    Stip, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    In its current form, the Département de psychiatrie at the Université de Montréal (UdeM) was created in 1964. The first person to have headed was Dr. Gerard Beaudoin… Between 1948 and 1964, several others psychiatrists were heading the Département without necessary bearing a particular title.The directors of the Département from 1951 to now were: Drs. Fernand Côté, Camille Laurin, Gerard Beaudoin, Yvon Gauthier, Arthur Amyot, Francis Borgeat, Hugues Cormier, Sylvain Palardy, Jean Hébert, and Emmanuel Stip.When the Département opened, it was the second institution in Montréal that was training psychiatrists. During the first year, there were 3 psychiatric residents, but within 20 years this number had increased to 63. From the early years, teaching psychiatry to residents, and subsequently to all UdeM medical students, has been a priority in the Département, and over the years many psychiatrists trained at UdeM have attained leadership positions elsewhere. The Département attained an early reputation for excellence in both clinical and basic research.The strengths the Département developed in its early years in clinical psychopharmacology, in basic research in neurotransmitters, sleep, cognition, forensic, and in community psychiatry have been augmented more recently with active programs in psychotherapy research, substance abuse research, psychoneuroendocrinology, developmental aspects of behavior, genetics, epigenetics as well as the study of the brain through a variety of brain scanning techniques.The history of the Département de psychiatrie de l'Université de Montréal is largely dependent on that of each of the institutions affiliated to the Université: the Pavillon Albert-Prévost de l'Hôpital du Sacré-Coeur de Montréal (HSCM), the Institut universitaire en santé mentale de Montréal (IUSMM) and the CHU Sainte-Justine. We must also remember that the discovery of the potentiating of lithium by antidepressants was made by Dr. Demontigny

  15. World wide use of psychotropic drugs in child and adolescent psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Simeon, J G; Wiggins, D M; Williams, E

    1995-05-01

    1. Questionnaires were mailed to child psychiatrists world wide to obtain more precise information on views and approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of childhood psychiatric disorders. 2. Results indicated important problems related to the management of child psychiatry practice both overseas and in Canada. 3. The choice of medication was frequently restricted by lack of availability, and political or social attitudes. 4. A consensus on diagnosis and treatment guidelines in child and adolescent psychiatry remains an important issue.

  16. Notes on a Few Issues in the Philosophy of Psychiatry*

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajai R.; Singh, Shakuntala A.

    2009-01-01

    The first part called the Preamble tackles: (a) the issues of silence and speech, and life and disease; (b) whether we need to know some or all of the truth, and how are exact science and philosophical reason related; (c) the phenomenon of Why, How, and What; (d) how are mind and brain related; (e) what is robust eclecticism, empirical/scientific enquiry, replicability/refutability, and the role of diagnosis and medical model in psychiatry; (f) bioethics and the four principles of beneficence, non-malfeasance, autonomy, and justice; (g) the four concepts of disease, illness, sickness, and disorder; how confusion is confounded by these concepts but clarity is imperative if we want to make sense out of them; and how psychiatry is an interim medical discipline. The second part called The Issues deals with: (a) the concepts of nature and nurture; the biological and the psychosocial; and psychiatric disease and brain pathophysiology; (b) biology, Freud and the reinvention of psychiatry; (c) critics of psychiatry, mind-body problem and paradigm shifts in psychiatry; (d) the biological, the psychoanalytic, the psychosocial and the cognitive; (e) the issues of clarity, reductionism, and integration; (f) what are the fool-proof criteria, which are false leads, and what is the need for questioning assumptions in psychiatry. The third part is called Psychiatric Disorder, Psychiatric Ethics, and Psychiatry Connected Disciplines. It includes topics like (a) psychiatric disorder, mental health, and mental phenomena; (b) issues in psychiatric ethics; (c) social psychiatry, liaison psychiatry, psychosomatic medicine, forensic psychiatry, and neuropsychiatry. The fourth part is called Antipsychiatry, Blunting Creativity, etc. It includes topics like (a) antipsychiatry revisited; (b) basic arguments of antipsychiatry, Szasz, etc.; (c) psychiatric classification and value judgment; (d) conformity, labeling, and blunting creativity. The fifth part is called The Role of Philosophy

