Science.gov

Sample records for adolescent psychiatry training

  1. Factors Affecting Recruitment into Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Jon A.; Lewis, John E.; Katyal, Shalini

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors studied the factors affecting the recruitment into child and adolescent psychiatry training in the United States. Methods: Medical students (n = 154) and general and child and adolescent psychiatry residents (n = 111) completed a questionnaire to evaluate career choice in child psychiatry (n = 265). Results: Compared with…

  2. Family Therapy Training in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Fellowship Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rait, Douglas Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study describes the current state of family therapy training in a sample of child and adolescent psychiatry fellowship programs. Method: Child and adolescent psychiatry fellows (N = 66) from seven training programs completed a questionnaire assessing demographics, family therapy training experiences, common models of treatment and…

  3. Models of Integrated Training in Psychiatry and Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sexson, Sandra B.; Thomas, Christopher R.; Pope, Kayla

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies indicate declining interest in child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) as a career choice during psychiatry residency training. Programs have developed integrated training in psychiatry and CAP as a means to address the workforce shortage in CAP, but little is known about the number or nature of these training tracks.…

  4. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Health and Mental Hygiene, Baltimore.

    The major goal of the 2-year child and adolescent psychiatry fellowship program at the University of Maryland is to provide an integrated but flexible set of learning experiences, with areas of emphasis including child and adolescent development, early intervention and prevention of mental health problems, community child psychiatry, and research.…

  5. Directing child and adolescent psychiatry training for residents.

    PubMed

    Sexson, Sandra B

    2010-01-01

    Directing child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) training for residents is a complex and challenging administrative task that encompasses the broad creativity of the orchestral conductor, the social and interpersonal effectiveness of the best politician, and the orientation to details of the finest accountant. This article examines these roles in detail, recognizing the leadership, administrative, and managerial achievements of the successful child and adolescent program director. Resources for optimizing the chances for success in each of these areas, and the common pitfalls to avoid, are identified and discussed. The article concludes with suggestions for CAP training directors to influence medical student education. Although challenging and sometimes frustrating, the role of the program director in CAP training is almost always exciting and rewarding.

  6. Training of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Fellows in Autism and Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrus, Natasha; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Hellings, Jessica A.; Stigler, Kimberly A.; Szymanski, Ludwik; King, Bryan H.; Carlisle, L. Lee; Cook, Edwin H., Jr.; Pruett, John R., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability can be clinically complex and often have limited access to psychiatric care. Because little is known about post-graduate clinical education in autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability, we surveyed training directors of child and adolescent psychiatry fellowship…

  7. Training of child and adolescent psychiatry fellows in autism and intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Marrus, Natasha; Veenstra-Vanderweele, Jeremy; Hellings, Jessica A; Stigler, Kimberly A; Szymanski, Ludwik; King, Bryan H; Carlisle, L Lee; Cook, Edwin H; Pruett, John R

    2014-05-01

    Patients with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability can be clinically complex and often have limited access to psychiatric care. Because little is known about post-graduate clinical education in autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability, we surveyed training directors of child and adolescent psychiatry fellowship programs. On average, child and adolescent psychiatry directors reported lectures of 3 and 4 h per year in autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability, respectively. Training directors commonly reported that trainees see 1-5 patients with autism spectrum disorder or intellectual disability per year for outpatient pharmacological management and inpatient treatment. Overall, 43% of directors endorsed the need for additional resources for training in autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability, which, coupled with low didactic and clinical exposure, suggests that current training is inadequate.

  8. US Military Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Training Programs and Careers of Military Child Psychiatrists.

    PubMed

    Weston, Christina G; Dougherty, Joseph G; Nelson, Suzie C; Baker, Matthew J; Chow, Jennifer C

    2015-08-01

    Military child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) fellowship programs offer educational experiences universal to all civilian training programs in the USA. They also offer unique training opportunities not found in civilian CAP fellowships in order to prepare graduates to serve the needs of military families. Military-specific curricula and exposures prepare trainees to address various issues faced by military families, in contending with frequent military moves, parental deployments, and disrupted social ties. Curricula are also designed to provide the psychiatrist with a greater understanding of the rigors of military service. CAP training and subsequent assignments prepare military psychiatrists for diverse career paths in the military environment. CAP military careers often include duties in addition to treating patients. Administrative roles, academic teaching positions, as well as school consultation positions are all career options available to military CAP.

  9. Academic Training in a Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Fellowship: A Curriculum Based on Leadership Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivany, Christopher G.; Russell, Robert K.; Vanessa, Venezia A.; Saito, Albert Y.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe how one child and adolescent psychiatry fellowship program responded to emerging trends in clinical practice which increasingly demand that child and adolescent psychiatrists lead their colleagues through instruction and supervision. Methods: Data from surveys of recent graduates of child and adolescent training…

  10. Psychiatry residents' perception of public/community psychiatry fellowship training.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Michael; LeMelle, Stephanie; Ranz, Jules

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve recruitment into public/community psychiatry fellowships, a survey was administered to understand psychiatry residents' perception of benefits and obstacles to fellowship training. Using standard statistical methods, the responses of those residents who indicated interest in public/community psychiatry training were compared to those who were not. Residents who were interested in public/community psychiatry fellowships were earlier in their training. These same residents gave higher endorsements to items related to quality, location and flexibility of training program, recommendation of colleagues, opportunities for health policy training and networking as compared to residents who were not interested in pursuing a public/community. Those results attained statistical significance while philosophical approaches including emphasis on recovery and tailoring specific training experiences approached significance. Psychiatric residents appear to start residency training with some interest in public/community psychiatry and this interest can be nurtured if public/community psychiatry is emphasized during training.

  11. The Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Trials Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, John S.; Silva, Susan G.; Compton, Scott; Anthony, Ginger; DeVeaugh-Geiss, Joseph; Califf, Robert; Krishnan, Ranga

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The current generation of clinical trials in pediatric psychiatry often fails to maximize clinical utility for practicing clinicians, thereby diluting its impact. Method: To attain maximum clinical relevance and acceptability, the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Trials Network (CAPTN) will transport to pediatric psychiatry the practical…

  12. Psychiatry Resident Training in Cultural Competence: An Educator's Toolkit.

    PubMed

    Corral, Irma; Johnson, Toni L; Shelton, Pheston G; Glass, Oliver

    2016-11-05

    Resident physicians training in psychiatry in the U.S. are required to master a body of knowledge related to cultural psychiatry; are expected to adopt attitudes that endorse the principles of cultural competence; and finally are expected to acquire specific cultural competence skills that facilitate working effectively with diverse patients. This article first provides an overview of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) competencies related to cultural competence, as well as the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry's (AACAP) recommendations for the cultural competence training of child/adolescent fellows. Next, numerous print and electronic resources that can be used in cultural competence education in psychiatry are reviewed and discussed. Finally, we conclude by providing recommendations for psychiatry residency programs that we culled from model cultural competence curricula.

  13. Training in psychiatry throughout Europe.

    PubMed

    Brittlebank, Andrew; Hermans, Marc; Bhugra, Dinesh; Pinto da Costa, Mariana; Rojnic-Kuzman, Martina; Fiorillo, Andrea; Kurimay, Tamas; Hanon, Cecile; Wasserman, Danuta; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan

    2016-03-01

    Psychiatry is the largest medical specialty in Europe. Despite efforts to bring harmonisation, training in psychiatry in Europe continues to be very diverse. The Union Européenne des Médecins Spécialistes (UEMS) has issued as from 2000 a charter of requirements for the training in psychiatry with an additional European Framework for Competencies in Psychiatry in 2009. Yet these have not been implemented throughout Europe. In this paper, the diversity in training throughout Europe is approached from different angles: the cultural differences between countries with regards to how mental health care is considered and founded on, the cultural differences between people throughout Europe in all states. The position of psychotherapy is emphasised. What once was the cornerstone of psychiatry as medical specialty seems to have become a neglected area. Seeing the patient with mental health problems within his cultural context is important, but considering him within his family context. The purpose of any training is enabling the trainee to gain the knowledge and acquire the competencies necessary to become a well-equipped professional is the subject of the last paragraph in which trainees consider their position and early career psychiatrists look back to see whether what they were trained in matches with what they need in the working situation. Common standard for training and certification are a necessity within Europe, for the benefit of the profession of psychiatrist but also for patient safety. UEMS is advised to join forces with the Council of National Psychiatric Associations (NPAs) within the EPA and trainings and early career psychiatrist, to discuss with the users what standards should be implemented in all European countries and how a European board examination could ensure professional quality of psychiatrists throughout the continent.

  14. Putting "Rural" into Psychiatry Residency Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, William A.; Pomerantz, Andrew; Schwartz, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Evidence indicates disparities in the number of psychiatrists practicing in rural America compared to urban areas suggesting the need for a greater emphasis on rural psychiatry in residency training programs. The authors offer suggestions for integrating a rural focus in psychiatry residency training to foster greater competency and…

  15. Training Psychiatry Addiction Fellows in Acupuncture

    PubMed Central

    Serafini, Kelly; Bryant, Katurah; Ikomi, Jolomi; LaPaglia, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Objective Acupuncture has been studied as an adjunct for addictions treatment. Because many hospitals, outpatient clinics, and facilities are integrating acupuncture treatment, it is important that psychiatrists remain informed about this treatment. This manuscript describes the National Acupuncture Detoxification Association (NADA) protocol and its inclusion as part of the curriculum for psychiatry addictions fellows. Methods Psychiatry and psychology fellows completed the NADA training (N = 20) and reported on their satisfaction with the training. Results Overall, participants stated that they found the training beneficial and many were integrating acupuncture within their current practice. Conclusions Results support the acceptability of acupuncture training among psychiatry fellows in this program. PMID:26048457

  16. Cultural competency training in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, A; Collazos, F; Ramos, M; Casas, M

    2008-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that the quality of care provided to immigrant and ethnic minority patients is not at the same level as that provided to majority group patients. Although the European Board of Medical Specialists recognizes awareness of cultural issues as a core component of the psychiatry specialization, few medical schools provide training in cultural issues. Cultural competence represents a comprehensive response to the mental health care needs of immigrant and ethnic minority patients. Cultural competence training involves the development of knowledge, skills, and attitudes that can improve the effectiveness of psychiatric treatment. Cognitive cultural competence involves awareness of the various ways in which culture, immigration status, and race impact psychosocial development, psychopathology, and therapeutic transactions. Technical cultural competence involves the application of cognitive cultural competence, and requires proficiency in intercultural communication, the capacity to develop a therapeutic relationship with a culturally different patient, and the ability to adapt diagnosis and treatment in response to cultural difference. Perhaps the greatest challenge in cultural competence training involves the development of attitudinal competence inasmuch as it requires exploration of cultural and racial preconceptions. Although research is in its infancy, there are increasing indications that cultural competence can improve key aspects of the psychiatric treatment of immigrant and minority group patients.

  17. Political lobbying for child and adolescent psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Mary

    2002-01-01

    Lobbying for child and adolescent psychiatry works best when association members team with staff to communicate with members of Congress. Communication comes in many forms, some more effective than others, but without it, no opportunities for policy changes are generated. Legislators want to know what their constituents are interested in, and child and adolescent psychiatrists serve themselves and their profession by knowing the legislative agenda, using the tools available for reaching out to legislators, and using every opportunity available to move the agenda.

  18. [Coercive Measures in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Rabe, Silke C; Fegert, Jörg M; Krüger, Ulrich; Kölch, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Coercive Measures in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry To keep the use of coercive measures in child and adolescent psychiatry low or reduce them completely, there needs to be a specific knowledge of the starting point. The study provides an overview of the current situation using a systematic literature review of published studies from the European and the outer European regions between 2005 and 2015. In summary only twelve publications addressed the topic, differentiated in four studies from inner and eight studies from outer European countries. In the studies from Europe, girls in their late adolescence experienced coercive measures more often, whereas the outer European studies identified more boys in early school age. Regarding the diagnoses of the respective patients, no distinct trend could be identified, as coercive measures were applied with a range of different diagnoses. In the European studies, coercive measures were more often used with children and adolescents fitting in the ICD-10-category F9. Results point to a lack of empirical studies concerning coercive measures in the context of child and adolescent psychiatry. Besides, clinical practice between the countries varies tremendously, resulting in difficulties comparing the findings. One possibility to address these issues might be a central register for every kind of coercive measure, as it was introduced in Baden-Württemberg lately and is currently in development for North Rhine-Westphalia.

  19. Postgraduate training in psychiatry in India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shridhar

    2010-01-01

    This review traces the evolution of modern medical education in India on the one hand and the formation of the Indian Psychiatric Society and the progress of postgraduate psychiatric education on the other hand, all in the context of Indian psychiatry. The topic is covered under the headings standard of psychiatric education, the goals, competencies required, impact of psychiatric disorders, relation of medicine to psychiatry, and the directions for the future of postgraduate psychiatric training. PMID:21836724

  20. Ethical issues in child and adolescent psychiatry.

    PubMed Central

    Green, J; Stewart, A

    1987-01-01

    This paper concerns the special ethical problems in child and adolescent psychiatry which relate to the child as a developing being. Two themes are discussed--the sense of responsibility in the child, and the therapist's responsibility towards the child. As a background to understanding the former, ideas on moral and cognitive development are reviewed. The therapist's responsibility is discussed in relation to different styles of therapy and the ethical issues they raise. The article concludes with a number of suggested ethical principles. PMID:3572994

  1. Training Clinicians in Cultural Psychiatry: A Canadian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirmayer, Laurence J.; Rousseau, Cecile; Guzder, Jaswant; Jarvis, G. Eric

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The authors summarize the pedagogical approaches and curriculum used in the training of clinicians in cultural psychiatry at the Division of Social and Transcultural Psychiatry, McGill University. Method: We reviewed available published and unpublished reports on the history and development of training in cultural psychiatry at McGill…

  2. Training in Tobacco Treatments in Psychiatry: A National Survey of Psychiatry Residency Training Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prochaska, Judith J.; Fromont, Sebastien C.; Louie, Alan K.; Jacobs, Marc H.; Hall, Sharon M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Nicotine dependence is the most prevalent substance abuse disorder among adult psychiatric patients and is a leading cause of death and disability. This study examines training in tobacco treatment in psychiatry residency programs across the United States. Method: The authors recruited training directors to complete a survey of their…

  3. Teaching child and adolescent psychiatry to undergraduate medical students - A survey in German-speaking countries

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective To conduct a survey about teaching child and adolescent psychiatry to undergraduate medical students in German-speaking countries. Methods A questionnaire was sent to the 33 academic departments of child and adolescent psychiatry in Germany, Austria, and the German-speaking part of Switzerland. Results All departments responded. For teaching knowledge, the methods most commonly reported were lectures and case presentations. The most important skills to be taught were thought to be how to assess psychopathology in children and how to assess families. For elective courses, the departments reported using a wide range of teaching methods, many with active involvement of the students. An average of 34 hours per semester is currently allocated by the departments for teaching child and adolescent psychiatry to medical students. Required courses are often taught in cooperation with adult psychiatry and pediatrics. Achievement of educational objectives is usually assessed with written exams or multiple-choice tests. Only a minority of the departments test the achievement of skills. Conclusions Two ways of improving education in child and adolescent psychiatry are the introduction of elective courses for students interested in the field and participation of child and adolescent psychiatrists in required courses and in longitudinal courses so as to reach all students. Cooperation within and across medical schools can enable departments of child and adolescent psychiatry, despite limited resources, to become more visible and this specialty to become more attractive to medical students. Compared to the findings in earlier surveys, this survey indicates a trend towards increased involvement of academic departments of child and adolescent psychiatry in training medical students. PMID:20653973

  4. [Inclusion - pediatric and adolescent psychiatry aspects].

    PubMed

    Warnke, Andreas

    2015-07-01

    The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities became legally binding in Germany in March 2009. “Inclusion” is the major concept–all people with any kind of handicap must have the same rights to full and effective participation and inclusion in society. Preceding inclusion come adjustments in society with regard to ethical, legislative, administrative, conceptual, structural, economical, and thus also to healthcare-political frameworks, in order to make disabilities are as far as possible no longer a handicap in an individual’s everyday life. This review first outlines the present social status influencing the development of children, a child’s welfare, and especially the healthcare of children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders and conditions indicating barriers to inclusion. It focuses on those articles of the UN convention which are relevant with regard to ethical attitude, epidemiology, healthcare framework, diagnostics, therapy, teaching, and research with respect to child and adolescent psychiatry. The analysis points to a significant backlog demand in child psychiatric healthcare, teaching, and research.

  5. [Child and adolescent psychiatry in the Public Health department--a status survey].

    PubMed

    Stober, B

    1990-01-01

    Child and adolescent psychiatry is still a neglected discipline in Public Health, despite the fact that a high degree of effectiveness can be definitely achieved especially as regards prevention if physicians specialising in child and adolescent psychiatry are employed by Public Health services. Thus avoiding that children develop into psychiatrist-prone adults after taking up a career or profession. The child and adolescent psychiatrist in Public Health services is not only competent in respect of giving advice and mediating help in the areas of kindergarten and school problems, but is also a significant key person in health education. It is urgently recommended to recruit a sufficient number of child and adolescent psychiatrists for Public Health service or to train them within the framework of their activities as Public Health physicians. Prevention is better than cure--this is especially true for children and adolescents.

  6. Innovative Training in Pediatrics, General Psychiatry, and Child Psychiatry: Background, Outcomes, and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Mary Margaret; Fritz, Gregory K.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The authors describe the history, rationale, and outcomes of combined training programs in pediatrics, psychiatry, and child psychiatry ("triple board"), including narrative feedback from graduates and reflections upon the important components of the program. Methods: This article reviews the background and experiences of triple board…

  7. Improving Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Education for Medical Students: An Inter-Organizational Collaborative Action Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Geraldine S.; Stock, Saundra; Briscoe, Gregory W.; Beck, Gary L.; Horton, Rita; Hunt, Jeffrey I.; Liu, Howard Y.; Rutter, Ashley Partner; Sexson, Sandra; Schlozman, Steven C.; Stubbe, Dorothy E.; Stuber, Margaret L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A new Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Medical Education (CAPME) Task Force, sponsored by the Association for Directors of Medical Student Education in Psychiatry (ADMSEP), has created an inter-organizational partnership between child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) educators and medical student educators in psychiatry. This paper…

  8. Impact of psychiatry training on attitude of medical students toward mental illness and psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Prannay; Das, Subhash; Chavan, B. S.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Attitude of fresh graduates toward psychiatric patients is important to bridge the treatment gap due to mental illness. Psychiatry as a subject has been neglected in the undergraduates of MBBS. Aims: (1) To compare the attitude of medical students and interns in a medical college toward mental illness and psychiatry. (2) To assess the impact of psychiatric training on attitude toward the mentally ill person and mental illness. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional, single assessment study conducted at a tertiary hospital. Subjects and Methods: Participants consisted of medical students of 1st and 2nd year who didn’t have any exposure to psychiatry and interns, who had completed their compulsory 2 week clinical posting in psychiatry. Participants were individually administered sociodemographic proforma, General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), opinion about mental illness (OMI) scale, and attitude to psychiatry-29 (ATP-29) scale. Statistical Analysis: Standard descriptive statistics (mean, percentage), Chi-square test. Results: A total of 135 participants formed the study sample, with 48, 47, and 40 participants from 1st year, 2nd year and interns, respectively. Mean GHQ score was 14.03 for the entire sample. There was better outlook of interns toward psychiatry and patients with mental disorders in comparison to fresh graduate students in some areas. Overall, negative attitude toward mental illness and psychiatry was reflected. Conclusions: Exposure to psychiatry as per the current curriculum seems to have a limited influence in bringing a positive change in OMI and psychiatry. PMID:25316938

  9. A Developmental Model for Enhancing Research Training during Psychiatry Residency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Andrew R.; Tew, James D., Jr.; Reynolds, Charles F., III; Pincus, Harold A.; Ryan, Neal; Nash, Kenneth; Kupfer, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe a developmental model for enhancing residency research training for careers in academic psychiatry. Over the past 10 years, the University of Pittsburgh Department of Psychiatry has developed a research track (RT) for its residents. While the Department's plan has been to address the critical need of training…

  10. Assisting Undergraduate Physician Assistant Training in Psychiatry: The Role of Academic Psychiatry Departments.

    PubMed

    Rakofsky, Jeffrey J; Ferguson, Britnay A

    2015-12-01

    Physician assistants (PAs) are medical professionals who practice medicine with the supervision of a physician through delegated autonomy. PA school accreditation standards provide limited guidance for training PAs in psychiatry. As a result, PA students may receive inconsistent and possibly inadequate exposure to psychiatry. Providing broad and in-depth exposure to the field of psychiatry is important to attract PA students to pursue careers in psychiatry and provide a possible solution to the shortage of psychiatrists nationwide. Additionally, this level of exposure will prepare PA students who pursue careers in other fields of medicine to recognize and address their patient's psychiatric symptoms in an appropriate manner. This training can be provided by an academic department of psychiatry invested in the education of PA students. We describe a training model implemented at our university that emphasizes psychiatrist involvement in the preclinical year of PA school and full integration of PA students into the medical student psychiatry clerkship during the clinical years. The benefits and challenges to implementing this model are discussed as well.

  11. Forensic psychiatry fellowship training: developmental stages as an educational framework.

    PubMed

    Pinals, Debra A

    2005-01-01

    As an official subspecialty of psychiatry, forensic psychiatry residency training must meet the requirements established by the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education. Attendant to these requirements is the expectation that graduates demonstrate core competencies in general areas common to all medical training programs but delineated for each specialty. In forensic psychiatry, trainees must learn to move from the role of healer to objective evaluator on behalf of third parties, a task that differs from general medical care and treatment. Thus, it is important for educators to maintain awareness of the experience of trainees as they adapt to forensic psychiatry, while understanding core competency requirements. This article outlines stages of development of forensic psychiatry fellows as a model for characterizing learning objectives and for supervising trainees in forensic psychiatry fellowship programs. These stages of development include (1) transformation, (2) growth of confidence and adaptation, and (3) identification and realization. Training directors and trainees can utilize this theoretical framework as a basis on which to establish parameters for core competency attainment and supervisory and assessment methods for forensic psychiatry training.

  12. Challenges in international collaboration in child and adolescent psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Hamoda, Hesham M; Belfer, Myron L

    2010-12-01

    International collaboration in child and adolescent psychiatry has historically been weak and fragmented. The field has also lagged in developing remedies for improving collaboration. This article identifies barriers to successful collaboration and examines problems in the areas of finance, professional development, knowledge dissemination, professional organisations, public policy and the political environment, priority setting, nomenclature, as well as ethical challenges. The article then identifies some promising initiatives and proposes solutions to improve international collaboration in child and adolescent mental health.

  13. Education and Training in Psychiatry in the U.K.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Stuart; Bhugra, Dinesh K.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objective: Recent training and education changes have raised important issues in delivery of psychiatric education at all levels. In this article, the authors describe the current status of mental health education in the training of all doctors and postgraduate training and education in psychiatry in the U.K. Method: The authors explore…

  14. Promoting Scholarship during Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Residency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mezzacappa, Enrico; Hamoda, Hesham M.; DeMaso, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In 2003, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) drew attention to the critical national shortage of psychiatrist-researchers and the need for competency-based curricula to promote research training during psychiatry residency as one way to address this shortage at the institutional level. Here, the authors report on the adaptation,…

  15. Wilderness Adventure Therapy in Adolescent Psychiatry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Simon; O'Donnell, Matthew

    The Brief Intervention Program (BIP) is a mental health day program in Melbourne (Australia) for adolescents with severe mental health problems who are at risk for suicide. The 10-week program serves closed groups of 6-8 adolescents aged 13-18 years and has 3 phases: engagement and orientation (week 1), treatment (weeks 2-9), and integration (week…

  16. Therapeutic drug monitoring in child and adolescent psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Egberts, K M; Mehler-Wex, C; Gerlach, M

    2011-09-01

    Psychopharmacotherapy in children and adolescents is characterized by an increased susceptibility for adverse events and an increased risk of ineffective treatment due to specific age-dependent and developmental characteristics in comparison to adults. Dosing in paediatric psychiatric patients requires careful handling, since the dose recommendations for adults can not simply be extrapolated to minors because of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic differences. In addition, psychopharmacotherapy in children and adolescents is hampered by lack of high quality evidence on efficacy and safety in many indications and subsequently a high degree of off-label use. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) is an established and useful tool in psychiatry to individualize and optimize the outcomes (efficacy/safety balance) of psychopharmacological drug treatment in the individual patient by dose adjustments based upon measured serum concentrations. In children and adolescents the administration of psychotropic drugs is a general indication for performing TDM. However, TDM studies specific in these age groups are necessary to identify age and indication specific therapeutic ranges of serum concentrations. Systematic collection of data on drug exposure, serum concentrations and clinical characteristics as well as outcomes can generate such practice-based evidence. A German-Swiss-Austrian competence network for TDM in child and adolescent psychiatry using a multi-centre internet-based data infrastructure was founded to document and collect demographic, safety and efficacy data as well as blood concentrations of psychotropic drugs in children and adolescents (further information: www.tdm-kjp.com).

  17. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Adolescent Psychiatrist Finder Talking to Children About Violence As an association dedicated to helping children and ... with the children, families, and communities impacted by violence around the globe and here at home. In ...

  18. [Diagnostic structured interviews in child and adolescent's psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Renou, S; Hergueta, T; Flament, M; Mouren-Simeoni, M-C; Lecrubier, Y

    2004-01-01

    think that further researches are needed to clarify if and when this is the case. The last major point concerned the problem of language. These instruments must be used in the maternal language of the interviewees and they were developed for most of them into English only. For example, there is only one instrument available into French (the Kiddie SADS). Nowadays, it remains difficult to conduct international studies in child and adolescent psychiatry and/or to compare data is this domain. To conclude, the use of the EDS and EDSS brings many benefits, in academic researches as well as in clinical practice, but a more systematic use is limited by a certain number of parameters. The instruments currently available in child and adolescent are far from being optimal in terms of quality and quantity. It seems necessary and useful to contribute to their development and their improvement. In particular, the following points should be considered: drastic reduction of the length of the interviews; simplification in the use of these instruments, during the interviews, but also in the treatment of the data collected during the final phase of diagnosis generation, the clinician having to carry out ceaseless returns to check the presence or not of each diagnostic criterion; reduction of the duration of the highly necessary training, which can be easily solved by the global simplification of the instruments; quantitative and qualitative improvements of psychometric properties, in particular in terms of sensitivity, specificity and face-to-face validity. Finally, it is highly necessary to continue to develop structured diagnostic interviews adapted to the assessment of child and adolescent psychiatric diagnoses keeping in mind simplicity, feasibility and reliability. Developing this kind of instruments is hard, expensive, and sometimes tiresome but it remains the inescapable stage to produce high quality data in the future.

  19. A Novel Approach to Medicine Training for Psychiatry Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onate, John; Hales, Robert; McCarron, Robert; Han, Jaesu; Pitman, Dorothy

    2008-01-01

    Objective: A unique rotation was developed to address limited outpatient internal medicine training in psychiatric residency by the University of California, Davis, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, which provides medical care to patients with mental illness. Methods: The number of patients seen by the service and the number of…

  20. Psychiatry Resident Graduate Comfort with General Medical Issues: Impact of an Integrated Psychiatry-Primary Medical Care Training Track

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobscha, Steven K.; Snyder, Kristen M.; Corson, Kathryn; Ganzini, Linda

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine if a psychiatry-primary medical care (PPMC) training track impacts comfort and behaviors related to addressing general medical issues after residency. Method: Thirty five psychiatry resident graduates completed mailed surveys; nine of them had completed the PPMC track. Results: Compared to non-PPMC participants, PPMC…

  1. [Contribution of the 10th International Classification of Diseases to pediatric and adolescent psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Vojtík, V

    1993-12-01

    The 10th revision of the classification of mental disorders and behavioural disorders is due to description of clinical symptoms and diagnostic criteria more accurate and enriches the activities of departments of child and adolescent psychiatry. Diagnostics, therapy and prevention profit not only from sections dealing with newly conceived disorders which begin in childhood and adolescence but also other sections where problems relating to children and adolescents are pointed out. The Czech translation inovates clinical pictures given in our textbook of Child psychiatry published in 1963 and thus replaces partly a hitherto not published modern Czech textbook of child and adolescent psychiatry.

  2. A Call to Restructure Psychiatry General and Subspecialty Training.

    PubMed

    Kirwin, Paul; Conroy, Michelle; Lyketsos, Constantine; Greenwald, Blaine; Forester, Brent; deVries, Christine; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike; Wiechers, Ilse; Zdanys, Kristina; Steffens, David; Reynolds, Charles F

    2016-02-01

    Dire shortages of psychiatrists with special expertise in geriatrics, substance abuse, forensics, and psychosomatics create barriers to care for populations with complex mental disorders and pose a significant public health concern. To address these disparities in access to care, we propose streamlining graduate medical education to increase efficiency and enhance cost-effectiveness while simultaneously increasing the number of psychiatric subspecialists in these key areas. We propose that trainees interested in subspecialties complete their general training in 3 years, while meeting ACGME required milestones, and then utilize their 4th year to complete subspecialty fellowship training. Eligible trainees would then qualify for psychiatry subspecialty certification and general psychiatry ABPN certification at the end of 4 years.

  3. [Specialized training in geriatric psychiatry during residency in France].

    PubMed

    Lepetit, Alexis; Lavigne, Benjamin; Legros, Emilie; Herrmann, Mathieu; Sebbane, Déborah

    2014-09-01

    Aging of the population is a growing concern in developed countries. Therefore, geriatric psychiatry has gradually emerged from general psychiatry. Many names have been proposed to term this sub-specialty: old age psychiatry (OAP), psychogeriatrics, geropsychiatry. A working group of the French federation of psychiatric trainees (AFFEP) set up an inventory of the theoretical instruction and clinical practice of OAP during the training of psychiatrists in France. Methods. A survey of both academic teaching and practical training for OAP was carried out in the 28 local AFFEP representatives of every French medical residency district, including overseas. We assessed the supply of general courses and seminars devoted to OAP during the training of French residents in psychiatry, and the offer of university or inter-university degrees as well as the possibility of specialized internship in every residency district. Results. 96% of French medical residency districts offered general courses of OAP with a mean volume of 11.5 hours along the four years of psychiatric training in France. Fifty percent of medical residency districts proposed at least one seminar devoted to OAP. Half of medical residency districts also offer a specialized university or inter-university degree. Concerning clinical practice, 86% of medical residency districts had one internship dedicated to OAP, in 39% of cases in teaching hospitals. Conclusion. Nationwide, there is an overall effort to make OAP available to French psychiatric residents by general courses and internship, but some disparity appeared in academic teaching (i.e. offering seminars and university/inter-university degrees) according to various residency districts.

  4. Increasing Interest in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in the Third-Year Clerkship: Results from a Post-Clerkship Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Erin; Hollar, David; Lindsey, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors aimed to determine whether a structured clinical experience in child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) during the third-year psychiatry clerkship would impact interest in pursuing careers in psychiatry and CAP. Methods: The authors constructed and administered a post-rotation survey, the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry…

  5. Trends in Psychotherapy Training: A National Survey of Psychiatry Residency Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sudak, Donna M.; Goldberg, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors sought to determine current trends in residency training of psychiatrists. Method: The authors surveyed U.S. general-psychiatry training directors about the amount of didactic training, supervised clinical experience, and numbers of patients treated in the RRC-mandated models of psychotherapy (psychodynamic,…

  6. Psychiatry Training in Canadian Family Medicine Residency Programs

    PubMed Central

    Kates, Nick; Toews, John; Leichner, Pierre

    1985-01-01

    Family physicians may spend up to 50% of their time diagnosing and managing mental disorders and emotional problems, but this is not always reflected in the training they receive. This study of the teaching of psychiatry in the 16 family medicine residency programs in Canada showed that although the majority of program directors are reasonably satisfied with the current training, they see room for improvement—particularly in finding psychiatrists with a better understanding of family practice, in integrating the teaching to a greater degree with clinical work, thereby increasing its relevance, and in utilizing more suitable clinical settings. PMID:21279156

  7. Residency Training in Emergency Psychiatry: A Model Curriculum Developed by the Education Committee of the American Association for Emergency Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brasch, Jennifer; Glick, Rachel Lipson; Cobb, Thomas G.; Richmond, Janet

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Describe training goals, objectives and requirements in emergency psychiatry to assist residency programs in developing comprehensive training programs to ensure psychiatric residents acquire the necessary skills and knowledge to competently assess and manage patients with psychiatric emergencies. Methods: The American Association for…

  8. Psychiatry in the Deep South: A Pilot Study of Integrated Training for Psychiatry Residents and Seminary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuck, Craig; Campbell, Nioaka; Bragg, John; Moran, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe an interdisciplinary training experience developed for psychiatry residents and seminary students that assessed each group's beliefs and attitudes toward the other's profession. The training was designed to enhance awareness, positive attitudes, and interaction between the disciplines. Methods: From 2005 to 2008,…

  9. [Adolescents with diabetes type 1 in adolescent psychiatry and psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    Walter, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity, family and biographical risk factors, and individual motivational aspects influence the therapeutic adherence and treatment motivation in Diabetes Type 1. The article provides basis diabetological knowledge for adolescent psychotherapists and describes practical out- and inpatient experiences and deliberations with especially problematic comorbid patients. In psychiatrically comorbid patients family conflicts and individual psychopathology is often reflected and manifested in selfharming diabetes management.

  10. Child Welfare Training in Child Psychiatry Residency: A Program Director Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Terry G.; Cox, Julia R.; Walker, Sarah C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study surveys child psychiatry residency program directors in order to 1) characterize child welfare training experiences for child psychiatry residents; 2) evaluate factors associated with the likelihood of program directors' endorsing the adequacy of their child welfare training; and 3) assess program directors'…

  11. The Differential Impact of Clerk Interest and Participation in a Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clerkship Rotation upon Psychiatry and Pediatrics Residency Matches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Mark D.; Szatmari, Peter; Eva, Kevin W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors evaluated the differential impact of clerk interest and participation in a Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (CAP) clerkship rotation upon psychiatry and pediatrics residency matches. Method: Authors studied clerks from the McMaster University M.D. program graduating years of 2005-2007. Participants were categorized as 1)…

  12. Exposing Medical Students to Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: A Case-Based Seminar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Jeremy S.; Lake, MaryBeth

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Despite a documented shortage of child and adolescent psychiatrists, few studies have examined whether including child and adolescent psychiatry didactics in a medical school curriculum can stimulate appreciation and interest among students, possibly leading more students to choose careers in this specialty. Methods: The authors…

  13. Attitudes of Medical Students towards Psychiatry: Effects of Training, Courses in Psychiatry, Psychiatric Experience and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhnigk, Olaf; Strebel, Bernd; Schilauske, Joerg; Jueptner, Markus

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The attitudes of medical students towards psychiatry and psychotherapy were examined considering the extent of their education, previous psychiatry experience, the evaluation of the course, their career intentions and socio-demographic variables. Methods: Five hundred and eight medical students in their second, fifth, ninth and tenth…

  14. A community engaged curriculum for public service psychiatry fellowship training.

    PubMed

    Sowers, Wesley; Marin, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Transforming the mental health system into a recovery oriented, integrated system of care requires a psychiatric work force that understands the relationship between recovery processes and community living. Fellowship programs in public and community psychiatry contribute to this transformation by educating psychiatrists about recovery, system dynamics, leadership, effective administration and community involvement. This paper describes a novel approach to fellowship programming that accomplishes these aims through an organizational strategy that emphasizes community engagement. After describing the administrative background for the program, we describe how the content curriculum and teaching process focus on the engagement of community members-both service users and service providers-as participating faculty. The faculty includes over 100 consumers, family members, advocacy group representatives, clinicians, and administrators. We present evaluation data obtained from 45 of the 100 community and university faculty who participated in the first 2 years' of the fellowship and conclude with a critique and recommendations for further progress in community engaged fellowship training.

