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Sample records for adolescent psychiatry residency

  1. Promoting Scholarship during Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Residency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mezzacappa, Enrico; Hamoda, Hesham M.; DeMaso, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In 2003, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) drew attention to the critical national shortage of psychiatrist-researchers and the need for competency-based curricula to promote research training during psychiatry residency as one way to address this shortage at the institutional level. Here, the authors report on the adaptation,…

  2. A Practical Approach to Implementing the Core Competencies in a Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Residency Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingle, Arden D.; Sexson, Sandra B.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe the development and implementation of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's core competencies in a child and adolescent psychiatry residency program. Method: The authors identify the program's organizational approach and participants and detail various strategies and methods of defining,…

  3. The Differential Impact of Clerk Interest and Participation in a Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clerkship Rotation upon Psychiatry and Pediatrics Residency Matches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Mark D.; Szatmari, Peter; Eva, Kevin W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors evaluated the differential impact of clerk interest and participation in a Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (CAP) clerkship rotation upon psychiatry and pediatrics residency matches. Method: Authors studied clerks from the McMaster University M.D. program graduating years of 2005-2007. Participants were categorized as 1)…

  4. Teaching Forensic Psychiatry to General Psychiatry Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Catherine F.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requires that general psychiatry residency training programs provide trainees with exposure to forensic psychiatry. Limited information is available on how to develop a core curriculum in forensic psychiatry for general psychiatry residents and few articles have been…

  5. Factors Affecting Recruitment into Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Jon A.; Lewis, John E.; Katyal, Shalini

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors studied the factors affecting the recruitment into child and adolescent psychiatry training in the United States. Methods: Medical students (n = 154) and general and child and adolescent psychiatry residents (n = 111) completed a questionnaire to evaluate career choice in child psychiatry (n = 265). Results: Compared with…

  6. Models of Integrated Training in Psychiatry and Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sexson, Sandra B.; Thomas, Christopher R.; Pope, Kayla

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies indicate declining interest in child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) as a career choice during psychiatry residency training. Programs have developed integrated training in psychiatry and CAP as a means to address the workforce shortage in CAP, but little is known about the number or nature of these training tracks.…

  7. Putting "Rural" into Psychiatry Residency Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, William A.; Pomerantz, Andrew; Schwartz, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Evidence indicates disparities in the number of psychiatrists practicing in rural America compared to urban areas suggesting the need for a greater emphasis on rural psychiatry in residency training programs. The authors offer suggestions for integrating a rural focus in psychiatry residency training to foster greater competency and…

  8. Teaching Psychiatry to Family Practice Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huzij, Teodor J.; Warner, Christopher H.; Lacy, Timothy; Rachal, James

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This article outlines a psychiatry curriculum developed for family practice residents by family practice-psychiatry residents. Methods: A literature review, needs assessment, planning, implementation, and initial assessment were conducted. Conclusion: Early results demonstrated improved general psychiatric knowledge and a high level of…

  9. Psychiatry Residency Training around the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zisook, Sidney; Balon, Richard; Bjorksten, Karin S.; Everall, Ian; Dunn, Laura; Ganadjian, Krauz; Jin, Hua; Parikh, Sagar; Sciolla, Andres; Sidhartha, Tanuj; Yoo, Tai

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors compare and contrast psychiatry residency training in the United States to that in Canada and selected countries in South America, Europe, and Asia. Method: Nine individuals who are intimately familiar with psychiatry residency training in the United States (primarily chairs, training directors, associate training directors,…

  10. Movies in education of psychiatry residents.

    PubMed

    Jukić, Vlado; Brecić, Petrana; Savić, Aleksandar

    2010-06-01

    Movies are a complex entity representing simultaneously an art form, a powerful industry, and a social phenomenon. The movie industry has always shown keen interest in physicians and medicine in general, and psychiatry in particular has often been in the spotlight. While there can be positive aspects of interaction of the movies and the psychiatry, stigmatization and negative public perception are also the results we often have to consider. Movies exploit psychiatric topics, at the same time portrayal of mental conditions, psychiatrists, and psychiatry on big screen could be used in different kinds of education in psychiatry. We present our initial experience with introducing movies in education of psychiatry residents in Psychiatric Hospital Vrapce. PMID:20562770

  11. Current Perspectives on Chief Residents in Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Christopher H.; Rachal, James; Breitbach, Jill; Higgins, Michael; Warner, Carolynn; Bobo, William

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors examine qualitative data from outgoing chief residents in psychiatry from the 2004-2005 academic year to 1) determine common characteristics between programs, 2) examine the residents' perspectives on their experiences, and 3) determine their common leadership qualities. Method: The authors sent out self-report surveys via…

  12. Annotated Psychodynamic Bibliography for Residents in Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    CALIGOR, EVE

    1996-01-01

    The author provides an annotated bibliography to introduce psychodynamic psychotherapy and psychoanalysis to residents in psychiatry. The emphasis of the selection is on relevance to practice. The entries are grouped by topic, levels of difficulty are noted, and readings are identified as being of either current or historic relevance. PMID:22700303

  13. Educating psychiatry residents in neuropsychiatry and neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Sheldon

    2013-06-01

    Neuropsychiatry and psychiatric neuroscience should be part of the general psychiatry curriculum so that graduate psychiatrists will be able to allow their patients the benefit of neuroscientifically informed diagnosis and treatment. Current neurology and neuroscience educational requirements for US psychiatry training are reviewed. The draft milestone requirements for clinical neuroscience training as part of the US Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's Next Accreditation System are also provided. Suggestions for the neuropsychiatric and neuroscience content of psychiatry residency training are made, along with a description of pedagogic methods and resources. Survey data are reviewed indicating agreement by programme directors with the importance of neuroscience training and an increase in the amount of time devoted to this area. Faculty staff development in neuropsychiatry and neuroscience literacy will be needed to provide high quality training in these areas. PMID:23859089

  14. The Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Trials Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, John S.; Silva, Susan G.; Compton, Scott; Anthony, Ginger; DeVeaugh-Geiss, Joseph; Califf, Robert; Krishnan, Ranga

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The current generation of clinical trials in pediatric psychiatry often fails to maximize clinical utility for practicing clinicians, thereby diluting its impact. Method: To attain maximum clinical relevance and acceptability, the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Trials Network (CAPTN) will transport to pediatric psychiatry the practical…

  15. Teaching Psychiatry Residents to Teach: A National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp-Han, Holly; Chambliss, R. Bryan; Coverdale, John

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Because there have been no previously published national surveys on teaching psychiatry residents about how to teach, the authors surveyed United States psychiatry program directors on what and how residents are taught about teaching. Methods: All psychiatry training programs across the United States were mailed a semistructured…

  16. Survey of Threats and Assaults by Patients on Psychiatry Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dvir, Yael; Moniwa, Emiko; Crisp-Han, Holly; Levy, Dana; Coverdale, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors sought to determine the prevalence of threats and assaults by patients on psychiatry residents, their consequences, and the perceived adequacy of supports and institutional responses. Method: Authors conducted an anonymous survey of 519 psychiatry residents in 13 psychiatry programs across the United States. The survey…

  17. Teaching "Global Mental Health:" Psychiatry Residency Directors' Attitudes and Practices regarding International Opportunities for Psychiatry Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belkin, Gary S.; Yusim, Anna; Anbarasan, Deepti; Bernstein, Carol Ann

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors surveyed Psychiatry Residency Training Directors' (RTDs') attitudes about the role and feasibility of international rotations during residency training. Method: A 21-question survey was electronically distributed that explored RTDs' beliefs about the value, use, and availability of international clinical and research…

  18. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Children and Guns. Be CAPtivated - Child and Adolescent Psychiatry as a Career U.S. House Passes Mental ... More... AACAP Workforce Maps More... Delirium in Children & Adolescents More... Issues to Consider When Engaging Asian American ...

  19. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Health and Mental Hygiene, Baltimore.

    The major goal of the 2-year child and adolescent psychiatry fellowship program at the University of Maryland is to provide an integrated but flexible set of learning experiences, with areas of emphasis including child and adolescent development, early intervention and prevention of mental health problems, community child psychiatry, and research.…

  20. [Adolescence: viewpoints from adolescent psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Bürgin, D; von Klitzing, K

    1994-05-01

    Adolescence is a phase of human development which is marked by a high vulnerability due to the ongoing psycho-physiological transformations. The regulation of the self-esteem is especially in danger in youngsters who went into adolescence with a marked burden of conflicts or who lived in families with disturbed intrafamilial dynamics. To be present as a partner and not to find the solutions for the adolescents' conflicts, to accept their questioning of what is established and to recognize their movements of reconciliation are the quite complex demands put on to the world of the adults. Adolescents urge us to a review of our own adolescence, to a balancing of hate and love, openness and rigidity, and to dialectic movements between disintegration and reintegration as well as between the generations. Any help, be it on the physical, the social or the psychic level, should be directed toward a restitution of the intrapsychic, intrafamilial or intergenerational balance; sociocultural factors have also always to be respected. The helpers--especially in a culture with rapid change--are often confronted with their own adolescence, which took place a generation before and mostly under totally different conditions. PMID:8016759

  1. How Prepared Are Psychiatry Residents for Treating Nicotine Dependence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prochaska, Judith J.; Fromont, Sebastien C.; Hall, Sharon M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Nicotine dependence is the most prevalent substance abuse disorder among adult psychiatric patients and a leading cause of death and disability. The authors examined the extent to which psychiatry residents are prepared to treat nicotine dependence in clinical practice. Methods: Residents from five psychiatry residency programs in…

  2. Primary Supervision: Massachusetts General Hospital's child and adolescent psychiatry seminar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jellinek, Michael S.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes "Primary Supervision", a seminar he has led for approximately 20 years, which is designed for the entire class of nine first-year residents in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry training at Massachusetts General Hospital. The seminar meets for 1 hour each week throughout the first year. Through 900 hours of…

  3. Formal Training in Women's Issues in Psychiatry: A Survey of Psychiatry Residency Training Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Liza H.; Epstein, Steven A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe the availability of formal residency training opportunities in women's issues in psychiatry and explore the potential relationships between the availability of training and characteristics of residency programs. Method: The authors surveyed psychiatry residency training directors to identify program characteristics…

  4. Community psychiatry tracks for residents: a review of four programs.

    PubMed

    Reardon, Claudia L; Factor, Robert M; Brenner, Carolyn J; Singh, Prameet; Spurgeon, Joyce A

    2014-01-01

    Many psychiatry residency graduates end up practicing at least in part in community settings. However, declining funding and other issues prevent many residency programs from offering robust community psychiatry training to all of their residents. Accordingly, some residency programs have developed Community Psychiatry Tracks, with the goal of developing future leaders in public sector psychiatry. We cataloged US psychiatry residency programs offering Community Psychiatry Tracks by reviewing the literature and surveying training directors and members of the American Association of Community Psychiatrists. Authors from each of the four programs found to be actively offering such tracks describe their track curricula, from which we elucidated common and variable elements as well as strengths and weaknesses and then make recommendations for other programs wishing to start a track. A Community Psychiatry Track preliminarily appears to be a well-received way to offer enhanced Community Psychiatry training to interested residents, to recruit medical students to residency programs, to offer opportunities for collaboration between residents and faculty members, and to expand opportunities for scholarly work by residents. PMID:24292436

  5. Characteristics of Combined Family Practice-Psychiatry Residency Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rachal, James; Lacy, Timothy J.; Warner, Christopher H.; Whelchel, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate how family practice-psychiatry residency programs meet the challenges of rigorous accreditation demands, clinical supervision, and boundaries of practice. Method: A 54-question survey of program directors of family practice-psychiatry residency programs outlining program demographic data, curricula, coordination, resident…

  6. Evaluation of Professional Role Competency during Psychiatry Residency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grujich, Nikola N.; Razmy, Ajmal; Zaretsky, Ari; Styra, Rima G.; Sockalingam, Sanjeev

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors sought to determine psychiatry residents' perceptions on the current method of evaluating professional role competency and the use of multi-source feedback (MSF) as an assessment tool. Method: Authors disseminated a structured, anonymous survey to 128 University of Toronto psychiatry residents, evaluating the current mode of…

  7. Burden and Stress among Psychiatry Residents and Psychiatric Healthcare Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Ishara, Sergio; Bandeira, Marina

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The authors compared the levels of job burden and stress in psychiatry residents with those of other healthcare professionals at inpatient and outpatient psychiatric hospitals in a medium-sized Brazilian city. Method: In this study, the levels of job burden and stress of 136 healthcare workers and 36 psychiatry residents from six various…

  8. An Investigation of Psychiatry Residents' Important Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Jody

    2011-01-01

    This research study was conducted to explore the phenomenon of the third-year experiences of the psychiatry residents. A review of the literature identified themes and subthemes related to the third-year of psychiatry education. The study was conducted at a university health science center. Data were collected from five residents using participant…

  9. Screening for Psychopathology Symptoms in Mexican Psychiatry Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rios, Francisco Javier Mesa; Munoz, Maria Del Carmen Lara

    2011-01-01

    Background: Various rates of alcoholism, drug abuse, mental illness, and suicide among physician have been reported, generally higher than those in the general population. Psychiatry residents, as other specializing physicians, seem to be prone to suffering them. The prevalence of psychological symptoms among psychiatry residents has not been…

  10. The Chief Resident in Psychiatry: Roles and Responsibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Russell F.; Schwartz, Eric; Servis, Mark; Cox, Paul D.; Lai, Alan; Hales, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Psychiatric residency programs have had chief residents for many years, and several articles previously published describe the chief residents' unique role as both faculty and resident. This article describes chief resident roles and responsibilities and explores trends in academic psychiatry departments from 1995 to 2006. Methods: The…

  11. A survey of state financing of psychiatry residency programs.

    PubMed

    Magen, J G; Banazak, D A; Dahn, J

    1998-09-01

    With upcoming cuts in graduate medical education funding, it is likely that many psychiatry residencies will be searching for new sources of revenue. State funding of residency programs is one possible avenue. The authors surveyed all Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited psychiatry residency programs to assess the present dimensions of state funding. Some programs in both publicly funded and private settings receive large proportions of their budgets from the state. Service commitments are common. State support of psychiatry residency education is currently an important source of funding and could become even more important in the near future. PMID:24442943

  12. Psychiatry Residency Education in Canada: Past, Present and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saperson, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This article provides a brief overview of the history of psychiatry residency training in Canada,and outlines the rationale for the current training requirements, changes to the final certification examination,and factors influencing future trends in psychiatry education and training. Method: The author compiled findings and reports on…

  13. Fifty Years in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werry, John

    2013-01-01

    John Werry completed training in child and adolescent psychiatry at McGill University in Montreal, and has been a world renowned leader in children's mental health. Drawing on a half century of work in Canada, the United States, and his native New Zealand, he shares his reflections and vision for the future in the interview given for this…

  14. A Neurosciences-in-Psychiatry Curriculum Project for Residents in Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunstone, David C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The author describes a 20-session, student-centered course relating contemporary neuroscience to psychiatry for second-year psychiatric residents. Methods: Twenty residents who took the course (2003-2007) completed pre- and postcourse surveys and were contacted for more remote follow-up regarding the course. Results: Survey results are…

  15. A Novel Approach to Medicine Training for Psychiatry Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onate, John; Hales, Robert; McCarron, Robert; Han, Jaesu; Pitman, Dorothy

    2008-01-01

    Objective: A unique rotation was developed to address limited outpatient internal medicine training in psychiatric residency by the University of California, Davis, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, which provides medical care to patients with mental illness. Methods: The number of patients seen by the service and the number of…

  16. Implementing Interpersonal Psychotherapy in a Psychiatry Residency Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtmacher, Jonathan; Eisendrath, Stuart J.; Haller, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for depression is a brief, well researched treatment for acute major depression. This article describes the implementation of IPT as an evidence-based treatment for depression in a psychiatry residency program. Method: The authors tracked the implementation process over 5 years as interpersonal…

  17. A Survey of the Interactions between Psychiatry Residency Programs and the Pharmaceutical Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varley, Christopher K.; Jibson, Michael D.; McCarthy, Mary; Benjamin, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors report a survey of the American Association of Directors of Psychiatry Residency Training (AADPRT) on interactions between the pharmaceutical industry and psychiatry residency programs. METHODS: American Association of Directors of Psychiatry Residency Training membership was anonymously surveyed by e-mail and by paper…

  18. Training in Tobacco Treatments in Psychiatry: A National Survey of Psychiatry Residency Training Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prochaska, Judith J.; Fromont, Sebastien C.; Louie, Alan K.; Jacobs, Marc H.; Hall, Sharon M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Nicotine dependence is the most prevalent substance abuse disorder among adult psychiatric patients and is a leading cause of death and disability. This study examines training in tobacco treatment in psychiatry residency programs across the United States. Method: The authors recruited training directors to complete a survey of their…

  19. Family Therapy Training in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Fellowship Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rait, Douglas Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study describes the current state of family therapy training in a sample of child and adolescent psychiatry fellowship programs. Method: Child and adolescent psychiatry fellows (N = 66) from seven training programs completed a questionnaire assessing demographics, family therapy training experiences, common models of treatment and…

  20. Is Psychiatry Scientific? A Letter to a 21st Century Psychiatry Resident

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    During the development of the DSM-5, even the lay press questioned psychiatr's scientific validity. This review provides 21st century psychiatry residents with ways of answering these attacks by defining the concepts and history of psychiatry (a branch of medicine), medicine and science. Psychiatric language has two levels: first, describing symptoms and signs (19th century descriptive psychopathology developed in France and Germany), and second, describing disorders (psychiatric nosology was developed in the early 20th century by Kraepelin and resuscitated by the US neo-Kraepelinian revolution leading to the DSM-III). Science is a complex trial-and-error historical process that can be threatened by those who believe too much in it and disregard its limitations. The most important psychiatric advances, electroconvulsive therapy and major psychopharmacological agents, were discovered by "chance", not by scientific planning. Jaspers's General Psychopathology is a complex 100-year-old book that describes: 1) psychiatric disorders as heterogeneous and 2) psychiatry as a hybrid scientific discipline requiring a combination of understanding (a social science method) and explanation (a natural science method). In the 21st century Berrios reminds us of psychiatry's unfortunate methodological issues due to hybrid symptoms and disorders, some of which are better understood as problems in communication between interacting human beings; in those situations neuroscience methods such as brain imaging make no sense. A new language is needed in psychiatry. East Asian psychiatry residents, who are not particularly attached to the antiquated language currently used, may be particularly equipped for the task of recreating psychiatric language using 21st century knowledge. PMID:24302942

  1. Evaluating the Workload of On-Call Psychiatry Residents: Which Activities Are Associated with Sleep Loss?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Brian K.; Cooke, Erinn O.; Sharfstein, Steven S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to review the workload inventory of on-call psychiatry residents and to evaluate which activities were associated with reductions in on-call sleep. Method: A prospective cohort study was conducted, following 20 psychiatry residents at a 231-bed psychiatry hospital, from July 1, 2008 through June 30, 2009.…

  2. Evaluating Psychiatry Residents as Physician-Managers: Development of an Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sockalingam, Sanjeev; Stergiopoulos, Vicky; Maggi, Julie D.; Zaretsky, Ari; Stovel, Laura; Hodges, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: With the emergence of physician-manager (PM) curricula in medical education, more effective assessment tools are needed to evaluate psychiatry trainees in this role. The aim of this study was to determine psychiatry residents', program directors', and PM educators' perceptions about PM role-assessment. Methods: Psychiatry residents at…

  3. [Child and adolescent psychiatry its problems and foresight].

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Kosuke

    2002-01-01

    Accompanying the fall in birth rate, problems pertaining to the child's mind such as school in attendance, bullying, violence in the school, intrafamilial violence, eating disorders, substance abuse, and child abuse have rocketed and diversified, in addition to affecting increasingly lower age groups. The importance of child and adolescent psychiatry has never been more profound, but our country, without a chair in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in the medical school framework, and lacking recognition of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry as a clinical department has undoubtedly become an underdeveloped country in terms of child and adolescent psychiatric care. The medical schools have been in the process of review and reorganization these past few years. The range of mental science is wide, and despite being a major discipline constituting one of the two arms of medical science together with somatic medicine, it is regarded as a minor existence in our country. This is the time to re-establish mental science, with areas such as child and adolescent psychiatry, geriatric psychiatry, social psychiatry, and crime psychiatry placed on an equal footing with general psychiatry. Turning our eyes on the world, the children are being robbed of their mental health as refugees, through child labor, starvation, and civil war. The demand of this age is true symbiosis, surpassing differences in race, religion, language, and culture, which is probably the indispensable element in the quest for a happy future for the children of this age. PMID:12607920

  4. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Training: A Global Perspective.

    PubMed

    Mian, Ayesha I; Milavić, Gordana; Skokauskas, Norbert

    2015-10-01

    Training programs aim to produce child and adolescent psychiatry professionals who are competent at both clinical work as well as health promotion through teaching and research. Child psychiatry training programs not only offer training in teaching the clinical skills of the discipline of child and adolescent psychiatry but also strive to help with the development of professionalism, ethical behaviors, and leadership skills in their trainees. Ultimately, it is the children of the world who stand to gain by having a skilled work force that adheres to the highest global standards when it comes to the provision of mental health services. PMID:26346384

  5. Does Psychiatry Residency Training Reflect the "Real World" of Psychiatry Practice? A Survey of Residency Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Timothy; Fava, Maurizio; Alpert, Jonathan E.; Vorono, Sienna; Sanders, Kathy M.; Mischoulon, David

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors determine whether Massachusetts General Hospital's residency graduates believed their training reflected their current practice activities. Method: The authors surveyed 134 graduates from MGH and MGH-McLean residency classes from 1983 to 2003. Subjects ranked their satisfaction with different components of training on a…

  6. Sex Education for Male Adolescent Sex Offenders in a Group Setting Led by General Psychiatry Residents: A Literature Review and Example in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, R. Gregg; Boyd, Mary S.

    2009-01-01

    Male adolescents have been credited with a significant percentage of sex crimes in recent years. They are a heterogeneous population with offenses spanning the same range found among adult offenders. A lack of interpersonal social skills relevant to intimate relationships and inaccurate knowledge regarding appropriate sexual behaviors contribute…

  7. Improving Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Education for Medical Students: An Inter-Organizational Collaborative Action Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Geraldine S.; Stock, Saundra; Briscoe, Gregory W.; Beck, Gary L.; Horton, Rita; Hunt, Jeffrey I.; Liu, Howard Y.; Rutter, Ashley Partner; Sexson, Sandra; Schlozman, Steven C.; Stubbe, Dorothy E.; Stuber, Margaret L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A new Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Medical Education (CAPME) Task Force, sponsored by the Association for Directors of Medical Student Education in Psychiatry (ADMSEP), has created an inter-organizational partnership between child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) educators and medical student educators in psychiatry. This paper…

  8. Preparing International Medical Graduates for Psychiatry Residency: A Multi-Site Needs Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sockalingam, Sanjeev; Hawa, Raed; Al-Battran, Mazin; Abbey, Susan E.; Zaretsky, Ari

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Despite the growing number of international medical graduates (IMGs) training in medicine in Canada and the United States, IMG-specific challenges early in psychiatry residency have not been fully explored. Therefore, the authors conducted a needs-assessment survey to determine the needs of IMGs transitioning into psychiatry residency.…

  9. Child Welfare Training in Child Psychiatry Residency: A Program Director Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Terry G.; Cox, Julia R.; Walker, Sarah C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study surveys child psychiatry residency program directors in order to 1) characterize child welfare training experiences for child psychiatry residents; 2) evaluate factors associated with the likelihood of program directors' endorsing the adequacy of their child welfare training; and 3) assess program directors'…

  10. Using Simulation to Train Junior Psychiatry Residents to Work with Agitated Patients: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigman, Daniel; Young, Meredith; Chalk, Colin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This article examines the benefit and feasibility of introducing a new, simulation-based learning intervention for junior psychiatry residents. Method: Junior psychiatry residents were invited to participate in a new simulation-based learning intervention focusing on agitated patients. Questionnaires were used to explore the success of…

  11. Poor Intentions or Poor Attention: Misrepresentation by Applicants to Psychiatry Residency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Jason P.; Borus, Jonathan F.; Chang, Grace; Greenberg, William E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the veracity of self-reported data by applicants to psychiatry residency. Methods: The authors reviewed the reported publications of all applicants to a psychiatry residency training program over a 2-year span. Results: Nine percent of applicants reporting publications were found to have misrepresented them.…

  12. [The digital avatar, an assistant in adolescent psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Pommereau, Xavier; Deberdt, Jean-Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The digital universe, from the internet to video games, arouses mixed feelings in parents of adolescents. However, it is possible to use the growing "digitisation" of the relationships between young people to develop care tools. Avatars or virtual characters, for example, make it possible to develop a relationship with adolescents hospitalised in child psychiatry units. PMID:22616462

  13. Model Curriculum for Academic Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbe, Dorothy; Martin, Andres; Bloch, Michael; Belitsky, Richard; Carter, Debbie; Ebert, Michael; Friedman, Alan; Giese, Alexis; Kirwin, Paul; Ross, Randal G.; Leckman, James F.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The United States is facing a severe shortage of academic child and adolescent psychiatrists. This article reviews a model integrated pathway to improve recruitment. Methods: The authors review training portals for research in child and adolescent psychiatry. There is a summary of a focus group discussion of the advantages and…

  14. Patient Suicides in Psychiatric Residencies and Post-Vention Responses: A National Survey of Psychiatry Chief Residents and Program Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Al; Moran, Scott; Shoemaker, Richard; Bradley, John

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This report focuses on post-vention measures taken by U.S. psychiatry residencies when a resident-in-training experiences a patient suicide. Methods: A survey distributed to program directors and chief residents obtained an estimate of the frequency of psychiatric residents' experiencing a patient suicide and the frequency of numerous…

  15. Neurology Didactic Curricula for Psychiatry Residents: A Review of the Literature and a Survey of Program Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Claudia L.; Walaszek, Art

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Minimal literature exists on neurology didactic instruction offered to psychiatry residents, and there is no model neurology didactic curriculum offered for psychiatry residency programs. The authors sought to describe the current state of neurology didactic training in psychiatry residencies. Methods: The authors electronically…

  16. Assessing Professionalism and Ethics Knowledge and Skills: Preferences of Psychiatry Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrero, Isis; Bell, Michael; Dunn, Laura B.; Roberts, Laura Weiss

    2013-01-01

    Background: Professionalism is one of the fundamental expectations and a core competency in residency education. Although programs use a variety of evaluative methods, little is known about residents' views of and preferences regarding various methods of assessment. Method: The authors surveyed residents at seven psychiatry residency programs…

  17. A 4-Year Curriculum on Substance Use Disorders for Psychiatry Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannucci, Rocco; Sanders, Kathy; Greenfield, Shelly F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe an addiction psychiatry curriculum integrated in a general psychiatry training program to demonstrate comprehensive and practical approaches to educating general psychiatric residents on the recognition and treatment of substance use disorders. Methods: The Massachusetts General Hospital/McLean Hospital adult…

  18. Psychiatry in the Deep South: A Pilot Study of Integrated Training for Psychiatry Residents and Seminary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuck, Craig; Campbell, Nioaka; Bragg, John; Moran, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe an interdisciplinary training experience developed for psychiatry residents and seminary students that assessed each group's beliefs and attitudes toward the other's profession. The training was designed to enhance awareness, positive attitudes, and interaction between the disciplines. Methods: From 2005 to 2008,…

  19. Improving Psychiatry Residents' Attitudes Toward Individuals Diagnosed with Substance Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Avery, Jonathan; Zerbo, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Special attention needs to be paid to the attitudes of psychiatry residents toward individuals diagnosed with substance use disorders. The attitudes of trainees may be worse toward these individuals than toward individuals with other diagnoses, and these attitudes may worsen over time. While psychiatry residencies are increasingly teaching residents about how to diagnosis and treat individuals diagnosed with substance use disorders, more attention needs to be paid to educating residents about common attitudes toward these individuals. We recommend that psychiatry residency programs start with basic educational didactics and reflection exercises on attitudes toward individuals diagnosed with substance use disorders and that programs try to form a positive "hidden curriculum" in their institutions. PMID:26146757

  20. Mind the Gap: Promoting Careers in Academic Research to Psychiatry Residents

    PubMed Central

    Posporelis, Sotirios; Sawa, Akira; Smith, Gwenn S.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Lyketsos, Constantine G.; Chisolm, Margaret S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective With the shift of interest in psychiatry towards patient-oriented research with clinically relevant outcomes, there is a critical need for well-trained psychiatrist-scientists. The authors report on two developmentally-tailored, longitudinal research training curricula designed to use peer mentoring to bridge the gap between physicians and scientists, and to promote careers in academic research. Methods The authors instituted two independent research training curricula, one for first-year and one for second-to-fourth year psychiatry residents, spanning two campuses of one institutional residency training program. Each curriculum’s participants included psychiatry residents and peer scientific investigators, and both were attended by senior scientists and departmental leaders. The authors developed and administered an anonymous survey at the end of the first cycle of the first-year resident curriculum to assess participant attitudes. Results The first-year and second-to-fourth-year resident curricula have been implemented for 3and 2 years respectively. The authors observed overall participant satisfaction with the first-year curricula, independent of trainee status. Furthermore, first-year psychiatry residents reported increased interest in academic research careers after exposure to the curricula. Conclusions Results suggest it is possible to encourage academic research careers using peer mentoring, an innovative approach that requires minimal funding, little disruption to the residents’ schedule, and engages the gamut of individuals involved in psychiatry care and research: psychiatrists-in-training and young non-clinician scientists-in-training. PMID:24497181

  1. Results of a Multisite Survey of U.S. Psychiatry Residents on Education in Professionalism and Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Shaili; Dunn, Laura B.; Warner, Christopher H.; Roberts, Laura Weiss

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors assess the perspectives of psychiatry residents about the goals of receiving education in professionalism and ethics, how topics should be taught, and on what ethical principles the curriculum should be based. Method: A written survey was sent to psychiatry residents (N = 249) at seven U.S. residency programs in Spring 2005.…

  2. Training Psychiatry Residents in Quality Improvement: An Integrated, Year-Long Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbuckle, Melissa R.; Weinberg, Michael; Cabaniss, Deborah L.; Kistler; Susan C.; Isaacs, Abby J.; Sederer, Lloyd I.; Essock, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe a curriculum for psychiatry residents in Quality Improvement (QI) methodology. Methods: All PGY3 residents (N=12) participated in a QI curriculum that included a year-long group project. Knowledge and attitudes were assessed before and after the curriculum, using a modified Quality Improvement Knowledge Assessment…

  3. Preparing for a Successful Psychiatry Residency Review Committee Site Visit: A Guide for New Training Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatia, Shashi K.; Bhatia, Subhash C.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: New residency training directors are often faced with multiple competing tasks such as meeting Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Psychiatry Program Requirements and achieving successful completion of residency review committee (RRC) site visits. For many years, the authors have presented workshops on this…

  4. Wilderness Adventure Therapy in Adolescent Psychiatry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Simon; O'Donnell, Matthew

    The Brief Intervention Program (BIP) is a mental health day program in Melbourne (Australia) for adolescents with severe mental health problems who are at risk for suicide. The 10-week program serves closed groups of 6-8 adolescents aged 13-18 years and has 3 phases: engagement and orientation (week 1), treatment (weeks 2-9), and integration (week…

  5. Addressing the Effects of Culture on the Boundary-Keeping Practices of Psychiatry Residents Educated outside of the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Gary E.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The author sought to develop a curriculum for international medical graduate (IMG) psychiatry residents that addresses their culture-based deviations from normative boundary-keeping practices common to U.S.-based psychotherapy practices. Methods: A group consisting of 12 IMG psychiatry residents and one United States graduate (USG)…

  6. Exposure to Child and Adolescent Psychiatry for Medical Students: Are There Optimal "Teaching Perspectives"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Jeffrey; Barrett, Rowland; Grapentine, W. Lex; Liguori, Gina; Trivedi, Harsh K.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The ability to develop quality medical student exposures in child and adolescent psychiatry is critical to the professional development of these future physicians and to the growth of recruitment efforts into the field. This study identifies teaching perspectives among child and adolescent psychiatry faculty to determine whether there…

  7. Perceptions and Practices of Graduates of Combined Family Medicine-Psychiatry Residency Programs: A Nationwide Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Christopher H.; Morganstein, Joshua; Rachal, James; Lacy, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors evaluate the current practices and perceptions of graduates of combined family medicine-psychiatry residency programs in the following areas: preparation for practice, boundary formation, and integration of skills sets. Method: The authors conducted an electronic cross-sectional survey of all nationwide combined family…

  8. Trends in Psychotherapy Training: A National Survey of Psychiatry Residency Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sudak, Donna M.; Goldberg, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors sought to determine current trends in residency training of psychiatrists. Method: The authors surveyed U.S. general-psychiatry training directors about the amount of didactic training, supervised clinical experience, and numbers of patients treated in the RRC-mandated models of psychotherapy (psychodynamic,…

  9. Training in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Psychiatry Residency: An Overview for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sudak, Donna M.

    2009-01-01

    In January 2001, Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education accredited general psychiatry training programs were charged with the requirement to train residents in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to a level of competence. Programs were given the responsibility to delineate standards for trainees, to determine measures of competence,…

  10. Evaluation of an Evidence-Based Tobacco Treatment Curriculum for Psychiatry Residency Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prochaska, Judith J.; Fromont, Sebastien C.; Leek, Desiree; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Louie, Alan K.; Jacobs, Marc H.; Hall, Sharon M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Smokers with mental illness and addictive disorders account for nearly one in two cigarettes sold in the United States and are at high risk for smoking-related deaths and disability. Psychiatry residency programs provide a unique arena for disseminating tobacco treatment guidelines, influencing professional norms, and increasing access…

  11. A Pragmatic Approach to Teaching Psychiatry Residents the Assessment and Treatment of Religious Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blass, David M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe a pragmatic and a theoretical framework for teaching psychiatry residents how to assess and treat religious patients. Results: The psychiatrist's goals in assessing the religious history are clarified. These goals differ between the assessment and treatment phases. During assessment, attention is paid to psychiatric…

  12. Web-Based Simulation in Psychiatry Residency Training: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorrindo, Tristan; Baer, Lee; Sanders, Kathy M.; Birnbaum, Robert J.; Fromson, John A.; Sutton-Skinner, Kelly M.; Romeo, Sarah A.; Beresin, Eugene V.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Medical specialties, including surgery, obstetrics, anesthesia, critical care, and trauma, have adopted simulation technology for measuring clinical competency as a routine part of their residency training programs; yet, simulation technologies have rarely been adapted or used for psychiatry training. Objective: The authors describe…

  13. Associate Residency Training Directors in Psychiatry: Demographics, Professional Activities, and Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbuckle, Melissa R.; DeGolia, Sallie G.; Esposito, Karin; Miller, Deborah A.; Weinberg, Michael; Brenner, Adam M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to characterize associate training director (ATD) positions in psychiatry. Method: An on-line survey was e-mailed in 2009 to all ATDs identified through the American Association of Directors of Psychiatric Residency Training (AADPRT). Survey questions elicited information regarding demographics,…

  14. Recruiting Researchers in Psychiatry: The Influence of Residency vs. Early Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberman, Edward K.; Belitsky, Richard; Bernstein, Carol Ann; Cabaniss, Deborah L.; Crisp-Han, Holly; Dickstein, Leah J.; Kaplan, Alan S.; Hilty, Donald M.; Nadelson, Carol C.; Scheiber, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The declining numbers of clinician-researchers in psychiatry and other medical specialties has been a subject of growing concern. Residency training has been cited as an important factor in recruiting new researchers, but there are essentially no data to support this assertion. This study aimed to explore which factors have influenced…

  15. Overview of integrative medicine in child and adolescent psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Simkin, Deborah R; Popper, Charles W

    2013-07-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) defies simple definition, because the distinction between CAM and conventional medicine is largely arbitrary and fluid. Despite inconclusive data on the efficacy and safety of many CAM treatments in child and adolescent psychiatry, there are enough data on certain treatments to provide guidance to clinicians and researchers. CAM treatments, as adjunctive therapy or monotherapy, can be clinically beneficial and sensible. The low stigma and cost-competitiveness of many CAM psychiatric treatments are highly attractive to children and parents. Physicians need to be knowledgeable about CAM treatments to provide clinically valid informed consent for some conventional treatments. PMID:23806310

  16. How Animal Models Inform Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Hanna E.; Vaccarino, Flora M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Every available approach should be utilized to advance the field of child and adolescent psychiatry. Biological systems are important for the behavioral problems of children. Close examination of non-human animals and the biology and behavior they share with humans is an approach that must be used to advance the clinical work of child psychiatry. Method We review here how model systems are used to contribute to significant insights into childhood psychiatric disorders. Model systems have not only demonstrated causality of risk factors for psychiatric pathophysiology but have also allowed child psychiatrists to think in different ways about risks for psychiatric disorders and multiple levels that might be the basis of recovery and prevention. Results We present examples of how animal systems are utilized to benefit child psychiatry, including through environmental, genetic, and acute biological manipulations. Animal model work has been essential in our current thinking about childhood disorders, including the importance of dose and timing of risk factors, specific features of risk factors that are significant, neurochemistry involved in brain functioning, molecular components of brain development, and the importance of cellular processes previously neglected in psychiatric theories. Conclusion Animal models have clear advantages and disadvantages that must both be considered for these systems to be useful. Coupled with increasingly sophisticated methods for investigating human behavior and biology, animal model systems will continue to make essential contributions to our field. PMID:25901771

  17. Effect of changing journal clubs from traditional method to evidence-based method on psychiatry residents

    PubMed Central

    Faridhosseini, Farhad; Saghebi, Ali; Khadem-Rezaiyan, Majid; Moharari, Fatemeh; Dadgarmoghaddam, Maliheh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Journal club is a valuable educational tool in the medical field. This method follows different goals. This study aims to investigate the effect on psychiatry residents of changing journal clubs from the traditional method to the evidence-based method. Method This study was conducted using a before–after design. First- and second-year residents of psychiatry were included in the study. First, the status quo was evaluated by standardized questionnaire regarding the effect of journal club. Then, ten sessions were held to familiarize the residents with the concept of journal club. After that, evidence-based journal club sessions were held. The questionnaire was given to the residents again after the final session. Data were analyzed through descriptive statistics (frequency and percentage frequency, mean and standard deviation), and analytic statistics (paired t-test) using SPSS 22. Results Of a total of 20 first- and second-year residents of psychiatry, the data of 18 residents were finally analyzed. Most of the subjects (17 [93.7%]) were females. The mean overall score before and after the intervention was 1.83±0.45 and 2.85±0.57, respectively, which showed a significant increase (P<0.001). Conclusion Moving toward evidence-based journal clubs seems like an appropriate measure to reach the goals set by this educational tool. PMID:27570469

  18. Psychiatry, War, and the Learning Needs of Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munshi, Alpna; Woods, Nicole; Hodges, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors sought to determine the learning needs, experiences, and attitudes of psychiatric residents in relation to war and mental health; to discover if residents in their training program have had clinical experiences with patients affected by war and if they believed that they were adequately trained to deal with these encounters;…

  19. Training Pediatric Residents and Pediatricians about Adolescent Mental Health Problems: A Proof-of-Concept Pilot for a Proposed National Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutner, Lawrence; Olson, Cheryl K.; Schlozman, Steven; Goldstein, Mark; Warner, Dorothy; Beresin, Eugene V.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This article presents a DVD-based educational program intended to help pediatric residents and practicing pediatricians recognize and respond to adolescent depression in busy primary care settings. Methods: Representatives from pediatrics and adolescent medicine, child and adolescent psychiatry and psychology, and experts in the…

  20. Increasing Interest in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in the Third-Year Clerkship: Results from a Post-Clerkship Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Erin; Hollar, David; Lindsey, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors aimed to determine whether a structured clinical experience in child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) during the third-year psychiatry clerkship would impact interest in pursuing careers in psychiatry and CAP. Methods: The authors constructed and administered a post-rotation survey, the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry…

  1. Child and adolescent psychiatry and family therapy. An overview.

    PubMed

    Malone, C A

    2001-07-01

    This article has provided an overview of the complex relationship between family therapy and child and adolescent psychiatry. Emphasis has been placed on the fact that the controversy and polarization that earlier characterized the relationship have delayed, but not blocked, the full integration of family therapy into child and adolescent psychiatry. Child psychiatrists and family therapists have been able to move beyond dichotomous polemics to combine the two fields in clinical practice, which has led to meaningful convergence in research and services. Family research has yielded important new directions for clinical practice in the areas of attachment, alcoholism, conduct disorder, and schizophrenia spectrum disorders. It also has led to models of family continuity that have considerable potential for interrelating and possibly integrating different family therapy models. Family research also has uncovered family factors in the intergenerational transmission of psychopathology that can inform clinical practice. Convergence in the clinical domain has led to improved assessment and treatment across a wide range of child, adolescent, and family developmental, emotional, behavioral, and mental disorders. Finally, this article has reviewed the controversy over family systems therapy and the development of new directions in theory and practice to which this controversy has led. Despite the possibility that these new directions might lead to significant disruption and interference in the process of convergence, careful examination of the controversy and the new developments in practice suggests that rather than producing division between the two fields, the new developments, especially narrative therapy, are more likely to bring the two fields closer, particularly in the realm of interventive interviewing in family therapy. PMID:11449803

  2. Clinical Skills Verification, Formative Feedback, and Psychiatry Residency Trainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalack, Gregory W.; Jibson, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe the implementation of Clinical Skills Verification (CSV) in their program as an in-training assessment intended primarily to provide formative feedback to trainees, strengthen the supervisory experience, identify the need for remediation of interviewing skills, and secondarily to demonstrating resident competence…

  3. Teaching Cultural Competence to Psychiatry Residents: Seven Core Concepts and Their Implications for Therapeutic Technique.

    PubMed

    Pena, Jose M; Manguno-Mire, Gina; Kinzie, Erik; Johnson, Janet E

    2016-04-01

    The authors describe the Tulane Model for teaching cultural competence to psychiatry residents in order to outline an innovative approach to curricula development in academic psychiatry. The authors focus on the didactic experience that takes place during the first and second postgraduate years and present seven core concepts that should inform the emerging clinician's thinking in the formulation of every clinical case. The authors discuss the correspondence between each core concept and the Outline for Cultural Formulation, introduced in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV and updated in DSM-5. The authors illustrate how each of the core concepts is utilized as a guideline for teaching residents a process for eliciting culturally relevant information from their patients and their personal histories and how to apply that knowledge in the assessment and treatment of patients in clinical settings. PMID:25749919

  4. Academic Training in a Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Fellowship: A Curriculum Based on Leadership Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivany, Christopher G.; Russell, Robert K.; Vanessa, Venezia A.; Saito, Albert Y.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe how one child and adolescent psychiatry fellowship program responded to emerging trends in clinical practice which increasingly demand that child and adolescent psychiatrists lead their colleagues through instruction and supervision. Methods: Data from surveys of recent graduates of child and adolescent training…

  5. Ethical perspectives on managed care as it relates to child and adolescent psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Geraty, R D; Hendren, R L; Flaa, C J

    1992-05-01

    Managed health care is providing an increasing influence in the way child and adolescent psychiatry is practiced. The goals of managed care have been to manage price, service, and quality. As external forces are brought to bear on child and adolescent psychiatry, ethical and legal dilemmas are faced. Underlying principles and the impact of society force physicians to reexamine their values and reeducate themselves about legal developments. PMID:1592769

  6. Challenges and Solutions for Latin American-Trained International Medical Graduates in Psychiatry Residency

    PubMed Central

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Zayas, Luis H.; Hauser, David; Carvajal, Carlos; Mejia, Carlina; Nieves, Delia

    2014-01-01

    Objective Latin American-trained IMGs in psychiatry face multiple challenges that go beyond their medical training. These challenges call for innovative problem-solving. Although the professional development of IMGs has been discussed in the professional literature, little is written about their experiences. In this case study report, a group of IMGs reflect on their experiences and describe how they solved challenges. Method Using cogenerative ethnography, four IMGs trained in Colombia, Dominican Republic and Mexico provided insights on their challenges and solutions while adapting to psychiatric residency training. Individual interviews, focused discussion, focus groups, and written reports were analyzed using data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing techniques. Results We illustrate the challenges of IMG training in psychiatry using their reflections and stories. We categorized these challenges into three domains: immigration and acculturation; social adjustment; and medical training. Quotes were selected to illustrate IMGs’ challenges and coping strategies. Conclusion Some of the combined cultural, social and academic challenges of Latin American-trained IMGs in psychiatry are described. Recognizing and planning for the personal challenges of IMGs in psychiatry can enhance the transition into psychiatric training. Ultimately, improvements in IMG training converts into improved healthcare for all patients. PMID:25673899

  7. [Psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Guex, Patrice; Conus, Philippe; Pomini, Valentino; Kramer, Ueli; Bonsack, Charles; Eap, Chin

    2011-01-19

    The novelties in clinical psychiatry are close to somatic medicine adaptation. The clinical staging concept in psychiatry (as in cancerology) is the result of an early intervention strategy in psychotic disorders. A differentiated mode of understanding of the phases of psychiatric disorders allows a prevention oriented approach. Individualized therapeutic programmes in accordance with specific problematics favors the orientation towards focalised follow-ups, for instance CBT programmes on Internet may be proposed to patients motivated and rather autonomous. Others, on the contrary, less accessible to health care should benefit of the support of a mobile team and specific coaching to return to vocational services. Systematic follow-up of the metabolic syndrome, often induced by atypical antipsychotics, belongs to those basic adjustment processes. PMID:21400949

  8. Sexuality training for psychiatry residents: a national survey of training directors.

    PubMed

    Sansone, R A; Wiederman, M W

    2000-01-01

    The current status of training in human sexuality is relevant to all health care professionals. The purpose of the current study was to determine the extent of sexuality training offered in psychiatric residency programs. The training directors of psychiatry residencies were surveyed with regard to the number of expert faculty in sexuality training as well as resident exposure to seven related curricular areas. Of the 69 respondents, the majority reported expert faculty in sexual dysfunctions, sex therapy, therapy with gay/lesbian patients, and HIV/AIDS. For each sexuality topic, approximately 80% of programs reported curricula offerings through either didactics or clinical rotations. For didactics, most topics were presented in the context of a broader course. With the exception of HIV/AIDS, it was rare for programs to offer a clinical rotation involving sexuality issues. In conclusion, the majority of training programs in psychiatry provide curriculum offerings in sexuality training, primarily through didactic education. Results are discussed with regard to comparison to training in professional psychology and the need for assessment of sexuality training in health care professions generally. PMID:10929573

  9. Exposing Medical Students to Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: A Case-Based Seminar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Jeremy S.; Lake, MaryBeth

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Despite a documented shortage of child and adolescent psychiatrists, few studies have examined whether including child and adolescent psychiatry didactics in a medical school curriculum can stimulate appreciation and interest among students, possibly leading more students to choose careers in this specialty. Methods: The authors…

  10. Child and adolescent psychiatry in general children's hospitals. A survey of chairs of psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Campo, J V; Kingsley, R S; Bridge, J; Mrazek, D

    2000-01-01

    This article characterizes the academic, administrative, clinical service, and fiscal characteristics of departments of psychiatry in traditional children's hospitals to determine the characteristics of fiscally successful programs. A survey of chairs of psychiatry from short-term general children's hospitals was conducted based on 38 questions addressing the descriptive characteristics of their respective departments. The characteristics of psychiatry programs identified as fiscally successful were compared to those of programs that required subsidy. Nine of 45 eligible children's hospitals (20%) did not have a department or section of psychiatry, and surveys were returned by 35 of 36 department chairs (97% response). Considerable variation exists in the academic, administrative, clinical services, and fiscal characteristics of programs, although over half are operating at a deficit. Fiscal success was associated with availability of inpatient and intermediate levels of psychiatric care, better integration of the psychiatry program within the children's hospital, and adequate fiscal information being provided to the psychiatry chair. Additional research regarding the potential of psychiatric services to generate clinical success and cost savings is warranted. Pediatric health care professionals and third-party payers should be educated regarding the relevance of psychiatric services within children's hospitals and in physically ill children. PMID:10749950

  11. Systems-Based Aspects in the Training of IMG or Previously Trained Residents: Comparison of Psychiatry Residency Training in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, India, and Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Gaurav; Mazhar, Mir Nadeem; Uga, Aghaegbulam; Punwani, Manisha; Broquet, Karen E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: International medical graduates (IMGs) account for a significant proportion of residents in psychiatric training in the United States. Many IMGs may have previously completed psychiatry residency training in other countries. Their experiences may improve our system. Authors compared and contrasted psychiatry residency training in the…

  12. Educational Needs Assessment for Psychiatry Residents to Prevent Suicide: A Qualitative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Barekatain, Majid; Aminoroaia, Mahin; Samimi, Seyed Mehdi Ardestani; Rajabi, Fatemeh; Attari, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Background: Suicide is a commonly encountered and stressful event in professional life of any psychiatrist. Suicide risk assessment is a major gateway to patient treatment and management. It is a core competency requirement in training of psychiatry. The present study designed to assesseducational needsfor suicide prevention in residents of psychiatry in two medical schools in Iran, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (IUMS) and Shahid Beheshti Medical University (SBUMS) inTehran. Methods: This was a qualitative triangulation study, conducted in two steps. The first step was based on a phenomenological approach and the second was based on focus groups. The studied population was the psychiatric residents of IUMS and SBUMS. Purposive sampling was implemented until saturation. Interviews were performed. Colaizzi method was used to analyze the data. In the second step, participants attended a session, in which all final codes of the first step were discussed, and regarding the views, educational priorities and needs were listed. Results: A total of 2047 codes, extracted from 31 interviews, analyzed through Colaizzi method, were categorized in three groups: Educational, facilities and processes, human resources. Conclusions: According to defects of current educational program, we suggest regular reevaluations and revisions of clinical training programs according to current needs. PMID:24319561

  13. Impact of a Metabolic Screening Bundle on Rates of Screening for Metabolic Syndrome in a Psychiatry Resident Outpatient Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiechers, Ilse R.; Viron, Mark; Stoklosa, Joseph; Freudenreich, Oliver; Henderson, David C.; Weiss, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Although it is widely acknowledged that second-generation antipsychotics are associated with cardiometabolic side effects, rates of metabolic screening have remained low. The authors created a quality-improvement (QI) intervention in an academic medical center outpatient psychiatry resident clinic with the aim of improving rates of…

  14. Training of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Fellows in Autism and Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrus, Natasha; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Hellings, Jessica A.; Stigler, Kimberly A.; Szymanski, Ludwik; King, Bryan H.; Carlisle, L. Lee; Cook, Edwin H., Jr.; Pruett, John R., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability can be clinically complex and often have limited access to psychiatric care. Because little is known about post-graduate clinical education in autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability, we surveyed training directors of child and adolescent psychiatry fellowship…

  15. Inpatient Treatment in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry--A Prospective Study of Health Gain and Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jonathan; Jacobs, Brian; Beecham, Jennifer; Dunn, Graham; Kroll, Leo; Tobias, Catherine; Briskman, Jackie

    2007-01-01

    Background: Inpatient treatment is a complex intervention for the most serious mental health disorders in child and adolescent psychiatry. This is the first large-scale study into its effectiveness and costs. Previous studies have been criticised for methodological weaknesses. Methods: A prospective cohort study, including economic evaluation,…

  16. Is prophylactic psychiatry around the corner? combating adolescent oxidative stress for adult psychosis and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sawa, Akira; Seidman, Larry J

    2014-09-01

    Early detection and intervention are key principles in clinical medicine and psychiatry. In this issue of Neuron, Cabungcal et al. (2014) demonstrate that prophylactic treatment with antioxidants in adolescence prevents adult deficits in a rat model relevant to schizophrenia. PMID:25189204

  17. Prevention in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: The Reduction of Risk for Mental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, David, Ed.; And Others

    The book describes Project Prevention, an interdisciplinary project developed by the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, to identify risk factors for mental disorders and preventive interventions. After an introductory chapter, the following eight chapters cover: the scope of Project Prevention; children at high risk (e.g.,…

  18. Team-based learning for psychiatry residents: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Team-based learning (TBL) is an effective teaching method for medical students. It improves knowledge acquisition and has benefits regarding learner engagement and teamwork skills. In medical education it is predominately used with undergraduates but has potential benefits for training clinicians. The aims of this study were to examine the impact of TBL in a sample of psychiatrists in terms of classroom engagement, attitudes towards teamwork, learner views and experiences of TBL. Methods Forty-four psychiatry residents participated in an Addictions Psychiatry TBL module. Mixed-methods were used for evaluation. Self-rated measures of classroom engagement (Classroom Engagement Survey, CES) were compared with conventional lectures, and attitudes regarding the value of teams (Value of Teams Scale, VTS) were compared before and after the module. Independent t-tests were used to compare ‘lecture’ CES scores with TBL CES scores and pre and post scores for the VTS. Feedback questionnaires were completed. Interviews were conducted with a subset of residents and transcripts analysed using thematic analysis. Results Twenty-eight residents completed post-course measures (response rate 63.6%). Seven participants volunteered for qualitative interviews–one from each team. There was a significant difference in the mean CES score lectures compared to TBL (p < 0.001) but no difference was found in mean VTS score pre and post for either subscale (p = 0.519; p = 0.809). All items on the feedback questionnaire were positively rated except two regarding session preparation. The qualitative analysis generated seven themes under four domains: ‘Learning in teams’, ‘Impact on the individual learner’, ‘Relationship with the teacher’ and ‘Efficiency and effectiveness of the learning process’. Conclusions In this group of residents, TBL significantly improved learner-rated classroom engagement and seemed to promote interactivity between learners

  19. What Do Psychiatric Residents Think of Addiction Psychiatry as a Career?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, John A., Jr.; Karam-Hage, Maher; Levinson, Marjorie; Craig, Thomas; Eld, Beatrice

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors attempt to better understand the recent decline in the number of applicants to addiction psychiatry training. Methods: The Corresponding Committee on Training and Education in Addiction Psychiatry of APA's Council on Addiction Psychiatry sent out a 14-question anonymous e-mail survey to all postgraduate-year 2 (PGY-2)…

  20. [Major obstacles in the development of child and adolescent psychiatry in Hungary].