  17. [The problem of truth in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    López-Ibor Aliño, J J

    2000-01-01

    Psychiatry has forgotten too early about the problem of truth (Zutt). In the first treatises on delusions, these are described as pathological errors, as mistakes in the ability to judge reality. For French psychiatry, delusions are false ideas of pathological origin, resistant to logical argumentation that alter the ability to judge reality, a concept still present in DSM-IV, in which it is defined as wrong beliefs that normality imply a wrong interpretation of perceptions of experiences. As a consequence, delusions are classified according to its contents. German psychiatry however seeks for the structures underlying to all delusions, some authors have even defended the notion of a single psychosis. The Heidelberg School, so well analyzed by Laín, developed a psychopathology which dismantled the notion of delusion then accepted (falseness is a relative and accessory notion and the lack of information plays an important role, as well as cultural and religious factors). K. Schneider describes the two forms of delusion: delusional perception and delusional occurrence. Both concepts have been criticized, therefore it is necessary to consider truth as a process and not as a state and to take into account the contributions of the philosophy of science and psychoanalysis. The concept of truth of Aristotle (the adaptation of the logos to the thing) is the one that has prevailed along history. But, for Heidegger the truth as aletheia (the process of revealing) is deeper and allows, applied to psychopathology, the connection of truth, liberty and relationship between human beings. As a consequence, the error of delusion, its lack of liberty, is also a lack of communication. The process of getting closer to truth is marked by an ethical attitude of tolerance. PMID:11205045

  18. Biomarkers and clinical staging in psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    McGorry, Patrick; Keshavan, Matcheri; Goldstone, Sherilyn; Amminger, Paul; Allott, Kelly; Berk, Michael; Lavoie, Suzie; Pantelis, Christos; Yung, Alison; Wood, Stephen; Hickie, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Personalized medicine is rapidly becoming a reality in today's physical medicine. However, as yet this is largely an aspirational goal in psychiatry, despite significant advances in our understanding of the biochemical, genetic and neurobiological processes underlying major mental disorders. Preventive medicine relies on the availability of predictive tools; in psychiatry we still largely lack these. Furthermore, our current diagnostic systems, with their focus on well-established, largely chronic illness, do not support a pre-emptive, let alone a preventive, approach, since it is during the early stages of a disorder that interventions have the potential to offer the greatest benefit. Here, we present a clinical staging model for severe mental disorders and discuss examples of biological markers that have already undergone some systematic evaluation and that could be integrated into such a framework. The advantage of this model is that it explicitly considers the evolution of psychopathology during the development of a mental illness and emphasizes that progression of illness is by no means inevitable, but can be altered by providing appropriate interventions that target individual modifiable risk and protective factors. The specific goals of therapeutic intervention are therefore broadened to include the prevention of illness onset or progression, and to minimize the risk of harm associated with more complex treatment regimens. The staging model also facilitates the integration of new data on the biological, social and environmental factors that influence mental illness into our clinical and diagnostic infrastructure, which will provide a major step forward in the development of a truly pre-emptive psychiatry. PMID:25273285

  19. [Psychiatry in Quebec. Then and now].

    PubMed

    Lalonde, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This text narrates the evolution, since the 1960s, of different events that marked the history of psychiatry in the French-Canadian province of Quebec. From his personal experience, the author discusses. The evolution of the Départment de psychiatric de l'Université de Montréal fro where were issued more than 1000 psychiatrists who shaped clinical practice and research developments worthy of mention throughout the years. The evolution of diagnostic noselogy from the DSM-ii, very influenced by psychoanalysis, to the DSM-5 that is more atheortical, but that is still not based on objective data, which remains a challenge to the etiology of mental illness. The psychiatric drugs that we have learned to prescribe in the past 50 years in a more rational way thanks to a better understanding of their action mechanisms. In reality, there has been no discovery of new drug categories; rather it is the way we prescribe medication that evolved. The great adventure of the first textbook of Quebec psychiatry, which was first published in 1980, and is forthcoming in its 4th edition in 2015 in an improved and expanded format. The forthcoming version takes into consideration the developments in psychiatry. The creation of the Young Adults Clinic in 1988, providing treatment and rehabilitation to young adults in the early stages of schizophrenia, as well as psychoeducational support and information to heir family members. Through the years, this clinic had a considerable acknowledgement in Quebec and other French-speaking nations. PMID:26559212