  15. Clinical Skills Verification in General Psychiatry: Recommendations of the ABPN Task Force on Rater Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jibson, Michael D.; Broquet, Karen E.; Anzia, Joan Meyer; Beresin, Eugene V.; Hunt, Jeffrey I.; Kaye, David; Rao, Nyapati Raghu; Rostain, Anthony Leon; Sexson, Sandra B.; Summers, Richard F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN) announced in 2007 that general psychiatry training programs must conduct Clinical Skills Verification (CSV), consisting of observed clinical interviews and case presentations during residency, as one requirement to establish graduates' eligibility to sit for the written certification…

  16. [Crisis Intervention in a Health Care Hospital for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Burchard, Falk; Diebenbusch, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Crisis Intervention in a Health Care Hospital for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry In the past years the pressure in society and psychological problems in Germany have risen up. This can especially be verified by the great influx of utilization of child and adolescent psychiatric clinics through the admission of crisis. In this connection social disadvantaged female adolescents with a low socio-economic status, students of the secondary school, children in care and the ones whose parents have to manage their upbringing alone are preferentially affected. These developments require a fast adaptation of the supply system to the transformed demands, in particular in terms of outpatient treatment, as well as a closely and structured cooperation between the youth welfare and child and adolescent psychiatric clinics in their function as systems of help. In the script statistical data and adaptive approaches of a supply department of child and adolescent psychiatry are presented.

  17. [Therapeutic drug monitoring in child and adolescent psychiatry--practical recommendations].

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Manfred; Rothenhöfer, Silke; Mehler-Wex, Claudia; Fegert, Joerg M; Schulz, Eberhard; Wewetzer, Christoph; Warnke, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    The therapy of children and adolescents with psychotropic drugs differs from that of adults. Due to the differences in the pharmacokinetic behaviour of the drugs used that are dependent on a child's, respectively an adolescent's stage of development, the same dosages as recommended for adults cannot be used. Moreover, many of the drugs used have not been approved for use in children and adolescents. Thus the criteria which guarantee their efficacy and safety for use in adults do not apply for their use in children and adolescents. Therefore therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is a general indication for the administration of psychotropic drugs in children and adolescents. TDM enables the clinician to adjust the dosage of a drug according to the characteristics of the individual patient. It is also a valid tool to increase the safety of therapy and optimise therapy with psychotropic drugs. However, standardized studies are also needed to find therapeutic ranges of plasma concentrations for children and adolescents. Such studies will deliver new insights into the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic behaviour of drugs used in child and adolescent psychiatry. The present contribution begins with a brief description of the strategy of TDM in psychiatry, followed by a discussion of the characteristics of pharmacotherapy in child and adolescent psychiatry and the reasons for the general indication of TDM in children and adolescents. Finally, recommendations are given for the routine performance of TDM. For a detailed treatment of TDM in psychiatry, the interested reader is referred to the AG-NP-TDM Expert Group Consensus Guidelines published earlier (Baumann et al., 2004).

  18. Cross-Cultural Issues in Forensic Psychiatry Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layde, Joseph B.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Forensic psychiatry was officially recognized as a subspecialty by the American Board of Medical Specialties in the 1990's. In 1994, the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN) gave its first written examination to certify forensic psychiatrists. In 1996, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) began…

  19. Prevention in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: The Reduction of Risk for Mental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, David, Ed.; And Others

    The book describes Project Prevention, an interdisciplinary project developed by the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, to identify risk factors for mental disorders and preventive interventions. After an introductory chapter, the following eight chapters cover: the scope of Project Prevention; children at high risk (e.g.,…

  20. The effect of a forensic fellowship program on general psychiatry residents' in-training examination outcomes.

    PubMed

    McBain, Stacy M; Hinton, Jeremy A; Thrush, Carol R; Williams, D Keith; Guise, J Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how the establishment and existence of a forensic psychiatry fellowship program was associated with improvements in general psychiatry residents' scores on the Psychiatry Resident In-training Examination (PRITE). Four consecutive years of general psychiatry residents' PRITE scores spanning 2 years before and 2 years after implementation of the forensic fellowship program at our institution were compared. Mixed-model statistical analyses accounting for repeated measurements of individual residents across the periods indicated statistically significant improvement in forensic content scores and several other subspecialty areas in which our institution offers educational fellowship programs. External indicators of program outcomes such as standardized examination scores may provide a useful indication of the effects that an educational fellowship program can have on general psychiatry education.

  1. A competency-based model for research training during psychiatry residency.

    PubMed

    Hamoda, Hesham M; Bauer, Mark S; DeMaso, David R; Sanders, Katherine M; Mezzacappa, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine recently identified a critical shortage of psychiatrist-researchers and highlighted the need for competency-based curricula that promote research training during psychiatry residency as a way to address that shortage. In this article we review extant approaches to research training during psychiatry residency. We then identify five core elements necessary for promoting research training: (1) mentoring, (2) education, (3) experience, (4) time, and (5) support. We describe six interrelated domains of core research competencies that can be mastered gradually over the course of residency training: (1) research literacy, (2) content mastery of specific research topics, (3) principles of research design and methods, (4) principles of biostatistics, (5) presentation and writing skills, including grant writing, and (6) principles of responsible conduct of research. Finally, we propose a broadly applicable, developmental, competency-based framework for applying these core elements to research training during psychiatry residency.

  2. Attracting young academics into the field of psychiatry and psychotherapy in Switzerland--the Zurich 'Study Focus on Psychiatry' and training concept for medical psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Gerke, Wolfgang; Rufer, Michael; Schnyder, Ulrich

    2013-08-01

    For several years the demand regarding psychiatrists in Switzerland can only be satisfied by recruiting colleagues from other countries. Given the global increase of mental disorders, initiatives encouraging young academics to choose psychiatry as their speciality, and enhancing the attractiveness of our field, are urgently needed. Two projects for the promotion of young academics are presented in this paper, one working with medical students, the other with residents in psychiatry. The Zurich 'Study Focus on Psychiatry' provides medical students with knowledge and key competencies in psychiatry at an early stage of their undergraduate training. This way, students are offered an opportunity to have a thorough look into psychiatry as a clinical specialism and as a science. The three-year psychotherapy training curriculum in medical psychotherapy provides residents in psychiatry and psychotherapy with specific training in either cognitive behavioural, or psychodynamic, or systemic psychotherapy. Additionally, and independent of the psychotherapeutic orientation they have chosen, all trainees attend joint sessions focusing on generic elements of psychotherapy and facilitating a hands-on transfer of psychotherapeutic principles into their clinical routine. These two projects aim at enhancing the attractiveness of psychiatry and psychotherapy as a speciality, and thus contributing to the promotion of young academics.

  3. [Structural quality in inpatient and daycare child and adolescent psychiatry- indicators for planning future staff ratios for the era following the Psychiatry Personnel Act].

    PubMed

    Schepker, Renate; Fegert, Jörg M; Becker, Katja

    2015-11-01

    The German Psychiatry Personnel Act, which went into effect in 1990, has led to a decrease in the number of child and adolescent psychiatry inpatient beds, to a decrease in the length of stay, and to an increase in inpatient psychotherapy. Today, this act is outdated~ for a number of reasons, such as changes in the morbidity of the population, the rising number of emergencies, and new professional standards such as documentation. In addition, new legal provisions and conventions (like the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child) necessitate a complete reevaluation. Child and adolescent psychiatry needs a normative act to enable the necessary implementation. Many different rationales are available to support the debate.

  4. Training in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Psychiatry Residency: An Overview for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sudak, Donna M.

    2009-01-01

    In January 2001, Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education accredited general psychiatry training programs were charged with the requirement to train residents in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to a level of competence. Programs were given the responsibility to delineate standards for trainees, to determine measures of competence,…

  5. An Overview of Undergraduate Training in Cultural Competency and Cross-Cultural Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Zaza; Laugharne, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Multiculturalism is a familiar concept in many developed countries. While cultural competency training is part of most medical curricula, training in cultural psychiatry at the undergraduate level is typically minimal. It is important that medical graduates are both culturally competent and able to respond to the mental health needs of patients…

  6. Web-Based Simulation in Psychiatry Residency Training: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorrindo, Tristan; Baer, Lee; Sanders, Kathy M.; Birnbaum, Robert J.; Fromson, John A.; Sutton-Skinner, Kelly M.; Romeo, Sarah A.; Beresin, Eugene V.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Medical specialties, including surgery, obstetrics, anesthesia, critical care, and trauma, have adopted simulation technology for measuring clinical competency as a routine part of their residency training programs; yet, simulation technologies have rarely been adapted or used for psychiatry training. Objective: The authors describe…

  7. [The meaning of bibliotherapy and expressive writing in child and adolescent psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Blechinger, Tobias; Klosinski, Gunther

    2011-01-01

    Child- and adolescent psychiatry is a good field for the application of creative and playful therapies. Bibliotherapy and expressive writing are two examples of them. The effectiveness of both, for different types of disorders, has been proved in many studies. Up until today it was unknown just how prevalent these therapies are within child and adolescent psychiatry in the german speaking countries. The following article summarizes the results of a survey conducted in 122 child and adolescence psychiatric clinics in Germany, Austria and Switzerland to gain more information about their use. The survey takes into account the frequency of application of bibliotherapy and expressive writing therapies depending on age and type of disorder, preferences amongst patient groups, as well as specific approaches. More than half of the surveyed child and adolescent psychiatries are using at least one of the two therapies. They are used on an irregular and non-systematic basis and rather symptom- than diagnosis-orientated. Bibliotherapy and expressive writing are dynamic therapies which can be used in manifold ways. Reading and writing are two of the main pillars of our educational system and can be utilized within a therapeutic setting. Provided that the patient is not suffering from severe cognitive or mental limitations, the spoken and written word can leave deep imprints within the patient's, but also the therapist's, soul.

  8. The Best of Both Worlds: Psychiatry Training at Combined Civilian-Military Programs.

    PubMed

    Welton, Randon S; Hamaoka, Derrick A; Broderick, Pamela J; Schillerstrom, Jason E

    2015-08-01

    Air Force psychiatry faces the task of training competent military psychiatrists in an era of continuing reductions. Beginning in the 1980s, the Air Force started collaborating with University partners to create hybrid training programs, civilian-military psychiatry residencies. These mergers provide stability for Air Force psychiatry training in the face of increased operational missions and uncertain military recruiting. As a result of these combined programs, Air Force psychiatry residents gain access to a broader range of civilian clinical experience and expertise while maintaining a focus on distinctive military requirements. The combining of programs opens up options for academic activities which may not have otherwise existed. Both military and civilian residents benefit from the occupational psychiatry experiences available within military clinical sites. These programs give civilian residents a chance to assist active duty members and their families and provide insight into the military "lifecycle." These collaborations benefit the universities by providing access to a larger pool of residents and faculty. The synthesis of the military and civilian programs raises some ongoing obstacles such as civilian residents' ability to gain access to military resources. The programs must also accommodate separate mechanisms for selecting residents (the National Residency Matching Program versus the Joint Selection Board for Graduate Medical Education). Military residents must also comply with military standards and requirements while maintaining the universities' standards of conduct and professionalism. Merging military training programs into university programs creates a vibrant opportunity to create exceptional military and civilian psychiatrists.

  9. Psychiatry Trainees' Training and Experience in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyal, Roy; O'Connor, Mary J.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objective: Alcohol is a teratogen. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) affect about 1% of live births, causing severe impairment. Individuals affected by FASDs are overrepresented in psychiatric settings. This study reports on the education and experience of psychiatry trainees in approaching FASDs. Method: Data were collected from…

  10. Implementing Interpersonal Psychotherapy in a Psychiatry Residency Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtmacher, Jonathan; Eisendrath, Stuart J.; Haller, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for depression is a brief, well researched treatment for acute major depression. This article describes the implementation of IPT as an evidence-based treatment for depression in a psychiatry residency program. Method: The authors tracked the implementation process over 5 years as interpersonal…

  11. Teaching Forensic Psychiatry to General Psychiatry Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Catherine F.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requires that general psychiatry residency training programs provide trainees with exposure to forensic psychiatry. Limited information is available on how to develop a core curriculum in forensic psychiatry for general psychiatry residents and few articles have been…

  12. Concluding the Series on Evidence-Based Practice: The Spread of Excellence in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, John D.

    2008-01-01

    The child and adolescent psychiatry community has been using large systems of information and new technologies to improve its performance.Evidence-based approach is used by practitioners to find and implement feasible therapies and medication. The different procedures involved of evidence-based practice, as used in child and adolescent psychology,…

  13. Does Psychiatry Residency Training Reflect the "Real World" of Psychiatry Practice? A Survey of Residency Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Timothy; Fava, Maurizio; Alpert, Jonathan E.; Vorono, Sienna; Sanders, Kathy M.; Mischoulon, David

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors determine whether Massachusetts General Hospital's residency graduates believed their training reflected their current practice activities. Method: The authors surveyed 134 graduates from MGH and MGH-McLean residency classes from 1983 to 2003. Subjects ranked their satisfaction with different components of training on a…

  14. Managing Transition with Support: Experiences of Transition from Child and Adolescent Psychiatry to General Adult Psychiatry Narrated by Young Adults and Relatives

    PubMed Central

    Söderberg, Siv; Skär, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Young adults with mental illness who need continuing care when they turn 18 are referred from child and adolescent psychiatry to general adult psychiatry. During this process, young adults are undergoing multiple transitions as they come of age while they transfer to another unit in healthcare. The aim of this study was to explore expectations and experiences of transition from child and adolescent psychiatry to general adult psychiatry as narrated by young adults and relatives. Individual interviews were conducted with three young adults and six relatives and analysed according to grounded theory. The analysis resulted in a core category: managing transition with support, and three categories: being of age but not mature, walking out of security and into uncertainty, and feeling omitted and handling concerns. The young adults' and relatives' main concerns were that they might be left out and feel uncertainty about the new situation during the transition process. To facilitate the transition process, individual care planning is needed. It is essential that young adults and relatives are participating in the process to be prepared for the changes and achieve a successful transition. Knowledge about the simultaneous processes seems to be an important issue for facilitating transition. PMID:24829900

  15. Clinical neuropsychology within adolescent and young-adult psychiatry: conceptualizing theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Allott, Kelly; Proffitt, Tina-Marie; McGorry, Patrick D; Pantelis, Christos; Wood, Stephen J; Cumner, Marnie; Brewer, Warrick J

    2013-01-01

    Historically, clinical neuropsychology has made significant contributions to the understanding of brain-behavior relationships, particularly in neurological conditions. During the past several decades, neuropsychology has also become established as an important discipline in psychiatric settings. Cognition is increasingly recognized as being core to psychiatric illnesses and predictive of functional outcomes, augmenting theories regarding symptomatology and illness progression. Adult-type psychiatric disorders (including schizophrenia and other psychotic, mood, anxiety, eating, substance-related, and personality disorders) typically emerge during adolescence or young adulthood, a critical neurodevelopmental period. Clinical neuropsychological assessment in adolescent psychiatric patients is particularly valuable in informing clinical formulation and intervention and can be therapeutic across a number of levels. This article articulates the theoretical considerations and practical challenges and applications of clinical neuropsychology within adolescent and young-adult psychiatry. The importance of considering the neurodevelopmental context and its relationship to current theoretical models underpinning clinical practice are discussed.

  16. Child and adolescent psychiatry leadership in public mental health, child welfare, and developmental disabilities agencies.

    PubMed

    Zachik, Albert A; Naylor, Michael W; Klaehn, Robert L

    2010-01-01

    Child and adolescent psychiatrists are in a unique position to provide administrative and clinical leadership to public agencies. In mental health, services for children and adolescents in early childhood, school, child welfare, and juvenile justice settings, transition-aged youth programs, workforce development, family and youth leadership programs, and use of Medicaid waivers for home- and community-based service system development are described. In child welfare, collaboration between an academic child psychiatry department and a state child welfare department is described. In developmental disabilities, the role of the child and adolescent psychiatrist administrator is described providing administrative leadership, clinical consultation, quality review, and oversight of health and behavioral health plans for persons with developmental disabilities.

  17. [Institutionalized and Individual Crisis Intervention Between Youth Welfare and Adolescent Psychiatry, Specified for Unaccompanied Minor Refugees].

    PubMed

    Schepker, Renate

    2017-01-01

    Institutionalized and Individual Crisis Intervention Between Youth Welfare and Adolescent Psychiatry, Specified for Unaccompanied Minor Refugees Minor refugees put a challenge to the intercultural openness, including an abdication from diagnostic schemes. They need creativity, modification of treatment manuals and the therapist's ability to engage himself as a person. They need another notion of abstinence and the ability to cooperate with interpreters of language and culture. In cooperation with youth welfare institutions for unaccompanied minor refugees, principles that have been developed for institutional cooperation and individual crisis intervention plans have been modified: high threshold inpatient admission, multi-step-approach and reliability of cooperation.

  18. Psychotropic drug prescribing in child and adolescent learning disability psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Bramble, David

    2007-07-01

    This postal questionnaire study investigated the prescribing practices of a group of senior British psychiatrists who have responsibilities for children and adolescents with learning disabilities (mental retardation). The study revealed that all of the clinicians surveyed (n = 16) were prescribing psychotropic medication; psychostimulants and major tranquillizers represented the most frequently prescribed classes and, respectively, methylphenidate, risperidone, melatonin, sodium valproate and carbamazepine were the most frequently employed specific agents. Most patients were receiving monotherapy. Many (14/16) clinicians reported difficulties in shared-care prescribing arrangements with General Practitioners. The study concludes that psychopharmacology is an established part of the psychiatric management of learning disabled children but acknowledges the need for the elaboration of clinical governance standards to this area of practice.

  19. Progress in workforce development since 2000: advanced training opportunities in public and community psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Sowers, Wesley; Pollack, David; Everett, Anita; Thompson, Kenneth S; Ranz, Jules; Primm, Annelle

    2011-07-01

    A crisis in the behavioral health care workforce has drawn considerable attention from consumers, families, advocates, clinical professionals, and system administrators at local, state, and federal levels in the past decade. Its effects have been felt in the recruitment, retention, and performance of psychiatrists in the public sector, where a focus on biological aspects of illness and efforts to cut costs have made it difficult for public psychiatrists to engage meaningfully in leadership, consultation, prevention, and psychosocial interventions. An array of training opportunities has recently been created to meet the needs of community psychiatrists at various stages of their careers, from psychiatrists just beginning their careers to those who have been working as medical directors for several years. This article describes the development of these initiatives and their impact on public psychiatry in four key areas--training of experienced psychiatrists, ensuring retention of psychiatrists in community programs, providing fellowship training, and creating professional identity and pride. Although these programs constitute only initial steps, opportunities for psychiatrists to obtain advanced training in community psychiatry are much greater now than they were ten years ago. These initiatives will enhance the professional identity of community psychiatrists and provide a solid foundation for future development of public service psychiatry in the behavioral health workforce.

  20. Amantadine: a review of use in child and adolescent psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Hosenbocus, Sheik; Chahal, Raj

    2013-02-01

    Résumé OBJECTIF: Passer en revue, résumer et discuter la littérature publiée sur la pharmacologie et l’utilisation de l’amantadine en pédopsychiatrie. MÉTHODE: Une recherche de la littérature dans plusieurs bases de données (PubMed, Psychinfo, CINAHL, Medline, PsycARTICLES, Biomedical Reference Collection et Academis Search Complete) a été menée avec le mot clé « amantadine » avec des limites: langue anglaise, essais sur des humains, tous les enfants (de 0 à 18 ans). Des articles additionnels pertinents ont été relevés dans les bibliographies. Étant donné la quantité limitée d’information obtenue, la recherche s’est élargie et a inclus « tous les enfants et les adultes », et l’information pertinente a été saisie. RÉSULTATS: L’utilisation de l’amantadine pour traiter les troubles neuro-développementaux chez les enfants est due à son effet antagoniste au recepteur N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). L’effet de l’amantadine sur le système glutamatergique des neurotransmetteurs, jouer un rôle important dans de nombreux troubles psychiatriques. La majorité des études relevées étaient des études ouvertes et seulement deux étaient des études contrôlées d’enfants et d’adolescents. Un essai randomisé contrôlé rendait compte des effets bénéfiques du contrôle des symptômes d’irritabilité et d’hyperactivité chez les enfants souffrant d’un trouble autiste. Un autre essai randomisé contrôlé, une étude de comparaison directe avec le méthylphénidate, a constaté un effet statistiquement significatif sur le trouble de déficit de l’attention avec hyperactivité (TDAH). Deux autres études ouvertes constataient aussi des effets positifs sur le TDAH. Une étude pilote sur des enfants souffrant d’énurésie constatait une réduction significative de la fréquence de l’incontinence. Ouvertes pour la plupart, les études sur les adultes, relativement aux enfants et aux adolescents, rapportaient une

  1. Training Adolescents in the Working World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chris

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the differences between training adolescents and adults and stresses the importance of designing effective programs for adolescents. Describes programs used by 7-11, Burger King, and Six Flags Over Texas. (JOW)

  2. Formal training in forensic mental health: psychiatry and psychology.

    PubMed

    Sadoff, Robert L; Dattilio, Frank M

    2012-01-01

    The field of forensic mental health has grown exponentially in the past decades to include forensic psychiatrists and psychologists serving as the primary experts to the court systems. However, many colleagues have chosen to pursue the avenue of serving as forensic experts without obtaining formal training and experience. This article discusses the importance of formal education, training and experience for psychiatrists and psychologists working in forensic settings and the ethical implications that befall those who fail to obtain such credentials. Specific aspects of training and supervised experience are discussed in detail.

  3. Training Psychiatry Residents in Professionalism in the Digital World.

    PubMed

    John, Nadyah Janine; Shelton, P G; Lang, Michael C; Ingersoll, Jennifer

    2016-10-29

    Professionalism is an abstract concept which makes it difficult to define, assess and teach. An additional layer of complexity is added when discussing professionalism in the context of digital technology, the internet and social media - the digital world. Current physicians-in-training (residents and fellows) are digital natives having been raised in a digital, media saturated world. Consequently, their use of digital technology and social media has been unconstrained - a reflection of it being integral to their social construct and identity. Cultivating the professional identity and therefore professionalism is the charge of residency training programs. Residents have shown negative and hostile attitudes to formalized professionalism curricula in training. Approaches to these curricula need to consider the learning style of Millennials and incorporate more active learning techniques that utilize technology. Reviewing landmark position papers, guidelines and scholarly work can therefore be augmented with use of vignettes and technology that are available to residency training programs for use with their Millennial learners.

  4. Adventure-Based Experiential Therapy with Inpatients in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: An Approach to Practicability and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckstein, Florian; Rüth, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the use of adventure-based experiential therapy (AET) with child and adolescent psychiatry inpatients. AET environments, indications, practicality, therapeutic effects and research are outlined and clinical findings are reported. Activities such as rock-climbing, exploring a creek and caving are discussed and the limitations…

  5. Implementation of Problem-Based Learning in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: Shared Experiences of a Special-Interest Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skokauskas, Norbert; Guerrero, Anthony P. S.; Hanson, Mark D.; Coll, Xavier; Paul, Moli; Szatmari, Peter; Tan, Susan M. K.; Bell, Cathy K.; Hunt, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objective: Problem-based learning (PBL) represents a major development and change in educational practice that continues to have a large impact across subjects and disciplines worldwide. It would seem that child and adolescent psychiatry, because of its inherently integrative, bio-psycho-social nature and emphasis on teamwork and…

  6. Mentoring Increases Connectedness and Knowledge: A Cross-Sectional Evaluation of Two Programs in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Michelle S.; Miller, Susan Milam; Rettew, David C.; Althoff, Robert; Ehmann, Mary; Hudziak, James J.; Martin, Andres

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors assess changes in knowledge and feeling connected to the field of child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) after participation in a brief mentoring program held at two CAP conferences. Methods: Similar mentorship programs were implemented at two CAP conferences, one national (N=119 participants), one international (N=53). The…

  7. Systems-Based Aspects in the Training of IMG or Previously Trained Residents: Comparison of Psychiatry Residency Training in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, India, and Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Gaurav; Mazhar, Mir Nadeem; Uga, Aghaegbulam; Punwani, Manisha; Broquet, Karen E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: International medical graduates (IMGs) account for a significant proportion of residents in psychiatric training in the United States. Many IMGs may have previously completed psychiatry residency training in other countries. Their experiences may improve our system. Authors compared and contrasted psychiatry residency training in the…

  8. Triage of Patients in the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Outpatient Clinic

    PubMed Central

    ARAS, Şahbal; VAROL TAŞ, Fatma; BAYKARA, Burak

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate and describe the three-stage triage method used in a child and adolescent psychiatry outpatient clinic. Method The study investigated the new allocation process of 1482 children and adolescents who were assessed using this triage system for the duration of one year, in the year 2005. Data of 1423 children and adolescents who presented in 2003 regarding the waiting time for the first appointment and the rate of nonattendance at the first appointment were used for the comparison. In triage system, new patients presenting to the outpatient clinic in the morning four days a week were assessed by a three-stage procedure: An initial Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire screening and a structured interview administered by an intern was then followed by a clinical interview. Results Of the 1482 children and adolescents who presented to the outpatient clinic during the study period, 1291 were given further appointments. Among patients who presented in 2005, the 207 non-attendant patients were significantly more likely to have longer waiting times than the 1084 attendant patients. When compared to year 2003, it was found that there was a significant decrease in the median waiting time for the first appointment and the rate of nonattendance at the first appointment among patients who presented in 2005. Conclusion The triage procedure used in this study may constitute a model for developing countries with limited health care resources.

  9. Integrating Smartphone Technology at the Time of Discharge from a Child and Adolescent Inpatient Psychiatry Unit

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Jonathan M.; Sukhera, Javeed; Taylor-Gates, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Objective As smartphone technology becomes an increasingly important part of youth mental health, there has been little to no examination of how to effectively integrate smartphone-based safety planning with inpatient care. Our study sought to examine whether or not we could effectively integrate smartphone-based safety planning into the discharge process on a child and adolescent inpatient psychiatry unit. Method Staff members completed a survey to determine the extent of smartphone ownership in a population of admitted child and adolescent inpatients. In addition to quantifying smartphone ownership, the survey also tracked whether youth would integrate their previously-established safety plan with a specific safety planning application on their smartphone (Be Safe) at the time of discharge. Results Sixty-six percent (50/76) of discharged youth owned a smartphone, which is consistent with prior reports of high smartphone ownership in adult psychiatric populations. A minority of youth (18%) downloaded the Be Safe app prior to discharge, with most (68%) suggesting they would download the app after discharge. Notably, all patients who downloaded the app prior to discharge were on their first admission to a psychiatric inpatient unit. Conclusion Child and adolescent psychiatric inpatients have a clear interest in smartphone-based safety planning. Our results suggest that integrating smartphone-related interventions earlier in an admission might improve access before discharge. This highlights the tension between restricting and incorporating smartphone access for child and adolescent inpatients and may inform future study in this area. PMID:28331503

  10. A three-decade perspective on community and public psychiatry training in Oregon.

    PubMed

    Goetz, R; Cutler, D L; Pollack, D; Falk, N; Birecree, E; McFarland, B; Keepers, G; Walker, D

    1998-09-01

    The public psychiatry training program at Oregon Health Sciences University, established in 1973, educates psychiatric residents to work in community mental health centers and state hospitals. The authors present a brief history of this program, which spans three decades, and describe recent developments in its operation, with special attention to financing, administrative structure, and educational elements. Several program graduates have chosen careers in public-sector work. The program is founded on the principle that just as dollars should follow patients in health care systems, so should residents in training follow patients. Administrative and fiscal arrangements must be flexible to support this mobility.

  11. Psychiatry trainees' experiences of cognitive–behavioural therapy training in a UK deanery: a qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Carson, Amy Alice; Clark, Sarah Emily

    2017-01-01

    Aims and method To explore core psychiatry trainees' experiences of cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) training by using interpretative phenomenological analysis of semi-structured interviews conducted with seven core trainee psychiatrists in Yorkshire and the Humber Deanery. Results Four key themes emerged: (1) barriers to training; (2) guidance, with emphasis on the importance of supervision groups; (3) acquisition of new skills and confidence; (4) personal influence on the training experience. Clinical implications Many trainees in Yorkshire have a positive experience of CBT training; however, some also experience barriers to acquiring the relevant skills. Further research should build on the positive factors and barriers identified here, with a view to guiding improvements in training nationwide.

  12. Attitudes of early-career psychiatrists in Japan toward child and adolescent psychiatry and their career decision.

    PubMed

    Tateno, Masaru; Kato, Takahiro; Nakano, Wakako; Teo, Alan R; Nakagawa, Atsuo; Miyajima, Kaya; Kanba, Shigenobu; Nakamura, Jun; Saito, Toshikazu

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to carry out a national survey to understand the attitude of early-career psychiatrists toward child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP). The subjects were 348 early-career psychiatrists. A questionnaire was sent to the subjects and returned anonymously. A total of 234 subjects (67.2%) responded. Ten out of 115 psychiatrists (8.9%) in their first-third year of experience, and 18 of 119 psychiatrists (15.1%) in their fourth-10th year answered that they had interest in CAP. Psychiatry rotations with adequate CAP cases may be necessary to attract early-career psychiatrists to CAP.

  13. Memantine: A Review of Possible Uses in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Hosenbocus, Sheik; Chahal, Raj

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To provide a review of published literature regarding the pharmacology of memantine and potential benefits for use in child and adolescent psychiatry. Method: A literature search of several databases (Medline, Psychinfo, CINAHL, PsycARTICLES) was conducted with the search terms: ‘memantine’ with limits: English language, Human trials, all child (aged 0–18 years). The search was later expanded to include ‘Adults’ and relevant articles were also selected from reference lists. Result: The search did not find any well-controlled studies in children and adolescents except for open label trials, as monotherapy in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as an augmenting agent in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). No study was found in anxiety disorders (AD), the most common psychiatric disorder in children or in mood disorders, both major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Studies in adults for those disorders with onset in childhood or adolescence, were also mostly open-label and as an add-on therapy. All the studies reported that memantine is a safe drug with minimal drug interactions and a very acceptable adverse effect profile comparable to placebo. Conclusion: Memantine has demonstrated beneficial effects in some childhood disorders but the evidence is too limited at present and does not provide enough support of its efficacy to advocate for its regular use in those conditions. Such use remains off-label until further validation of efficacy comes from blinded, randomized, placebo controlled studies. PMID:23667364

  14. Ethical issues associated with genetic counseling in the context of adolescent psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Jane; Virani, Alice; Austin, Jehannine C.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic counseling is a well-established healthcare discipline that provides individuals and families with health information about disorders that have a genetic component in a supportive counseling encounter. It has recently been applied in the context of psychiatric disorders (like schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, schizoaffective disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, depression and anxiety) that typically appear sometime during later childhood through to early adulthood. Psychiatric genetic counseling is emerging as an important service that fills a growing need to reframe understandings of the causes of mental health disorders. In this review, we will define psychiatric genetic counseling, and address important ethical concerns (we will particularly give attention to the principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice) that must be considered in the context of its application in adolescent psychiatry, whilst integrating evidence regarding patient outcomes from the literature. We discuss the developing capacity and autonomy of adolescents as an essential and dynamic component of genetic counseling provision in this population and discuss how traditional viewpoints regarding beneficence and non-maleficence should be considered in the unique situation of adolescents with, or at risk for, psychiatric conditions. We argue that thoughtful and tailored counseling in this setting can be done in a manner that addresses the important health needs of this population while respecting the core principles of biomedical ethics, including the ethic of care. PMID:26937355

  15. How to assess quality of life in child and adolescent psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Karow, Anne; Barthel, Dana; Klasen, Fionna

    2014-06-01

    This article provides an overview of the conceptual foundations of measuring health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children and adolescents in child and adolescent psychiatry, and of the current state of research in this field. The available procedures for determining quality of life are presented according to their areas of use and their psychometric characteristics. The internationally available generic instruments for measuring HRQoL in children are identified and assessed in terms of their strengths and weaknesses with regard to selected criteria. As a result, seven generic HRQoL instruments and two utility procedures have been identified which satísfy the following criteria: (i) psychometric qualíty; (ii) age-appropriate measurement; (iii) versions for self-reporting and external rating; and (iv) cross-cultural measurement. The identified instruments satisfy the individual criteria to different degrees. They are increasingly being used in health services research, treatment studies, and epidemiological research; however, they are not yet widely used as part of the clinical routine in child and adolescent psychiatrics.

  16. Focus on Aripiprazole: A Review of its use in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Greenaway, Masa’il; Elbe, Dean

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To review published literature regarding aripiprazole in child and adolescent psychiatry. Method: A literature review was conducted using the MEDLine search term: ‘aripiprazole’ with limits: Human trials, English language, All Child (aged 0–18 years). Additional articles were identified from reference information and poster presentation data. Results: Aripiprazole is an atypical antipsychotic which was recently approved for use in Canada, but has been available for several years in the United States. Pharmacologically, aripiprazole is a partial agonist at D2 and 5-HT1A receptors and an antagonist at 5-HT2A receptors. Randomized controlled trial data is available showing efficacy for aripiprazole in the treatment of children and adolescents with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and behavioural problems associated with autism. Open-label evidence is also available for use of aripiprazole in other disorders such as tic disorders, aggression and disruptive behavior disorders. Unlike some other available atypical antipsychotics, there does not appear to be any effect on QTc interval on the electrocardiogram. Adverse effects including extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), akathisia, sedation, headache, nausea were significant in clinical trials in children and adolescents. The possibility of aripiprazole causing tardive dyskinesia cannot be excluded. In this population, aripiprazole appears to have minimal impact on the metabolic profile compared to most other atypical antipsychotics, with minimal changes in weight or body mass index, no significant changes in glucose or lipid metabolism, and a decrease in serum prolactin. Conclusion: Aripiprazole may represent an important alternative for some children and adolescents who have experienced poor efficacy or significant metabolic adverse effects with their current antipsychotic treatment regimen. PMID:19718428

  17. The development of a model of training in child psychiatry for non-physician clinicians in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The lack of trained mental health professionals has been an important barrier to establishing mental health services in low income countries. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and implementation of child psychiatry training within a graduate program in mental health for non-physician clinicians in Ethiopia. Methods The existing needs for competent practitioners in child psychiatry were identified through discussions with psychiatrists working in Ethiopia as well as with relevant departments within the Federal Ministry of Health Ethiopia (FMOHE). As part of a curriculum for a two year Master of Science (MSC) in Mental Health program for non-physician clinicians, child psychiatry training was designed and implemented by Jimma University with the involvement of experts from Addis Ababa University (AAU), Ethiopia, and Ludwig-Maximillian’s University, (LMU), Germany. Graduates gave feedback after completing the course. The World Health Organization’s (WHO) Mental Health Gap Action Program (mhGAP) intervention guide (IG) adapted for Ethiopian context was used as the main training material. Results A two-week child psychiatry course and a four week child psychiatry clinical internship were successfully implemented during the first and the second years of the MSC program respectively. During the two week psychiatry course, trainees learned to observe the behavior and to assess the mental status of children at different ages who had a variety of mental health conditions. Assessment of the trainees’ clinical skills was done by the instructors at the end of the child psychiatry course as well as during the subsequent four week clinical internship. The trainees generally rated the course to be ‘very good’ to ‘excellent’. Many of the graduates have become faculty at the various universities in Ethiopia. Conclusion Child psychiatry training for non-physician mental health specialist trainees was developed and successfully

  18. What to Learn and How to Teach It: Five Years of Pre-Meetings for Training Directors in Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pato, Michele T.; Cyr, Rebecca L.; Manley, Lucas N.; Morley, Christopher P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: A multi-year conference grant (R13) supported an annual pre-meeting that served as a forum for psychiatry residency training directors to learn about and develop educational programs in their residencies in the area of scholarly activity. Methods: The authors sought to measure the success of these programs through both a…

  19. Factors impacting the decision to participate in and satisfaction with public/community psychiatry fellowship training.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Michael; LeMelle, Stephanie; Ranz, Jules

    2014-10-01

    During yearly meetings of the recently developed network of 15 public/community psychiatry fellowships, it has been noted that programs are having varying degrees of success with regard to recruitment. To understand factors that impact recruitment, a quality improvement survey of fellows and alumni was conducted. Respondents were asked to rate overall satisfaction with their fellowship training as well as perceived benefits and obstacles to participating in a fellowship program, and impact on their careers. A total of 155 (57%) fellows and alumni responded. Factor analysis was used to condense the variables, and a multiple regression explored factors predicting overall fellowship program satisfaction. Factors that represented perceived benefits had higher means than did factors that represent obstacles. Respondents highly valued the extent to which these fellowships enhanced their careers, with regard to job opportunities, academics, networking and leadership.