    PubMed

    Kalmar, Sandor

    2016-06-01

    The author ascertains that healthy personality development faces increasingly serious obstacles and consequently the number of children in need of mental healthcare is on the rise. Child and adolescent psychiatry has drawn increasing appreciation, however, it is only formal and deficient in Hungary today and cannot assure optimal mental care according to the principles of evidence-based medicine. The author emphasizes that 75% of the first manifestation of the psychiatric disorders occurs during adolescence and young adulthood. In spite of legal regulation, several deficiencies hinder the development of children into healthy adults. The author analyses the most important obstacles in the development of child and adolescent Psychiatry. The author emphasizes the role of keypersons, describes the situation of and problems faced by Hungarian child psychiatric care. The author lists in detail the most important contradictions, deficiencies and obstacles and outlines suggestions for resolving the present crisis. The author emphasizes (1) the responsibility of institutions, and people dealing with society and children, and the disinterest of competent authorities. (2) The somatic, mental, cultural and spiritual ignorance/illiteracy among parents, teachers, healthcare workers, and the general population partly related to crises among the pedagogues. (3) The lack of holistic approach to treatment of children suffering from mental disorder. (4) The importance and the lack of knowledge concerning central nervous system function in child psychiatry. (5) Application of evidence-based medicine in child and adolescent psychiatry based on understanding the relationship between central nervous system alterations and mental functions. (6) Respecting keypersons' competence limits. (7) Immediate development of inpatient and outpatient child and adolescent psychiatry in the whole country. (8) Reform of child psychiatry board exam. (9) Development of currently missing textbooks and

  1. Cinema in the training of psychiatry residents: focus on helping relationships

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Medical schools are currently charged with a lack of education as far as empathic/relational skills and the meaning of being a health-care provider are concerned, thus leading to increased interest in medical humanities. Discussion Medical humanities can offer an insight into human illness and in a broader outlook into human condition, understanding of one self, responsibility. An empathic relation to patients might be fostered by a matching approach to humanities and sciences, which should be considered as subjects of equal relevance, complementary to one another. Recently, movies have been used in medical – especially psychiatric - trainees education, but mainly within the limits of teaching a variety of disorders. A different approach dealing with the use of cinema in the training of psychiatry residents is proposed, based on Jung and Hillman’s considerations about the relation between images and archetypes, archetypal experience and learning. Summary Selected full-length movies or clips can offer a priceless opportunity to face with the meaning of being involved in a care-providing, helping profession. PMID:23800186

  2. Difficulties in postgraduate training of foreign paediatric residents and interns in child psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Lassers, E; Nordan, R

    1975-12-01

    In a new program of teaching and consultation in child psychiatry for paediatric interns and residents, many of them of foreign birth, several approaches were tried: individual case consultation; screening conferences; experiential groups; didactic sessions. None succeeded very well. As a result of this experience, however, we have been able to identify some of the problems of the foreign students (and our own), which made the more usual educational approaches ineffective with them, and to determine better approaches. Some of the students had personal problems of adjustment, most were relatively unfamiliar with the culture, others could not communicat adequately and had scant psychiatric knowledge, and almost all were accustomed to an entirely different student-teacher relation. The most effective way of dealing with these problems was found to be through one-to-one supervision and consultation. Didactic sessions were changed to focus on specific ways to handle specific problems, with only simple, not very theoretical reading material used. With the growth of personal relations, informal consultation and teaching increased, and the formal programme became more successful. PMID:1203206

  3. Training of child and adolescent psychiatry fellows in autism and intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Marrus, Natasha; Veenstra-Vanderweele, Jeremy; Hellings, Jessica A; Stigler, Kimberly A; Szymanski, Ludwik; King, Bryan H; Carlisle, L Lee; Cook, Edwin H; Pruett, John R

    2014-05-01

    Patients with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability can be clinically complex and often have limited access to psychiatric care. Because little is known about post-graduate clinical education in autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability, we surveyed training directors of child and adolescent psychiatry fellowship programs. On average, child and adolescent psychiatry directors reported lectures of 3 and 4 h per year in autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability, respectively. Training directors commonly reported that trainees see 1-5 patients with autism spectrum disorder or intellectual disability per year for outpatient pharmacological management and inpatient treatment. Overall, 43% of directors endorsed the need for additional resources for training in autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability, which, coupled with low didactic and clinical exposure, suggests that current training is inadequate. PMID:24113341

  4. [Quality characteristics of freedom-restricting coercive measures in child and adolescent psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Schepker, Renate; Steinert, Tilman; Jungmann, Joachim; Bergmann, Frank; Fegert, Jörg M

    2006-01-01

    Putting into practice legal prescriptions of both children's rights and the personal freedom guaranteed by the German basic constitutional law requires a reflected and sensitive use of freedom-restricting coercive measures. Such measures imply uncertainties and burdens for staff and patients in child and adolescent psychiatry. Using guidelines of psychiatric associations and instructions from three institutions, basic attitudes and quality characteristics of indication, performance, and participation with regard to freedom-restricting coercive measures are described. PMID:17253028

  5. Impact of violence on children and adolescents: report from a community-based child psychiatry clinic.

    PubMed

    Benoit, M

    1993-02-01

    The Children's National Medical Center is located in the inner-city area of Washington, DC. As is nationally now well publicized, the drug-related violence in Washington has earned the area the dubious title of "murder capital of the world." Our outpatient child and adolescent psychiatry clinic at Children's Hospital provides walk-in services during daytime hours, Monday through Friday. Access to services is available at other times through the emergency room. PMID:8488207

  6. A Pilot Use of Team-Based Learning in Psychiatry Resident Psychodynamic Psychotherapy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touchet, Bryan K.; Coon, Kim A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Demonstrating psychotherapy competency in trainees will test the resources of psychiatry training programs. The authors outline the phases of team-based learning (TBL). Methods: The University of Oklahoma College of Medicine, Tulsa (OUCM-T), Department of Psychiatry reorganized its psychodynamic psychotherapy didactic course using TBL.…

  7. Innovative Training with Virtual Patients in Transcultural Psychiatry: The Impact on Resident Psychiatrists’ Confidence

    PubMed Central

    Pantziaras, Ioannis; Fors, Uno; Ekblad, Solvig

    2015-01-01

    Background Virtual patients are now widely accepted as efficient and safe training tools in medical education, but very little is known about their implementation in psychiatry, especially in transcultural clinical care of traumatized refugee patients. Objective This study aimed at assessing the impact of training with a virtual patient on confidence in providing clinical care for traumatized refugee patients. Methods The authors developed an educational tool based on virtual patient methodology portraying the case of “Mrs. K”, a traumatized refugee woman with symptoms of PTSD and depression. A group (N=32) of resident psychiatrists tested the system and their confidence in different aspects of providing clinical care for this patient group was evaluated pre- and post-test by using a validated confidence questionnaire. Cronbach’s α was calculated for all clusters. Changes between pre- and post-test were compared by using the matched-pair t-test, binomial distribution for exact significance test and a calculation of effect sizes (Cohen’s d). Results A statistically significant improvement was exhibited in overall confidence (mean Δ: 0.34; p<0.0001; d: 0.89) as well as in four more specific domains of clinical care, with the area of identifying and evaluating trauma-related diagnoses and disability showing the most prominent improvement (mean Δ: 0.47; p<0.0001; d: 1.00). Conclusions This VP-system can lead to physicians’ improvement of confidence in providing transcultural clinical care for traumatized refugee patients. Further research is required to investigate improvement in actual performance and cognitive outcomes with several VPs and in a long-term effect perspective. PMID:25794169

  8. Concluding the Series on Evidence-Based Practice: The Spread of Excellence in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, John D.

    2008-01-01

    The child and adolescent psychiatry community has been using large systems of information and new technologies to improve its performance.Evidence-based approach is used by practitioners to find and implement feasible therapies and medication. The different procedures involved of evidence-based practice, as used in child and adolescent psychology,…

  9. Managing Transition with Support: Experiences of Transition from Child and Adolescent Psychiatry to General Adult Psychiatry Narrated by Young Adults and Relatives

    PubMed Central

    Söderberg, Siv; Skär, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Young adults with mental illness who need continuing care when they turn 18 are referred from child and adolescent psychiatry to general adult psychiatry. During this process, young adults are undergoing multiple transitions as they come of age while they transfer to another unit in healthcare. The aim of this study was to explore expectations and experiences of transition from child and adolescent psychiatry to general adult psychiatry as narrated by young adults and relatives. Individual interviews were conducted with three young adults and six relatives and analysed according to grounded theory. The analysis resulted in a core category: managing transition with support, and three categories: being of age but not mature, walking out of security and into uncertainty, and feeling omitted and handling concerns. The young adults' and relatives' main concerns were that they might be left out and feel uncertainty about the new situation during the transition process. To facilitate the transition process, individual care planning is needed. It is essential that young adults and relatives are participating in the process to be prepared for the changes and achieve a successful transition. Knowledge about the simultaneous processes seems to be an important issue for facilitating transition. PMID:24829900

  10. Psychotropic drug prescribing in child and adolescent learning disability psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Bramble, David

    2007-07-01

    This postal questionnaire study investigated the prescribing practices of a group of senior British psychiatrists who have responsibilities for children and adolescents with learning disabilities (mental retardation). The study revealed that all of the clinicians surveyed (n = 16) were prescribing psychotropic medication; psychostimulants and major tranquillizers represented the most frequently prescribed classes and, respectively, methylphenidate, risperidone, melatonin, sodium valproate and carbamazepine were the most frequently employed specific agents. Most patients were receiving monotherapy. Many (14/16) clinicians reported difficulties in shared-care prescribing arrangements with General Practitioners. The study concludes that psychopharmacology is an established part of the psychiatric management of learning disabled children but acknowledges the need for the elaboration of clinical governance standards to this area of practice. PMID:17446203

  11. Clinical Skills Assessment: The Effects of Moving Certification Requirements Into Neurology, Child Neurology, and Psychiatry Residency Training

    PubMed Central

    Juul, Dorthea; Brooks, Beth Ann; Jozefowicz, Ralph; Jibson, Michael; Faulkner, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Background A few years ago, when the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology decided to phase out the patient-based oral examinations in its 3 primary specialties, requirements for assessing clinical skills during residency training were instituted. Objective The purpose of this report is to describe the experiences of training program directors and graduates with these new credentialing requirements (labeled CSEs) as well as other effects on the specialties. Methods Surveys were administered electronically in 2012 to all current neurology, child neurology, and psychiatry program directors, and to a convenience sample of graduates who applied for the 2012 certification examinations. Results Response rates for graduates were similar across the 3 specialties but low (28%–33%). Response rates were higher for program directors (53%–62%) and were similar across the 3 specialties. The results indicated that the CSEs were usually administered early in training, were completed toward the end, were often passed on first attempt, generally took place during routine clinical assignments, were used to assess additional competencies, almost always included feedback to the residents, and did not often lead to remediation. Furthermore, the CSEs were perceived to be useful components in the assessment of clinical skills. Conclusions The results obtained from the early implementation of the CSEs suggest that they provide an opportunity to assess clinical skills with the additional benefit of feedback to trainees. Other effects included eventual incorporation into training program requirements, milestones, and related faculty development and research efforts. PMID:26217432

  12. Comparison of the number of supervisors on medical student satisfaction during a child and adolescent psychiatry rotation

    PubMed Central

    Mascioli, Kelly J; Robertson, Catharine J; Douglass, Alan B

    2016-01-01

    Background Traditionally, third-year medical students are assigned to one supervisor during their 1-week rotation in child and adolescent psychiatry. However, the majority of supervisory staff in the Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry opted to switch the supervision schedule to one in which some medical students are assigned to two primary supervisors. Objective The aim of the study was to determine if students assigned to two primary supervisors had greater rotation satisfaction compared with students assigned to one primary supervisor during a 1-week clerkship rotation in child and adolescent psychiatry. Methods A satisfaction questionnaire was sent to 110 third-year medical students who completed their child and adolescent clerkship rotation. Based on the responses, students were divided into groups depending on their number of supervisors. Questionnaire responses were compared between the groups using independent t-tests. Results When students who had one primary supervisor were compared to students who had two primary supervisors, the lone item showing a statistically significant difference was regarding improvement of assessment reports/progress notes. Conclusion The number of supervisors does not significantly affect the satisfaction of students during a 1-week clerkship rotation in child and adolescent psychiatry. Other factors are important in rotation satisfaction. PMID:27110145

  13. The child and adolescent psychiatry trials network (CAPTN): infrastructure development and lessons learned

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Mark; Silva, Susan G; Compton, Scott; Chrisman, Allan; DeVeaugh-Geiss, Joseph; Breland-Noble, Alfiee; Kondo, Douglas; Kirchner, Jerry; March, John S

    2009-01-01

    Background In 2003, the National Institute of Mental Health funded the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Trials Network (CAPTN) under the Advanced Center for Services and Intervention Research (ACSIR) mechanism. At the time, CAPTN was believed to be both a highly innovative undertaking and a highly speculative one. One reviewer even suggested that CAPTN was "unlikely to succeed, but would be a valuable learning experience for the field." Objective To describe valuable lessons learned in building a clinical research network in pediatric psychiatry, including innovations intended to decrease barriers to research participation. Methods The CAPTN Team has completed construction of the CAPTN network infrastructure, conducted a large, multi-center psychometric study of a novel adverse event reporting tool, and initiated a large antidepressant safety registry and linked pharmacogenomic study focused on severe adverse events. Specific challenges overcome included establishing structures for network organization and governance; recruiting over 150 active CAPTN participants and 15 child psychiatry training programs; developing and implementing procedures for site contracts, regulatory compliance, indemnification and malpractice coverage, human subjects protection training and IRB approval; and constructing an innovative electronic casa report form (eCRF) running on a web-based electronic data capture system; and, finally, establishing procedures for audit trail oversight requirements put forward by, among others, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Conclusion Given stable funding for network construction and maintenance, our experience demonstrates that judicious use of web-based technologies for profiling investigators, investigator training, and capturing clinical trials data, when coupled to innovative approaches to network governance, data management and site management, can reduce the costs and burden and improve the feasibility of incorporating clinical research into

  14. Management in child and adolescent psychiatry: how does it look in the Balkans?

    PubMed

    Pejovic-Milovancevic, M; Miletic, V; Anagnostopoulos, D; Raleva, M; Stancheva, V; Burgic-Radmanovic, M; Barac-Otasevic, Z; Ispanovic, V

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the situation of child and adolescent psychiatry in the following Balkan countries: Greece, Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, FYROM, and Montenegro. With the exception of Greece, these countries are new democracies, with their mental health services in a transitional stage of organization. Overall, they have initiated programmes to move psychiatric care towards deinstitutionalization, developing outpatient infrastructures to handle psychiatric disorders. Child psychiatry as a specialization is still less developed than adult psychiatry at a significant, albeit different degree among these countries. The number of mental health services offered to children and adolescents is deemed insufficient, and the type of services limited and lacking. This situation is also reflected in the small number of child psychiatrists and other mental health specialists for children and adolescents, as well as in the complete lack (Montenegro) or deficiency of special programmes and actions for children and adolescents. The same also applies to mental health legislation. Greece is the exception in the development of the entire spectrum of services, the number of specialists, and the establishment of an adequate legislation framework reinforced by the incorporation of all international treaties on children's rights; although the recent economic crisis has affected the country negatively, threatening with regression to pre-reformational practices. Children and adolescents in need of mental health care have been increasing in all countries. The effect of violent and sudden changes taking place in most countries is a major factor for the emergence of increased and stress-related psychopathology and psychosocial problems in children and families. In all countries, there is a significant development of nongovernmental organizations undertaking a large part of reformation work. There is also the disconcerting phenomenon of professional exhaustion and the

  15. Mentoring Increases Connectedness and Knowledge: A Cross-Sectional Evaluation of Two Programs in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Michelle S.; Miller, Susan Milam; Rettew, David C.; Althoff, Robert; Ehmann, Mary; Hudziak, James J.; Martin, Andres

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors assess changes in knowledge and feeling connected to the field of child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) after participation in a brief mentoring program held at two CAP conferences. Methods: Similar mentorship programs were implemented at two CAP conferences, one national (N=119 participants), one international (N=53). The…

  16. Adventure-Based Experiential Therapy with Inpatients in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: An Approach to Practicability and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckstein, Florian; Rüth, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the use of adventure-based experiential therapy (AET) with child and adolescent psychiatry inpatients. AET environments, indications, practicality, therapeutic effects and research are outlined and clinical findings are reported. Activities such as rock-climbing, exploring a creek and caving are discussed and the limitations…

  17. Implementation of Problem-Based Learning in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: Shared Experiences of a Special-Interest Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skokauskas, Norbert; Guerrero, Anthony P. S.; Hanson, Mark D.; Coll, Xavier; Paul, Moli; Szatmari, Peter; Tan, Susan M. K.; Bell, Cathy K.; Hunt, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objective: Problem-based learning (PBL) represents a major development and change in educational practice that continues to have a large impact across subjects and disciplines worldwide. It would seem that child and adolescent psychiatry, because of its inherently integrative, bio-psycho-social nature and emphasis on teamwork and…

  18. Attitudes and Behaviors of Psychiatry Residents toward Pharmaceutical Representatives before and after an Educational Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Melinda L.; Rosenbaum, Julie R.; Rohrbaugh, Robert M.; Rosenheck, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to determine the effect of an educational seminar on interactions with pharmaceutical representatives on residents' attitudes and behavior. METHOD: A controlled trial of an educational intervention was conducted. Residents at a university-affiliated residency program (N=32) were divided into two groups: one group…

  19. The Adult Learner Rediscovered: Psychiatry Residents' Push for Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Training and a Learner-Driven Model of Educational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Keri-Leigh

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study surveyed residents' experiences learning an emerging area of demand in psychiatry at a time when there is a lag in training resources. Unexpectedly, the data generated useful evidence in support of adult learning theory. The result is a post hoc examination of learner attitudes and activities during the spread of a new…

  20. Family Skills for General Psychiatry Residents: Meeting ACGME Core Competency Requirements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Ellen M.; Heru, Alison M.; Grunebaum, Henry; Rolland, John; Wood, Beatrice; Bruty, Heidi

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The authors discuss the knowledge, attitudes, and skills needed for a resident to be competent in supporting and working with families, as mandated by the residency review committee (RRC) core competencies. Methods: The RRC core competencies, as they relate to patients and their families, are reviewed. The Group for Advancement of…

  1. The Role of Personal Therapy in Psychiatric Residency Training: A Survey of Psychiatry Training Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habl, Samar; Mintz, David L.; Bailey, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors examine the current place of personal therapy for residents in U.S. training programs. Methods: All U.S. training directors were provided an anonymous survey assessing current attitudes and practices with regard to personal therapy and training director perception of their residents' use of therapy. Results: Training…

  2. How to assess quality of life in child and adolescent psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Karow, Anne; Barthel, Dana; Klasen, Fionna

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the conceptual foundations of measuring health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children and adolescents in child and adolescent psychiatry, and of the current state of research in this field. The available procedures for determining quality of life are presented according to their areas of use and their psychometric characteristics. The internationally available generic instruments for measuring HRQoL in children are identified and assessed in terms of their strengths and weaknesses with regard to selected criteria. As a result, seven generic HRQoL instruments and two utility procedures have been identified which satísfy the following criteria: (i) psychometric qualíty; (ii) age-appropriate measurement; (iii) versions for self-reporting and external rating; and (iv) cross-cultural measurement. The identified instruments satisfy the individual criteria to different degrees. They are increasingly being used in health services research, treatment studies, and epidemiological research; however, they are not yet widely used as part of the clinical routine in child and adolescent psychiatrics. PMID:25152654

  3. Ethical issues associated with genetic counseling in the context of adolescent psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Jane; Virani, Alice; Austin, Jehannine C.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic counseling is a well-established healthcare discipline that provides individuals and families with health information about disorders that have a genetic component in a supportive counseling encounter. It has recently been applied in the context of psychiatric disorders (like schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, schizoaffective disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, depression and anxiety) that typically appear sometime during later childhood through to early adulthood. Psychiatric genetic counseling is emerging as an important service that fills a growing need to reframe understandings of the causes of mental health disorders. In this review, we will define psychiatric genetic counseling, and address important ethical concerns (we will particularly give attention to the principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice) that must be considered in the context of its application in adolescent psychiatry, whilst integrating evidence regarding patient outcomes from the literature. We discuss the developing capacity and autonomy of adolescents as an essential and dynamic component of genetic counseling provision in this population and discuss how traditional viewpoints regarding beneficence and non-maleficence should be considered in the unique situation of adolescents with, or at risk for, psychiatric conditions. We argue that thoughtful and tailored counseling in this setting can be done in a manner that addresses the important health needs of this population while respecting the core principles of biomedical ethics, including the ethic of care. PMID:26937355

  4. Extended Group Counseling with Psychiatry Residents: HIM and the Bonney Scale Compared

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisson, C. J.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to compare the descriptions of group process obtained from the Hill Interaction Matrix (Form G) and the Bonney Scale in rating an extended counseling group of psychiatric residents (N = 10). (Author)

  5. Off-Label Prescription of Psychopharmacological Drugs in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Braüner, Julie Vestergaard; Johansen, Lily Manzello; Roesbjerg, Troels; Pagsberg, Anne Katrine

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to describe the frequency of off-label prescriptions of psychopharmacological drugs in a child and adolescent psychiatric setting. A cross-sectional study was conducted on November 1, 2014, including all inpatients and outpatients at the Mental Health Centre for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Capital Region of Denmark, aged 0 to 17 years receiving medical treatment with antidepressants, antipsychotic agents, benzodiazepines, melatonin and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication. We included a total of 5555 prescriptions representing 2932 patients. The main findings were that 32.3% of all prescriptions were off-label, and 41.6% of subjects received at least 1 off-label prescription. The most frequent off-label category was low age, 72.2%, meaning that the drug was not approved for the age group of the patient. The off-label rates for each drug class were as follows: melatonin, 100%; antipsychotic agents, 95.6%; benzodiazepines, 72.5%; antidepressants, 51.1%; and ADHD medication, 2.7%. Prescription of 2 or more psychopharmacological drugs per patient was common (31.5%). The group of subjects with 4 or more prescriptions (n = 36) was characterized by a higher frequency of inpatients, older age, and a different distribution of diagnoses. This study found a frequent use of off-label prescriptions when treating children and adolescents with psychopharmacological drugs other than ADHD medication. In addition, prescription of more than 1 psychotropic drug is common. These findings support the need for extending the evidence base for psychopharmacologic treatment in children and adolescents. PMID:27529772

  6. A Model CSMH Curriculum for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Training Programs.

    PubMed

    Derenne, Jennifer; Martel, Adele

    2015-10-01

    Child and adolescent psychiatrists (CAP) care for high school students preparing to enter college. They also may continue to see students while on school vacations and may care for college students in various settings (emergency room, inpatient hospital unit, private practice, college student health service, or counseling center). As increasing numbers of students with mental health diagnoses pursue secondary education, CAP need to be knowledgeable about campus systems of care, principles of transition, and privacy and educational laws affecting college students. This article describes an informal needs assessment of general CAP members of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and details the results of a survey of CAP program directors on training opportunities in college student mental health (CSMH). The authors present a sample curriculum for a clinical rotation in CSMH, as well as providing ideas for core didactic lectures, and proposing the development of online resources to reduce the burden of creating new lectures and standardize experiences among training programs. PMID:25895628

  7. Training in a Clozapine Clinic for Psychiatry Residents: A Plea and Suggestions for Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freudenreich, Oliver; Henderson, David C.; Sanders, Kathy M.; Goff, Donald C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The authors sought to develop a model educational clinic and curriculum for psychiatric residents, to increase knowledge and comfort about clozapine prescribing. This matters because clozapine is an important evidence-based treatment for refractory schizophrenia that remains underutilized in clinical practice. Method: This is a…

  8. Coping with a Patient's Suicide: A Curriculum for Psychiatry Residency Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Uma; Brooks, Kristen; McNiel, Dale E.; Cramer, Robert J.; Haller, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The suicide of a patient is often experienced as a traumatic event by the clinician involved. Many articles have identified the need for education to guide clinicians through the aftermath of patient suicide; however, little has been published on development of such a curriculum, particularly for residents. This article describes one…

  9. Work Hours Regulations for House Staff in Psychiatry: Bad or Good for Residency Training?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasminsky, Sonya; Lomonaco, Allison; Auchincloss, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The movement to limit work hours for house staff has gained momentum in recent years. The authors set out to review the literature on work hours reform, particularly as it applies to psychiatric residency training, and to provide two different viewpoints on the controversy. Methods: The authors present the historical background of work…

  10. Addiction Training Scale: Pilot Study of a Self-Report Evaluation Tool for Psychiatry Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattar, S. Pirzada; Madison, James; Markert, Ronald J.; Bhatia, Subhash C.; Petty, Frederick

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol and drug dependence disorders have become common public health hazards. Psychiatrists encounter these problems in a major portion of their patients. However, recent data suggest that their training does not provide them the confidence to treat these disorders. Current methods of evaluating residents fail to adequately ascertain…

  11. Perspectives of clinical medical directors in child and adolescent psychiatry: diagnostic and treatment needs of migrant families.

    PubMed

    Kirkcaldy, Bruce David; Siefen, Rainer Georg

    2014-01-01

    Germany is one of many nations characterized by an increasing number of children originating from families with a migration background. Medical treatment modalities will be required to adjust for diversity of social and cultural background. Initiated by the Federal Society of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (BKJPP), representing mainly those psychiatrists working in private practice, and by the Federal Working Commission of Medical Directors employed in Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics (BAG), a questionnaire was constructed to identify mental health professionals' (psychiatrists') evaluation of the needs and quality of diagnosis and treatment for migrant families. The current study focused on medical directors and deputy chief physicians in clinics for child and adolescent psychiatry. Preliminary results of this survey - implementing descriptive statistics as well as univariate and multivariate statistical analyses - permitted an assessment of the current state of identification and treatment of migrant offspring attending child and adolescent psychiatric practices in Germany. Recommendations and concrete steps are offered, which aim to promote "cultural opening", and assist in health and social policy makers' decisions for improved mental health care. PMID:24447986

  12. Indications for and use of antidepressants in child and adolescent psychiatry--a cross-sectional survey in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Buhl Sørensen, Christine; Bøhm Jepsen, Ea; Thomsen, Per Hove; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2003-06-01

    The prescription of antidepressants for children and adolescents is a controversial subject, and it has been documented that the practice has increased in the past decade in Denmark, the UK, and the USA. The aim of this study was to survey the indications for and use of antidepressants in child and adolescent psychiatry. Questionnaires were sent to all Danish child and adolescent psychiatric hospitals, out-patient clinics and privately practising psychiatrists treating children and adolescents under the age of 19 years (31 units in all). A 93.5 % response rate for the total of 382 questionnaires in the survey. The antidepressant serotonin selective re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) were the most prominently used agents in treating children and adolescents. The extent of their use represents 8 % of the total sample of individuals under the age of 19 years receiving any kind of psychiatric treatment - 0.03 % of the reference population in Denmark. It is only a surprisingly minor group of children and adolescents that are being treated with antidepressants despite the fact that 10 % of youth under the age of 19 are afflicted with diseases like depression, OCD, anxiety disorder and eating disorders. PMID:12768458

  13. What Is Psychiatry?

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  14. The Ethics Committees of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and the American Psychiatric Association: history, process, education, and advocacy.

    PubMed

    Sondheimer, Adrian N; Klykylo, William M

    2008-01-01

    The American Psychiatric Association (APA) and the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) are the primary organizational embodiments of the specialties of, respectively, general psychiatry and child and adolescent psychiatry in the United States. Professional organizations set guidelines and standards for the expected behaviors of their members. To those ends, ethics committees were established by both the APA and the AACAP. This article describes how each of these organizations, via their committees, produced codes of ethics, and continuously provide relevant educational materials and advocacy efforts. It also reviews the APA ethics committee's responsibility for the evaluation of ethical complaints lodged against members. In closing, the article examines ethical dilemmas lurking on the horizon, beginning to be faced by the specialties and thus likely to be addressed by the committees. PMID:18036488

  15. Adolescent Psychiatry; Proceedings of a Conference (Douglas Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, June 20, 1967).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamsie, S.J., Ed.

    Discussed in a conference report on adolescent psychology are the varieties of behavioral problems and family dynamics by Richard Jenkins, biological growth during adolescence by J.R. Unwin, management of adolescents in a general hospital setting by Henry Kravitz, and educational problems in disturbed adolescents by S.J. Shamsie, Jean-L. Lapointe,…

  16. Crime and Psychiatry*

    PubMed Central

    Matcheswalla, Yusuf; De Sousa, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatry and crime are linked in certain ways. On one hand, we have criminal offenders with serious psychopathology; and on the other hand, we have psychiatric patients who may commit criminal offences during the influence of a psychiatric disorder. The psychiatrist in practice has to come in contact with the criminal justice system at some point of time in his career. Forensic psychiatry under whose realm these issues reside is a branch yet underdeveloped in India. The present paper reviews the inter-relationship between crime and psychiatry and the factors involved therein. PMID:25838733

  17. Adolescent Career Development in Urban-Residing Aboriginal Families in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Sheila K.; Young, Richard A.; Stevens, Alison; Spence, Wayne; Deyell, Stewart; Easterbrook, Adam; Brokenleg, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how urban-residing Aboriginal adolescent-parent dyads (n = 11) jointly constructed and acted on goals and strategies with their social supports (n = 17) to facilitate the adolescents' career development. A modified protocol following the qualitative action-project method was used. A discrete joint…

  18. Parent-Adolescent Involvement: The Relative Influence of Parent Gender and Residence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Daniel N.; Amato, Paul R.; King, Valarie

    2006-01-01

    The 1995 wave of the Add Health study is used to investigate the relative influence of parent gender and residence on patterns of parental involvement with adolescents. Adolescent reports (N=17,330) of shared activities, shared communication, and relationship quality with both biological parents are utilized. A multidimensional scaling analysis…

  19. Resident education curriculum in pediatric and adolescent gynecology: the short curriculum.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Nathalie; Amies Oelschlager, Anne-Marie; Browner-Elhanan, Karen J; Huguelet, Patricia S; Kaul, Paritosh; Talib, Hina J; Wheeler, Carol; Loveless, Meredith

    2014-04-01

    The degree of exposure to Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology (PAG) varies across academic programs in Obstetrics and Gynecology, Pediatrics, and Adolescent Medicine. Nevertheless, these programs are responsible to train residents and provide opportunities within their training programs to fulfill PAG learning objectives. To that end, North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology has taken a leadership role in PAG resident education by disseminating the Short Curriculum with specific learning objectives and list of essential resources where key concepts in PAG can be covered. PMID:24602305

  20. Adolescents and the Media: Medical and Psychological Impact. Developmental Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry, Volume 33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strasburger, Victor C.

    Aimed at primary care physicians and nurses, educators, and parents, this book reviews media effects on adolescent behavior and psychology. The book notes that television is a powerful medium to which adolescents are uniquely susceptible and how studies have shown television's ability to shape social attitudes. Theories of how television affects…

  1. Borderline personality disorder in adolescents: the He-who-must-not-be-named of psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Larrivée, Marie-Pier

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the possibility and pertinence of diagnosing borderline personality disorder in adolescents. The etiology and clinical manifestations of this disorder in adolescents are discussed, and its management is addressed in terms of psychotherapy, pharmacology, hospitalization issues, and family involvement considerations. PMID:24174891

  2. [Cognitive remediation therapy for children: literature data and clinical application in a child and adolescent psychiatry department].

    PubMed

    Doyen, C; Contejean, Y; Risler, V; Asch, M; Amado, I; Launay, C; Redon, P De Bois; Burnouf, I; Kaye, K

    2015-04-01

    The hypothesis of cerebral plasticity in psychiatric disorders has encouraged clinicians to develop cognitive remediation therapy (CRT), a new therapeutic approach based on attention, memory, planning, and mental flexibility tasks. The first cognitive remediation programs were developed and validated for adults with schizophrenia and were shown to have a positive impact on executive functions as well as on quality of life. In children and adolescents, researchers emphasized the existence of executive dysfunction in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autistic spectrum disorder, attention deficit disorder, and eating disorders. For these disorders, neuropsychological studies suggest that memory, planning, attention and mental flexibility are impaired. Despite the paucity of studies on cognitive remediation (CR) in children, preliminary results have suggested, as in adults with schizophrenia, good compliance and optimization of executive functioning. Consequently, programs dedicated to young subjects were developed in English-speaking countries, and the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry of Sainte Anne Hospital (Paris) developed a new CR program for children with attention deficit disorder, academic problems, or eating disorders. These programs complete the field of CRT proposed by Sainte Anne Hospital's Remediation and Psychosocial Rehabilitation Reference Center, initially designed for adults with schizophrenia. Our team used and adapted validated tools such as Delahunty and Wykes's CRT program (translated and validated in French by Amado and Franck) and Lindvall and Lask's CRT Resource Pack. One program was developed for an adolescent with anorexia nervosa and applied to the subject and her family, but the purpose of this paper is to present a CR approach for children with attention deficit disorder or academic disorder, a 6-month program based on paper-pencil tasks and board and card games. The team was trained in different kinds of cognitive

  3. Competency of Psychiatric Residents in the Treatment of People with Severe Mental Illness before and after a Community Psychiatry Rotation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Melinda; Romero-Gonzalez, Mauricio; Gonzalez, Gerardo; Klee, Anne; Kirwin, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Psychiatric rehabilitation is an evidence-based service with the goal of recovery for people with severe mental illness. Psychiatric residents should understand the services and learn the principles of psychiatric rehabilitation. This study assessed whether a 3-month rotation in a psychiatric rehabilitation center changes the competency…

  4. [Gender identity disorder and related sexual behavior problems in children and adolescents: from the perspective of development and child psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The present paper reviews the theoretical and empirical literature on children and adolescents with gender identity disorder. The organizational framework underlying this review is one that presents gender behavior in children and adolescents as a continuum rather than as a dichotomy of normal versus abnormal categories. Theories of normative gender development, prevalence, assessment, developmental trajectories, and comorbidity were investigated. There is a greater fluidity and likelihood of change in the pre-pubertal period. It was reported that the majority of affected children had been eventually developing a homosexual orientation. As an approach to determine the prevalence of GID in clinical samples in our child psychiatry clinic, screening instruments that include items on cross-gender or cross-sex identification were used. We applied the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Of the 113 items in the Japanese version of the CBCL, there are two measures of cross-gender identification: "behaves like opposite sex" and "wishes to be opposite sex." Like the other items, they are scored on a 3-point scale of: 0-not true, 1- somewhat true, and 2-very true. Our study of 323 clinically-referred children aged 4-15 years reported that, among the boys, 9.6% assigned a score of 1 (somewhat true) or a score of 2 (very true) to the two items. The corresponding rates for the clinically-referred girls were 24.5%. The item of diagnosis of GID in our clinical sample was significantly higher than in non-referred children, reported as 2-5% using the same method. Two clinical case histories of screened children are also presented. Both of them were diagnosed with PDDNOS. Together with the literature review, most of the gender-related symptoms in autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) could be related to the behavioral and psychological characteristics of autism as shown in case histories. ASD subjects in adolescence can sometimes develop a unique confusion of identity that occasionally

  5. Perspectives on US Domestic Violence Emergency Shelters: What Do Young Adolescent Residents and Their Mothers Say?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chanmugam, Amy

    2011-01-01

    As part of a larger qualitative study using Life Story methods, an ethnically diverse, purposive sample (n = 27) of young adolescents (ages 12-14) and their mothers residing in four US domestic violence emergency shelters were interviewed about their perspectives of shelter life. Youth reported aspects they liked, most often expressing that they…

  6. Disparities in Adolescents' Residence in Neighborhoods Supportive of Physical Activity - United States, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Watson, Kathleen B; Harris, Carmen D; Carlson, Susan A; Dorn, Joan M; Fulton, Janet E

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, only 27% of adolescents in grades 9-12 met the current federal guideline for aerobic physical activity (at least 60 minutes of physical activity each day*), and sex and racial/ethnic disparities in meeting the guideline exist (1). The Community Preventive Services Task Force has recommended a range of community-level evidence-based approaches(†) to increase physical activity by improving neighborhood supports for physical activity.(§) To assess the characteristics of adolescents who live in neighborhoods that are supportive of physical activity, CDC analyzed data on U.S. children and adolescents aged 10-17 years (defined as adolescents for this report) from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH). Overall, 65% of U.S. adolescents live in neighborhoods supportive of physical activity, defined as neighborhoods that are perceived as safe and have sidewalks or walking paths and parks, playgrounds, or recreation centers. Adolescents who were Hispanic and non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity; who lived in lower-income households, households with less educated parents, and rural areas; or who were overweight or obese were less likely to live in neighborhoods supportive of physical activity than were white adolescents and adolescents from higher income households, with a more highly educated parent, living in urban areas, and not overweight or obese. Within demographic groups, the largest disparity in the percentage of adolescents living in these neighborhoods was observed between adolescents living in households with a family income <100% of the Federal Poverty Level (FPL) (51%) and adolescents living in households with a family income ≥400% of the FPL (76%). Efforts to improve neighborhood supports, particularly in areas with a substantial percentage of low-income and minority residents, might increase physical activity among adolescents and reduce health disparities. PMID:27309671

  7. [Gottfried Benn and psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Scherbaum, N

    1994-04-01

    As a young physician the poet Gottfried Benn (1886-1956) gave up a promising career in psychiatry after short period in practice. A psychodynamic analysis of this failure stresses the importance of the relationship of father and son in adolescence for the maturing of ego identity and ego ideal. At the beginning of this century psychiatry was a medical field with strong materialistic and biologistic positions. Benn embraced this position and tried to distance himself from his father, who was a charismatic priest with psychotherapeutic ambition. Benn experienced difficulty in competing with his father and this can be attributed to disturbances in his relationship to his mother in early childhood. The consequence was e.g. a narcissistic vulnerability in adulthood. The contrast of the splendid success in brain research with its inapplicability in routine therapy was characteristic of the state of psychiatry at the time of Benn's failure. PMID:8206462

  8. [Positive psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Timmerby, Nina; Austin, Stephen; Bech, Per

    2016-02-01

    Positive psychiatry (PP) is a field within psychiatry with a particular focus on promoting well-being in people who already have or are at high risk of developing mental or physical illness. PP should be considered a supplement to trad-tional psychiatry and a call for therapists in psychiatry to focus on the person as a whole rather than just as a patient. PP is in line with current national and international health policy focus on promoting positive mental health. PMID:26857411

  9. Child Maltreatment Prevention and the Scope of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Constantino, John N

    2016-04-01

    Child maltreatment is one of the most deleterious known influences on the mental health and development of children. This article briefly reviews a complement of methods that are ready to incorporate into child and adolescent psychiatric practice, by having been validated either with respect to the prevention of child maltreatment or with respect to adverse outcomes associated with maltreatment (and primarily focused on enhancing the caregiving environment); they are feasible for integration into clinical decision making, and most importantly, can be included in the training of the next generation of clinicians. PMID:26980121

  10. Focus on Guanfacine Extended-release: A Review of its Use in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Elbe, Dean; Reddy, Dorothy

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To review the basic pharmacology and published literature regarding use of guanfacine extended-release (GXR) for the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. Methods: A literature review was conducted using the search terms: ‘guanfacine’, with limits set to: Human trials, English Language, and All Child (Age 0–18). Articles pertaining to guanfacine immediate-release or for indications other than attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were not included for analysis. Additional articles were identified from reference information and poster presentation data. Results: Six prospective, randomized controlled trials (RCT) and four open-label trials (including two long-term safety extension trials) were identified for GXR in the treatment of ADHD. All published RCTs showed superiority over placebo on the primary outcome measure. Subgroup analysis of available RCT data showed no efficacy of GXR at any dose in adolescents. Adverse effects in GXR trials were generally mild to moderate. High rates of early discontinuation were observed in long-term open-label extension trials. Conclusion: GXR is an effective option for treatment of ADHD in patients 6–12 years of age as monotherapy, or as adjunctive treatment to psychostimulants. PMID:24516477

  11. Challenges to academic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Pardes, H; Pincus, H A

    1983-09-01

    Economic constraints, effects of retrenchments in federal health policy, and increased competition for resources are challenging all sectors of academic medicine. Departments of psychiatry are at particular risk during this era for reasons including the lack of a sound research and research training base in many psychiatry departments; the small number of students entering the field and implications therein for the availability of residency slots in psychiatry; and patterns of allocating resources within academic medical centers which, combined with biases in reimbursement policy toward cognitively based specialties, threaten the economic strength of psychiatric departments. A conceptual model based on marketing principles is proposed to aid in identifying and capitalizing on the unique strengths of the field. PMID:6412571

  12. An Assigned Teaching Resident Rotation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels-Brady, Catherine; Rieder, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors' adult psychiatry residency training program identified several educational needs for residents at their institution. Junior residents needed enhanced learning of clinical interviewing skills and learning connected to the inpatient psychiatry ward rotations, and senior residents needed opportunities to prepare for the…

  13. [An inclusive misunderstanding--why noncategorization in special education for people with emotional and social behavior disorders complicates the cooperation with child and adolescent psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Ahrbeck, Bernd; Fickler-Stang, Ulrike

    2015-07-01

    The welcomed coeducation of children and adolescents with and without disabilities is going into dangerous territory since it has become burdened with a number of illusionary expectations. The constraints applied by real-life and meaningful circumstances should be taken into account, especially for children with emotional and social behavior disorders. Practicable prevention and intervention measurements cannot be generated without profound knowledge about disorders among this heterogeneous group of people. Abandoning all previously relevant terminology («noncategorization»), demanded by some radical inclusion advocates, leads to a situation that is helplessly confronted with its duties but lacks the basic skills and the necessary support stemming from an interdisciplinary dialogue. The contact with child and adolescent psychiatry is threatened to the disadvantage of the profession. PMID:26118813

  14. Complementary Psychosocial Interventions in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: Pet Assisted Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chandramouleeswaran, Susmita; Russell, Paul Swamidhas Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    Pet assisted therapy (PAT) is a form of complementary psychosocial intervention used in the field of mental health and disability. The form of therapy has the potential to augment the other forms of psychotherapies and pharmacotherapy. This article is an overview of history and clinical origins of PAT, classification and therapy models, scientific basis, the current use in specific disorders, preventive and diagnostic role as well as the potential risks among children and adolescents with mental health needs with a special focus on the Indian needs. A systematic electronic search strategy was undertaken to identify the intervention effectiveness of PAT in MedLine (PubMed), cochrane database of systematic reviews, high-wire press and Google Scholar. We augmented our electronic search with a search of additional articles in reference lists of retrieved articles, as well as a hand search available journals that were not indexed in any electronic database in consultation with colleagues and experts. To qualify for inclusion, studies were required to meet predetermined criteria regarding study design, study population, interventions evaluated and outcome measured to reduce the publication bias. PMID:24701004

  15. Denoting treatment outcome in child and adolescent psychiatry: a comparison of continuous and categorical outcomes.

    PubMed

    de Beurs, Edwin; Barendregt, Marko; Rogmans, Bente; Robbers, Sylvana; van Geffen, Marieke; van Aggelen-Gerrits, Marleen; Houben, Huub

    2015-05-01

    Various approaches have been proposed to denote treatment outcome, such as the effect size of the pre-to-posttest change, percentage improvement, statistically reliable change, and clinical significant change. The aim of the study is to compare these approaches and evaluate their aptitude to differentiate among child and adolescent mental healthcare providers regarding their treatment outcome. Comparing outcomes according to continuous and categorical outcome indicators using real-life data of seven mental healthcare providers, three using the Child Behavior Checklist and four using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire as primary outcome measure. Within each dataset consistent differences were found between providers and the various methods led to comparable rankings of providers. Statistical considerations designate continuous outcomes as the optimal choice. Change scores have more statistical power and allow for a ranking of providers at first glance. Expressing providers' performance in proportions of recovered, changed, unchanged, or deteriorated patients has supplementary value, as it denotes outcome in a manner more easily interpreted and appreciated by clinicians, managerial staff, and, last but not least, by patients or their parents. PMID:25183369

  16. Using virtual worlds for role play simulation in child and adolescent psychiatry: an evaluation study

    PubMed Central

    Vallance, Aaron K.; Hemani, Ashish; Fernandez, Victoria; Livingstone, Daniel; McCusker, Kerri; Toro-Troconis, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Aims and method To develop and evaluate a novel teaching session on clinical assessment using role play simulation. Teaching and research sessions occurred sequentially in computer laboratories. Ten medical students were divided into two online small-group teaching sessions. Students role-played as clinician avatars and the teacher played a suicidal adolescent avatar. Questionnaire and focus-group methodology evaluated participants’ attitudes to the learning experience. Quantitative data were analysed using SPSS, qualitative data through nominal-group and thematic analyses. Results Participants reported improvements in psychiatric skills/knowledge, expressing less anxiety and more enjoyment than role-playing face to face. Data demonstrated a positive relationship between simulator fidelity and perceived utility. Some participants expressed concern about added value over other learning methods and non-verbal communication. Clinical implications The study shows that virtual worlds can successfully host role play simulation, valued by students as a useful learning method. The potential for distance learning would allow delivery irrespective of geographical distance and boundaries. PMID:25285217

  17. Training child and adolescent psychiatrists to be culturally competent.

    PubMed

    Mian, Ayesha I; Al-Mateen, Cheryl S; Cerda, Gabrielle

    2010-10-01

    The changing face of the United States urges the field of child and adolescent psychiatry toward more culturally sensitive care. This article gives a comprehensive review of the history of cultural education, empirical findings that speak to its need, and the challenges that may be faced in the conception and implementation of a cultural competency curriculum. The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry's model curriculum is presented to help child and adolescent residency programs design one that is specific to their resources and needs. PMID:21056348

  18. National Prevalence of PTSD Among Sexually Revictimized Adolescent, College, and Adult Household-Residing Women

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Kate; Danielson, Carla Kmett; McCauley, Jenna L.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Resnick, Heidi S.