  20. The evolution of sport psychiatry, circa 2009.

    PubMed

    Glick, Ira D; Kamm, Ronald; Morse, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Over the past three decades, the world of both amateur and professional sports has expanded greatly and become more complex. In part related to these changes - and relatively unknown to sports medicine practitioners - the field of sport psychiatry has steadily evolved and grown. This paper focuses on what these changes have been. A sport psychiatrist is a physician-psychiatrist who diagnoses and treats problems, symptoms and/or disorders associated with an athlete, with their family/significant others, with their team, or with their sport, including spectators/fans. The primary aims of the specialty are to (i) optimize health, (ii) improve athletic performance, and (iii) manage psychiatric symptoms or disorders. The training includes medical training to provide knowledge and skills unique to physicians; psychiatric training to provide knowledge and skills inherent in that field, and training and/or experience in sport psychiatry to provide knowledge and skills about psychiatric aspects of sports. The sport psychiatrist first makes an individual, family-systems and phenomenological diagnosis of the clinical situation. Based on this evaluation, he sets goals for not only the athlete, but also for significant others involved. He delivers treatment based on the psychiatric disorder or problem using a combination of medication, psychotherapy or self-help group interventions plus strategies targeted to specific sport performance issues. Evolution of the International Society of Sport Psychiatry as well as the field, including incorporation into school and professional team sports, is described along with a 'typical day' for a sport psychiatrist. Case examples, a training curriculum and core literature are included.

  1. Transdisciplinary holistic integrative psychiatry - a wishfull thinking or reality?

    PubMed

    Jakovljević, Miro

    2008-09-01

    Modern psychiatry in the last century proposed several aggregative biopsychosocial models as an opposition to prevailing fragmentary, reductionistic and dogmatic approaches. Although the biopsychosocial approach has become the mainstream concept of the present-day psychiatry, it is not fruitful enough because it is excessively broad and provides no real complex field integration and guidance to clinicians and researchers. The postmodern psychiatry alternatives have been appeared as pluralism and integrationism. Holistic and integrative approach in medicine and psychiatry is built on the premise that human beings in health and disease are complex systems of dinamically interacting biological, psychological, social, energetic, informational and spiritual processes. Emerging as a transdisciplinary holistic, complementary and integrative psychiatry implies widely accepted general systems theory on psychopathology, novel integrating interpretative models, new integrative understanding of etiopathogenesis or meanings of symptoms, and novel integrative assessment and treatment approaches addressing those etiopathogenesis and meanings. PMID:18827761

  2. Contributions of genetic studies to clinical psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Abe, K; Oda, N

    1991-12-01

    Recent twin and family studies have demonstrated a genetic factor in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, some cases of infantile autism, enuresis, specific reading disability, sleepwalking, night terrors, common fears and anxiety. Family studies have been used to elucidate the nosological relationship of psychiatric disorders; e.g. anorexia nervosa (to affective disorder), Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, and sleeptalking. Advances in biochemical genetics and in enzyme polymorphisms suggest that there are wide individual variations in the adverse effects of drugs and that dosage should be tailored to the individual patient. Recently molecular genetic methods have been introduced to psychiatry, but a major breakthrough in this field appears to be still years away.

  3. Personal Computer Applications for Psychiatry and Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Green, Rex S.; Gastfriend, David R.; Kolodner, Robert M.; Fowler, Raymond D.

    1984-01-01

    Many different types of mental health computer applications are reviewed by this panel of experts. The availability of the applications software for personal computers is noted. An overview of the many application areas is followed by more specific comments covering psychopharmacology, psychiatry, and psychological testing. Rapid improvements in personal computer hardware are broadening the uses of these models. Most application programs can now be run on desk-top model equipment. Consequently, it is likely that future applications will be developed first for personal computers, then disseminated to other sizes of computers.