  20. A Fiscal Intermediary Based on Needs Assessment to Support a Managed Care Approach to Outpatient Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Care at BAMC.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-05

    OUTPATIENT CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY CARE AT BAMC 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) SMITH, THOMAS CLARK III 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 114...construct a patient profile for child and adolescent 20. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY OF ABSTRACT 21. ABSTRACT SECURITY CLASSIFICATION QIUNCLASSIFIED...1 9, 4 13311WP A FISCAL INTERMEDIARY BASED NEEDS ASSESSMENT TO SUPPORT A MANAGED CARE APPROACH TO OUTPATIENT CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRIC CARE AT

  1. The Role of Personal Therapy in Psychiatric Residency Training: A Survey of Psychiatry Training Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habl, Samar; Mintz, David L.; Bailey, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors examine the current place of personal therapy for residents in U.S. training programs. Methods: All U.S. training directors were provided an anonymous survey assessing current attitudes and practices with regard to personal therapy and training director perception of their residents' use of therapy. Results: Training…

  2. The mini-PAT as a multi-source feedback tool for trainees in child and adolescent psychiatry: assessing whether it is fit for purpose

    PubMed Central

    Salmon, Gill; Pugsley, Lesley

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the research supporting the use of multi-source feedback (MSF) for doctors and describes the mini-Peer Assessment Tool (mini-PAT), the MSF instrument currently used to assess trainees in child and adolescent psychiatry. The relevance of issues raised in the literature about MSF tools in general is examined in relation to trainees in child and adolescent psychiatry as well as the appropriateness of the mini-PAT for this group. Suggestions for change including modifications to existing MSF tools or the development of a specialty-specific MSF instrument are offered.

  3. Child Maltreatment Prevention and the Scope of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Constantino, John N

    2016-04-01

    Child maltreatment is one of the most deleterious known influences on the mental health and development of children. This article briefly reviews a complement of methods that are ready to incorporate into child and adolescent psychiatric practice, by having been validated either with respect to the prevention of child maltreatment or with respect to adverse outcomes associated with maltreatment (and primarily focused on enhancing the caregiving environment); they are feasible for integration into clinical decision making, and most importantly, can be included in the training of the next generation of clinicians.

  4. Using Simulation to Train Junior Psychiatry Residents to Work with Agitated Patients: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigman, Daniel; Young, Meredith; Chalk, Colin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This article examines the benefit and feasibility of introducing a new, simulation-based learning intervention for junior psychiatry residents. Method: Junior psychiatry residents were invited to participate in a new simulation-based learning intervention focusing on agitated patients. Questionnaires were used to explore the success of…

  5. Training With Virtual Patients in Transcultural Psychiatry: Do the Learners Actually Learn?

    PubMed Central

    Fors, Uno; Ekblad, Solvig

    2015-01-01

    Background The rapid increase in the number of patients with diverse ethnic backgrounds and previous exposure to severe mental trauma dictates the need for improvement in the quality of transcultural psychiatric health care through the development of relevant and effective training tools. Objective This study aimed to evaluate the impact of training with a virtual patient on the learner’s knowledge of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, clinical management, and basic communication skills. Methods The authors constructed an interactive educational tool based on virtual patient methodology that portrayed a refugee with severe symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. A total of 32 resident psychiatrists tested the tool and completed a pre-interaction and post-interaction knowledge test, including skills, at the time and several weeks later. Results All of the participants (N=32) completed the pre-interaction and post-interaction test, and 26 (81%) of them completed the online follow-up test. The mean pre-interaction score was 7.44 (male: 7.08, female: 7.65, no statistical significance). The mean post-interaction score was 8.47, which was significantly higher (P<.001) than the pre-interaction score (mean score 7.44). The mean score for the follow-up test several weeks later was 8.38, higher than the pre-interaction score by 0.69 points but not statistically significant. Conclusions Our results suggest that virtual patients can successfully facilitate the acquisition of core knowledge in the field of psychiatry, in addition to developing skills such as clinical reasoning, decision making, and history taking. Repeated training sessions with virtual patients are proposed in order to achieve sustainable educational effects. PMID:25689716

  6. Taekwondo training and fitness in female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Bae; Stebbins, Charles L; Chai, Joo-Hee; Song, Jong-Kook

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we determined the specificity of a low frequency taekwondo training programme on physical fitness levels in adolescent females who receive limited physical education instruction (i.e. 2 days per week). Major components of physical fitness assessed were: skeletal muscle fitness (hand grip strength, bent arm hang, standing long jump, and isokinetic strength), flexibility (sit-and-reach test), speed and agility (10 × 5-m shuttle run), and cardiovascular fitness (VO(2max) and 20-m shuttle run). Changes in body composition were also assessed (dual X-ray absorptiometry, DXA). Participants were divided into two groups, a taekwondo training group (n = 21), which trained 50 min a day, 2 days per week for 12 weeks, and a control group (n = 10). Taekwondo training improved isokinetic strength, standing long jump, and sit-and-reach performance. Body fat mass and percent body fat were reduced. No changes in grip strength, bent arm hang time, speed and agility, or cardiorespiratory fitness were observed. Results indicate that low frequency taekwondo training in adolescent females produces beneficial changes in skeletal muscle fitness, flexibility, and body composition in a relatively short period of time. Consequently, this specific type of training can be useful to female adolescents in structured school environments where physical education classes are limited and there is little free time for physical activity.

  7. Managing the Training Load in Adolescent Athletes.

    PubMed

    Murray, Andrew

    2017-01-04

    While historically adolescents were removed from their parents to prepare to become warriors, this process repeats itself in modern times but with the outcome being athletic performance. This review considers the process of developing athletes and managing load against the backdrop of differing approaches of conserving and maximizing the talent available. It acknowledges the typical training 'dose' that adolescent athletes receive across a number of sports and the typical 'response' when it is excessive or not managed appropriately. It also examines the best approaches to quantifying load and injury risk acknowledging the relative strengths and weaknesses of subjective and objective approaches. Making evidence based decisions is emphasized, while choosing the appropriate monitoring techniques is determined by both the sporting context and individual situation. Ultimately a systematic approach to training load monitoring is recommended for adolescent athletes to both maximize their athletic development and to allow an opportunity for learning, reflection and the enhancement of performance knowledge of coaches and practitioners.

  8. Cinema in the training of psychiatry residents: focus on helping relationships

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Medical schools are currently charged with a lack of education as far as empathic/relational skills and the meaning of being a health-care provider are concerned, thus leading to increased interest in medical humanities. Discussion Medical humanities can offer an insight into human illness and in a broader outlook into human condition, understanding of one self, responsibility. An empathic relation to patients might be fostered by a matching approach to humanities and sciences, which should be considered as subjects of equal relevance, complementary to one another. Recently, movies have been used in medical – especially psychiatric - trainees education, but mainly within the limits of teaching a variety of disorders. A different approach dealing with the use of cinema in the training of psychiatry residents is proposed, based on Jung and Hillman’s considerations about the relation between images and archetypes, archetypal experience and learning. Summary Selected full-length movies or clips can offer a priceless opportunity to face with the meaning of being involved in a care-providing, helping profession. PMID:23800186

  9. Reducing Adolescent Aggression through Group Assertive Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huey, Wayne C.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a short-term, structured, group counseling approach, group assertive training, which can be employed by school counselors as a remedial intervention with aggresive adolescents. Presents the conceptual framework for the program and details of program implementation including group selection, public relations, and evaluation. (PAS)

  10. Training Aggressive Adolescents in Prosocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Arnold P.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Structured Learning Therapy (SLT) teaches aggressive adolescents prosocial skills (negotiation, self-relaxation, and anger control) by modeling, role playing, social reinforcement, and transfer of training. This article summarizes initial application of SLT with psychiatric clients, includes guidelines for improving trainee-trainer-treatment…

  11. From Poster Presentation to Publication: National Congress of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    MUTLU, Caner; KAYA MUTLU, Ebru; KILIÇOĞLU, Ali Güven; YORBIK, Özgür

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aims of this study were as follows: 1) to determine publication rate, time to publication, and study design of poster presentations accepted at the National Congress of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (NCCAP) and converted to publication and the degree of first author in a published article and journal index and 2) to investigate the relationship of these data with each other. Methods The poster presentations of four congresses organized between 2005 and 2008 were investigated separately. The presentations were screened by taking into account the title and the first and second author in English and Turkish languages via PubMed and Google Academic databases. Published studies, time between presentation and publishing date, study design, degree of first author, and journal index of these studies were recorded. Results Fifty-four (25.2%) of 214 poster presentations were published in international and national peer-reviewed journals. Of the published articles, 74.1% (n=40) were research type and 61.1% (n=33) were found in the Science Citation Index (SCI) and Science Citation Index-Expanded (SCI-E) peer-reviewed journals. The first author in 42.6% (n=23) of published articles were assistant professors. The average time between presentation and publishing date was 30.72±18.89 months. Statistical differences were not determined between publication rate and study design; between time to publication and study type/study design, degree of first author, and journal index; and between journal index and study design and degree of first author (p>0.05). It was found that research articles were published significantly more by teaching staff than experts and other researchers (p<0.05). Conclusion Compared with literature data, it was found that the time to publication was longer while the publication rate was similar for poster presentations in our congresses. Based on these results, it is important to create necessary conditions and encourage the researchers to

  12. Innovative Training with Virtual Patients in Transcultural Psychiatry: The Impact on Resident Psychiatrists’ Confidence

    PubMed Central

    Pantziaras, Ioannis; Fors, Uno; Ekblad, Solvig

    2015-01-01

    Background Virtual patients are now widely accepted as efficient and safe training tools in medical education, but very little is known about their implementation in psychiatry, especially in transcultural clinical care of traumatized refugee patients. Objective This study aimed at assessing the impact of training with a virtual patient on confidence in providing clinical care for traumatized refugee patients. Methods The authors developed an educational tool based on virtual patient methodology portraying the case of “Mrs. K”, a traumatized refugee woman with symptoms of PTSD and depression. A group (N=32) of resident psychiatrists tested the system and their confidence in different aspects of providing clinical care for this patient group was evaluated pre- and post-test by using a validated confidence questionnaire. Cronbach’s α was calculated for all clusters. Changes between pre- and post-test were compared by using the matched-pair t-test, binomial distribution for exact significance test and a calculation of effect sizes (Cohen’s d). Results A statistically significant improvement was exhibited in overall confidence (mean Δ: 0.34; p<0.0001; d: 0.89) as well as in four more specific domains of clinical care, with the area of identifying and evaluating trauma-related diagnoses and disability showing the most prominent improvement (mean Δ: 0.47; p<0.0001; d: 1.00). Conclusions This VP-system can lead to physicians’ improvement of confidence in providing transcultural clinical care for traumatized refugee patients. Further research is required to investigate improvement in actual performance and cognitive outcomes with several VPs and in a long-term effect perspective. PMID:25794169

  13. Adolescent Psychiatry; Proceedings of a Conference (Douglas Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, June 20, 1967).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamsie, S.J., Ed.

    Discussed in a conference report on adolescent psychology are the varieties of behavioral problems and family dynamics by Richard Jenkins, biological growth during adolescence by J.R. Unwin, management of adolescents in a general hospital setting by Henry Kravitz, and educational problems in disturbed adolescents by S.J. Shamsie, Jean-L. Lapointe,…

  14. The Professor of Public Psychiatry Model in Ohio: the impact on training, program innovation, and the quality of mental health care.

    PubMed

    Svendsen, Dale P; Cutler, David L; Ronis, Robert J; Herman, Lon C; Morrison, Ann; Smith, Mary Kay; Munetz, Mark

    2005-12-01

    The Ohio Department of Mental Health and five of Ohio's University-based Departments of Psychiatry have developed strong working partnerships that have improved the quality of psychiatric residency education and Ohio's mental health services. Strategies integral to Ohio's Public Psychiatry Model include identifying a strong champion, integrating expert consultation, and developing consensus expectations using a small amount of catalytic funding. Successful outcomes include the establishment of public psychiatry leadership roles in Ohio's community and academic settings; positive community-focused residency training experiences; revised curricula; and spin-off opportunities, such as "Coordinating Centers of Excellence" to accelerate adoption of evidence-based practices in community settings.

  15. Computational Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Jing; Krystal, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders such as autism and schizophrenia arise from abnormalities in brain systems that underlie cognitive, emotional and social functions. The brain is enormously complex and its abundant feedback loops on multiple scales preclude intuitive explication of circuit functions. In close interplay with experiments, theory and computational modeling are essential for understanding how, precisely, neural circuits generate flexible behaviors and their impairments give rise to psychiatric symptoms. This Perspective highlights recent progress in applying computational neuroscience to the study of mental disorders. We outline basic approaches, including identification of core deficits that cut across disease categories, biologically-realistic modeling bridging cellular and synaptic mechanisms with behavior, model-aided diagnosis. The need for new research strategies in psychiatry is urgent. Computational psychiatry potentially provides powerful tools for elucidating pathophysiology that may inform both diagnosis and treatment. To achieve this promise will require investment in cross-disciplinary training and research in this nascent field. PMID:25442941

  16. [Selection and destruction--treatment of "unworthy-to-live" children in the Third Reich and the role of child and adolescent psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Dahl, M

    2001-03-01

    During the period of National Socialism in Germany, many "asocial", mentally retarded or disabled minors were persecuted. Several measures had been discussed theoretically before, but the National Socialists put the theoretical proposals into practice. As a result children and adolescents were separated, sterilized or killed. In concentration camps so-called "depraved" minors were selected to get special education. The object of this effort was to adapt minors to the ideology of national socialism. After passing the law to sterilize patients with "hereditary diseases" in 1933 about 375.000 people were sterilized unvoluntarily. In 1939 sterilizations came to an end except for adolescents at "high risk of reproduction". During the second world war more than 160.000 adult psychiatric patients were murdered. In addition to that, also a large number of disabled and mentally retarded minors were killed. This campaign was called child "euthanasia". Physicians tried to determine children's "value of life" by economic criteria. Children with negative ratings (i.e. inability to work or insufficient mental maturing) were killed by fasting "cures" or by barbiturates. Beyond that children were also used as research subjects. Their death was an accepted consequence. Physicians were also very interested in brain research. Finally, the relation to German child and adolescent psychiatry will be analysed. In the special political and social context of the Third Reich the German child and adolescent psychiatry became more significant. As a result of this the German association of child and adolescent psychiatry and allied professions was founded 1940 in Vienna. On this conference, some speakers suggested to persecute "asocial" minors. This suggestion was realized consequently. Up to now, the role of the German child and adolescent psychiatry has not been thoroughly discussed.

  17. Skin microvascular reactivity in trained adolescents.

    PubMed

    Roche, Denise M; Rowland, T W; Garrard, M; Marwood, S; Unnithan, V B

    2010-04-01

    Whilst endothelial dysfunction is associated with a sedentary lifestyle, enhanced endothelial function has been documented in the skin of trained individuals. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether highly trained adolescent males possess enhanced skin microvascular endothelial function compared to their untrained peers. Seventeen highly and predominantly soccer trained boys (V(O)(2)(peak): 55 +/- 6 mL kg(-1) min(-1)) and nine age- and maturation-matched untrained controls (V(O)(2)(peak): 43 +/- 5 mL kg(-1) min(-1)) aged 13-15 years had skin microvascular endothelial function assessed using laser Doppler flowmetry. Baseline and maximal thermally stimulated skin blood flow (SkBF) responses were higher in forearms of trained subjects compared to untrained participants [baseline SkBF: 11 +/- 4 vs. 9 +/- 3 perfusion units (PU), p < 0.05; SkBF(max): 282 +/- 120 vs. 204 +/- 68 PU, p < 0.05]. Similarly, cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) during local heating was superior in the forearm skin of trained versus untrained individuals (CVC(max): 3 +/- 1 vs. 2 +/- 1 PU mmHg(-1), p < 0.05). Peak hyperaemia following arterial occlusion and area under the reactive hyperaemia curve were also greater in forearm skin of the trained group (peak hyperaemia: 51 +/- 21 vs. 35 +/- 15 PU, p < 0.05; area under curve: 1596 +/- 739 vs. 962 +/- 796 PUs, p < 0.05). These results suggest that chronic exercise training in adolescents is associated with enhanced microvascular endothelial vasodilation in non-glabrous skin.

  18. Training Psychiatry Residents in Quality Improvement: An Integrated, Year-Long Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbuckle, Melissa R.; Weinberg, Michael; Cabaniss, Deborah L.; Kistler; Susan C.; Isaacs, Abby J.; Sederer, Lloyd I.; Essock, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe a curriculum for psychiatry residents in Quality Improvement (QI) methodology. Methods: All PGY3 residents (N=12) participated in a QI curriculum that included a year-long group project. Knowledge and attitudes were assessed before and after the curriculum, using a modified Quality Improvement Knowledge Assessment…

  19. Evaluation of an Evidence-Based Tobacco Treatment Curriculum for Psychiatry Residency Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prochaska, Judith J.; Fromont, Sebastien C.; Leek, Desiree; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Louie, Alan K.; Jacobs, Marc H.; Hall, Sharon M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Smokers with mental illness and addictive disorders account for nearly one in two cigarettes sold in the United States and are at high risk for smoking-related deaths and disability. Psychiatry residency programs provide a unique arena for disseminating tobacco treatment guidelines, influencing professional norms, and increasing access…

  20. Borderline personality disorder in adolescents: the He-who-must-not-be-named of psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Larrivée, Marie-Pier

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the possibility and pertinence of diagnosing borderline personality disorder in adolescents. The etiology and clinical manifestations of this disorder in adolescents are discussed, and its management is addressed in terms of psychotherapy, pharmacology, hospitalization issues, and family involvement considerations. PMID:24174891

  1. Borderline personality disorder in adolescents: the He-who-must-not-be-named of psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Larrivée, Marie-Pier

    2013-06-01

    This article reviews the possibility and pertinence of diagnosing borderline personality disorder in adolescents. The etiology and clinical manifestations of this disorder in adolescents are discussed, and its management is addressed in terms of psychotherapy, pharmacology, hospitalization issues, and family involvement considerations.

  2. Adolescents and the Media: Medical and Psychological Impact. Developmental Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry, Volume 33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strasburger, Victor C.

    Aimed at primary care physicians and nurses, educators, and parents, this book reviews media effects on adolescent behavior and psychology. The book notes that television is a powerful medium to which adolescents are uniquely susceptible and how studies have shown television's ability to shape social attitudes. Theories of how television affects…

  3. A survey of United States general psychiatry residency programs: program characteristics and relationship to the 1994 National Residency Matching Program results.

    PubMed

    Catalano, G; Catalano, M C; Sheehan, K H; Stock, S L; Alberts, V A

    1997-01-01

    We developed a questionnaire regarding issues in psychiatric residency training and distributed it to the chief residents at all United States general psychiatry residency training programs. We hoped to examine psychiatry residency program characteristics and see if any particular characteristics had a significant relationship to improved success in the 1994 National Residency Matching Program (NRMP) results. We found that those programs with six or more PGY-1 positions available in the NRMP, those programs with an associated child and adolescent psychiatry residency training program, and those programs offering a research elective had a higher PGY-1 match through the NRMP than programs without these features.

  4. A Window of Opportunity for Cognitive Training in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Knoll, Lisa J.; Fuhrmann, Delia; Sakhardande, Ashok L.; Stamp, Fabian; Speekenbrink, Maarten; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, we investigated windows for enhanced learning of cognitive skills during adolescence. Six hundred thirty-three participants (11–33 years old) were divided into four age groups, and each participant was randomly allocated to one of three training groups. Each training group completed up to 20 days of online training in numerosity discrimination (i.e., discriminating small from large numbers of objects), relational reasoning (i.e., detecting abstract relationships between groups of items), or face perception (i.e., identifying differences in faces). Training yielded some improvement in performance on the numerosity-discrimination task, but only in older adolescents or adults. In contrast, training in relational reasoning improved performance on that task in all age groups, but training benefits were greater for people in late adolescence and adulthood than for people earlier in adolescence. Training did not increase performance on the face-perception task for any age group. Our findings suggest that for certain cognitive skills, training during late adolescence and adulthood yields greater improvement than training earlier in adolescence, which highlights the relevance of this late developmental stage for education. PMID:27815519

  5. What is new in adolescent psychiatry? Literature review and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Gabriel

    2013-04-01

    This article provides the adolescent medicine physician with a review of seminal psychiatric research published in 2011 and 2012 and its clinical relevance for day-to-day practice. The present review focuses on conditions commonly encountered by adolescent medicine physicians such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, bipolar disorder, tic disorders, and major depression. Additionally, there is a section that outlines specific clinical situations for which psychiatric consultation must be obtained, as well as helpful resources and suggestions to mitigate the unavailability of appointments in a mental health office.

  6. A proposed solution to integrating cognitive-affective neuroscience and neuropsychiatry in psychiatry residency training: The time is now.

    PubMed

    Torous, John; Stern, Adam P; Padmanabhan, Jaya L; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Perez, David L

    2015-10-01

    Despite increasing recognition of the importance of a strong neuroscience and neuropsychiatry education in the training of psychiatry residents, achieving this competency has proven challenging. In this perspective article, we selectively discuss the current state of these educational efforts and outline how using brain-symptom relationships from a systems-level neural circuit approach in clinical formulations may help residents value, understand, and apply cognitive-affective neuroscience based principles towards the care of psychiatric patients. To demonstrate the utility of this model, we present a case of major depressive disorder and discuss suspected abnormal neural circuits and therapeutic implications. A clinical neural systems-level, symptom-based approach to conceptualize mental illness can complement and expand residents' existing psychiatric knowledge.

  7. Treating Children and Adolescents in Residential and Inpatient Settings. Developmental Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry. Volume 36.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Robert D.; Campbell, Nancy R.

    This book examines the various components of hospital, residential, and outpatient treatments for children and adolescents with mental disorders. Options and settings for residential care are presented, including the principles and practical issues, such as providing continuing education, that underlie the decision making for placement of youth in…

  8. [Gender identity disorder and related sexual behavior problems in children and adolescents: from the perspective of development and child psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The present paper reviews the theoretical and empirical literature on children and adolescents with gender identity disorder. The organizational framework underlying this review is one that presents gender behavior in children and adolescents as a continuum rather than as a dichotomy of normal versus abnormal categories. Theories of normative gender development, prevalence, assessment, developmental trajectories, and comorbidity were investigated. There is a greater fluidity and likelihood of change in the pre-pubertal period. It was reported that the majority of affected children had been eventually developing a homosexual orientation. As an approach to determine the prevalence of GID in clinical samples in our child psychiatry clinic, screening instruments that include items on cross-gender or cross-sex identification were used. We applied the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Of the 113 items in the Japanese version of the CBCL, there are two measures of cross-gender identification: "behaves like opposite sex" and "wishes to be opposite sex." Like the other items, they are scored on a 3-point scale of: 0-not true, 1- somewhat true, and 2-very true. Our study of 323 clinically-referred children aged 4-15 years reported that, among the boys, 9.6% assigned a score of 1 (somewhat true) or a score of 2 (very true) to the two items. The corresponding rates for the clinically-referred girls were 24.5%. The item of diagnosis of GID in our clinical sample was significantly higher than in non-referred children, reported as 2-5% using the same method. Two clinical case histories of screened children are also presented. Both of them were diagnosed with PDDNOS. Together with the literature review, most of the gender-related symptoms in autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) could be related to the behavioral and psychological characteristics of autism as shown in case histories. ASD subjects in adolescence can sometimes develop a unique confusion of identity that occasionally

  9. Adverse effects of psychological therapy: An exploratory study of practitioners' experiences from child and adolescent psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Ulf; Johanson, Josefin; Nilsson, Elin; Lindblad, Frank

    2016-07-01

    The scientific knowledge about adverse effects of psychological therapies and how such effects should be detected is limited. It is possible that children and adolescents are particularly vulnerable and need specific support in order to express adverse effects. In this exploratory study, we used a qualitative approach to explore practitioners' experiences of this phenomenon. Fourteen practitioners providing psychological therapy within the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Service were interviewed. Qualitative content analysis was applied to the data. Four overarching categories brought up by the practitioners were identified: vagueness of the concept (reflecting that the concept was novel and hard to define), psychotherapist-client interaction (encompassing aspects of the interaction possibly related to adverse effects), consequences for the young person (including a range of emotional, behavioural and social consequences) and family effects (e.g. professional complications and decreased autonomy for the parent). Professional discussions on these issues could improve psychological therapy for children and adolescents. Based on our findings and previous research, we propose three basic aspects to consider when adverse effects are detected and managed in this context: typology (form, severity and duration), aetiology (hypothesis about the causes) and perspective (adverse effects seen from the points of view of different interested parties).

  10. Music training alters the course of adolescent auditory development

    PubMed Central

    Tierney, Adam T.; Krizman, Jennifer; Kraus, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Fundamental changes in brain structure and function during adolescence are well-characterized, but the extent to which experience modulates adolescent neurodevelopment is not. Musical experience provides an ideal case for examining this question because the influence of music training begun early in life is well-known. We investigated the effects of in-school music training, previously shown to enhance auditory skills, versus another in-school training program that did not focus on development of auditory skills (active control). We tested adolescents on neural responses to sound and language skills before they entered high school (pretraining) and again 3 y later. Here, we show that in-school music training begun in high school prolongs the stability of subcortical sound processing and accelerates maturation of cortical auditory responses. Although phonological processing improved in both the music training and active control groups, the enhancement was greater in adolescents who underwent music training. Thus, music training initiated as late as adolescence can enhance neural processing of sound and confer benefits for language skills. These results establish the potential for experience-driven brain plasticity during adolescence and demonstrate that in-school programs can engender these changes. PMID:26195739

  11. Music training alters the course of adolescent auditory development.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Adam T; Krizman, Jennifer; Kraus, Nina

    2015-08-11

    Fundamental changes in brain structure and function during adolescence are well-characterized, but the extent to which experience modulates adolescent neurodevelopment is not. Musical experience provides an ideal case for examining this question because the influence of music training begun early in life is well-known. We investigated the effects of in-school music training, previously shown to enhance auditory skills, versus another in-school training program that did not focus on development of auditory skills (active control). We tested adolescents on neural responses to sound and language skills before they entered high school (pretraining) and again 3 y later. Here, we show that in-school music training begun in high school prolongs the stability of subcortical sound processing and accelerates maturation of cortical auditory responses. Although phonological processing improved in both the music training and active control groups, the enhancement was greater in adolescents who underwent music training. Thus, music training initiated as late as adolescence can enhance neural processing of sound and confer benefits for language skills. These results establish the potential for experience-driven brain plasticity during adolescence and demonstrate that in-school programs can engender these changes.

  12. [Teaching child and adolescent psychiatry and psychotherapy in Germany-inventory and implications].

    PubMed

    Becker, Katja; Resch, Franz; Fegert, Jörg M; Häßler, Frank

    2013-07-01

    Einleitung: Wissen über kinder- und jugendpsychiatrische Störungen, deren Diagnostik und Therapie, Kenntnisse über Risiken devianter Entwicklungen, sowie das Erlernen von Fertigkeiten im adäquaten Umgang mit Kindern und Jugendlichen gehören in jede Medizinerausbildung. Die vorliegende Arbeit ist eine Bestandsaufnahme der Lehre im Fach Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie (KJP) an den medizinischen Fakultäten in Deutschland. Methodik: Es wurden alle Lehrstuhlinhaber für KJP befragt zur Einbindung in die Pflichtlehre, zu den Lehrangeboten für KJP vor Ort und zu Lehrangeboten für andere Fachbereiche. Ergebnisse: An 25 von 26 medizinischen Fakultäten mit Lehrstuhl für KJP ist das Fach KJP bereits in die Pflichtlehre für Mediziner integriert. Die Vorlesung wird entweder als eigenständige KJP-Vorlesung gehalten oder ist in die Vorlesung Psychiatrie, Pädiatrie und/oder Psychosomatik integriert. Die durchschnittlich 1.2 Semesterwochenstunden umfassende Hauptvorlesung (Range von 0.1 bis 2 SWS; entsprechend 2 bis 28 Unterrichtseinheiten KJP pro Semester) wird durch zahlreiche weitere Lehrangebote ergänzt, wie Praktika, vertiefende Veranstaltungen und Wahlpflichtfachangebote. Das KJP-Wahltertial des Praktischen Jahrs kann an allen Orten mit KJP-Lehrstuhl absolviert werden. Oft wird KJP-Lehre auch für andere Fachbereiche angeboten, am häufigsten für Studierende der Psychologie und der Pädagogik. Schlussfolgerung: Ein übergeordnetes Ziel sollte es sein, KJP aufgrund ihrer Bedeutung als Approbationsfach in der ärztlichen Ausbildungsordnung zu verankern und zukünftig an allen 35 Universitäten mit Fachbereich Medizin in Deutschland zu lehren.

  13. A Social Skills Training Program for Deaf Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytle, Richard Risser; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A social skills training program for deaf adolescents was developed which stresses (1) observable positive social behaviors and (2) social problem-solving thinking skills. Pilot evaluation of the eight-week program with 35 male adolescents revealed that the experimental group scored significantly higher than controls on a test of social skills and…

  14. [Concept of budget-based remuneration system for the fields of psychiatry and psychotherapy, psychosomatic medicine and psychotherapy, child and adolescent psychiatry and psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    A new remuneration system is currently being developed for the hospital care of people with mental disorders. Last year, because of sharp criticism the option phase of the planned Flat-rate Charges in Psychiatry and Psychosomatics (Pauschalierende Entgelte Psychiatrie und Psychosomatik, PEPP) was extended by 2 years. During this time the Federal Ministry of Health wants to look for alternatives and possible starting points for the further development of care. Now, 16 scientific professional associations and organisations have presented a joint concept for a sustainable solution: the budget-based remuneration system. The system is suitable for ensuring that people with mental disorders are treated according to their particular needs and for promoting the appropriate further development of regional care in all treatment settings. It corresponds with the objectives as formulated in Section 17d of the Hospital Finance Act (Krankenhausfinanzierungsgesetz, KHG) and translates the PEPP system, which is currently being developed and focusses on average prices, into a performance-oriented, transparent budgetary system. The fundamental principle is the separation of the individual hospitals' budgeting on the basis of evidence-based, feature- and performance-related modules and billing in the form of advance payments from the agreed budget.

  15. Transformational Impact of Health Information Technology on the Clinical Practice of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Peters, Todd E

    2017-01-01

    Compared with other medical specialties, psychiatrists have been slower adopters of health information technology (IT) practices, such as electronic health records (EHRs). This delay in implementation could compromise patient safety and impede integration into accountable care organizations and multidisciplinary treatment settings. This article focuses on optimizing use of EHRs for clinical practice, leveraging health IT to improve quality of care, and focusing on the potential for future growth in health IT in child and adolescent psychiatric practice. Aligning with other medical fields and focusing on transparency of mental health treatment will help psychiatrists reach parity with other medical specialties.

  16. Adolescent Sociopaths. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapple, Eliot D.

    Presented is the final report of a research project on the programed training and placement of nonpsychotic disturbed adolescents. Eleven chapters cover topics which include the following: psychiatry and the sociopaths and psychopaths; boys dealt with in the project; development of the programed interaction diagnostic interview; disturbances to…

  17. [Inpatient and partial hospitalization facilities for child and adolescent psychiatry in the unified Germany, 1991].

    PubMed

    Specht, F; Anton, S

    1992-12-01

    First results of the project "Surveys regarding the structure of psychiatric institutions for children and adolescents in the Federal Republic of Germany" are described. On July 1, 1991 there were 111 in-patient institutions with a total capacity for 6363 children and youths. The contributing shares of each state (Bundesland) vary enormously. The number of accommodations per 100,000 residents is between 2.1 and 19. One reason for this discrepancy lies in the fact that the services of the institutions are called upon without regard to the state borders. More important though is the fact that in the new states the psychiatric institutions for children and youths also treat young patients who are psychologically or mentally handicapped with neuropsychiatric complications to a greater extent than comparable institutions in the old states.

  18. Fluid Balance of Adolescent Swimmers During Training.

    PubMed

    Adams, J D; Kavouras, Stavros A; Robillard, Joseph I; Bardis, Costas N; Johnson, Evan C; Ganio, Matthew S; McDermott, Brendon P; White, Michael A

    2016-03-01

    Swimming, either competitively or leisurely, is a unique activity that involves prolonged exercise while immersed in stable water temperatures. This environment could have an influence on the hydration status of swimmers independently of fluid balance. Forty-six healthy adolescent swimmers (26 males and 20 females; 12.8 ± 2.3 years; 50.6 ± 13.4 kg) were studied during a typical training session in an indoor swimming pool. First morning, prepractice and postpractice urine samples were tested for osmolality and specific gravity, whereas all athletes consumed fluids ad libitum. Sixty-seven percent of the athletes were hypohydrated (urine osmolality [Uosm] ≥700 mmol·kg(-1)) based on their first morning urine sample, which increased to 78% immediately before training. During the 2-hour swimming practice, the minimal sweat loss (0.39 ± 0.27 L) combined with ad libitum fluid availability resulted in unchanged body weight (0.1 ± 0.3 kg). Additionally, thirst was similar (before practice: 46 ± 26, after practice: 55 ± 33 mm on a 100-mm visual analog scale) at pretraining and posttraining time points (p > 0.05). Interestingly, postpractice Uosm was reduced significantly compared with the prepractice value (630 vs. 828 mmol·kg(-1); p = 0.001), without any significant change in body weight (0.1 ± 0.3 kg; p > 0.05). In conclusion, the present data indicated that more than two-thirds of the young swimmers appeared in their practice suboptimally hydrated. Although no changes in body mass were observed during the swimming practice, the decrease in urine hydration markers after swimming might less accurately reflect hydration state.

  19. [Use of supportive autogenic training in multiple morbidity in geriatric psychiatry patients].

    PubMed

    Kircher, T; Stetter, F; Wormstall, H

    1997-01-01

    23 multimorbid, geronto-psychiatric patients, aged 60 years or older, participated in a "supportive" course of autogenic training according to Schultz. Participating in the course an average of 7 +/- 3 weeks, 17 (76%) of the subjects were able to learn the training. In general, subjects reported a better general condition after the training sessions, measured with visual analogue scales (p < 0.001). The psychopathological status improved significantly during the time of the course (BPRS: p < 0.001; GDS: p < 0.001). No significant change was found in the cognitive state (MMSE) and the statements on the "list of complaints" ("Beschwerdenliste"). The global training success was better in the psychopathological less affected than in the more severely ill (BPRS prior r = 0.64, p = 0.001, GDS prior r = 0.46, p < 0.05). No correlation was found between training success and age, number of somatic diseases, number of medication, MMSE and the "Beschwerdenliste". Autogenic training is a useful component in psychotherapeutic and psychiatric therapy for elderly multimorbid in- and outpatients. A half-open group, two therapy sessions per week, reciting the training formulae aloud, a structured, simple setting and co-therapists proved to be worthwhile.

  20. The Impact of Health Information Technology on the Doctor-Patient Relationship in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Rajeev

    2017-01-01

    As health information technology continues to expand and permeate medicine, there is increasing concern for the effect on the therapeutic relationship between patient and psychiatrist. This article explores this impact, seeking wisdom from adult psychiatry and more broadly from general medical disciplines to draw conclusions regarding how the child psychiatry encounter may be affected. Several proposed strategies to mitigate potential negative impacts of health information technology on the therapeutic relationship across practice settings are offered.