    2012-01-01

    Context Despite empirical links between sexual revictimization (i.e., experiencing two or more sexual assaults) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), no epidemiological studies document the prevalence of sexual revictimization and PTSD. Establishing estimates is essential to determine the scope, public health impact, and psychiatric sequelae of sexual revictimization. Objective Estimate the prevalence of sexual revictimization and PTSD among three national female samples (adolescent, college, adult household probability). Design Surveys were used to collect data from The National Women’s Study – Replication (2006; college) as well as household probability samples from the National Survey of Adolescents-Replication (2005) and the National Women’s Study-Replication (2006; household probability). Setting Households and college campuses across the U.S. Participants 1,763 adolescent girls, 2,000 college women, and 3,001 household-residing adult women. Main Outcomes Behaviorally specific questions assessed unwanted sexual acts occurring over the lifespan due to use of force, threat of force, or incapacitation via drug or alcohol use. PTSD was assessed with a module validated against the criterion standard, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Results 52.7% of victimized adolescents, 50.0% of victimized college women, and 58.8% of victimized household-residing women reported sexual revictimization. Current PTSD was reported by 20.0% of revictimized adolescents, 40.0% of revictimized college women, and 27.2% of revictimized household-residing women. Compared to non-victims, odds of meeting past 6-month PTSD were 4.3–8.2 times higher for revictimized respondents and 2.4–3.5 times higher for single victims. Conclusions Population prevalence estimates suggest that 769,000 adolescent girls, 625,000 college women, and 13.4 million women in US households reported sexual revictimization. Further, 154,000 sexually revictimized adolescents, 250,000 sexually

  19. Residence arrangements and well-being: a study of Norwegian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Naevdal, Folkvard; Thuen, Frode

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess any differences in psychosocial problems among adolescents living with both parents, or with their mother or their father. Any benefits of living with a same-sex parent compared to a parent of the opposite sex, was also analysed. A total of 1,686 adolescents aged 14-15 years participated from 29 schools in Hordaland county, including schools in downtown Bergen and more rural areas. The findings revealed significantly more psychosocial problems among the adolescents living with one parent compared to both parents. Significant differences were also observed between adolescents living in mother custody compared to father custody, indicating more problems among the latter group. Furthermore, girls living with their father had significantly higher levels of psychological symptoms, compared to boys in father custody. Similarly, boys living with their father were involved in more stealing behavior than girls in father custody. However, residence arrangement accounted for only a limited proportion of the variance in the adolescents' psychosocial problems, indicating large within-group variance and overlap between the different custody groups. PMID:15535805

  20. [Placement of children and adolescents following seclusion and restraint actions–a study on family-court approvals of minors in youth welfare, child and adolescent psychiatry and jail according to Para. 1631 German Civil Code].

    PubMed

    Kölch, Michael; Vogel, Harald

    2016-01-01

    According to German law (Para. 1631b German Civil Code), the placement of children and adolescents following seclusion and restraint actions must be approved by a family court. We analyzed the family court data of a court district in Berlin (Tempelhof-Kreuzberg) concerning cases of “placement of minors” between 2008 and 2011. A total of 474 such procedures were discovered. After data clearing and correction of cases (e. g., because of emergency interventions of the youth welfare system taking children into custody according to Para. 42, German Civil Code VIII), 376 cases remained. Of these 376 procedures in the years 2008 to 2011, 127 cases concerned children and adolescents according to Para. 1631b German Civil Code, and 249 procedures were settled either by dismissal, withdrawal or by repealing the initial decision to place the child with restrain or seclusion by means of an interim order or by filing an appeal against the final decision. Of the 127 procedures, 68 concerned girls, who were on average slightly younger than boys (14.5 years vs. 15.1 years). In two thirds of the procedures, the children and adolescents were German citizens. The majority of youths involved were living at home at the time of the procedure, but in 15 % of the case the youths were homeless. Most of the adolescents were treated with restraint in child and adolescent psychiatry. The most frequently quoted reasons for seclusion were substance abuse, suicide risk and running away from home/being homeless. PMID:26864226

  1. Child and adolescent psychiatry: which knowledge and skills do primary care physicians need to have? A survey in general practitioners and paediatricians.

    PubMed

    Lempp, Thomas; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Monika; Bachmann, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Primary care physicians (PCPs) play a key role in the initial assessment and management of children and adolescents with mental health problems. However, it is unclear whether current medical education curricula sufficiently equip PCPs for this task. The aim of this study was to investigate, which child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP)-related skills and knowledge PCPs say they require in their daily practice. A questionnaire was generated, employing a modified two-step Delphi approach. Besides socio-demographic items, the questionnaire contained 17 CAP-related knowledge items and 13 CAP-related skills items, which had to be rated by importance in daily practice. The questionnaire was distributed to 348 office-based paediatricians and 500 general practitioners (GPs) in Germany. The overall return rate was 51.3 % (435/848). Regarding CAP-related knowledge, both paediatricians and GPs rated somatoform disorders and obesity as highly important for daily practice. Moreover, paediatricians also deemed regulatory disorders during infancy (e.g. crying, sleep disorders) as important, while GPs assessed knowledge on paediatric depression as relevant. For paediatricians and GPs, the most relevant CAP-related skills were communicating with children and adolescents and their parents. Additionally, paediatricians rated differentiating between non-pathologic and clinically relevant behaviour problems very relevant, while GPs considered basic psychotherapeutic skills essential. The CAP-related knowledge and skills perceived relevant for doctors in primary care differ from the majority of current medical school CAP curricula, which cover mainly typical, epitomic CAP disorders and are predominantly knowledge-oriented. Therefore, medical education in CAP should be amended to reflect the needs of PCPs to improve healthcare for children and adolescents with mental health problems. PMID:26250895

  2. Digital psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Tang, S; Helmeste, D

    2000-02-01

    The American managed care movement has been viewed as a big experiment and is being watched closely by the rest of the world. In the meanwhile, computer-based information technology (IT) is changing the practice of medicine, much more rapidly than managed care. A New World of digitized knowledge and information has been created. Although literature on IT in psychiatry is largely absent in peer-reviewed psychiatric journals, IT is finding its way into all aspects of medicine, particularly psychiatry. Telepsychiatry programs are becoming very popular. At the same time, medical information sites are flourishing and evolving into a new health-care industry. Patient-physician information asymmetry is decreasing as patients are gaining easy access to medical information hitherto only available to professionals. Thus, psychiatry is facing another paradigm shift, at a time when most attention has been focused on managed care. In this new digital world, knowledge and information are no longer the sole property of professionals. Value will migrate from traditional in-person office-based therapy to digital clinical products, from in-person library search and classroom didactic instruction to interactive on-line searches and distance learning. In this time of value migration, psychiatrists have to determine what their 'distinctive competence' is and where best to add value in the health-care delivery value chain. The authors assess the impact of IT on clinical psychiatry and review how clinical practice, education and research in psychiatry are expected to change in this emerging digital world. PMID:15558872

  3. Psychiatry in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Il; Oh, Keun-Young; Chung, Young-Chul

    2013-04-01

    This paper reports the current status of Korean psychiatry. In 2011, there were 3005 psychiatrists and 75,000 psychiatric beds. There were 84 psychiatric residency-training hospitals in 2011, which produced about 150 psychiatry board-certified doctors annually. As for academic activity, there is the Korean Neuropsychiatric Association, a main association for neuropsychiatry, and 21 other research societies. Psychiatric residency is a 4-year training program, with different objectives for each grade. The Korean health system accepts National Health Insurance. When severely mentally ill patients register as having a mental disorder, they pay only 10% of their total medical costs. Private clinics usually see patients with less severe conditions such as anxiety, mood and eating disorders; general and university hospitals and special mental hospitals often deal with severe conditions such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. One great concern is an increasing trend to depend upon pharmacotherapy and neglect the role of psychotherapy. Additionally, conflicts among medical sectors are becoming fierce as other doctors request abolition of the current law that restricts them from prescribing anti-depressants for more than 60 days. The average hospitalization period of all mental care institutions was 166 days in 2010, substantially longer compared with developed countries. To win the heart of the general public, cutting edge research to improve the quality of treatment for mental diseases, reformation of psychiatric residency training programs, public campaigns to increase awareness of mental health value, and timely reflection on policy decisions should be pursued persistently. PMID:23466121

  4. Brain imaging in psychiatry

    SciTech Connect

    Morihisa, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    This book contains the following five chapters: Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in Psychiatry; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF) in Psychiatry: Methodological Issues; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Psychiatry: Application to Clinical Research; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Psychiatry: The Resting and Activated Brains of Schizophrenic Patients; and Brain Electrical Activity Mapping (BEAM) in Psychiatry.

  5. Computational psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Jing; Krystal, John H

    2014-11-01

    Psychiatric disorders such as autism and schizophrenia, arise from abnormalities in brain systems that underlie cognitive, emotional, and social functions. The brain is enormously complex and its abundant feedback loops on multiple scales preclude intuitive explication of circuit functions. In close interplay with experiments, theory and computational modeling are essential for understanding how, precisely, neural circuits generate flexible behaviors and their impairments give rise to psychiatric symptoms. This Perspective highlights recent progress in applying computational neuroscience to the study of mental disorders. We outline basic approaches, including identification of core deficits that cut across disease categories, biologically realistic modeling bridging cellular and synaptic mechanisms with behavior, and model-aided diagnosis. The need for new research strategies in psychiatry is urgent. Computational psychiatry potentially provides powerful tools for elucidating pathophysiology that may inform both diagnosis and treatment. To achieve this promise will require investment in cross-disciplinary training and research in this nascent field. PMID:25442941

  6. Computational Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Jing; Krystal, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders such as autism and schizophrenia arise from abnormalities in brain systems that underlie cognitive, emotional and social functions. The brain is enormously complex and its abundant feedback loops on multiple scales preclude intuitive explication of circuit functions. In close interplay with experiments, theory and computational modeling are essential for understanding how, precisely, neural circuits generate flexible behaviors and their impairments give rise to psychiatric symptoms. This Perspective highlights recent progress in applying computational neuroscience to the study of mental disorders. We outline basic approaches, including identification of core deficits that cut across disease categories, biologically-realistic modeling bridging cellular and synaptic mechanisms with behavior, model-aided diagnosis. The need for new research strategies in psychiatry is urgent. Computational psychiatry potentially provides powerful tools for elucidating pathophysiology that may inform both diagnosis and treatment. To achieve this promise will require investment in cross-disciplinary training and research in this nascent field. PMID:25442941

  7. Do regulated resident working hours affect medical graduate education? Trends in the American psychiatry board pass rates pre- and post-2003 duty hours regulations.

    PubMed

    Jain, Gaurav; Dzara, Kristina; Mazhar, Mir Nadeem; Punwani, Manisha

    2014-12-01

    Aims and method To assess trends of the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology examination pass rates before and after the 2003 duty hours regulations (DHR). We obtained the pass rates for part I and II for years 2000-2010. Data were divided pre-DHR (2000-2003) and post-DHR (2007-2010). Results During the pre-DHR period, first- and multiple-attempt group pass rates were 80.7% and 39.0% which changed in the post-DHR period to 89.7% and 39.1% respectively. Similarly for the part II exam, the pre-DHR first- and multiple-attempt group pass rates were 60.2% and 43.5% respectively, which increased to 78.7% and 53.8%, among the post-DHR group. Overall, there was a significant increase in the first-attempt candidates pass rates for parts I and II, whereas multiple-attempt candidates did not benefit as strongly. Clinical implications The results suggest that the 2003 DHR may have had a positive impact on examination-based medical knowledge in psychiatry. PMID:25505632

  8. [Children and adolescents at risk. A Study by the Child Psychiatry Department of Armand Trousseau hospital in Paris].

    PubMed

    Messerschmitt, P; Bohu, D; Charritat, J L

    2004-03-01

    Along the 12 months of 2002, our Child Psychiatry Department received 109 young patients "at risk", under 17 years old. A detailed study of 103 files evaluates the danger they ran in three fields, suicide, abuse and neglect, and psychiatric pathology. With an original "danger scale", the multidisciplinary team completes three assessments: the danger before hospitalisation (background), the present professional action (diagnosis, care, police and justice connections...), estimation of the risk after treatment. In most cases, patients situations are severe, they have lasted for a long time (more than 6 months), and they were already taken on charge. The hospital psychiatric intervention, even for a short time, means to us to interfere whatever the proceedings: medical care, institutions, justice... PMID:14992779

  9. He Said What? Guided Cognitive Reframing About the Co-resident Father/Stepfather-adolescent Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Cookston, Jeffrey T.; Olide, Andres; Parke, Ross D.; Fabricius, William V.; Saenz, Delia; Braver, Sanford L.

    2014-01-01

    We studied young adolescents’ seeking out support to understand conflict with their co-resident fathers/stepfathers and the cognitive and affective implications of such support-seeking, phenomena we call guided cognitive reframing. Our sample included 392 adolescents (Mage = 12.5, 52.3% female) who were either of Mexican or European ancestry and lived with their biological mothers and either a stepfather or a biological father. More frequent reframing was associated with more adaptive cognitive explanations for father/stepfather behavior. Cognitions explained the link between seeking out and feelings about the father/stepfather and self. Feelings about the self were more strongly linked to depressive symptoms than cognitions. We discuss the implications for future research on social support, coping, guided cognitive reframing, and father-child relationships. PMID:26085780

  10. Gateway Polydrug Use among Puerto Rican and Dominican Adolescents Residing in New York City: The Moderating Role of Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Jennifer A.; Botvin, Gilbert J.; Diaz, Tracy

    2002-01-01

    Examines polydrug use among adolescents residing in an inner-city region by Hispanic ethnicity (Puerto Rican versus Dominican) and gender. Results indicate that in the first year of middle school, gender moderated the effect of Hispanic ethnicity on lifetime polydrug use. Concludes that both Hispanic ethnicity and gender mattered in determining…

  11. [Sleep psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Chiba, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disorders are serious issues in modern society. There has been marked scientific interest in sleep for a century, with the discoveries of the electrical activity of the brain (EEG), sleep-wake system, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and circadian rhythm system. Additionally, the advent of video-polysomnography in clinical research has revealed some of the consequences of disrupted sleep and sleep deprivation in psychiatric disorders. Decades of clinical research have demonstrated that sleep disorders are intimately tied to not only physical disease (e. g., lifestyle-related disease) but psychiatric illness. According to The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (2005), sleep disorders are classified into 8 major categories: 1) insomnia, 2) sleep-related breathing disorders, 3) hypersomnias of central origin, 4) circadian rhythm sleep disorders, 5) parasomnias, 6) sleep-related movement disorders, 7) isolated symptoms, and 8) other sleep disorders. Several sleep disorders, including obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder, sleepwalking, REM sleep behavior disorder, and narcolepsy, may be comorbid or possibly mimic numerous psychiatric disorders, and can even occur due to psychiatric pharmacotherapy. Moreover, sleep disorders may exacerbate underlying psychiatric disorders when left untreated. Therefore, psychiatrists should pay attention to the intimate relationship between sleep disorders and psychiatric symptoms. Sleep psychiatry is an academic field focusing on interrelations between sleep medicine and psychiatry. This mini-review summarizes recent findings in sleep psychiatry. Future research on the bidirectional relation between sleep disturbance and psychiatric symptoms will shed light on the pathophysiological view of psychiatric disorders and sleep disorders. PMID:24050022

  12. The World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for the treatment of adolescent sexual offenders with paraphilic disorders.

    PubMed

    Thibaut, Florence; Bradford, John M W; Briken, Peer; De La Barra, Flora; Häßler, Frank; Cosyns, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of these guidelines was to evaluate the role of pharmacological agents in the treatment of adolescents with paraphilic disorders who are also sexual offenders or at-risk of sexual offending. Psychotherapeutic and psychosocial treatments were also reviewed. Adolescents with paraphilic disorders specifically present a different therapeutic challenge as compared to adults. In part, the challenge relates to adolescents being in various stages of puberty and development, which may limit the use of certain pharmacological agents due to their potential side effects. In addition, most of the published treatment programmes have used cognitive behavioural interventions, family therapies and psychoeducational interventions. Psychological treatment is predicated in adolescents on the notion that sexually deviant behaviour can be controlled by the offender, and that more adaptive behaviours can be learned. The main purposes of these guidelines are to improve the quality of care and to aid physicians in their clinical decisions. These guidelines brought together different expert views and involved an extensive literature research. Each treatment recommendation was evaluated and discussed with respect to the strength of evidence for efficacy, safety, tolerability and feasibility. An algorithm is proposed for the treatment of paraphilic disorders in adolescent sexual offenders or those who are at risk. PMID:26595752

  13. The World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for the treatment of adolescent sexual offenders with paraphilic disorders

    PubMed Central

    Thibaut, Florence; Bradford, John M. W.; Briken, Peer; De La Barra, Flora; Häßler, Frank; Cosyns, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The primary aim of these guidelines was to evaluate the role of pharmacological agents in the treatment of adolescents with paraphilic disorders who are also sexual offenders or at-risk of sexual offending. Psychotherapeutic and psychosocial treatments were also reviewed. Adolescents with paraphilic disorders specifically present a different therapeutic challenge as compared to adults. In part, the challenge relates to adolescents being in various stages of puberty and development, which may limit the use of certain pharmacological agents due to their potential side effects. In addition, most of the published treatment programmes have used cognitive behavioural interventions, family therapies and psychoeducational interventions. Psychological treatment is predicated in adolescents on the notion that sexually deviant behaviour can be controlled by the offender, and that more adaptive behaviours can be learned. The main purposes of these guidelines are to improve the quality of care and to aid physicians in their clinical decisions. These guidelines brought together different expert views and involved an extensive literature research. Each treatment recommendation was evaluated and discussed with respect to the strength of evidence for efficacy, safety, tolerability and feasibility. An algorithm is proposed for the treatment of paraphilic disorders in adolescent sexual offenders or those who are at risk. PMID:26595752

  14. [Social psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Miéville, C

    1978-01-01

    The author attempts an analysis of some of the socio-cultural elements which have marked the birth of (modern?) psychiatry and which have consequently influenced the education, identity and ethical values of the practitioner who choses to become a psychiatrist. The author draws attention to the problem of the psychiatrist's autonomy by stressing the important relationship between autonomy (or lack of autonomy) and the dominant political ideologies. Such relationship appears more clearly when the psychiatrist uncritically accepts to become "the psychiatric expert" in criminal and civil law, suicide, sex, death, etc., in other words, whenever accepting the role of "managerial technician". It is evident that the psychiatrist cannot renounce the social responsibilities which fall upon him because of his understanding and analysis of human behaviour, but it is also evident that a redefinition of the psychiatrist's role in society is called for. Such a re-definition will be possible only by the permanent exercise of self-criticism, honesty towards oneself, moral integrity and the capacity to differentiate between true autonomy and the illusion of autonomy when operating in the name of an official psychiatry which is often also a vehicle for the enforcement of a political ideology. PMID:694456

  15. Computational psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Montague, P. Read; Dolan, Raymond J.; Friston, Karl J.; Dayan, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Computational ideas pervade many areas of science and have an integrative explanatory role in neuroscience and cognitive science. However, computational depictions of cognitive function have had surprisingly little impact on the way we assess mental illness because diseases of the mind have not been systematically conceptualized in computational terms. Here, we outline goals and nascent efforts in the new field of computational psychiatry, which seeks to characterize mental dysfunction in terms of aberrant computations over multiple scales. We highlight early efforts in this area that employ reinforcement learning and game theoretic frameworks to elucidate decision-making in health and disease. Looking forwards, we emphasize a need for theory development and large-scale computational phenotyping in human subjects. PMID:22177032

  16. Child Psychiatry: What Are We Teaching Medical Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingle, Arden D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The author describes child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) undergraduate teaching in American and Canadian medical schools. Methods: A survey asking for information on CAP teaching, student interest in CAP, and opinions about the CAP importance was sent to the medical student psychiatry director at 142 accredited medical schools in the…

  17. [Aesthetic/Plastic Surgery in Children as Seen from the Perspective of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    Kölch, M; Izat, Y

    2015-12-01

    Physical deformities may cause psychological stress and lead to psychological disorders in children and adolescents. On the other hand, the correction of non-pathological conditions is a legal issue in patients unable to consent, a group that is partly made up of minors. This article provides an overview on available evidence on the psychological consequences of physical deformities, psychiatric contraindications for plastic surgery due to psychological disorders, and on the issue of minors' ability to consent. PMID:26562008

  18. Alcohol consumption and binge drinking in adolescents: comparison of different migration backgrounds and rural vs. urban residence - a representative study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    descent (23.6% vs. 57.4%). However, in those adolescents who consumed alcohol in the last 4 weeks, binge drinking is very prominent across the cultural backgrounds. Conclusions Binge drinking is a common problem behavior in German adolescents. Obviously adolescents with rural residence have fewer alternatives for engaging in interesting leisure activities than adolescents living in cities. This might be one reason for the more problematic consumption patterns there. Common expectations concerning drinking behavior of adolescents of certain cultural backgrounds ('migrants with Russian background drink more'/'migrants from Arabic respectively Oriental-Islamic countries drink less') are only partly affirmed. Possibly, the degree of acculturation to the permissive German alcohol culture plays a role here. PMID:21299841

  19. Society for Women in Academic Psychiatry: A Peer Mentoring Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seritan, Andreea L.; Bhangoo, Robinder; Garma, Sylvia; DuBe, Jane; Hales, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Despite an increasing presence of women in medicine, the percentage of women in academic psychiatry remains low. At the University of California, Davis, women represent two-thirds of psychiatry residents; however, the percentage of female faculty is one-third. This article presents a novel approach to the academic gender gap problem.…

  20. Therapeutic Uses of the WebCam in Child Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chlebowski, Susan; Fremont, Wanda

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors provide examples for the use of the WebCam as a therapeutic tool in child psychiatry, discussing cases to demonstrate the application of the WebCam, which is most often used in psychiatry training programs during resident supervision and for case presentations. Method: Six cases illustrate the use of the WebCam in individual…

  1. Using the Technique of Journal Writing to Learn Emergency Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhuvaneswar, Chaya; Stern, Theodore; Beresin, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors discuss journal writing in learning emergency psychiatry. Methods: The journal of a psychiatry intern rotating through an emergency department is used as sample material for analysis that could take place in supervision or a resident support group. A range of articles are reviewed that illuminate the relevance of journal…

  2. Improving Recruitment and Funding in Psychiatry by Teaching College Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braslow, Kenneth J.; Feeney, Daniel J.; Elliott, Glen R.; Matthews, Kenneth L.; Bush, Anneke C.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore attitudes among leaders in psychiatric training about the usefulness of teaching college undergraduates about psychiatry and to assess benefits in recruitment and funding. Method: A survey of current practices and beliefs was sent to most adult and child psychiatry residency training directors (RTDs) and Chairs of academic…

  3. Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) for Alcohol and Other Drug Use among Adolescents: Evaluation of a Pediatric Residency Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Sheryl A.; Martel, Shara; Pantalon, Michael; Martino, Steve; Tetrault, Jeanette; Thung, Stephen F.; Bernstein, Steven L.; Auinger, Peggy; Green, Michael L.; Fiellin, David A.; O'Connor, Patrick G.; D'Onofrio, Gail

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the integration of a screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) curriculum for alcohol and other drug use into a pediatric residency program. Pediatric and medicine/pediatric residents in an adolescent medicine rotation located in an urban teaching hospital participated in the…

  4. Forensic psychiatry in Chile.

    PubMed

    St Denis, Emily E; Sepúlveda, Enrique; Téllez, Carlos; Arboleda-Flórez, Julio; Stuart, Heather; Lam, Miu

    2012-01-01

    Mental disorders are among the most prevalent of chronic disorders, and a high prevalence of these disorders has been consistently found in jails and prisons. This study was a retrospective case series that described the population of adults charged with a criminal offense who were court ordered to undergo a psychiatric assessment within the Medical Legal Service in Santiago, Chile from 2005 to 2006. Characteristics were explored in order to better understand this population in light of the recent reforms in the judicial and health systems of Chile. Ninety percent of sampled individuals were male, primarily between the ages of 18-39 years. Seventy percent of the evaluations came from the pre-reformed judicial system and 30% were from the reformed system. Approximately 63% of evaluated offenders were considered to have a psychiatric pathology, the most common being the personality disorders. Of the evaluated offenders, approximately 84% were considered by a psychiatrist to be criminally responsible for their crime, 7% were regarded as having diminished criminal responsibility, 4% were considered to be not criminally responsible for their crime, and 4% were cases where criminal responsibility was not applicable. Profession status, municipality of residence, type of residence, ICD-10 diagnosis, treatment recommendation, and criminal responsibility were found to be significantly different between male and female evaluated offenders. Results from this investigation will contribute to knowledge about forensic psychiatry and mental health in Latin America, and will hopefully pave the way for more research and international comparisons. PMID:23102739

  5. Practice parameters for the assessment and treatment of children, adolescents, and adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Dulcan, M

    1997-10-01

    These practice parameters review the literature on children, adolescents, and adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). There are three types of ADHD: predominantly inattentive, predominantly hyperactive-impulsive, and combined. Together, they occur in as many as 10% of boys and 5% of girls of elementary school age. Prevalence declines with age, although up to 65% of hyperactive children are still symptomatic as adults. Frequency in adults is estimated to be 2% to 7%. Assessment includes clinical interviews and standardized rating scales from parents and teachers. Testing of intelligence and academic achievement usually are required. Comorbidity is common. The cornerstones of treatment are support and education of parents, appropriate school placement, and pharmacology. The primary medications are psychostimulants, but antidepressants and alpha-adrenergic agonists are used in special circumstances. Other treatments such as behavior modification, school consultation, family therapy, and group therapy address remaining symptoms. PMID:9334567

  6. Factors Influencing Expectations of Physical Activity for Adolescents Residing in Appalachia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, Rebecca L.; Nabors, Laura; King, Keith; Vidourek, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Background: Appalachian adolescents are at an increased risk for sedentary behavior; little research has addressed this concern. Purpose: This study examined adolescents' expectations for engaging in physical activity (PA), chiefly expectations for relaxation and fitness. Independent variables were self-efficacy expectations (SEEs) to…

  7. What Do We Teach Psychiatric Residents about Suicide? A National Survey of Chief Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, Bengi B.; Coverdale, John H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Because of the clinical significance of patient suicide for trainees and current limited information on this essential educational subject, the authors sought to determine what topics involving the care of suicidal patients were taught to residents in psychiatry training programs. Methods: Chief residents of psychiatry training programs…

  8. [(Community) psychiatry, a parenthesis?].

    PubMed

    Bucheron, Bastien

    2015-01-01

    Beyond an a priori antagonism between these two notions, alienism and mental health cultivate analogies as to the place to which they assign mental health. Is community psychiatry not therefore simply a parenthesis in the history of psychiatry? The question is raised therefore regarding the place given to subjectivity and complexity. What must be done to ensure that this parenthesis of community psychiatry does not close? It is perhaps a case of making use of the tools which institutional psychotherapy has developed to keep the community psychiatry spirit alive. PMID:26564487

  9. Adolescent Pornography Use and Dating Violence among a Sample of Primarily Black and Hispanic, Urban-Residing, Underage Youth

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, Emily F.; Adhia, Avanti

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was designed to characterize the pornography viewing preferences of a sample of U.S.-based, urban-residing, economically disadvantaged, primarily Black and Hispanic youth (n = 72), and to assess whether pornography use was associated with experiences of adolescent dating abuse (ADA) victimization. The sample was recruited from a large, urban, safety net hospital, and participants were 53% female, 59% Black, 19% Hispanic, 14% Other race, 6% White, and 1% Native American. All were 16–17 years old. More than half (51%) had been asked to watch pornography together by a dating or sexual partner, and 44% had been asked to do something sexual that a partner saw in pornography. Adolescent dating abuse (ADA) victimization was associated with more frequent pornography use, viewing pornography in the company of others, being asked to perform a sexual act that a partner first saw in pornography, and watching pornography during or after marijuana use. Approximately 50% of ADA victims and 32% of non-victims reported that they had been asked to do a sexual act that their partner saw in pornography (p = 0.15), and 58% did not feel happy to have been asked. Results suggest that weekly pornography use among underage, urban-residing youth may be common, and may be associated with ADA victimization. PMID:26703744

  10. Adolescent Pornography Use and Dating Violence among a Sample of Primarily Black and Hispanic, Urban-Residing, Underage Youth.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Emily F; Adhia, Avanti

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was designed to characterize the pornography viewing preferences of a sample of U.S.-based, urban-residing, economically disadvantaged, primarily Black and Hispanic youth (n = 72), and to assess whether pornography use was associated with experiences of adolescent dating abuse (ADA) victimization. The sample was recruited from a large, urban, safety net hospital, and participants were 53% female, 59% Black, 19% Hispanic, 14% Other race, 6% White, and 1% Native American. All were 16-17 years old. More than half (51%) had been asked to watch pornography together by a dating or sexual partner, and 44% had been asked to do something sexual that a partner saw in pornography. Adolescent dating abuse (ADA) victimization was associated with more frequent pornography use, viewing pornography in the company of others, being asked to perform a sexual act that a partner first saw in pornography, and watching pornography during or after marijuana use. Approximately 50% of ADA victims and 32% of non-victims reported that they had been asked to do a sexual act that their partner saw in pornography (p = 0.15), and 58% did not feel happy to have been asked. Results suggest that weekly pornography use among underage, urban-residing youth may be common, and may be associated with ADA victimization. PMID:26703744

  11. Space Psychology and Psychiatry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanas, N.; Manzey, D.

    2003-09-01

    This book deals with psychological, psychiatric, and psychosocial issues that affect people who live and work in space. Unlike other books that focus on anecdotal reports and ground-based simulation studies, this book emphasizes the findings from psychological research conducted during actual space missions. Both authors have been active in such research. What is presented in this readable text has previously been found only in scientific journal articles. Topics that are discussed include: behavioral adaptation to space; human performance and cognitive effects; crewmember interactions; psychiatric responses; psychological counter-measures related to habitability factors, work-design, selection, training, and in-flight monitoring and support; and the impact of expeditionary missions to Mars and beyond. People finding this book of interest will include: psychology and social science students and professors in universities; medical students and residents in psychiatry and aerospace medicine; human factors workers in space and aviation professions; individuals involved with isolated environments on Earth (e.g., the Antarctic, submarines); aerospace workers in businesses and space agencies such as NASA and ESA; and anyone who is interested in learning the facts about the human side of long-duration space missions. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1341-8

  12. Internal exposure to pollutants measured in blood and urine of Flemish adolescents in function of area of residence.

    PubMed

    Schroijen, C; Baeyens, W; Schoeters, G; Den Hond, E; Koppen, G; Bruckers, L; Nelen, V; Van De Mieroop, E; Bilau, M; Covaci, A; Keune, H; Loots, I; Kleinjans, J; Dhooge, W; Van Larebeke, N

    2008-04-01

    The Centre for Environment and Health in Flanders, the Northern part of Belgium, started a biomonitoring program on adolescents in 2003. 1679 adolescents residing in nine areas with different patterns of pollution participated in the study. Possible confounding effects of lifestyle and personal characteristics were taken into account. The geometric mean levels of cadmium and lead in whole blood amounted to 0.36 and 21.7 microg l(-1), those of PCBs, DDE and HCB in serum to 68, 94 and 20.9 ng g(-1) fat, and those of 1-hydroxypyrene and t,t'-muconic acid in urine to 88 ng g(-1) creatinine and 72 microg g(-1) creatinine. Significant regional differences in internal lead, cadmium, PCBs, DDE and HCB exposure were observed in function of area of residence, even after adjustment for age, sex, smoking (and body mass index for the chlorinated compounds). Compared to a reference mean, internal exposure was significantly higher in one or more of the areas: Cd and Pb in the Antwerp agglomeration, Cd in the Antwerp harbour, PCBs in the Ghent agglomeration, PCBs, DDE and HCB in the Ghent harbour, Cd, PCBs, DDE and HCB in the rural area, DDE in Olen and in the Albert canal areas. Adolescents living in an area with intensive fruit cultivation (showing overall the lowest values) and, surprisingly, in areas around household waste incinerators (average of six areas), had no significantly increased internal exposures. Subjects from separate areas around waste incinerators showed significant differences in body load of various environmental contaminants. PMID:18221770

  13. [The indicators of local immunity of pharynx in adolescents with chronic pathology of upper respiratory ways residing in conditions of anthropogenic load].

    PubMed

    Masnavieva, L B; Nesmeianova, N N; Kudaeva, I V; Tikhonova, I V

    2014-10-01

    The indicators of local immunity of pharynx in adolescents with chronic pathology of upper respiratory ways residing in conditions of higher level pollution of atmosphere air. It is established that under development of pathology against the background of impact of environmental factors increasing of levels of secretory immune globulin A and lactoferrin occur. It is established too that under chronic pathology of upper respiratory ways at the stage of remission in adolescents residing in conditions of higher level pollution ofatmosphere air inter-dependencies between factors of local defense (secretory immune globulin A and lysozyme) and aggregate microbial germination are damaged. PMID:25884077

  14. Foundations of Child Psychiatry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Emanuel, Ed.; And Others

    Twenty-eight papers examine basic theories and clinical methods in child psychiatry. Theories and methods discussed concern child psychiatry and the World Health Organization, pediatrics, child disturbances, observation, the psychodiagnostic approach, longitudinal research in child development, the comparative approach to early child development,…

  15. Gender differences in career paths in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Krener, P

    1994-03-01

    Although psychiatry has one of the highest proportions of women entering its residency programs, women have not assumed a proportionate amount of academic or research leadership positions in the field. This literature review identifies three general groups of models that explain disparities between men's and women's careers, but these do not fully account for observed differences in psychiatric practice and academic progression of women in psychiatry. Gender differences in career paths in psychiatry are not only affected by individual traits and choices, but also by economic factors. Theories based on organizational discrimination, and systems and market factors are also reviewed. No single explanatory model accounts for disparities between the careers of men and those of women. Because psychiatric practice patterns may be broadly distributed across labor sectors, more diverse career patterns are possible in psychiatry than in more constrained and traditional fields. Research on gender differences in psychiatry careers must consider not only the individual work style and choice, but also the position of individuals within the organization and the position of those organizations across the labor market. PMID:24435498

  16. Juvenile offences among hospitalized adolescent inhalant users in Istanbul: a comparison regarding place of residence.

    PubMed

    Ogel, Kültegin; Taner, Sevil; Tosun, Musa; Liman, Olcay; Demir, Turkay

    2006-09-01

    In this research, juvenile offenses and associated behaviors among adolescent inhalant users in Istanbul were investigated and inhalant users living in the street were compared to inhalant users living with their families. An interview questionnaire developed by the researchers was administered to 200 male adolescent inhalant users who were hospitalized during 2002-2003. More than half of the sample had committed juvenile offenses at least once in their lifetime, 16.3% had entered a house of corrections, 91.5% had friends who committed juvenile offenses, and the majority had been taken to a police station at least once in their lifetime. The rates for juvenile offenses, being taken to the police station, committing crimes to obtain money to buy drugs, and obtaining income through illegal activities were higher among adolescents living in the street than adolescents living with their families. Although the juvenile offense rate was higher among adolescents living in the street, it can be suggested that both groups live in subcultures that have a tendency towards crime, and inhalant use is part of these subcultures. Juvenile offense interventions can be useful for all inhalant users. PMID:17165372

  17. Race and Gender Differences in Theories of Sexual Behavior Among Rural Adolescents Residing in AFDC Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benda, Brent B.; Corwyn, Robert Flynn

    1998-01-01

    Adolescents (n=414) living with rural Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) families were studied to determine predictors of sexual behavior in blacks and whites. Sex- and age-related differences were noted. The role of family support, welfare, and feelings of frustration were studied along with other variables. (Author/MMU)

  18. Sexual Education for Psychiatric Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Stephen B.; Scott, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors seek to promote sexuality curriculum development in departments of psychiatry. Methods: The authors first focus on educational philosophy about what residents can be taught about sexual topics and then provide numerical and narrative resident evaluation data following a 6-month, half day per week rotation in a sexuality…

  19. Teaching Psychiatric Residents about Women and Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Jeanne L.; Mazure, Carolyn; Siggins, Lorraine D.; Waxman, Merle; Jacobs, Selby C.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this project was to develop a seminar on women as leaders within an academic department of psychiatry and to evaluate its effectiveness. Methods: A seminar was offered as an elective to all residents within the Yale University Department of Psychiatry. Didactic presentations and open discussion were structured around the…

  20. Historicizing Indian psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Basu, Amit Ranjan

    2005-04-01

    Our historical endeavour to map Indian psychiatry has largely remained linear, positivistic and evolutionary. Whether it starts from the ancient times or modern, it shows our past as a tale of victory for the western science, without questioning the borrowed paradigm. The use of historical methods for serious enquiry of psychiatry has been ignored. Emergence of a new genre of historicism that is critical of both colonialism and psychiatry as a universal science, has raised hopes to critically review the emergence of psychiatric knowledge. PMID:20711299

  1. Historicizing Indian psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Amit Ranjan

    2005-01-01

    Our historical endeavour to map Indian psychiatry has largely remained linear, positivistic and evolutionary. Whether it starts from the ancient times or modern, it shows our past as a tale of victory for the western science, without questioning the borrowed paradigm. The use of historical methods for serious enquiry of psychiatry has been ignored. Emergence of a new genre of historicism that is critical of both colonialism and psychiatry as a universal science, has raised hopes to critically review the emergence of psychiatric knowledge. PMID:20711299

  2. AACAP 2005 Research Forum: Speeding the Adoption of Evidence-Based Practice in Pediatric Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, John S.; Szatmari, Peter; Bukstein, Oscar; Chrisman, Allan; Kondo, Douglas; Hamilton, John D.; Kremer, Charlotte M. E.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: At the 2005 Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP), the Academy's Workgroup on Research conducted a Research Forum entitled "Increasing Research Literacy Through the Adoption of Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) in Pediatric Psychiatry." Method: Forum participants focused on speeding the adoption…

  3. Women in academic psychiatry in Canada.

    PubMed

    Penfold, P S

    1987-11-01

    A comparison of numbers of women psychiatrists with faculty appointments and women residents in Departments of Psychiatry in Canada in 1975 and 1985 showed that the average percentage of women faculty has increased from 11.4% to 14.3% and of women residents from 23.5% to 43.4%. Some departments appeared to be oblivious to the special educational role of women faculty and had not discussed the discrepancy between the numbers of faculty and residents. Only two departments were actively recruiting women faculty. The study also demonstrated a continued concentration of women in the lower ranks. Barriers to recruiting women faculty include lack of academic role models, job advertising not specifically designed to attract women candidates, rigid requirements for appointments, women's lack of access to male corridors of power, pervasive underlying doubts about women's abilities and competence based on cultural stereotypes, female socialization which does not lend itself readily to roles of authority, assertiveness and leadership, and the role strain that ensues when women psychiatrists try to combine career, marriage and motherhood. If women psychiatrists are to fill some of the positions in Departments of Psychiatry, which will fall vacant over the next decade, much more attention must be paid to eliminating or diminishing the multiple obstacles for women who chose a career in academic psychiatry. PMID:3690482

  4. Do the Personalities of International and U.S. Medical Graduates in Psychiatry Differ? A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaidya, Nutan; Sierles, Frederick S.; Sandu, Ioana C.; Silberman, Edward K.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To compare personality traits of psychiatry residents with various characteristics. Method: The authors administered Cloninger's personality inventory to residents at two schools. Results: There were no trait differences between international medical graduates (IMGs) and U.S. medical graduates (USMGs) or those for whom psychiatry was a…

  5. Genetics in psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Umesh, Shreekantiah; Nizamie, Shamshul Haque

    2014-01-01

    Today, psychiatrists are focusing on genetics aspects of various psychiatric disorders not only for a future classification of psychiatric disorders but also a notion that genetics would aid in the development of new medications to treat these disabling illnesses. This review therefore emphasizes on the basics of genetics in psychiatry as well as focuses on the emerging picture of genetics in psychiatry and their future implications. PMID:25400339

  6. [Psychiatry in multiplicity].

    PubMed

    Vijselaar, Joost; Abma, Ruud

    2010-01-01

    According to a widespread interpretation, the history of psychiatry is characterized by a strong opposition between biological and psychological paradigms, which would dominate consecutive periods in history. The image of a swinging pendulum is a popular metaphor to describe this idea. The culture of Dutch psychiatry in the interwar years (1918-1940) seems to gainsay this image. Psychological, biological and socials models of explanation and therapy were used alongside each other without apparent debate and conflict. Influential professors of psychiatry like H.C. Rümke (Utrecht University) even pleaded for a conscious integration of these approaches. Some historians have interpreted this stance as a sign of scientific 'vagueness' and 'anarchy'. Analyzing the work of three major representatives of Dutch psychiatry in the Interbellum (Leendert Bouman, Han Rümke and Lammert van der Horst), the authors (former students of the master Historical and Comparative Studies of the Sciences and the Humanities) shed light on the psychiatric climate of this era, dealing with themes like the openness of psychiatry to other sciences, the interactions of psychiatry and literature, and the relationship between theory and clinical practice. As a result a further qualification of the image of the pendulum is argued for. PMID:22586809

  7. The association between Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and Psychiatry as the specialty choice

    PubMed Central

    Richard, George; Durkin, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this pilot study is to examine the association between Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and prospective psychiatry residents. Methods Forty-six American medical schools were contacted and asked to participate in this study. Data were collected and an aggregated list was compiled that included the following information: date of MBTI administration, academic year, MBTI form/version, residency match information and student demographic information. The data includes 835 American medical students who completed the MBTI survey and matched into a residency training program in the United States. All analyses were performed using R 3.1.2. Results The probability of an introvert matching to a psychiatry residency is no different than that of an extravert (p= 0.30). The probability of an intuitive individual matching to a psychiatry residency is no different than that of a sensing type (p=0.20). The probability of a feeling type matching to a psychiatry residency is no different than that of a thinking type (p= 0.50). The probability of a perceiving type matching to a psychiatry residency is no different than that of a judging type (p= 0.60). Conclusions Further analyses may elicit more accurate information regarding the personality profile of prospective psychiatry residents. The improvement in communication, team dynamics, mentor-mentee relationships and reduction in workplace conflicts are possible with the awareness of MBTI personality profiles. PMID:26851600

  8. Resident and parental perceptions of adolescent problems and family communications in a low socioeconomic population.

    PubMed

    Hawley, L E; Shear, C L; Stark, A M; Goodman, P R

    1984-11-01

    This cross-sectional survey of a low socioeconomic patient group was designed to determine the prevalence and severity of parentally perceived behavioral problems in adolescents as well as to investigate the correlation between such problems and single parenting, family communications, and medical care delivered. The sample population consisted of 79 parents and 121 teenagers selected from a family practice center. The medical record and telephone interview were the sources of information. Results include a parental perception of a high prevalence of problems with school grades (48 percent), school attendance (38 percent), and household problems (chores and sibling rivalry). Of low prevalence but high severity were perceived problems related to suicidal ideation, running away, sexual activity, and gang membership. Single-parent homes had a threefold higher incidence of behavioral problems, a greater degree of communication, and a lower use of community resources than two-parent families. None of the approximately 400 perceived behavioral problems listed by parents was found in the family physicians' master problem list. The results indicate the need for physician education of low socioeconomic and single-parent patients with regard to communication and coping style. In addition, it appears that training programs should provide more education in the care of adolescents. PMID:6491630

  9. Clinical Skills Verification in General Psychiatry: Recommendations of the ABPN Task Force on Rater Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jibson, Michael D.; Broquet, Karen E.; Anzia, Joan Meyer; Beresin, Eugene V.; Hunt, Jeffrey I.; Kaye, David; Rao, Nyapati Raghu; Rostain, Anthony Leon; Sexson, Sandra B.; Summers, Richard F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN) announced in 2007 that general psychiatry training programs must conduct Clinical Skills Verification (CSV), consisting of observed clinical interviews and case presentations during residency, as one requirement to establish graduates' eligibility to sit for the written certification…

  10. Psychiatry and Emergency Medicine: Medical Student and Physician Attitudes toward Homeless Persons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Ann; Roman, Brenda; Borges, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to explore changes in medical students' attitudes toward homeless persons during the Psychiatry and Emergency Medicine clerkships. Simultaneously, this study explored attitudes toward homeless persons held by Psychiatry and Emergency Medicine residents and faculty in an attempt to uncover the "hidden…

  11. Teaching Evidence-Based Psychiatry: Integrating and Aligning the Formal and Hidden Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agrawal, Sacha; Szatmari, Peter; Hanson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors argue that adopting evidence-based psychiatry will require a paradigm shift in the training of psychiatry residents, and offer some suggestions for how this transformation might be achieved. Methods: The authors review the growing literature that addresses how best to teach evidence-based medicine and highlight several…

  12. Sexual Health Education: A Psychiatric Resident's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waineo, Eva; Arfken, Cynthia L.; Morreale, Mary K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This report discusses psychiatric residents' perceptions of sexual health education and their opinions regarding curricular improvements. Methods: An anonymous, web-based survey was sent to residents in one general psychiatry program (N = 33). The response rate was 69.7%. Results: Residents reported inadequate experience in multiple…

  13. Forensic psychiatry fellowship training: developmental stages as an educational framework.

    PubMed

    Pinals, Debra A

    2005-01-01

    As an official subspecialty of psychiatry, forensic psychiatry residency training must meet the requirements established by the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education. Attendant to these requirements is the expectation that graduates demonstrate core competencies in general areas common to all medical training programs but delineated for each specialty. In forensic psychiatry, trainees must learn to move from the role of healer to objective evaluator on behalf of third parties, a task that differs from general medical care and treatment. Thus, it is important for educators to maintain awareness of the experience of trainees as they adapt to forensic psychiatry, while understanding core competency requirements. This article outlines stages of development of forensic psychiatry fellows as a model for characterizing learning objectives and for supervising trainees in forensic psychiatry fellowship programs. These stages of development include (1) transformation, (2) growth of confidence and adaptation, and (3) identification and realization. Training directors and trainees can utilize this theoretical framework as a basis on which to establish parameters for core competency attainment and supervisory and assessment methods for forensic psychiatry training. PMID:16186194

  14. Use of Dialectical Behavior Therapy in Borderline Personality Disorder: A View from Residency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Binali; Dunlop, Boadie W.; Ninan, Philip T.; Bradley, Rebekah

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe the use of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) in treating borderline personality disorder during psychiatry residency, and assess the status of DBT education within psychiatry residencies in the United States. Method: The authors present a patient with borderline personality disorder treated by a resident using DBT,…

  15. Anthology of Venezuelan psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Malpica, Carlos; Portilla-Geada, Néstor de la; Téllez Pacheco, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    Reception of Psychiatry in Venezuela since the 19th Century to the late 20th Century merits a historical approach. The following work proposes to research some of the very origins of Venezuelan psychiatry and its possible influence on contemporary mental health practice. Through documental research, the early works of local authors from the 19th Century through 20th Century finals: Carlos Arvelo, Lisandro Alvarado, Francisco Herrera Luque, Jose Luis Vethencourt and Jose Solanes, are subjected to study. This journey illustrates a descriptive panoramic view which allows to better comprenhend the current state of our psychiatry. In a brief introduction the most important events are described, since the arrival of Pinel's ideas, followed by the early research paperworks published and the beginnings of the academic teachings of this specialty in Venezuela and displaying the main contemporary research groups thorough the country. PMID:27249236

  16. Molecular psychiatry of zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Adam Michael; Ullmann, Jeremy F.P.; Norton, William H.J.; Brennan, Caroline H.; Parker, Matthew O.; Gerlai, Robert; Kalueff, Allan V.