  4. Two-tier diagnosing in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    van Praag, H M

    1990-10-01

    This article addresses the question: what is the most productive way to systematize abnormal behavior in order to study its biological roots? Though nosology still occupies the premier position in biological psychiatry, it is, in and by itself, a treacherous beacon. Syndromal organization of psychopathology is likewise seriously flawed. A functional organization of psychopathology is considered the most appropriate framework for biological research and a plea is made for a two-tier diagnostic system of psychiatric disorders. Tier one comprises the nosological diagnosis, and tier two a detailed depiction of the component psychological dysfunctions. Such a two-tier diagnostic system would bring psychopathology onto a true scientific footing.

  5. Disease mongering in psychiatry: fact or fiction?

    PubMed

    Saddichha, S

    2010-01-01

    Disease mongering starts at the top of recent accusations being hurled at psychiatry. It is used to refer to the attempts by pharmaceutical companies or others who have similar interests, to enlarge the market for a treatment by convincing people that they are sick and need medical intervention. This paper critically analyses the 'for' and 'against' arguments of disease mongering in psychiatric disorders, both new and old, such as Bipolar disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Restless legs syndrome, Premenstrual dysphoric disorder, female sexual dysfunction, social phobia, metabolic syndrome and road rage disorder. PMID:22049901

  6. The schizophrenogenic mother concept in American psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Hartwell, C E

    1996-01-01

    The development of the schizophrenogenic mother concept within American psychiatry has been something of an enigma. This interpersonal hypothesis of the etiology of schizophrenia involved a sharp break in the historical progression of understanding the disease. Though former promulgators have gone from calling the schizophrenogenic mother a "half truth" to a psychiatric "myth," this psychiatric concept remains a puzzle, still (Arieti 1997, p. 353; Neill 1990). The circumstances surrounding the development, flowering, and decline of the schizophrenogenic mother concept have not been fully explored. PMID:8912946

  7. Residents as teachers

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Victor K.; Burke, Clarissa A.; Narula, Archna

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine Canadian family medicine residents’ perspectives surrounding teaching opportunities and mentorship in teaching. Design A 16-question online survey. Setting Canadian family medicine residency programs. Participants Between May and June 2011, all first- and second-year family medicine residents registered in 1 of the 17 Canadian residency programs as of September 2010 were invited to participate. A total of 568 of 2266 residents responded. Main outcome measures Demographic characteristics, teaching opportunities during residency, and resident perceptions about teaching. Results A total of 77.7% of family medicine residents indicated that they were either interested or highly interested in teaching as part of their future careers, and 78.9% of family medicine residents had had opportunities to teach in various settings. However, only 60.1% of respondents were aware of programs within residency intended to support residents as teachers, and 33.0% of residents had been observed during teaching encounters. Conclusion It appears that most Canadian family medicine residents have the opportunity to teach during their residency training. Many are interested in integrating teaching as part of their future career goals. Family medicine residencies should strongly consider programs to support and further develop resident teaching skills. PMID:24029529

  8. Practice Parameter for Telepsychiatry with Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Parameter for the usage of telepsychiatry to provide services to children and adolescents is developed using clinical consensus and existing scientific evidence. Telepsychiatry is the result of applying telemedicine, a mode of health care delivery that uses telecommunications, to psychiatry. The parameter's use for determining best practices in…

  9. Isaac Ray and the development of American psychiatry and the law.

    PubMed

    Quen, J M

    1983-12-01

    This article on historical aspects of forensic psychiatry focuses on the work of Isaac Ray, the father of American forensic psychiatry and places current issues in proper perspective. Dr. Quen, a leading forensic psychiatry historian, provides a comprehensive background to this symposium on psychiatry and the law.

  10. Psychiatry as ideology in the USSR.

    PubMed

    Bloch, S

    1978-09-01

    This paper was given as a talk at the Venice Biennale on 9 December 1977. It was part of a symposium on "The Freedom of Science--Problems of Science of Scientists in Eastern Europe". Dr Bloch details some of the problems of psychiatry and its vulnerability to improper use and thus the dilemmas which must ensue in day to day practice. He looks at psychiatry in the USSR and the system within which Soviet psychiatrists must work. The Communist Party and career advancement for psychiatrists would appear to be closely related and it is suggested that, in all probability, the majority of psychiatrists are as perturbed at the misuse of their profession as their Western colleagues, but act compliantly out of fear. Severe punishments have been imposed on those psychiatrists who have dared to speak out against the régime and the system as operated. Dr Bloch concludes by urging Western psychiatrists to do all they can to help their Soviet colleagues to initiate a return to an independent and automous psychiatric profession.