  1. Weighing the Risks. Strength Training for Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Suzanne M.

    1993-01-01

    As weight training becomes increasingly popular with children and adolescents, physicians need to advise patients and parents about what is safe and what is not. Young people who adhere to a well-supervised, progressive strength training program can improve their strength and improve performance in other sports. (SM)

  2. Children and Adolescents: Physiological Considerations during Exercise Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strawbridge, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Because children and adolescents are not just miniature adults, it is important to know that children might be vulnerable to injury and may not respond positively to certain types or intensities of training. It is also important to recognize how training can positively affect growth and development, so it can be judiciously applied at critical…

  3. Complementary Psychosocial Interventions in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: Pet Assisted Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chandramouleeswaran, Susmita; Russell, Paul Swamidhas Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    Pet assisted therapy (PAT) is a form of complementary psychosocial intervention used in the field of mental health and disability. The form of therapy has the potential to augment the other forms of psychotherapies and pharmacotherapy. This article is an overview of history and clinical origins of PAT, classification and therapy models, scientific basis, the current use in specific disorders, preventive and diagnostic role as well as the potential risks among children and adolescents with mental health needs with a special focus on the Indian needs. A systematic electronic search strategy was undertaken to identify the intervention effectiveness of PAT in MedLine (PubMed), cochrane database of systematic reviews, high-wire press and Google Scholar. We augmented our electronic search with a search of additional articles in reference lists of retrieved articles, as well as a hand search available journals that were not indexed in any electronic database in consultation with colleagues and experts. To qualify for inclusion, studies were required to meet predetermined criteria regarding study design, study population, interventions evaluated and outcome measured to reduce the publication bias. PMID:24701004

  4. Using virtual worlds for role play simulation in child and adolescent psychiatry: an evaluation study

    PubMed Central

    Vallance, Aaron K.; Hemani, Ashish; Fernandez, Victoria; Livingstone, Daniel; McCusker, Kerri; Toro-Troconis, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Aims and method To develop and evaluate a novel teaching session on clinical assessment using role play simulation. Teaching and research sessions occurred sequentially in computer laboratories. Ten medical students were divided into two online small-group teaching sessions. Students role-played as clinician avatars and the teacher played a suicidal adolescent avatar. Questionnaire and focus-group methodology evaluated participants’ attitudes to the learning experience. Quantitative data were analysed using SPSS, qualitative data through nominal-group and thematic analyses. Results Participants reported improvements in psychiatric skills/knowledge, expressing less anxiety and more enjoyment than role-playing face to face. Data demonstrated a positive relationship between simulator fidelity and perceived utility. Some participants expressed concern about added value over other learning methods and non-verbal communication. Clinical implications The study shows that virtual worlds can successfully host role play simulation, valued by students as a useful learning method. The potential for distance learning would allow delivery irrespective of geographical distance and boundaries. PMID:25285217

  5. [Legal and practical issues on coercive measures in child and adolescent psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Schnoor, Kathleen; Schepker, Renate; Fegert, Jorg M

    2006-01-01

    Although insight, positive attitude towards therapy and compliance are key to a successful treatment, in certain situations the use of coercive measures on mentally ill or disordered minors is the only way to prevent serious harm to the patient or others. The decision to use coercive measures, such as involuntary admission or detention, seclusion, mechanical or chemical restraint or involuntary treatment, is challenging for clinicians as they have to deal, not only with the patient and his or her parents who are in a disturbed emotional state, but also with some complex legal regulations. To protect the rights of patient and parents in these difficult situations and to prevent legal consequences for clinical personnel for unlawful acts, it is essential that staff be familiar with all concerned legal rules and procedures. Interdisciplinary co-operation between the involved professionals should be encouraged to ensure a standardised procedure according to legal specifications. A growing number of mental hospitals for children and adolescents have no special locked door units but open wards that can be locked when required. A placement of voluntarily and involuntarily committed patients in the same unit can cause problems if the freedom of voluntary patients is restraint due to the placement of an interned patient. Unlawful restraint must be avoided by a sufficient number of staff and clear proceeding guidelines.

  6. Complementary psychosocial interventions in child and adolescent psychiatry: pet assisted therapy.

    PubMed

    Chandramouleeswaran, Susmita; Russell, Paul Swamidhas Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    Pet assisted therapy (PAT) is a form of complementary psychosocial intervention used in the field of mental health and disability. The form of therapy has the potential to augment the other forms of psychotherapies and pharmacotherapy. This article is an overview of history and clinical origins of PAT, classification and therapy models, scientific basis, the current use in specific disorders, preventive and diagnostic role as well as the potential risks among children and adolescents with mental health needs with a special focus on the Indian needs. A systematic electronic search strategy was undertaken to identify the intervention effectiveness of PAT in MedLine (PubMed), cochrane database of systematic reviews, high-wire press and Google Scholar. We augmented our electronic search with a search of additional articles in reference lists of retrieved articles, as well as a hand search available journals that were not indexed in any electronic database in consultation with colleagues and experts. To qualify for inclusion, studies were required to meet predetermined criteria regarding study design, study population, interventions evaluated and outcome measured to reduce the publication bias.

  7. [An inclusive misunderstanding--why noncategorization in special education for people with emotional and social behavior disorders complicates the cooperation with child and adolescent psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Ahrbeck, Bernd; Fickler-Stang, Ulrike

    2015-07-01

    The welcomed coeducation of children and adolescents with and without disabilities is going into dangerous territory since it has become burdened with a number of illusionary expectations. The constraints applied by real-life and meaningful circumstances should be taken into account, especially for children with emotional and social behavior disorders. Practicable prevention and intervention measurements cannot be generated without profound knowledge about disorders among this heterogeneous group of people. Abandoning all previously relevant terminology («noncategorization»), demanded by some radical inclusion advocates, leads to a situation that is helplessly confronted with its duties but lacks the basic skills and the necessary support stemming from an interdisciplinary dialogue. The contact with child and adolescent psychiatry is threatened to the disadvantage of the profession.

  8. Training in the Adolescent Brain: An FMRI Training Study on Divergent Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleibeuker, Sietske W.; Stevenson, Claire E.; van der Aar, Laura; Overgaauw, Sandy; van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C.; Crone, Eveline A.

    2017-01-01

    Prior research suggests that adolescence is a time of enhanced sensitivity for practice and learning. In this study we tested the neural correlates of divergent thinking training in 15- to 16-year-old adolescents relative to an age-matched active control group. All participants performed an alternative uses task, a valid measure to test divergent…

  9. Work Hours Regulations for House Staff in Psychiatry: Bad or Good for Residency Training?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasminsky, Sonya; Lomonaco, Allison; Auchincloss, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The movement to limit work hours for house staff has gained momentum in recent years. The authors set out to review the literature on work hours reform, particularly as it applies to psychiatric residency training, and to provide two different viewpoints on the controversy. Methods: The authors present the historical background of work…

  10. FOCUS OF TRAINING IN CHILD PSYCHIATRY--THE INDIVIDUAL, THE FAMILY, AND THE COMMUNITY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KOLANSKY, HAROLD; STENNIS, WILLIAM

    THIS TRAINING PROGRAM FOR CHILD PSYCHIATRISTS DEPARTS FROM TRADITIONAL APPROACHES BY EMPHASIZING THE USE OF ALLIED MENTAL HEALTH DISCIPLINES, EXPERIENCE WITH FAMILY CHILD RELATIONSHIPS, AND A THOROUGH FOUNDATION IN NORMAL CHILD DEVELOPMENT. RESIDENTS BEGIN BY OBSERVING CHILDREN IN NURSERY SCHOOLS, DAY CAMPS, HOSPITAL NURSERIES, PEDIATRIC WARDS,…

  11. Military psychiatry in India

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, H. R. A.

    2010-01-01

    Military personnel, because of the unique nature of their duties and services, are likely to be under stress which at times has no parallel in civilian life. The stress of combat and service in extreme weather conditions often act as major stressors. The modern practices in military psychiatry had their beginning during the two World Wars, more particularly, the IInd World War. The GHPU concept had the beginning in India with military hospitals having such establishments in the care of their clientele. As the nation gained independence, many of the military psychiatrists shifted to the civil stream and contributed immensely in the development of modern psychiatry in India. In the recent years military psychiatry has been given the status of a subspecialty chapter and the military psychiatrists have been regularly organizing CMEs and training programs for their members to prepare them to function in the special role of military psychiatrists. PMID:21836702

  12. The training value of working with armed forces inpatients in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    de Burgh, H Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Over the last 10 years, the UK armed forces (UKAF) have been involved in operations worldwide. Mental health in the armed forces (AF) has been the subject of considerable interest in part because of a perceived added risk of psychological distress in this population. Inpatient psychiatric services are provided through partnerships with NHS hospitals. The Cavell Centre, Peterborough's acute inpatient psychiatric unit has up to four beds for service personnel, under the care of a civilian consultant psychiatrist and his AF Foundation Year 2 doctor (F2). This was the only Ministry of Defence (MoD) inpatient unit which had a training post for an AF doctor, but the post ended in August 2014 with the closure of MoD Hospital Unit Peterborough (MDHU(P)). This article outlines the differences in civilian and AF inpatient care and discusses the training value of AF doctors managing service personnel who are psychiatric inpatients.

  13. Executive control training from middle childhood to adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Karbach, Julia; Unger, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    Executive functions (EFs) include a number of higher-level cognitive control abilities, such as cognitive flexibility, inhibition, and working memory, which are instrumental in supporting action control and the flexible adaptation changing environments. These control functions are supported by the prefrontal cortex and therefore develop rapidly across childhood and mature well into late adolescence. Given that executive control is a strong predictor for various life outcomes, such as academic achievement, socioeconomic status, and physical health, numerous training interventions have been designed to improve executive functioning across the lifespan, many of them targeting children and adolescents. Despite the increasing popularity of these trainings, their results are neither robust nor consistent, and the transferability of training-induced performance improvements to untrained tasks seems to be limited. In this review, we provide a selective overview of the developmental literature on process-based cognitive interventions by discussing (1) the concept and the development of EFs and their neural underpinnings, (2) the effects of different types of executive control training in normally developing children and adolescents, (3) individual differences in training-related performance gains as well as (4) the potential of cognitive training interventions for the application in clinical and educational contexts. Based on recent findings, we consider how transfer of process-based executive control trainings may be supported and how interventions may be tailored to the needs of specific age groups or populations. PMID:24847294

  14. Physical Training Improves Insulin Resistance Syndrome Markers in Obese Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Hyun-Sik; Gutin, Bernard; Barbeau, Paule; Owens, Scott; Lemmon, Christian R.; Allison, Jerry; Litaker, Mark S.; Le, Ngoc-Anh

    2002-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that physical training (PT), especially high-intensity PT, would favorably affect components of the insulin resistance syndrome (IRS) in obese adolescents. Data on teens randomized into lifestyle education (LSE) alone, LSE plus moderate -intensity PT, and LSE plus high-intensity PT indicated that PT, especially high-intensity…

  15. Digital psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Tang, S; Helmeste, D

    2000-02-01

    The American managed care movement has been viewed as a big experiment and is being watched closely by the rest of the world. In the meanwhile, computer-based information technology (IT) is changing the practice of medicine, much more rapidly than managed care. A New World of digitized knowledge and information has been created. Although literature on IT in psychiatry is largely absent in peer-reviewed psychiatric journals, IT is finding its way into all aspects of medicine, particularly psychiatry. Telepsychiatry programs are becoming very popular. At the same time, medical information sites are flourishing and evolving into a new health-care industry. Patient-physician information asymmetry is decreasing as patients are gaining easy access to medical information hitherto only available to professionals. Thus, psychiatry is facing another paradigm shift, at a time when most attention has been focused on managed care. In this new digital world, knowledge and information are no longer the sole property of professionals. Value will migrate from traditional in-person office-based therapy to digital clinical products, from in-person library search and classroom didactic instruction to interactive on-line searches and distance learning. In this time of value migration, psychiatrists have to determine what their 'distinctive competence' is and where best to add value in the health-care delivery value chain. The authors assess the impact of IT on clinical psychiatry and review how clinical practice, education and research in psychiatry are expected to change in this emerging digital world.

  16. [Placement of children and adolescents following seclusion and restraint actions–a study on family-court approvals of minors in youth welfare, child and adolescent psychiatry and jail according to Para. 1631 German Civil Code].

    PubMed

    Kölch, Michael; Vogel, Harald

    2016-01-01

    According to German law (Para. 1631b German Civil Code), the placement of children and adolescents following seclusion and restraint actions must be approved by a family court. We analyzed the family court data of a court district in Berlin (Tempelhof-Kreuzberg) concerning cases of “placement of minors” between 2008 and 2011. A total of 474 such procedures were discovered. After data clearing and correction of cases (e. g., because of emergency interventions of the youth welfare system taking children into custody according to Para. 42, German Civil Code VIII), 376 cases remained. Of these 376 procedures in the years 2008 to 2011, 127 cases concerned children and adolescents according to Para. 1631b German Civil Code, and 249 procedures were settled either by dismissal, withdrawal or by repealing the initial decision to place the child with restrain or seclusion by means of an interim order or by filing an appeal against the final decision. Of the 127 procedures, 68 concerned girls, who were on average slightly younger than boys (14.5 years vs. 15.1 years). In two thirds of the procedures, the children and adolescents were German citizens. The majority of youths involved were living at home at the time of the procedure, but in 15 % of the case the youths were homeless. Most of the adolescents were treated with restraint in child and adolescent psychiatry. The most frequently quoted reasons for seclusion were substance abuse, suicide risk and running away from home/being homeless.

  17. TRAINING IN THERAPEUTIC WORK WITH CHILDREN. CLINICAL APPROACHES TO PROBLEMS OF CHILDHOOD, VOLUME 2. LANGLEY PORTER CHILD PSYCHIATRY SERIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BERLIN, I.N., ED.; SZUREK, S.A., ED.

    THE COLLECTION CONTAINS LECTURES AND PAPERS BY VARIOUS AUTHORS DEALING WITH CHILD PSYCHOLOGY, CONSIDERATION OF CHILD PSYCHIATRY INCLUDES DEFINITION, PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT, FACTORS IN CHILDREN'S PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS, CLINICAL SYNDROMES, CHILDHOOD PSYCHOSES, AND PRINCIPLES OF PSYCHOTHERAPY. AN OVERVIEW OF A PHILOSOPHY OF PSYCHOTHERAPY IN CHILD…

  18. Linkage between Graduate Medical Education Training Practice Profiles in Psychiatry, Obstetrics/Gynecology, and Family Practice. Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SysteMetrics, Inc., Santa Barbara, CA.

    Provided are appendices for a study which examined the relationship between graduate medical education (GME) and practice profiles in three specialties: family practice, psychiatry, and obstetrics/gynecology. Appendix A includes materials related to methodology of the study. Appendices B-D include supplementary materials for family practice,…

  19. Strength training for children and adolescents: benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Davide; Zaccagni, Luciana

    2013-05-01

    Physical activity has proved to be an effective means of preventing several diseases and improving general health. In most cases, though, light to moderate efforts are suggested, for both youngsters and adults. Common sense advices call for late inception of intense, strength training-related activities, like weight lifting and plyometrics, which are usually postponed at the end of the growth age, even among sport practitioners. However, such advices seem to have a mainly anecdotal nature. The purpose of this review is to evaluate risks and benefits of early inception of strength training, at adolescence or even earlier and to verify whether concerns can be grounded scientifically. Current literature does not seem to have any particular aversion against the practice of strength training by children and adolescents, provided that some safety rules are followed, like medical clearance, proper instruction from a qualified professional and progressive overload. At the same time, several studies provide consistent findings supporting the benefits of repeated, intense physical efforts in young subjects. Improved motor skills and body composition, in terms of increased fat free mass, reduced fat mass and enhanced bone health, have been extensively documented, especially if sport practice began early, when the subjects were pubescent. It can be therefore concluded that strength training is a relatively safe and healthy practice for children and adolescents.

  20. Adolescent Workers' Experiences of and Training for Workplace Violence.

    PubMed

    Smith, Carolyn R; Gillespie, Gordon L; Beery, Theresa A

    2015-07-01

    Adolescent workers may not be aware that violence is a safety concern in the workplace. As part of a larger mixed-methods pilot study, investigators used a self-administered survey and individual interviews with 30 adolescent workers from a chain of food service stores in a Midwestern metropolitan area to explore experiences of workplace violence (WPV) and ways of learning WPV-specific information. Participants reported experiencing verbal and sexual harassment and robberies. Most participants reported awareness of WPV-specific policies and procedures at their workplace; the ways participants reported learning WPV-specific information varied. Findings support the need for occupational safety training to assist adolescent workers prevent and mitigate potential WPV.

  1. Medical School Research Pipeline: Medical Student Research Experience in Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balon, Richard; Heninger, George; Belitsky, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The authors discuss the importance of introducing research training in psychiatry and neurosciences to medical students. Methods: A review of existing models of research training in psychiatry with focus on those providing research training to medical students is presented. Results: Two research-training models for medical students that…

  2. Brain imaging in psychiatry

    SciTech Connect

    Morihisa, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    This book contains the following five chapters: Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in Psychiatry; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF) in Psychiatry: Methodological Issues; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Psychiatry: Application to Clinical Research; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Psychiatry: The Resting and Activated Brains of Schizophrenic Patients; and Brain Electrical Activity Mapping (BEAM) in Psychiatry.

  3. A review of adolescent high-intensity interval training.

    PubMed

    Logan, Greig R M; Harris, Nigel; Duncan, Scott; Schofield, Grant

    2014-08-01

    Despite the promising evidence supporting positive effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on the metabolic profile in adults, there is limited research targeting adolescents. Given the rising burden of chronic disease, it is essential to implement strategies to improve the cardiometabolic health in adolescence, as this is a key stage in the development of healthy lifestyle behaviours. This narrative review summarises evidence of the relative efficacy of HIIT regarding the metabolic health of adolescents. Methodological inconsistencies confound our ability to draw conclusions; however, there is meaningful evidence supporting HIIT as a potentially efficacious exercise modality for use in the adolescent cohort. Future research must examine the effects of various HIIT protocols to determine the optimum strategy to deliver cardiometabolic health benefits. Researchers should explicitly show between-group differences for HIIT intervention and steady-state exercise or control groups, as the magnitude of difference between HIIT and other exercise modalities is of key interest to public health. There is scope for research to examine the palatability of HIIT as an exercise modality for adolescents through investigating perceived enjoyment during and after HIIT, and consequent long-term exercise adherence.

  4. Teaching Psychiatry Residents to Teach: A National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp-Han, Holly; Chambliss, R. Bryan; Coverdale, John

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Because there have been no previously published national surveys on teaching psychiatry residents about how to teach, the authors surveyed United States psychiatry program directors on what and how residents are taught about teaching. Methods: All psychiatry training programs across the United States were mailed a semistructured…

  5. Core elements of a public psychiatry fellowship.

    PubMed

    Ranz, Jules M; Deakins, Susan M; LeMelle, Stephanie M; Rosenheck, Stephen D; Kellermann, Sara L

    2008-07-01

    As the oldest, largest, and best known program for training psychiatrists to become public-sector leaders, the Columbia University Public Psychiatry Fellowship (PPF) at New York State Psychiatric Institute has frequently been consulted by other departments of psychiatry planning public and community fellowship programs. PPF's faculty has developed seven core elements for such training programs. The fellowship's longevity and the career paths of its graduates suggest that these core elements represent a best-practices model for fellowship training in public-community psychiatry.

  6. A personal journey into cultural psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Westermeyer, Joseph

    2011-04-01

    The two primary audiences for this article are psychiatrists interested in a cultural psychiatry career and academic as well as healthcare leaders who are in a position to support cultural psychiatry training. In addition to describing my own personal journey through cultural psychiatry, this report includes strategic recommendations for becoming a cultural psychiatrist as well as rationales for supporting a cadre of cultural psychiatrists in the coming decades. A World Health Organization (WHO) sponsored program for training clinicians in addictions is described. Finally, the account summarizes those clinical, research, educational, consultative, and leadership roles that cultural training influenced during my career.

  7. What Is Psychiatry?

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... What Is Psychiatry? Psychiatry is the branch of medicine focused on the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of ... written examination for a state license to practice medicine, and then complete four years of psychiatry residency. ...

  8. Training Pediatric Residents and Pediatricians about Adolescent Mental Health Problems: A Proof-of-Concept Pilot for a Proposed National Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutner, Lawrence; Olson, Cheryl K.; Schlozman, Steven; Goldstein, Mark; Warner, Dorothy; Beresin, Eugene V.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This article presents a DVD-based educational program intended to help pediatric residents and practicing pediatricians recognize and respond to adolescent depression in busy primary care settings. Methods: Representatives from pediatrics and adolescent medicine, child and adolescent psychiatry and psychology, and experts in the…

  9. The Effects of Manual Resistance Training on Fitness in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Dorgo, Sandor; King, George A.; Candelaria, Norma; Bader, Julia O.; Brickey, Gregory D.; Adams, Carolyn E.

    2010-01-01

    Manual Resistance Training (MRT), an alternative to traditional resistance training, requires minimal equipment and may be effective when applied in school-based physical education (PE) classes. The purpose of this study was to document the physical changes in adolescents (N = 222) using MRT in school-based PE settings. Six fitness tests from the Fitnessgram assessment tool were selected to assess students' cardiovascular and muscular fitness and skin-fold tests were used to assess body composition. One Control and two Experimental Groups were defined. The Control group of students (N = 129) attended regular PE classes. One Experimental group (N = 63) attended PE that was complemented by the MRT system. A second Experiment group (N = 30) attended PE complemented by MRT and cardiovascular endurance training. Using the selected Fitnessgram tests post-test measurements were done after 9 and 18 weeks of PE. At baseline, there were no significant differences between the three groups for most measures. Compared to baseline, experimental groups improved significantly in all six fitness measures and showed more improvements than the Control group in most fitness measures both at 9 and 18 weeks. None of the groups showed significant improvement in body composition. The results documented that an MRT complemented PE program was effective in improving adolescents' muscular fitness. An 18-week combined MRT and cardiovascular endurance training program effectively improved cardiovascular and muscular fitness but was ineffective in improving adolescent body composition. An MRT based exercise session requires minimal equipment and set-up, and can be performed in a short period of time, therefore it is suitable for application in regular PE settings. PMID:19826296

  10. The World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for the treatment of adolescent sexual offenders with paraphilic disorders

    PubMed Central

    Thibaut, Florence; Bradford, John M. W.; Briken, Peer; De La Barra, Flora; Häßler, Frank; Cosyns, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The primary aim of these guidelines was to evaluate the role of pharmacological agents in the treatment of adolescents with paraphilic disorders who are also sexual offenders or at-risk of sexual offending. Psychotherapeutic and psychosocial treatments were also reviewed. Adolescents with paraphilic disorders specifically present a different therapeutic challenge as compared to adults. In part, the challenge relates to adolescents being in various stages of puberty and development, which may limit the use of certain pharmacological agents due to their potential side effects. In addition, most of the published treatment programmes have used cognitive behavioural interventions, family therapies and psychoeducational interventions. Psychological treatment is predicated in adolescents on the notion that sexually deviant behaviour can be controlled by the offender, and that more adaptive behaviours can be learned. The main purposes of these guidelines are to improve the quality of care and to aid physicians in their clinical decisions. These guidelines brought together different expert views and involved an extensive literature research. Each treatment recommendation was evaluated and discussed with respect to the strength of evidence for efficacy, safety, tolerability and feasibility. An algorithm is proposed for the treatment of paraphilic disorders in adolescent sexual offenders or those who are at risk. PMID:26595752

  11. Psychiatry Residency Education in Canada: Past, Present and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saperson, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This article provides a brief overview of the history of psychiatry residency training in Canada,and outlines the rationale for the current training requirements, changes to the final certification examination,and factors influencing future trends in psychiatry education and training. Method: The author compiled findings and reports on…

  12. Training in the adolescent brain: An fMRI training study on divergent thinking.

    PubMed

    Kleibeuker, Sietske W; Stevenson, Claire E; van der Aar, Laura; Overgaauw, Sandy; van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C; Crone, Eveline A

    2017-02-01

    Prior research suggests that adolescence is a time of enhanced sensitivity for practice and learning. In this study we tested the neural correlates of divergent thinking training in 15- to 16-year-old adolescents relative to an age-matched active control group. All participants performed an alternative uses task, a valid measure to test divergent thinking, while functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) images were acquired before and after a training program. In between the 2 scanning sessions the experimental group completed 2 weeks of divergent thinking training (8 sessions) and the control group completed 2 weeks of rule switching training (8 session). A Group × Time interaction demonstrated stable divergent thinking performance for the experimental group, whereas in the control group performance declined. Generating alternative uses (experimental task condition) relative to generating ordinary characteristics of objects (control task condition) was associated with increased activation in the supramarginal gyrus (SMG), angular gyrus (AG), and middle temporal gyrus (MTG). Test-retest analyses showed that within-individuals-activation in these regions was stable over time in both groups. Changes in alternative uses fluency over time, however, were positively associated with changes in superior lateral PFC activation over time. Together, the results indicate that core brain regions for creativity (SMG, AG, and MTG) are consistently recruited in adolescence, and that changes in performance are associated with changes in activation in lateral PFC. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. Weight-training injuries in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Risser, W L; Risser, J M; Preston, D

    1990-09-01

    We studied the incidence of injury caused by weight training in junior and senior high school football players. Three hundred fifty-four subjects completed a retrospective injury questionnaire; histories were confirmed for high school athletes. Cumulative incidence and incidence rates were determined for injuries causing more than 7 days of missed participation. The cumulative incidences of injuries were as follows: all athletes, 7.6% (27/354); junior high school athletes, 7.1% (7/98); high school freshman/junior varsity athletes, 9.4% (15/159); and high school varsity athletes, 5.2% (5/97). The total incidence rate was 0.082 injuries per person-year, with 0.11 injuries per person-year in junior high school athletes, 0.091 injuries per person-year in high school freshman/junior varsity players, and 0.051 injuries per person-year in high school varsity players. Differences in the incidence measures among groups were not statistically significant. The most common injury type was a strain (74.1%), and the most common site was the back (59.3%). Certain exercise apparently caused more back injuries in older athletes.

  14. Efficacy of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training: An Indicated Preventive Intervention for Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jami F.; Mufson, Laura; Davies, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Background: Indicated interventions for adolescents with elevated depressive symptoms may help decrease rates of depression. The current study reports on the efficacy of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a group indicated preventive intervention. Methods: Forty-one adolescents with elevated depression symptoms were…

  15. Effectiveness of humor training among adolescents with autism.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ching-Lin; Liu, Ya-Ru; Kuo, Ching-Chih; Chen, Hsueh-Chih; Chang, Yu-Lin

    2016-12-30

    Humor training has been applied to educational and clinical cases and has been found to be effective, but humor training for individuals with autism is relatively rare. The present study proposed a humor-knowledge and humor-skill training workshop to enhance the humor comprehension and appreciation of individuals with autism and examined the effects of the training. Participants were 20 adolescents with autism and average intelligence (above 70 in WAIS-III). They were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. Both questionnaire of joke comprehension and appreciation and a humor style questionnaire were used as instruments. The results supported the effectiveness of the 15-h training. The comprehension and appreciation of nonsense humor were significantly increased in the experimental group in comparison with the control group, although the incongruity-resolution jokes remained difficult to comprehend. The tendency to use affiliative humor was greater among individuals with autism in the experimental group, suggesting that the appreciation of humor can be learned.

  16. Psychiatry Clerkship Students' Preparation, Reflection, and Results on the NBME Psychiatry Subject Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Gregory W.; Fore-Arcand, Lisa; Levine, Ruth E.; Carlson, David L.; Spollen, John J.; Pelic, Christopher; Al-Mateen, Cheryl S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Psychiatry clerkship training involves many learning components, one of which is acquisition of scholarly knowledge. The authors investigate the reading materials and learning methods used by clinical clerks in their preparation for the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) Psychiatry Subject Exam (PSE). Methods: Clerkship students…

  17. The Effects of Audiotaped Progressive Muscle Relaxation Training on the Reading Performance of Emotionally Disturbed Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolis, Howard; Pica, Louis, Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Examines the degree to which audiotaped progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) training influenced the oral and silent reading performance of eight adolescents who were legally classified as emotionally disturbed. Finds that PMR training can have a positive influence on the reading performance of emotionally disturbed adolescents. (MG)

  18. Emotion Regulation Training for Adolescents with Borderline Personality Disorder Traits: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuppert, H. Marieke; Timmerman, Marieke E.; Bloo, Josephine; van Gemert, Tonny G.; Wiersema, Herman M.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Emmelkamp, Paul M. G.; Nauta, Maaike H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of Emotion Regulation Training (ERT), a 17-session weekly group training for adolescents with borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms. Method: One hundred nine adolescents with borderline traits (73% meeting the full criteria for BPD) were randomized to treatment as usual only (TAU) or ERT + TAU.…

  19. The Effects of Assertiveness Training on Enhancing the Social Skills of Adolescents with Visual Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-il

    2003-01-01

    A study of the effects of assertiveness training to enhance the social/assertiveness skills of 36 adolescents with visual impairments found that parents, the students, teachers, and observers judged the adolescents' social skills differently. However, the training did have some specific effect on increasing assertiveness. (Contains references.)…

  20. The Effectiveness of Mindfulness Training on Behavioral Problems and Attentional Functioning in Adolescents with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Weijer-Bergsma, Eva; Formsma, Anne R.; de Bruin, Esther I.; Bogels, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of an 8-week mindfulness training for adolescents aged 11-15 years with ADHD and parallel Mindful Parenting training for their parents was evaluated, using questionnaires as well as computerized attention tests. Adolescents (N = 10), their parents (N = 19) and tutors (N = 7) completed measurements before, immediately after, 8…

  1. Training mentally retarded adolescents to brush their teeth.

    PubMed Central

    Horner, R D; Keilitz, I

    1975-01-01

    The need for self-care by retarded individuals in behaviors such as brushing teeth led to the development and evaluation of a comprehensive toothbrushing program that included a task analysis and training procedure specific to each component of the task analysis. Eight mentally retarded adolescents, in two groups, individually received acquisition training that included scheduled opportunities for independent performances, verbal instruction, modelling, demonstration, and physical assistance. The first group of four subjects received token plus social reinforcement; the second received only social reinforcement. All eight subjects showed improved toothbrushing behaviors when compared to baseline. Six of the eight subjects correctly performed all toothbrushing steps in two of three consecutive sessions. The study emphasizes the need for systematic program development and evaluation. PMID:1184494

  2. Child Psychiatry: What Are We Teaching Medical Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingle, Arden D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The author describes child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) undergraduate teaching in American and Canadian medical schools. Methods: A survey asking for information on CAP teaching, student interest in CAP, and opinions about the CAP importance was sent to the medical student psychiatry director at 142 accredited medical schools in the…

  3. Modifying adolescent interpretation biases through cognitive training: effects on negative affect and stress appraisals.

    PubMed

    Telman, Machteld D; Holmes, Emily A; Lau, Jennifer Y F

    2013-10-01

    Adolescent anxiety is common, impairing and costly. Given the scale of adolescent anxiety and its impact, fresh innovations for therapy are in demand. Cognitive Bias Modification of Interpretations (CBM-I) studies of adults show that by training individuals to endorse benign interpretations of ambiguous situations can improve anxious mood-states particularly in response towards stress. While, these investigations have been partially extended to adolescents with success, inconsistent training effects on anxious mood-states have been found. The present study investigated whether positive versus negative CBM-I training influenced appraisals of stress, in forty-nine adolescents, aged 15-18. Data supported the plasticity of interpretational styles, with positively-trained adolescents selecting more benign resolutions of new ambiguous situations, than negatively-trained adolescents. Positively-trained adolescents also rated recent stressors as having less impact on their lives than negatively-trained adolescents. Thus, while negative styles may increase negative responses towards stress, positive styles may boost resilience.

  4. A brief history of psychiatry in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Ng, B-Y; Chee, K-T

    2006-08-01

    The development of psychiatric services in Singapore during the last 150 years can be divided into four distinct, albeit overlapping, phases: (1) the origins of the Lunatic Asylum; (2) the interruption caused by the Japanese Occupation, and the post-war years; (3) the training of local psychiatrists and mental health professionals; and (4) the development of general hospital psychiatry and community mental health services. Early psychiatry in Singapore was essentially British psychiatry as an outpost but modified by local conditions. Modern psychiatry in Singapore has its roots in Singapore's colonial past and is strongly influenced by Western psychiatry. It has come a long way since its humble beginnings when the first mental hospital was established in 1841.

  5. Epigenetics and Child Psychiatry: Ethical and Legal Issues.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Christopher R

    2015-10-01

    Epigenetics has the potential to revolutionize diagnosis and treatment in psychiatry, especially child psychiatry, as it may offer the opportunity for early detection and prevention, as well as development of new treatments. As with the previous introduction of genetic research in psychiatry, there is also the problem of unrealistic expectations and new legal and ethical problems. This article reviews the potential contributions and problems of epigenetic research in child psychiatry. Previous legal and ethical issues in genetic research serve as a guide to those in epigenetic research. Recommendations for safeguards and guidelines on the use of epigenetics with children and adolescents are outlined based on the identified issues.

  6. Sagittal Spinal Morphology in Highly Trained Adolescent Tennis Players

    PubMed Central

    Muyor, José M.; Sánchez-Sánchez, Estefanía; Sanz-Rivas, David; López-Miñarro, Pedro A.

    2013-01-01

    Sports with a predominance of forward-bending and extension postures have been associated with alterations in the sagittal spinal curvatures and greater risk of spinal injury. Because, the tennis players adopt these postures, the aims of this study were: 1) to describe spinal curvatures and pelvic tilt in male and female highly trained adolescent tennis players during relaxed standing posture and with thoracic spine corrected (in prone lying on the floor); and 2) to determine the frequency of thoracic hyperkyphosis and lumbar hypo/hyper lordosis in these postures. Forty adolescent tennis players (24 male and 16 female) aged 13-18 years, participated voluntarily in this study. The Spinal Mouse system was used to measure sagittal spinal curvatures and pelvic tilt. The mean values in the relaxed standing posture were 43.83° ± 7.87° (thoracic kyphosis), - 27.58° ± 7.01° (lumbar lordosis), and 13.38° ± 5.57° (pelvic tilt) for male tennis players, respectively; and 36.13° ± 6.69° (thoracic kyphosis), - 32.69° ± 5.06° (lumbar lordosis), 20.94° ± 5.36° (pelvic tilt) for female tennis players (p < 0.05 between genders in all spinal parameters). The male and female tennis players showed a frequency of 62.5% and 93.8% (p = 0.032) for neutral thoracic kyphosis, and 83.3% and 93.8% (p = 0.062) in neutral lumbar lordosis, respectively. In conclusion, due to the high percentage of neutral spinal curvatures in both male and female tennis players, to practice tennis in these levels does not alter sagittal spinal morphology in the relaxed standing posture in adolescent highly trained tennis players. Key Points This study evaluated thoracic and lumbar spinal curvatures and pelvic tilt during several postures in young highly trained tennis players. Female tennis players showed statistically significant greater anterior pelvic tilt, lumbar lordosis and lower thoracic kyphosis than male tennis players. The high percentage of neutral thoracic kyphosis and lumbar

  7. What Do Psychiatric Residents Think of Addiction Psychiatry as a Career?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, John A., Jr.; Karam-Hage, Maher; Levinson, Marjorie; Craig, Thomas; Eld, Beatrice

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors attempt to better understand the recent decline in the number of applicants to addiction psychiatry training. Methods: The Corresponding Committee on Training and Education in Addiction Psychiatry of APA's Council on Addiction Psychiatry sent out a 14-question anonymous e-mail survey to all postgraduate-year 2 (PGY-2)…

  8. A Survey of the Interactions between Psychiatry Residency Programs and the Pharmaceutical Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varley, Christopher K.; Jibson, Michael D.; McCarthy, Mary; Benjamin, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors report a survey of the American Association of Directors of Psychiatry Residency Training (AADPRT) on interactions between the pharmaceutical industry and psychiatry residency programs. METHODS: American Association of Directors of Psychiatry Residency Training membership was anonymously surveyed by e-mail and by paper…

  9. Educating psychiatry residents in neuropsychiatry and neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Sheldon

    2013-06-01

    Neuropsychiatry and psychiatric neuroscience should be part of the general psychiatry curriculum so that graduate psychiatrists will be able to allow their patients the benefit of neuroscientifically informed diagnosis and treatment. Current neurology and neuroscience educational requirements for US psychiatry training are reviewed. The draft milestone requirements for clinical neuroscience training as part of the US Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's Next Accreditation System are also provided. Suggestions for the neuropsychiatric and neuroscience content of psychiatry residency training are made, along with a description of pedagogic methods and resources. Survey data are reviewed indicating agreement by programme directors with the importance of neuroscience training and an increase in the amount of time devoted to this area. Faculty staff development in neuropsychiatry and neuroscience literacy will be needed to provide high quality training in these areas.