    2014-01-01

    Due to their well-characterized neural development and high genetic homology to mammals, zebrafish (Danio rerio) have emerged as a powerful model organism in the field of biological psychiatry. Here, we discuss the molecular psychiatry of zebrafish, and its implications for translational neuroscience research and modeling CNS disorders. In particular, we outline recent genetic and technological developments allowing for in-vivo examinations, high-throughput screening and whole-brain analyses in larval and adult zebrafish. We also summarize the application of these molecular techniques to the understanding of neuropsychiatric disease, outlining the potential of zebrafish for modeling complex brain disorders, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), aggression, post-traumatic stress and substance abuse. Critically evaluating the advantages and limitations of larval and adult fish tests, we suggest that zebrafish models become a rapidly emerging new field in modern biological psychiatry research. PMID:25349164

  17. Mental illness: psychiatry's phlogiston.

    PubMed

    Szasz, T

    2001-10-01

    In physics, we use the same laws to explain why airplanes fly, and why they crash. In psychiatry, we use one set of laws to explain sane behaviour, which we attribute to reasons (choices), and another set of laws to explain insane behaviour, which we attribute to causes (diseases). God, man's idea of moral perfection, judges human deeds without distinguishing between sane persons responsible for their behaviour and insane persons deserving to be excused for their evil deeds. It is hubris to pretend that the insanity defence is compassionate, just, or scientific. Mental illness is to psychiatry as phlogiston was to chemistry. Establishing chemistry as a science of the nature of matter required the recognition of the non-existence of phlogiston. Establishing psychiatry as a science of the nature of human behaviour requires the recognition of the non-existence of mental illness. PMID:11579183

  18. Mental illness: psychiatry's phlogiston

    PubMed Central

    Szasz, T

    2001-01-01

    In physics, we use the same laws to explain why airplanes fly, and why they crash. In psychiatry, we use one set of laws to explain sane behaviour, which we attribute to reasons (choices), and another set of laws to explain insane behaviour, which we attribute to causes (diseases). God, man's idea of moral perfection, judges human deeds without distinguishing between sane persons responsible for their behaviour and insane persons deserving to be excused for their evil deeds. It is hubris to pretend that the insanity defence is compassionate, just, or scientific. Mental illness is to psychiatry as phlogiston was to chemistry. Establishing chemistry as a science of the nature of matter required the recognition of the non-existence of phlogiston. Establishing psychiatry as a science of the nature of human behaviour requires the recognition of the non-existence of mental illness. Key Words: Agency • alchemy • behaviour • cause • chemistry • dignity PMID:11579183

  19. Molecular psychiatry of zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Stewart, A M; Ullmann, J F P; Norton, W H J; Parker, M O; Brennan, C H; Gerlai, R; Kalueff, A V

    2015-02-01

    Due to their well-characterized neural development and high genetic homology to mammals, zebrafish (Danio rerio) have emerged as a powerful model organism in the field of biological psychiatry. Here, we discuss the molecular psychiatry of zebrafish, and its implications for translational neuroscience research and modeling central nervous system (CNS) disorders. In particular, we outline recent genetic and technological developments allowing for in vivo examinations, high-throughput screening and whole-brain analyses in larval and adult zebrafish. We also summarize the application of these molecular techniques to the understanding of neuropsychiatric disease, outlining the potential of zebrafish for modeling complex brain disorders, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), aggression, post-traumatic stress and substance abuse. Critically evaluating the advantages and limitations of larval and adult fish tests, we suggest that zebrafish models become a rapidly emerging new field in modern molecular psychiatry research. PMID:25349164

  20. The Costs and Benefits of Active Coping for Adolescents Residing in Urban Poverty.

    PubMed

    Carothers, Kristin J; Arizaga, Jessica A; Carter, Jocelyn Smith; Taylor, Jeremy; Grant, Kathryn E

    2016-07-01

    The present study addresses the lack of specificity and diversity highlighted in recent stress literature reviews by examining active coping in relationships between exposure to violence and internalizing and externalizing symptoms in a sample of urban youth from predominantly low-income, African American and Latino backgrounds. Two hundred and forty-one youth (mean age at Time 1 = 13 years; 66 % female; 41 % African American, 28 % Latino, 14 % European American, 6 % Asian American, 7 % mixed/biracial, 1 % American Indian/native American, .5 % Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, 2 % other) and their parents participated in this three-wave study. Hierarchical regression analyses tested for moderation, and a cross lag panel path analysis tested for mediation. The results provide greater support for active coping as a variable that changes the relationship between exposure to community violence and externalizing symptoms, or moderation, rather than one that explains or mediates it. Further, specificity did not emerge for type of psychological outcome but did emerge for gender, such that active coping exacerbated the association between exposure to community violence and both internalizing and externalizing symptoms for girls, but not boys. These findings highlight the importance of contextual and demographic factors in influencing stress and coping processes during adolescence. PMID:27138173

  1. The Best of Both Worlds: Psychiatry Training at Combined Civilian-Military Programs.

    PubMed

    Welton, Randon S; Hamaoka, Derrick A; Broderick, Pamela J; Schillerstrom, Jason E

    2015-08-01

    Air Force psychiatry faces the task of training competent military psychiatrists in an era of continuing reductions. Beginning in the 1980s, the Air Force started collaborating with University partners to create hybrid training programs, civilian-military psychiatry residencies. These mergers provide stability for Air Force psychiatry training in the face of increased operational missions and uncertain military recruiting. As a result of these combined programs, Air Force psychiatry residents gain access to a broader range of civilian clinical experience and expertise while maintaining a focus on distinctive military requirements. The combining of programs opens up options for academic activities which may not have otherwise existed. Both military and civilian residents benefit from the occupational psychiatry experiences available within military clinical sites. These programs give civilian residents a chance to assist active duty members and their families and provide insight into the military "lifecycle." These collaborations benefit the universities by providing access to a larger pool of residents and faculty. The synthesis of the military and civilian programs raises some ongoing obstacles such as civilian residents' ability to gain access to military resources. The programs must also accommodate separate mechanisms for selecting residents (the National Residency Matching Program versus the Joint Selection Board for Graduate Medical Education). Military residents must also comply with military standards and requirements while maintaining the universities' standards of conduct and professionalism. Merging military training programs into university programs creates a vibrant opportunity to create exceptional military and civilian psychiatrists. PMID:25772128

  2. A Web-Based, Health Promotion Program for Adolescent Girls and Their Mothers Who Reside in Public Housing

    PubMed Central

    Schwinn, Traci M.; Schinke, Steven; Fang, Lin; Kandasamy, Suganthi

    2014-01-01

    This study tested a brief web-based, family-involvement health promotion program aimed at drug use, physical activity, and nutrition for adolescent girls, aged 10 to 12 years, who reside in public housing. Separately, girls (n = 67) and their mothers (n = 67) completed baseline measures online. Following baseline, 36 randomly assigned mother-daughter dyads jointly completed a 3-session, health promotion program online. Subsequently, all girls and mothers separately completed posttest and 5-month follow-up measures. Attrition at posttest and 5-month follow-up measures was 3% and 9%, respectively. At posttest, intervention-arm girls, relative to control-arm girls, reported greater mother-daughter communication and parental monitoring. Intervention-arm mothers reported greater mother-daughter communication and closeness as well as increased vegetable intake and physical activity. At 5-month follow-up, intervention-arm girls and mothers, relative to those in the control arm, reported greater levels of parental monitoring. Intervention-arm girls also reported greater mother-daughter communication and closeness, reduced stress, greater refusal skills, and increased fruit intake. Findings indicate the potential of a brief, web-based program to improve the health of low-income girls and their mothers. PMID:24447886

  3. [«The child is father of the man» - review of literature on epidemiology in child and adolescent psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Martin; Bösch, Angelika; Hausmann, Armand; Steiner, Hans

    2013-01-01

    One of the goals of epidemiological research is to describe the frequency and patterns in the distribution of diseases among certain groups of a statistical population. According to the literature available, mental disorders in children and adolescents are a common phenomenon worldwide. This article provides a review of the most important and recent international studies on the magnitude, on patterns of distribution, on the course and on gender differences of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. Additional data from scientific textbooks are added to the original articles. PMID:23258437

  4. Psychiatry Today : Biology vs. Psychology.

    PubMed

    Berman, I; Fried, W; Berman, S M; Lengua, J A; Alpert, M

    1995-06-01

    This research addresses preferences and theoretical leanings of present-day psychiatrists along the continuum defined at one end by biology and at the other by psychology. A questionnaire was devised and sent to 5,702 randomly selected members of the American Psychiatric Association in 1990. The response rate was 307%. The results were analyzed for two groups: psychiatrists with fewer than 15 years of practice since residency and psychiatrists with more than 15 years of practice since graduation. Although the great majority of psychiatrists in both groups equally valued psychology and biology, the senior group attributed a greater importance to psychological methods, whereas the younger group stressed equally the importance of biology and psychology. This suggests that psychiatry has evolved over the years from a predominantly psychological practice to one with a more equal emphasis on psychology and biology. Recent advances in neuroscience may have shifted the pendulum toward a more balanced willingness of clinicians to consider the broad armamentarium of psychosocial and biological treatments. The results point to the need for further conceptualization into the relationship between biology and psychology and its incorporation into the psychiatric residency curriculum. PMID:24442524

  5. Child Psychiatry Takes to the Streets: A Developmental Partnership between a University Institute and Children and Adolescents from the Streets of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scivoletto, Sandra; da Silva, Thiago Fernando; Rosenheck, Robert Alan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: High levels of domestic violence, mental illness, and alienation from authorities are associated with high incidence of children/adolescents living on the streets in low and middle income countries. The Equilibrium Project (Programa Equilibrio) was created to facilitate social reintegration through a virtual partnership between an…

  6. Postgraduate Training in Psychiatry in India with Focus on Mumbai*

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ramesh R.

    2015-01-01

    The present article traces the formation of the Indian Psychiatric Society and the progress of post-graduate training in psychiatry in India in general and Mumbai in particular. It covers the standard of psychiatric education, the goals and recommendations for improvisation of residency programmes, and the future of post-graduate psychiatric training. PMID:25838723

  7. Postgraduate training in psychiatry in India with focus on mumbai.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ramesh R

    2015-01-01

    The present article traces the formation of the Indian Psychiatric Society and the progress of post-graduate training in psychiatry in India in general and Mumbai in particular. It covers the standard of psychiatric education, the goals and recommendations for improvisation of residency programmes, and the future of post-graduate psychiatric training. PMID:25838723

  8. Psychiatry and the Deaf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainer, John D., Ed.; Altshuler, Kenneth Z., Ed.

    A compilation of presentations from a meeting on psychiatry and the deaf, the text includes the following discussions: background and history of the New York State mental health program for the deaf; an introduction to the program of the New York School for the Deaf; school psychiatric preventive programs; adjustment problems presented by a panel…

  9. Psychiatry in China

    PubMed Central

    Collins, James L.

    1982-01-01

    The author describes his observations of Chinese psychiatry during a three-week medical tour in December 1980. The techniques of treatment in two psychiatric hospitals are discussed, with emphasis upon the utilization of both Western and traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:7143472

  10. Translational Epidemiology in Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Weissman, Myrna M.; Brown, Alan S.; Talati, Ardesheer

    2012-01-01

    Translational research generally refers to the application of knowledge generated by advances in basic sciences research translated into new approaches for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of disease. This direction is called bench-to-bedside. Psychiatry has similarly emphasized the basic sciences as the starting point of translational research. This article introduces the term translational epidemiology for psychiatry research as a bidirectional concept in which the knowledge generated from the bedside or the population can also be translated to the benches of laboratory science. Epidemiologic studies are primarily observational but can generate representative samples, novel designs, and hypotheses that can be translated into more tractable experimental approaches in the clinical and basic sciences. This bedside-to-bench concept has not been explicated in psychiatry, although there are an increasing number of examples in the research literature. This article describes selected epidemiologic designs, providing examples and opportunities for translational research from community surveys and prospective, birth cohort, and family-based designs. Rapid developments in informatics, emphases on large sample collection for genetic and biomarker studies, and interest in personalized medicine—which requires information on relative and absolute risk factors—make this topic timely. The approach described has implications for providing fresh metaphors to communicate complex issues in interdisciplinary collaborations and for training in epidemiology and other sciences in psychiatry. PMID:21646577

  11. [Sophrology and psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Diehr, Jan

    2016-01-01

    A relatively new discipline in the field of human sciences, sophrology seeks, through a physical as well as mental approach, to awaken awareness while energising the patient's resources and capacities. In psychiatry, it favours the development of body awareness and the positive activation of the mental structures, for the greater wellbeing of the patient. PMID:27615699

  12. Psychiatry in Former Socialist Countries: Implications for North Korean Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young Su; Park, Sang Min; Jun, Jin Yong

    2014-01-01

    Very little information is available regarding psychiatry in North Korea, which is based on the legacy of Soviet psychiatry. This paper reviews the characteristics of psychiatry in former socialist countries and discusses its implications for North Korean psychiatry. Under socialism, psychiatric disorders were attributed primarily to neurophysiologic or neurobiological origins. Psychosocial or psychodynamic etiology was denied or distorted in line with the political ideology of the Communist Party. Psychiatry was primarily concerned with psychotic disorders, and this diagnostic category was sometimes applied based on political considerations. Neurotic disorders were ignored by psychiatry or were regarded as the remnants of capitalism. Several neurotic disorders characterized by high levels of somatization were considered to be neurological or physical in nature. The majority of "mental patients" were institutionalized for a long periods in large-scale psychiatric hospitals. Treatment of psychiatric disorders depended largely on a few outdated biological therapies. In former socialist countries, psychodynamic psychotherapy was not common, and psychiatric patients were likely to experience social stigma. According to North Korean doctors living in South Korea, North Korean psychiatry is heavily influenced by the aforementioned traditions of psychiatry. During the post-socialist transition, the suicide rate in many of these countries dramatically increased. Given such mental health crises in post-socialist transitional societies, the field of psychiatry may face major challenges in a future unified Korea. PMID:25395966

  13. Psychiatry in former socialist countries: implications for north korean psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Su; Park, Sang Min; Jun, Jin Yong; Kim, Seog Ju

    2014-10-01

    Very little information is available regarding psychiatry in North Korea, which is based on the legacy of Soviet psychiatry. This paper reviews the characteristics of psychiatry in former socialist countries and discusses its implications for North Korean psychiatry. Under socialism, psychiatric disorders were attributed primarily to neurophysiologic or neurobiological origins. Psychosocial or psychodynamic etiology was denied or distorted in line with the political ideology of the Communist Party. Psychiatry was primarily concerned with psychotic disorders, and this diagnostic category was sometimes applied based on political considerations. Neurotic disorders were ignored by psychiatry or were regarded as the remnants of capitalism. Several neurotic disorders characterized by high levels of somatization were considered to be neurological or physical in nature. The majority of "mental patients" were institutionalized for a long periods in large-scale psychiatric hospitals. Treatment of psychiatric disorders depended largely on a few outdated biological therapies. In former socialist countries, psychodynamic psychotherapy was not common, and psychiatric patients were likely to experience social stigma. According to North Korean doctors living in South Korea, North Korean psychiatry is heavily influenced by the aforementioned traditions of psychiatry. During the post-socialist transition, the suicide rate in many of these countries dramatically increased. Given such mental health crises in post-socialist transitional societies, the field of psychiatry may face major challenges in a future unified Korea. PMID:25395966

  14. Blood pressure patterns in relation to geographic area of residence: a cross-sectional study of adolescents in Kogi state, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ejike, Chukwunonso ECC; Ugwu, Chidi E; Ezeanyika, Lawrence US; Olayemi, Ayo T

    2008-01-01

    Background The prevalence of hypertension, an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), is increasing in the developing countries and this may be connected with the economic transition in those countries. Adult hypertension is thought to be related to childhood and adolescent increases in blood pressure, and hence the need to monitor patterns in early life. This study investigates the BP patterns, and their correlates, of adolescents from different geographic areas of residence in Nigeria. Methods A total of 1,088 Nigerian adolescents from different geographic areas of residence were recruited for the study. Their blood pressures and anthropometric indices were measured using standard procedures. The association of blood pressure with height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and geographic area of residence was assessed. Results Male and female urban-dwelling adolescents had significantly (p < 0.05) higher systolic blood pressure (117.45 ± 21.53 mmHg and 114.82 ± 17.95 mmHg respectively) compared to their counterparts living in the non-urban areas (108.20 ± 12.12 mmHg and 106.03 ± 13.06 mmHg respectively), even after adjusting for age and height. Conversely, non-urban boys (but not the girls) had significantly (p < 0.05) higher diastolic blood pressure compared to their urban counterparts. Adolescents in the urban areas had higher BMI (20.74 ± 3.27 kg/m2 for males and 21.35 ± 3.37 kg/m2 for females) than those in the non-urban areas (20.33 ± 3.11 kg/m2 for males and 21.35 ± 3.37 kg/m2 for females) though the difference was significant (p < 0.05) only in the females. Blood pressures were found to increase with age, and to be associated with BMI. Conclusion These findings underscore the need for efforts to be made towards addressing adolescent blood pressure elevation (in both urban and non-urban areas) as they are a reflection of adult morbidity and mortality from hypertension and the associated disorders. PMID:19087334

  15. Psychiatry and music

    PubMed Central

    Nizamie, Shamsul Haque; Tikka, Sai Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Vocal and/or instrumental sounds combined in such a way as to produce beauty of form, harmony and expression of emotion is music. Brain, mind and music are remarkably related to each other and music has got a strong impact on psychiatry. With the advent of music therapy, as an efficient form of alternative therapy in treating major psychiatric conditions, this impact has been further strengthened. In this review, we deliberate upon the historical aspects of the relationship between psychiatry and music, neural processing underlying music, music's relation to classical psychology and psychopathology and scientific evidence base for music therapy in major psychiatric disorders. We highlight the role of Indian forms of music and Indian contribution to music therapy. PMID:24891698

  16. Psychiatry and music.

    PubMed

    Nizamie, Shamsul Haque; Tikka, Sai Krishna

    2014-04-01

    Vocal and/or instrumental sounds combined in such a way as to produce beauty of form, harmony and expression of emotion is music. Brain, mind and music are remarkably related to each other and music has got a strong impact on psychiatry. With the advent of music therapy, as an efficient form of alternative therapy in treating major psychiatric conditions, this impact has been further strengthened. In this review, we deliberate upon the historical aspects of the relationship between psychiatry and music, neural processing underlying music, music's relation to classical psychology and psychopathology and scientific evidence base for music therapy in major psychiatric disorders. We highlight the role of Indian forms of music and Indian contribution to music therapy. PMID:24891698

  17. What Psychiatry Means To Us

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, J. K.; Goel, Dishanter

    2006-01-01

    Psychiatry has come up as one of the most dynamic branches of medicine in recent years. There are a lot of controversies regarding concepts, nosology, definitions and treatments in psychiatry, all of which are presently under a strict scanner. Differences are so many that even the meaning of psychiatry varies amongst individual psychiatrists. For us, it is an art to practice psychiatry and give the patient what he needs. Still, it should be practiced with great caution and utmost sincerity towards the patient, based on scientific knowledge and not to be guided by individual conceptions alone. Ethics in psychiatry forms an integral part of its basic concept and meaning, and a tight balance should be maintained between professional advancement and patient benefit. In recent years, the scope of psychiatry has enlarged considerably, with wide ranging influences from Sociology, Anthropology and Philosophy on the one hand, and Neurology and Medicine on the other. PMID:22013340

  18. [Psychiatry as a profession].

    PubMed

    Häfner, H

    2002-01-01

    With reference to Max Weber's timeless analysis of science and politics as a profession, the present paper describes the philosophical background and historical development of the tasks and tools, institutionalization, and socialization of psychiatry as a profession. In the mid twentieth century, psychiatrists' emergence from ideological confinement in asylums, where they were separated from urban culture and medicine in general, finally allowed them to benefit from accumulating knowledge and technological progress in the field of medicine. After its transition from a custodial to a therapeutic discipline, psychiatry has acquired a variety of new fields of action and duties that require a high degree of expertise on psychological and biological levels. At the same time, people have increasingly come to expect relief not only from disease, but also from manifold problems of everyday life. As a consequence, there has been an inflationary growth of professional psychiatric and psychotherapeutic and nonprofessional services. The professional requirements that psychiatrists should meet have also increased quantitatively and qualitatively in the wake of the historical change from a caring, paternalistic attitude towards the mentally ill to a therapeutic partnership. To a greater degree than physicians working in other medical fields, psychiatrists get personally involved with their patients. As a consequence, the mental burden of their profession is at times immense. For this reason, the ethics of a medical profession has special implications for psychiatrists. The fascinating advances in therapeutic methods, neurobiological knowledge, and the increasingly differentiated diagnostic tools, e.g., noninvasive investigation of the morphology and functioning of the brain, have turned psychiatry into one of the most interesting contemporary professions. Psychiatry is now facing an enormous challenge of meeting the standards of expertise. PMID:11975061

  19. Mumbai Psychiatry: Current Obstacles*

    PubMed Central

    Bagadia, Sanjay V.

    2015-01-01

    Mumbai, like any other Metro city, has its own share of contentious issues influencing psychiatric management. These could be old ongoing issues like myths about medications, electroconvulsive therapy and counselling, or newer ones like our stand on homosexuality and crime related to psychosocial factors. A range of these issues is considered in this paper along with some possible solutions. Getting due credit and status for psychiatry as a medical branch is also a challenge we need to address. PMID:25838737

  20. PSYCHIATRY AND THE LAW

    PubMed Central

    Zeifert, Mark

    1957-01-01

    In Rex vs. Arnold (1724) it was held that to avail himself of the defense of insanity “a man must be totally deprived of his understanding and memory, so as not to know what he is doing, no more than an infant, a brute, or a wild beast.” Although there has been some modification of this formula in most jurisdictions, the courts still operate under the McNaghten Rule (1843) which is no more logical and actually is more difficult to apply. That such a situation exists in 1956 is a reflection on the indifference of society—and particularly the courts which it elects—as well as on the failure of modern psychiatry to communicate its viewpoint to society. If we are to correct the sad formulae of the “right and wrong” and “policeman at the elbow” tests, we must have more study and better methods of communication in this area. A similar state of confusion exists in the methods of commitment of mentally ill people to psychiatric hospitals. The methods prescribed by law are archaic and cruel—and again reflect the failure of modern psychiatry to communicate its understanding to the legislatures and courts. There are many other areas of conflict between law (which looks to the past for its insights) and psychiatry (which seeks for its concepts in the current scientific advances). PMID:13383383

  1. Patterns of drug and alcohol use associated with lifetime sexual revictimization and current posttraumatic stress disorder among three national samples of adolescent, college, and household-residing women.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kate; Resnick, Heidi S; Danielson, Carla Kmett; McCauley, Jenna L; Saunders, Benjamin E; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2014-03-01

    Sexual revictimization (experiencing 2 or more rapes) is prevalent and associated with increased risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use. However, no national epidemiologic studies have established the prevalence or relative odds of a range of types of substance use as a function of sexual victimization history and PTSD status. Using three national female samples, the current study examined associations between sexual revictimization, PTSD, and past-year substance use. Participants were 1763 adolescent girls, 2000 college women, and 3001 household-residing women. Rape history, PTSD, and use of alcohol, marijuana, other illicit drugs, and non-medical prescription drugs were assessed via structured telephone interviews of U.S. households and colleges in 2005-2006. Chi-square and logistic regression were used to estimate the prevalence and odds of past-year substance use. Relative to single and non-victims: Revictimized adolescents and household-residing women reported more other illicit and non-medical prescription drug use; revictimized college women reported more other illicit drug use. Past 6-month PTSD was associated with increased odds of drug use for adolescents, non-medical prescription drug use for college women, and all substance use for household-residing women. Revictimization and PTSD were associated with more deviant substance use patterns across samples, which may reflect self-medication with substances. Findings also could be a function of high-risk environment or common underlying mechanisms. Screening and early intervention in pediatric, primary care, and college clinics may prevent subsequent rape, PTSD, and more severe substance use. PMID:24370205

  2. Patterns of Drug and Alcohol Use Associated with Lifetime Sexual Revictimization and Current Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Three National Samples of Adolescent, College, and Household-Residing Women

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Kate; Resnick, Heidi S.; Danielson, Carla Kmett; McCauley, Jenna L.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual revictimization (experiencing 2 or more rapes) is prevalent and associated with increased risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use. However, no national epidemiologic studies have established the prevalence or relative odds of a range of types of substance use as a function of sexual victimization history and PTSD status. Using three national female samples, the current study examined associations between sexual revictimization, PTSD, and past-year substance use. Participants were 1763 adolescent girls, 2000 college women, and 3001 household-residing women. Rape history, PTSD, and use of alcohol, marijuana, other illicit drugs, and non-medical prescription drugs were assessed via structured telephone interviews of U.S households and colleges in 2005–2006. Chi-square and logistic regression were used to estimate the prevalence and odds of past-year substance use. Relative to single and non-victims: Revictimized adolescents and household-residing women reported more other illicit and non-medical prescription drug use; revictimized college women reported more other illicit drug use. Past 6-month PTSD was associated with increased odds of drug use for adolescents, non-medical prescription drug use for college women, and all substance use for household-residing women. Revictimization and PTSD were associated with more deviant substance use patterns across samples, which may reflect self-medication with substances. Findings also could be a function of high-risk environment or common underlying mechanisms. Screening and early intervention in pediatric, primary care, and college clinics may prevent subsequent rape, PTSD, and more severe substance use. PMID:24370205

  3. Training Groups and Foreign-Born Psychiatric Medical Residents in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Andrea; Juthani, Nalini

    1991-01-01

    About two-thirds of all psychiatry residents are foreign-born medical graduates. Discusses the operation, content, focus, challenges, and benefits of a training group experience for the psychiatry residents at Bronx Lebanon Hospital. The goals are to aid acculturation, improve group psychotherapeutic skills, encourage self-awareness, and promote…

  4. Financing Academic Departments of Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liptzin, Benjamin; Meyer, Roger E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe the many financial challenges facing academic departments of psychiatry and the resulting opportunities that may arise. Method: The authors review the history of financial challenges, the current economic situation, and what may lie ahead for academic departments of psychiatry. Results: The current environment has…

  5. [Two Nobel prizes for psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Knezević, Aleksandar; Knezević, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    It was pointed out that both Nobel prizes for medicine in the field of psychiatry have lost their importance in contemporary medicine. Modern achievements in psychiatry have suppresed both psychosurgery of Egas Moniz and malaria treatment of Wagner-Jauregg as methods in the treatment of mental diseases. PMID:19368289

  6. [Between neurology and psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Levine, Joseph; Toser, Doron; Zeev, Kaplan

    2014-06-01

    In this review we will discuss the broad spectrum of possible relationships between the fields of neurology and psychiatry alongside weighing the pros and cons of each alternative relationship. This is in the hope that such discussions will allow an informed decision regarding the construction of future relations between these two areas. The possible connections between the areas are discussed in light of possible relationships that exist between the two groups in the mathematical world with reference to the proposed solutions to the psychophysical mind-body problem. PMID:25095609

  7. Meditation and Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    How might meditation promote wellness and healing from psychiatric illness? How might it contribute to the practice of psychiatry? This review of the literature attempts to answer these questions. Meditation is the consciously willed practice of two actions, attending and abstaining, that all people spontaneously perform to a greater or lesser degree. Psychological health may correlate in part with the degree to which we naturally perform these actions. This review analyzes the nature of meditation and its therapeutic benefits. It then concludes with a summary of the issues pertinent to the adjunctive use of meditation in psychiatric care. PMID:19727302

  8. PSYCHIATRY-PAST, PRESENT & FUTURE

    PubMed Central

    Doongaji, Dinshaw R.

    1997-01-01

    An overview of psychiatry during the last three decades as practised in a general teaching hospital is presented. Psychiatry as an academic subject has matured tremendously during this period. The empirical treatments of the 1950s and the 1960s which evoke nostalgic memories, have been replaced by modern methods of treatment. However, there is a need to exercise caution against the blind acceptance of new and sophisticated research findings in biological psychiatry. Inspite of the bright future facing psychiatry, the identity of psychiatry as a medical discipline must be preserved at all cost. Psychiatrists should also realise the dangers of gradual fractionation and impersonalisation which threatens the speciality, and makes all possible efforts to prevent this. PMID:21584054

  9. Can we address the shortage of psychiatrists in the correctional setting with exposure during residency training?

    PubMed

    Fuehrlein, Brian S; Jha, Manish K; Brenner, Adam M; North, Carol S

    2012-12-01

    Psychiatry residents at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center were surveyed to investigate their attitudes towards inmates, towards various aspects of correctional psychiatry and whether rotating at the local jail is associated with these attitudes. The overall opinion towards correctional psychiatry was fairly neutral though significantly more negative than towards inpatient psychiatry. While citing a high need for psychiatrists at correctional facilities, residents reported they are not likely to work there when they complete residency. No statistical differences were found between those residents who had rotated at the local jail and those who had not. Given the severe shortage of mental health providers in correctional facilities it is important to expose residents to this and understand ways to promote correctional psychiatry as a career. PMID:22447346

  10. An Educational Intervention to Improve Residents' Inpatient Charting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinsley, Joyce A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This report describes an educational intervention designed to improve psychiatry residents' inpatient charting skills. Methods: The residency training committee formed a multidisciplinary team to study the problem by using quality improvement principles. The team hypothesized that residents' charting would improve with education about…

  11. Enhancing the Effectiveness of the Psychiatric Chief Resident

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivany, Christopher G.; Hurt, Peyton H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Despite its importance in psychiatry residency training, there is little written about the role of chief resident. Invoking principles of credibility, continuity, and inclusion, and the establishment of two roles, as legislative and representative leader, this article offers a model for how a residency program can empower its chief…

  12. The art of psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    BLOCH, SIDNEY

    2005-01-01

    Psychiatrists would undoubtedly support the notion of promoting such qualities as empathy, sensitivity and caring in the pursuit of good clinical practice. However, cultivating what we may call the "art of psychiatry" is not straightforward, since the qualities that constitute it are elusive. I propose that the means by which we can accomplish the goal of relating empathically and compassionately to our patients and their families is by regarding the humanities and the sciences as of equal relevance and as complementary. The humanities, particularly literature, the visual arts, film and music, are most suited to promoting empathic skills when they are woven into the clinical scenario. Examples are provided to demonstrate how this may be achieved. Were we to succeed in highlighting the art of psychiatry in our educational programs, and as part of continuing professional development, I surmise that our patients and their families would be the beneficiaries. We cannot merely vow to act empathically and sensitively. Instead, we should embark on a lifelong journey through the wonderful world of literature, the visual arts, film and music. The experience will not only prove appealing and engaging, but it will also go far to enrich our personal and professional lives. PMID:16633530

  13. Position and role of forensic psychiatry in integrative psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Smalc, Vera Folnegović; Varda, Robert; Grosić, Petra Folnegović

    2008-09-01

    The integrative approach to psychiatry has gained more importance in recent years. Is it justified or not, does it improve theory or practice, those are only some of the questions to which we are looking for answers, but in this paper we shall underline the necessity of enrolling forensic psychiatry into integrative, modern psychiatry. The reason and the motive for that integration is the fact that nowadays the content and the activities of contemporary forensic psychiatrists are totally reduced to executing the tasks given by courts. It is therefore entirely right to say that current forensic psychiatry finds itself in the passive role of executing orders of the court. Our aim is to point out how important it is that forensic psychiatry becomes an interdisciplinary profession in interaction with psychiatry but also with other medical branches just as with judiciary, educational institutions, moral-ethical institutions and religious institutions in producing preventive programmes and by participating in individual decision making process likewise. Our primary goal is to present the status and the position of contemporary forensic psychiatry and to specify the necessary improvements and its place in integrative psychiatry. It should be better, more meaningful and more ethical, both for the individual and the society in total. We want forensic psychiatry to include a protective and therapeutic role for each individual forensic examinee, i.e. a person who has already been in forensic examination and for whom one evaluates mental competence because of a mental disorder. We also want it to get a far larger and more active general role in society in terms of preventing criminal acts among the mentally ill and in society in total. PMID:18827777

  14. Integrating Neuroscience Knowledge and Neuropsychiatric Skills Into Psychiatry: The Way Forward.

    PubMed

    Schildkrout, Barbara; Benjamin, Sheldon; Lauterbach, Margo D

    2016-05-01

    Increasing the integration of neuroscience knowledge and neuropsychiatric skills into general psychiatric practice would facilitate expanded approaches to diagnosis, formulation, and treatment while positioning practitioners to utilize findings from emerging brain research. There is growing consensus that the field of psychiatry would benefit from more familiarity with neuroscience and neuropsychiatry. Yet there remain numerous factors impeding the integration of these domains of knowledge into general psychiatry.The authors make recommendations to move the field forward, focusing on the need for advocacy by psychiatry and medical organizations and changes in psychiatry education at all levels. For individual psychiatrists, the recommendations target obstacles to attaining expanded neuroscience and neuropsychiatry education and barriers stemming from widely held, often unspoken beliefs. For the system of psychiatric care, recommendations address the conceptual and physical separation of psychiatry from medicine, overemphasis on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and on psychopharmacology, and different systems in medicine and psychiatry for handling reimbursement and patient records. For psychiatry residency training, recommendations focus on expanding neuroscience/neuropsychiatry faculty and integrating neuroscience education throughout the curriculum.Psychiatry traditionally concerns itself with helping individuals construct meaningful life narratives. Brain function is one of the fundamental determinants of individuality. It is now possible for psychiatrists to integrate knowledge of neuroscience into understanding the whole person by asking, What person has this brain? How does this brain make this person unique? How does this brain make this disorder unique? What treatment will help this disorder in this person with this brain? PMID:26630604

  15. The impact of greenery on physical activity and mental health of adolescent and adult residents of deprived neighborhoods: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Gubbels, Jessica S; Kremers, Stef P J; Droomers, Mariël; Hoefnagels, Cees; Stronks, Karien; Hosman, Clemens; de Vries, Sjerp

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the impact of perceived and objective changes in greenery on physical activity and mental health of adolescents and adults living in severely deprived neighborhoods in the Netherlands. Longitudinal data regarding changes in greenery, walking, cycling, and depressive symptoms (CES-D), were gathered for 401 adolescents and 454 adults, using questionnaires and interviews with local district managers. Multivariate linear regression models examined the association between greenery and outcome variables, correcting for demographic and socioeconomic covariates and season. Overall, the results showed small and non-significant associations, with two exceptions. Objective improvements in greenery were associated with smaller decline in adolescents' leisure time cycling, and improvements in perceived greenery were related to a decrease in adults' depressive symptoms. In addition, there were several subgroup effects. In conclusion, changes in greenery did not yield consistent positive results among residents of severely deprived neighborhoods. However, there are some indications regarding positive effects of greenery in certain subgroups. PMID:27322564

  16. YouTube and 'psychiatry'.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Robert; Miller, John; Collins, Noel

    2015-12-01

    YouTube is a video-sharing website that is increasingly used to share and disseminate health-related information, particularly among younger people. There are reports that social media sites, such as YouTube, are being used to communicate an anti-psychiatry message but this has never been confirmed in any published analysis of YouTube clip content. This descriptive study revealed that the representation of 'psychiatry' during summer 2012 was predominantly negative. A subsequent smaller re-analysis suggests that the negative portrayal of 'psychiatry' on YouTube is a stable phenomenon. The significance of this and how it could be addressed are discussed. PMID:26755987

  17. Forensic psychiatry in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Tariq; Nizami, Asad Tamizuddin; Hirji, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews existing forensic psychiatric services in Pakistan highlighting the role played by the judicial and the medical fraternity in managing the legal and forensic issues of the population of patients with mental illnesses. Until 2001, all legal and forensic issues were dealt with the mental health legislation of 1912, the Lunacy Act of 1912. This was inherited from the British rulers in the Sub-Continent at the time. The Mental Health Ordinance of 2001 could not sustain following the 18th constitutional amendment in 2010, whereby psychiatric healthcare was devolved to the provinces from the previous federal authority. The article also highlights the difficulties and the barriers in implementation of the forensic psychiatric services in Pakistan at various levels within the healthcare system. This article also delves into the current framework of training in forensic psychiatry for postgraduates as well as the assessments and management schedules for the mentally ill offenders at tertiary care institutions in Pakistan. PMID:26024984

  18. Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist Finder

    MedlinePlus

    Skip to main content Loading... Families and Youth Family Resources Youth Resources Facts for Families Resource Centers Advocacy Getting Help Support AACAP Medical Students and Residents Medical Student Resources Child Psychiatry ...

  19. [Hundred years' psychiatry in Korea (1899-1999)].

    PubMed

    Rhi, B Y

    1999-01-01

    The western medical knowledges of the human anatomy and physiology including knowledges of central nervous system have probably been introduced into Korea by Prince Sohyŏn Seja in 1645. The authentic education for the western medicine at the governmental and private medical schools, however, originated from 1899 and the education of mental disease was included in curriculum of Tai-Han-uiwon, the governmental medical school before 1910. In 1913 the first department of psychiatry (Department of Mental Disease) was established at the Chongdokbu-uiwon, the clinic of the Japanese colonial government, the former Korean governmental hospital which has later developed to the Kyŏngs ŏng Imperial University Hospital. On the other hand, there was in Severance Hospital Medical College, one Australian missionary psychiatrist McLaren, who has served at Paton Memorial Hospital in Jinju, Korea from 1911, taught neurology and psychiatry from 1913 at Severance Hospital Medical College, established psychiatry ward in 1923 at the Hospital, conducted the ward in humanistic way until 1940. It was the German psychiatry which the Japanese psychiatrists have brought to the Korean peninsula and it remained as major trends of psychiatry in Korea during the Japanese occupation between 1911 and 1945. The academic levels of Kyŏngsŏng Imperial University in psychiatry as well as the quality of mental care seemed to be almost equivocal to the psychiatry in Japan. However, psychiatrists scope of social psychiatric issues and of the research interests seemed to be somewhat narrow. Due to the political discrimination for the Korean students, the Koreans had less opportunity for the promotion at the university than Japanese residents in Korea. In 1945, after the end of the Pacific War only about 11 Korean psychiatrists were left in Korea, who organized Korean Neuropsychiatric Association. The Department of Neuropsychiatry of Seoul National University (former Department of Neurology and

  20. Psychiatry and terrorism.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Frederick J; Gold, Joel; Henderson, Schuyler W; Merlino, Joseph P; Norwood, Ann; Post, Jerrold M; Shanfield, Stephen; Weine, Stevan; Katz, Craig L

    2011-08-01

    Terrorism has dominated the domestic and international landscape since 9/11. Like other fields, psychiatry was not well prepared. With the 10th anniversary of the 9/11 attack approaching, it is timely to consider what can be done to prepare before the next event. Much has been learned to provide knowledge and resources. The roles of psychiatrists are challenged by what is known of the causes of, consequences of, and responses to terrorism. Reflecting on knowledge from before and since 9/11 introduces concepts, how individuals become terrorists, how to evaluate the psychiatric and behavioral effects of terrorism, and how to expand treatments, behavioral health interventions, public policy initiatives, and other responses for its victims. New research, clinical approaches, and policy perspectives inform strategies to reduce fear and cope with the aftermath. This article identifies the psychiatric training, skills and services, and ethical considerations necessary to prevent or reduce terrorism and its tragic consequences and to enhance resilience. PMID:21814075

  1. Psychiatry and movies.

    PubMed

    Damjanović, Aleksandar; Vuković, Olivera; Jovanović, Aleksandar A; Jasović-Gasić, Miroslava

    2009-06-01

    As one of the most potent and substantial form of mass communication, film exercises a very significant influence upon the perceptions of the audience, especially in relation to mental illness issues, and that perception is very much blurred with populists' misinterpretation and lack of awareness regarding problems faced by persons suffering from mental disorders. Movies such as "Psycho", "One Flew Over Cuckoo's Nest", "Exorcist", despite being valuable in an artistic sense, corroborated and encouraged confusion and undermined the clarity and certainty concerning the fine line separating mental health from mental illness. Modern film makers and movie theoreticians try to overcome these limitations which are often generated by exploitation of stereotypes and myths referring to mentally ill people. This paper defines and discusses the most frequent thematic stereotypes seen in movies which are perpetuating stigmatization of mentally ill people. They are: free-spirited rebel, maniac on a killing spree, seducer, enlightened member of society, narcissistic parasite, beastly person (stereotype of animal sort). Psychiatry and cinematography are linked inseparably not only because they creatively complement each other, but also as an opportunity of mutual influences blending into didactical categories and professional driving forces, benefiting both the filmmakers' and the psychiatrists' professions. PMID:19556954

  2. [Psychiatry at Leipzig University. A 200 year old tradition].

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Holger

    2004-01-01

    The University of Leipzig boasts a long tradition in the field of psychiatry. In 1811 Johann Christian August Heinroth was appointed as the first professor of mental health ("psychic therapy") in Europe. He conceived mental illness as based on a person's own guilt, as the consequence of turning away from God and living a life untrue to Christian ethics. After Heinroth retired in 1843 the Leipzig chair remained vacant until 1878 brain researcher Paul Flechsig succeeded him as professor of psychiatry, although not significantly contributing to the progress of this subject. His first assistant was Emil Kraepelin. Flechsig's successors, Oswald Bumke and Paul Schroder, included psychological as well as sociogenetic topics in their research. The latter did pioneering work for the institutionalization of child and adolescent psychiatry. The history of Leipzig psychiatry during the Nazi years has not yet been researched in depth. So far, however, no evidence has been found to prove the university hospital's involvement in German psychiatry's excruciating crimes on patients. It is true, however, that as elsewhere doctors of the Leipzig hospital were members of the Courts of Hereditary Health (Erbgesundheitsgericht) and that e.g. August Bostroem knew of the homicides. In 1943, during the directorship of Werner Wagner, the hospital was totally destroyed. Its reconstruction was mainly the work of Richard Arwed Pfeifer, who also made remarkable contributions to the study of the angiostructure of the brain. With Dietfried Muller-Hegemann, who had a major influence of East-German psychotherapy, the social psychiatric era began, and it was successfully continued under Berhard Schwarz, Klaus Weise and the hospital's present head, Matthias C. Angermeyer, Weise's theoretical and philosophical achievements in the foundation and his demand for an empirical verification of social psychiatric ideas in the whole of Germany are acknowledged until the present day. Last but no least it was

  3. What to Learn and How to Teach It: Five Years of Pre-Meetings for Training Directors in Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pato, Michele T.; Cyr, Rebecca L.; Manley, Lucas N.; Morley, Christopher P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: A multi-year conference grant (R13) supported an annual pre-meeting that served as a forum for psychiatry residency training directors to learn about and develop educational programs in their residencies in the area of scholarly activity. Methods: The authors sought to measure the success of these programs through both a…

  4. A Longitudinal "Teaching-to-Teach" Curriculum for Psychiatric Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Susan W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Psychiatric residents' self-reported confidence levels related to teaching medical students were assessed before and after a five-part teaching seminar series. Methods: Five 1-hour seminars on teaching medical students in the psychiatry clerkship were presented to second postgraduate year (PGY-2) residents. Topics included how to teach…

  5. Survey of Sexual Education among Residents from Different Specialties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morreale, Mary K.; Arfken, Cynthia L.; Balon, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to determine how residents are being educated regarding sexual health, and it assesses attitudes toward sexual education and barriers to evaluating patients' sexuality. Methods: An anonymous Internet survey was sent to 195 residents in family practice, internal medicine, obstetrics and gynecology, and psychiatry at a…

  6. Utilizing VA Information Technology to Develop Psychiatric Resident Prescription Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrbaugh, Robert; Federman, Daniel G.; Borysiuk, Lydia; Sernyak, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Feedback about resident prescription practices allows psychiatry educators to ensure that residents have broad prescribing experience and can facilitate practice-based learning initiatives. The authors report on a procedure utilizing U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs' computerized pharmacy records to efficiently construct…

  7. History of psychiatry in India

    PubMed Central

    Nizamie, S. Haque; Goyal, Nishant

    2010-01-01

    History is a screen through which the past lightens the present and the present brightens the future. Psychiatry by virtue of its ability to deal with human thoughts and emotions and provide a pathway for healthy minds provides an important platform towards being a mentally sound human being and largely the society. This review takes a sneak peek into the foundations of modern psychiatry in India. The description is largely based on the time frame, which provides a better understanding of the factual information in each period starting from the Vedic era and culminating in the post independence period. PMID:21836719

  8. Survey of the Importance of Professional Behaviors among Medical Students, Residents, and Attending Physicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morreale, Mary K.; Balon, Richard; Arfken, Cynthia L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors compared the importance of items related to professional behavior among medical students rotating through their psychiatry clerkship, psychiatry residents, and attending psychiatrists. Method: The authors sent an electronic survey with 43 items (rated on the scale 1: Not at All Important; to 5: Very Important) to medical…

  9. Geriatrics Education in Psychiatric Residencies: A National Survey of Program Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warshaw, Gregg A.; Bragg, Elizabeth J.; Layde, Joseph B.; Meganathan, Karthikeyan; Brewer, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe the current characteristics of geriatrics training within general psychiatry training programs. Methods: In the fall of 2006, a survey was mailed and made available online to all U.S. psychiatric residency program directors (N=181). Results: The response rate was 54% (n=97). Of the responding psychiatry programs,…

  10. Penalized linear discriminant analysis and Discrete AdaBoost to distinguish human hair metal profiles: The case of adolescents residing near Mt. Etna.