  11. [Institutional therapy. Psychiatry and penitentiary problems. Introduction].

    PubMed

    Miéville, C

    1979-01-01

    The author relates the history of the institutional therapies which have been developed, mainly since 1929, by Hermann Simon. This avant-garde psychiatrist has not only developed the occupational therapies but he has also recommended both the liberalization of the institution and the constant analysis of its problems. The institutional therapies have the tendency, nowadays, to increase infinitely but their choice is not always logically motivated and their use risks being not very useful, if it is not determined by a clear therapeutic plan regarding the patient and by a well defined therapeutic attitude in the institution. The author introduces then the second subject of the discussion: "Psychiatry and penitentiary problems" by recalling the difficulties of the modern psychiatry to abandon its origins and to get rid of the asylum ghetto. This is probably the reason why most of the psychiatrists elude the psychological and psychiatric problems presented in prison and why they avoid every collaboration with the judicial and administrative authorities. Delicate situations, which call the psychiatrists into question by posing them problems of freedom, human rights, justice and social demands.

  12. Some origins of cross-cultural psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Raimundo Oda, Ana Maria G; Banzato, Claudio Eduardo M; Dalgalarrondo, Paulo

    2005-06-01

    The interface between insanity, race and culture was a challenging subject for some of the most influential nineteenth-century alienists. Our paper reviews some of the theoretical and clinical investigations of comparative psychiatry of this period. The idea that insanity was supposedly rare among 'primitive' people, e.g., Africans, American Natives and some Eastern populations, was repeatedly defended by prominent alienists. Associated with this notion, many authors believed that insanity tends to become more prevalent as civilization evolves. According to them, civilization had an unfavourable effect on insanity rates because it demanded a much higher degree of organization and mental production. Moreover, a greater degree of mental excitation would explain why insanity occurs more frequently in Europe than in the East, Africa or South America. Eventually, at the end of the nineteenth century, the coalition of cross-cultural and neuropsychiatry produced a notion that the brain of the 'native' is more simple and crude than that of the civilized, and more vulnerable to the evil effects of civilized life. In conclusion, some ethnocentric bias and racial stereotypes still pervasive in contemporary psychiatry are identified and traced back to their historical origins.

  13. The place of culture in forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Kirmayer, Laurence J; Rousseau, Cécile; Lashley, Myrna

    2007-01-01

    Members of a multicultural society must all be subject to the same equitable system of justice. However, culture exerts profound influences on human behavior, and cultural considerations have a place in determinations of capacity and in appropriate sentencing. Cultural psychiatry can contribute to forensic psychiatry by helping to contextualize individuals' actions and experiences. This contextualizing can be done through cultural consultations that employ interpreters and culture brokers to identify the role of culture in individuals' psychopathology. Clarifying how cultural background has affected individuals' capacity to form a criminal intent or control their behavior may allow a better determination of level of culpability and guide appropriate sentencing. However, framing behavior as culturally influenced may also stereotype and stigmatize specific groups. To avoid this, culture must be understood in terms of power relationships between minority groups and the dominant society. Cultural factors are not only relevant to the experience of specific groups but pervade the entire judicial system shaping the process of moral and legal reasoning.

  14. Placebo effects in psychiatry: mediators and moderators

    PubMed Central

    Weimer, Katja; Colloca, Luana; Enck, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A strong placebo response in psychiatric disorders has been noted for the past 50 years and various attempts have been made to identify predictors of it, by use of meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials and laboratory studies. We reviewed 31 meta-analyses and systematic reviews of more than 500 randomised placebo-controlled trials across psychiatry (depression, schizophrenia, mania, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism, psychosis, binge-eating disorder, and addiction) for factors identified to be associated with increased placebo response. Of 20 factors discussed, only three were often linked to high placebo responses: low baseline severity of symptoms, more recent trials, and unbalanced randomisation (more patients randomly assigned to drug than placebo). Randomised controlled trials in non-drug therapy have not added further predictors, and laboratory studies with psychological, brain, and genetic approaches have not been successful in identifying predictors of placebo responses. This comprehensive Review suggests that predictors of the placebo response are still to be discovered, the response probably has more than one mediator, and that different and distinct moderators are probably what cause the placebo response within psychiatry and beyond. PMID:25815249