  10. The foundations of interdisciplinary fellowship training in adolescent medicine in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bravender, Terrill

    2016-08-01

    The field of adolescent medicine, having developed from the specialty of Pediatrics, encompasses a holistic and developmental approach from its very origin. While its foundations were in medicine, early leaders in the field emphasized the importance of mental health care as well as nutrition, public health, and social justice. As the specialty became further established in the US with the creation of an academic society, board certification and training program accreditation, the interdisciplinary nature of adolescent medicine practice and training became formalized. This formal recognition brought with it strict guidelines with regards training and board certification. Despite the often Byzantinian training requirements, an interdisciplinary approach forms the core of adolescent medicine practice, and the incorporation of interdisciplinary training is a necessity for graduate medical education programs in the field of adolescent medicine.

  11. Habit reversal training for tic disorders in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Piacentini, John; Chang, Susanna

    2005-11-01

    Chronic tic disorders, including Tourette's syndrome (TS), affect approximately .5% of children and adolescents. Although strong evidence exists supporting a neurobiological etiology, operant factors may play a role in the maintenance of tic behaviors. Pharmacological approaches remain the most commonly used intervention for chronic tic disorder in children and adults. Nevertheless, the unpredictable efficacy and serious side effects associated with medication along with parental concerns about long-term medication use in children underlie the need for nonpharmacological interventions for tics in this age group. This article reviews the rationale and evidence base for the use of habit reversal training (HRT), a multicomponent behavioral treatment package, as a treatment for childhood tics. Each of the primary treatment components of HRT is described and implementation is illustrated in case report format. A growing body of data suggests that HRT is a well-tolerated and efficacious intervention for tic disorders in this age group.

  12. Community Based Training--Non-Traditional Curriculum Options for Work and Independent Living Training of Secondary Deaf-Blind Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dildy, Dennis

    Age appropriate training programs in natural environments for deaf-blind adolescents help to develop functional skills, with the ultimate goal of independent living and work placement. Other approaches to the education of handicapped children entail activity for the sake of activity, or babysitting and fun activities. The actual training of a…

  13. [An integrative research model for child and adolescent psychiatry bringing together biological, psychological and social research approaches].

    PubMed

    Remschmidt, Helmut

    2006-11-01

    After some general remarks on the current situation of child and adolescent psychiatric research in Germany, a research concept is presented which in the course of 30 years of testing and further development has proven to be successful both in the inauguration of scientific projects, as well as in the qualification of trainees and co-workers. The nucleus of this concept is a research unit that is to a large extent independent of the daily health care routine. Some of the unit staff members are natural scientists holding permanent positions, complemented by a secondary labour force of young doctors and psychologists aspiring to a scientific career. This research unit provides supply for scientific projects and basic research, as well as for the development of new methods. The unit was endorsed by a Clinical Research Group funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) that proved of value as power supply for research (e.g. by raising substantial third-party funds) and as an instrument for the qualification of young scientists. The article describes some results of four research projects derived from this approach (schizophrenia research, dyslexia research, research on Asperger syndrome, quality assurance, and therapy evaluation research).

  14. [Equine-assisted therapy in child psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Ansorge, Jessie; Sudres, Jean-Luc

    2011-01-01

    The use of a horse or pony as a therapeutic tool is often presented in the media as a recent phenomenon. A survey of 103 institutions shows that it is in fact an approach well rooted in child and adolescent psychiatry. However, professionals who use equine-assisted therapy are calling for an assessment to be carried out enabling them to hone their practices.

  15. Undergraduate Child Psychiatry Teaching in Melbourne, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, Jenny K.; McCallum, Zoe; Bevan, Catherine; Vance, Alasdair

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The teaching of child psychiatry in Australian medical schools is under review: the content, the placement of the field within medical curricula, and the appropriate teaching and learning methods are all contested. The authors developed a 1-day program in the 9-week child and adolescent health course conducted in the final two semesters…

  16. Improving psychosexual knowledge in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder: pilot of the tackling teenage training program.

    PubMed

    Dekker, Linda P; van der Vegt, Esther J M; Visser, Kirsten; Tick, Nouchka; Boudesteijn, Frieda; Verhulst, Frank C; Maras, Athanasios; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that psychosexual functioning in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is hampered and emphasize the need for a specialized training program tailored to their needs. Therefore, an individual training program was developed; the Tackling Teenage Training (TTT) program. The current pilot study systematically evaluated whether psychosexual knowledge increased after taking part in the TTT program, using a pre- and post-training design in 30 adolescents with ASD (77 % male, mean age = 14.80 years, mean intelligence = 96.96). Psychosexual knowledge increased significantly (pre-training total score: M = 25.74, SD = 6.20; post-training total score: M = 33.52 (SD = 2.78); F(1,29) = 65.20, p < .001). The TTT program may be useful to improve psychosexual knowledge and functioning in adolescents with ASD, yet these findings are preliminary, and a more elaborate controlled trial is needed.

  17. Communication training in mute autistic adolescents using the written work.

    PubMed

    LaVigna, G W

    1977-06-01

    The expressive and receptive use of three written words was taught to three mute autistic adolescents using a procedure based on Terrace's errorless discrimination model and Premack's language training with chimps. Expressive language was measured by the subject's selection of the appropriate word card from among the available alternatives when the corresponding object was presented. Receptive language was measured by the subject's selection of the appropriate object from among the available alternatives when the corresponding word card was presented. The sequence of the presentations and the order of placement of the available alternatives were randomized. The three subjects required 979, 1,791, and 1,644 trails, respectively, to master both the expressive and receptive use of the three words. The correct response rates for the three subjects over the entire training program were 92, 92, and 90%, respectively. It was concluded that, as concrete visual symbols, written words may provide a viable communication system for the mute autistic. The implications for treatment are discussed and suggestions for future research are made.

  18. Training Health Care Professionals to Manage Overweight Adolescents: Experience in Rural Georgia Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennison, David A.; Yin, Zenong; Kibbe, Debra; Burns, Susan; Trowbridge, Frederick

    2008-01-01

    Context: The obesity epidemic threatens the present and future health of adolescents in the United States. Yet, health care providers lack specific training for pediatric obesity assessment and management. Purpose: This study examined the adherence of rural Georgia primary care practitioners to an overweight adolescent management protocol. The…

  19. Strength and Agility Training in Adolescents with Down Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Hsiu-Ching; Wuang, Yee-Pay

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a proposed strength and agility training program of adolescents with Down syndrome. Ninety-two adolescents were recruited and evenly randomized to two intervention groups (exercise group vs. control group). The mean age for the exercise and the control group was 10.6 plus or minus 3.2 and…

  20. A Qualitative Examination of School Counselors' Training to Recognize and Respond to Adolescent Mental Health Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walley, Cynthia T.; Grothaus, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Given the prevalence of adolescent mental health issues and the impact they have on adolescent development and school success, school counselors are challenged to provide appropriate prevention and intervention services. Yet the sufficiency of school counselor training for these challenges is unclear. Qualitative procedures were used to examine…

  1. Actor Vocal Training for the Habilitation of Speech in Adolescent Users of Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Colleen M.; Dowell, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined changes to speech production in adolescents with hearing impairment following a period of actor vocal training. In addition to vocal parameters, the study also investigated changes to psychosocial factors such as confidence, self-esteem, and anxiety. The group were adolescent users of cochlear implants (mean age at commencement…

  2. Effectiveness of a Computerised Working Memory Training in Adolescents with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Molen, M. J.; Van Luit, J. E. H.; Van der Molen, M. W.; Klugkist, I.; Jongmans, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The goal of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a computerised working memory (WM) training on memory, response inhibition, fluid intelligence, scholastic abilities and the recall of stories in adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities attending special education. Method: A total of 95 adolescents with…

  3. Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training: Effects on School and Social Functioning.

    PubMed

    Young, Jami F; Kranzler, Amy; Gallop, Robert; Mufson, Laura

    2012-12-12

    This paper reports on school and social functioning outcomes in a randomized depression prevention study that compared Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST) with usual school counseling (SC). Outcome analyses were performed utilizing hierarchical linear models and mixed model analysis of variance. IPT-AST adolescents had significantly greater improvements than SC adolescents in total social functioning and friend functioning during the intervention. IPT-AST adolescents also demonstrated improvements in school, dating, and family functioning and emotional engagement in school, although these improvements were not significantly greater than seen in SC adolescents. Finally, in the 18 months following the intervention, IPT-AST adolescents were less likely than SC adolescents to be asked to leave school for academic or behavioral reasons. These findings extend the potential range of impact of depression prevention programs such as IPT-AST and provide preliminary evidence of the benefits of these programs on school and social functioning.

  4. Psychiatry and terrorism.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Frederick J; Gold, Joel; Henderson, Schuyler W; Merlino, Joseph P; Norwood, Ann; Post, Jerrold M; Shanfield, Stephen; Weine, Stevan; Katz, Craig L

    2011-08-01

    Terrorism has dominated the domestic and international landscape since 9/11. Like other fields, psychiatry was not well prepared. With the 10th anniversary of the 9/11 attack approaching, it is timely to consider what can be done to prepare before the next event. Much has been learned to provide knowledge and resources. The roles of psychiatrists are challenged by what is known of the causes of, consequences of, and responses to terrorism. Reflecting on knowledge from before and since 9/11 introduces concepts, how individuals become terrorists, how to evaluate the psychiatric and behavioral effects of terrorism, and how to expand treatments, behavioral health interventions, public policy initiatives, and other responses for its victims. New research, clinical approaches, and policy perspectives inform strategies to reduce fear and cope with the aftermath. This article identifies the psychiatric training, skills and services, and ethical considerations necessary to prevent or reduce terrorism and its tragic consequences and to enhance resilience.

  5. Forensic psychiatry in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Tariq; Nizami, Asad Tamizuddin; Hirji, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews existing forensic psychiatric services in Pakistan highlighting the role played by the judicial and the medical fraternity in managing the legal and forensic issues of the population of patients with mental illnesses. Until 2001, all legal and forensic issues were dealt with the mental health legislation of 1912, the Lunacy Act of 1912. This was inherited from the British rulers in the Sub-Continent at the time. The Mental Health Ordinance of 2001 could not sustain following the 18th constitutional amendment in 2010, whereby psychiatric healthcare was devolved to the provinces from the previous federal authority. The article also highlights the difficulties and the barriers in implementation of the forensic psychiatric services in Pakistan at various levels within the healthcare system. This article also delves into the current framework of training in forensic psychiatry for postgraduates as well as the assessments and management schedules for the mentally ill offenders at tertiary care institutions in Pakistan.

  6. The effects of swimming training on bone tissue in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Bruton, A; González-Agüero, A; Gómez-Cabello, A; Matute-Llorente, A; Casajús, J A; Vicente-Rodríguez, G

    2015-12-01

    The aim was to analyze bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) in regular swimming trained adolescents and the interaction that weigh-bearing sports may have on these values. Bone mass was evaluated by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and quantitative ultrasound (QUS) in 77 swimmers (34 females/43 males) and 52 normoactive controls (CG; 23 females/29 males) from 11 to 18 years. Swimmers who had performed or were performing other sports (OSP; 11 females/20 males) were compared with pure swimmers (PSW; 23 females/23 males). Both groups were compared with CG. Bone values were compared using analyses of covariance adjusting for height, calcium intake, subtotal lean (whole body lean minus head), and pubertal status. Male PSW showed lower BMD and BMC at several sites than male CG. However, for male OSP, only lumbar spine BMC was lower in OSP than male CG. Male PSW showed lower BMD and BMC when compared with male OSP. Female PSW showed higher arm BMD and lower leg BMC than female CG, while female OSP only presented lower leg BMC than female CG. Contrary to males, female-PSW presented higher BMD and BMC than female OSP. No differences in QUS values were found between swimmers and CG. To summarize, although more information is needed for females, it seems that for males, swimming is associated with lower BMC and BMD.

  7. Therapeutic Uses of the WebCam in Child Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chlebowski, Susan; Fremont, Wanda

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors provide examples for the use of the WebCam as a therapeutic tool in child psychiatry, discussing cases to demonstrate the application of the WebCam, which is most often used in psychiatry training programs during resident supervision and for case presentations. Method: Six cases illustrate the use of the WebCam in individual…

  8. Conflict Resolution in Parent-Adolescent Dyads: The Influence of Social Skills Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, D. Kim; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Pretest and posttest experimental (n=18) and control group (n=7) study assessing the effectiveness of a commercially available social skills training program for improving social skills and reducing family conflict in parent-adolescent dyads. Training group manifested improved social skills. Results partially confirm effectiveness of social skills…

  9. The Effects of Audiotaped Progressive Muscle Relaxation Training on the Reading Performance of Emotionally Disturbed Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolis, Howard; Pica, Louis, Jr.

    A study examined the degree to which audiotaped progressive muscle relaxation training influenced the oral and silent reading performance of eight adolescents who were legally classified as emotionally disturbed. A single-case ABAB withdrawal design was used to examine the effects of relaxation training on oral reading. In addition, a…

  10. The Entrepreneurial Curriculum: Rural School-Community Process for Vocational Training of Adolescents with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Veronica; Williams, Ellen

    Although formal vocational training in technical high schools or community-based job placements provides opportunities for adolescents with disabilities, educators need to consider a broader continuum of vocational training options for these students. Entrepreneurial options such as school-based businesses, internships, and apprenticeships may…

  11. Developing Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) for Parents of Treatment-Resistant Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Kimberly C.; Versek, Brian; Kerwin, MaryLouise E.; Meyers, Kathleen; Benishek, Lois A.; Bresani, Elena; Washio, Yukiko; Arria, Amelia; Meyers, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a project focused on training parents to facilitate their treatment-resistant adolescent's treatment entry and to manage their child after entry into community-based treatment. Controlled studies show that Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) is a unilateral treatment that fosters treatment entry of adults; however,…

  12. Peer-Directed, Brief Mindfulness Training with Adolescents: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Samuel J.; Jennings, Jerry L.

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study studied the impact of brief mindfulness meditation training with adolescents. Whereas adult mindfulness training programs typically entail weekly 2.5 hour sessions over an eight week period, this program delivered four 50-minute sessions within a three week period. Each session was comprised of two mindfulness exercises delivered…

  13. A Controlled Trial of Working Memory Training for Children and Adolescents with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Steven J.; Hanson, Christine A.; Puffenberger, Synthia S.; Benninger, Kristen L.; Benninger, William B.

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the efficacy of a 5-week, intensive working memory training program for 52 children and adolescents (ages 7-17) who had Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and other comorbid diagnoses. This study provided a treatment replication since the waitlist control group also completed training and was included in the…

  14. Randomized Trial of Anger Control Training for Adolescents with Tourette's Syndrome and Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sukhdolsky, Denis G.; Vitulano, Lawrence A.; Carroll, Deirdre H.; McGuire, Joseph; Leckman, James F.; Scahill, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    A randomized trial to examine the efficacy of anger control training for treating adolescents with Tourette's syndrome and disruptive behavior reveals that those administered with the anger control training showed a decrease in their Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale score by 52 percent as compared with a decrease of 11 percent in the treatment as…

  15. Effects on strength, power, and flexibility in adolescents of nonperiodized vs. daily nonlinear periodized weight training.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Eveline; Fleck, Steven J; Ricardo Dias, Marcelo; Simão, Roberto

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare 2 models of resistance training (RT) programs, nonperiodized (NP) training and daily nonlinear periodized (DNLP) training, on strength, power, and flexibility in untrained adolescents. Thirty-eight untrained male adolescents were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: a control group, NP RT program, and DNLP program. The subjects were tested pretraining and after 4, 8, and 12 weeks for 1 repetition maximum (1RM) resistances in the bench press and 45° leg press, sit and reach test, countermovement vertical jump (CMVJ), and standing long jump (SLJ). Both training groups performed the same sequence of exercises 3 times a week for a total of 36 sessions. The NP RT consisted of 3 sets of 10-12RM throughout the training period. The DNLP training consisted of 3 sets using different training intensities for each of the 3 training sessions per week. The total volume of the training programs was not significantly different. Both the NP and DNLP groups exhibited a significant increase in the 1RM for the bench press and 45° leg press posttraining compared with that pretraining, but there were no significant differences between groups (p ≤ 0.05). The DNLP group's 1RM changes showed greater percentage improvements and effect sizes. Training intensity for the bench press and 45° leg press did not significantly change during the training. In the CMVJ and SLJ tests, NP and DNLP training showed no significant change. The DNLP group showed a significant increase in the sit and reach test after 8 and 12 weeks of training compared with pretraining; this did not occur with NP training. In summary, in untrained adolescents during a 12-week training period, a DNLP program can be used to elicit similar and possible superior maximal strength and flexibility gains compared with an NP multiset training model.

  16. [(Community) psychiatry, a parenthesis?].

    PubMed

    Bucheron, Bastien

    2015-01-01

    Beyond an a priori antagonism between these two notions, alienism and mental health cultivate analogies as to the place to which they assign mental health. Is community psychiatry not therefore simply a parenthesis in the history of psychiatry? The question is raised therefore regarding the place given to subjectivity and complexity. What must be done to ensure that this parenthesis of community psychiatry does not close? It is perhaps a case of making use of the tools which institutional psychotherapy has developed to keep the community psychiatry spirit alive.

  17. Motion analyses of adolescent rugby union players: a comparison of training and game demands.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Timothy B; Naughton, Geraldine; Searl, John

    2011-04-01

    This research described the physiological demands of participation in adolescent rugby union including positional differences and the degree to which training practices replicate game demands. Between 2003 and 2008, 118 male adolescent rugby players aged 14 to 18 years were recruited from 10 teams representing 3 levels of adolescent rugby. Time-motion analyses using global positioning satellite tracking devices (SPI10; GPSports Systems Pty Ltd 2003) and computer-based tracking software (Trak Performance; Sports Tec Pty Ltd) applied to video footage determined player movement patterns 161 times during rugby training sessions and 53 times during rugby games. Compared with rugby training, rugby games were consistently characterized by more time spent jogging (14 vs. 8%), striding (3.2 vs. 1.3%), and sprinting (1.3 vs. 0.1%) (p < 0.001). Players also covered greater distances (4000 ± 500 vs. 2710 ± 770 m) and performed more sprints (21.8 vs. 1) during games compared with training (p < 0.001). The average sprint duration of 2 seconds was similar in games and training; however, the frequency of sprint efforts in training sessions was low (1 per hour). A major finding of this study is the disparity between physical game demands and on-field rugby training practices in adolescent players determined using time-motion analyses. Sprint pattern differences between games and training in particular could have important implications for player performance during competition. Results of this study should assist in the development of game-specific training sessions and drills that provide the kinds of physically demanding experiences observed in games. Additionally, coaches could assist in the management of adolescent players' participation loads by increasing the intensity and specificity and decreasing the volume of training.

  18. Group training in adolescent runners: influence on VO2max and 5-km race performance.

    PubMed

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Cardinal, Bradley J; Karp, Jason R; Brodowicz, Gary R

    2011-10-01

    The aims of this study were to (a) examine the interrelationships between training intensity, VO2max, and race performance in adolescent crosscountry runners and (b) determine if adolescent runners participating in a group crosscountry training program differ in the amount of training time at various intensities. In this study, 7 adolescent runners performed a laboratory-based VO2max test before and after a 9-week high-school crosscountry season. Heart rate (HR) and ventilatory threshold (VT) were used to identify 3 training zones for each runner based on the HR at ventilator threshold (HR(VT)): zone 1: >15 b·min(-1) below HR(VT); zone 2: between zone 1 and HR(VT); zone 3: >HR(VT). During each training session throughout the season, HR was measured to quantify the amount of training time in each of these 3 intensity zones. Results showed that the time in each of the 3 zones was not significantly associated with 5-km race performance. Zone 3 training time was positively associated with postseason VO2max (r = 0.73, p = 0.06); VO2max was significantly inversely associated with 5-km race performance (r = -0.77, p = 0.04). Each week, the amount of training time at, above, and below the VT was significantly different among the participants even though the training prescription for the group was standardized. The results suggest that, among adolescent crosscountry runners, training above the VT may be important in increasing VO2max and ultimately, race performance. Given the between-participant differences in the amount of training time in each HR zone, coaches should apply individual, rather than group, training programs.

  19. The impact of exercise training on basal BDNF in athletic adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Il

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of exercise training on basal brain-derived neurotrophic factor in athletic adolescents. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-two male adolescents participated in this study. The subjects were divided into a control group (n=9) and trained group (n=13). The trained group comprised table tennis athletes with more than 3 years of training who regularly exercised 18 hours per week. [Results] The results of this study show the trained group had significantly lower basal brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels than the control group. Further, platelet levels were significantly higher in the trained group than in the control group. However, no significant differences were observed between the groups in serum nerve growth factor level or physical characteristics (body weight, body mass index, fasting blood glucose). [Conclusion] This study showed that the basal brain-derived neurotrophic factor level of well-trained athletic adolescents was lower than that of the control group. Further research with a larger sample size is required to confirm the finding that lower basal brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels are associated with long-term habitual exercise in athletic adolescents. PMID:27942121

  20. State of Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry in India: Current status and vision for future

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sandeep

    2011-01-01

    Over the years Consultation-Liaison (C-L) psychiatry has contributed significantly to the growth of the psychiatry and has brought psychiatry very close to the advances in the medicine. It has also led to changes in the medical education and in the providing comprehensive management to the physically ill. In India, although the General Hospital Psychiatric units were established in 1930s, C-L Psychiatry has never been the main focus of training and research. Hence there is an urgent need to improve C-L Psychiatry services and training to provide best and optimal care to the patients and provide best education to the trainees. PMID:22135437

  1. Effects of body mass-based squat training in adolescent boys.

    PubMed

    Takai, Yohei; Fukunaga, Yuko; Fujita, Eiji; Mori, Hisashi; Yoshimoto, Takaya; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of body mass-based squat training on body composition, muscular strength and motor fitness in adolescent boys. Ninety-four boys (13.7 ± 0.6 yrs, 1.60 ± 0.09 m, 50.2 ± 9.6 kg) participated in this study and were randomly assigned to training (n = 36) or control (n = 58) groups. The training group completed body mass-based squat exercise training (100 reps/day, 45 sessions) for 8 weeks. Body composition and muscle thickness at the thigh anterior were determined by a bioelectrical impedance analyzer and ultrasound apparatus, respectively. Maximal voluntary knee extension strength and sprint velocity were measured using static myometer and non-motorized treadmill, respectively. Jump height was calculated using flight time during jumping, which was measured by a matswitch system. The 8-wk body mass-based squat training significantly decreased percent body fat (4.2%) and significantly increased the lean body mass (2.7%), muscle thickness (3.2%) and strength of the knee extensors (16.0%), compared to control group. The vertical jump height was also significantly improved by 3.4% through the intervention. The current results indicate that body mass-based squat training for 8 weeks is a feasible and effective method for improving body composition and muscular strength of the knee extensors, and jump performance in adolescent boys. Key pointsAn 8-wk body mass-based squat exercise training decreased percent body fat in adolescent boys.The body mass-based squat exercise training increased muscle size and strength capability of the knee extensors in adolescent boys.The squat exercise training improves vertical jump height in adolescent boys.

  2. Effects of Body Mass-Based Squat Training in Adolescent Boys

    PubMed Central

    Takai, Yohei; Fukunaga, Yuko; Fujita, Eiji; Mori, Hisashi; Yoshimoto, Takaya; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of body mass-based squat training on body composition, muscular strength and motor fitness in adolescent boys. Ninety-four boys (13.7 ± 0.6 yrs, 1.60 ± 0.09 m, 50.2 ± 9.6 kg) participated in this study and were randomly assigned to training (n = 36) or control (n = 58) groups. The training group completed body mass-based squat exercise training (100 reps/day, 45 sessions) for 8 weeks. Body composition and muscle thickness at the thigh anterior were determined by a bioelectrical impedance analyzer and ultrasound apparatus, respectively. Maximal voluntary knee extension strength and sprint velocity were measured using static myometer and non-motorized treadmill, respectively. Jump height was calculated using flight time during jumping, which was measured by a matswitch system. The 8-wk body mass-based squat training significantly decreased percent body fat (4.2%) and significantly increased the lean body mass (2.7%), muscle thickness (3.2%) and strength of the knee extensors (16.0%), compared to control group. The vertical jump height was also significantly improved by 3.4% through the intervention. The current results indicate that body mass-based squat training for 8 weeks is a feasible and effective method for improving body composition and muscular strength of the knee extensors, and jump performance in adolescent boys. Key points An 8-wk body mass-based squat exercise training decreased percent body fat in adolescent boys. The body mass-based squat exercise training increased muscle size and strength capability of the knee extensors in adolescent boys. The squat exercise training improves vertical jump height in adolescent boys. PMID:24149726

  3. Task before Indian Psychiatry Today: Commentary

    PubMed Central

    De Sousa, Avinash

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary on the article, “The Task Before Psychiatry Today Redux: STSPIR,” (Singh, 2014)[20], the author, while agreeing with most of the paper's findings, proposes a rather parallel judgment that intersects at the same paths ahead. There is a need for widespread and easily available essential mental health services in India. Health agenda must focus on spreading and scaling up psychiatric services. There is also a need to spread awareness of psychiatry and mental health and, as a psychiatrist, one must focus on making psychiatry available to a wider audience. Psychiatrists need to maintain a holistic view of psychiatric disorders while viewing them from both a neurobiological and psychosocial perspective. There is a need to revamp psychiatric training in departments with an increase in the thrust toward fostering translational research excellence in various spheres. Psychiatrists must continue to be trained in psychotherapy and practice it regularly. Psychiatric departments need to promote research excellence and focus on reducing brain drain. The practical applications of the tasks set out for psychiatry are more difficult than one can imagine, and a conscientious effort in that direction shall serve for its betterment. The future is bright and psychiatry must work toward making it brighter. PMID:28031626

  4. Lobotomy in Norwegian psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Tranøy, Joar; Blomberg, Wenche

    2005-03-01

    Lobotomy is still a hidden chapter in the history of Norwegian psychiatry. The main reasons, which are discussed here, may have been the role of Ørnulv Ødegård at Gaustad Hospital in Oslo and the links between health authorities and the power élite in Norwegian psychiatry.

  5. Creativity Development in Adolescence: Insight from Behavior, Brain, and Training Studies.

    PubMed

    Kleibeuker, Sietske W; De Dreu, Carsten K W; Crone, Eveline A

    2016-01-01

    Creativity is a multifaceted construct that recruits different cognitive processes. Here, we summarize studies that show that creativity develops considerably during adolescence with different developmental trajectories for insight, verbal divergent thinking, and visuospatial divergent thinking. Next, these developmental time courses are mapped to changes in brain activity when individuals perform divergent thinking tasks. The findings point to an important role of the prefrontal cortex for generating novelty and complexity. Finally, the potentials and limitations of training creativity in adolescence are described. The findings are interpreted vis-à-vis the dynamic changes that occur during adolescence in brain development and behavioral control processes.

  6. Linkage between Graduate Medical Education Training Practice Profiles in Psychiatry, Obstetrics/Gynecology, and Family Practice. Deliverable No. 5. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moynihan, Christy; And Others

    This study examined the relationship between graduate medical education (GME) and practice profiles in three specialties: family practice, psychiatry, and obstetrics/gynecology. Two analyses were performed, the first assessing the relationship between GME and current practice patterns and the second assessing the relationship between GME and…

  7. Strengthening the Paediatricians Project 1: The need, content and process of a workshop to address the Priority Mental Health Disorders of adolescence in countries with low human resource for health

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective World Health Organization has identified Priority Mental Health Disorders (PMHD) of adolescence. To effectively address these disorders at the primary care level paediatricians have to be trained in the low-income countries, which often have paucity of mental health resources. We studied: (1) the need of psychiatric training required among paediatricians; (2) if the content and process of the model workshop suits them to identify and treat these disorders. Methods Forty-eight paediatricians completed evaluation questionnaire at the end of a 3-day workshop on adolescent psychiatry. They participated in a focused group discussion addressing the areas in psychiatry that needs to be strengthened in these workshops, the changes in the content and process of the workshop to bolster their learning. Qualitative and descriptive analyses were appropriately used. Results Training in adolescent psychiatry was considered necessary among the paediatricians at zonal level frequently to develop their private practice, treat psychiatric disorders confidently, make correct referrals, and learn about counselling. Prioritizing training from under and postgraduate training, integrate psychiatry training with conference, conducting special workshops or Continuing Medical Education were suggested as ways of inculcating adolescent psychiatry proficiency. Mental status examination, psychopathology and management of the PMHD were considered by the respondents as important content that need to be addressed in the program but aspects of behavioural problems and developmental disabilities were also identified as areas of focus to gain knowledge and skill. Appropriate group size, flexibility in management decisions to fit the diverse clinical practice- settings was appreciated. Lack of skills in giving clinical reasoning in relation to PMHD, time management and feedback to individuals were identified as required components in the collaborative effort of this manner. Providing

  8. Training General Practitioners in the Identification and Management of Adolescent Depression within the Consultation: A Feasibility Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gledhill, Julia; Kramer, Tami; Iliffe, Steven; Garralda, M. Elena

    2003-01-01

    General practitioners (GPs) completed a checklist indicating recognition of psychopathology prior to and following GP training in the identification/management of adolescent depression. Psychiatric interviews with 38 adolescents with high depressive scores prior to and 44 following training identified 10 (26%) and 21 (48%), respectively, as…

  9. Educational Supervision Appropriate for Psychiatry Trainee's Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rele, Kiran; Tarrant, C. Jane

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors studied the regularity and content of supervision sessions in one of the U.K. postgraduate psychiatric training schemes (Mid-Trent). Methods: A questionnaire sent to psychiatry trainees assessed the timing and duration of supervision, content and protection of supervision time, and overall quality of supervision. The authors…

  10. Some gestalt contributions to psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Clegg, Kathleen A

    2010-07-01

    Gestalt theory and methods support significant behavioral change and personal growth, yet they have not been widely incorporated into modern psychiatric practice. Challenges to employing Gestalt principles in psychiatric practice exist, such as focus on diagnosis to guide treatment planning, key elements of psychiatric training, primacy of medication management in psychiatric practice, and financial pressures. However, the concepts of the co-created relational field in the here and now, the paradoxical theory of change, the cycle of experience, and the use of experiment are Gestalt concepts and methods that can be effectively applied in the modern practice of clinical psychiatry and psychiatric education.

  11. Interpersonal psychotherapy-adolescent skills training: anxiety outcomes and impact of comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Young, Jami F; Makover, Heather B; Cohen, Joseph R; Mufson, Laura; Gallop, Robert J; Benas, Jessica S

    2012-01-01

    Given the frequent comorbidity of anxiety and depression, it is important to study the effects of depression interventions on anxiety and the impact of comorbid anxiety on depression outcomes. This article reports on pooled anxiety and depression data from two randomized trials of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a depression prevention program. Ninety-eight adolescents were randomized to receive IPT-AST or school counseling (SC). Outcome and predictor analyses were performed utilizing hierarchical linear models. IPT-AST adolescents had significantly greater reductions in anxiety and depressive symptoms than SC adolescents during the intervention. Baseline anxiety symptoms predicted change in depressive symptoms for adolescents in both intervention conditions, with adolescents low in baseline anxiety demonstrating more rapid change in depressive symptoms than adolescents high in baseline anxiety. These findings indicate that IPT-AST is effective at decreasing both depressive and anxiety symptoms. For adolescents with comorbid symptoms of anxiety, there may be slower rates of change in depressive symptoms following prevention programs.

  12. Space Psychology and Psychiatry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanas, N.; Manzey, D.

    2003-09-01

    This book deals with psychological, psychiatric, and psychosocial issues that affect people who live and work in space. Unlike other books that focus on anecdotal reports and ground-based simulation studies, this book emphasizes the findings from psychological research conducted during actual space missions. Both authors have been active in such research. What is presented in this readable text has previously been found only in scientific journal articles. Topics that are discussed include: behavioral adaptation to space; human performance and cognitive effects; crewmember interactions; psychiatric responses; psychological counter-measures related to habitability factors, work-design, selection, training, and in-flight monitoring and support; and the impact of expeditionary missions to Mars and beyond. People finding this book of interest will include: psychology and social science students and professors in universities; medical students and residents in psychiatry and aerospace medicine; human factors workers in space and aviation professions; individuals involved with isolated environments on Earth (e.g., the Antarctic, submarines); aerospace workers in businesses and space agencies such as NASA and ESA; and anyone who is interested in learning the facts about the human side of long-duration space missions. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1341-8

  13. Training creative cognition: adolescence as a flexible period for improving creativity

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Claire E.; Kleibeuker, Sietske W.; de Dreu, Carsten K. W.; Crone, Eveline A.

    2014-01-01

    Creativity commonly refers to the ability to generate ideas, solutions, or insights that are novel yet feasible. The ability to generate creative ideas appears to develop and change from childhood to adulthood. Prior research, although inconsistent, generally indicates that adults perform better than adolescents on the alternative uses task (AUT), a commonly used index of creative ideation. The focus of this study was whether performance could be improved by practicing alternative uses generation. We examined the effectiveness of creative ideation training in adolescents (13–16 years, N = 71) and adults (23–30 years, N = 61). Participants followed one of three types of training, each comprising eight 20-min practice sessions within 2 week time: (1) alternative uses generation (experimental condition: creative ideation); (2) object characteristic generation (control condition: general ideation); (3) rule-switching (control condition: rule-switching). Progression in fluency, flexibility, originality of creative ideation was compared between age-groups and training conditions. Participants improved in creative ideation and cognitive flexibility, but not in general ideation. Participants in all three training conditions became better in fluency and originality on the AUT. With regard to originality, adolescents benefitted more from training than adults, although this was not specific for the creative ideation training condition. These results are interpreted in relation to (a) the different underlying processes targeted in the three conditions and (b) developmental differences in brain plasticity with increased sensitivity to training in adolescents. In sum, the results show that improvement can be made in creative ideation and supports the hypothesis that adolescence is a developmental stage of increased flexibility optimized for learning and explorative behavior. PMID:25400565

  14. Training creative cognition: adolescence as a flexible period for improving creativity.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Claire E; Kleibeuker, Sietske W; de Dreu, Carsten K W; Crone, Eveline A

    2014-01-01

    Creativity commonly refers to the ability to generate ideas, solutions, or insights that are novel yet feasible. The ability to generate creative ideas appears to develop and change from childhood to adulthood. Prior research, although inconsistent, generally indicates that adults perform better than adolescents on the alternative uses task (AUT), a commonly used index of creative ideation. The focus of this study was whether performance could be improved by practicing alternative uses generation. We examined the effectiveness of creative ideation training in adolescents (13-16 years, N = 71) and adults (23-30 years, N = 61). Participants followed one of three types of training, each comprising eight 20-min practice sessions within 2 week time: (1) alternative uses generation (experimental condition: creative ideation); (2) object characteristic generation (control condition: general ideation); (3) rule-switching (control condition: rule-switching). Progression in fluency, flexibility, originality of creative ideation was compared between age-groups and training conditions. Participants improved in creative ideation and cognitive flexibility, but not in general ideation. Participants in all three training conditions became better in fluency and originality on the AUT. With regard to originality, adolescents benefitted more from training than adults, although this was not specific for the creative ideation training condition. These results are interpreted in relation to (a) the different underlying processes targeted in the three conditions and (b) developmental differences in brain plasticity with increased sensitivity to training in adolescents. In sum, the results show that improvement can be made in creative ideation and supports the hypothesis that adolescence is a developmental stage of increased flexibility optimized for learning and explorative behavior.