    PubMed

    Abbruzzo, A; Tamburo, E; Varrica, D; Dongarrà, G; Mineo, A

    2016-06-01

    The research focus of the present paper was twofold. First, we tried to document that human intake of trace elements is influenced by geological factors of the place of residence. Second, we showed that the elemental composition of human hair is a useful screening tool for assessing people's exposure to potentially toxic substances. For this purpose, we used samples of human hair from adolescents and applied two robust statistical approaches. Samples from two distinct geological and environmental sites were collected: the first one was characterized by the presence of the active volcano Mt. Etna (ETNA group) and the second one lithologically made up of sedimentary rocks (SIC group). Chemical data were statistically processed by Penalized Linear Discriminant Analysis (pLDA) and Discrete AdaBoost (DAB). The separation between the two groups turned out well, with few overlaps accounting for less than 5%. The chemical variables that better distinguished ETNA group from SIC group were As, Cd, Co, Li, Mo, Rb, Sr, U and V. Both pLDA and DAB allowed us to characterize the elements most closely related to the volcanic contribution (As, U and V) and those (Cd, Co, Li, Mo, Rb and Sr) prevalently influenced by the geology of the area where SIC samples were collected. We conclude that the geological characteristics of the area of residence constitute a key factor in influencing the potential exposure to trace elements. Hair analysis coupled with robust statistical methods can be effectively used as a screening procedure to identify areas at great environmental risk. PMID:27015569

  11. An Introduction to Child Psychiatry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chess, Stella

    The role of child psychiatry is discussed, and the child is described as a developing organism. Genetic factors in behavior are considered as are the presenting problems. Methods treated involve taking the history, conducting the diagnostic interview, using special diagnostic procedures, and applying diagnostic classification. Problem areas dealt…

  12. Historical aspects of Mexican psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Bayardo, Sergio Javier Villaseñor

    2016-04-01

    Mexican psychiatry initiated since pre-Hispanic times. Historically, treatments were a mixture of magic, science and religion. Ancient Nahuas had their own medical concepts with a holistic view of medicine, considering men and cosmos as a whole. The first psychiatric hospital appeared in 1566 and a more modern psychiatric asylum emerged until 1910. International exchanges of theoretical approaches started in the National University with the visit of Pierre Janet. There were other important figures that influenced Mexican psychiatry, such as Erich Fromm, Henri Ey, Jean Garrabé and Yves Thoret. Regarding Mexican psychiatrists, some of the most important contributors to Mexican psychiatry were José Luis Patiño Rojas, Manuel Guevara Oropeza and Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz. This article includes excerpts from "Clinical Psychiatry", a book by Patiño Rojas where he tries to understand and describe the inner world experienced by patients with schizophrenia; also, the thesis conducted by Guevara Oropeza ("Psychoanalisis"), which is a critical comparison between the theories of Janet and Freud. Finally, we include "The study of consciousness: current status" by Ramón de la Fuente, which leads us through the initial investigations concerning consciousness, its evolution, and the contributions made by psychology, philosophy and neurobiology. PMID:27117799

  13. [New developments in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Conus, Philippe; Herrera, Fabrice; Berney, Sylvie; Gailland, Bénédicte; Beretta, Véronique; Vandenberghe, Frederik; Eap, Chin B

    2016-01-13

    Three issues are discussed: i) While number of psychiatric beds has been reduced in most countries and although treatments proposed in psychiatric hospitals have evolved, they continue to be viewed as asylums implementing constraints. Considering this prevents their adequate use and leads to patients' stigmatisation, promotion of a better knowledge of contemporary hospital treatments is needed. 2) In addition, most psychiatric disorders emerging during adolescence and early adulthood, it is important to develop accessible care on university campuses. 3) While risk of weight gain and metabolic syndrome under neuroleptics or mood stabilisers is known, there is a need for the development of that are easy to identify. A 5% increase in weight during the first month of treatment indicates the risk for important later weight gain. PMID:26946712

  14. [250 years of English psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Freeman, H

    1996-08-01

    The history of British psychiatry is considered from five main viewpoints: clinical practice, the institutional basis, the legislative basis, lay perspectives of-mental disorder, and European influences. Its philosophical basis can be traced back to the work of the seventeenth-century philosophers. Thomas Hobbes and John Locke. In Scotland, both 'philosophy of mind' and new clinical methods flourished during its Enlightenment; the concept of 'neurosis' was developed by William Cullen. Around 1800, James Prichard's concept of 'moral insanity' became the foundation of modern work on personality disorder and psychopathy. The psychotic illness of King George III, beginning in 1788, led to greater public sympathy for the mentally ill. Attitudes since then have varied, with 'antipsychiatry' becoming very influential in the 1960s. By the mid-eighteenth century, specialised institutions for the mentally ill existed in a number of cities, there were also units attached to charitable general hospitals, but none of these continued after about 1830. The neglect of patients in private madhouses, prisons, and poorhouses led to increasing concern by Parliament, which resulted in the development of public asylums throughout the country. Severe legal restrictions on their activities were modified in 1930 and completely reformed in 1959. From the mid-nineteenth century, French and German influences became increasingly strong, but British universities played no active part in psychiatry until the 1950s. Psycho-analysis did not develop strongly in Britain, where the main contribution was through translation and biography, but some leading analysts came as refugees in the 1930s-as did other psychiatrists from central Europe. Another important influence was that of Adolf Meyer at the Institute of Psychiatry, London, particularly through Sir Aubrey Lewis; physical treatment methods also came to Britain from Europe. In the second half of this century, the most important British

  15. Training in psychiatry throughout Europe.

    PubMed

    Brittlebank, Andrew; Hermans, Marc; Bhugra, Dinesh; Pinto da Costa, Mariana; Rojnic-Kuzman, Martina; Fiorillo, Andrea; Kurimay, Tamas; Hanon, Cecile; Wasserman, Danuta; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan

    2016-03-01

    Psychiatry is the largest medical specialty in Europe. Despite efforts to bring harmonisation, training in psychiatry in Europe continues to be very diverse. The Union Européenne des Médecins Spécialistes (UEMS) has issued as from 2000 a charter of requirements for the training in psychiatry with an additional European Framework for Competencies in Psychiatry in 2009. Yet these have not been implemented throughout Europe. In this paper, the diversity in training throughout Europe is approached from different angles: the cultural differences between countries with regards to how mental health care is considered and founded on, the cultural differences between people throughout Europe in all states. The position of psychotherapy is emphasised. What once was the cornerstone of psychiatry as medical specialty seems to have become a neglected area. Seeing the patient with mental health problems within his cultural context is important, but considering him within his family context. The purpose of any training is enabling the trainee to gain the knowledge and acquire the competencies necessary to become a well-equipped professional is the subject of the last paragraph in which trainees consider their position and early career psychiatrists look back to see whether what they were trained in matches with what they need in the working situation. Common standard for training and certification are a necessity within Europe, for the benefit of the profession of psychiatrist but also for patient safety. UEMS is advised to join forces with the Council of National Psychiatric Associations (NPAs) within the EPA and trainings and early career psychiatrist, to discuss with the users what standards should be implemented in all European countries and how a European board examination could ensure professional quality of psychiatrists throughout the continent. PMID:26880078

  16. Teaching Hypnosis to Psychiatry Residents and Psychology Interns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holroyd, Jean

    This is a description of a hypnosis training seminar taught at the University of California at Los Angeles to people with training and experience in psychotherapy who are licensed--or to be licensed--mental health professionals. The course described stresses the students' active participation as hypnotists and encourages a rapid transition from…

  17. The State of Inpatient Psychiatry for Youth in Ontario: Results of the ONCAIPS Benchmarking Survey

    PubMed Central

    Greenham, Stephanie L.; Persi, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about inpatient psychiatry settings and the services they provide for children and adolescents in Ontario. This paper provides the first broad description of unit characteristics, services provided, and patient characteristics in these settings. Method: Nominated representatives from Ontario hospitals with generic mental health beds (i.e., providing inpatient care across diagnostic groups) for children and adolescents were surveyed regarding data from April 2009 to March 2010. Response rate was 93%. Additional data were extracted from the Ontario Network of Child and Adolescent Inpatient Psychiatry Services (ONCAIPS) Directory and Ministry of Health and Long Term Care (MOHLTC) website. Results: Settings provided primarily crisis services with some planned elective admissions. Higher rates of involuntary admissions, briefer stays, lower interdisciplinary diversity, and lower occupancy were typical of settings with higher proportions of crisis admissions. Services most commonly provided included stabilization, assessment, pharmacotherapy, and mental health education. Bed numbers provincially, beds per staff, and prominence of suicide risk, mood disorders, and utilization of cognitive and behavioural approaches were comparable to trends internationally. Inter-setting disparities were observed in access to inpatient services for different age and diagnostic groups, and availability of psychiatry and different professions. Conclusions: Lack of consistent performance and outcome evaluation, common measures, availability of psychiatry and interdisciplinary supports, and dissimilar treatments provincially, suggest the need to consider potential improvements through systematic monitoring of setting performance and outcomes, and development of provincial best practice standards for staffing and treatment. PMID:24516475

  18. Child and Adolescent Psychiatrists' Practices in Assisting Their Adolescent Patients Who Smoke to Quit Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, James H.; Sidani, Jaime E.; Price, Joy A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This national study examined the practices and perceptions of smoking cessation activities among child and adolescent psychiatrists. Method: A random sample of child and adolescent psychiatrists was identified from the membership list of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and was mailed a valid and reliable 34-item…

  19. Psychiatry movie club: A novel way to teach psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Gurvinder

    2011-07-01

    For decades, films across the world have entertained people and affected their attitudes regarding certain issues and conditions. Documentary films have been used by governments in different parts of the world to educate the general public and promote health and prevent the spread of disease as part of public health programs. Psychiatry as a branch of medicine like the rest of medicine continues to develop. With an increasing awareness among the general population and popularity of films showing various aspects of mental illnesses on the rise, educators and teachers are turning their attention to using films for education of medical students and psychiatric trainees. Although films may be stereotypical and prejudiced, they can be used successfully in teaching psychiatry trainees. In this paper, development of a movie club and its use are described and suggestions made to improve the use of films in this process. PMID:22135447

  20. Teaching Residents Practice-Management Knowledge and Skills: An "in Vivo" Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Laurel Lyn

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This article explores the relevant data regarding teaching psychiatric residents practice management knowledge and skills. This article also introduces a unique program for teaching practice management to residents. Methods: A literature search was conducted through PubMed and "Academic Psychiatry". Additionally residents involved in…

  1. Residents' Perception of Effectiveness of Twelve Evaluation Methods for Measuring Competency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogbill, Kay K.; O'Sullivan, Patricia S.; Clardy, James

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors assessed residents' perceptions of techniques used to evaluate competency. METHODS: Psychiatry residents from a single program rated 12 evaluation techniques for their effectiveness to measure resident competency. They rated each method for 25 selected skills reflecting the six general competencies. RESULTS: Sixteen…

  2. Managing Medicare reimbursement on medical-psychiatry units.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, R J; Simundson, S

    1991-09-01

    Many general hospitals are confronting issues of financial strain precipitated to a large extent by Medicare payment reductions. The viability of psychiatry programs within general hospitals more than ever depends upon some demonstration of their financial as well as clinical contribution. The aim of this study is to review some of the basic parameters governing Part A (hospital) Medicare reimbursement of DRG-exempt general hospital psychiatry units and to provide options for improving their financial viability. There are a number of specific mechanisms involved in managing Medicare cost and reimbursement. Establishing a system for gatekeeping is important because significant control of payor mix and length of stay resides with the unit gatekeeper. Establishing liaison for short-stay patients with nursing home papers is important because Medicare pays on a target cost per discharge. The identification of short-stay patients is financially very favorable, and often critical to balance the unavoidable longer-stay patients. This paper also discusses how medical-psychiatric units can interface most effectively with medical-surgical units. Finally, there is some discussion of the need to develop pre- and postadmission outpatient medical-psychiatric programs. The financial aspects of medical-psychiatry care, if not the increasing scrutiny of managed care, will force further development of such outpatient programs. PMID:1743500

  3. Images of psychiatry and psychiatrists

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, H; Sartorius, N; Liinamaa, T

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study surveyed medical teaching faculty to determine their attitudes toward psychiatry and psychiatrists. Method We conducted a multisite survey of a probability sample of 1057 teaching medical faculty members from 15 academic teaching centers in the United Kingdom, Europe, and Asia stratified by early, middle, and late career stage. The average response rate across countries was 65%. Results The outstanding findings were that 90% of respondents considered that psychiatrists were not good role models for medical students, 84% thought psychiatric patients were unsuitable to be treated outside of specialized facilities, and 73% thought psychiatric patients were emotionally draining. We noted statistically significant differences by country, gender, career stage, and specialty. Conclusion These results highlight why recruitment into psychiatry is problematic in many countries and suggest that greater attention should be given to improving the perception of psychiatrists as good role models and the efficacy of psychiatric treatments. PMID:25495023

  4. Secular humanism and "scientific psychiatry"

    PubMed Central

    Szasz, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The Council for Secular Humanism identifies Secular Humanism as a "way of thinking and living" committed to rejecting authoritarian beliefs and embracing "individual freedom and responsibility ... and cooperation." The paradigmatic practices of psychiatry are civil commitment and insanity defense, that is, depriving innocent persons of liberty and excusing guilty persons of their crimes: the consequences of both are confinement in institutions ostensibly devoted to the treatment of mental diseases. Black's Law Dictionary states: "Every confinement of the person is an 'imprisonment,' whether it be in a common prison, or in private house, or in the stocks, or even by forcibly detaining one in the public streets." Accordingly, I maintain that Secular Humanism is incompatible with the principles and practices of psychiatry. PMID:16759353

  5. Secular humanism and "scientific psychiatry".

    PubMed

    Szasz, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The Council for Secular Humanism identifies Secular Humanism as a "way of thinking and living" committed to rejecting authoritarian beliefs and embracing "individual freedom and responsibility ... and cooperation." The paradigmatic practices of psychiatry are civil commitment and insanity defense, that is, depriving innocent persons of liberty and excusing guilty persons of their crimes: the consequences of both are confinement in institutions ostensibly devoted to the treatment of mental diseases. Black's Law Dictionary states: "Every confinement of the person is an 'imprisonment,' whether it be in a common prison, or in private house, or in the stocks, or even by forcibly detaining one in the public streets." Accordingly, I maintain that Secular Humanism is incompatible with the principles and practices of psychiatry. PMID:16759353

  6. The Two Cultures in Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Cleghorn, R A

    1965-07-10

    The division between the two cultures of the literary and scientific worlds is considered, as is the division between the two cultures of humanism and somaticism. The development of psychiatric thought important to this latter dichotomy is described through the Age of Enlightenment, the Romantic Movement and the New Enlightenment. The two cultures of our present literary and scientific milieux are equated with the romanticism and somaticism of the past. The development of two cultures in psychiatry is traced, beginning with Freud's attempt to combine science and romanticism, to the present day where one finds some degree of convergence between the somatic and psychoanalytic approaches. Criteria are presented for a greater union of the two cultures in psychiatry. PMID:20328284

  7. The Two Cultures in Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Cleghorn, R. A.

    1965-01-01

    The division between the two cultures of the literary and scientific worlds is considered, as is the division between the two cultures of humanism and somaticism. The development of psychiatric thought important to this latter dichotomy is described through the Age of Enlightenment, the Romantic Movement and the New Enlightenment. The two cultures of our present literary and scientific milieux are equated with the romanticism and somaticism of the past. The development of two cultures in psychiatry is traced, beginning with Freud's attempt to combine science and romanticism, to the present day where one finds some degree of convergence between the somatic and psychoanalytic approaches. Criteria are presented for a greater union of the two cultures in psychiatry. PMID:20328284

  8. Adolescent Sociopaths. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapple, Eliot D.

    Presented is the final report of a research project on the programed training and placement of nonpsychotic disturbed adolescents. Eleven chapters cover topics which include the following: psychiatry and the sociopaths and psychopaths; boys dealt with in the project; development of the programed interaction diagnostic interview; disturbances to…

  9. Psychiatry: the battered child of medicine.

    PubMed

    Greenblatt, M

    1975-01-30

    Psychiatry has had a troubled history. After the French Revolution "moral treatment" brought to America a period of effective and humane hospital treatment, but this progress was corrupted by the Industrial Revolution, and psychiatry was rejected by society as well as by medicine. Although the Freudian enlightenment and the introduction of social psychiatry have led to greater acceptance, today's criticisms are strident. Psychiatry is criticized for imprecise diagnosis, conceptual vagaries, jargon, therapeutic impotence and class bias. The American system of mental-health care is seen by many as a disaster. The federal comprehensive Community Mental Health Act has been aborted at an early stage. Skills involved in the practice of psychotherapy are not unique to the profession. Social ills, over which psychiatry has little control, play a large part in causing mental disability and retardation. Nevertheless, though embattled, psychiatry has contributed to medical practice and to the humane consciousness of society. PMID:1089193

  10. REM sleep abnormalities and psychiatry.

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, J A

    1994-01-01

    Since the 1950s, with the discovery of REM sleep and its relationship to dreaming, psychiatric sleep researchers have been interested in uncovering the complex relationship between disturbed sleep and psychiatric disorders. This paper reviews the alterations in REM sleep of relevance to psychiatry and indicates that continued developments in sleep research may assist in further understanding the neuropathophysiology of affective and other psychiatric illnesses. PMID:7803367

  11. Psychiatry and humanism in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Niño Amieva, Alejandra

    2016-04-01

    The authors of the present selection of Latin American Psychiatry texts were characterized by a common deep humanistic attitude. These prolific writers were able to establish or extend the scope of the discipline in which they chose to act, questioning the establishment of rigid boundaries within the framework of a rigorous epistemological reflection. Thus the systematizing spirit of Jose Ingenieros' in the context of positivist evolutionism, resulted in the act of founding a discipline that integrated the biological and the social. In the case of Guillermo Vidal his conception of mental health went beyond the biomedical to consider psychotherapies as an emotional commitment, continence and empathic understanding; with regard to César Cabral his formation and extensive clinical practice resulted in a work defined by the inquiring into the theoretical concepts underlying Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology. This brief selection does not exhaust the issues or the level of ideas and discussions of Psychiatry in Argentina, but constitutes a textual corpus representative of a disciplinary conception understood as scientific and humanistic endeavor. PMID:27102381

  12. Psychiatry and ethics: what cuckoo's nest next?

    PubMed

    Rich, V

    The resignations of the Soviet, Bulgarian, Czechoslovak, and Cuban psychiatric associations from the World Psychiatric Association, occasioned by charges of political abuse of psychiatry to repress dissent in the Soviet Union, cast somewhat of a pall over the Seventh World Congress on Psychiatry last week. Other Socialist bloc nations did, however, attend the Congress, at which papers on a number of ethical issues in psychiatry were presented. PMID:6866119

  13. Attitudes of Medical Students toward Psychiatry and Psychiatry as a Career: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Zaza

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The discipline of psychiatry, and psychiatry as a career option, have been negatively regarded by medical students for decades. There is a large amount of literature on attitudes of students and the factors that attract them to and detract from psychiatry. The aim of this article is to systematically review this literature from 1990 to…

  14. Positive psychiatry: its time has come.

    PubMed

    Jeste, Dilip V; Palmer, Barton W; Rettew, David C; Boardman, Samantha

    2015-06-01

    Traditionally, psychiatry has been defined and practiced as a branch of medicine focused on the diagnosis and treatment of mental illnesses. Based on growing empirical evidence, we believe that this definition warrants expansion to include the concept of positive psychiatry. In the present article, we provide a critical overview of this emerging field and a select review of relevant scientific literature. Positive psychiatry may be defined as the science and practice of psychiatry that seeks to understand and promote well-being through assessment and interventions involving positive psychosocial characteristics (PPCs) in people who suffer from or are at high risk of developing mental or physical illnesses. It can also benefit nonclinical populations. Positive psychiatry has 4 main components: (1) positive mental health outcomes (eg, well-being), (2) PPCs that comprise psychological traits (resilience, optimism, personal mastery and coping self-efficacy, social engagement, spirituality and religiosity, and wisdom-including compassion) and environmental factors (family dynamics, social support, and other environmental determinants of overall health), (3) biology of positive psychiatry constructs, and (4) positive psychiatry interventions including preventive ones. There are promising empirical data to suggest that positive traits may be improved through psychosocial and biological interventions. As a branch of medicine rooted in biology, psychiatry, especially with the proposed conceptualization of positive psychiatry, is well poised to provide major contributions to the positive mental health movement, thereby impacting the overall health care of the population. PMID:26132670

  15. Are psychiatric residents still interested in psychoanalysis? A brief report.

    PubMed

    Damsa, Cristian; Bryois, Christian; Morelli, Dawn; Cailhol, Lionel; Adam, Eric; Coman, Adrian; Stamatoiu, Daniela; Lazignac, Coralie; Freymann, Jean-Richard

    2010-12-01

    In spite of the efficacy of the psychodynamic psychotherapies, the number of young psychiatric residents interested in psychodynamic therapies is decreasing. Our psychoanalytical group, Genden (Genève-Denver), explored the possible reasons for psychiatric residents' hesitation to get psychoanalytic training. Five psychoanalytical psychotherapists met weekly for a year in order to debate that question, focusing on personal feedbacks from all of our 100 residents in psychiatry working with us for at least 4 years. Following the residents' responses, our focus group proposed ten commonsense feedbacks for psychoanalysts regarding stimulating young psychiatric residents' interest in psychoanalytic approaches. PMID:21116291

  16. Resident recruitment.

    PubMed

    Longmaid, H Esterbrook

    2003-02-01

    This article has introduced the reader to the critical components of successful recruitment of radiology residents. With particular attention to the ACGME institutional and program requirements regarding resident recruitment, and an explanation of the support systems (ERAS and NRMP) currently available to those involved in applicant review and selection, the article has sought to delineate a sensible approach to recruitment. Successful recruiters have mastered the essentials of these programs and have learned to adapt the programs to their needs. As new program directors work with their departments' resident selection committees, they will identify the factors that faculty and current residents cite as most important in the successful selection of new residents. By structuring the application review process, exploiting the power of the ERAS, and crafting a purposeful and friendly interview process, radiology residency directors can find and recruit the residents who best match their programs. PMID:12585436

  17. Child Psychiatry Curricula in Undergraduate Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Michael Gifford; Giesen, Femke; Walter, Garry

    2008-01-01

    A study to review the amount of time devoted to child psychiatry in undergraduate medical education is conducted. Results conclude that relatively low priority is given to child psychiatry in medical education with suggestions for international teaching standards on the subject.

  18. The Holy Grail of Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Nemeroff, Charles B

    2015-01-01

    "Holy Grail" is a well-known metaphor for the eternal spiritual pursuit for truth and wisdom. It suggests that in order for us to find what no one has found, we must search where few have looked. In 2013, a group led by Helen Mayberg published a groundbreaking paper that sought an answer to one of the most discussed conundrums in psychiatry and neuroscience: Can specific patterns of brain activity indicate how a depressed person will respond to treatment with medication or psychotherapy? Our author examines the findings and discusses their potential impact on treatment for a public health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. PMID:27358663

  19. Forensic psychiatry: contemporary scope, challenges and controversies

    PubMed Central

    ARBOLEDA-FLÓREZ, JULIO

    2006-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry is the branch of psychiatry that deals with issues arising in the interface between psychiatry and the law, and with the flow of mentally disordered offenders along a continuum of social systems. Modern forensic psychiatry has benefited from four key developments: the evolution in the understanding and appreciation of the relationship between mental illness and criminality; the evolution of the legal tests to define legal insanity; the new methodologies for the treatment of mental conditions providing alternatives to custodial care; and the changes in attitudes and perceptions of mental illness among the public. This paper reviews the current scope of forensic psychiatry and the ethical dilemmas that this subspecialty is facing worldwide. PMID:16946941

  20. [Use of informatics technology in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Margariti, M; Papadimitriou, G N

    2012-01-01

    psychiatrist to come to possess a specialized field of knowledge. The Internet also enables psychiatrists, while being at their residence and from their offices and homes in remote areas of a country, or from developing countries to be able to take part relatively easily in continuing medical education programs that are under development in advanced educational centers, eliminating in this way the barrier of distance. Furthermore, telemedicine allows access in health-care to people living in geographically isolated areas with poor medical facilities. The electronic filing systems on the other hand, are also expected in the near future to provide the essential foundation of sharing and managing information material in health care. Apart from the uses of technology in the practice of psychiatry, technology has many uses in Psychiatric Education, providing valuable assistance to both trainees and trainers. Today the educational community has at its disposal a range of devices, operating systems, and web applications useful in medical education. For example, we can mention the existence of technological tools for educational administration and management, evaluation of educational work, tools for creating educational content, and learning outside the confines of the classroom. Developments arising from the use of technology are rapid, and its use brings new applications that have the potential to alter the framework of practicing medicine. However, in many cases, these applications do not go along with the guidelines and principles available to doctors in order to practice their profession in a manner not inconsistent with moral imperatives. The challenge of this new environment is to establish guidelines consistent with the principles of medical ethics. PMID:23399754

  1. British psychiatry and its discontents

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Summary Psychiatry in the UK is currently faced with serious difficulties arising from failure in recruiting British doctors and a high rate of early retirement from the specialty. To diagnose the underlying causes, account must be taken of government policies affecting the NHS in general and mental health services in particular. The latter include an excessive run-down of acute hospital beds, as well as projects aimed at changing the clinical role of psychiatrists and promoting mass treatment of milder mental disorders by non-medical personnel. Psychiatrists have reacted to these developments with anger and dismay, but have as yet reached no consensus with regard to either causal factors or appropriate response. Their uncertainty reflects the need for a firmer grasp of the historical background. Modern British psychiatry was effectively created and moulded as an integral part of the NHS. It flourished as long as the public service framework remained intact, but has suffered a decline since the whole structure began to buckle under the pressure of sustained political assaults. A clearer understanding of this vital connection would help to raise psychiatrists' morale and encourage them to establish common ground with medical colleagues and other healthcare professionals. PMID:20929890

  2. Against Explanatory Minimalism in Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The idea that psychiatry contains, in principle, a series of levels of explanation has been criticized not only as empirically false but also, by Campbell, as unintelligible because it presupposes a discredited pre-Humean view of causation. Campbell’s criticism is based on an interventionist-inspired denial that mechanisms and rational connections underpin physical and mental causation, respectively, and hence underpin levels of explanation. These claims echo some superficially similar remarks in Wittgenstein’s Zettel. But attention to the context of Wittgenstein’s remarks suggests a reason to reject explanatory minimalism in psychiatry and reinstate a Wittgensteinian notion of levels of explanation. Only in a context broader than the one provided by interventionism is that the ascription of propositional attitudes, even in the puzzling case of delusions, justified. Such a view, informed by Wittgenstein, can reconcile the idea that the ascription mental phenomena presupposes a particular level of explanation with the rejection of an a priori claim about its connection to a neurological level of explanation. PMID:26696908

  3. Against Explanatory Minimalism in Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The idea that psychiatry contains, in principle, a series of levels of explanation has been criticized not only as empirically false but also, by Campbell, as unintelligible because it presupposes a discredited pre-Humean view of causation. Campbell's criticism is based on an interventionist-inspired denial that mechanisms and rational connections underpin physical and mental causation, respectively, and hence underpin levels of explanation. These claims echo some superficially similar remarks in Wittgenstein's Zettel. But attention to the context of Wittgenstein's remarks suggests a reason to reject explanatory minimalism in psychiatry and reinstate a Wittgensteinian notion of levels of explanation. Only in a context broader than the one provided by interventionism is that the ascription of propositional attitudes, even in the puzzling case of delusions, justified. Such a view, informed by Wittgenstein, can reconcile the idea that the ascription mental phenomena presupposes a particular level of explanation with the rejection of an a priori claim about its connection to a neurological level of explanation. PMID:26696908

  4. Cross-Cultural Psychiatric Residency Training: The Oregon Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehnlein, James K.; Leung, Paul K.; Kinzie, John David

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this article is to describe the goals and structure of cross-cultural psychiatric training at Oregon Health and Science University (OHSU). This training in core knowledge, skills, and attitudes of cultural psychiatry over the past three decades has included medical students, residents, and fellows, along with allied…

  5. Training Psychiatry Addiction Fellows in Acupuncture

    PubMed Central

    Serafini, Kelly; Bryant, Katurah; Ikomi, Jolomi; LaPaglia, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Objective Acupuncture has been studied as an adjunct for addictions treatment. Because many hospitals, outpatient clinics, and facilities are integrating acupuncture treatment, it is important that psychiatrists remain informed about this treatment. This manuscript describes the National Acupuncture Detoxification Association (NADA) protocol and its inclusion as part of the curriculum for psychiatry addictions fellows. Methods Psychiatry and psychology fellows completed the NADA training (N = 20) and reported on their satisfaction with the training. Results Overall, participants stated that they found the training beneficial and many were integrating acupuncture within their current practice. Conclusions Results support the acceptability of acupuncture training among psychiatry fellows in this program. PMID:26048457

  6. Psychiatry's contribution to medical ethics education.

    PubMed

    Sider, R C; Clements, C

    1982-04-01

    Two recent trends in medical education, the growth of interest in biomedical ethics and the examination of psychiatry's status in medicine, have important implications for psychiatry. Educators are needed to bring a clinical perspective to bear on ethics instruction, yet psychiatrists risk missing this opportunity. Psychiatrists are uniquely suited to contribute because of their expertise in three areas: an understanding of the affective, nonrational components in ethical thought and behavior, a developmental perspective regarding personal morality, and an appreciation of the rootedness of ethics in the social ethos. Problems with contemporary ethical models of informed consent illustrate the value of psychiatry's contribution. PMID:7065297

  7. A Marxist approach to psychology and psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Nahem, J

    1982-01-01

    Marxism considers psychology and psychiatry to be young and complex sciences which are powerfully affected by the nature of society. Marxism contributes to these sciences by applying dialectical and historical materialism to their study and development. The Marxist critique of psychology and psychiatry under capitalism identifies the immense harmful effect on them of capitalist class ideology in a number of areas: anti-working class theories, racism, national chauvinism, sexism, theories of fixed evil human nature, and false or one-sided theories. Socialism is held to provide a healthy environment for individual psychological development and to utilize psychology and psychiatry for scientific and humane ends. PMID:7076375

  8. Sacred psychiatry in ancient Greece

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    From the ancient times, there are three basic approaches for the interpretation of the different psychic phenomena: the organic, the psychological, and the sacred approach. The sacred approach forms the primordial foundation for any psychopathological development, innate to the prelogical human mind. Until the second millennium B.C., the Great Mother ruled the Universe and shamans cured the different mental disorders. But, around 1500 B.C., the predominance of the Hellenic civilization over the Pelasgic brought great changes in the theological and psychopathological fields. The Hellenes eliminated the cult of the Great Mother and worshiped Dias, a male deity, the father of gods and humans. With the Father's help and divinatory powers, the warrior-hero made diagnoses and found the right therapies for mental illness; in this way, sacerdotal psychiatry was born. PMID:24725988

  9. [Explaining and understanding in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Wölk, W

    1998-05-01

    The philosophical debate on explanation and understanding also led to basic methodological reflections in psychiatry. Subsuming one fact under a general law is the characteristic feature of scientific explanations. In this way, deductive conclusions can be achieved with a high degree of objectivity. Hermeneutical understanding makes way for interpretations in front of a given theoretical matrix. On the other hand, sympathetic understanding is a matter of conceiving single-part items as a consequence of other singular aspects (e.g., tracing back an action to an intention). If one understands the growth of knowledge as a rational and critical process, it seems no more justified to insist on exclusive methodologically based positions. PMID:9629554

  10. Neuroimaging, culture, and forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Neil K

    2009-01-01

    The spread of neuroimaging technologies around the world has led to diverse practices of forensic psychiatry and the emergence of neuroethics and neurolaw. This article surveys the neuroethics and neurolegal literature on the use of forensic neuroimaging within the courtroom. Next, the related literature within medical anthropology and science and technology studies is reviewed to show how debates about forensic neuroimaging reflect cultural tensions about attitudes regarding the self, mental illness, and medical expertise. Finally, recommendations are offered on how forensic psychiatrists can add to this research, given their professional interface between law and medicine. At stake are the fundamental concerns that surround changing conceptions of the self, sickness, and expectations of medicine. PMID:19535562

  11. [Disaster psychiatry in late life].

    PubMed

    Awata, Shuichi

    2013-10-01

    Disaster preparedness in geriatric psychiatry was proposed on the basis of experience of the Great East Japan Earthquake. 1) Frail or demented elderly should be considered as a special population at risk for disaster victims and addressed in local disaster prevention programs. 2) To response to various psychiatric symptoms(delirium, BPSD, depression, anxiety, insomnia, and posttraumatic stress disorder) caused by medical conditions and rapid environmental changes due to disaster, linkage and coordination systems between psychiatric and medical sections should be established. 3) As a medium- and long-term support for the elderly who lost the community familiar to them, creation of a new community should be promoted in order to prevent depression, alcohol dependence, BPSD, and suicide. PMID:24261221

  12. An ethical framework for psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Sidney; Green, Stephen A

    2006-01-01

    Psychiatry has not reached a consensus hitherto concerning an optimal theoretical framework for ethical decision-making and corresponding action. Various theories have been considered, but found wanting. Moreover, classic theories may contradict one another, contribute to confusion and immobilise the clinician. We have examined major theories commonly applied in bioethics, conferred with moral philosophers and psychiatrists and striven to apply more recent insights drawn from moral philosophy. We report that instead of pursuing a single theoretical framework, we should garner the strengths of compatible approaches in a synergistic way. We propose a particular complementarity of principlism--with its pragmatic focus on respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice--and care ethics, a variant of virtue theory, which highlights character traits pertinent to caring for vulnerable psychiatric patients. PMID:16388063

  13. [IMPACT OF AGING IN PSYCHIATRY].

    PubMed

    Rubin, Romina; Jauregui, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    The changes associated with aging influence the clinical presentation and treatment approach of psychiatric illness. Several psychiatric disorders are common in old age as depression or set of diseases with cognitive impairment requiring geriatric knowledge. In many countries psychiatry of the elderly are called psychogeriatric. Regardless of the name objective of this article is to convey that the psychiatrist who treats patients over 65 years with multiple disorders, with frailty social problems and polypharmacy should have some tools in addition to the thorough understanding of psychiatric illness itself. Teamwork, meet physiological changes of aging and how these affect the response to drugs, atypical presentation of illness and keep in mind the importance of psychosocial and environmental issues both in presentation and in addressing and monitoring of disease. PMID:26650408

  14. Sustainable psychiatry in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Yarlagadda, Sucharita; Maughan, Daniel; Lingwood, Susie; Davison, Phil

    2014-01-01

    Demands on our mental health services are growing as financial pressures increase. In addition, there are regular changes to service design and commissioning. The current political mantra is ‘more and more, of better quality, for less and less, please’. We suggest that mental health services need to actively respond to these constraints and that clinical transformation is needed to move towards a more sustainable system of healthcare. Emphasis on prevention, patient empowerment and leaner, greener services is required alongside more extensive use of technologies. Focusing on these areas will make mental health services more responsive to the challenges we face and serve to future-proof psychiatry in the UK. Services need to be delivered to provide maximum benefit to the health of our patients, but also to our society and the environment. PMID:25505629

  15. Research in Psychiatry: Concepts and Conceptual Analysis.

    PubMed

    Marková, Ivana S; Berrios, German E

    2016-01-01

    Current research in psychiatry is increasingly focused on empirical studies with methods and technologies adopted from medicine. This paper argues that psychiatry has a different epistemological basis from medicine, and it is on account of this that research in psychiatry demands a different approach, one that perforce focuses on the clarification of concepts central to psychiatric practice. This means undertaking conceptual analysis and conceptual history and only then moving on to empirical study. This paper highlights the crucial epistemological differences between the practice of medicine and psychiatry, showing that the latter is enacted at the level of language and communication. Consequently, the structures of psychiatric objects, namely, mental disorders and mental symptoms, are complexes of meaning derived from heterogeneous sources - both organic and semantic. Conceptual analysis of such structures is essential as ultimately the validity of empirical research is directly dependent on the conceptual clarification of its objects of inquiry. PMID:27463619

  16. [Aeromedical Decision-Making in Psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Weber, F

    2016-09-01

    This paper reviews aeromedical decision-making in psychiatry. It explains the "one-percent rule", the general medical criteria for fitness for flying and how they are applied to psychiatric disorders. PMID:27607071

  17. Toward a philosophical structure for psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Kendler, Kenneth S

    2005-03-01

    This article, which seeks to sketch a coherent conceptual and philosophical framework for psychiatry, confronts two major questions: how do mind and brain interrelate, and how can we integrate the multiple explanatory perspectives of psychiatric illness? Eight propositions are proposed and defended: 1) psychiatry is irrevocably grounded in mental, first-person experiences; 2) Cartesian substance dualism is false; 3) epiphenomenalism is false; 4) both brain-->mind and mind-->brain causality are real; 5) psychiatric disorders are etiologically complex, and no more "spirochete-like" discoveries will be made that explain their origins in simple terms; 6) explanatory pluralism is preferable to monistic explanatory approaches, especially biological reductionism; 7) psychiatry must move beyond a prescientific "battle of paradigms" to embrace complexity and support empirically rigorous and pluralistic explanatory models; 8) psychiatry should strive for "patchy reductionism" with the goal of "piecemeal integration" in trying to explain complex etiological pathways to illness bit by bit. PMID:15741457

  18. [The most important obstacles of the development of Hungarian psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Kalmár, Sándor

    2015-06-01

    A quarter of a century ago the change of the political system in Hungary precipitated a serious value-crisis and caused a lot of harmful effects in nurturing and the development of psychiatry. The author establishes that the attack against psychiatry is more intensive than previously but neither the education and health management nor the psychiatric leadership could cope with these difficulties. It can't be denied that the foundation of lifelong mental health begins in the early life years and about 75% of the first Mental Disorder manifests in adolescence and youth. We are not able to ensure the special rights of every child according to the Hungarian Constitution and the Declaration of the Rights of the Child by the United Nations. The large inequalities within the country, the lack of paramount mental education and nurturing, the lack of essential, consistent eternal values, the lack of required psychiatric care system are huge obstacles of the development of healthy individual and leads to self-destructive behaviour and several, serious physical and mental disorders. The purpose of the author is to call psychiatrists' attention to the main obstacles of the development of Hungarian Psychiatric Care System. The main obstacles of the present psychiatric care system: 1. Unclarified notions, confusion of ideas. 2. Somatic, neurologic, mental, cultural-social and spiritual ignorance. 3. Lack of organization in Mental Education and Psychiatric Care System. 4. Value-crisis in our society despite the fact that the "Council of Wise Men" created a "Scale of the Essential Consistent Eternal Values" for the Hungarian Education System in 2008. 5. Lack of mental health prevention both in education system and health care system. There is no teaching of hygiene lessons in the Hungarian schools. 6. Negligence and selfishness among the population. 7. Disinterest among competent authorities. 8. Leaving the most important possibilities out of consideration. The author establishes

  19. What can philosophy do for psychiatry?

    PubMed Central

    Fulford, Kenneth WM; Stanghellini, Giovanni; Broome, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    This article illustrates the practical impact of recent developments in the philosophy of psychiatry in five key areas: patient-centred practice, new models of service delivery, neuroscience research, psychiatric education, and the organisation of psychiatry as an international science-led discipline focused on patient care. We conclude with a note on the role of philosophy in countering the stigmatisation of mental disorder. PMID:16633476

  20. [Psychiatry, the field of all risks].

    PubMed

    Gilioli, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Mental disorders lead patients along paths of irrationality. Insanity is perceived as excessiveness, often associated with violence. Risk in psychiatry is omnipresent and nursing practice is performed within a narrow safety zone. The media coverage of sensitive situations does not help. Ensuring the patient's recovery, respecting the fundamental principles of individual freedom while assuring the utmost safety of others is the constant challenge facing caregivers in psychiatry. PMID:26143214

  1. Consultation-liaison psychiatry in China

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Jianlin; Ye, Chenyu

    2012-01-01

    Consultation-liaison psychiatry (CLP) was first established in China after liberation in 1949. It has developed more rapidly over the last two decades but, despite major regional differences in the level of CLP, the overall practice of CLP in the country remains quite basic, largely limited to case-based consultation with other medical departments. There is little ongoing collaboration between departments of psychiatry and other departments, and medical students and non-psychiatric clinicians rarely get training in CLP. PMID:25324616

  2. Postgraduate training in psychiatry in India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shridhar

    2010-01-01

    This review traces the evolution of modern medical education in India on the one hand and the formation of the Indian Psychiatric Society and the progress of postgraduate psychiatric education on the other hand, all in the context of Indian psychiatry. The topic is covered under the headings standard of psychiatric education, the goals, competencies required, impact of psychiatric disorders, relation of medicine to psychiatry, and the directions for the future of postgraduate psychiatric training. PMID:21836724

  3. Power, change, and 'the culture of psychiatry'

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Sadeq

    2014-12-01

    It is not uncommon to encounter 'the culture of psychiatry' used as a descriptive or even explanatory concept in discussions of psychiatric practices and services, specifically in research addressing cultural aspects of psychiatry. Drawing on data from research on the role of culture in psychiatric services in the Boston area, this paper critically examines the attribution of a 'culture' to psychiatry, which is prevalent not simply in mainstream psychiatric literature, but also in certain lines of cultural psychiatry, specifically those dedicated to political and anti-racist activism. It is argued that the use of such terminology could be misleading as it implicitly attributes a sense of coherence and agency to what may best be described as a set of related discourses and sociopolitical practices. It is further suggested that, given the implications of using such terminology as 'culture' in our discussions of psychiatry as a social institution, a scientific discourse, or a clinical practice, it would be more fruitful to address the analytic concepts of power, meaning, and the sociopolitical functions of psychiatry instead. PMID:25159045

  4. The Future of Psychiatry as Clinical Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Charles F.; Lewis, David A.; Detre, Thomas; Schatzberg, Alan F.; Kupfer, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Psychiatry includes the assessment, treatment, and prevention of complex brain disorders, such as depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, developmental disorders (e.g., autism), and neurodegenerative disorders (e.g., Alzheimer dementia). Its core mission is to prevent and alleviate the distress and impairment caused by these disorders, which account for a substantial part of the global burden of illness-related disability. Psychiatry is grounded in clinical neuroscience. Its core mission, now and in the future, is best served within this context because advances in assessment, treatment, and prevention of brain disorders are likely to originate from studies of etiology and pathophysiology based in clinical and translational neuroscience. To ensure its broad public health relevance in the future, psychiatry must also bridge science and service, ensuring that those who need the benefits of its science are also its beneficiaries. To do so effectively, psychiatry as clinical neuroscience must strengthen its partnerships with the disciplines of public health (including epidemiology), community and behavioral health science, and health economics. The authors present a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis of psychiatry and identify strategies for strengthening its future and increasing its relevance to public health and the rest of medicine. These strategies encompass new approaches to strengthening the relationship between psychiatry and neurology, financing psychiatry’s mission, emphasizing early and sustained multidisciplinary training (research and clinical), bolstering the academic infrastructure, and reorganizing and refinancing mental health services both for preventive intervention and cost-effective chronic disease management. PMID:19318776

  5. Divergent Fates of the Medical Humanities in Psychiatry and Internal Medicine: Should Psychiatry Be Rehumanized?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Bret R.; Hellerstein, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine the degree to which the medical humanities have been integrated into the fields of internal medicine and psychiatry, the authors assessed the presence of medical humanities articles in selected psychiatry and internal medicine journals from 1950 to 2000. Methods: The journals searched were the three highest-ranking…

  6. Psychiatry Clerkship Students' Preparation, Reflection, and Results on the NBME Psychiatry Subject Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Gregory W.; Fore-Arcand, Lisa; Levine, Ruth E.; Carlson, David L.; Spollen, John J.; Pelic, Christopher; Al-Mateen, Cheryl S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Psychiatry clerkship training involves many learning components, one of which is acquisition of scholarly knowledge. The authors investigate the reading materials and learning methods used by clinical clerks in their preparation for the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) Psychiatry Subject Exam (PSE). Methods: Clerkship students…

  7. Innovative Training in Pediatrics, General Psychiatry, and Child Psychiatry: Background, Outcomes, and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Mary Margaret; Fritz, Gregory K.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The authors describe the history, rationale, and outcomes of combined training programs in pediatrics, psychiatry, and child psychiatry ("triple board"), including narrative feedback from graduates and reflections upon the important components of the program. Methods: This article reviews the background and experiences of triple board…

  8. Attitudes of Medical Students towards Psychiatry: Effects of Training, Courses in Psychiatry, Psychiatric Experience and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhnigk, Olaf; Strebel, Bernd; Schilauske, Joerg; Jueptner, Markus

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The attitudes of medical students towards psychiatry and psychotherapy were examined considering the extent of their education, previous psychiatry experience, the evaluation of the course, their career intentions and socio-demographic variables. Methods: Five hundred and eight medical students in their second, fifth, ninth and tenth…

  9. Administrative issues in child and adult psychiatry training programs.

    PubMed

    Westman, J C

    1978-01-01

    Child psychiatry training programs have encountered a number of administrative problems resulting from efforts to recognize, without isolating or submerging, the unique aspects of child psychiatry within existing departments of psychiatry. This paper questions the validity of the concept of general psychiatry, which may be responsible for many of these administrative dilemmas. The thesis is advanced that adult and child psychiatry actually represent distinct fields of practice, however, training programs for each should be integrated within departments of psychiatry through both adult and child divisional administrative lines. PMID:688803

  10. New image of psychiatry, mass media impact and public relations.

    PubMed

    Jakovljević, Miro; Tomić, Zoran; Maslov, Boris; Skoko, Iko

    2010-06-01

    The mass media has a powerful impact on public attitudes about mental health and psychiatry. The question of identity of psychiatry as a medical profession as well as of the future of psychiatry has been the subject of much controversial discussion. Psychiatry today has the historical opportunity to shape the future of mental health care, medicine and society. It has gained in scientific and professional status by the tremendous increase of knowledge and treatment skills. Psychiatry should build up new transdisciplinary and integrative image of a specialized profession, promote it and make it public. Good public relations are very important for the future of psychiatry. PMID:20562738

  11. Permanent resident

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, John F.