  15. What kind of science for psychiatry?

    PubMed Central

    Kirmayer, Laurence J.; Crafa, Daina

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatry has invested its hopes in neuroscience as a path to understanding mental disorders and developing more effective treatments and ultimately cures. Recently, the U.S. NIMH has elaborated this vision through a new framework for mental health research, the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC). This framework aims to orient mental health research toward the discovery of underlying neurobiological and biobehavioral mechanisms of mental disorders that will eventually lead to definitive treatments. In this article we consider the rationale of the RDoC and what it reveals about implicit models of mental disorders. As an overall framework for understanding mental disorders, RDoC is impoverished and conceptually flawed. These limitations are not accidental but stem from disciplinary commitments and interests that are at odds with the larger concerns of psychiatry. A multilevel, ecosocial approach to biobehavioral systems is needed both to guide relevant neuroscience research and insure the inclusion of social processes that may be fundamental contributors to psychopathology and recovery. PMID:25071499

  16. Psychiatry as ideology in the USSR.

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, S

    1978-01-01

    This paper was given as a talk at the Venice Biennale on 9 December 1977. It was part of a symposium on "The Freedom of Science--Problems of Science of Scientists in Eastern Europe". Dr Bloch details some of the problems of psychiatry and its vulnerability to improper use and thus the dilemmas which must ensue in day to day practice. He looks at psychiatry in the USSR and the system within which Soviet psychiatrists must work. The Communist Party and career advancement for psychiatrists would appear to be closely related and it is suggested that, in all probability, the majority of psychiatrists are as perturbed at the misuse of their profession as their Western colleagues, but act compliantly out of fear. Severe punishments have been imposed on those psychiatrists who have dared to speak out against the régime and the system as operated. Dr Bloch concludes by urging Western psychiatrists to do all they can to help their Soviet colleagues to initiate a return to an independent and automous psychiatric profession. PMID:691016

  17. The mental health of asylum-seeking and refugee children and adolescents attending a clinic in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Wiese, Elizabeth Batista Pinto; Burhorst, Ingrid

    2007-12-01

    We investigated the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of asylum-seeking and refugee children and adolescents referred to a child and adolescent psychiatry service in the Netherlands. Children with families and unaccompanied minors were compared. Unaccompanied minors had significantly higher frequencies of symptoms and psychiatric disorders than the children with families, both considered a high-risk population for mental health problems. PMID:18089641

  18. Comparison of Support Services Offered by Residencies in Six Specialties, 1979-80 and 1988-89.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Norman B., Jr.; Addison, Richard B.

    1992-01-01

    A study investigated the availability of each of 19 medical school support services offered by 493 residencies in 6 specialties: family practice; internal medicine; obstetrics/gynecology; pediatrics; psychiatry; and surgery. Results show many specialties do not offer common, effective support services. It is suggested that programs move to…

  19. How to Teach Psychiatry to Medical Undergraduates in India?: A Model

    PubMed Central

    Manohari, S. M.; Johnson, Pradeep R.; Galgali, Ravindra Baburao

    2013-01-01

    Psychiatry is not considered important by most medical students. But knowledge of psychiatry is essential for all doctors as psychiatric problems are prevalent in the population either as part of other physical illnesses or independently. All medical practitioners need skills in communication and forming empathy and the ability to counsel that are learnt in psychiatry. Nearly all medical students feel psychiatry is not scientific enough and psychiatrists are peculiar. We need to make psychiatry interesting, and impart skills and techniques to practice psychiatry at the primary care level and in the process change the misconceptions students have of psychiatry. We present a model to accomplish this. PMID:23833338

  20. Neurobiological Formulations: Integrating Clinical and Biological Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Jonathan; Stewart, Jonathan; Rieder, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe a pilot program allowing psychiatric residents to participate in neurobiological evaluations of patients with Axis I disorders. The program aimed to familiarize residents with available tools for assessing cognitive and neuroanatomical abnormalities in psychiatric patients and to foster greater interest among…