  15. Effects of aerobic training, resistance training, or both on cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal fitness in adolescents with obesity: the HEARTY trial.

    PubMed

    Alberga, Angela S; Prud'homme, Denis; Sigal, Ronald J; Goldfield, Gary S; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Phillips, Penny; Malcolm, Janine; Ma, Jinhui; Doucette, Steve; Gougeon, Rejeanne; Wells, George A; Kenny, Glen P

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of aerobic, resistance, and combined exercise training on cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal fitness in postpubertal adolescents with obesity. After a 4-week supervised moderate-intensity exercise run-in, 304 adolescents aged 14-18 years with body mass index ≥85th percentile were randomized to 4 groups for 22 weeks of aerobic training, resistance training, combined training, or a nonexercising control. All participants received dietary counselling with a maximum daily energy deficit of 250 kcal. Cardiorespiratory fitness (peak oxygen consumption) was measured by indirect calorimetry using a graded treadmill exercise test. Musculoskeletal fitness was measured using the 2003 Canadian Physical Activity Fitness and Lifestyle Appraisal tests (hand grip, push-ups, partial curl-ups, sit and reach, and vertical jump). Muscular strength was assessed using an 8-repetition maximum test on the bench press, seated row, and leg press machines. A greater increase in peak oxygen consumption in the aerobic exercise group (30.6 ± 0.6 to 33.4 ± 0.7 mLO2/kg/min) was measured relative to the control group (30.6 ± 0.5 to 30.9 ± 0.7 mLO2/kg/min) (p = 0.002). Similarly, the number of partial curl-ups increased in the aerobic group (19 ± 1 to 23 ± 1) while no differences were measured in the control group (19 ± 1 to 20 ± 1) (p = 0.015). Increases in muscular strength and number of push-ups were greatest in the resistance group versus the control and combined groups versus the aerobic group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, aerobic training had the strongest effect on cardiorespiratory fitness, while resistance and combined training improved both muscular strength and endurance more than control and aerobic training alone, respectively, in adolescents with obesity.

  16. The effect of plyometric training on power and kicking distance in female adolescent soccer players.

    PubMed

    Rubley, Mack D; Haase, Amaris C; Holcomb, William R; Girouard, Tedd J; Tandy, Richard D

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of low-frequency, low-impact plyometric training on vertical jump (VJ) and kicking distance in female adolescent soccer players. Sixteen adolescent soccer players were studied (age 13.4 ± 0.5 years) across 14 weeks. The control group (general soccer training only) had 6 subjects, and the plyometric training (general soccer training plus plyometric exercise) group had 10 subjects. All subjects were tested for VJ and kicking distance on 3 occasions: pre-test, 7 weeks, and 14 weeks. Data were analyzed using a 2 (Training) × 3 (Test) analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures on the factor test. No significant difference in kicking distance was found between groups at pre-test (p = 0.688) or 7 weeks (p = 0.117). The plyometric group had significantly greater kicking distance after 14 weeks (p < 0.001). No significant difference in VJ height was found between groups at pre-test (p = 0.837) or 7 weeks (p = 0.108). The plyometric group had a significantly higher VJ after 14 weeks (p = 0.014). These results provide strength coaches with a safe and effective alternative to high-intensity plyometric training. Based on these findings, to increase lower-body power resulting in increased VJ and kicking distance, strength coaches should implement once-weekly, low-impact plyometric training programs with their adolescent athletes.

  17. Crime and Psychiatry*

    PubMed Central

    Matcheswalla, Yusuf; De Sousa, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatry and crime are linked in certain ways. On one hand, we have criminal offenders with serious psychopathology; and on the other hand, we have psychiatric patients who may commit criminal offences during the influence of a psychiatric disorder. The psychiatrist in practice has to come in contact with the criminal justice system at some point of time in his career. Forensic psychiatry under whose realm these issues reside is a branch yet underdeveloped in India. The present paper reviews the inter-relationship between crime and psychiatry and the factors involved therein. PMID:25838733

  18. Historicizing Indian psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Basu, Amit Ranjan

    2005-04-01

    Our historical endeavour to map Indian psychiatry has largely remained linear, positivistic and evolutionary. Whether it starts from the ancient times or modern, it shows our past as a tale of victory for the western science, without questioning the borrowed paradigm. The use of historical methods for serious enquiry of psychiatry has been ignored. Emergence of a new genre of historicism that is critical of both colonialism and psychiatry as a universal science, has raised hopes to critically review the emergence of psychiatric knowledge.

  19. Historicizing Indian psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Amit Ranjan

    2005-01-01

    Our historical endeavour to map Indian psychiatry has largely remained linear, positivistic and evolutionary. Whether it starts from the ancient times or modern, it shows our past as a tale of victory for the western science, without questioning the borrowed paradigm. The use of historical methods for serious enquiry of psychiatry has been ignored. Emergence of a new genre of historicism that is critical of both colonialism and psychiatry as a universal science, has raised hopes to critically review the emergence of psychiatric knowledge. PMID:20711299

  20. Reflections on military psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Arthur, R J

    1978-07-01

    The need for psychiatrists in the military was recognized for the first time during World War I, which involved millions of men in unusually protracted warfare. The policy of treating psychiatric casualties close to the from and returning soldiers to their military units as quickly as possible proved of great significance in the U.S. war effort. During World War II, the Korean conflict, and the war in Viet Nam, military psychiatry made great contributions and learned many lessions, both at home and abroad. The lessions learned by military psychiatry have important applications for the rest of medicine, especially in the fields of stress, crisis therapy, and community psychiatry.

  1. [Breakup during twilight--the development of child and adolescent psychiatry during the time of forced sterilisation and child euthanasia in national socialism].

    PubMed

    Nedoschill, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of professional child psychiatry partly took place against a historically difficult background: the National Socialism. Physicians who shaped the profession scientifically were at the same time offenders in forced sterilisation and euthanasia. Substanciated understanding of the professional history implies a differenciated examination of relevant biographies. The careers of Werner Villinger and Hans Heinze are being outlined and related to the historical context. A distinct and satisfactory understanding has not taken place during postwar period in Germany. However, in the meantime there has grown an awareness and also a consternation about the incidents due to research and publications.

  2. AACAP 2005 Research Forum: Speeding the Adoption of Evidence-Based Practice in Pediatric Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, John S.; Szatmari, Peter; Bukstein, Oscar; Chrisman, Allan; Kondo, Douglas; Hamilton, John D.; Kremer, Charlotte M. E.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: At the 2005 Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP), the Academy's Workgroup on Research conducted a Research Forum entitled "Increasing Research Literacy Through the Adoption of Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) in Pediatric Psychiatry." Method: Forum participants focused on speeding the adoption…

  3. Social Skills Training for Adolescents With Intellectual Disabilities: A School-Based Evaluation.

    PubMed

    O'Handley, Roderick D; Ford, W Blake; Radley, Keith C; Helbig, Kate A; Wimberly, Joy K

    2016-07-01

    Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) often demonstrate impairments in social functioning, with deficits becoming more apparent during adolescence. This study evaluated the effects of the Superheroes Social Skills program, a program that combines behavioral skills training and video modeling to teach target social skills, on accurate demonstration of three target social skills in adolescents with ID. Skills taught in the present study include Expressing Wants and Needs, Conversation, and Turn Taking. Four adolescents with ID participated in a 3-week social skills intervention, with the intervention occurring twice per week. A multiple baseline across skills design was used to determine the effect of the intervention on social skill accuracy in both a training and generalization setting. All participants demonstrated substantial improvements in skill accuracy in both settings, with teacher ratings of social functioning further suggesting generalization of social skills to nontraining settings.

  4. Efficacy of selected treadmill training programme on oxidative stress in adolescents with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Meguid, N A; Eltohamy, A M; Anwar, M; Hashish, A F; Elnahry, A

    2014-01-09

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of an electronic treadmill exercise training programme on malondialdehyde (MDA) as a marker for lipid peroxidation and the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in adolescents with Down syndrome. The study was carried out on 30 adolescent males with Down syndrome, ranging in age from 15 to 18 years, with 30 healthy subjects as a control group. Clinical examination, anthropometric measurements and determination of GPx activity and MDA before and after exercise were done. A treadmill training programme was performed for 12 weeks. Our data showed a significant increase in GPx activity and decrease in serum level of MDA in Down syndrome individuals after treadmill exercise for 3 months. Exercise promotion for adolescents with Down syndrome requires attention to motivators and facilitators of exercise adherence as it may limit risk of increased neurological consequences associated with oxidative stress and improve quality of life.

  5. Social intervention for adolescents with autism and significant intellectual disability: initial efficacy of reciprocal imitation training.

    PubMed

    Ingersoll, Brooke; Walton, Katherine; Carlsen, Danielle; Hamlin, Theresa

    2013-07-01

    Individuals with autism have difficulty with social skills across the lifespan. Few social interventions have been examined for older individuals with autism who also have significant intellectual disabilities (ID). Previous research suggests that reciprocal imitation training (RIT) improves imitation and social engagement in young children with autism. This study used a multiple-baseline design to examine whether RIT could improve social behaviors in four adolescents with autism and significant ID. All adolescents improved their spontaneous imitation and two improved their joint engagement. In addition, two adolescents decreased their rate of self-stimulatory behaviors over the course of treatment. Overall, these results suggest that RIT may be effective at improving social interaction and decreasing self-stimulatory behavior in adolescents with autism and significant ID.

  6. [Shall psychiatry change its target? Reflections on the evolving role of psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Pinna, Federica; Del Vecchio, Valeria; Luciano, Mario; Sampogna, Gaia; De Rosa, Corrado; Ferrari, Silvia; Pingani, Luca; Tarricone, Ilaria; Volpe, Umberto; Carrà, Giuseppe; Roncone, Rita; Catapano, Francesco; Fiorillo, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we will describe cultural, social and scientific changes occurred in psychiatry in the last years, identifying the new target for mental health professionals. Groups of young psychiatrists from the Italian Psychiatric Association, the European Psychiatric Association and the World Psychiatric Association have established an international network that launched a debate on the future role of psychiatry. In a rapidly changing world, there is the need to: 1) adapt training in psychiatry to the modern world; 2) identify the new target of mental health professionals; 3) enhance the image of psychiatry in the society; 4) overcome stigma towards people with mental disorders. In recent years, socio-cultural and scientific changes have had a significant impact on the psychiatrists' clinical practice. Mental health professionals should deal with these changes appropriately in order to overcome the current "crisis" of psychiatry, which should be considered as a developmental phase rather than a conceptual one. From time to time psychiatry is criticized both from inside and outside the profession. The current crisis was unavoidable due to the recent socio-cultural changes, but it should be considered an opportunity to adapt the profession to modern times.

  7. Encouraging Connections: Integrating Expressive Art and Drama into Therapeutic Social Skills Training with Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenz, A. Stephen; Holman, Rachel L.; Dominguez, Denise L.

    2010-01-01

    The effective use of social skills has been positively associated with career success, romantic involvement, academic achievement, and mood. In response, counselors often integrate social skills training into counseling interventions with adolescents to encourage authentic and effective interactions with others. We illustrate some therapeutic…

  8. Neuromuscular Adaptations to Eccentric Strength Training in Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Siobhan; Hamer, Peter; Alderson, Jacqueline; Lloyd, David

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To determine the neuromuscular outcomes of an eccentric strength-training programme for children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: In this randomised, parallel-group trial with waiting control, 14 participants with CP (six males, eight females; mean age 11y, SD 2y range 9-15y), diagnosed with upper-limb spasticity were…

  9. Effects of Stress Inoculation Training on Anxiety, Stress, and Academic Performance among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiselica, Mark S.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined effectiveness of preventive stress inoculation program for adolescents (n=48) that consisted of progressive muscle relaxation, cognitive restructuring, and assertiveness training. Compared with control subjects, trainees showed significantly greater improvements on self-report measures of trait anxiety and stress-related symptoms at…

  10. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury among Adolescents: A Training Priority for Primary Care Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taliaferro, Lindsay A.; Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J.; Hetler, Joel; Edwall, Glenace; Wright, Catherine; Edwards, Anne; Borowsky, Iris W.

    2013-01-01

    Primary care providers were surveyed to determine how prepared they feel to address nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among adolescents, their interest in training on NSSI, and factors associated with routinely asking about NSSI when providing health supervision. Participants included family medicine physicians ("n" = 260), pediatricians…

  11. The Effects of Swim Training on Respiratory Aspects of Speech Production in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Amanda Faith; Emes, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Reduced respiratory muscle strength in individuals with Down syndrome (DS) may affect speech respiratory variables such as maximum phonation duration (MPD), initiation volume, and expired mean airflow. Researchers randomly assigned adolescents with DS (N = 28) to either 12 weeks of swim training (DS-ST) or a control group (DS-NT). Repeated…

  12. Reducing Overselective Attention To Compound Visual Cues with Extended Training in Adolescents with Severe Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huguenin, Nancy H.

    2000-01-01

    A study investigated whether computer touch-screen technology could improve the attentional skills of three adolescents with severe mental retardation. Initially, prior reinforcement contingencies of individual stimuli failed to control their attention. Extended exposure to single stimulus training and conflict compounds, however, alleviated…

  13. Effectiveness of Emotional Intelligence Group Training on Anger in Adolescents with Substance-Abusing Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hojjat, Seyed Kaveh; Rezaei, Mahdi; Namadian, Gholamreza; Hatami, Seyed Esmaeil; Norozi Khalili, Mina

    2017-01-01

    Parental substance abuse is associated with impaired skills and ability to take care of children. Children of substance-abusing parents display higher levels of emotional difficulties. This article shows the effectiveness of emotional intelligence group training on anger in adolescents with substance-abusing fathers. The sample consisted of 60…

  14. Brief Report: Effects of Tact Training on Emergent Intraverbal Vocal Responses in Adolescents with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Richard J.; Hawkins, Emma; Dymond, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the emergence of intraverbal responses following tact training with three adolescents diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. Participants were taught to tact the name of a cartoon character (e.g., "What is the name of this monster?" ["Simon"]) and that character's preferred food (e.g., "What food does this monster…

  15. Effects of Tennis Training on Personality Development in Children and Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Erdal; Sahin, Gülsah; Sentürk, Ugur; Aydin, Halide; Altinkök, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a 12-week basic tennis training program on the personality development of early adolescents aged between 9 and 11 years. The research methodology consisted of a single group pre-test/post-test design implemented with a total of eight volunteer children (three boys and five girls). The…

  16. Effects of a Tall Ship Sail Training Experience on Adolescents' Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capurso, Michele; Borsci, Simone

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of a sail training education programme on the self-concept of a group of 147 adolescents. The Competence and Social domains of Bracken's self-concept scale were assessed by a quasi-experimental design in three phases: before commencement of the activities, on the last day of the voyage, and three months after…

  17. Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training: Anxiety Outcomes and Impact of Comorbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jami F.; Makover, Heather B.; Cohen, Joseph R.; Mufson, Laura; Gallop, Robert J.; Benas, Jessica S.

    2012-01-01

    Given the frequent comorbidity of anxiety and depression, it is important to study the effects of depression interventions on anxiety and the impact of comorbid anxiety on depression outcomes. This article reports on pooled anxiety and depression data from two randomized trials of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a…

  18. Adolescents Who Self-Harm: Professional Staff Knowledge, Attitudes and Training Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timson, Debbie; Priest, Helena; Clark-Carter, David

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate professional staff attitudes and knowledge about adolescents who engage in self-harming behaviour and to identify training needs. Previous research has suggested that medical and health care staff perceptions may reinforce the stigma associated with such behaviour and therefore jeopardise the effectiveness of…

  19. "Running a Train": Adolescent Boys' Accounts of Sexual Intercourse Involving Multiple Males and One Female

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Emily F.; Decker, Michele R.; Reed, Elizabeth; Raj, Anita; Silverman, Jay G.; Miller, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    The authors used qualitative research methods to explore the context and sexual risk behavior associated with sexual intercourse involving multiple males and one female, commonly called "running a train." Participants were 20 adolescent males aged 14 to 22 years who were either perpetrators of dating violence or perceived by teachers to…

  20. Key features of a unique community psychiatry fellowship: the emory university fellowship in community psychiatry/public health.

    PubMed

    Kotwicki, Raymond J; Compton, Michael T

    2010-08-01

    The Emory University Fellowship in Community Psychiatry/Public Health is a unique training opportunity whose mission is to train future leaders in the arena of community psychiatry. To complement the recent description of the Public Psychiatry Fellowship of New York State Psychiatric Institute at Columbia University Medical Center, this report describes the key features of Emory's fellowship-its academic curriculum, practicum experiences, site visits and other opportunities for collaboration, and ongoing mentoring and career development. Congruencies between these four key features and the seven core elements of Columbia's fellowship are highlighted, as are several important differences. Such descriptions of innovative training programs in community and public psychiatry are essential in promoting excellence in education, which will translate into vital enhancements in programs, policy, and community-based approaches to mental health services.

  1. Annals of General Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Fountoulakis, Konstantinos

    2005-02-01

    Our regular readers will notice that the title of our journal has changed from Annals of General Hospital Psychiatry (AGHP) to Annals of General Psychiatry (AGP) since January 1st, 2005. This was judged as necessary, in order to be able to serve better the aims of the journal. Our initial thoughts were that including the term 'General Hospital' in the journal's title would help us to launch a journal dedicated to the idea of Psychiatry as a medical specialty. But they were not justified; so, now the Annals of General Psychiatry (AGP) is born! It is still an Open Access, peer-reviewed, online journal covering the wider field of Psychiatry, Neurosciences and Psychological Medicine, and aims at publishing articles on all aspects of psychiatry. Primary research articles are the journal's priority, and both basic and clinical neuroscience contributions are encouraged. The AGP strongly supports and follows the principles of evidence-based medicine. AGP's articles are archived in PubMed Central, the US National Library of Medicine's full-text repository of life science literature, and also in repositories at the University of Potsdam in Germany, at INIST in France and in e-Depot, the National Library of the Netherlands' digital archive of all electronic publications. We hope that the change in the journal's name will cure the confusion caused by its previous title and help to achieve the journal's aims and scope, that is to help the world-wide promotion of research and publishing in the mental health area.

  2. Say It Straight: Adolescent Substance Abuse Prevention Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englander-Golden, Paula; And Others

    Patterns of drug use among teenagers indicate they are highly influenced by peers. To examine the influence of Say It Straight, an alcohol/drug abuse prevention program aimed at teaching adolescents to deal with peer pressure, sixth, seventh and eighth graders (N=509) created and role played situations in which they wanted to say "no" to…

  3. Habit Reversal Training for Tic Disorders in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piacentini, John; Chang, Susanna

    2005-01-01

    Chronic tic disorders, including Tourette's syndrome (TS), affect approximately .5% of children and adolescents. Although strong evidence exists supporting a neurobiological etiology, operant factors may play a role in the maintenance of tic behaviors. Pharmacological approaches remain the most commonly used intervention for chronic tic disorder…

  4. Neurology Didactic Curricula for Psychiatry Residents: A Review of the Literature and a Survey of Program Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Claudia L.; Walaszek, Art

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Minimal literature exists on neurology didactic instruction offered to psychiatry residents, and there is no model neurology didactic curriculum offered for psychiatry residency programs. The authors sought to describe the current state of neurology didactic training in psychiatry residencies. Methods: The authors electronically…

  5. Developing Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) for Parents of Treatment-Resistant Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Kimberly C.; Versek, Brian; Kerwin, MaryLouise E.; Meyers, Kathleen; Benishek, Lois A.; Bresani, Elena; Washio, Yukiko; Arria, Amelia; Meyers, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a project focused on training parents to facilitate their treatment-resistant adolescent’s treatment entry and to manage their child after entry into community-based treatment. Controlled studies show that Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) is a unilateral treatment that fosters treatment entry of adults; however, there are no controlled trials for parents with a substance-abusing child. We examined the behavioral parent training literature to guide us in tailoring CRAFT for parents of adolescents. We discuss adaptations to CRAFT, outcomes and experiences gained from a brief pilot of the revised CRAFT program, and the future directions of this work. PMID:25883523

  6. Strengthening the Paediatricians Project 2: The effectiveness of a workshop to address the Priority Mental Health Disorders of adolescence in low-health related human resource countries

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Paediatricians can be empowered to address the Priority Mental Health Disorders at primary care level. To evaluate the effectiveness of a collaborative workshop in enhancing the adolescent psychiatry knowledge among paediatricians. Methods A 3-day, 27-hours workshop was held for paediatricians from different regions of India under the auspices of the National Adolescent Paediatric Task Force of the Indian Academy of Paediatrics. A 5-item pretest-posttest questionnaire was developed and administered at the beginning and end of the workshop to evaluate the participants' knowledge acquisition in adolescent psychiatry. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed on an intention-to-participate basis. Results Forty-eight paediatricians completed the questionnaire. There was significant enhancement of the knowledge in understanding the phenomenology, identifying the psychopathology, diagnosing common mental disorder and selecting the psychotropic medication in the bivariate analysis. When the possible confounders of level of training in paediatrics and number of years spent as paediatrician were controlled, in addition to the above areas of adolescent psychiatry, the diagnostic ability involving multiple psychological concepts also gained significance. However, both in the bivariate and multivariate analyses, the ability to refer to appropriate psychotherapy remained unchanged after the workshop. Conclusions This workshop was effective in enhancing the adolescent psychiatry knowledge of paediatricians. Such workshops could strengthen paediatricians in addressing the priority mental health disorders at the primary-care level in countries with low-human resource for health as advocated by the World Health Organization. However, it remains to be seen if this acquisition of adolescent psychiatry knowledge results in enhancing their adolescent psychiatry practice. PMID:20167069

  7. The Chronic Effects of Low- and High-Intensity Resistance Training on Muscular Fitness in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Assunção, Ari R.; Bottaro, Martim; Ferreira-Junior, João B.; Izquierdo, Mikel; Cadore, Eduardo L.; Gentil, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    To compare the effects of high-load, low-repetition maximum (LRM) and low-load, high-repetition maximum (HRM) resistance training regimens on muscular fitness in untrained adolescents. Forty-five untrained adolescents of both sexes (13.7±0.8 years; 161.3±7.5 cm, 56.8±13.4 kg) were randomly assigned into one of three groups: 1) LRM (n = 17): volunteers performed three sets of 4-6-repetition maximum (RM); 2) HRM (n = 16): volunteers performed three sets of 12–15 RM; and 3) control (CON, n = 12). Training was performed two times a week for 9 weeks. After training, there were significant increases in 1 RM chest press (LRM = 14.8% and HRM = 14.2%, p<0.05) and squat (LRM = 26.4% and HRM = 25.7%, p<0.05), with no differences between the LRM and HRM groups (p>0.05). Additionally, muscular endurance increased significantly for the chest press (LRM = 14.5% and HRM = 21.8%, p<0.05) and squat test (LRM = 31.4% and HRM = 32.4%, p<0.05) following resistance training, with no difference between the LRM and HRM groups (p>0.05). These results suggest that both high-load, low-repetition and moderate-load, high-repetition resistance training can be prescribed to improve muscular fitness in untrained adolescents. PMID:27509050

  8. Increased Training Volume Improves Bone Density and Cortical Area in Adolescent Football Players.

    PubMed

    Varley, Ian; Hughes, David C; Greeves, Julie P; Fraser, William D; Sale, Craig

    2017-03-01

    Habitual football participation has been shown to be osteogenic, although the specific volume of football participation required to cause bone adaptations are not well established. The aim of the present study is to investigate tibial bone adaptations in response to 12 weeks of increased training volume in elite adolescents who are already accustomed to irregular impact training. 99 male adolescent elite footballers participated (age 16±0 y; height 1.76±0.66 m; body mass 70.2±8.3 kg). Tibial scans were performed using peripheral quantitative computed tomography immediately before and 12 weeks after an increase in football training volume. Scans were obtained at 4, 14, 38 and 66% of tibial length. Trabecular density (mg/cm(3)), cortical density (mg/cm(3)), cross-sectional area, cortical area (mm(2)), cortical thickness (mm) and strength strain index (mm(3)) were assessed. Trabecular (4%) and cortical density (14, 38%), cortical cross-sectional area (14, 38%), total cross-sectional area (66%), cortical thickness (14, 38%) and strength strain index (14, 38%) increased following 12 weeks of augmented volume training (P<0.05). Increased density of trabecular and cortical compartments and cortical thickening were shown following an increased volume of training. These adaptive responses may have been enhanced by the adolescent status of the cohort, supporting the role of early exercise intervention in improving bone strength.

  9. Effect of concurrent training on risk factors and hepatic steatosis in obese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, Barbara de Moura M.; Monteiro, Paula Alves; Silveira, Loreana Sanches; Cayres, Suziane Ungari; da Silva, Camila Buonani; F., Ismael Forte

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the effects of a 20-week concurrent training on the variables of body composition, lipid profile, and fatty liver diagnosis in obese adolescents. METHODS An open clinical trial was carried out with 34 obese adolescents aged between 12 and 15 years. Total body fat, trunk fat mass, total cholesterol and its fractions (HDL, LDL and VLDL), and triglycerides were analyzed; an upper abdominal ultrasound was performed in order to diagnose fatty liver. The participants underwent concurrent training (association of weight training with aerobic training) three times per week, lasting one hour for 20 weeks. Statistical analysis included paired Studentâ€(tm)s t-test and frequency analysis in order to verify the relative and absolute reductions of fatty liver diagnosis, being significant p<0.05. RESULTS The studied adolescents showed statistically significant improvement in body composition, with a decrease of total body fat percentage, total fat mass, trunk fat, and an a increase in the lean body mass. They also presented reduced size of liver lobes, decrease in total cholesterol and in LDL-cholesterol, with a lower prevalence of fatty liver. CONCLUSIONS The concurrent training was effective for promoting significant improvements in body fat composition and lipid profile variables, besides reducing fatty liver prevalence rate. PMID:24142321

  10. The application and efficacy of combined neurofeedback therapy and imagery training in adolescents with Tourette syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Chuanjun; Li, Li

    2014-07-01

    We aimed to examine the effectiveness of combined neurofeedback therapy and imagery training in adolescent patients with refractory Tourette syndrome. Two patients, aged respectively 14 and 16 years, had been treated with haloperidol and tiapride; however, this medication was ineffective and accompanied by intolerable side effects. In this study, the patients completed 80 sessions of neurofeedback treatment followed by imagery training. The patients were assessed with behavior rating scales both before and after the treatment as well as during follow-up examinations to evaluate the effect of the combined therapy. Patients showed significant improvement in motor tic and vocal tic symptoms, exemplified by a reduction in the frequency and intensity of tics, indicating that neurofeedback, together with imagery training, has a positive therapeutic effect on adolescent patients with medication-refractory Tourette syndrome.

  11. Aerobic exercise training-induced decrease in plasma visfatin and insulin resistance in obese female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyu-Jin; Shin, Yun-A; Lee, Kyoung-Young; Jun, Tae-Won; Song, Wook

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess differences in the levels of plasma visfatin among female adolescents and changes in plasma visfatin and insulin resistance in obese female adolescents after 12 wk of aerobic exercise training. Twenty normal-weight female students (body-mass index [BMI] < 22.9 kg/m² and body fat ≤ 29.9) and 18 obese female students (BMI ≥ 25 kg/ m² and body fat ≥ 30%) participated in this study. Eleven obese students were assigned to an exercise group and completed a 12-wk aerobic exercise-training program that included four 40- to 50-min sessions per wk with an energy expenditure of 300-400 kcal/d. Seven obese students were assigned to a control group that received no exercise sessions or dietary restriction. The plasma visfatin levels of obese female adolescents were significantly higher (p < .05) than those of the normal-weight female adolescents. The plasma visfatin levels (294.00 ± 124.74 ng/ml to 185.55 ± 67.30 ng/ml, p < .01) and insulin resistance (p < .05) were significantly reduced after 12 wk of aerobic exercise. The results suggest that aerobic exercise resulting in an energy expenditure of 1,200-1,600 kcal/wk for 12 wk decreases plasma visfatin and insulin resistance in obese female adolescents.

  12. Health-related physical fitness in children and adolescents with Down syndrome and response to training.

    PubMed

    González-Agüero, A; Vicente-Rodríguez, G; Moreno, L A; Guerra-Balic, M; Ara, I; Casajús, J A

    2010-10-01

    Physical fitness is related to health at all ages. Information about physical fitness in the Down syndrome (DS) population, however, is scarce, especially when we consider children and adolescents. A review of the current data available on this topic would be both timely and important as it would serve as a starting point to stimulate new research perspectives. The data we reviewed from the literature showed a general trend toward lower values of physical fitness parameters and worse body composition variables in children and adolescents with DS compared with the population without intellectual disability (ID) or even with the population with ID without DS. Notably, children and adolescents with DS have been described as less active or overprotected; however, these factors may not be the cause of their poor physical fitness. Many of the training programs carried out in children and adolescents with DS did not yield the desired responses, and the reasons are still unknown. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current available literature on health-related physical fitness in children and adolescents with DS, and the effect of training on these variables. From the literature available, it is clear that more data on this population are necessary.

  13. [Interdisciplinarity and psychiatry: is it time not to know?].

    PubMed

    de Menezes, Mardônio Parente; Yasui, Silvio

    2013-06-01

    This article deals with interdisciplinarity as well as psychiatric and psychosocial care. Throughout the text, a historical account of the constitution and the crisis of scientific knowledge is presented and organized into disciplines. The theoretical difficulty of conceptualizing interdisciplinarity is analyzed and, in the concluding remarks, psychiatry and its relationship to psychosocial care is discussed. The argument is that, because of its history, psychiatry has singularities that differentiate it from other medical specialties and these singularities could initially cause psychiatry to go in the opposite direction in relation to interdisciplinarity. The conclusion is that because of their inherent characteristics psychosocial care services are privileged places for psychiatric training with interdisciplinary characteristics.

  14. Psychodynamic cultural psychiatry: a new approach to teaching residents.

    PubMed

    Park, Sandra

    2013-03-01

    This article describes a course, Psychodynamic Cultural Psychiatry, taught to PGY-3 residents at the New York Presbyterian Hospital-Weill Cornell Medical Center that uses psychodynamic theory to help deepen cultural understanding. We (Sandra Park, the instructor for the course, and Elizabeth Auchincloss, the residency training director) developed the class in 2006 in an effort to raise cultural awareness in the residency curriculum. We believe that despite an inherent Western bias, psychodynamic theory can be an effective way to teach cultural psychiatry. Additionally, cultural understanding can enhance understanding of psychodynamic principles. In this article, we argue that our course in psychodynamic cultural psychiatry helps residents to integrate these two points of view.

  15. Accommodating Adolescent Sleep-Wake Patterns: The Effects of Shifting the Timing of Sleep on Training Effectiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    SLEEP , Vol. 35, No. 8, 2012 1123 Accommodating Adolescent Sleep -Wake Patterns—Miller et al INTRODUCTION Obtaining adequate sleep is a challenge for...dx.doi.org/10.5665/ sleep .2002 Accommodating Adolescent Sleep -Wake Patterns: The Effects of Shifting the Timing of Sleep on Training Effectiveness...nlmiller@nps.edu Study Objective: This study evaluated the effect of accommodating adolescent sleep -wake patterns by altering the timing of the major sleep

  16. Exercise training improves vascular function in adolescents with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Louise H; Davis, Elizabeth A; Kalic, Rachelle J; Paramalingam, Niru; Abraham, Mary B; Jones, Timothy W; Green, Daniel J

    2016-02-01

    The impact of exercise training on vascular health in adolescents with type 2 diabetes has not been previously studied. We hypothesized that exercise training would improve micro- and macrovascular health in adolescents with type 2 diabetes. Thirteen adolescents (13-21 years, 10F) with type 2 diabetes were recruited from Princess Margaret Hospital. Participants were randomized to receive either an exercise program along with standard clinical care (n = 8) or standard care alone (n = 5). Those in the intervention group received 12 weeks of gym-based, personalized, and supervised exercise training. Those in the control group were instructed to maintain usual activity levels. Assessments were conducted at baseline and following week 12. The exercise group was also studied 12 weeks following the conclusion of their program. Assessments consisted of conduit artery endothelial function (flow-mediated dilation, FMD) and microvascular function (cutaneous laser Doppler). Secondary outcomes included body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, DXA), glycemic control (whole body insulin sensitivity, M) assessed using the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp protocol, cardiorespiratory fitness (V˙O2peak), and muscular strength (1RM). Exercise training increased FMD (P < 0.05), microvascular function (P < 0.05), total lean mass (P < 0.05), and muscle strength (P < 0.001). There were no changes in cardiorespiratory fitness, body weight, BMI, or M. In the control group, body weight (P < 0.01), BMI (P < 0.01), and total fat mass (P < 0.05) increased. At week 24, improvements in vascular function were reversed. This study indicates that exercise training can improve both conduit and microvascular endothelial function and health, independent of changes in insulin sensitivity in adolescents with type 2 diabetes.

  17. Aerobic training suppresses exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and inflammation in overweight/obese adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Hala; Groussard, Carole; Lemoine-Morel, Sophie; Pincemail, Joel; Jacob, Christophe; Moussa, Elie; Fazah, Abdallah; Cillard, Josiane; Pineau, Jean-Claude; Delamarche, Arlette

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to determine whether aerobic training could reduce lipid peroxidation and inflammation at rest and after maximal exhaustive exercise in overweight/obese adolescent girls. Thirty-nine adolescent girls (14-19 years old) were classified as nonobese or overweight/obese and then randomly assigned to either the nontrained or trained group (12-week multivariate aerobic training program). Measurements at the beginning of the experiment and at 3 months consisted of body composition, aerobic fitness (VO2peak) and the following blood assays: pre- and postexercise lipid peroxidation (15F2a-isoprostanes [F2-Isop], lipid hydroperoxide [ROOH], oxidized LDL [ox-LDL]) and inflammation (myeloperoxidase [MPO]) markers. In the overweight/ obese group, the training program significantly increased their fat-free mass (FFM) and decreased their percentage of fat mass (%FM) and hip circumference but did not modify their VO2peak. Conversely, in the nontrained overweight/obese group, weight and %FM increased, and VO2peak decreased, during the same period. Training also prevented exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and/or inflammation in overweight/obese girls (F2-Isop, ROOH, ox-LDL, MPO). In addition, in the trained overweight/obese group, exercise-induced changes in ROOH, ox-LDL and F2-Isop were correlated with improvements in anthropometric parameters (waist-to-hip ratio, %FM and FFM). In conclusion aerobic training increased tolerance to exercise-induced oxidative stress in overweight/obese adolescent girls partly as a result of improved body composition.