    2016-01-01

    The training of physicians in the past century was based primarily on responsibility and the chain-of-command. Those with the bulk of that responsibility in the fields of pediatrics and internal medicine were residents. Residents trained the medical students and supervised them carefully in caring for patients. Most attending physicians supervised their teams at arm's length, primarily serving as teachers of the finer points of diagnosis and treatment during set periods of the day or week with a perfunctory signature on write-ups or progress notes. Residents endeavored to protect the attending physician from being heavily involved unless they were unsure about a clinical problem. Before contacting the attending physician, a more senior resident would be called. Responsibility was the ultimate teacher. The introduction of diagnosis-related groups by the federal government dramatically changed the health care delivery system, placing greater emphasis on attending physician visibility in the medical record, ultimately resulting in more attending physician involvement in day-to-day care of patients in academic institutions. Without specified content in attending notes, hospital revenues would decline. Although always in charge technically, attending physicians increasingly have assumed the role once dominated by the resident. Using biographical experiences of more than 40 years, the author acknowledges and praises the educational role of responsibility in his own training and laments its declining role in today's students and house staff. PMID:27193992

  12. Cultural competency training in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, A; Collazos, F; Ramos, M; Casas, M

    2008-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that the quality of care provided to immigrant and ethnic minority patients is not at the same level as that provided to majority group patients. Although the European Board of Medical Specialists recognizes awareness of cultural issues as a core component of the psychiatry specialization, few medical schools provide training in cultural issues. Cultural competence represents a comprehensive response to the mental health care needs of immigrant and ethnic minority patients. Cultural competence training involves the development of knowledge, skills, and attitudes that can improve the effectiveness of psychiatric treatment. Cognitive cultural competence involves awareness of the various ways in which culture, immigration status, and race impact psychosocial development, psychopathology, and therapeutic transactions. Technical cultural competence involves the application of cognitive cultural competence, and requires proficiency in intercultural communication, the capacity to develop a therapeutic relationship with a culturally different patient, and the ability to adapt diagnosis and treatment in response to cultural difference. Perhaps the greatest challenge in cultural competence training involves the development of attitudinal competence inasmuch as it requires exploration of cultural and racial preconceptions. Although research is in its infancy, there are increasing indications that cultural competence can improve key aspects of the psychiatric treatment of immigrant and minority group patients. PMID:18371580

  13. Neurology and psychiatry in Babylon.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Edward H; Wilson, James V Kinnier

    2014-09-01

    We here review Babylonian descriptions of neurological and psychiatric disorders, including epilepsy, stroke, psychoses, obsessive compulsive disorder, phobias, psychopathic behaviour, depression and anxiety. Most of these accounts date from the first Babylonian dynasty of the first half of the second millennium BC, within a millennium and a half of the origin of writing. The Babylonians were remarkably acute and objective observers of medical disorders and human behaviour. Their detailed descriptions are surprisingly similar to modern 19th and 20th century AD textbook accounts, with the exception of subjective thoughts and feelings which are more modern fields of enquiry. They had no knowledge of brain or psychological function. Some neuropsychiatric disorders, e.g. stroke or facial palsy, had a physical basis requiring the attention of a physician or asû, using a plant and mineral based pharmacology; some disorders such as epilepsy, psychoses, depression and anxiety were regarded as supernatural due to evil demons or spirits, or the anger of personal gods, and thus required the intervention of the priest or ašipu; other disorders such as obsessive compulsive disorder and psychopathic behaviour were regarded as a mystery. The Babylonians were the first to describe the clinical foundations of neurology and psychiatry. We discuss these accounts in relation to subsequent and more modern clinical descriptions. PMID:25037816

  14. History and current condition of Russian psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Krasnov, Valery N; Gurovich, Isaak

    2012-08-01

    Russian psychiatry has a dramatic history, and until now has been at a transitional stage of development. It is facing problems not only common in world psychiatry, but also specific to eastern Europe, in particular Russia. Starting from the beginning of the 1990s, considerable changes have occurred in psychiatry, especially after 1992 when the law on psychiatric care and guarantees of citizens' rights in its provision was adopted. It became the ideological and legislative basis for reforms. However, there are definite obstacles to structural reforms in psychiatry. They are unfavourable technical conditions in many psychiatric clinics, hypercentralization of psychiatric services, shortage of clinical psychologists and social workers in psychiatry, some difficulties in cooperation between psychiatric and general medical institutions. Economic difficulties in the transition period of Russia's social development prevent the overcoming of these problems. They are being actively discussed and some of them are being gradually solved, e.g. the organization of team work in mental health services, the increasing number of specialists on social work, and the involvement of non-government organizations in psychosocial rehabilitation. PMID:22950772

  15. [Where is going philosophy of psychiatry ?].

    PubMed

    Basso, Elisabetta

    2016-12-01

    This contribution provides a critical outline of the current trends in the field of "philosophy of psychiatry" by following their developments in the last decade. The first part of the paper focuses on the evolution of this field from a strictly conceptual approach to a perspective more attentive to the social, practical, and clinical dimension of psychiatry. The second part of the paper points out that the need of a mutual commitment of philosophy and psychiatry is perceived according to different ways by the countries involved in this research area. The paper deals especially with the case of France, where the enthusiasm for the "new philosophy of psychiatry" has not had the same impact on the philosophical scene as in the English speaking countries. In conclusion, the paper shows that the field of philosophy of psychiatry stands as a fertile ground for new forms of interaction between the analytic, and the continental philosophical traditions. This interaction takes place, more particularly, as regards such topics as normativity, language, and interpretation. PMID:27550463

  16. Gender Differential Influences of Early Adolescent Risk Factors for the Development of Depressive Affect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stemmler, Mark; Petersen, Anne C.

    2005-01-01

    Based on a model by Cyranowski, J., et al. (2000), Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 57: 21-27, adolescents at-risk for the development of depressive symptoms were identified. Adolescents were considered at-risk if they had 2 or more of the following early adolescent risk factors: (1) insecure parental attachment, (2) anxious/inhibited temperament, (3) low…

  17. Central registry in psychiatry: A structured review

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Jyoti; Ramakrishnan, TS; Das, R. C.; Srivastava, K.; Mehta, Suresh; Shashikumar, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Central registry in psychiatry is being practiced in few countries and has been found useful in research and clinical management. Role of central registry has also expanded over the years. Materials and Methods: All accessible internet database Medline, Scopus, Embase were accessed from 1990 till date. Available data were systematically reviewed in structured manner and analyzed. Results: Central registry was found useful in epidemiological analysis, association studies, outcome studies, comorbidity studies, forensic issue, effective of medication, qualitative analysis etc., Conclusion: Central registry proves to be effective tool in quantitative and qualitative understanding of psychiatry practice. Findings of studies from central registry can be useful in modifying best practice and evidence based treatment in psychiatry. PMID:25535438

  18. Issues in forensic psychiatry in Islamic jurisprudence.

    PubMed

    Chaleby, K S

    1996-01-01

    There are few other specialties in psychiatry where the cultural nature and social norms of a society has more impact than the specialty of forensic psychiatry. In the Muslim and Arab worlds, Islamic principles govern the foundation of thoughts required to make laws. Those necessarily include legal issues in psychiatry. The impact of these matters on individuals as patients and the community at large can not be overestimated. Those issues will include laws of involuntary hospitalization and evaluation of mental competence toward different life functions such as commercial interaction, writing a will, marriage, divorce, and child custody. Islamic law has a definite position on criminal responsibility as well as other vital matters such as compensation of damages, including medical malpractice. This article discusses problems and peculiarities involved in the canonization of these laws in islamic communities, considering different arguments presented from one point of view versus another. PMID:8891327

  19. Training Clinicians in Cultural Psychiatry: A Canadian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirmayer, Laurence J.; Rousseau, Cecile; Guzder, Jaswant; Jarvis, G. Eric

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The authors summarize the pedagogical approaches and curriculum used in the training of clinicians in cultural psychiatry at the Division of Social and Transcultural Psychiatry, McGill University. Method: We reviewed available published and unpublished reports on the history and development of training in cultural psychiatry at McGill…

  20. [Evaluating the current status of anthropologic psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Degenhard, M

    1997-10-01

    Phenomenological psychiatry examines the variety of psychiatric diseases as regular modifications of human feeling tone experience and behaviour, which can be derived approximately from the nature of man as defined philosophically, Interdisciplinary self-conception of phenomenological psychiatry as a science calls for a constant critical dialogue with the philosophy of man and other disciplines of the humanities. The point of departure of phenomenological psychiatry is the mental or affective illness of the individual patient, with which the psychiatrist is acquainted, and reflects in interpersonal encounters in such a way that individual case studies are of central importance in this area of studies. From a methodological point of view two approaches are to be differentiated within the field of research in phenomenological psychiatry: 1. The phenomenological approach is concerned with the analysis of specific patterns of disturbance of the transcendental organisation of psychotic subjectivity. 2. The interpretative approaches are again divided into the so called "Daseinsanalyse" as a hermeneutic access to the inner biography and "Weltanschauung" of the psychiatric patient as well as the attempts of understanding the meaning of psychotic forms of experience. In this context a survey of the current fields of research of phenomenological psychiatry is given which aims at a deeper understanding of the situation of psychiatric patients and which claims to have a strong relevance for therapy. The relevance of such a phenomenological approach for current psychiatry lies in a broadening and sophistication of our experience in clinic and practice. Its main interest lies in the concentration on the patient as an individual and on the existential dimension of forms of mental and emotional diseases. PMID:9445840

  1. Recent Stressful Life Events among Bahraini Adolescents with Adjustment Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Ansari, Ahmed; Matar, Ali M.

    1993-01-01

    Retrospectively examined adolescents from two time periods, diagnosed with adjustment disorder (n=72), for type of life stressors that initiated referrals to child psychiatry unit and compared them to control group of 42 referred adolescents with no psychopathology. Disappointment in relationships with family member or friend of opposite sex was…

  2. Why do we need a social psychiatry?

    PubMed

    Ventriglio, Antonio; Gupta, Susham; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2016-07-01

    Human beings are social animals, and familial or social relationships can cause a variety of difficulties as well as providing support in our social functioning. The traditional way of looking at mental illness has focused on abnormal thoughts, actions and behaviours in response to internal causes (such as biological factors) as well as external ones such as social determinants and social stressors. We contend that psychiatry is social. Mental illness and interventions in psychiatry should be considered in the framework of social context where patients live and factors they face on a daily basis. PMID:27369473

  3. Senior Medical Students' Attitudes toward Psychiatry as a Career Choice before and after an Undergraduate Psychiatry Internship in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amini, Homayoun; Moghaddam, Yasaman; Nejatisafa, Ali-Akbar; Esmaeili, Sara; Kaviani, Hosein; Shoar, Saeed; Shabani, Amir; Samimi-Ardestani, Mehdi; Akhlaghi, Amir Abbas Keshavarz; Noroozi, Alireza; Mafi, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The study aimed to assess 1) the attitudes of medical students in the sixth and seventh years (known as interns in Iran) toward psychiatry as a career choice, and 2) the degree of attractiveness of psychiatry as a career choice, with regard to various defined aspects, before and after an undergraduate psychiatry internship (similar to…

  4. Holistic-medical foundations of American psychiatry: a bicentennial.

    PubMed

    Lipowski, Z J

    1981-07-01

    American psychiatry has reached its bicentennial. Holistic-medical foundations have been its hallmark, inspiration, and source of preeminence. Incorporated by psychobiology, the American school, they enabled the growth of psychiatry as a medical specialty and scientific discipline and stimulated unparalleled growth of general hospital psychiatry, psychiatric research and teaching, and psychosomatic medicine and liaison psychiatry. Holistic conceptions, a product of a democratic system and the liberal mind, continue to provide the best framework for psychiatry and an antidote to dogma and fanaticism. PMID:7020433

  5. Physical activity among Norwegian adolescents- a multilevel analysis of how place of residence is associated with health behaviour: the Young-HUNT study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this article is to investigate whether and to what degree participation in physical activity among adolescents is associated with area economic deprivation in the municipality where they live. In the study we took account of aggregated informal social capital at the municipality level and compositional effects due to spatial concentration of individual variables known to be associated with physical activity. These include informal social participation, participation in other cultural activities, and family affluence. Methods The study was based on a secondary analysis of data from the Norwegian HUNT study and municipality characteristics from the Norwegian Social Science Data Service ‘Commune Database’ from 2006. The sample consisted of 8114 adolescents whose ages ranged from 13 to 19. The explanatory power of the independent variables on the dependent variable was assessed using a multilevel analysis in which individuals comprised the first level and were nested within the municipality level. Results The average level of physical activity was not negatively associated with the level of area economic deprivation when we adjusted for informal social participation at the community level. Adjusting for area economic deprivation, we found that informal social participation at the community level was associated with a higher level of participation in physical activity at p< .01. Conclusion For adolescents in a given municipality, informal social participation is more strongly associated with a higher level of physical activity than the degree of area economic deprivation. This finding supports our social capital hypothesis, which states that the amount of social capital is strengthening the individual’s ability to take part in physical activity. PMID:23883144

  6. Indian Psychiatry and classification of psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, K. S.

    2010-01-01

    The contribution of Indian psychiatry to classification of mental disorders has been limited and restricted to acute and transient psychosis and to possession disorders. There is a need for leadership in research in order to match diagnosis and management strategies to the Indian context and culture. PMID:21836665

  7. [Transcranial magnetic stimulation used in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Bouché, Christophe; Marigaux, Sandrine; Pattedoie, Nicolas

    2015-11-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation is a non-invasive treatment technique, using electromagnetism properties. It has been used for around twenty years in neurology (treatment of neuropathic pain, certain abnormal movements, Parkinson's disease), and in psychiatry (obsessive compulsive disorder, hallucinations, mood disorders, etc.). The presence and support of a nurse during the sessions is essential. PMID:26548388

  8. Digital applications: the future in psychiatry?

    PubMed Central

    Thibaut, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Digital applications and new mobile technologies can change the nature of the psychiatrist-patient relationship and future clinical practice in terms of diagnosis, follow-up, and treatment, but need to be further studied. This issue explores these new approaches in psychiatry. PMID:27489451

  9. Criminal Forensic Psychiatry: A Primer for Psychiatrists.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Scott A

    2016-06-01

    Many mentally ill people are currently held in correctional settings, and general psychiatrists should be familiar with criminal forensic psychiatry in order to understand the legal aspects of the evaluation and treatment of these individuals, especially with regard to competency to stand trial and insanity. This educational activity briefly explains these evaluations and reviews relevant landmark legal cases. PMID:27337424

  10. Psychiatry Goes Mod, Accepts Behavior Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the report of a task force of the American Psychiatric Association signaling change in the attitude of traditional psychiatry towards behavioral therapy. The report recognizes the effectiveness of behavior modifications and recommends that the teaching of behavior therapy be expanded. (JR)

  11. Gait and its assessment in psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    Gait reflects all levels of nervous system function. In psychiatry, gait disturbances reflecting cortical and subcortical dysfunction are often seen. Observing spontaneous gait, sometimes augmented by a few brief tests, can be highly informative. The authors briefly review the neuroanatomy of gait, review gait abnormalities seen in psychiatric and neurologic disorders, and describe the assessment of gait. PMID:20805918

  12. Educational Supervision Appropriate for Psychiatry Trainee's Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rele, Kiran; Tarrant, C. Jane

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors studied the regularity and content of supervision sessions in one of the U.K. postgraduate psychiatric training schemes (Mid-Trent). Methods: A questionnaire sent to psychiatry trainees assessed the timing and duration of supervision, content and protection of supervision time, and overall quality of supervision. The authors…

  13. Psychopathology as the basic science of psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Stanghellini, Giovanni; Broome, Matthew R

    2014-09-01

    We argue that psychopathology, as the discipline that assesses and makes sense of abnormal human subjectivity, should be at the heart of psychiatry. It should be a basic educational prerequisite in the curriculum for mental health professionals and a key element of the shared intellectual identity of clinicians and researchers in this field. PMID:25179621

  14. Imaging-Genetics Applications in Child Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To place imaging-genetics research in the context of child psychiatry. Method: A conceptual overview is provided, followed by discussion of specific research examples. Results: Imaging-genetics research is described linking brain function to two specific genes, for the serotonin-reuptake-transporter protein and a monoamine oxidase…

  15. The overlapping territories of psychiatry and ethology.

    PubMed

    Kramer, D A; McKinney, W T

    1979-01-01

    There have been numerous attempts since 1965 to stimulate more utilization of ethological methods and concepts in psychiatry. This literature is reviewed and an attempt is made to identify the factors which have inhibited an enhancement of this interaction to date. Most of the previous articles on this subject have appeared in edited collections, rather than in more widely circulated psychiatric or medical journals. Some of the articles focus on ethological theory, others on ethological research findings, and several on clinical analogies between animal and human situations. Regarding the specific way in which to integrate ethological thought into psychiatry, most frequently a phylogenetic approach is emphasized, however a few authors stress methodological considerations. In this paper, it is argued that artifactual differences have been the primary impediment to more interaction between these two rather similar fields. Scientific language difficulties, educational differences, and personal factors are described in this regard. Also, the real differences in approach and methodology, relative interest in normal vs. abnormal behavior, the degree of willingness to accept a phylogenetic approach, and the breadth of behavior being studied by the two fields are described. Examples of current areas of applicability of ethology to psychiatry are given: the attachment systems, early infantile autism, methodology, social psychiatry, and psychiatric education. Of these, the area where the most utilized is that of the occurred and in which the findings of ethology have been the most utilized is that of the attachment systems. Clinically applicable studies based upon the premise that attachment systems exist as understood ethologically are reviewed. These include study of extra physical contact between mothers and infants at birth, the prediction of child abuse and neglect utilizing observations from the immediate postpartum period, the treatment of failure to thrive by

  16. [Electroconvulsive therapy in depressed adolescents].

    PubMed

    van Niel, M C; Hegeman, J M; van Megen, H J G M

    2007-08-11

    Two patients, young women aged 15 and 17, both suffering from major depression with psychotic features, were resistant to treatment with antidepressive regimen and psychotherapy. Both patients became severely suicidal and were subsequently successfully treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). The second patient needed maintenance ECT once a month in order to stay in remission. Whereas ECT is a well-studied and accepted treatment option in adult psychiatry, in child psychiatry people are reluctant to even consider this option. This resistance is partly based on the possible side effects ofECT i.e. memory problems. As a result, the effect ofECT in adolescents has not yet been well studied. In 2004, the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry proposed guidelines for the use of ECT in adolescents. Following these guidelines, the use ofECT in adolescents seems to be a safe treatment option, however further research to the effect of ECT in this age group is warranted. PMID:17822246

  17. The prevention of depression in nursing home residents: a randomized clinical trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy.

    PubMed

    Konnert, Candace; Dobson, Keith; Stelmach, Liza

    2009-03-01

    The prevention of depression in individuals who are at risk is important for affected individuals, their family members, and for society at large. This study presents the results of a randomized clinical trial aimed at the prevention of depression in nursing home residents. Residents were screened with the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and a diagnostic interview. Those with elevated GDS scores who did not meet diagnostic criteria for depression were randomly assigned to a treatment or control (treatment as usual, TAU) condition. The treatment was an adaptation of the Coping with Stress program developed by Clarke et al. (1995; Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34, 312-321), and focused on various components typical of cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) programs (e.g. increasing pleasant events, reducing negative cognitions). Both groups were assessed on measures of depression before treatment, after treatment, and at 3- and 6-month follow-up points. Compared with the TAU group, residents receiving the intervention showed considerable improvement over the 6-month follow-up on the GDS. Average scores on the GDS, for example, went from 14.0 to 9.4 in the CBT group over the course of treatment and follow-up, vs. scores from 13.4 to 12.3 for the TAU group over the same time. However, results on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale at 3 months were nonsignificant. Overall, the results of this study suggest that a brief, group-based CBT program can have significant benefit in nursing home residents at risk for depression. PMID:19347696

  18. The Task before Psychiatry Today Redux: STSPIR*

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajai R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines six important tasks for psychiatry today, which can be put in short as: Spread and scale up services;Talk;Science,Psychotherapy;Integrate; andResearch excellence. As an acronym, STSPIR. Spread and scale up services: Spreading mental health services to uncovered areas, and increasing facilities in covered areas:Mental disorders are leading cause of ill health but bottom of health agenda;Patients face widespread discrimination, human rights violations and lack of facilities;Need to stem the brain drain from developing countries;At any given point, 10% of the adult population report having some mental or behavioural disorder;In India, serious mental disorders affect nearly 80 million people, i.e. combined population of the northern top of India, including Punjab, Haryana, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh;Combating imbalance between burden of demand and supply of efficient psychiatric services in all countries, especially in developing ones like India, is the first task before psychiatry today. If ever a greater role for activism were needed, this is the field;The need is to scale up effective and cost-effective treatments and preventive interventions for mental disorders.Talk: Speaking to a wider audience about positive contributions of psychiatry: Being aware of, understanding, and countering, the massive anti-psychiatry propaganda online and elsewhere;Giving a firm answer to anti-psychiatry even while understanding its transformation into mental health consumerism and opposition to reckless medicalisation;Defining normality and abnormality;Bringing about greater precision in diagnosis and care;Motivating those helped by psychiatry to speak up;Setting up informative websites and organising programmes to reduce stigma and spread mental health awareness;Setting up regular columns in psychiatry journals around the globe, called ‘Patients Speak’, or something similar, wherein those who have been helped get a chance to voice

  19. The Task before Psychiatry Today Redux: STSPIR*.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajai R

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines six important tasks for psychiatry today, which can be put in short as: Spread and scale up services;Talk;Science,Psychotherapy;Integrate; andResearch excellence. As an acronym, STSPIR. Spread and scale up services: Spreading mental health services to uncovered areas, and increasing facilities in covered areas:Mental disorders are leading cause of ill health but bottom of health agenda;Patients face widespread discrimination, human rights violations and lack of facilities;Need to stem the brain drain from developing countries;At any given point, 10% of the adult population report having some mental or behavioural disorder;In India, serious mental disorders affect nearly 80 million people, i.e. combined population of the northern top of India, including Punjab, Haryana, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh;Combating imbalance between burden of demand and supply of efficient psychiatric services in all countries, especially in developing ones like India, is the first task before psychiatry today. If ever a greater role for activism were needed, this is the field;The need is to scale up effective and cost-effective treatments and preventive interventions for mental disorders.TALK: Speaking to a wider audience about positive contributions of psychiatry:Being aware of, understanding, and countering, the massive anti-psychiatry propaganda online and elsewhere;Giving a firm answer to anti-psychiatry even while understanding its transformation into mental health consumerism and opposition to reckless medicalisation;Defining normality and abnormality;Bringing about greater precision in diagnosis and care;Motivating those helped by psychiatry to speak up;Setting up informative websites and organising programmes to reduce stigma and spread mental health awareness;Setting up regular columns in psychiatry journals around the globe, called 'Patients Speak', or something similar, wherein those who have been helped get a chance to voice their

  20. A review of psychiatric literature for residency training programs, 1980s.

    PubMed Central

    Malmquist, C; Soth, N

    1984-01-01

    The authors obtained cumulated reading lists from sixteen nationally-recognized psychiatric residency programs to assess the common body of knowledge shared by recent psychiatry graduates and learn which works in psychiatry had survived from an earlier compilation in 1964 (Woods, Pieper, and Frazier, "Basic Psychiatric Literature" [2]. The new list was compiled by consensus, with the working assumptions that books of importance would appear on the list of more than one program and that a book or article's relative usefulness was related to the number of appearances on different residency lists. An updated list for the 1980s is provided from the survey and is compared to the 1964 list compiled from a survey of experts in the field of psychiatry. PMID:6378287

  1. Cultural psychiatry. Theoretical, clinical, and research issues.

    PubMed

    Lewis-Fernández, R; Kleinman, A

    1995-09-01

    As a discipline, cultural psychiatry has matured considerably in recent years and the ongoing quality of its theoretical, clinical, and research development holds great promise. The contemporary emphasis on culture as process permits a deeper analysis of the complexities of sociosomatics--the translation of meanings and social relations into bodily experience--and, thus, of the social course of illness. We also are learning a great deal more about cultural processes that affect therapy, including ethnopharmacologic and culturally valid family interventions that are directly relevant to patient care and mental health policy. And an important set of studies is examining the trauma experienced by refugees and immigrants. But at the same time many disquieting findings still point to the limited impact of cultural psychiatry on knowledge creation and clinical application in psychiatry. The failure of the cultural validation of DSM-IV is only the most dismaying. The persistent misdiagnosis of minority patients and the continued presence of racial bias in some treatment recommendations are also disheartening, as is the seeming contempt of many mainstream psychiatrists for culturally defined syndromes and folk healing systems. Widespread inattention to ethnic issues in medical ethics is another source of dismay. It is for these reasons that the culture of psychiatry itself becomes as important as the culture of patients as a topic for research and intervention. Most of the world still suffers from a terrible lack of basic mental health services, including life-saving medications and hospital beds. In the face of these limitations, and because of the increasing multicultural and pluralistic reality of contemporary life, the growing interpretive bridges linking indigenous systems of illness classification and healing to Western nosologies and therapeutic modalities become even more essential and the reluctance of mainstream clinicians to explore folk healing methods more

  2. Do Medical Students' Attitudes Toward Psychiatry and Their Intention to Pursue Psychiatry as a Career Change During Psychiatric Attachment?

    PubMed Central

    Khajeddin, Niloofar; Riahi, Foroughe; Salehi Veysi, Mhammad; Hoseyni, Hajar; Izadi Mazidi, Sakineh

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the attitudes of medical students toward psychiatry and their intention to pursue psychiatry as a career; and to determine if they change after psychiatric attachment. It also examined the relationship between the students' characteristics and their attitudes in details. Methods: Pre and post-surveys using Likert-type scales were conducted versus 106 medical students of Ahwaz Jondishapour University who entered psychiatric attachment between spring 2007 and spring 2010. They completed a demographic form and an "attitude toward psychiatry" questionnaire with two excess questions which measured their intention to pursue psychiatry as a career in future. Results: The majority of students appeared to have favorable attitudes before the attachment which improved during the course; but they didn't show significant change in their intention to pursue psychiatry as a prospective career. There was a significant correlation between age and change in attitudes. Also the career intention was significantly correlated with their attitudes. Conclusion: The study confirms previous reports that training can change students' attitudes toward psychiatry, but contrasting with them suggests that negative attitudes are not likely to be the main cause of the low career intention to psychiatry. Thus, teaching psychiatry can get the students rid of their negative attitudes but is not enough to encourage them to pursue psychiatry as a career. The authors suggest it is based on poor opportunities for postgraduates in the field and social stigma attached to psychiatry, which needs further studies. PMID:24644470

  3. A Context for Classification in Child Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Carrey, Normand; Gregson, John

    2008-01-01

    Objective To provide a context for classification in child psychiatry over last 45 years including debate over different approaches. Method The context for classification of child psychiatric disorders has changed drastically since the introduction of categorical classification and the multi-axial formulation in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) and the International Classification of Disease (ICD). The authors review some historical factors including the shift in psychiatry to a universal classification system spanning the lifespan. Results The adaptation of categorical and universal diagnosis has resulted in a series of child-adult lifespan continuities and discontinuities about how problems are conceptualized within the categorical, multi-axial system. Conclusion There is need for a more flexible classification system to incorporate emerging data from longitudinal and gene-environment (GxE) interaction studies within the framework of attachment, developmental and systems theory. PMID:18516306

  4. [Philosophy against psychiatry, right up against it].

    PubMed

    Demazeux, Steeves

    2016-12-01

    Since the early 1990s, there has been a tremendous new interest at the international level for researches at the crossroad between philosophy and psychiatry. This interest has been supported and quite stimulated by the foundation of a dedicated association, as well as by the establishment of a journal and the promotion of a new collection. My aim in this paper is to trace the origins of the so-called "new philosophy of psychiatry" field and to reconstruct its global intellectual dynamics during the past two decades. I try to identify, through the big diversity of the individual contributions, its dominant theoretical orientations but also what may appear as some of its philosophical blind spots. PMID:27550457

  5. A Prescription for "Deprescribing" in Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Swapnil; Cahill, John Daniel

    2016-08-01

    The term "deprescribing," initially coined in geriatric medicine, describes a process of pharmacologic regimen optimization through reduction or cessation of medications for which benefits no longer outweigh risks. Burgeoning rates of polypharmacy, growing appreciation of long-term adverse effects, and a focus on patient-centered practice present specific indications for deprescribing in psychiatry. A strong therapeutic alliance, appropriate timing, and consideration of the meaning of medication for the patient must accompany the following established elements: review of all medications, identification of medications that could be ceased or reduced, collaborative planning of the deprescribing regimen, and provision of review and support to the patient and caregivers. The authors discuss how deprescribing might be adapted for and implemented in psychiatry, identify potential barriers, and make recommendations for future directions. PMID:26975524

  6. Indianization of psychiatry utilizing Indian mental concepts.

    PubMed

    Avasthi, Ajit; Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Most of the psychiatry practice in India is guided by the western concepts of mental health and illness, which have largely ignored the role of religion, family, eastern philosophy, and medicine in understanding and managing the psychiatric disorders. India comprises of diverse cultures, languages, ethnicities, and religious affiliations. However, besides these diversities, there are certain commonalities, which include Hinduism as a religion which is spread across the country, the traditional family system, ancient Indian system of medicine and emphasis on use of traditional methods like Yoga and Meditation for controlling mind. This article discusses as to how mind and mental health are understood from the point of view of Hinduism, Indian traditions and Indian systems of medicine. Further, the article focuses on as to how these Indian concepts can be incorporated in the practice of contemporary psychiatry. PMID:23858244

  7. [Orthodoxy and schism in psychiatry (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Dietrich, H

    1981-05-01

    Whereas the numerous psychotherapy schools in the Freud tradition seem slightly ephemeral from the historical point of view, and whereas the intramural and extramural advocates of the philosophical, psychological psychosomatic and purely scientific aspects of psychiatry wage a constant war of competition for the recognition of their special fields and expansion of their power over others, Kraepelin's teaching, whose spirit has already survived two generations of psychiatrists, is even gaining recognition and power of persuasion. It is therefore termed orthodox, the others schismatic. The combination of an empirical phenomenology of psychiatric diseases with their biological roots places Kraepelin's psychiatry on a sure foundation which makes possible convention, uniform assessment of homologous cases, legal security in giving expert opinions and the clinical framework for experimental research. PMID:6785635

  8. Respect for dignity and forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Alec

    2015-01-01

    Respect for persons is one of forensic psychiatry's ethical principles. It is a principle that is usually laid down without conditions, raising the question of what aspect of someone's "personhood" might deserve our unconditional respect. This paper nominates dignity. One argument against respect for dignity as a principle is that anything it stands for can be subsumed into respecting people's autonomy. This seems not to be correct. Another argument has been that the term dignity has too often been used loosely and vaguely. This does not mean that the term itself is necesarily without value. Dignity seems to refer to something close to the moral meaning of "worth". Respecting dignity has a role in protecting the vulnerable. Respecting a client's dignity is an important aspect of the ethical practice of forensic psychiatry. PMID:25888501

  9. Indianization of psychiatry utilizing Indian mental concepts

    PubMed Central

    Avasthi, Ajit; Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Most of the psychiatry practice in India is guided by the western concepts of mental health and illness, which have largely ignored the role of religion, family, eastern philosophy, and medicine in understanding and managing the psychiatric disorders. India comprises of diverse cultures, languages, ethnicities, and religious affiliations. However, besides these diversities, there are certain commonalities, which include Hinduism as a religion which is spread across the country, the traditional family system, ancient Indian system of medicine and emphasis on use of traditional methods like Yoga and Meditation for controlling mind. This article discusses as to how mind and mental health are understood from the point of view of Hinduism, Indian traditions and Indian systems of medicine. Further, the article focuses on as to how these Indian concepts can be incorporated in the practice of contemporary psychiatry. PMID:23858244

  10. [Malaise in psychiatry and its history].

    PubMed

    Chebili, S

    2016-04-01

    The main hypothesis of this paper is the presence of malaise in psychiatry. The malaise has two sides: on one hand, the end of psychiatry hegemony that dominated the theoretical field of psychiatry until the 1990s. The loss of influence of psychoanalysis is due to its inability to be submitted to any kind of assessment. On the other hand, the supremacy of neurosciences. The idea is not to underestimate the importance of neurosciences but rather to affirm that they occupy the whole theoretical field of psychiatry. This is an unusual situation that is specific to our time. Indeed, this monism has succeeded to an epistemological dualism that has existed throughout the history of psychiatry. In this article, we'll try to draw a history of dualism in psychiatry. Firstly, with Pinel, we find a tension between a metaphysical philosophical pole and a physiological one. Pinel's philosophy has something to do with Condillac's ideology as Pinel applies the analytical method to mental diseases. Under Cabanis's influence, the author of the famous Rapports du physique et du moral de l'homme, this ideology is under pressure with physiologism. As a materialist, he gives an essential part to the brain that distributes pieces of information throughout the body because he thinks that mind influences body. Secondly, dualism lies between the doctrine of localizations defended by Gall and the theory of degeneration elaborated by Magnan. Gall, in Anatomie et physiologie du système nerveux en général, seeks to know how bumps or hollows that are found on the skull are shaped. Gall is for the theory of delocalizations. He is the counterpart of Magnan who wrote a work about Les Dégénérés, that takes its part in the physiological trend with the famous theory of degeneration. For him, degeneration means the imperfect state of a subject whose cerebral functions are in a noticeably imperfect state. Thirdly, with Henry Ey, dualism starts to be less important. Indeed, he tends a monist

  11. The philosophies of psychiatry: empirical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ralston, Alan S G

    2013-08-01

    The past two decades have seen a surge in cross-disciplinary work in philosophy and psychiatry. Much of this work is necessarily abstract whilst those working in the area are aware of the necessity of relating the theoretical and conceptual work to the vagaries of day-to-day practice. But given the diverse methods and aims of philosophy and psychiatry, crossing the 'communication gap' between the two disciplines is easier said than done. In this article different methods of bridging this gap are presented and commented upon. A number of research studies are reviewed with an eye to the potential they display to develop interdisciplinary theory. An empirical approach to philosophy of practice with special attention to ordinary language use is proposed as a fruitful may forward. PMID:22752587

  12. Indian psychiatry, research and Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, J K; Gupta, Pawan Kumar; Saha, Rahul

    2010-01-01

    Asia has some of the largest conglomerations of human populations and also the fastest growing economies of the world. About 23% of the world's population lives in the South Asian region, and one-fifth of psychiatrically ill patients in the world live in this part of the world. Despite vast cultural, religious, geographical, and political diversities, the factors influencing mental health remain the same throughout this wide region, as highlighted at the recently concluded Asian summit, where the slogan, 'One vision, one identity, one community,' was launched. Thus, the need to strengthen regional cooperation in the field of mental health has always been felt. This article highlights facts about influence of Indian Psychiatry research as well as of some Asian countries in the world psychiatry and vice versa. PMID:21836718

  13. Personalized medicine in psychiatry: problems and promises

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The central theme of personalized medicine is the premise that an individual’s unique physiologic characteristics play a significant role in both disease vulnerability and in response to specific therapies. The major goals of personalized medicine are therefore to predict an individual’s susceptibility to developing an illness, achieve accurate diagnosis, and optimize the most efficient and favorable response to treatment. The goal of achieving personalized medicine in psychiatry is a laudable one, because its attainment should be associated with a marked reduction in morbidity and mortality. In this review, we summarize an illustrative selection of studies that are laying the foundation towards personalizing medicine in major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. In addition, we present emerging applications that are likely to advance personalized medicine in psychiatry, with an emphasis on novel biomarkers and neuroimaging. PMID:23680237

  14. [On the cultural history of psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Schott, H

    2004-08-01

    About 1800, psychiatry was established as a medical discipline with special institutions (madhouses). Therefore, historiography of psychiatry focuses generally on the last 200 years. This contribution will also illustrate aspects of medical and cultural history, which nowadays are mostly supposed to be less important: the premodern concept of melancholy and hypochondria between humoral pathology, demonology, and psychology; the assessment of psychiatric illness as a "creative malady," even complementary to genius; the dialectics of psychiatric therapies between suppression and emancipation, which is especially prominent in the early nineteenth century in regard to "moral treatment" ( psychische Kur in German), a topic stressed vigorously by the "antipsychiatry" movement around 1970; the denunciation of patients and sections of the population by eugenics ( Rassenhygiene in German) and racism (especially toward the Jews) by psychiatrists. Finally, the miraculous mechanisms of mass hysteria of "normal" individuals are questioned. PMID:15340714

  15. Hope: a relevant concept for geriatric psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Farran, C J; Popovich, J M

    1990-04-01

    The focus in psychiatry has been on treating people for hopelessness, as opposed to understanding more about maintaining hope. This study reports findings from a study of hope conducted with community-based older adults. A general linear model procedure was used to more clearly understand the relationships among hope and other relevant variables. This model is used as a basis for proposing an intervention model for maintaining hope in older adults. PMID:2192691

  16. [Ethics and solitary confinement in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Andrieu, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The decision to treat a patient in solitary confinement in psychiatry does not follow any protocol and is not made on a case-by-case basis. Team deliberation opens discussion and enables the group as a whole to take responsibility for clarifying what is to be supported by the team and implemented by the carer during treatment. When presented with complex situations, uncertainty can be a force when it calls upon an ethical dilemma. PMID:25335218

  17. Setting Up Private Practice in Psychiatry*

    PubMed Central

    De Sousa, Alan; De Sousa, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    Setting up a private practice in Mumbai is an onerous task. The present paper looks at the difficulties face by young psychiatrists when starting a private practice in psychiatry. It suggests certain guidelines to be followed to ensure the development of a successful practice. It also suggests methods to gain popularity among patients and society along with the ethics to be followed, knowledge base to be garnered, and the role of using multiple therapies and versatility in private practice. PMID:25838718

  18. Jung's Contribution to Clinical Psychiatry 1

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, Murdo

    1935-01-01

    This attempt to correlate Jung's work with practical psychiatry is concerned mainly with his conception of clinical types. Jung went far away from the provinces of clinical medicine and psychiatry for his evidence, and the possible cause for this is discussed. He expands his view of introversion and extraversion, and so the suggestion is made that for practical purposes his early limitation of these terms should be maintained. The difficulties encountered in type description by comparison and contrast are emphasized. The value of his conception of basic functions is discussed and criticized. A review is made of the personalities he describes, and a simplification of his resulting classification suggested for practical purposes. The notion is put forward that Jung describes one type in psychological adaptation much better than any others, and it is hinted that his psycho-pathological description of this type in nerve disorder constitutes his main contribution to clinical psychiatry. A review of the treatable nerve disorders suggests that this disorder has received more adequate description from Jung than any other, and reveals a unique method of investigation and therapy. This does not apply to his other descriptions. Possibly some of the vagueness attributed to Jung is because he did not give this disorder an adequate diagnosis, and an explanation for this is offered. The correlation between the simplified classification and the classification of treatable nerve disorders is close, and it is suggested that this constitutes Jung's contribution to clinical psychiatry in general. The application of Jung's principles is of daily help to the practising psychiatrist. PMID:19990325

  19. Psychiatry and Law: Past, Present and Future*

    PubMed Central

    Kamath, Ravindra M.

    2015-01-01

    It is important that every citizen knows the law of the state. Psychiatry and law both deal with human behaviour. This paper attempts to highlight the interplay between these two by discussing about various legislations like The Family Courts Act 1984, Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act 1985, Juvenile Justice Act 1986, Consumer Protection Act 1986, Persons with Disability Act 1995, The Maintenance and Welfare of Senior Citizens Act 2007. PMID:25838729

  20. Setting up a Death Row Psychiatry Program

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Death row psychiatry contains a complex set of clinical, ethical, and legal questions. This Forensic Files column makes a case for correctional institutions starting death row programs to address these issues through uniform policies. A list of the relevant issues is provided. Specific issues discussed include death row psychiatric assessment, considering “justifiable” depression, treating for competency to be executed, and balancing boundaries between clinical and forensic work. PMID:21468293

  1. Psychostimulants and psychiatrists: the Trent Adult Psychiatry Psychostimulant Survey.

    PubMed

    Bramble, D

    2000-03-01

    This study reports upon the results of a postal questionnaire survey of 107 adult psychiatrists which investigated their current use of psychostimulant pharmacotherapy and their attitudes towards the diagnostic status of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood. Of the 88 respondents, only a minority of 11 (12.5%) used psychostimulants in their usual practice, albeit very infrequently (one or two prescriptions per year on average). Methylphenidate hydrochloride ('Ritalin') was the prescribers' most popular agent and 'narcolepsy' was the most frequently cited clinical indication for psychostimulants. ADHD appeared to represent only a very small area of current clinical activity and a minority of clinicians expressed the view that it did not exist in adults. It is concluded that psychostimulant therapy is relatively undeveloped in British adult psychiatry and that the clinical speciality generally appears to be unprepared for the growing numbers of adolescents with ADHD who are currently managed by child psychiatrists and who may require ongoing psychiatric care, including psychostimulant therapy. PMID:10757256

  2. Neuroimaging Week: A Novel, Engaging, and Effective Curriculum for Teaching Neuroimaging to Junior Psychiatric Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downar, Jonathan; Krizova, Adriana; Ghaffar, Omar; Zaretsky, Ari

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Neuroimaging techniques are increasingly important in psychiatric research and clinical practice, but few postgraduate psychiatry programs offer formal training in neuroimaging. To address this need, the authors developed a course to prepare psychiatric residents to use neuroimaging techniques effectively in independent practice.…

  3. Guidelines, Algorithms, and Evidence-Based Psychopharmacology Training for Psychiatric Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osser, David N.; Patterson, Robert D.; Levitt, James J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe a course of instruction for psychiatry residents that attempts to provide the cognitive and informational tools necessary to make scientifically grounded decision making a routine part of clinical practice. Methods: In weekly meetings over two academic years, the course covers the psychopharmacology of various…

  4. Learning to Recognize Ego Defense Mechanisms: Results of a Structured Teaching Experience for Psychiatric Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beresford, Thomas P.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Ego defense mechanism (EDM) recognition can offer a powerful and practical tool in clinical psychiatry. However, recognition skill learning can be difficult to assess and may account for the lack of formal EDM recognition training in residency courses. Method: This study hypothesized that mean test scores would increase significantly…

  5. A Psychiatric Residency Curriculum on the Care of African American Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Herbert W.; Felder, Diane; Clark, Michelle O.

    2004-01-01

    Training psychiatric residents to address cross-cultural issues in their practice of psychiatry is a necessary objective of contemporary psychiatric education. Cultural issues play a critical role in the formation and expression of a patient's personality. In addition, they are a major determinant of the context in which mental illness develops.…

  6. DSM IV, Culture and Child Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Rousseau, Cécile; Measham, Toby; Bathiche-Suidan, Marie

    2008-01-01

    Objective The expanding cultural diversity of children and families with mental health needs raises questions about the cultural appropriateness of diagnostic classifications like the DSM IV. This paper briefly surveys the literature on culture and DSM-IV in child psychiatry, presenting ADHD as an example of the relationship between diagnostic categories and cultural issues, and illustrating some of the clinical dilemmas of differential diagnosis in a migration context. Method a literature review was performed and analysed, and a case vignette was constructed to illustrate key points. Results The literature does not provide a definite answer about the DSM IV cultural validity in child psychiatry. On the one hand it suggests that all diagnostic categories may be found universally. On the other, variations in prevalence rates support the hypothesis of a role for social and cultural factors in the diagnostic process. The clinical formulation may be a useful tool to address the validity issue by modulating the process of diagnosis with a cultural understanding of the symptoms, the patient-therapist alliance and the appropriateness of treatment recommendations. Conclusion Although the DSM IV diagnostic categories may be found cross culturally, clinicians need to be aware of how culture may influence the diagnostic process in child psychiatry. PMID:18516309

  7. A frame of mind from psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Vintiadis, Elly

    2015-11-01

    A distinctive characteristic of psychiatry is that it is a discipline that deals with both the physical and the mental lives of individuals. Largely because of this characteristic, different models are used for different disorders, however, there is still a remnant tendency towards reductionist views in the field. In this paper I argue that the available empirical evidence from psychiatry gives us reasons to question biological reductionism and that, in its place, we should adopt a pluralistic explanatory model that is more suited to the needs of the discipline and to the needs of the patients it is meant to help. This will allow us to retain psychiatry as an autonomous science that can productively co-exist with neuroscience while also giving patients the kind of attention they need. I further argue that this same evidence supports a view of the mind that is anti-reductive and that allows that causation can be both bottom-up and top-down and that such a view is available in emergentism coupled with an interventionist model of causation. PMID:25416523

  8. The third wave of biological psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    In this article I will argue that we are witnessing at this moment the third wave of biological psychiatry. This framework conceptualizes mental disorders as brain disorders of a special kind that requires a multilevel approach ranging from genes to psychosocial mechanisms. In contrast to earlier biological psychiatry approaches, the mental plays a more prominent role in the third wave. This will become apparent by discussing the recent controversy evolving around the recently published DSM-5 and the competing transdiagnostic Research Domain Criteria approach of the National Institute of Mental Health that is build on concepts of cognitive neuroscience. A look at current conceptualizations in biological psychiatry as well as at some discussions in current philosophy of mind on situated cognition, reveals that the thesis, that mental brain disorders are brain disorders has to be qualified with respect to how mental states are constituted and with respect to multilevel explanations of which factors contribute to stable patterns of psychopathological signs and symptoms. PMID:24046754

  9. Computational Phenotyping in Psychiatry: A Worked Example

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Computational psychiatry is a rapidly emerging field that uses model-based quantities to infer the behavioral and neuronal abnormalities that underlie psychopathology. If successful, this approach promises key insights into (pathological) brain function as well as a more mechanistic and quantitative approach to psychiatric nosology—structuring therapeutic interventions and predicting response and relapse. The basic procedure in computational psychiatry is to build a computational model that formalizes a behavioral or neuronal process. Measured behavioral (or neuronal) responses are then used to infer the model parameters of a single subject or a group of subjects. Here, we provide an illustrative overview over this process, starting from the modeling of choice behavior in a specific task, simulating data, and then inverting that model to estimate group effects. Finally, we illustrate cross-validation to assess whether between-subject variables (e.g., diagnosis) can be recovered successfully. Our worked example uses a simple two-step maze task and a model of choice behavior based on (active) inference and Markov decision processes. The procedural steps and routines we illustrate are not restricted to a specific field of research or particular computational model but can, in principle, be applied in many domains of computational psychiatry. PMID:27517087

  10. Biologism in Psychiatry: A Young Man's Experience of Being Diagnosed with "Pediatric Bipolar Disorder".

    PubMed

    Parry, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric bipolar disorder is a diagnosis that arose in the mid 1990s in the USA and has mostly remained confined to that nation. In this article a young American man (under a pseudonym) describes his experience of having the diagnosis throughout his adolescent years. His story was conveyed via correspondence and a meeting with the author, an Australian child psychiatrist. The young American's story reveals several issues that afflict contemporary psychiatry, particularly in the USA, where social and economic factors have contributed to the rise of a dominant biomedical paradigm-or "biologism". This focus on the "bio" to the relative exclusion of the "psychosocial" in both diagnosis and treatment can have serious consequences as this young man's story attests. The author explores aspects of his tale to analyze how the pediatric bipolar disorder "epidemic" arose and became emblematic of a dominant biologism. This narrative points to the need, depending on the service and country, to return to or retain/improve a balanced biopsychosocial perspective in child and adolescent mental health. Child psychiatry needs to advocate for health systems that support deeper listening to our patients. Then we can explore with them the full range of contextual factors that contribute to symptoms of individual and family distress. PMID:26237377

  11. The expansion of the Foundation Programme in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Perry, Jennifer; Boyle, Ann; Wessely, Simon

    2016-08-01

    The Broadening the Foundation Programme report has led to an expansion in the number of psychiatry foundation placements. This change will have far-reaching benefits for foundation doctors doing psychiatry, no matter what their future career intentions. Doctors will develop a better understanding of mental illness, they will improve their communication skills and they will gain experience of working within multidisciplinary teams. Recruitment into psychiatry is also likely to improve. The Royal College of Psychiatrists is putting in place a number of measures to ensure that placements are of a high quality so that foundation doctors have a good experience of psychiatry. PMID:27512595

  12. In India, Psychiatry Has Come a Long Way*

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    This Presidential Address of the Bombay Psychiatry Society covers the state of psychiatry in India in 1997. It posits that with the advent of newer brain imaging technologies in India such as computerised tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, single photon emission computerised tomography and brain electrical activity mapping, an era of evidence-based psychiatry in India has arrived. The Address cautions against the dehumanising potential of excessive reliance on technology. The need for a greater emphasis on psychiatry during undergraduate medical education is discussed along with the need to destigmatise psychiatric disorders. Finally, the need to encourage quality research in psychiatric disorders is stressed. PMID:25838728

  13. [An internist for psychiatry: Carl August Wunderlich (1815 - 1877)].

    PubMed

    Tölle, R

    2012-10-01

    In 19th century Germany C. A. Wunderlich (1815 - 1877) was one of the most important specialists of internal medicine. In addition he was receptive and alive to psychiatry. He translated an important book and held a lecture on psychiatry. He helped his friend Wilhelm Griesinger in the foundation of zhis career and later published his works. Wunderlich brought forward the principal of "clinical method" in medicine in general and particularly in psychiatry. Wunderlich rendered outstanding services to the development of psychiatry in the 19th century. PMID:22890439

  14. Textbook of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 3rd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, Jerry M.; Dulcan, Mina K.

    The third edition of this textbook continues its tradition of integrating clinical wisdom and scientific research to improve patient care and advocacy for children and families. Each of the 56 chapters presents a summary of a core topic, blending clinical experience with evidence-based practices in assessment and treatment. Divided into 10 parts,…

  15. Overview of practice management in child and adolescent psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Schreter, Robert K

    2010-01-01

    The manager of a psychiatric practice must create and direct a clinical delivery system, design and oversee the administrative services necessary to support the system, and guide the business operations that contribute to its success. Regardless of the size of the practice, the psychiatrist administrator must handle seven core administrative responsibilities and oversee individual functions and capabilities within each domain. These responsibilities include practice development, clinical services management, medical office operations, clinical management, information management, business management, and risk management. This article provides a roadmap for creating and sustaining successful clinical and administrative endeavors. It can also be used by existing practices as an audit instrument to provide a snapshot of current capabilities so that strengths as well as opportunities for continued growth can be identified. PMID:19951808

  16. Residency training: challenges and opportunities in preparing trainees for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Martin, Lawrence; Saperson, Karen; Maddigan, Barbara

    2003-05-01

    The future will see increased medicalization of psychiatry and will demand changes in training that better prepare residents for the realities of practice in a sustained period of physician shortage. Residency programs will need to move from the current apprenticeship model of training to competency-based programs built on the CanMEDS 2000 articulation of physician roles. Training will need to focus on evidence-based treatments, more efficient models of health care delivery, more attentive tracking of resident clinical work, and more reliable and standardized methods of evaluating resident competencies. PMID:12776388

  17. Initiatives in biological research in Indian psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Shrivatava, Amresh

    2010-01-01

    Biological psychiatry is an exploratory science for mental health. These biological changes provide some explicit insight into the complex area of ‘brain-mind and behavior’. One major achievement of research in biological field is the finding to explain how biological factors cause changes in behavior. In India, we have a clear history of initiatives in research from a biological perspective, which goes back to 1958. In the last 61 years, this field has seen significant evolution, precision and effective utilization of contemporary technological advances. It is a matter of great pride to see that in spite of difficult times in terms of challenges of practice and services, administration, resource, funding and manpower the zest for research was very forthcoming. There was neither dedicated time nor any funding for conducting research. It came from the intellectual insight of our fore fathers in the field of mental health to gradually grow to the state of strategic education in research, training in research, international research collaborations and setting up of internationally accredited centers. During difficult economic conditions in the past, the hypothesis tested and conclusions derived have not been so important. It is more important how it was done, how it was made possible and how robust traditions were established. Almost an entire spectrum of biological research has been touched upon by Indian researchers. Some of these are electroconvulsive therapy, biological markers, neurocognition, neuroimaging, neuroendocrine, neurochemistry, electrophysiology and genetics. A lot has been published given the limited space in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry and other medical journals published in India. A large body of biological research conducted on Indian patients has also been published in International literature (which I prefer to call non-Indian journals). Newer research questions in biological psychiatry, keeping with trend of international standards are

  18. [Perspectives on researches in disaster psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Tomita, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    After experiencing the catastrophic Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami disaster in 2011, Tohoku University founded the International Research Institute of Disaster Science (IRIDeS) in April, 2012. IRIDeS, comprising 7 divisions and 36 laboratories with broad areas of specialization, from the humanities to natural sciences, aims to become a global center for the study of disasters and disaster mitigation, learning from and building upon past lessons in disaster management from Japan and around the world. In IRIDeS, the Department of Disaster Psychiatry is in charge of dealing with issues related to disaster psychiatry, including the psychosocial impact of disasters. Now, at more than 2 and a half years after the catastrophic disaster, the psychological impact actually seems to be getting stronger and wider, whereas the memory of the disaster seems to be waning in other areas of the country. In such a situation, where a number of problems need to be resolved, what can/should we do as psychiatrists? On the other hand, other natural disasters, such as storms and floods, have kept hitting Japan, and catastrophes seem to strike somewhere in the world every year. In addition, we need to prepare for the possibility of a Nankai Trough Quake and an earthquake directly hitting the Tokyo area, which may occur sometime in the future. Considering the situation, we need to establish an education system for disaster psychiatry, and proceed with research to collect useful information to prepare for coming disasters. The aim of our department is to integrate multi-faceted basic and clinical research approaches to investigate the following topics: 1) to identify social, psychological, and biological factors involved in the pathophysiology of and recovery from disaster-related mental health problems; 2) to develop systems for disaster prevention, disaster response, and recovery, considering disaster-related psychiatric and psychological issues; 3) to develop useful tools for the

  19. [Psychiatry with open doors. Part 1: Rational for an open door for acute psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Sollberger, D; Lang, U E

    2014-03-01

    Despite the reform efforts of the last decades modern acute psychiatry still stands between conflicting priorities in everyday practice. The protection of patient autonomy might conflict with a regulatory mandate of psychiatry in societal contexts and the necessity of coercive measures and involuntary treatment might become problematic with respect to presumed but contentious interests of the patient. The conflicts particularly concern questions of involuntary commitment, door closing, coercive and isolation measures. Research on the topic of therapeutic effectiveness of these practices is rare. Accordingly, the practice depends on the federal state, hospital and ward and is very heterogeneous. Epidemiological prognosis predicts an increase of psychiatric disorders; however, simultaneously in terms of medical ethics the warranty of patient autonomy, shared decision-making and informed consent in psychiatry become increasingly more important. This challenges structural and practical changes in psychiatry, particularly in situations of self and third party endangerment which are outlined and a rationale for an opening of the doors in acute psychiatric wards is provided. PMID:23538944

  20. Shorter Psychiatry Clerkship Length Is Associated with Lower NBME Psychiatry Shelf Exam Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostwick, J. Michael; Alexander, Cara

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to evaluate a recent medical school curriculum change at our institution 3 years ago; specifically: shortening the Psychiatry core clerkship from 4 to 3 weeks and adding an optional 6-week core/elective combination rotation in lieu of the 3-week core. The authors aimed to determine whether clerkship length was…

  1. Intelligence and Birth Order among Children and Adolescents in Psychiatric Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkcaldy, Bruce; Furnham, Adrian; Siefen, Georg

    2009-01-01

    A sample of around 2,500 adolescents in a child and adolescent psychiatry clinic in the region of Munster, Germany had their intelligence assessed. Family size (total number of siblings within a family) was significantly correlated with intelligence score categories (-0.08 and -0.19 for males and females). First borns and only children displayed…

  2. Characteristics of Patients Visiting the Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Clinic: A 26-Year Study from North India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malhotra, Savita; Biswas, Parthasarathy; Sharan, Pratap; Grover, Sandeep

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To study the sociodemographic and clinical profile of patients, who presented to the child and adolescent psychiatric services of a tertiary care centre over a 26-year period (1980-2005). Methodology: Data were abstracted retrospectively from detailed work up files of all subjects assessed in the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (CAP) Clinic…

  3. Men's Identity Development: Issues and Implications for Residence Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, David A.; Livingston, Wade G.; Havice, Pamela A.; Cawthon, Tony W.

    2012-01-01

    Young men struggle with privilege and oppression in college and university residence halls just as they do in other educational and social contexts. While discussions and research about adolescent and adult identity development continue, little attention has focused on how a male student's identity development can impact residence life cultures on…

  4. Medical School Research Pipeline: Medical Student Research Experience in Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balon, Richard; Heninger, George; Belitsky, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The authors discuss the importance of introducing research training in psychiatry and neurosciences to medical students. Methods: A review of existing models of research training in psychiatry with focus on those providing research training to medical students is presented. Results: Two research-training models for medical students that…

  5. Encompassing Sexual Medicine within Psychiatry: Pros and Cons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segraves, Robert Taylor

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This article examines the positive and negative aspects of psychiatry encompassing sexual medicine within its purview. Methods: MEDLINE searches for the period between 1980 to the present were performed with the terms "psychiatry," "sexual medicine," and "sexual dysfunction." In addition, sexual medicine texts were reviewed for chapters…

  6. Cross-Cultural Issues in Forensic Psychiatry Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layde, Joseph B.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Forensic psychiatry was officially recognized as a subspecialty by the American Board of Medical Specialties in the 1990's. In 1994, the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN) gave its first written examination to certify forensic psychiatrists. In 1996, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) began…

  7. Developing the Careers of Clinician-Educators in Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Aurora J.; Clardy, James A.; Cargile, Christopher S.; Thrush, Carol R.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This article describes initial efforts by the newly developed Clinician-Educator Section (CES) of the Association for Academic Psychiatry (AAP) to support the career advancement of academic faculty within psychiatry. The CES provided its first workshop at the 2005 AAP annual meeting, focusing on early career development and academic…

  8. The Recruitment Problem in Psychiatry: A Critical Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stampfer, Hans

    2011-01-01

    The continuing shortfall in recruitment to Psychiatry is examined with suggestions for affirmative action. Recruitment may improve in the near future because of the high demand for psychiatrists, the incentives offered, greater competition for other specialties and a pool of international graduates willing to work in Psychiatry. There remains the…

  9. EPA guidance on improving the image of psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Möller-Leimkühler, A M; Möller, H-J; Maier, W; Gaebel, W; Falkai, P

    2016-03-01

    This paper explores causes, explanations and consequences of the negative image of psychiatry and develops recommendations for improvement. It is primarily based on a WPA guidance paper on how to combat the stigmatization of psychiatry and psychiatrists and a Medline search on related publications since 2010. Furthermore, focussing on potential causes and explanations, the authors performed a selective literature search regarding additional image-related issues such as mental health literacy and diagnostic and treatment issues. Underestimation of psychiatry results from both unjustified prejudices of the general public, mass media and healthcare professionals and psychiatry's own unfavourable coping with external and internal concerns. Issues related to unjustified devaluation of psychiatry include overestimation of coercion, associative stigma, lack of public knowledge, need to simplify complex mental issues, problem of the continuum between normality and psychopathology, competition with medical and non-medical disciplines and psychopharmacological treatment. Issues related to psychiatry's own contribution to being underestimated include lack of a clear professional identity, lack of biomarkers supporting clinical diagnoses, limited consensus about best treatment options, lack of collaboration with other medical disciplines and low recruitment rates among medical students. Recommendations are proposed for creating and representing a positive self-concept with different components. The negative image of psychiatry is not only due to unfavourable communication with the media, but is basically a problem of self-conceptualization. Much can be improved. However, psychiatry will remain a profession with an exceptional position among the medical disciplines, which should be seen as its specific strength. PMID:26874959

  10. Turnover of First-Time Chairs in Departments of Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Peter F.; Rayburn, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors examine the tenure of first-time Chairs in academic departments of psychiatry in order to stimulate discussion on extant workforce and leadership issues. Method: Data on tenure of Chairs in psychiatry and other nonsurgical specialties were derived from the longitudinal database of the Association of American Medical Colleges…

  11. Inequities and psychiatry disability in transition among the elderly population from 1987 to 2006 in China: Data based on national surveys.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenjie; Li, Ning; Guo, Chao; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2016-09-01

    The world will be facing huge population aged 65 and older, accounting for 13% of the total population in the future. Significant disabilities rates reflect an accumulation of health risks. Psychiatry disability is one of the most significant disabilities, because it manifests in cognitive, affective, and behavior disorders that limit one's daily life and restrict their participations. Very few studies have explored the 20 years associations between demographic factors and psychiatry disability among older people in China.In this study, we investigated psychiatry disability transitional association behind China rapid development from 1987 to 2006 among the 60 and older population. Data used 2 nationally represented, population-based data from the China National Sample Surveys on Disability, conducted in 1987 and 2006. The sample size of the current study was 140,008 in 1987 and 354,859 in 2006, respectively. Associations between socioeconomic factors and psychiatry disability were determined by using a logistic regression model.The prevalence of psychiatric disabilities increased from 1987 to 2006. In both surveys, the most common psychiatric disabilities were schizophrenia, schizotypal, and delusional disorders, and they presented the same associations with age increase. Socioeconomic inequities, such as current employment status and marital status, were associated with psychiatry disability in both surveys. These associations remained even after these 2 surveys were combined.The rapidly rising prevalence of psychiatric disorders expected warrants strategies to reduce the burden of these disabilities among females and rural residents. PMID:27603379

  12. Biomarkers and clinical staging in psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    McGorry, Patrick; Keshavan, Matcheri; Goldstone, Sherilyn; Amminger, Paul; Allott, Kelly; Berk, Michael; Lavoie, Suzie; Pantelis, Christos; Yung, Alison; Wood, Stephen; Hickie, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Personalized medicine is rapidly becoming a reality in today's physical medicine. However, as yet this is largely an aspirational goal in psychiatry, despite significant advances in our understanding of the biochemical, genetic and neurobiological processes underlying major mental disorders. Preventive medicine relies on the availability of predictive tools; in psychiatry we still largely lack these. Furthermore, our current diagnostic systems, with their focus on well-established, largely chronic illness, do not support a pre-emptive, let alone a preventive, approach, since it is during the early stages of a disorder that interventions have the potential to offer the greatest benefit. Here, we present a clinical staging model for severe mental disorders and discuss examples of biological markers that have already undergone some systematic evaluation and that could be integrated into such a framework. The advantage of this model is that it explicitly considers the evolution of psychopathology during the development of a mental illness and emphasizes that progression of illness is by no means inevitable, but can be altered by providing appropriate interventions that target individual modifiable risk and protective factors. The specific goals of therapeutic intervention are therefore broadened to include the prevention of illness onset or progression, and to minimize the risk of harm associated with more complex treatment regimens. The staging model also facilitates the integration of new data on the biological, social and environmental factors that influence mental illness into our clinical and diagnostic infrastructure, which will provide a major step forward in the development of a truly pre-emptive psychiatry. PMID:25273285

  13. [Utilization of expert systems in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Ohayon, M M

    1993-04-01

    Are expert systems liable to be used as consultants in psychiatry? Most expert systems deal with an over-restricted part of psychiatry and cannot be a real help in everyday care. Moreover, most of them are not actually validated (the comparison between the system's and the expert's conclusions in a few cases is not enough). Another problem is that they reflect the uncertainties of nosographic problems. Validation of such systems needs the careful checking of the logical structure of the underlying nosography, the fitness of the structure's knowledge base and the fitness of the inference engine. Moreover, the naïve use of the system by untrained clinicians is the best means of validation since it provides real life proof of the ability of expert systems to make diagnoses in unselected cases where the need for a common diagnostic reference is clear (for example, epidemiologic, psychopharmacological ornosographic research). Some of the best known expert systems in the field of psychiatry are reviewed and another expert system, Adinfer, is presented. Developed since 1982, Adinfer is a forward-tracking level O system (in its simplified version for micro-computers). The knowledge base is a translation of the DSM-III-R into production rules. The program has been included in several software packages and used in many clinical studies, both among psychiatrists and physicians. The program has been validated with 1,141 unselected cases, and with 47 physicians: an 83% agreement rate was found between the system's and the physician's diagnoses, taking into account that the clinicians were asked to give their conclusions according to their usual nosography.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8500073

  14. [Psychiatry in Quebec. Then and now].

    PubMed

    Lalonde, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This text narrates the evolution, since the 1960s, of different events that marked the history of psychiatry in the French-Canadian province of Quebec. From his personal experience, the author discusses. The evolution of the Départment de psychiatric de l'Université de Montréal fro where were issued more than 1000 psychiatrists who shaped clinical practice and research developments worthy of mention throughout the years. The evolution of diagnostic noselogy from the DSM-ii, very influenced by psychoanalysis, to the DSM-5 that is more atheortical, but that is still not based on objective data, which remains a challenge to the etiology of mental illness. The psychiatric drugs that we have learned to prescribe in the past 50 years in a more rational way thanks to a better understanding of their action mechanisms. In reality, there has been no discovery of new drug categories; rather it is the way we prescribe medication that evolved. The great adventure of the first textbook of Quebec psychiatry, which was first published in 1980, and is forthcoming in its 4th edition in 2015 in an improved and expanded format. The forthcoming version takes into consideration the developments in psychiatry. The creation of the Young Adults Clinic in 1988, providing treatment and rehabilitation to young adults in the early stages of schizophrenia, as well as psychoeducational support and information to heir family members. Through the years, this clinic had a considerable acknowledgement in Quebec and other French-speaking nations. PMID:26559212

  15. Academic psychiatry and the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Ban, Thomas A

    2006-05-01

    In the second half of the 19th century new drugs introduced by the pharmaceutical industry helped lead to the establishment of academic departments in psychiatry. Causal treatment of cerebral pellagra by nicotinic acid and cerebral syphilis by penicillin in the first half of the 20th century led to major changes in the diagnostic distribution of psychiatric patients. In the second half of the 20th century with the introduction of a rapidly growing number of psychotropic drugs, pharmacotherapy became the primary form of treatment in mental illness. Psychiatrists today perceive neuropharmacology as one of the basic sciences of psychiatry and psychopharmacology as the bridge between the mode of action and the clinical indications of psychotropic drugs. Pharmacotherapy with psychotropic drugs focused attention on the differential responsiveness to the same drug within the same diagnostic category. Yet, instead of re-evaluating psychiatric nosology and conducting research in psychopathology, a statistical methodology was adopted for the demonstration of therapeutic effectiveness in pharmacologically heterogeneous populations. Employment of consensus-based classifications and psychiatric rating scales in the clinical development of psychotropic drugs led to semi-finished products, which are prescribed indiscriminately. Replacement of single-center clinical trials by multi-center centrally coordinated clinical investigations led to the control of education in pharmacotherapy by the pharmaceutical industry. To separate education from marketing, the identification of the treatment-responsive forms of illness and the delineation of the therapeutic profile of psychotropic drugs are proposed with the employment of a new methodology, the "Composite Diagnostic Evaluation System." It is postulated that development of a pharmacologically valid psychiatric nosology with the employment of a "nosologic matrix" would provide the pharmaceutical industry with the necessary feedback to

  16. Notes on a Few Issues in the Philosophy of Psychiatry*

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajai R.; Singh, Shakuntala A.

    2009-01-01

    The first part called the Preamble tackles: (a) the issues of silence and speech, and life and disease; (b) whether we need to know some or all of the truth, and how are exact science and philosophical reason related; (c) the phenomenon of Why, How, and What; (d) how are mind and brain related; (e) what is robust eclecticism, empirical/scientific enquiry, replicability/refutability, and the role of diagnosis and medical model in psychiatry; (f) bioethics and the four principles of beneficence, non-malfeasance, autonomy, and justice; (g) the four concepts of disease, illness, sickness, and disorder; how confusion is confounded by these concepts but clarity is imperative if we want to make sense out of them; and how psychiatry is an interim medical discipline. The second part called The Issues deals with: (a) the concepts of nature and nurture; the biological and the psychosocial; and psychiatric disease and brain pathophysiology; (b) biology, Freud and the reinvention of psychiatry; (c) critics of psychiatry, mind-body problem and paradigm shifts in psychiatry; (d) the biological, the psychoanalytic, the psychosocial and the cognitive; (e) the issues of clarity, reductionism, and integration; (f) what are the fool-proof criteria, which are false leads, and what is the need for questioning assumptions in psychiatry. The third part is called Psychiatric Disorder, Psychiatric Ethics, and Psychiatry Connected Disciplines. It includes topics like (a) psychiatric disorder, mental health, and mental phenomena; (b) issues in psychiatric ethics; (c) social psychiatry, liaison psychiatry, psychosomatic medicine, forensic psychiatry, and neuropsychiatry. The fourth part is called Antipsychiatry, Blunting Creativity, etc. It includes topics like (a) antipsychiatry revisited; (b) basic arguments of antipsychiatry, Szasz, etc.; (c) psychiatric classification and value judgment; (d) conformity, labeling, and blunting creativity. The fifth part is called The Role of Philosophy

  17. Teaching consultation psychiatry through computerized case simulation.

    PubMed

    Jachna, J S; Powsner, S M; McIntyre, P J; Byck, R

    1993-03-01

    The PsyConsult Adventure Simulation program presents a case simulation of consultation in a general hospital. Exploring this computerized case helps trainees prepare for the complexities of consultation that they will face on the hospital wards. The simulation provides a distinctive approach, modeling the process of an actual consultation and allowing trainees to explore on their own initiative. It presents general techniques of psychiatric consultation as well as specifics of diagnosis and treatment. The program demonstrates the feasibility of using case simulation with a personal computer system as a supplement to bedside teaching of consultation psychiatry. PMID:24443195

  18. The schizophrenogenic mother concept in American psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Hartwell, C E

    1996-01-01

    The development of the schizophrenogenic mother concept within American psychiatry has been something of an enigma. This interpersonal hypothesis of the etiology of schizophrenia involved a sharp break in the historical progression of understanding the disease. Though former promulgators have gone from calling the schizophrenogenic mother a "half truth" to a psychiatric "myth," this psychiatric concept remains a puzzle, still (Arieti 1997, p. 353; Neill 1990). The circumstances surrounding the development, flowering, and decline of the schizophrenogenic mother concept have not been fully explored. PMID:8912946

  19. [History of the department of Psychiatry at the University of Montreal].

    PubMed

    Stip, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    In its current form, the Département de psychiatrie at the Université de Montréal (UdeM) was created in 1964. The first person to have headed was Dr. Gerard Beaudoin… Between 1948 and 1964, several others psychiatrists were heading the Département without necessary bearing a particular title.The directors of the Département from 1951 to now were: Drs. Fernand Côté, Camille Laurin, Gerard Beaudoin, Yvon Gauthier, Arthur Amyot, Francis Borgeat, Hugues Cormier, Sylvain Palardy, Jean Hébert, and Emmanuel Stip.When the Département opened, it was the second institution in Montréal that was training psychiatrists. During the first year, there were 3 psychiatric residents, but within 20 years this number had increased to 63. From the early years, teaching psychiatry to residents, and subsequently to all UdeM medical students, has been a priority in the Département, and over the years many psychiatrists trained at UdeM have attained leadership positions elsewhere. The Département attained an early reputation for excellence in both clinical and basic research.The strengths the Département developed in its early years in clinical psychopharmacology, in basic research in neurotransmitters, sleep, cognition, forensic, and in community psychiatry have been augmented more recently with active programs in psychotherapy research, substance abuse research, psychoneuroendocrinology, developmental aspects of behavior, genetics, epigenetics as well as the study of the brain through a variety of brain scanning techniques.The history of the Département de psychiatrie de l'Université de Montréal is largely dependent on that of each of the institutions affiliated to the Université: the Pavillon Albert-Prévost de l'Hôpital du Sacré-Coeur de Montréal (HSCM), the Institut universitaire en santé mentale de Montréal (IUSMM) and the CHU Sainte-Justine. We must also remember that the discovery of the potentiating of lithium by antidepressants was made by Dr. Demontigny

  20. Transdisciplinary holistic integrative psychiatry - a wishfull thinking or reality?

    PubMed

    Jakovljević, Miro

    2008-09-01

    Modern psychiatry in the last century proposed several aggregative biopsychosocial models as an opposition to prevailing fragmentary, reductionistic and dogmatic approaches. Although the biopsychosocial approach has become the mainstream concept of the present-day psychiatry, it is not fruitful enough because it is excessively broad and provides no real complex field integration and guidance to clinicians and researchers. The postmodern psychiatry alternatives have been appeared as pluralism and integrationism. Holistic and integrative approach in medicine and psychiatry is built on the premise that human beings in health and disease are complex systems of dinamically interacting biological, psychological, social, energetic, informational and spiritual processes. Emerging as a transdisciplinary holistic, complementary and integrative psychiatry implies widely accepted general systems theory on psychopathology, novel integrating interpretative models, new integrative understanding of etiopathogenesis or meanings of symptoms, and novel integrative assessment and treatment approaches addressing those etiopathogenesis and meanings. PMID:18827761

  1. Psychiatry as ideology in the USSR.

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, S

    1978-01-01

    This paper was given as a talk at the Venice Biennale on 9 December 1977. It was part of a symposium on "The Freedom of Science--Problems of Science of Scientists in Eastern Europe". Dr Bloch details some of the problems of psychiatry and its vulnerability to improper use and thus the dilemmas which must ensue in day to day practice. He looks at psychiatry in the USSR and the system within which Soviet psychiatrists must work. The Communist Party and career advancement for psychiatrists would appear to be closely related and it is suggested that, in all probability, the majority of psychiatrists are as perturbed at the misuse of their profession as their Western colleagues, but act compliantly out of fear. Severe punishments have been imposed on those psychiatrists who have dared to speak out against the régime and the system as operated. Dr Bloch concludes by urging Western psychiatrists to do all they can to help their Soviet colleagues to initiate a return to an independent and automous psychiatric profession. PMID:691016

  2. Placebo effects in psychiatry: mediators and moderators

    PubMed Central

    Weimer, Katja; Colloca, Luana; Enck, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A strong placebo response in psychiatric disorders has been noted for the past 50 years and various attempts have been made to identify predictors of it, by use of meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials and laboratory studies. We reviewed 31 meta-analyses and systematic reviews of more than 500 randomised placebo-controlled trials across psychiatry (depression, schizophrenia, mania, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism, psychosis, binge-eating disorder, and addiction) for factors identified to be associated with increased placebo response. Of 20 factors discussed, only three were often linked to high placebo responses: low baseline severity of symptoms, more recent trials, and unbalanced randomisation (more patients randomly assigned to drug than placebo). Randomised controlled trials in non-drug therapy have not added further predictors, and laboratory studies with psychological, brain, and genetic approaches have not been successful in identifying predictors of placebo responses. This comprehensive Review suggests that predictors of the placebo response are still to be discovered, the response probably has more than one mediator, and that different and distinct moderators are probably what cause the placebo response within psychiatry and beyond. PMID:25815249

  3. What kind of science for psychiatry?

    PubMed Central

    Kirmayer, Laurence J.; Crafa, Daina

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatry has invested its hopes in neuroscience as a path to understanding mental disorders and developing more effective treatments and ultimately cures. Recently, the U.S. NIMH has elaborated this vision through a new framework for mental health research, the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC). This framework aims to orient mental health research toward the discovery of underlying neurobiological and biobehavioral mechanisms of mental disorders that will eventually lead to definitive treatments. In this article we consider the rationale of the RDoC and what it reveals about implicit models of mental disorders. As an overall framework for understanding mental disorders, RDoC is impoverished and conceptually flawed. These limitations are not accidental but stem from disciplinary commitments and interests that are at odds with the larger concerns of psychiatry. A multilevel, ecosocial approach to biobehavioral systems is needed both to guide relevant neuroscience research and insure the inclusion of social processes that may be fundamental contributors to psychopathology and recovery. PMID:25071499

  4. Some origins of cross-cultural psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Raimundo Oda, Ana Maria G; Banzato, Claudio Eduardo M; Dalgalarrondo, Paulo

    2005-06-01

    The interface between insanity, race and culture was a challenging subject for some of the most influential nineteenth-century alienists. Our paper reviews some of the theoretical and clinical investigations of comparative psychiatry of this period. The idea that insanity was supposedly rare among 'primitive' people, e.g., Africans, American Natives and some Eastern populations, was repeatedly defended by prominent alienists. Associated with this notion, many authors believed that insanity tends to become more prevalent as civilization evolves. According to them, civilization had an unfavourable effect on insanity rates because it demanded a much higher degree of organization and mental production. Moreover, a greater degree of mental excitation would explain why insanity occurs more frequently in Europe than in the East, Africa or South America. Eventually, at the end of the nineteenth century, the coalition of cross-cultural and neuropsychiatry produced a notion that the brain of the 'native' is more simple and crude than that of the civilized, and more vulnerable to the evil effects of civilized life. In conclusion, some ethnocentric bias and racial stereotypes still pervasive in contemporary psychiatry are identified and traced back to their historical origins. PMID:16013118

  5. Community Psychiatry and the Population Explosion

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Ames

    1967-01-01

    Although excessive population has long been a dilemma in certain areas of the world, current rates of growth present a global threat to all nations. Arguments based on economics, world peace, individual freedom, humanism and the preservation of life's amenities all point to the urgent need for programs to control birth rates. This applies to the United States also, although we have the advantage of a relatively high cultural and economic level from which to attack the problem. Modern psychiatry is increasingly committed to the Community Mental Health concept, which in part implies greater involvement with the element of the population that is socially and economically at a disadvantage. Effective treatment cannot ignore the effects on the patient of intolerable reality situations, often produced by successive unwanted pregnancies. In addition, a positive approach to family planning by psychiatrists and social workers will provide the structure needed for truly preventive psychiatry; as our knowledge of the determinants of psychosis, delinquency and mental retardation expands, selective counseling can do much to prevent these family and social tragedies. Both as world citizens and as practitioners of a profession, psychiatrists cannot afford to delay pledging their resources to the solution of so compelling a problem. PMID:6039186

  6. [Roles of brain science in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Ito, Masao

    2002-01-01

    At the opportunity of celebrating the 100th Anniversary of the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology, I am filled with deep emotion when I recall the time only a few decades ago, when mental disorders were believed to be an illness of the mind without any disorder in the brain. It has now become apparent that a mental disease emerges from the malfunction of the brain's unique biological mechanisms, so that any mental disease can be cured or prevented if the cause of the malfunction is clarified. Analyses of intercellular as well as intracellular signal transduction and the mechanisms underlying gene regulation in brain cells have recently advanced markedly and have brought a marked improvement in the methods and technology for investigating pathogenesis of neurological and psychiatric diseases. These impressive results have been derived in the search for the cause of Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and spinocerebellar degeneration. Certain minor changes in the molecular structure of sodium channels have been found to cause epilepsy. It has also been revealed that ten particular sites in chromosomes harbor the remote cause of schizophrenia and depression. These sites are probably responsible for production of certain synaptic transmitters and modulators. Another major challenge in the field of psychiatry is to understand the unique symptoms exhibited by patients with psychiatric disorders, which requires research to head in a direction different from molecular and cellular brain science. It is a challenge similar to the very fundamental challenge of determining how our brain, which is composed of numerous brain cells, yields our mind (or, should I say, supports our mind). To understand the brain as a complex system is more difficult than researching its molecular and cellular machinery, and accordingly, the progress of research in this field has been slow. However, it is gradually gaining speed thanks to the improvement in non-invasive methods for

  7. How to Teach Psychiatry to Medical Undergraduates in India?: A Model

    PubMed Central

    Manohari, S. M.; Johnson, Pradeep R.; Galgali, Ravindra Baburao

    2013-01-01

    Psychiatry is not considered important by most medical students. But knowledge of psychiatry is essential for all doctors as psychiatric problems are prevalent in the population either as part of other physical illnesses or independently. All medical practitioners need skills in communication and forming empathy and the ability to counsel that are learnt in psychiatry. Nearly all medical students feel psychiatry is not scientific enough and psychiatrists are peculiar. We need to make psychiatry interesting, and impart skills and techniques to practice psychiatry at the primary care level and in the process change the misconceptions students have of psychiatry. We present a model to accomplish this. PMID:23833338

  8. Neurobiological Formulations: Integrating Clinical and Biological Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Jonathan; Stewart, Jonathan; Rieder, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe a pilot program allowing psychiatric residents to participate in neurobiological evaluations of patients with Axis I disorders. The program aimed to familiarize residents with available tools for assessing cognitive and neuroanatomical abnormalities in psychiatric patients and to foster greater interest among…

  9. From local to global – Contributions of Indian psychiatry to international psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, R. Srinivasa

    2010-01-01

    Indian psychiatrists have actively engaged with world psychiatry by contributing to understanding and care of persons with mental disorders based on the religious, cultural and social aspects of Indian life. The contributions are significant in the areas of outlining the scope of mental health, classification of mental disorders, understanding the course of mental disorders, psychotherapy, traditional methods of care, role of family in mental health care and care of the mentally ill in the community settings. PMID:21836699

  10. [Some reflections on evidence based psychiatry and its impact on contemporary psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Conti, Norberto A

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the proposal of evidence based psychiatry (EBP) is presented together with a critical reflection about its paradigmatic perspective, taking into account Thomas S. Khun's epistemological lineaments. It is also shown how blurring of language in its approximation to the human behavioral disorders is EBP point of major inconsistency, as demonstrates a marked epistemological reductionism. Finally, consequences of its restrictive employment both to psychiatrists teaching and to the treatments they provide to their patients are also discussed. PMID:21218210

  11. A war over mental health professionalism: Scientology versus psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Stephen A.; Manca, Terra A.

    2012-01-01

    Over 60 years ago, founder L. Ron Hubbard began what has become Scientology's greatest battle. Scientology emerged from Dianetics, which Hubbard hoped would replace the psychiatric profession. In this article, we discuss how Scientology attempted to position itself as a rival profession to psychiatry and the consequences of those attempts. Scientology's battle with psychiatry gained some success from the social conditions during which it emerged, but it continues in a time that has seen increasing success with various psychiatric treatments. As such, Scientology's direct influence on the psychiatric profession may be difficult to measure, but its actions have coincided with substantial challenges to psychiatry. PMID:24348087

  12. Polish psychiatry in the wake of social changes.

    PubMed

    Herczyńska, Grazyna

    2003-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to present some characteristic facts concerning the history of psychiatry in Poland. Those facts have been selected as to illustrate the two obvious but not often expressed theses: 1. the history of psychiatry in Poland has been closely linked with the mainstream of Western thought, social and philosophical ideas of the time; 2. development of psychiatry and psychiatric care depend on the political history of the country. The background factor that greatly influenced that development was the partition of Poland between Russia, Prussia and Austria, which lasted well over one hundred years. PMID:19112380

  13. [Interdisciplinarity and psychiatry: is it time not to know?].

    PubMed

    de Menezes, Mardônio Parente; Yasui, Silvio

    2013-06-01

    This article deals with interdisciplinarity as well as psychiatric and psychosocial care. Throughout the text, a historical account of the constitution and the crisis of scientific knowledge is presented and organized into disciplines. The theoretical difficulty of conceptualizing interdisciplinarity is analyzed and, in the concluding remarks, psychiatry and its relationship to psychosocial care is discussed. The argument is that, because of its history, psychiatry has singularities that differentiate it from other medical specialties and these singularities could initially cause psychiatry to go in the opposite direction in relation to interdisciplinarity. The conclusion is that because of their inherent characteristics psychosocial care services are privileged places for psychiatric training with interdisciplinary characteristics. PMID:23752547

  14. Reasons for choosing to specialise in psychiatry: differences between core psychiatry trainees and consultant psychiatrists

    PubMed Central

    Denman, Melissa; Oyebode, Femi; Greening, Jayne

    2016-01-01

    Aims and method This questionnaire study aimed to investigate the reasons for choosing to specialise in psychiatry in a sample of consultant psychiatrists and core trainee psychiatrists from within the West Midlands. Results Five reasons were significantly different between the core trainees and consultant psychiatrists. ‘Emphasis on the patient as a whole’ was identified as the most important reason for choosing to specialise for both core trainees and consultants. Six additional reasons were shared within the top ten ‘very important’ reasons, although their actual ranking varies. Clinical implications Some of the reasons for choosing to specialise in psychiatry were shown to significantly differ between core trainees and consultants. Numerous key driving factors have remained important over time for both groups, whereas other reasons have been replaced with a shift of importance towards lifestyle and humanitarian factors for core trainees. Consequently, it may be advisable not to use the reasons that consultants gave for choosing psychiatry when thinking about how to attract today's prospective psychiatrists. PMID:26958354

  15. Comparison of Support Services Offered by Residencies in Six Specialties, 1979-80 and 1988-89.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Norman B., Jr.; Addison, Richard B.

    1992-01-01

    A study investigated the availability of each of 19 medical school support services offered by 493 residencies in 6 specialties: family practice; internal medicine; obstetrics/gynecology; pediatrics; psychiatry; and surgery. Results show many specialties do not offer common, effective support services. It is suggested that programs move to…

  16. Practice Parameter for Telepsychiatry with Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Parameter for the usage of telepsychiatry to provide services to children and adolescents is developed using clinical consensus and existing scientific evidence. Telepsychiatry is the result of applying telemedicine, a mode of health care delivery that uses telecommunications, to psychiatry. The parameter's use for determining best practices in…

  17. Psychiatric Problems among Adolescent Southeast Asian Refugees: A Descriptive Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Carolyn L.; Westermeyer, Joseph

    1983-01-01

    Presenting complaints and problems of 28 Southeast Asian adolescent refugees who were seen by therapists at a U.S. hospital psychiatry department are described. Journal Availability: Subscription Department, The Williams Wilkins Co., 428 East Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202. (SEW)

  18. [First stage in identifying traumatic profil inpatients hospitalised in psychiatry in Martinique].

    PubMed

    Evans, M; Vacher, E; Lamy, S; Seridi, H; Jan, M; Debien, C; Sigward, J-M; Jehel, L

    2014-01-01

    The population hospitalised in psychiatry seems more exposed to traumatic events than the French general population, with particularly more sexual aggressions. The aim of this study is to describe the population hospitalised in psychiatry and more precisely the traumatic history of these patients, their comorbidities (mental diseases and addictions), and socio economical level. This descriptive, cross sectional and retrospective study took place in the Crisis Center in the University Hospital in Martinique (French West Indies), from February to July 2013. A socio-demographic information, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview 5.0, the Trauma History Questionnaire and the Impact Events Scale-Revised were realised with 49 of the 143 patients admitted during this period (34.3%). In this population, we found a mean of 6.5 (standart-deviation=4.2) different types of traumatic event, with 38.8% patients reporting a natural disaster, and 38.8% declaring at least one sexual aggression. In the 25 patients suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder, 66.7% underwent a sexual aggression, significatively during childhood (before 10 years old, P=0.01), and during adolescence (between 10 to 18 years old, P=0.01). These results underline the importance of a systematic screening of the traumatic profile: the characteristics of the traumatic events and its clinical impact. PMID:25590554

  19. Current clinical advances and future perspectives in the psychiatry/mental health field of Latin America.

    PubMed

    Cía, Alfredo H; Rojas, Rodrigo Córdoba; Adad, Miguel Abib

    2010-01-01

    The history of Mental Health in Latin America is relatively young. It dates back to the mid nineteenth century and widely developed during the twentieth century, with formidable scientific, social, political, and ethical challenges. Latin American psychiatry has contributed in the fields of epidemiology, phenomenology, social psychiatry, psychiatric and epistemological research, and clinical genetics as well. More recent advances can also be seen in clinical psychotherapy and psychopharmacology. Now, there is a formal and informal recognition of various areas of expertise, such as children and adolescents, addictions, anxiety disorders, among others. However, we need to solve the health problems resulting from mental illnesses as well as the disorders related to the social, environmental, political, and economic factors of a continent marked by the precariousness of underdevelopment, which have a high impact on population health. Therefore, considering and trying to minimize the impact of those factors, contributing to the destigmatization of mental illnesses and their consequences, together with the growing number of non-governmental organizations (NGOs), human rights defenders, public figures, etc., and collaborating in building a society that guarantees the right to mental health and adequate treatment and rehabilitation are part of our present challenges in Latin America. PMID:20874063

  20. Minority Adolescent Stress and Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Nancy A.; George, Preethy E.; Fernandez, Aida Cristina; Huerta, Violeta L.

    2005-01-01

    Many of the stressful life events and daily hassles of adolescence are similar for youths despite differences in cultural background or place of residence. However, adolescents from diverse cultural groups often encounter unique challenges that arise from the particular cultural-ecological niches they inhabit by virtue of their ethnic group…

  1. The involvement of families in Indian psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Nunley, M

    1998-09-01

    Ethnographic observations and interviews with psychiatrists at two general hospital psychiatric units in northern India reveal the extent of family involvement in the localized adaptation of biomedical psychiatry that occurs in these settings. By assuming many of the roles filled by auxiliary personnel in the USA, families maintain considerable control over many aspects of the psychiatric process: defining disorder, outpatient consultation, record keeping, admissions, inpatient care, discharge, and continuing care. The implications of these observations are considered in relation to theoretical concerns about biomedical hegemony, advantages and disadvantages of family involvement from an applied perspective, and the methodological adequacy of cross-cultural psychiatric epidemiology with respect to studies of "expressed emotion." PMID:9833205

  2. Graphology in German psychiatry (1870-1930).

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Armin

    2016-09-01

    This article discusses both the use of graphology in German psychiatry (1870-1930) and the use of handwriting in psychiatric experiments. The examination of handwriting was part of an ensemble of diagnostic tools. Although disorders of handwriting seemed to indicate psychic diseases, graphology did not seem the right method to produce valid observations. Nevertheless, psychiatrists began to incorporate the process of writing into research and diagnosis and to make the process of handwriting an experimental field. Emil Kraepelin invented an apparatus - the so-called Writing-Scale - with which he could measure the dynamics of writing in various dimensions and, in particular, the pressure of movements. The experiments produced a huge amount of data, but the psychiatrists were unable to interpret them in a comprehensible way. Although psychiatrists failed to grasp the psychopathology in handwriting, they discovered a systemic behaviour of the organism controlled by feedback. PMID:27160214

  3. [Psychosocial and therapeutic activities in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Gueth, B; Siry, B; Trouche, J

    1996-06-01

    Psycho sociotherapeutic activities, method of care often used in psychiatry, do not let nurses indifferent when using it. Paradoxically, this relational kind of care cannot easily find its own place among nursing care for mental patients. To answer this contradiction, the hypothesis put forward lays emphasis on the importance nurses give to these activities and the consideration they have for the activity as a care in full. A survey made in all psychiatric hospitals brings to light not only the interest and diversity of these activities but also the difficulties of their admission within nursing care. Should the connection expressed in the hypothesis not been really proved, the results of the survey show the beginning of explanations and, particularly, emphasize the questions. PMID:16737019

  4. Limitations of the biopsychosocial model in psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Benning, Tony B

    2015-01-01

    A commitment to an integrative, non-reductionist clinical and theoretical perspective in medicine that honors the importance of all relevant domains of knowledge, not just “the biological,” is clearly evident in Engel’s original writings on the biopsychosocial model. And though this model’s influence on modern psychiatry (in clinical as well as educational settings) has been significant, a growing body of recent literature is critical of it – charging it with lacking philosophical coherence, insensitivity to patients’ subjective experience, being unfaithful to the general systems theory that Engel claimed it be rooted in, and engendering an undisciplined eclecticism that provides no safeguards against either the dominance or the under-representation of any one of the three domains of bio, psycho, or social. PMID:25999775

  5. Biological clocks and the practice of psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Endogenous biological clocks enable living species to acquire some independence in relation to time. They improve the efficiency of biological systems, by allowing them to anticipate future constraints on major physyological systems and cell energy metabolism. The temporal organization of a giwen biological function can be impaired in its coordination with astronomical time or with other biological function. There are also external conditions that influence biological clocks. This temporal organization is complex, and it is possible that a series of psychiatric disorders and syndromes involve primary or secondary changes in biological clocks: seasonal and other mood disorders, premenstrual syndromes, social jet lag, free-running rhythms, and several sleep disorders are among them. In this review, we describe the main concepts relevant to chronobiology and explore the relevance of knowledge about biological clocks to the clinical practice of psychiatry PMID:17969862

  6. Descartes' dogma and damage to Western psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Ventriglio, A; Bhugra, D

    2015-10-01

    René Descartes described the concept of mind-body dualism in the 16th century. This concept has been called his error but we prefer to call it his dogma because the error was recognised much later. We studied the original writings translated by various scholars. We believe that his dogma has caused tremendous amount of damage to Western psychiatry. This dualism has created boundaries between mind and body but as we know they are inextricably interlinked and influence each other. This has affected clinical practice and has increased the dichotomy between psychiatric services and the physical health care services in the West at least. This dualism has also contributed to stigma against mental illness, the mentally ill and the psychiatric services. We propose that it is time to abandon this mind-body dualism and to look at the whole patient and their illness experiences as is done in some other health care systems such as Ayurveda. PMID:26333032

  7. Use of Telepsychiatry in Psychodynamic Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Sy Atezaz; Anand, Vivek

    2015-12-01

    This article reviews the organization, infrastructure basics, applications, effectiveness, outreach, and implementation barriers related to telepsychiatry. We highlight the tremendous potential and promise that this technology holds and also discuss the importance that telepsychiatry may play in the field of psychodynamic psychiatry. Given the growing effectiveness evidence base for therapy delivered over the Internet, telepsychiatry holds a large unexplored territory to help psychodynamically minded patients connect with psychodynamically oriented psychiatrists. This economically advantageous medium can be utilized to deliver psychodynamically guided approaches to the patient, alone or in combination with pharmacological and other psychosocial interventions. We hope, this article will help psychodynamically trained psychiatrists to consider bridging the gap with the remotely located, chronically mentally ill population which oftentimes has scarcity of resources. PMID:26583441

  8. [Research and Post-graduate in Psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Carlos, A Palacio A

    2012-01-01

    The research component and the acquisition of skills related to the generation of knowledge in the training of medical and surgical specialists in the country is an issue that has recently begun to be discussed. For over 50 years this training has included only the area of professionalism as a copy of an educational model from the mid-twentieth century. Currently the country requires specialists with critical and analytical skills to question their actions and knowledge and generate alternative clinical care to apply to the general population in the search of bettering their own welfare. This article is a review in which the current situation of the teaching of psychiatry and the inclusion of research in the academic processes of our medical specialties in the country are analyzed. PMID:26572565

  9. [Pregnancy during residency].