  18. The Effects of Short-Term Ski Trainings on Dynamic Balance Performance and Vertical Jump in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camliguney, Asiye Filiz

    2013-01-01

    Skiing is a sport where balance and strength are critical and which can be practiced actively especially from early years to old age. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of a 5-day training of skiing skills on dynamic balance performance and development of vertical jump strength in adolescents. Sixteen adolescent volunteers who do…

  19. Effects of Testwiseness Training in Mathematics on Adolescent Secondary School Students' Test Anxiety in Ondo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gbore, Lawrence Olu; Osakuade, Joseph Oluwatayo

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of test-wiseness training in Mathematics on adolescent secondary school students' test anxiety. The research study adopted for the study was an experimental research that involved pretest, posttest and control groups design. One hundred and twenty (120) adolescent senior secondary school class three students of…

  20. Attitudes, Skills and Knowledge Change in Child and Adolescent Mental Health Workers Following AOD Screening and Brief Intervention Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Grant; Black, Stella; Dunbar, Lucy; Pulford, Justin; Wheeler, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent mental health workers are generally poor at identifying and treating co-existing alcohol and other drug (AOD) disorder. This study aimed to evaluate the utility and acceptability of an AOD screening and brief intervention (BI) training package delivered to child and adolescent mental health workers and its impact on relevant attitudes,…

  1. Effects of strength training on motor performance skills in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Behringer, Michael; Vom Heede, Andreas; Matthews, Maria; Mester, Joachim

    2011-05-01

    The recent literature delineates resistance training in children and adolescents to be effective and safe. However, only little is known about the transfer of achieved strength gains to athletic performance. The present meta-analysis revealed a combined mean effect size for motor skill types jumping, running, and throwing of 0.52 (95% CI: 0.33-0.71). Effect sizes for each of aforementioned skill types separately were 0.54 (95% CI: 0.34-0.74), 0.53 (95% CI: 0.23-0.83), and 0.99 (95% CI: 0.19-1.79) respectively. Furthermore, it could be shown that younger subjects and nonathletes showed higher gains in motor performance following resistance training than their counterparts and that specific resistance training regimes were not advantageous over traditional resistance training programs. Finally, a positive dose response relationship for "intensity" could be found in subgroups using traditional training regimens. These results emphasize that resistance training provides an effective way for enhancing motor performance in children and adolescents.

  2. Molecular psychiatry of zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Adam Michael; Ullmann, Jeremy F.P.; Norton, William H.J.; Brennan, Caroline H.; Parker, Matthew O.; Gerlai, Robert; Kalueff, Allan V.

    2014-01-01

    Due to their well-characterized neural development and high genetic homology to mammals, zebrafish (Danio rerio) have emerged as a powerful model organism in the field of biological psychiatry. Here, we discuss the molecular psychiatry of zebrafish, and its implications for translational neuroscience research and modeling CNS disorders. In particular, we outline recent genetic and technological developments allowing for in-vivo examinations, high-throughput screening and whole-brain analyses in larval and adult zebrafish. We also summarize the application of these molecular techniques to the understanding of neuropsychiatric disease, outlining the potential of zebrafish for modeling complex brain disorders, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), aggression, post-traumatic stress and substance abuse. Critically evaluating the advantages and limitations of larval and adult fish tests, we suggest that zebrafish models become a rapidly emerging new field in modern biological psychiatry research. PMID:25349164

  3. [Psychiatry and humanitarianism].

    PubMed

    Heimann, H

    1976-01-01

    Opposing positions on mental disorder in current psychiatry, their origins and therapy are presented through a few extreme viewpoints. Considering the foundations of the 'medical model' of psychiatric disorder (Griesinger), it is evident that this model is not a closed system, but rather an open approach which still has validity today. The humanitarian roots of psychiatry prevented Griesinger from treating various positions in an absolute or ideological manner. Finally, the concept of 'illness' is discussed in relation to psychophysiological activation research. Pathology changes in each different situation and is therefore not a static phenomenon. Mental disturbance is not determined by absolute measures, but rather by a reduction in variability of reactions to the particular situation. This concept of illness can determine somato-, psycho-, and sociotherapeutic measures. Psychiatry can only remain based on humanitarian concepts as long as the sciences upon which it is founded are kept in appropriate relation to one another.

  4. Mental illness: psychiatry's phlogiston

    PubMed Central

    Szasz, T

    2001-01-01

    In physics, we use the same laws to explain why airplanes fly, and why they crash. In psychiatry, we use one set of laws to explain sane behaviour, which we attribute to reasons (choices), and another set of laws to explain insane behaviour, which we attribute to causes (diseases). God, man's idea of moral perfection, judges human deeds without distinguishing between sane persons responsible for their behaviour and insane persons deserving to be excused for their evil deeds. It is hubris to pretend that the insanity defence is compassionate, just, or scientific. Mental illness is to psychiatry as phlogiston was to chemistry. Establishing chemistry as a science of the nature of matter required the recognition of the non-existence of phlogiston. Establishing psychiatry as a science of the nature of human behaviour requires the recognition of the non-existence of mental illness. Key Words: Agency • alchemy • behaviour • cause • chemistry • dignity PMID:11579183

  5. Effects of resistance training on cardiovascular health in non-obese active adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Clare Chung-Wah; McManus, Alison Mary; So, Hung-Kwan; Chook, Ping; Au, Chun-Ting; Li, Albert Martin; Kam, Jack Tat-Chi; So, Raymond Chi-Hung; Lam, Christopher Wai-Kei; Chan, Iris Hiu-Shuen; Sung, Rita Yn-Tz

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the benefits of a 10-wk resistance training programme on cardiovascular health in non-obese and active adolescents. METHODS This is a pragmatic randomised controlled intervention. The study was carried out in a Hong Kong Government secondary school. Thirty-eight lean and active boys and girls were randomised to either the resistance training group or the control group. Students in the resistance training group received in-school 10-wk supervised resistance training twice per week, with each session lasting 70 min. Main outcome measures taken before and after training included brachial endothelial dependent flow-mediated dilation, body composition, fasting serum lipids, fasting glucose and insulin, high sensitive C-reactive protein, 24-h ambulatory blood pressure and aerobic fitness. RESULTS The only training related change was in endothelial dependent flow-mediated dilation which increased from 8.5% to 9.8%. A main effect of time and an interaction (P < 0.005) indicated that this improvement was a result of the 10-wk resistance training. Main effects for time (P < 0.05) in a number of anthropometric, metabolic and vascular variables were noted; however, there were no significant interactions indicating the change was more likely an outcome of normal growth and development as opposed to a training effect. CONCLUSION Ten weeks of resistance training in school appears to have some vascular benefit in active, lean children PMID:27610345

  6. Sex Education for Male Adolescent Sex Offenders in a Group Setting Led by General Psychiatry Residents: A Literature Review and Example in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, R. Gregg; Boyd, Mary S.

    2009-01-01

    Male adolescents have been credited with a significant percentage of sex crimes in recent years. They are a heterogeneous population with offenses spanning the same range found among adult offenders. A lack of interpersonal social skills relevant to intimate relationships and inaccurate knowledge regarding appropriate sexual behaviors contribute…

  7. Child Psychiatry Takes to the Streets: A Developmental Partnership between a University Institute and Children and Adolescents from the Streets of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scivoletto, Sandra; da Silva, Thiago Fernando; Rosenheck, Robert Alan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: High levels of domestic violence, mental illness, and alienation from authorities are associated with high incidence of children/adolescents living on the streets in low and middle income countries. The Equilibrium Project (Programa Equilibrio) was created to facilitate social reintegration through a virtual partnership between an…

  8. Psychiatry residency education in Canada: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Saperson, Karen

    2013-07-01

    OBJECTIVE This article provides a brief overview of the history of psychiatry residency training in Canada, and outlines the rationale for the current training requirements, changes to the final certification examination, and factors influencing future trends in psychiatry education and training. METHOD The author compiled findings and reports on residency education in Canada from current and historical sources. RESULTS Residency training in psychiatry in Canada has undergone significant change in the past 5 years, moving from an "apprenticeship" model to a competency-based curriculum with explicit expectations for the acquisition of key, defined competencies. CONCLUSION Continuous evaluation of teaching methodologies, increasing use of innovative and creative medical education techniques, flexible curricula, and increasingly rigorous standards of accreditation are some of the factors likely to continue to shape the future.

  9. Effectiveness of Behavioral Skills Training on Staff Performance in a Job Training Setting for High-Functioning Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmen, Annemiek; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have focused on improving staff performance in naturalistic training settings for high-functioning adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Behavioral skills training, consisting of group instruction and supervisory feedback, was used to improve staff performance on (a) providing positive reinforcement, (b) providing error…

  10. Sleep Changes in Adolescents Following Procedural Task Training

    PubMed Central

    Nader, Rebecca S.; Murkar, Anthony L.; Smith, Carlyle T.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that some of the inter-individual variation in sleep spindle activity is due to innate learning ability. Sleep spindles have also been observed to vary following learning in both young and older adults. We examined the effect of procedural task acquisition on sleep stages and on sleep spindles in an adolescent sample. Participants were 32 adolescents (17 females) between the ages of 12 and 19 years. Spindle activity was examined in three different frequency ranges: 11.00–13.50 Hz (slow), 13.51–16.00 Hz (fast), and 16.01–18.50 Hz (superfast). No changes in spindle density were observed after successful learning of the pursuit rotor task. This result was in contrast to a number of studies reporting spindle density increases following successful learning. In the present study, participants who successfully learned the task showed no changes in their sleep stage proportions, but participants who were not successful showed a decrease in the proportion of stage 2 and increases in both SWS and REM sleep. We suggest that these changes in the sleep stages are consistent with the two stage model of sleep and memory proposed by Smith et al. (2004a). PMID:27766089

  11. Clinical thinking in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Wells, Lloyd A

    2015-06-01

    I discuss the lack of precision in the term 'clinical reasoning' and its relationship to evidence-based medicine and critical thinking. I examine critical thinking skills, their underemphasis in medical education and successful attempts to remediate them. Evidence-based medicine (and evidence-based psychiatry) offer much but are hampered by the ubiquity and flaws of meta-analysis. I explore views of evidence-based medicine among psychiatry residents, as well as capacity for critical thinking in residents before and after a course in philosophy. I discuss decision making by experienced doctors and suggest possible futures of this issue.

  12. [Future Psychiatry: a "Think Tank" for the Italian Psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Bersani, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    The Future Psychiatry Project was founded with the goal to address the critical ratio of research/training / clinic. In
    a series of regular meetings, each devoted to a specific clinical topic, data and more advanced models for the clinical area in question
    will be analyzed in an integrated and multidisciplinary approach and the real possibility of extension of development and
    prospects of scientific advances to the clinic and therapy will be evaluated.The primary methodological objective of the Future
    Psychiatry meetings is the training method to overcome the common type of teacher/learner classroom teaching, albeit divided
    into the various possibilities offered by different types of educational meetings.The structure is informal, with features of intensive
    seminars and suggested modes for better interaction.The objective is the "Think Tank", a common space for study and exchange
    of knowledge, experiences, opinions and expectations, aimed at producing an integrated and shared dynamic result, that
    can provide a real reference point for participants and for all researchers and clinicians engaged in improving their level of updating
    and best clinical activity.The first Future Psychiatry meeting was held in Sermoneta (Latina) in the halls of the Castello Caetani
    on September 16th to 18th 2010.The chosen topic was "The Future of Depression: the development of knowledge, the evolution
    of therapies". The currently most advanced data of research were discussed and developed in their potential to reach a
    shared model taking into account the etiological complexity of Depression and to be a real reference to the possibility of application
    to real clinical experience.The main guidelines of the current research and major prospects for development of this in the
    field Depression have been outlined, also in relation to the ongoing evolution and the future outlook of the models and tools of
    therapy. Psychiatrists' clinical needs and

  13. [Future Psychiatry: a "think tank" for the Italian psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Bersani, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    The Future Psychiatry Project was founded with the goal to address the critical ratio of research/training/clinic. In a series of regular meetings, each devoted to a specific clinical topic, data and more advanced models for the clinical area in question will be analyzed in an integrated and multidisciplinary approach and the real possibility of extension of development and prospects of scientific advances to the clinic and therapy will be evaluated. The primary methodological objective of the Future Psychiatry meetings is the training method to overcome the common type of teacher/learner classroom teaching, albeit divided into the various possibilities offered by different types of educational meetings. The structure is informal, with features of intensive seminars and suggested modes for better interaction. The objective is the "think tank", a common space for study and exchange of knowledge, experiences, opinions and expectations, aimed at producing an integrated and shared dynamic result, that can provide a real reference point for participants and for all researchers and clinicians engaged in improving their level of updating and best clinical activity. The first Future Psychiatry meeting was held in Sermoneta (Latina) in the halls of the Castello Caetani on September 16th to 18th 2010. The chosen topic was "The Future of Depression: the development of knowledge, the evolution of therapies". The currently most advanced data of research were discussed and developed in their potential to reach a shared model taking into account the etiological complexity of Depression and to be a real reference to the possibility of application to real clinical experience. The main guidelines of the current research and major prospects for development of this in the field Depression have been outlined, also in relation to the ongoing evolution and the future outlook of the models and tools of therapy. Psychiatrists' clinical needs and expectations in front of the development of

  14. Performance enhancement among adolescent players after 10 weeks of pitching training with appropriate baseball weights.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen-Wen; Liu, Ya-Chen; Lu, Lee-Chang; Chang, Hsiao-Yun; Chou, Paul Pei-Hsi; Liu, Chiang

    2013-12-01

    Compared with regulation-weight baseballs, lightweight baseballs generate lower torque on the shoulder and elbow joints without altering the pitching movement and timing. This study investigates the throwing accuracy, throwing velocity, arm swing velocity, and maximum shoulder external rotation (MSER) of adolescent players after 10 weeks of pitching training with appropriate lightweight baseballs. We assigned 24 adolescent players to a lightweight baseball group (group L) and a regulation-weight baseball group (group R) based on their pretraining throwing velocity. Both groups received pitching training 3 times per week for 10 weeks with 4.4- and 5-oz baseballs. The players' throwing accuracy, throwing velocity, arm swing velocity, and MSER were measured from 10 maximum efforts throws using a regulation-weight baseball before and after undergoing the pitching training. The results showed that the players in group L significantly increased their throwing velocity and arm swing velocity (p < 0.05) after 10 weeks of pitching training with the 4.4-oz baseball, whereas group R did not (p > 0.05). Furthermore, the percentage change in the throwing velocity and arm swing velocity of group L was significantly superior to that of group R (p < 0.05). Thus, we concluded that the 10 weeks of pitching training with an appropriate lightweight baseball substantially enhanced the arm swing velocity and throwing velocity of the adolescent baseball players. These findings suggest that using a lightweight baseball, which can reduce the risk of injury without altering pitching patterns, has positive training effects on players in the rapid physical growth and technique development stage.

  15. Strength Training for Adolescents with cerebral palsy (STAR): study protocol of a randomised controlled trial to determine the feasibility, acceptability and efficacy of resistance training for adolescents with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Jennifer M; Theis, Nicola; Kilbride, Cherry; Baltzopoulos, Vasilios; Waugh, Charlie; Shortland, Adam; Lavelle, Grace; Noorkoiv, Marika; Levin, Wendy; Korff, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Gait is inefficient in children with cerebral palsy, particularly as they transition to adolescence. Gait inefficiency may be associated with declines in gross motor function and participation among adolescents with cerebral palsy. Resistance training may improve gait efficiency through a number of biomechanical and neural mechanisms. The aim of the Strength Training for Adolescents with cerebral palsy (STAR) trial is to evaluate the effect of resistance training on gait efficiency, activity and participation in adolescents with cerebral palsy. We also aim to determine the biomechanical and neural adaptations that occur following resistance training and evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of such an intervention for adolescents with cerebral palsy. Methods and analysis 60 adolescents (Gross Motor Function Classification System level I–III) will be randomised to a 10-week resistance training group or a usual care control group according to a computer-generated random schedule. The primary outcome is gait efficiency. Secondary outcomes are habitual physical activity, participation, muscle–tendon mechanics and gross motor function. General linear models will be used to evaluate differences in continuous data between the resistance training and usual care groups at 10 and 22 weeks, respectively. A process evaluation will be conducted alongside the intervention. Fidelity of the resistance training programme to trial protocol will be quantified by observations of exercise sessions. Semistructured interviews will be conducted with participants and physiotherapists following the resistance training programme to determine feasibility and acceptability of the programme. Ethics and dissemination This trial has ethical approval from Brunel University London's Department of Clinical Sciences' Research Ethics Committee and the National Research Ethics Service (NRES) Committee London—Surrey Borders. The results of the trial will be submitted for

  16. The specificity of energy utilisation by trained and untrained adolescent boys.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, N; Davies, B; Heal, M

    1983-09-01

    This study examined the relationship between estimates of alactacid anaerobic power, lactacid anaerobic power and aerobic power in a sample of trained swimmers (age 14.4 yr., n = 8) and a sample of untrained boys (age 13.7 yr., n = 13). The anaerobic power outputs were estimated using a modification of the Wingate Anaerobic Test and aerobic power was estimated using a continuous, incremental cycle ergometer test. In addition to leg power outputs the swimmers' arm power using each energy system was estimated and compared with the corresponding leg value. There was no relationship between the estimates of the power of the three energy systems with either the trained or untrained boys. Furthermore with the trained boys there was no relationship between estimates of the power of the same energy system utilised by different limbs. The data support a specificity hypothesis of energy utilisation during exercise with both trained and untrained adolescent boys.

  17. Practice of Dialectical Behavior Therapy after Psychiatry Residency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederick, John T.; Comtois, Katherine Anne

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The University of Washington (UW) psychiatry residency program attempted to determine how participation in a dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) training program influenced the practice of its graduates. Methods: A survey was completed by 30 graduates who participated in elective DBT training. This survey obtained information about their…

  18. [Sophrology and psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Diehr, Jan

    2016-01-01

    A relatively new discipline in the field of human sciences, sophrology seeks, through a physical as well as mental approach, to awaken awareness while energising the patient's resources and capacities. In psychiatry, it favours the development of body awareness and the positive activation of the mental structures, for the greater wellbeing of the patient.

  19. Racism and Psychiatry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Alexander; Sillen, Samuel

    White racism has influenced theory and practice in psychiatry and allied fields. Psychiatrists have largely ignored the interactionist approach, as expounded by Sullivan and Rush, in analyzing Negroes within their respective societies. Rather, in the vein of Freudian preoccupation with unconscious motivation, abnormal behavior and what is…

  20. Artificial intelligence and psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Servan-Schreiber, D

    1986-04-01

    This paper provides a brief historical introduction to the new field of artificial intelligence and describes some applications to psychiatry. It focuses on two successful programs: a model of paranoid processes and an expert system for the pharmacological management of depressive disorders. Finally, it reviews evidence in favor of computerized psychotherapy and offers speculations on the future development of research in this area.

  1. Epistemology of psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Marková, Ivana S; Berrios, German E

    2012-01-01

    In historical and epistemological terms, psychiatry is a new discipline born during the 19th century. Rooted in both the natural and social sciences, psychiatric objects of inquiry, namely mental symptoms and mental disorders, are hybrid, constituted by the blending of components arising from disparate sources of knowledge ranging from the biological to the semantic in its widest sense. This poses problems for psychiatric research and therapy. Whilst conventional pluralism may be a convenient approach to manage aspects of psychiatric practice, it lacks the capacity to analyse psychiatric objects in their entirety. For the latter, psychiatry demands a new, tailored regional epistemology. This paper outlines the main features of an epistemology specific to the needs of psychiatry. It highlights the relational approach that needs to be taken and illustrates the usefulness of this approach by analysing the structure of psychiatric objects, exploring the manner in which they may be inscribed in the brain, and identifying the need to periodically recalibrate the language of psychiatry.

  2. Does exercise training affect resting metabolic rate in adolescents with obesity?

    PubMed

    Alberga, Angela S; Prud'homme, Denis; Sigal, Ronald J; Goldfield, Gary S; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Gougeon, Réjeanne; Phillips, Penny; Malcolm, Janine; Wells, George A; Doucette, Steve; Ma, Jinhui; Kenny, Glen P

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the hypothesis that resistance exercise training performed alone or in combination with aerobic exercise training would increase resting metabolic rate (RMR) relative to aerobic-only and nonexercising control groups. Postpubertal adolescents (N = 304) aged 14-18 years with obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 95th percentile) or overweight (BMI ≥ 85th percentile + additional diabetes risk factor(s)) were randomized to 4 groups for 22 weeks: Aerobic exercise training, Resistance exercise training, Combined aerobic and resistance exercise training, or Control. All participants received dietary counselling targeting a daily energy deficit of 250 kcal. RMR was measured by indirect calorimetry and body composition by magnetic resonance imaging. There was no significant change in RMR in any group, in spite of significant within-group increases in fat-free mass in the Aerobic, Resistance, and Combined exercise training groups. RMR at baseline and 6 months were Aerobic: 1972 ± 38 and 1990 ± 41; Resistance: 2024 ± 37 and 1992 ± 41; Combined: 2023 ± 38 and 1995 ± 38; Control: 2075 ± 38 and 2073 ± 39 kcal/day (p > 0.05). There were no between-group differences in RMR after adjustment for total body weight or fat-free mass between groups over time. Per-protocol analyses including only participants with ≥70% adherence, and analyses stratified by sex, also showed no within- or between-group differences in RMR. In conclusion, despite an increase in fat-free mass in all exercise groups, 6 months of aerobic, resistance, or combined training with modest dietary restriction did not increase RMR compared with diet only in adolescents with obesity.

  3. The teaching of the biological basis of psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Baptista, T

    1995-05-01

    1. What is usually taught as biological psychiatry in psychiatric residency training is mainly psychopharmacology, but biology has a lot more to offer to psychiatry educators. 2. The main thesis of this article is that an introductory course on the applications to psychiatry based on the theory of the evolution of the species by natural selection and mutation, along with a comprehensive theory of mind, may contribute to: (i) helping young physicians to integrate the diverse and extensive knowledge acquired during the residency training; (ii) aid in keeping the psychiatrist within the medical approach to mental illnesses while promoting the specific features of the specialty, and (iii) perhaps developing a general theoretical framework that allows psychiatrists to maintain a prominent role in the mental health staff. 3. The author describes how he has conducted such training in Venezuela. It is expected that the author's ideas will serve as a forum for discussion of this pivotal subject.

  4. Clinic- and Home-Based Contingency Management Plus Parent Training for Adolescent Cannabis Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Stanger, Catherine; Ryan, Stacy R.; Scherer, Emily A.; Norton, Gray E.; Budney, Alan J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To conduct a randomized test comparing two multicomponent, contingency management interventions, one with and one without a full parent training curriculum, and an individual treatment for adolescent cannabis use disorders. Method 153 adolescents who met DSM-IV criteria for cannabis abuse or dependence were randomized to motivational enhancement therapy/cognitive-behavioral therapy (MET/CBT), MET/CBT+abstinence-based contingency management (CM), or MET/CBT+CM+Parent Training (PT). Results Overall, during treatment, abstinence was greater for youth receiving clinic- and home-based CM without PT compared to those who received individual MET/CBT. There was no additional benefit of the full parent training curriculum on marijuana use, youth externalizing problems, or parenting. Conclusion These results suggest that clinic- plus home-based CM for cannabis use disorders can increase rates of abstinence during treatment over and above an evidence-based treatment (individual MET/CBT), but the addition of a comprehensive parenting training curriculum did not further enhance efficacy. PMID:26004659

  5. Influence of Handrim Wheelchair Propulsion Training in Adolescent Wheelchair Users, A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Dysterheft, Jennifer L.; Rice, Ian M.; Rice, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Ten full-time adolescent wheelchair users (ages 13–18) completed a total of three propulsion trials on carpet and tile surfaces, at a self-selected velocity, and on a concrete surface, at a controlled velocity. All trials were performed in their personal wheelchair with force and moment sensing wheels attached bilaterally. The first two trials on each surface were used as pre-intervention control trials. The third trial was performed after receiving training on proper propulsion technique. Peak resultant force, contact angle, stroke frequency, and velocity were recorded during all trials for primary analysis. Carpet and tile trials resulted in significant increases in contact angle and peak total force with decreased stroke frequency after training. During the velocity controlled trials on concrete, significant increases in contact angle occurred, as well as decreases in stroke frequency after training. Overall, the use of a training video and verbal feedback may help to improve short-term propulsion technique in adolescent wheelchair users and decrease the risk of developing upper limb pain and injury. PMID:26042217

  6. Influence of handrim wheelchair propulsion training in adolescent wheelchair users, a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Dysterheft, Jennifer L; Rice, Ian M; Rice, Laura A

    2015-01-01

    Ten full-time adolescent wheelchair users (ages 13-18) completed a total of three propulsion trials on carpet and tile surfaces, at a self-selected velocity, and on a concrete surface, at a controlled velocity. All trials were performed in their personal wheelchair with force and moment sensing wheels attached bilaterally. The first two trials on each surface were used as pre-intervention control trials. The third trial was performed after receiving training on proper propulsion technique. Peak resultant force, contact angle, stroke frequency, and velocity were recorded during all trials for primary analysis. Carpet and tile trials resulted in significant increases in contact angle and peak total force with decreased stroke frequency after training. During the velocity controlled trials on concrete, significant increases in contact angle occurred, as well as decreases in stroke frequency after training. Overall, the use of a training video and verbal feedback may help to improve short-term propulsion technique in adolescent wheelchair users and decrease the risk of developing upper limb pain and injury.

  7. Effect of life skills training on dietary behavior of school adolescents in Delhi: a nonrandomized interventional study.

    PubMed

    Anand, Tanu; Ingle, G K; Meena, Gajendra Singh; Kishore, Jugal; Yadav, Sangita

    2015-03-01

    Skill-based education has been shown to reduce high-risk behavior among adolescents, but in India, life skills have often been looked at only from the reproductive health perspective. Therefore, the current study was undertaken to assess the effect of life skills training on dietary behavior of adolescents studying in grades 9 and 11 of 2 schools in Delhi. This was a nonrandomized interventional study with a control group. A self-administered questionnaire was used for assessment of dietary behavior at baseline, 15 days, and 3 months after the life skills training. Two life skills training sessions were imparted to the intervention group, focusing on the use of life skills in making healthy choices. Participants in the intervention group (n = 180) showed significant improvement in knowledge (P < .001), attitude (P = .007), and practices (P < .001) following the life skills training. To conclude, a skills-based approach does help improve the dietary behavior in adolescents.

  8. Teaching Evidence-Based Psychiatry: Integrating and Aligning the Formal and Hidden Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agrawal, Sacha; Szatmari, Peter; Hanson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors argue that adopting evidence-based psychiatry will require a paradigm shift in the training of psychiatry residents, and offer some suggestions for how this transformation might be achieved. Methods: The authors review the growing literature that addresses how best to teach evidence-based medicine and highlight several…

  9. The Career Development Institute for Psychiatry: An Innovative, Longitudinal Program for Physician-Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupfer, David J.; Schatzberg, Alan F.; Grochocinski, Victoria J.; Dunn, Leslie O.; Kelley, Katherine A.; O'Hara, Ruth M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The Research Career Development Institute for Psychiatry is a collaboration between the University of Pittsburgh and Stanford University to recruit and train a broad-based group of promising junior physicians by providing the necessary skills and support for successful research careers in academic psychiatry. Methods: Participants…

  10. A 4-Year Curriculum on Substance Use Disorders for Psychiatry Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannucci, Rocco; Sanders, Kathy; Greenfield, Shelly F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe an addiction psychiatry curriculum integrated in a general psychiatry training program to demonstrate comprehensive and practical approaches to educating general psychiatric residents on the recognition and treatment of substance use disorders. Methods: The Massachusetts General Hospital/McLean Hospital adult…

  11. Telemedicine for Peer-to-Peer Psychiatry Learning between U.K. and Somaliland Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keynejad, Roxanne; Ali, Faisal R.; Finlayson, Alexander E. T.; Handuleh, Jibriil; Adam, Gudon; Bowen, Jordan S. T.; Leather, Andrew; Little, Simon J.; Whitwell, Susannah

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The proportion of U.K. medical students applying for psychiatry training continues to decline, whereas, in Somaliland, there are no public-sector psychiatrists. This pilot study assessed the usefulness and feasibility of online, instant messenger, peer-to-peer exchange for psychiatry education between cultures. Method: Twenty medical…

  12. Poor Intentions or Poor Attention: Misrepresentation by Applicants to Psychiatry Residency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Jason P.; Borus, Jonathan F.; Chang, Grace; Greenberg, William E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the veracity of self-reported data by applicants to psychiatry residency. Methods: The authors reviewed the reported publications of all applicants to a psychiatry residency training program over a 2-year span. Results: Nine percent of applicants reporting publications were found to have misrepresented them.…

  13. A Pilot Use of Team-Based Learning in Psychiatry Resident Psychodynamic Psychotherapy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touchet, Bryan K.; Coon, Kim A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Demonstrating psychotherapy competency in trainees will test the resources of psychiatry training programs. The authors outline the phases of team-based learning (TBL). Methods: The University of Oklahoma College of Medicine, Tulsa (OUCM-T), Department of Psychiatry reorganized its psychodynamic psychotherapy didactic course using TBL.…

  14. "It's High-Tech, but Is It Better?": Applications of Technology in Psychiatry Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krain, Lewis P.; Bostwick, J. Michael; Sampson, Shirlene

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This article reviews the existing literature on the use of computer assisted instruction (CAI) in the field of psychiatry to answer the questions, 1) Is CAI an effective tool for teaching psychiatry? and 2) What are the best methods for studying CAI in a real-world training environment? Method: A Medline search was conducted for…

  15. Preparing International Medical Graduates for Psychiatry Residency: A Multi-Site Needs Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sockalingam, Sanjeev; Hawa, Raed; Al-Battran, Mazin; Abbey, Susan E.; Zaretsky, Ari

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Despite the growing number of international medical graduates (IMGs) training in medicine in Canada and the United States, IMG-specific challenges early in psychiatry residency have not been fully explored. Therefore, the authors conducted a needs-assessment survey to determine the needs of IMGs transitioning into psychiatry residency.…

  16. Postdoctoral clinical-research training in psychiatry: a model for teaching grant writing and other research survival skills and for increasing clarity of mentoring expectations.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, C F; Martin, C; Brent, D; Ryan, N; Dahl, R E; Pilkonis, P; Marcus, M D; Kupfer, D J

    1998-09-01

    The authors describe a model for teaching grant writing and other research survival skills to postdoctoral clinical-research fellows in psychiatry and for improving research mentoring. Over the past 4 years, the authors have developed a course on writing grant applications for postdoctoral clinical-research fellows, using peer-review processes modeled after a National Institutes of Health study section. At the same time, the authors have clarified expectations of mentors in ways designed to help fellows prepare "K" (Research Career Development) applications and to receive mentored practice in skills being taught in the course. Sixteen of 30 fellows have succeeded in receiving their first extramural support by the end of their two-year fellowship tenure or during the succeeding year. The authors conclude that by teaching grant-writing skills in a supportive peer environment, providing peer review of proposals, and sharpening expectations of mentors, it may be possible to reduce the time between the end of fellowship and the receipt of the first extramural grant.

  17. Psychiatry in Former Socialist Countries: Implications for North Korean Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young Su; Park, Sang Min; Jun, Jin Yong

    2014-01-01

    Very little information is available regarding psychiatry in North Korea, which is based on the legacy of Soviet psychiatry. This paper reviews the characteristics of psychiatry in former socialist countries and discusses its implications for North Korean psychiatry. Under socialism, psychiatric disorders were attributed primarily to neurophysiologic or neurobiological origins. Psychosocial or psychodynamic etiology was denied or distorted in line with the political ideology of the Communist Party. Psychiatry was primarily concerned with psychotic disorders, and this diagnostic category was sometimes applied based on political considerations. Neurotic disorders were ignored by psychiatry or were regarded as the remnants of capitalism. Several neurotic disorders characterized by high levels of somatization were considered to be neurological or physical in nature. The majority of "mental patients" were institutionalized for a long periods in large-scale psychiatric hospitals. Treatment of psychiatric disorders depended largely on a few outdated biological therapies. In former socialist countries, psychodynamic psychotherapy was not common, and psychiatric patients were likely to experience social stigma. According to North Korean doctors living in South Korea, North Korean psychiatry is heavily influenced by the aforementioned traditions of psychiatry. During the post-socialist transition, the suicide rate in many of these countries dramatically increased. Given such mental health crises in post-socialist transitional societies, the field of psychiatry may face major challenges in a future unified Korea. PMID:25395966

  18. Psychiatry in former socialist countries: implications for north korean psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Su; Park, Sang Min; Jun, Jin Yong; Kim, Seog Ju

    2014-10-01

    Very little information is available regarding psychiatry in North Korea, which is based on the legacy of Soviet psychiatry. This paper reviews the characteristics of psychiatry in former socialist countries and discusses its implications for North Korean psychiatry. Under socialism, psychiatric disorders were attributed primarily to neurophysiologic or neurobiological origins. Psychosocial or psychodynamic etiology was denied or distorted in line with the political ideology of the Communist Party. Psychiatry was primarily concerned with psychotic disorders, and this diagnostic category was sometimes applied based on political considerations. Neurotic disorders were ignored by psychiatry or were regarded as the remnants of capitalism. Several neurotic disorders characterized by high levels of somatization were considered to be neurological or physical in nature. The majority of "mental patients" were institutionalized for a long periods in large-scale psychiatric hospitals. Treatment of psychiatric disorders depended largely on a few outdated biological therapies. In former socialist countries, psychodynamic psychotherapy was not common, and psychiatric patients were likely to experience social stigma. According to North Korean doctors living in South Korea, North Korean psychiatry is heavily influenced by the aforementioned traditions of psychiatry. During the post-socialist transition, the suicide rate in many of these countries dramatically increased. Given such mental health crises in post-socialist transitional societies, the field of psychiatry may face major challenges in a future unified Korea.

  19. Psychiatry and music

    PubMed Central

    Nizamie, Shamsul Haque; Tikka, Sai Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Vocal and/or instrumental sounds combined in such a way as to produce beauty of form, harmony and expression of emotion is music. Brain, mind and music are remarkably related to each other and music has got a strong impact on psychiatry. With the advent of music therapy, as an efficient form of alternative therapy in treating major psychiatric conditions, this impact has been further strengthened. In this review, we deliberate upon the historical aspects of the relationship between psychiatry and music, neural processing underlying music, music's relation to classical psychology and psychopathology and scientific evidence base for music therapy in major psychiatric disorders. We highlight the role of Indian forms of music and Indian contribution to music therapy. PMID:24891698

  20. Psychiatry and music.

    PubMed

    Nizamie, Shamsul Haque; Tikka, Sai Krishna

    2014-04-01

    Vocal and/or instrumental sounds combined in such a way as to produce beauty of form, harmony and expression of emotion is music. Brain, mind and music are remarkably related to each other and music has got a strong impact on psychiatry. With the advent of music therapy, as an efficient form of alternative therapy in treating major psychiatric conditions, this impact has been further strengthened. In this review, we deliberate upon the historical aspects of the relationship between psychiatry and music, neural processing underlying music, music's relation to classical psychology and psychopathology and scientific evidence base for music therapy in major psychiatric disorders. We highlight the role of Indian forms of music and Indian contribution to music therapy.

  1. The evolution of sport psychiatry, circa 2009.

    PubMed

    Glick, Ira D; Kamm, Ronald; Morse, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Over the past three decades, the world of both amateur and professional sports has expanded greatly and become more complex. In part related to these changes - and relatively unknown to sports medicine practitioners - the field of sport psychiatry has steadily evolved and grown. This paper focuses on what these changes have been. A sport psychiatrist is a physician-psychiatrist who diagnoses and treats problems, symptoms and/or disorders associated with an athlete, with their family/significant others, with their team, or with their sport, including spectators/fans. The primary aims of the specialty are to (i) optimize health, (ii) improve athletic performance, and (iii) manage psychiatric symptoms or disorders. The training includes medical training to provide knowledge and skills unique to physicians; psychiatric training to provide knowledge and skills inherent in that field, and training and/or experience in sport psychiatry to provide knowledge and skills about psychiatric aspects of sports. The sport psychiatrist first makes an individual, family-systems and phenomenological diagnosis of the clinical situation. Based on this evaluation, he sets goals for not only the athlete, but also for significant others involved. He delivers treatment based on the psychiatric disorder or problem using a combination of medication, psychotherapy or self-help group interventions plus strategies targeted to specific sport performance issues. Evolution of the International Society of Sport Psychiatry as well as the field, including incorporation into school and professional team sports, is described along with a 'typical day' for a sport psychiatrist. Case examples, a training curriculum and core literature are included.