    PubMed

    Maas, S M; van 't Hoff, B W; Rings, E H; van der Waals, F W; Büller, H A

    1992-12-19

    The number of female residents in the Netherlands has steadily increased in recent years. Due to the increased time on waiting lists to enter residency programmes and to the increased duration of training, female residents will be older during their residencies. This will probably result in an increased number of pregnancies during residencies. A questionnaire regarding pregnancy during residency was sent to 191 residents in two university hospitals in the Netherlands. The response rate was 74.3%. Fifty percent of the male and only 19% of the female residents had children. No negative effects of a pregnancy on their training were experienced or anticipated by the residents. However, a negative effect on the functioning of the department was expected. No formal provisions, like replacements were available and many solutions to replace pregnant colleagues depended on the flexibility of the colleagues. The wish to have children was high and equally distributed among male and female residents, 92% and 96%, resp. Given the difficulty to seek a permanent position and to have children after residency, the choice of many female residents will be to have their children during residency. This increase in number of pregnancies requires anticipation of the residency programme directors. They should take the lead in proposing adequate regulations. PMID:1470257

  10. The mental health of asylum-seeking and refugee children and adolescents attending a clinic in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Wiese, Elizabeth Batista Pinto; Burhorst, Ingrid

    2007-12-01

    We investigated the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of asylum-seeking and refugee children and adolescents referred to a child and adolescent psychiatry service in the Netherlands. Children with families and unaccompanied minors were compared. Unaccompanied minors had significantly higher frequencies of symptoms and psychiatric disorders than the children with families, both considered a high-risk population for mental health problems. PMID:18089641

  11. Interventional Psychiatry: How Should Psychiatric Educators Incorporate Neuromodulation into Training?

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Nolan R.; Taylor, Joseph J.; Snipes, Jonathan M.; Short, E. Baron; Kantor, Edward M.; George, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Interventional psychiatry is an emerging subspecialty that uses a variety of procedural neuromodulation techniques in the context of an electrocircuit-based view of mental dysfunction as proximal causes for psychiatric diseases. Methods The authors propose the development of an interventional psychiatry-training paradigm analogous to those found in cardiology and neurology. Results The proposed comprehensive training in interventional psychiatry would include didactics in the theory, proposed mechanisms, and delivery of invasive and noninvasive brain stimulation. Conclusions The development and refinement of this subspecialty would facilitate safe, effective growth in the field of brain stimulation by certified and credentialed practitioners within the field of psychiatry while also potentially improving the efficacy of current treatments. PMID:24554501

  12. [The Research Domain Criteria (Rdoc), reductionism and clinical psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Faucher, Luc; Goyer, Simon

    2016-12-01

    The focus of the advocates of the Research Domain Critria (RDoC) on faulty brain circuits has led some to suspect it of being a reductionist enterprise. And because RDoC will eventually impact clinical psychiatry, some have feared that it will transform clinical psychiatry in a mindless and applied neurobehavioral science. We argue that if RDoC is officially endorsing a kind of reductionism, the particular kind of reductionism it endorses is not suffering from the shortcomings of more classical forms of reductionism. Because of that, at least in principle, RDoC could enrich rather than impoverish clinical psychiatry. This paper raises few potential problems of the RDoC for clinical psychiatry caused by its implicit epistemological reductionism. PMID:27550461

  13. Crossing the line--learning psychiatry at the movies.

    PubMed

    Akram, Adil; O'Brien, Aileen; O'Neill, Aidan; Latham, Richard

    2009-06-01

    Special Study Modules (SSMs) have developed in response to the General Medical Council's recommendations. St George's, University of London runs a 'Psychiatry and Film' SSM for medical students on the 5-year MBBS course. Many films have plots or characters that have a mental illness. Psychiatry & filmmaking share certain skills. Both seek to understand character, motivation and behaviour. Cinema therefore has the potential to be a useful tool for medical educational purposes. Specific to psychiatry, themes such as the accuracy of portrayals of different mental illness, the psychiatrist/patient relationship and living with a mental illness can be explored. General issues such as the role of the psychiatrist in society, medical ethics, professionalism and stigma can also be usefully highlighted for consideration and debate. This may encourage medical students to consider psychiatry as a potential career specialty and help reduce negative attitudes to mental illness. PMID:19459104

  14. Hispanic Mental Health Research: A Case for Cultural Psychiatry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabrega, Horacio, Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Critically examines contemporary Hispanic mental health research. Develops idea that "establishment psychiatry" dominates methods, research, reimbursement, and treatment. Suggests need to broaden paradigms with culturally sensitive insight and contemporary psychiatric theory. Analyzes issues using frameworks of mental health research, social…

  15. Patterns and Predictors of Premenstrual Symptoms among Females Working in a Psychiatry Hospital.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Sunita; Sachdeva, Ankur

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Premenstrual syndrome presents with vague psychological, somatic, or biological symptoms. It may be seen more commonly in a specific profile of patients. We try to evaluate the patterns and predictors of premenstrual symptoms among females working in a tertiary care psychiatry hospital. Methodology. We recruited working females at a tertiary care psychiatry hospital in India, through purposive sampling, and assessed them cross-sectionally. Premenstrual Symptom Checklist was used to assess the frequency and distribution of premenstrual symptoms, which were correlated with various sociodemographic variables to evaluate the predictors for premenstrual symptoms. Results. 150 working females were included, belonging to different sociodemographic profile. Somatic symptoms (backache, joint and muscles pain, and fatiguability) were most commonly reported followed by psychological (irritability and losing temper easily) and biological symptoms (increased micturition). Premenstrual symptoms were seen more commonly in women with higher educational status and nursing profession and residing in nuclear families (p < 0.05), while age and marital status did not correlate significantly. Discussion. Premenstrual symptoms are common and distressing, especially for working females. Somatic symptoms such as backache and joint pains predominate over psychobiological symptoms. Women with higher educational status and professions like nursing belonging to nuclear families are more prone to these symptoms. Attention needs to be given to premenstrual symptoms in such population of working females. PMID:27293977

  16. "The tempest in my mind": cultural interfaces between psychiatry and literature, 1844-1900.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, S L

    1995-01-01

    The professional literature of the first generation of American psychiatrists is replete with poetical passages drawn from the imaginative works of such English authors as Shakespeare, Byron, and Scott as well as the writings of residents of the asylums they tended. A close reading of such passages in the American Journal of Insanity (AJI), the central medium through which members of this nascent profession attempted to "popularize the study of insanity," suggests they were not simply textual ornaments or signs of the underdeveloped state of American psychiatry in the mid-nineteenth century. Indeed, literary manifestations of the imaginative minds of patients and renowned writers were scrutinized by psychiatrists seeking to advance their understanding of mental disease. Moreover, the English authors were often elevated to the status of medical experts and their poetry and prose were commended to fellow medical practitioners as sources of psychological insight. Toward the turn of the century psychiatrists' engagement with these literary forms was less pronounced in the AJI, due in large part to the impact of rising asylum populations and the coming of a culture of positivist medicine. Yet literary influences on psychiatric writing are still evident in this period, indicating the complexity of the cultural interfaces between psychiatry and literature and the importance of examining the historical processes that have served to define and distinguish the enterprise of the psychiatrist from that of the poet. PMID:7897178

  17. MAP as a model for practice-based learning and improvement in child psychiatry training.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Sheryl H; Podell, Jennifer L; Zima, Bonnie T; Best, Karin; Sidhu, Shawn; Jura, Martha Bates

    2014-01-01

    Not only is there a growing literature demonstrating the positive outcomes that result from implementing evidence based treatments (EBTs) but also studies that suggest a lack of delivery of these EBTs in "usual care" practices. One way to address this deficit is to improve the quality of psychotherapy teaching for clinicians-in-training. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requires all training programs to assess residents in a number of competencies including Practice-Based Learning and Improvements (PBLI). This article describes the piloting of Managing and Adapting Practice (MAP) for child psychiatry fellows, to teach them both EBT and PBLI skills. Eight child psychiatry trainees received 5 full days of MAP training and are delivering MAP in a year-long outpatient teaching clinic. In this setting, MAP is applied to the complex, multiply diagnosed psychiatric patients that present to this clinic. This article describes how MAP tools and resources assist in teaching trainees each of the eight required competency components of PBLI, including identifying deficits in expertise, setting learning goals, performing learning activities, conducting quality improvement methods in practice, incorporating formative feedback, using scientific studies to inform practice, using technology for learning, and participating in patient education. A case example illustrates the use of MAP in teaching PBLI. MAP provides a unique way to teach important quality improvement and practice-based learning skills to trainees while training them in important psychotherapy competence. PMID:24245855

  18. Patterns and Predictors of Premenstrual Symptoms among Females Working in a Psychiatry Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Sunita; Sachdeva, Ankur

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Premenstrual syndrome presents with vague psychological, somatic, or biological symptoms. It may be seen more commonly in a specific profile of patients. We try to evaluate the patterns and predictors of premenstrual symptoms among females working in a tertiary care psychiatry hospital. Methodology. We recruited working females at a tertiary care psychiatry hospital in India, through purposive sampling, and assessed them cross-sectionally. Premenstrual Symptom Checklist was used to assess the frequency and distribution of premenstrual symptoms, which were correlated with various sociodemographic variables to evaluate the predictors for premenstrual symptoms. Results. 150 working females were included, belonging to different sociodemographic profile. Somatic symptoms (backache, joint and muscles pain, and fatiguability) were most commonly reported followed by psychological (irritability and losing temper easily) and biological symptoms (increased micturition). Premenstrual symptoms were seen more commonly in women with higher educational status and nursing profession and residing in nuclear families (p < 0.05), while age and marital status did not correlate significantly. Discussion. Premenstrual symptoms are common and distressing, especially for working females. Somatic symptoms such as backache and joint pains predominate over psychobiological symptoms. Women with higher educational status and professions like nursing belonging to nuclear families are more prone to these symptoms. Attention needs to be given to premenstrual symptoms in such population of working females. PMID:27293977

  19. [Medical students and psychiatry. A survey of students' opinion].

    PubMed

    Giberti, F; Corsini, G; Rovida, S

    1994-06-01

    In the last years research on the didactics of Psychiatry and opinions of medical students on Psychiatry has gained great interest. The authors think that this research could be useful for the improvement of didactics, for better understanding the meanings of professional choice, the identity of psychiatrist and their relationship with colleagues in other medical field. The goal of this research work was a preliminary survey of Genoese University Medical Student's opinions about psychiatry didactics, and choice of specialization. A questionnaire was submitted to all the students who passed Clinical Psychiatry examination in the period from November 1987 to December 1988. The students were divided in two randomized groups: the first group of students (224) was submitted to the questionnaire immediately after Clinical Psychiatry examination; while to the second group of students (66) the questionnaire was mailed. The aim of the questions was to assess the student's opinions on psychiatry, psychoanalysis, psychotherapy, the career they wanted to take up, and the difficulties of studying psychiatry: 69% of the students of the first group and 42% of the students of the second group answered the questionnaire. Female students answered that they preferred psychiatric specialization more than their male colleagues did, but the difference has no statistical importance. In most cases, the students who answered that they have taken into account psychiatry as a choice of specialisation, are more interested in medical specialties (primary care, etc.) than in surgical specialties. Most of the medical students declare some emotional troubles (anxiety, sleeplessness, problem in social relations).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7934737

  20. Electroconvulsive therapy in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shoirah, Hazem; Hamoda, Hesham M

    2011-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a recognized and effective treatment in adults for several psychiatric and neurological conditions in which the use of pharmacotherapy is ineffective, untimely or contraindicated. It has been used with success in mood and psychotic disorders, catatonia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, Parkinson's disease and intractable seizures. Its benefits have been recognized and its risks identified through an extensive body of research. The benefits of ECT are not limited to the adult population; research has been conducted on its use in child and adolescent populations for decades. In 2004, the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry published practice parameters for the use of ECT in adolescent populations. However, ECT continues to be underused in cases where it is clearly indicated. In this article, we review the use of ECT in the adolescent population; its indications, administration, contraindications and risks, with emphasis on articles published after the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry practice parameters were formulated. We also review reasons behind the underutilization of ECT in adolescents for whom this treatment modality is indicated. PMID:21158560

  1. Psychiatry and the general hospital in an age of uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    LIPSITT, DON R

    2003-01-01

    General hospitals have had an illustrious role in the evolution of psychiatry. They have provided a rich soil for the growth of inpatient psychiatric units, consultation-liaison psychiatry, psychosomatic medicine, med-psych units, outpatient psychiatric clinics, emergency services and a whole spectrum of resources for the communities in which they dwell. In some respects, whether attached to universities or not, they have functioned as small colleges for the education and training of scores of health professionals. In the setting of the general hospital, psychiatry has had opportunities to become remedicalized and integrated into the mainstream of medicine. However, recent trends in health care run the risk of jeopardizing these accomplishments. Managed care has had a profound impact on the way psychiatry is practiced, taught, and reimbursed. Concerns about cost-containment have raised questions about whether the general hospital will remain the best and most economical setting for psychiatric services. If the primacy of the patient is lost, psychiatry's role in the general hospital will be uncertain. The need to safeguard psychiatry's achievements must be a worldwide endeavor. PMID:16946901

  2. Roy Porter Student Essay Prize WinnerPsychiatry Limited: Hyperactivity and the Evolution of American Psychiatry, 1957–1980

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Summary Hyperactivity is the most commonly diagnosed childhood psychiatric disorder in north America. Most physicians believe that the disorder is a neurological dysfunction which is best treated with stimulants, such as ritalin. Accounts of the history of hyperactivity written by physicians, psychologists and even historians suggest that the disorder was always conceived as such. This paper argues that, on the contrary, the notion that hyperactivity was a neurological condition only emerged after vigorous debate during the 1960s between three competing fields within American psychiatry: specifically psychoanalysis, social psychiatry and biological psychiatry. Biological psychiatry won the debate, not because its approach to hyperactivity was more scientifically valid, but rather because its explanations and methods fit the prevailing social context more readily than that of its rivals. American psychiatry's refusal to draw pluralistic conclusions about hyperactivity undermined the development of a deeper understanding of the disorder. The history of hyperactivity provides an ideal lens through which to view the evolution of psychiatry from a field dominated by Freudian psychoanalysis to one rooted in the neurosciences.

  3. Psychiatry and the military: an update.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Elspeth Cameron; Benedek, David; Malone, Ricky; Carr-Malone, Rosemary

    2006-09-01

    The United States has historically been concerned about the successful adjustment of its military members returning from war. These concerns are based on the recognition that war-zone exposures may have considerable negative emotional or behavior consequences. As the global war on terror continues, the United States military medical system will be required to address issues at the interface of psychiatry and the law. Despite clinical advances within the theater of war and at tertiary facilities in the United States, some military members will develop chronic and disabling mental illness as a result of traumatic exposure and exacerbated by the demands of the austere and dangerous operational environment. The extent to which violent and aggressive behavior in the aftermath of deployment can be attributed to combat experience remains an area of debate and ongoing investigation. However, experience suggests that a very small subgroup of the hundreds of thousands of war veterans deployed in conjunction with the current conflict in Iraq has already been involved in violent crimes. For this group, military forensic psychiatrists will be called on to make determinations of competency and criminal responsibility and to inform the courts about the potential contributions of war-related distress or disorder to criminal behavior. Though the overwhelming majority of war veterans will not be involved in criminal proceedings, a minority will develop career-ending (and in rare instances, life-ending) disabilities as a result of mental illness. For those who are no longer fit for duty, the military Physical Disability Evaluation System must make determinations of the extent to which future military performance and future civilian social and occupational function have been compromised. For a small yet highly visible minority of returning veterans, questions about the cause, precipitants, and manner of death will necessitate psychological autopsies. This article highlighted recent

  4. [The "Psychiatrie-Enquete" - the German Report on the State of Psychiatry in 1975].

    PubMed

    Finzen, Asmus

    2015-10-01

    Forty years ago an expert-commission submitted a report on the deplorable state of German psychiatric care, called the "Psychiatrie-Enquete" to the Bundestag, the German parliament. The Report initiated a substantial change of Psychiatric services in the country. Inhuman treatment and living conditions were superseded. Mental hospitals were not completely abolished. But they lost their importance in favour of decentralized psychiatric services including departments at general hospitals, day hospitals and outpatient services. Custodial care was largely successfully developed into therapeutic and rehabilitative care. This article attempts a mildly critical evaluation of the Enquête 40 years after. PMID:25942076

  5. Biologism in Psychiatry: A Young Man’s Experience of Being Diagnosed with “Pediatric Bipolar Disorder”

    PubMed Central

    Parry, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric bipolar disorder is a diagnosis that arose in the mid 1990s in the USA and has mostly remained confined to that nation. In this article a young American man (under a pseudonym) describes his experience of having the diagnosis throughout his adolescent years. His story was conveyed via correspondence and a meeting with the author, an Australian child psychiatrist. The young American’s story reveals several issues that afflict contemporary psychiatry, particularly in the USA, where social and economic factors have contributed to the rise of a dominant biomedical paradigm—or “biologism”. This focus on the “bio” to the relative exclusion of the “psychosocial” in both diagnosis and treatment can have serious consequences as this young man’s story attests. The author explores aspects of his tale to analyze how the pediatric bipolar disorder “epidemic” arose and became emblematic of a dominant biologism. This narrative points to the need, depending on the service and country, to return to or retain/improve a balanced biopsychosocial perspective in child and adolescent mental health. Child psychiatry needs to advocate for health systems that support deeper listening to our patients. Then we can explore with them the full range of contextual factors that contribute to symptoms of individual and family distress. PMID:26237377

  6. Relationships between Self-Assessment Skills, Test Performance, and Demographic Variables in Psychiatry Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, David J.; Holzer, Charles; O'Neill, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Some researchers have seen the capacity for self-assessment in trainees as a special skill, and some reports have concluded that this skill is positively and crucially correlated with academic competence. Thus, it is believed that those trainees who are most deficient in knowledge are least likely to be aware of their limitations. Other…

  7. Russian and Soviet forensic psychiatry: troubled and troubling.

    PubMed

    Healey, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Russian forensic psychiatry is defined by its troubled and troubling relationship to an unstable state, a state that was not a continuous entity during the modern era. From the mid-nineteenth century, Russia as a nation-state struggled to reform, collapsed, re-constituted itself in a bloody civil war, metastasized into a violent "totalitarian" regime, reformed and stagnated under "mature socialism" and then embraced capitalism and "managed democracy" at the end of the twentieth century. These upheavals had indelible effects on policing and the administration of justice, and on psychiatry's relationship with them. In Russia, physicians specializing in medicine of the mind had to cope with rapid and radical changes of legal and institutional forms, and sometimes, of the state itself. Despite this challenging environment, psychiatrists showed themselves to be active professionals seeking to guide the transformations that inevitably touched their work. In the second half of the nineteenth century debates about the role of psychiatry in criminal justice took place against a backdrop of increasingly alarming terrorist activity, and call for revolution. While German influence, with its preference for hereditarianism, was strong, Russian psychiatry was inclined toward social and environmental explanations of crime. When revolution came in 1917, the new communist regime quickly institutionalized forensic psychiatry. In the aftermath of revolution, the institutionalization of forensic psychiatry "advanced" with each turn of the state's transformation, with profound consequences for practitioners' independence and ethical probity. The abuses of Soviet psychiatry under Stalin and more intensively after his death in the 1960s-80s remain under-researched and key archives are still classified. The return to democracy since the late 1980s has seen mixed results for fresh attempts to reform both the justice system and forensic psychiatric practice. PMID:24128434

  8. [The situation of emergency psychiatry in Germany].

    PubMed

    Pajonk, F-G B

    2015-09-01

    The impact of psychiatric emergencies for the care of patients in preclinical emergency medicine, in emergency departments and in psychiatric hospitals has been underestimated for a long time. There is still insufficient knowledge and a need for further research. There are, however, sufficient reasons to assume that annually approximately 500,000 patients with a psychiatric emergency receive treatment from a preclinical emergency physician and another 1.5 million in emergency departments in Germany. Further, approximately 500,000 patients are admitted to psychiatric hospitals as an emergency. The most frequent reasons are intoxication, agitation, aggressiveness and suicidal ideation, posing a threat of self-harm to the patient or to other persons and evoking other life-threatening conditions. Emergency psychiatry also plays a role in collective injuries, such as mass disasters, catastrophes and rampage situations. There is some evidence that the number of psychiatric emergencies is increasing. Reasons are, among others, changes in the services provided for inpatient and outpatient treatment, a reduction in stabilizing psychosocial factors and a general increase in the utilization of emergency healthcare services. PMID:26099496

  9. Spirituality, psychiatry and participation: a cultural analysis.

    PubMed

    Dein, Simon

    2005-12-01

    This article begins by asking whether religion and spirituality are useful terms for cross-cultural comparisons. After discussing the increasing distinction between religion and spirituality in Western cultures, it points out how the terms religion and spirituality are used in divergent ways in the literature and the need for conceptual clarification in this area. Broadly, spirituality relates to interconnectedness, ultimate meaning or life force itself. The current use of the term spirituality in Western cultures derives both from Christian spirituality and 'New Age' thinking, which often appropriates ideas from Eastern religious traditions. The sociocultural roots of this division are complex, involving both growth of individualism, the pursuit of meaning and discontent with materialism and scientific rationalism. This situation is contrasted with other monotheistic religions where there is no distinction between religion and spirituality. This turn to spirituality has influenced health care professionals' conceptualizations of health and healing. The implications for psychiatry are discussed. I conclude that spirituality is a way of 'being in the world' and shares affinities with Tambiah's notion of a participatory mode of thinking. PMID:16570516

  10. Cultural psychiatry: research strategies and future directions.

    PubMed

    Kirmayer, Laurence J; Ban, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    This chapter reviews some key aspects of current research in cultural psychiatry and explores future prospects. The first section discusses the multiple meanings of culture in the contemporary world and their relevance for understanding mental health and illness. The next section considers methodological strategies for unpacking the concept of culture and studying the impact of cultural variables, processes and contexts. Multiple methods are needed to address the many different components or dimensions of cultural identity and experience that constitute local worlds, ways of life or systems of knowledge. Quantitative and observational methods of clinical epidemiology and experimental science as well as qualitative ethnographic methods are needed to capture crucial aspects of culture as systems of meaning and practice. Emerging issues in cultural psychiatric research include: cultural variations in illness experience and expression; the situated nature of cognition and emotion; cultural configurations of self and personhood; concepts of mental disorder and mental health literacy; and the prospect of ecosocial models of health and culturally based interventions. The conclusion considers the implications of the emerging perspectives from cultural neuroscience for psychiatric theory and practice. PMID:23816867

  11. [The potential use of ayahuasca in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Frecska, Ede; Bokor, Petra; Andrassy, Gabor; Kovacs, Attila

    2016-06-01

    Ayahuasca is a decoctum made of admixture plants containing dimethyltryptamine and harmine. For millennia it has been used as a central element of spiritual, religious, initiation, and other - foremost healing - rituals, originally by the indigenous groups of the Amazon basin and later by the mestizo populations of the region. During the last two decades the brew has raised increased scientific and lay interest about its healing potentials within the framework of Western therapeutic settings. The typical ayahuasca effects consist of strong somatic reactions, vivid visions, relived personal memories, cathartic emotions, and insightful, introspective experiences when the emerging mental contents take different context and get deeper perspectives. The ayahuasca-experience can be exhausting necessitating the presence of an experienced leader for helping participants to pass difficult phases and for maximizing therapeutic benefits. No health damaging adverse effect has been confirmed thus far as result of its well-structured, institutionalized use. The scientific investigation of ayahuasca is hindered by legal issues, methodical problems, and sociocultural preconceptions. The present review outlines the therapeutic potentials of ayahuasca use in psychiatry with its psychobiological and spiritual background. PMID:27390204

  12. Contested boundaries: psychiatry, disease, and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Charles E

    2006-01-01

    Since the 19th century, we have come to think of disease in terms of specific entities--entities defined and legitimated in terms of characteristic somatic mechanisms. Since the last third of that century, we have expanded would-be disease categories to include an ever-broader variety of emotional pain, idiosyncrasy, and culturally unsettling behaviors. Psychiatry has been the residuary legatee of these developments, developments that have always been contested at the ever-shifting boundary between disease and deviance, feeling and symptom, the random and the determined, the stigmatized and the value-free. Even in our era of reductionist hopes, psychopharmaceutical practice, and corporate strategies, the legitimacy of many putative disease categories will remain contested. The use of the specific disease entity model will always be a reductionist means to achieve necessarily holistic ends, both in terms of cultural norms and the needs of suffering individuals. Bureaucratic rigidities and stakeholder conflicts structure and intensify such boundary conflicts, as do the interests and activism of an interested lay public. PMID:16960310

  13. The Evolution of Public Psychiatry Fellowships

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Jeanne L.; Giggie, Marisa A.; Koh, Steve; Mangurian, Christina; Ranz, Jules M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The growth of Public Psychiatry Fellowships [PPF’s] has reached a new developmental stage, providing a wide array of academic partnerships and educational opportunities in psychiatric leadership and administration. The authors examine the evolution of these programs and illustrate three distinct models. Methods Data from yearly surveys and discussions with PPF Directors were used to identify key similarities and areas of divergence as the programs have evolved. Results The first period of program expansion took place 8–10 years ago when new programs were modeled on the Columbia PPF, and key elements of that program and the American Association of Community Psychiatrists (AACP) guidelines were incorporated broadly. Examples of multiple source (Columbia), single source (Yale and UCSF), and grant-funded programs (Alabama and UCSD) are presented. Conclusions A review of the current status of PPF’s reveals a diversity of structures and strategies for success, which can be attributed to the range of their funding sources. The advantages and potential disadvantages of those models are outlined with respect to the educational experience and opportunities for growth and sustainability. PMID:25026948

  14. Deep pharma: psychiatry, anthropology, and pharmaceutical detox.

    PubMed

    Oldani, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Psychiatric medication, or psychotropics, are increasingly prescribed for people of all ages by both psychiatry and primary care doctors for a multitude of mental health and/or behavioral disorders, creating a sharp rise in polypharmacy (i.e., multiple medications). This paper explores the clinical reality of modern psychotropy at the level of the prescribing doctor and clinical exchanges with patients. Part I, Geographies of High Prescribing, documents the types of factors (pharmaceutical-promotional, historical, cultural, etc.) that can shape specific psychotropic landscapes. Ethnographic attention is focused on high prescribing in Japan in the 1990s and more recently in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, in the US. These examples help to identify factors that have converged over time to produce specific kinds of branded psychotropic profiles in specific locales. Part II, Pharmaceutical Detox, explores a new kind of clinical work being carried out by pharmaceutically conscious doctors, which reduces the number of medications being prescribed to patients while re-diagnosing their mental illnesses. A high-prescribing psychiatrist in southeast Wisconsin is highlighted to illustrate a kind of med-checking taking place at the level of individual patients. These various examples and cases call for a renewed emphasis by anthropology to critically examine the "total efficacies" of modern pharmaceuticals and to continue to disaggregate mental illness categories in the Boasian tradition. This type of detox will require a holistic approach, incorporating emergent fields such as neuroanthropology and other kinds of creative collaborations. PMID:24700144

  15. Is Mandatory Prospective Trial Registration Working to Prevent Publication of Unregistered Trials and Selective Outcome Reporting? An Observational Study of Five Psychiatry Journals That Mandate Prospective Clinical Trial Registration

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Amelia; Rucklidge, Julia J.; Mulder, Roger T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To address the bias occurring in the medical literature associated with selective outcome reporting, in 2005, the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) introduced mandatory trial registration guidelines and member journals required prospective registration of trials prior to patient enrolment as a condition of publication. No research has examined whether these guidelines are impacting psychiatry publications. Our objectives were to determine the extent to which articles published in psychiatry journals adhering to ICMJE guidelines were correctly prospectively registered, whether there was evidence of selective outcome reporting and changes to participant numbers, and whether there was a relationship between registration status and source of funding. Materials and Methods Any clinical trial (as defined by ICMJE) published between 1 January 2009 and 31 July 2013 in the top five psychiatry journals adhering to ICMJE guidelines (The American Journal of Psychiatry, Archives of General Psychiatry/JAMA Psychiatry, Biological Psychiatry, Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, and The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry) and conducted after July 2005 (or 2007 for two journals) was included. For each identified trial, where possible we extracted trial registration information, changes to POMs between publication and registry to assess selective outcome reporting, changes to participant numbers, and funding type. Results Out of 3305 articles, 181 studies were identified as clinical trials requiring registration: 21 (11.6%) were deemed unregistered, 61 (33.7%) were retrospectively registered, 37 (20.4%) had unclear POMs either in the article or the registry and 2 (1.1%) were registered in an inaccessible trial registry. Only 60 (33.1%) studies were prospectively registered with clearly defined POMs; 17 of these 60 (28.3%) showed evidence of selective outcome reporting and 16 (26.7%) demonstrated a change in participant

  16. [Inpatient Dialectical Behavioral Therapy for Adolescents (DBT-A) - 10 years of experience on the psychiatric inpatient unit "wellenreiter"].

    PubMed

    von Auer, Anne Kristin; Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Ludewig, Sonia; Soyka, Oliver; Bohus, Martin; Ludäscher, Petra

    2015-09-01

    In April 2004 the inpatient unit "Wellenreiter" at the Vorwerker Clinic for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy in Lubeck (Germany) opened its doors. Despite reservations by the therapeutic community, we implemented a specialized treatment for female adolescents with symptoms of borderline personality disorder - the I;>ialectical Behavior Therapy for Adolescents (DBT-A). In this article we present the concept, our experiences, and data from the past 10 years of clinical work in this specialized unit. PMID:26373383

  17. Howard Zonana and the transformation of forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Bonnie, Richard J

    2010-01-01

    In recognition of Howard Zonana's contributions, I take stock of the progress of the field of forensic psychiatry over three decades. As forensic psychiatrists, you are the voice of psychiatry in the law and the interpreter of law to your colleagues in psychiatry. I offer provisional impressions of your collective accomplishments under three themes: expertise, influence, and integrity. First, you have established and nurtured the expertise and authority of forensic psychiatry, which has become increasingly evidence-based and reflects a prudent sense of humility. Second, you have had a significant influence on the design and daily application of mental health law in both criminal and civil spheres. Through the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law (AAPL) and relevant components of the American Psychological Association, you have been a strong and effective advocate for protecting both the needs and rights of people with mental illness and have had demonstrable influence in the Supreme Court as well as at the grassroots. Finally, you have nurtured and protected the ethical integrity of the profession in the face of ever-increasing challenges, due in no small measure to the habits of ethical reflection that Howard Zonana has modeled and taught over the course of his extraordinary career. PMID:21156919

  18. What is psychiatry? Co-producing complexity in mental health

    PubMed Central

    Pickersgill, Martyn

    2012-01-01

    What is psychiatry? Such a question is increasingly important to engage with in light of the development of new diagnostic frameworks that have wide-ranging and international clinical and societal implications. I suggest in this reflective essay that ‘psychiatry' is not a singular entity that enjoins consistent forms of critique along familiar axes; rather, it is a heterogeneous assemblage of interacting material and symbolic elements (some of which endure, and some of which are subject to innovation). In underscoring the diversity of psychiatry, I seek to move towards further sociological purchase on what remains a contested and influential set of discourses and practices. This approach foregrounds the relationships between scientific knowledge, biomedical institutions, social action and subjective experience; these articulations co-produce both psychiatry and each other. One corollary of this emphasis on multiplicity and incoherence within psychiatric theory, research and practice, is that critiques which elide this complexity are rendered problematic. Engagements with psychiatry are, I argue, best furthered by recognising its multifaceted nature. PMID:23226975

  19. Cyclical swings: The bête noire of psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Decker, Hannah S

    2016-02-01

    Progress in psychiatry in the West has been retarded by the proclivity of the discipline to swing violently between 2 approaches to viewing mental illness; that is, emphasizing-to the exclusion of the other-the material-somatic vs the psychical-experiential avenues to knowledge. Each time a shift occurs, the leaders of the new dominant approach emotionally denounce the principles and ideas that came before. We can examine this phenomenon historically by looking at Romantic psychiatry, mid-/late-19th century empirical psychiatry, psychoanalysis, and modern biological psychiatry. Looking at the 2 approaches in treatment today, the gold standard of patient care involves combining empirical/psychological care in 1 person (the psychiatrist) or shared between 2 clinicians working intimately with each other (psychiatrist with psychologist or social worker.) Yet as regards psychiatrists, they are discouraged from paying full attention to the psychological side by the way managed care and third-party payment have combined to remunerate them. Finally, how do we account for the intense swings and denunciations in psychiatry? The author speculates on possible explanations but leaves the question open for her readers. PMID:26844651

  20. Centenary of Karl Jaspers's general psychopathology: implications for molecular psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Thome, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Modern molecular psychiatry benefits immensely from the scientific and technological advances of general neuroscience (including genetics, epigenetics, and proteomics). This "progress" of molecular psychiatry, however, will be to a degree "unbalanced" and "epiphytic" should the development of the corresponding theoretical frameworks and conceptualization tools that allow contextualization of the individual neuroscientific findings within the specific perspective of mental health care issues be neglected. The General Psychopathology, published by Karl Jaspers in 1913, is considered a groundbreaking work in psychiatric literature, having established psychopathology as a space of critical methodological self-reflection, and delineating a scientific methodology specific to psychiatry. With the advance of neurobiology and molecular neuroscience and its adoption in psychiatric research, however, a growing alienation between current research-oriented neuropsychiatry and the classical psychopathological literature is evident. Further, consensus-based international classification criteria, although useful for providing an internationally accepted system of reliable psychiatric diagnostic categories, further contribute to a neglect of genuinely autonomous thought on psychopathology. Nevertheless, many of the unsolved theoretical problems of psychiatry, including those in the areas of nosology, anthropology, ethics, epistemology and methodology, might be fruitfully addressed by a re-examination of classic texts, such as Jaspers's General Psychopathology, and their further development and adaptation for 21st century psychiatry. PMID:25408913

  1. [Irrationality in psychiatry. I. Irrationality in analytical psychology].

    PubMed

    Vacek, J

    1991-02-01

    In the author's opinion the contemporary western world is experiencing an offensive of irrationality which affects also psychiatry. When psychiatry got rid of irrational illusions of preceding centuries, analytical psychology contributed to the introduction of irrationality into psychiatry. In the first part of his paper he maintains that Freud's share was not substantial in this respect and that in particular Jung contributed towards the development of irrational trends in psychiatry by this concept of collective unconscious. In the second part of his paper the author deals with so-called transpersonal, psychology, in particular the contribution made by the Czech psychiatrist Grof who, based on his experiments with LSD, created the theory of three levels of experience from unconscious (psychodynamic, perinatal, and transpersonal). His interpretation is a relapse of neoplatonism and represents antirational agnostic spiritualism with utopic antipsychiatric elements. In the third part of his paper the author deals with Capro's ideology of the New Age Movement to the establishment of which Ghof contributed in an important way. The New Age ideology is an irrational conglomeration of anti-civilization trends which negate modern thinking. The chances of manking are fallaciously seen in alienation from science and an approach to mysticism and irrational Asian traditions. Contemporary popularity of irrational trends, incl. transpersonal psychology, is a reaction of the overationalized society. Consequential enforcement of transpersonal psychology would imply a negation of the entire arsenal of thinking in psychiatry as a medial discipline. PMID:1913937

  2. Adolescent development

    MedlinePlus

    Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... During adolescence, children develop the ability to: Understand abstract ideas. These include grasping higher math concepts, and developing moral ...

  3. Adolescent development

    MedlinePlus

    Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... rights and privileges. Establish and maintain satisfying relationships. Adolescents will learn to share intimacy without feeling worried ...

  4. Attitudes of clinical staff toward the causes and management of aggression in acute old age psychiatry inpatient units

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In psychiatry, most of the focus on patient aggression has been in adolescent and adult inpatient settings. This behaviour is also common in elderly people with mental illness, but little research has been conducted into this problem in old age psychiatry settings. The attitudes of clinical staff toward aggression may affect the way they manage this behaviour. The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes of clinical staff toward the causes and management of aggression in acute old age psychiatry inpatient settings. Methods A convenience sample of clinical staff were recruited from three locked acute old age psychiatry inpatient units in Melbourne, Australia. They completed the Management of Aggression and Violence Scale, which assessed the causes and managment of aggression in psychiatric settings. Results Eighty-five staff completed the questionnaire, comprising registered nurses (61.1%, n = 52), enrolled nurses (27.1%, n = 23) and medical and allied health staff (11.8%, n = 10). A range of causative factors contributed to aggression. The respondents had a tendency to disagree that factors directly related to the patient contributed to this behaviour. They agreed patients were aggressive because of the environment they were in, other people contributed to them becoming aggressive, and patients from certain cultural groups were prone to these behaviours. However, there were mixed views about whether patient aggression could be prevented, and this type of behaviour took place because staff did not listen to patients. There was agreement medication was a valuable approach for the management of aggression, negotiation could be used more effectively in such challenging behaviour, and seclusion and physical restraint were sometimes used more than necessary. However, there was disagreement about whether the practice of secluding patients should be discontinued. Conclusions Aggression in acute old age psychiatry inpatient units occurs

  5. Frequency of anemia in chronic psychiatry patients

    PubMed Central

    Korkmaz, Sevda; Yıldız, Sevler; Korucu, Tuba; Gundogan, Burcu; Sunbul, Zehra Emine; Korkmaz, Hasan; Atmaca, Murad

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Anemia could cause psychiatric symptoms such as cognitive function disorders and depression or could deteriorate an existing psychiatric condition when it is untreated. The objective of this study is to scrutinize the frequency of anemia in chronic psychiatric patients and the clinical and sociodemographic factors that could affect this frequency. Methods All inpatients in our clinic who satisfied the study criteria and received treatment between April 2014 and April 2015 were included in this cross-sectional study. Sociodemographic data for 378 patients included in the study and hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit values observed during their admission to the hospital were recorded in the forms. Male patients with an Hb level of <13 g/dL and nonpregnant female patients with an Hb level of <12 g/dL were considered as anemic. Findings Axis 1 diagnoses demonstrated that 172 patients had depressive disorder, 51 patients had bipolar disorder, 54 patients had psychotic disorder, 33 patients had conversion disorder, 19 patients had obsessive-compulsive disorder, 25 patients had generalized anxiety disorder, and 24 patients had other psychiatric conditions. It was also determined that 25.4% of the patients suffered from anemia. Thirty-five percent of females and 10% of males were considered as anemic. The frequency of anemia was the highest among psychotic disorder patients (35%), followed by generalized anxiety disorder patients (32%), and obsessive-compulsive disorder patients (26%). Anemia was diagnosed in 22% of depressive disorder patients, 25% of bipolar disorder patients, and 24% of conversion disorder patients. Results The prevalence of anemia among chronic psychiatry patients is more frequent than the general population. Thus, the study concluded that it would be beneficial to consider the physical symptoms and to conduct the required examinations to determine anemia among this patient group. PMID:26543367

  6. Haematological toxicity of drugs used in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Robert J; Dunk, Louisa

    2008-01-01

    Almost all classes of psychotropic agents have been reported to cause blood dyscrasias. Mechanisms include direct toxic effects upon the bone marrow, the formation of antibodies against haematopoietic precursors or involve peripheral destruction of cells. Agranulocytosis is probably the most important drug-related blood dyscrasia. The mortality from drug-induced agranulocytosis is 5-10% in Western countries. The manifestations of agranulocytosis are secondary to infection. Aggressive treatment with intravenous broad-spectrum antimicrobials and bone marrow stimulants may be required. Of drugs encountered in psychiatry, antipsychotics including clozapine (risk of agranulocytosis approximately 0.8%, predominantly in the first year of treatment) and phenothiazines (chlorpromazine agranulocytosis risk approximately 0.13%), and antiepileptics (notably carbamazepine, neutropenia risk approximately 0.5%) are the most common causes of drug-related neutropenia/agranulocytosis. Drugs known to cause neutropenia should not be used concomitantly with other drugs known to cause this problem. High temperature and other indicators of possible infection should be looked for routinely during treatment. Clozapine is well known as a drug that can cause blood dyscrasias, but olanzapine and other atypicals may also cause similar problems. In addition to genetic factors, there are likely to be dose-related and immunological components to these phenomena. Important lessons have been learnt from the haematological monitoring that is necessary with clozapine and the monitoring has been very successful in preventing deaths related to clozapine-induced agranulocytosis. Continuing research into the mechanisms of drug-induced neutropenia and agranulocytosis may serve to further enhance the safe use not only of clozapine, but also of other agents. PMID:18098216

  7. The Importance of Statistics in Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Penrose, L. S.

    1947-01-01

    The paper gives an outline, with examples, of various statistical methods which may be of special use in psychiatry. (1) Actuarial data.—The simple accumulation of accurate figures on the ages of patients, their diagnoses and length of stay in hospital or under treatment for mental illness is of great value in understanding the scope of psychiatric problems. The age and sex incidences which correspond to different disease groups are very characteristic. Such material has value in the estimation of the results of therapeutic experiments but special methods have to be devised, as there is no exact prototype in standard vital statistics or in work on therapeutic trials. (2) Biometric techniques.—Knowledge of ordinary statistical practice guards against elementary errors and aids in establishing significance or otherwise of metrical deviations from the normal found in mentally ill subjects. Also the range of variations may be much more marked in abnormal than in normal groups. Furthermore, abnormal reactions in themselves may be characterized by either too much or too little variety, i.e. by scatter or by stereotypy. Discrimination between normal and abnormal reaction can be based on a single quantitative measurement, on difference in variance or on a compound measurement, i.e. pattern or profile. The discriminative approach has advantages over other methods because in this approach the initial factors are concrete and based on known classes such as males and females, children and adults, special clinical types, &c. (3) Genetical analysis.—Actuarial data can be useful in genetic studies by leading to estimation of population frequency of genes and consanguinity rates. Moreover, combined clinical and genetical observations can reveal the existence of new clinical entities. PMID:18919283

  8. Intellectual quotient of juveniles evaluated in a forensic psychiatry clinic after committing a violent crime.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Leon, Manuel; Rosner, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study is to evaluate if there is a difference between the intelligence quotient (IQ) of 27 adolescent defendants referred to the Bellevue Hospital Center Forensic Psychiatry Clinic after committing violent crimes, and those adolescents in the same age group in the general population of the United States, as defined by the norms of the psychometric testing instrument Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition (WISC-IV). The IQ scores and sub-scores were compared to IQ scores of the general population (mean = 100, SD = 15) using a Z-test. The mean for the Full Scale IQ was 82.93. The means for the subtests which include Processing Speed Index, Perceptual Reasoning Index, Verbal Comprehension Index, and Working Memory Index, were: 78.48, 87.78, 86.70 (p < 0.05), and 90.78 (p = 0.09) respectively. There is a statistically significant difference in the IQ scores of the violent juveniles studied when compared to the general population. PMID:20015167

  9. Linking Early Brain and Biological Development to Psychiatry: Introduction and Symposia Review

    PubMed Central

    Attridge, Mark; Ghali, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This paper introduces the special issue of the Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry on the theme of how multiple factors in early brain and biological development can influence a variety of outcomes in mental health and addictions in childhood, adolescence and adulthood. Method: In Part 1, we preview three papers in this issue. In Part 2, we highlight two recent innovative knowledge-transfer symposia featuring the application of the science in early development and addictions. Results: The papers focus on the subtopics of brain plasticity, mood disorders, and comparative research with monkeys on gene-environment interactions and parent-child attachment. In addition, the research presented at the Early Brain and Biological Development Symposium and the Recovery from Addiction Symposium is also reviewed. Held in 2010 in Banff, Alberta, each five-day program was intended to bridge the gap between scientific and clinical experts and those in the province responsible for policy, programs, and services. Conclusions: The science now links common neurobiological maturation processes, adverse early childhood experiences, and key aspects of the social environment with risks for mental health disorders and addictions later in life. The final paper in this issue examines the clinical and policy implications of this research knowledge. PMID:22114607

  10. Public health system and psychiatry in the treatment of 'dangerous' young offenders in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Rafael Bernardon; Cordeiro, Quirino; Taborda, José G V

    2015-01-01

    We describe the Experimental Health Unit, a special forensic mental health facility in Brazil, created by court order and administered by the São Paulo Department of Health. It was designed for young offenders receiving compulsory inpatient treatment for severe personality disorders. All nine patients admitted to date came from Foundation CASA (a socio-educational centre of assistance for adolescents, the juvenile correctional centres managed by the São Paulo state Department of Justice). The court decision is questionable, relying on a new interpretation of the Child and Adolescent Statute and the law that regulates psychiatric treatment in Brazil. The public health system and psychiatry have been supporting the isolation of some individuals from society, based on the seriousness of their crimes and possession of particular personality characteristics. The decision to commit and send a small group of personality disordered individuals to this unit as inpatients is an unfair decision, since jails and correctional centres hold a high number of psychopathic who have also committed barbaric crimes. The central mental health issue is the role that the public health system should play in the custody of dangerous people; the cost-effectiveness of this model, the accuracy of risk assessment and tractability of people with severe personality disorders are also debatable. From a legal perspective, the operation of this facility raises questions about age of legal majority, the maximum period of incarceration of young offenders and use of whole-life sentences for certain types of crimes and criminals in Brazil. PMID:25864046

  11. [Karl Jaspers and the challenges of social psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Jäger, Markus; Lang, Fabian U; Becker, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Karl Jaspers, in his book "General Psychopathology", argued for methodological pluralism rather than theoretical dogmatism. He formulated a methodological order of psychopathology with a distinction between "explanation" (objective psychopathology) and "understanding" (subjective psychopathology, psychopathology of meaning). The latter approach focused on patients' subjective experience and biographical issues. Karl Jaspers emphasised social factors in the genesis and course of mental disorders. Following a multiperspective concept, from Jaspers' viewpoint social psychiatry should consider itself of equal importance with biological and psychotherapeutic psychiatry. Therefore, uncritical generalization of one of these perspectives should be avoided. Personalized psychiatry, apart from searching biological markers to tailor treatment should identify psychosocial factors and subjective meaning. Concepts of recovery should not ignore biological foundations in mental disorders. PMID:24858436

  12. [Problem based learning (PBL)--possible adaptation in psychiatry (debate)].

    PubMed

    Adamowski, Tomasz; Frydecka, Dorota; Kiejna, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    Teaching psychiatry concerns mainly education of students studying medicine and clinical psychology, but it also concerns professional training the people specializing in psychiatry and in other fields of medicine. Since the requirements that medical professionals are obliged to meet are ever higher, it is essential to provide highest possible quality of teaching and to do so to use the best possible teaching models. One of the modern educational models is Problem Based Learning (PBL). Barrows' and Dreyfus' research as well as development of andragogy had major impact on the introduction of this model of teaching. There are favourable experiences of using PBL in teaching psychiatry reported, especially in the field of psychosomatics. Problem Based Learning gradually becomes a part of modern curricula in Western Europe. For this reason it is worth keeping in mind PBL's principles and knowingly apply them into practice, all the more the reported educational effects of using this method are very promising. PMID:17598426

  13. Conceptualizing the forensic psychiatry report as performative narrative.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Ezra E H; Stankovic, Aleksandra; Baranoski, Madelon

    2010-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry has evolved into a recognized specialty. Two core competencies, often overlooked but commonplace in forensic psychiatry, are the constructing of forensic reports and the presenting of oral testimony. This article concerns the written forensic report and conceptualizes it as performative writing. We first review the development of the forensic report's structure over the past 30 years or so and then apply constructs from other disciplines as we propose a process for creating narrative forensic reports. Such writing is grounded in the discipline of psychiatry, relies on ethics-based principles of respect for persons and truth-telling, and uses language to tell a story that persuades the legal audience. We examine the impact of voice, pitfalls to avoid, and the concepts of witnessing and labeling, as we describe the process of formulating the narrative through the voice of the forensic expert. PMID:20305072

  14. The state of psychiatry in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Höschl, Cyril; Winkler, Petr; Pěč, Ondřej

    2012-08-01

    This overview of Czech psychiatry begins with a brief review of its history; outlines its social, political and economic determinants and then describes the field itself. Both epidemiological and service-related information are discussed, together with the issues for mental health personnel, education and research. The heavy burden of communist history pervades most areas and must be taken into account in the specific characteristics that influence both the current situation and future prospects of Czech psychiatry. This consideration is essential for orientation in the field and to understand Czech particularities. The greatest challenges, however, originate from the fundamental changes that are going on in the world today. These challenges reach beyond national boundaries and include such phenomena as globalization, migration, ageing population, growing burden of mental ill health, the still prevailing stigma towards psychiatry, and the psychological roots and consequences of current financial and societal crises. PMID:22950765

  15. Influence of Clerkship on Attitudes of Medical Students toward Psychiatry across Cultures: United States and Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgut, F. Tuna; Polan, H. Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assure adequate treatment for patients with mental illness worldwide, medical schools must impart positive attitudes toward psychiatry. The authors examined the effect of culture on changes in attitudes toward psychiatry among medical students receiving the same psychiatry clerkship curriculum in two different countries. Methods: A…

  16. Incorporating Active Learning into a Psychiatry Clerkship: Does It Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morreale, Mary; Arfken, Cynthia; Bridge, Patrick; Balon, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Medical students' satisfaction with the psychiatry clerkship, sense of preparedness for an institutional Objective Structured Clinical Exam (OSCE), expressed likelihood of choosing psychiatry as a specialty, and National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) psychiatry shelf-examination scores were compared after a curriculum based on…

  17. Subsidized Housing, Public Housing, and Adolescent Violence and Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Tamara G. J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the separate relationships of public housing residence and subsidized housing residence to adolescent health risk behavior. Data include 2,530 adolescents aged 14 to 19 who were children of the National the Longitudinal Study of Youth. The author used stratified propensity methods to compare the behaviors of each…

  18. The importance of neuropsychopharmacology in the development of psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Kalmár, Sandor

    2014-09-01

    The author establishes that Psychiatry has been in a difficult situation especially in Hungary since closing down the National Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology. He reviews the most important factors which hold up the development of Psychiatry. He settles that the development of Psychiatry is inconceivable without a person's holistic approach which assumes the biological, mental, cultural-social and spiritual approach. Disturbances of perception have particular roles in the formation of psychopathological symptoms which are based on the operation of the nervous system. This fact emphasises the importance of the nervous system and the neuropsychopharmacology which we have known since the beginning of history although it is hardly half a century old. He pays the attention to the psychoactive medicine that was well-known in the ancient civilization. He reviews some of them which were actually the first neuropsychopharmacological pharmaceuticals. He emphasises the dichotomy of the psychopathological symptoms which are partly objective, partly subjective but based on the operation of the nervous system by all means. His statements not only establish a new kind of approach of both the person and the Psychiatry but enables the development of Psychiatry, the creation of a new sort of diagnostic system, eliminating the variance among the experts dealing with people, the neurologists, the psychiatrists, the psychologists, the sociologists, the philosophers and the theologians, ensuring the biological (neurological), psychological, cultural and spiritual perpetuity. The biological, genetic, psychic, cultural-social and spiritual approach, the application of nanomedicine that enable not only recognising the organic neurological bases of the psychiatric disorders that are all crucial for the future researchers but also essential in the development of the neuropsychopharmacology based on the function of the nervous system. PMID:25347244

  19. Psychiatry in 21(st) century: The road ahead.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Sayantanava; Kavoor, Anjana Rao

    2014-10-01

    In spite of becoming more humane in its approach with improvements in understanding of mental illnesses over last century, psychiatry still has a long way to go. At this point in time, on one hand the world faces issues like terrorism, wars and global warming; while on the other it is witnessing economic and gender empowerment like never before. With technology providing us with immense opportunities to advance care for the mentally ill, we are closer than ever to finding the holy-grail of psychiatry, and overcoming daunting challenges. PMID:25288858

  20. Big data are coming to psychiatry: a general introduction.

    PubMed

    Monteith, Scott; Glenn, Tasha; Geddes, John; Bauer, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Big data are coming to the study of bipolar disorder and all of psychiatry. Data are coming from providers and payers (including EMR, imaging, insurance claims and pharmacy data), from omics (genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic data), and from patients and non-providers (data from smart phone and Internet activities, sensors and monitoring tools). Analysis of the big data will provide unprecedented opportunities for exploration, descriptive observation, hypothesis generation, and prediction, and the results of big data studies will be incorporated into clinical practice. Technical challenges remain in the quality, analysis and management of big data. This paper discusses some of the fundamental opportunities and challenges of big data for psychiatry. PMID:26440506