  2. What Psychiatry Means To Us

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, J. K.; Goel, Dishanter

    2006-01-01

    Psychiatry has come up as one of the most dynamic branches of medicine in recent years. There are a lot of controversies regarding concepts, nosology, definitions and treatments in psychiatry, all of which are presently under a strict scanner. Differences are so many that even the meaning of psychiatry varies amongst individual psychiatrists. For us, it is an art to practice psychiatry and give the patient what he needs. Still, it should be practiced with great caution and utmost sincerity towards the patient, based on scientific knowledge and not to be guided by individual conceptions alone. Ethics in psychiatry forms an integral part of its basic concept and meaning, and a tight balance should be maintained between professional advancement and patient benefit. In recent years, the scope of psychiatry has enlarged considerably, with wide ranging influences from Sociology, Anthropology and Philosophy on the one hand, and Neurology and Medicine on the other. PMID:22013340

  3. Mumbai Psychiatry: Current Obstacles*

    PubMed Central

    Bagadia, Sanjay V.

    2015-01-01

    Mumbai, like any other Metro city, has its own share of contentious issues influencing psychiatric management. These could be old ongoing issues like myths about medications, electroconvulsive therapy and counselling, or newer ones like our stand on homosexuality and crime related to psychosocial factors. A range of these issues is considered in this paper along with some possible solutions. Getting due credit and status for psychiatry as a medical branch is also a challenge we need to address. PMID:25838737

  4. [Literature and psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Borgna, E

    1996-12-01

    Psychiatry is a borderline science that has relations on one hand with the methods of knowledge of natural sciences, on the other with those of the humanities. To investigate the bases of its studies, the psychiatric science often refers to literary and philosophical masterpieces. Therefore, the author analyses some examples of the classic fiction which presents psychopathologic issues. Particularly, the author examines some principal topics: anxiety, psychosomatic illness, depression, schizophrenia and delirium.

  5. Cognitive psychiatry in India

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, P. K.; Sivakumar, T.

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive deficits have been shown to exist in various psychiatric disorders. Though most Indian studies pertaining to cognition have been replication studies, well designed original studies have also been conducted. This article traces the evolution of cognitive psychiatry in India. Cognitive research has huge potential in India and can help us unravel mysteries of the human mind, identify etiopathogenesis and facilitate treatment of psychiatric disorders. PMID:21836668

  6. [Psychiatry and neuroethics].

    PubMed

    Suárez Richards, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Neuroscientific knowledge have enter to psychiatry in a new era, however, new technology for viewing images, brain function, psychopharmacology, non-invasive methodology requires an ethical approach, framed in the bioethical environment. The field of neuroethics has evolved to address many of the specific concerns and what neuroenhancement and neuroimaging provide us, is necessary to extend the scope of ethical things to consider the clinical implications for the psychiatric work.

  7. Epilepsy, psychiatry, and neurology.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Edward H; Trimble, Michael R

    2009-03-01

    This article reviews the relationship between the psychiatry and neurology of epilepsy, especially in the last 100 years. Throughout most of its recorded history of 3 to 4 millennia epilepsy has been viewed as a supernatural or mental disorder. Although first suggested by Hippocrates in the 5th century B.C., the concept of epilepsy as a brain disorder only began to take root in the 17th and 18th centuries. The discipline of neurology emerged from "nervous disorders" or neuropsychiatry in the late 19th century, when vascular theories of epilepsy predominated. By the turn of the 19th century psychiatry and neurology were diverging and epilepsy remained to some extent in both disciplines. It was only in the middle of the 20th century with the development of electromagnetic theories of epilepsy that the concept of epilepsy per se as a neurological disorder was finally adopted in international classifications of disease. This was associated with a refined definition of the ictal, pre-, post-, and interictal psychological disorders of epilepsy, which have contributed to a renaissance of neuropsychiatry. At the beginning of the 21st century and the centenary of the ILAE psychiatry and neurology have been converging again, led in some respects by epilepsy, which has provided several useful models of mental illness and a bridge between the two disciplines.

  8. Neural networks in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke; Bullmore, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Over the past three decades numerous imaging studies have revealed structural and functional brain abnormalities in patients with neuropsychiatric diseases. These structural and functional brain changes are frequently found in multiple, discrete brain areas and may include frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital cortices as well as subcortical brain areas. However, while the structural and functional brain changes in patients are found in anatomically separated areas, these are connected through (long distance) fibers, together forming networks. Thus, instead of representing separate (patho)-physiological entities, these local changes in the brains of patients with psychiatric disorders may in fact represent different parts of the same 'elephant', i.e., the (altered) brain network. Recent developments in quantitative analysis of complex networks, based largely on graph theory, have revealed that the brain's structure and functions have features of complex networks. Here we briefly introduce several recent developments in neural network studies relevant for psychiatry, including from the 2013 special issue on Neural Networks in Psychiatry in European Neuropsychopharmacology. We conclude that new insights will be revealed from the neural network approaches to brain imaging in psychiatry that hold the potential to find causes for psychiatric disorders and (preventive) treatments in the future.

  9. Adolescence as a critical stage in the MCH Life Course Model: commentary for the Leadership Education in Adolescent Health (LEAH) interdisciplinary training program projects.

    PubMed

    Shlafer, Rebecca; Hergenroeder, Albert C; Jean Emans, S; Rickert, Vaughn I; Adger, Hoover; Spear, Bonnie; Irwin, Charles E; Kreipe, Richard E; Walker, Leslie R; Resnick, Michael D

    2014-02-01

    The Life Course Perspective (LCP), or Model, is now a guiding framework in Maternal and Child Health (MCH) activities, including training, supported by the Health Resources and Services Administration's Maternal and Child Health Bureau. As generally applied, the LCP tends to focus on pre- through post-natal stages, infancy and early childhood, with less attention paid to adolescents as either the "maternal" or "child" elements of MCH discourse. Adolescence is a distinct developmental period with unique opportunities for the development of health, competence and capacity and not merely a transitional phase between childhood and adulthood. Adequately addressing adolescents' emergent and ongoing health needs requires well-trained and specialized professionals who recognize the unique role of this developmental period in the LCP.

  10. Psychiatry and the general hospital in an age of uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    LIPSITT, DON R

    2003-01-01

    General hospitals have had an illustrious role in the evolution of psychiatry. They have provided a rich soil for the growth of inpatient psychiatric units, consultation-liaison psychiatry, psychosomatic medicine, med-psych units, outpatient psychiatric clinics, emergency services and a whole spectrum of resources for the communities in which they dwell. In some respects, whether attached to universities or not, they have functioned as small colleges for the education and training of scores of health professionals. In the setting of the general hospital, psychiatry has had opportunities to become remedicalized and integrated into the mainstream of medicine. However, recent trends in health care run the risk of jeopardizing these accomplishments. Managed care has had a profound impact on the way psychiatry is practiced, taught, and reimbursed. Concerns about cost-containment have raised questions about whether the general hospital will remain the best and most economical setting for psychiatric services. If the primacy of the patient is lost, psychiatry's role in the general hospital will be uncertain. The need to safeguard psychiatry's achievements must be a worldwide endeavor. PMID:16946901

  11. A Qualitative Exploration of Community-Based Organization Programs, Resources, and Training to Promote Adolescent Sexual Health

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, M.; Fisher, C.M.; Zhou, J.; Kneip Pelster, A.D.; Schober, D.; Baldwin, K.; Fortenberry, J.; Goldsworthy, R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Youth development professionals (YDPs) working at community-based organizations (CBOs) can promote adolescent sexual health through programs. This study explored the programs and resources that youth access at CBOs and training YDPs receive. Methods Twenty-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with YDPs. Qualitative content analyses were conducted using NVivo. Results Most YDPs (n = 15, 71.4%) described sexuality-related programs for youth. Some YDPs provided informal information (n = 11, 52.4%) and/or referrals for youth (n = 6, 28.6%). Few YDPs (n = 8, 38.1%) were trained to address adolescent sexuality, but some (n = 10, 47.6%) sought outside resources. Conclusions YDPs have a unique opportunity to improve adolescent sexual health and sexuality. Five considerations for organizations that develop programs and training for CBOs are suggested. PMID:27790077

  12. Treatment resistance and psychodynamic psychiatry: concepts psychiatry needs from psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Plakun, Eric

    2012-06-01

    Over the last 30 years psychiatry and psychoanalysis have moved in substantially divergent directions. Psychiatry has become rich in methodology but conceptually limited, with a drift toward biological reductionism. Psychoanalysis has remained relatively limited in methodology, but conceptually rich. The rich methodology of psychiatry has led to major contributions in discovering gene by environment interactions, the importance of early adversity, and to recognition of the serious problem posed by treatment resistance. However, psychiatry's biologically reductionistic conceptual focus interferes with the development of a nuanced clinical perspective based on emerging knowledge that might help more treatment resistant patients become treatment responders. This article argues that recognition of the problem of treatment resistance in psychiatry creates a need for it to reconnect with the conceptual richness of psychoanalysis in order to improve patient care. Psychodynamic psychiatry is defined as the relevant intersection of psychiatry and psychoanalysis where this reconnection can occur. I will suggest selected aspects of psychoanalysis that are especially relevant to psychiatry in improving outcomes in work with treatment resistant patients.

  13. Effects of Emotional Intelligence and Locus of Control Training on the Psychological Well-Being of Adolescents with Visual Impairments in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eniola, M. S.; Ajobiewe, Abthonia Ifeoma

    2013-01-01

    This current study, investigated the relative effectiveness of Emotional Intelligence Training (EIT) and Locus of Control Training (LCT) on the psychological well-being of adolescent with visual impairment. The pretest-posttest control group experimental design with a 3x2x2 factorial matrix was used. The participants were 120 adolescents with…

  14. [Forensic psychiatry. Its relations to clinical psychiatry and criminology].

    PubMed

    Kröber, H-L

    2005-11-01

    A basic task of psychiatry is to identify and treat mentally disordered persons at risk of committing crimes. Psychiatry has an important function in preserving social peace, law, and order. How the psychiatric world handles this duty has changed with time. There have been very important changes from asylums to mental hospitals and from voluntary or involuntary inpatient treatment to outpatient care; but clinical psychiatry cannot give up forensic psychiatry. As a result of developments, inpatient care in mental hospitals often concentrates on crisis management, risk assessment, and risk management. On the other hand, forensic psychiatry has made great efforts in recent decades with special therapies for mentally disturbed criminals and collaborated closely with criminologists in developing instruments for risk assessment and prognosis of repeat offenses.

  15. Universal parent training as a supplement to inpatient psychiatric treatment for children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Schwenck, Christina; Schneider, Wolfgang; Reichert, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Parent trainings constitute an effective method to target aspects of parenting in child and adolescent psychiatric and psychotherapeutic care. Past research has mainly been conducted in outpatient contexts, with parents of children with externalizing disorders and often included only small sample sizes. The aim of the current study was first to assess the effectiveness of a novel parent training which is characterized by a universal approach, an open group concept, and short duration, and second to identify variables that have an influence on the effectiveness. A sample of n = 151 parent-child dyads treated in an inpatient clinic was included in the study and randomly assigned to a treatment group and a waiting-list control group. As dependent measures served child behavior problems, dysfunctional parenting, parental mental health, and parental self-efficacy measured with parent-rated questionnaires prior to the training, post training and 3 months after discharge of the clinic. Additionally, a parent-child-interaction observation was conducted and rated by blind raters. Results indicated a general inpatient treatment effect on all dependent measures assessed with questionnaires. An additional effect of the parent training was only shown for parenting and parental mental health with the treatment group revealing better outcomes post training and at follow-up. No effects were found for the measures assessed by interaction observation. Out of a number of variables, only a low monthly income was associated with a higher reduction of dysfunctional parenting. Results indicate that parent training does not contribute additionally to standard inpatient care with respect to child behavior, but does have an influence on parental well-being, which might have a positive effect on the long run.

  16. Financing Academic Departments of Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liptzin, Benjamin; Meyer, Roger E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe the many financial challenges facing academic departments of psychiatry and the resulting opportunities that may arise. Method: The authors review the history of financial challenges, the current economic situation, and what may lie ahead for academic departments of psychiatry. Results: The current environment has…

  17. [Gerodontics and geriatric psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Richard, J

    1991-01-01

    Some of the important points in geriatric psychology and geriatric psychiatry (such as vocabulary and base line concepts, old myths in geriatrics, reference models, principle of action, therapeutic procedures, nasalgraphy, pluri, inter and transdisciplinarity) will be developed for the dentist practicing geriatric dentistry. Knowledge of these concepts should provide the basis for an effective association with the psychiatrist, in order to enhance better care for the elderly. Two types of approaches of the elderly, well known of the geriatric psychiatrist will be developed. The cognitive and motory approaches will be set as examples capable of helping the exchange between the two specialties.

  18. Meditation and Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    How might meditation promote wellness and healing from psychiatric illness? How might it contribute to the practice of psychiatry? This review of the literature attempts to answer these questions. Meditation is the consciously willed practice of two actions, attending and abstaining, that all people spontaneously perform to a greater or lesser degree. Psychological health may correlate in part with the degree to which we naturally perform these actions. This review analyzes the nature of meditation and its therapeutic benefits. It then concludes with a summary of the issues pertinent to the adjunctive use of meditation in psychiatric care. PMID:19727302

  19. Working with the 'difficult' patient: the use of a contextual cognitive-analytic therapy based training in improving team function in a routine psychiatry service setting.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Rosangela; Biancosino, Bruno; Borghi, Cristiana; Marmai, Luciana; Kerr, Ian B; Grassi, Luigi

    2013-12-01

    The clinical management of 'difficult' patients is a major challenge which exposes mental health teams to an increased risk of frustration and stress and may lead to professional burnout. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a cognitive-analytic therapy (CAT) based training undertaken by a mental health team working with 'difficult' patients reduced professional burnout symptoms, improved patients' service engagement and increased the levels of team-cohesion. Twelve mental health staff members from different professional and educational backgrounds took part in five 2-hour sessions providing a basic CAT training intervention, an integrative and relational model of psychotherapy for the treatment of borderline personality disorders. Participants were administered the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), the Service Engagement Scale (SES) and the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ) before (T0) and after (T1) CAT training, and at 1-month follow-up (T2). A significant decrease were found, at T2, on the MBI Emotional Exhaustion scores, the SES Availability subscale, the GEQ Attraction to Group-Social and Group Integration-Social, while the MBI-Personal Accomplishment scores increased from baseline.The results of this study suggest that a CAT-based training can facilitate team cohesion and patient engagement with a service and reduce burnout levels among mental health team members dealing with 'difficult' patients.

  20. PSYCHIATRY-PAST, PRESENT & FUTURE

    PubMed Central

    Doongaji, Dinshaw R.

    1997-01-01

    An overview of psychiatry during the last three decades as practised in a general teaching hospital is presented. Psychiatry as an academic subject has matured tremendously during this period. The empirical treatments of the 1950s and the 1960s which evoke nostalgic memories, have been replaced by modern methods of treatment. However, there is a need to exercise caution against the blind acceptance of new and sophisticated research findings in biological psychiatry. Inspite of the bright future facing psychiatry, the identity of psychiatry as a medical discipline must be preserved at all cost. Psychiatrists should also realise the dangers of gradual fractionation and impersonalisation which threatens the speciality, and makes all possible efforts to prevent this. PMID:21584054

  1. Relaxation Training and Postoperative Music Therapy for Adolescents Undergoing Spinal Fusion Surgery.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Kirsten; Adamek, Mary; Kleiber, Charmaine

    2017-02-01

    Spinal fusion for idiopathic scoliosis is one of the most painful surgeries experienced by adolescents. Music therapy, utilizing music-assisted relaxation with controlled breathing and imagery, is a promising intervention for reducing pain and anxiety for these patients. It can be challenging to teach new coping strategies to post-operative patients who are already in pain. This study evaluated the effects of introducing music-assisted relaxation training to adolescents before surgery. Outcome measures were self-reported pain and anxiety, recorded on 0-10 numeric rating scale, and observed behavioral indicators of pain and relaxation. The training intervention was a 12-minute video about music-assisted relaxation with opportunities to practice before surgery. Forty-four participants between the ages of 10 and 19 were enrolled. Participants were randomly assigned to the experimental group that watched the video at the preoperative visit or to the control group that did not watch the video. All subjects received a music therapy session with a board certified music therapist on post-operative day 2 while out of bed for the first time. Pain and anxiety were significantly reduced from immediately pre-therapy to post-therapy (paired t-test; p).

  2. Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist Finder

    MedlinePlus

    ... to view results Return to Home Page Copyright ©2016 - American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry. All Rights Reserved. Contact Us | Disclaimer | Privacy Statement Developed by Armstrong Enterprise Communication {1} ##LOC[OK]## {1} ##LOC[OK]## ## ...

  3. Aerobic interval training reduces cardiovascular risk factors more than a multitreatment approach in overweight adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tjønna, Arnt E; Stølen, Tomas O; Bye, Anja; Volden, Marte; Slørdahl, Stig A; Odegård, Rønnaug; Skogvoll, Eirik; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2009-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of a multidisciplinary approach (MTG) and aerobic interval training (AIT) on cardiovascular risk factors in overweight adolescents. A total of 62 overweight and obese adolescents from Trøndelag County in Norway, referred to medical treatment at St Olav's Hospital, Trondheim, Norway, were invited to participate. Of these, 54 adolescents (age, 14.0 +/- 0.3 years) were randomized to either AIT (4 x 4 min intervals at 90% of maximal heart rate, each interval separated by 3 min at 70%, twice a week for 3 months) or to MTG (exercise, dietary and psychological advice, twice a month for 12 months). Follow-up testing occurred at 3 and 12 months. VO(2max) (maximal oxygen uptake) increased more after AIT compared with MTG, both at 3 months (11 compared with 0%; P<0.01) and 12 months (12 compared with -1%; P<0.01). AIT enhanced endothelial function compared with MTG at both 3 months (absolute change, 5.1 compared with 3.9%; P<0.01) and 12 months (absolute change, 6.3 compared with 1.0%; P<0.01). AIT was favourable compared with MTG in reducing BMI (body mass index), percentage of fat, MAP (mean arterial blood pressure) and increasing peak oxygen pulse. In addition, AIT induced a more favourable regulation of blood glucose and insulin compared with MTG. In conclusion, the novel findings of the present proof-of-concept study was that 3 months of twice weekly high-intensity exercise sessions reduced several known cardiovascular risk factors in obese adolescents more than that observed after a multitreatment strategy, which was initiated as hospital treatment. Follow-up at 12 months confirmed that AIT improved or maintained these risk factors to a better degree than MTG.

  4. Experimental But Not Sex Differences of a Mental Rotation Training Program on Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Rodán, Antonio; Contreras, María José; Elosúa, M. Rosa; Gimeno, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Given the importance of visuospatial processing in areas related to the STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) disciplines, where there is still a considerable gap in the area of sex differences, the interest in the effects of visuospatial skills training continues to grow. Therefore, we have evaluated the visuospatial improvement of adolescents after performing a computerized mental rotation training program, as well as the relationship of this visuospatial ability with other cognitive, emotional factors and those factors based on the experience with videogames. The study, which was performed on students aged 14 and 15 years old, showed a significant improvement in this visuospatial skill for a training group (n = 21) compared to a control group (n = 24). Furthermore, no significant sex differences were obtained for spatial ability or for any of the other tasks evaluated, either before or after training. Regarding the relationship between skills, a significant correlation between experience with video games and spatial ability was found, as well as between mathematical reasoning and intelligence and with spatial ability in the initial phase for the total sample. These findings are discussed from a cognitive point of view and within the current sociocultural context, where the equal use of new technologies could help reduce the visuospatial gap between sexes. PMID:27462290

  5. Experimental But Not Sex Differences of a Mental Rotation Training Program on Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rodán, Antonio; Contreras, María José; Elosúa, M Rosa; Gimeno, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Given the importance of visuospatial processing in areas related to the STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) disciplines, where there is still a considerable gap in the area of sex differences, the interest in the effects of visuospatial skills training continues to grow. Therefore, we have evaluated the visuospatial improvement of adolescents after performing a computerized mental rotation training program, as well as the relationship of this visuospatial ability with other cognitive, emotional factors and those factors based on the experience with videogames. The study, which was performed on students aged 14 and 15 years old, showed a significant improvement in this visuospatial skill for a training group (n = 21) compared to a control group (n = 24). Furthermore, no significant sex differences were obtained for spatial ability or for any of the other tasks evaluated, either before or after training. Regarding the relationship between skills, a significant correlation between experience with video games and spatial ability was found, as well as between mathematical reasoning and intelligence and with spatial ability in the initial phase for the total sample. These findings are discussed from a cognitive point of view and within the current sociocultural context, where the equal use of new technologies could help reduce the visuospatial gap between sexes.

  6. Aerobic exercise in adolescents with obesity: preliminary evaluation of a modular training program and the modified shuttle test

    PubMed Central

    Klijn, Peter HC; van der Baan-Slootweg, Olga H; van Stel, Henk F

    2007-01-01

    Background Increasing activity levels in adolescents with obesity requires the development of exercise programs that are both attractive to adolescents and easily reproducible. The aim of this study was to develop a modular aerobic training program for adolescents with severe obesity, with a focus on variety, individual targets and acquiring physical skills. We report here the effects on aerobic fitness from a pilot study. Furthermore, we examined the feasibility of the modified shuttle test (MST) as an outcome parameter for aerobic fitness in adolescents with severe obesity. Methods Fifteen adolescents from an inpatient body weight management program participated in the aerobic training study (age 14.7 ± 2.1 yrs, body mass index 37.4 ± 3.5). The subjects trained three days per week for 12 weeks, with each session lasting 30–60 minutes. The modular training program consisted of indoor, outdoor and swimming activities. Feasibility of the MST was studied by assessing construct validity, test-retest reliability and sensitivity to change. Results Comparing pretraining and end of training period showed large clinically relevant and significant improvements for all aerobic indices: e.g. VO2 peak 17.5%, effect size (ES) 2.4; Wmax 8%, ES 0.8. In addition, a significant improvement was found for the efficiency of the cardiovascular system as assessed by the oxygen pulse (15.8%, ES 1.6). Construct validity, test-retest reliability and sensitivity to change of the MST were very good. MST was significantly correlated with VO2 peak (r = 0.79) and Wmax (r = 0.84) but not with anthropometric measures. The MST walking distance improved significantly by 32.5%, ES 2.5. The attendance rate at the exercise sessions was excellent. Conclusion This modular, varied aerobic training program has clinically relevant effects on aerobic performance in adolescents with severe obesity. The added value of our aerobic training program for body weight management programs for adolescents with

  7. [Training health workers to deal with sexual abuse of children and adolescents in Fortaleza, Ceará State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Deslandes, Suely; Cavalcanti, Ludmila Fontenele; Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza; Silva, Raimunda Magalhães da

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to identify initiatives for training staff in the municipal healthcare system in Fortaleza, Ceará State, Brazil, to deal with cases of sexual abuse of children and adolescents. The reference for this exploratory study was the training program provided by the municipal government in 2010-2012 for administrators and health professionals in the public healthcare system in Fortaleza. At the time, the issue of sexual abuse was low in the system's training programs, despite recognition of its importance. Federal and State programs have provided input for such training programs in the various municipal health departments. The main strategy was to invest in training for health workers in primary care. Social workers were found to have insufficient training, aggravated by temporary work contracts and high staff turnover. The study suggests the need for training to deal with violence, particularly sexual abuse.

  8. Forensic psychiatry in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Chan, Lai Gwen; Tomita, Todd

    2013-12-01

    Singapore is a geographically small nation-state that has transformed itself from a third-world country to a developed nation after attaining political independence 46 years ago. The pace of change has been tremendous and mental health care is no exception. This paper provides an overview of mental health care and a review of key mental health legislation, including a National Mental Health Blueprint that was rolled out in 2007. On this background, the paper focuses on a description of forensic psychiatric services in Singapore. The role of the Department of Forensic Psychiatry at the Institute of Mental Health, which is the only forensic psychiatry department in the country, will be highlighted. Civil commitment and the treatment of unfit accused persons and insanity acquittees is reviewed. The role of forensic psychiatric assessments in the Singapore courts is examined. The application of the insanity and diminished responsibility defenses are reviewed. A trend is identified in the Singapore courts towards a more rehabilitation-focused sentencing approach and the role that forensic psychiatric assessments play in cases involving mentally disordered offenders is highlighted.

  9. The art of psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    BLOCH, SIDNEY

    2005-01-01

    Psychiatrists would undoubtedly support the notion of promoting such qualities as empathy, sensitivity and caring in the pursuit of good clinical practice. However, cultivating what we may call the "art of psychiatry" is not straightforward, since the qualities that constitute it are elusive. I propose that the means by which we can accomplish the goal of relating empathically and compassionately to our patients and their families is by regarding the humanities and the sciences as of equal relevance and as complementary. The humanities, particularly literature, the visual arts, film and music, are most suited to promoting empathic skills when they are woven into the clinical scenario. Examples are provided to demonstrate how this may be achieved. Were we to succeed in highlighting the art of psychiatry in our educational programs, and as part of continuing professional development, I surmise that our patients and their families would be the beneficiaries. We cannot merely vow to act empathically and sensitively. Instead, we should embark on a lifelong journey through the wonderful world of literature, the visual arts, film and music. The experience will not only prove appealing and engaging, but it will also go far to enrich our personal and professional lives. PMID:16633530

  10. Position and role of forensic psychiatry in integrative psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Smalc, Vera Folnegović; Varda, Robert; Grosić, Petra Folnegović

    2008-09-01

    The integrative approach to psychiatry has gained more importance in recent years. Is it justified or not, does it improve theory or practice, those are only some of the questions to which we are looking for answers, but in this paper we shall underline the necessity of enrolling forensic psychiatry into integrative, modern psychiatry. The reason and the motive for that integration is the fact that nowadays the content and the activities of contemporary forensic psychiatrists are totally reduced to executing the tasks given by courts. It is therefore entirely right to say that current forensic psychiatry finds itself in the passive role of executing orders of the court. Our aim is to point out how important it is that forensic psychiatry becomes an interdisciplinary profession in interaction with psychiatry but also with other medical branches just as with judiciary, educational institutions, moral-ethical institutions and religious institutions in producing preventive programmes and by participating in individual decision making process likewise. Our primary goal is to present the status and the position of contemporary forensic psychiatry and to specify the necessary improvements and its place in integrative psychiatry. It should be better, more meaningful and more ethical, both for the individual and the society in total. We want forensic psychiatry to include a protective and therapeutic role for each individual forensic examinee, i.e. a person who has already been in forensic examination and for whom one evaluates mental competence because of a mental disorder. We also want it to get a far larger and more active general role in society in terms of preventing criminal acts among the mentally ill and in society in total.

  11. The Effect of Stress Management Training Program on Stress Coping Styles among the Adolescents in Prison in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Özlem; Ocakçı, Ayşe F

    2016-09-06

    This study was performed to determine the effects of a stress management training program that was administered to adolescents in prison. This was a semi-experimental study that used pretests and posttests in controlled groups; it was performed between June 2012 and March 2013 in a closed prison for children and adolescents. The study was completed with the participation of 73 adolescents (36 in the experimental group and 37 in the control group). Adolescent Lifestyle Profile scale and the Stress Coping Styles Scale were used as the data collection tools. The Stress Management Training Program was developed by the researchers and carried out for 2 weeks, a total of 10 sessions of 40 min each. The scales were administered before the program was implemented, immediately after the program and 1 month following the program. Although there were no statistically significant differences between the mean Stress Coping Styles Scale scores of the experimental and control groups before the intervention (p > 0.05), a statistically significant difference was found after the intervention and at re-test (p < 0.05). This study has shown that this training program could be implemented with adolescents in prison, and the program was effective in providing positive behavioural changes in stress management. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. A Qualitative Exploration of Community-Based Organization Programs, Resources, and Training to Promote Adolescent Sexual Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Molly A.; Fisher, Christopher M.; Zhou, Junmin; Zhu, He; Pelster, Aja Kneip; Schober, Daniel J.; Baldwin, Kathleen; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Goldsworthy, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Youth development professionals (YDPs) working at community-based organizations (CBOs) can promote adolescent sexual health through programs. This study explored the programs and resources that youth access at CBOs and training YDPs receive. Twenty-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with YDPs. Qualitative content analyses were conducted…

  13. Using Adventure-Based Cooperation Training To Develop Job Related Social Skills for Adolescents with Severe Behavioral and Emotional Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reganick, Karol

    This practicum addressed the attitudes and behaviors of 10 adolescents with severe behavioral and emotional problems participating in a cooperative job training program. The intervention used an adventure approach to help the students replace aggression and misconduct with job-related social skills. A needs assessment was conducted to identify…

  14. The Effects of Physical Training on Blood Lipid Profiles in Adolescents with Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campaigne, B. N.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Fourteen adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) participated in a 12-week exercise program to determine whether such training would bring about changes in blood lipid and lipoprotein profiles. The findings support the beneficial effects of regular exercise for individuals with IDDM. (MT)

  15. Addressing Adolescent Depression in Schools: Evaluation of an In-Service Training for School Staff in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdez, Carmen R.; Budge, Stephanie L.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated an adolescent depression in-service training for school staff in the United States. A total of 252 school staff (e.g., teachers, principals, counselors) completed assessments prior to and following the in-service and a subsample of these staff participated in focus groups following the in-service and three months later.…

  16. The Effect of Extra-Curricular Mental Training with Biofeedback on Short Running Performance of Adolescent Physical Education Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bar-Eli, Michael; Blumenstein, Boris

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between mental training with biofeedback and performance was investigated. An adapted version of the Wingate five-step approach was used as a mental preparation technique for enhancing the short-running performance among 16-18-year-old adolescent physical education pupils. Participants (n = 79) were randomly…

  17. YouTube and 'psychiatry'.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Robert; Miller, John; Collins, Noel

    2015-12-01

    YouTube is a video-sharing website that is increasingly used to share and disseminate health-related information, particularly among younger people. There are reports that social media sites, such as YouTube, are being used to communicate an anti-psychiatry message but this has never been confirmed in any published analysis of YouTube clip content. This descriptive study revealed that the representation of 'psychiatry' during summer 2012 was predominantly negative. A subsequent smaller re-analysis suggests that the negative portrayal of 'psychiatry' on YouTube is a stable phenomenon. The significance of this and how it could be addressed are discussed.

  18. Cultural psychiatry in the French-speaking world.

    PubMed

    Westermeyer, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    For the last five centuries, France's international influence has been constant. This has been particularly evident in the areas of general culture, history and science. In psychiatry, the role of Pinel during the French Revolution, and the discovery of the first psychotropic agent, chlorpromazine, by Delay and Deniker are two outstanding historical facts. This chapter examines the contributions of French social scientists in the understanding of the sequelae of colonial exploitation, racism and political oppression. The establishment of a multi-ethnic society in France and Francophile regions of the world has led to the gradual creation of a cultural psychiatry rich in terminological influences, clinical understanding, training programs and research. Closer connections between French psychiatric thought and Anglophile psychiatry is likely to produce beneficial effects.

  19. Initiatives in biological research in Indian psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Shrivatava, Amresh

    2010-01-01

    Biological psychiatry is an exploratory science for mental health. These biological changes provide some explicit insight into the complex area of ‘brain-mind and behavior’. One major achievement of research in biological field is the finding to explain how biological factors cause changes in behavior. In India, we have a clear history of initiatives in research from a biological perspective, which goes back to 1958. In the last 61 years, this field has seen significant evolution, precision and effective utilization of contemporary technological advances. It is a matter of great pride to see that in spite of difficult times in terms of challenges of practice and services, administration, resource, funding and manpower the zest for research was very forthcoming. There was neither dedicated time nor any funding for conducting research. It came from the intellectual insight of our fore fathers in the field of mental health to gradually grow to the state of strategic education in research, training in research, international research collaborations and setting up of internationally accredited centers. During difficult economic conditions in the past, the hypothesis tested and conclusions derived have not been so important. It is more important how it was done, how it was made possible and how robust traditions were established. Almost an entire spectrum of biological research has been touched upon by Indian researchers. Some of these are electroconvulsive therapy, biological markers, neurocognition, neuroimaging, neuroendocrine, neurochemistry, electrophysiology and genetics. A lot has been published given the limited space in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry and other medical journals published in India. A large body of biological research conducted on Indian patients has also been published in International literature (which I prefer to call non-Indian journals). Newer research questions in biological psychiatry, keeping with trend of international standards are

  20. Initiatives in biological research in Indian psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Shrivatava, Amresh

    2010-01-01

    Biological psychiatry is an exploratory science for mental health. These biological changes provide some explicit insight into the complex area of 'brain-mind and behavior'. One major achievement of research in biological field is the finding to explain how biological factors cause changes in behavior. In India, we have a clear history of initiatives in research from a biological perspective, which goes back to 1958. In the last 61 years, this field has seen significant evolution, precision and effective utilization of contemporary technological advances. It is a matter of great pride to see that in spite of difficult times in terms of challenges of practice and services, administration, resource, funding and manpower the zest for research was very forthcoming. There was neither dedicated time nor any funding for conducting research. It came from the intellectual insight of our fore fathers in the field of mental health to gradually grow to the state of strategic education in research, training in research, international research collaborations and setting up of internationally accredited centers. During difficult economic conditions in the past, the hypothesis tested and conclusions derived have not been so important. It is more important how it was done, how it was made possible and how robust traditions were established. Almost an entire spectrum of biological research has been touched upon by Indian researchers. Some of these are electroconvulsive therapy, biological markers, neurocognition, neuroimaging, neuroendocrine, neurochemistry, electrophysiology and genetics. A lot has been published given the limited space in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry and other medical journals published in India. A large body of biological research conducted on Indian patients has also been published in International literature (which I prefer to call non-Indian journals). Newer research questions in biological psychiatry, keeping with trend of international standards are

  1. [Car driving and psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Jonas, Carol

    2015-10-01

    Among the specialties involved in the order of 31 August 2010, psychiatry is in Chapter IV alongside addictive behavior and drug use may impair the ability of the driver. As well as for personal vehicles for professional vehicles the incompatibility of health with driving exists when clinical factors can interfere with the skills required of the driver. There would simply absolute incompatibility for psychoses in active phase. In the other phases of psychosis is at the discretion of specialist as for illiteracy or social maladjustment. The role of the authorized psychiatrist is therefore always subjective. This article also makes room for attention-deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADHD), not listed, but the subject of numerous articles in the English literature.

  2. Indian culture and psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Shiv; Jain, Nikhil

    2010-01-01

    ‘Culture’ is an abstraction, reflecting the total way of life of a society. Culture uniquely influences mental health of people living in a given society. Similarity in thinking and understanding of mental health across the ancient cultures has been observed. Studies which relate to the demographic factors, cultural factors influencing presentation of illness, diagnosis of the illness-culture bound syndromes and influence of the cultural factors and the belief system on psychopathology, stigma and discrimination towards the patient have been reviewed. An attempt has been made to critically look at the research on culture and psychiatry in different areas. There is a need for culturally oriented modules of non-pharmacological management. PMID:21836701

  3. Effects of home-based respiratory muscle training in children and adolescents with chronic lung disease* **

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Iván; Zenteno, Daniel; Manterola, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Respiratory muscle weakness is a functional repercussion of chronic lung disease (CLD). The objective of this study was to assess the effects of home-based respiratory muscle training (RMT) in children and adolescents with CLD or neuromuscular disease (NMD). METHODS: This was a quasi-experimental study involving children and adolescents with CLD or NMD. Before and after 6 months of home-based RMT, we measured respiratory muscle strength (MIP and MEP), PEF, and peak cough flow (PCF). We made statistical comparisons between the pre-RMT and post-RMT values, as well as evaluating the correlation between the duration and effect of RMT. RESULTS: The study included 29 patients, with a mean age of 12 years (range, 5-17 years), of whom 18 (62.1%) were male. The CLD group comprised 11 patients (37.9%), and the NMD group comprised 18 (62.1%). The mean duration of the RMT was 60 weeks (range, 46-90 weeks) in the CLD group and 39 weeks (range, 24-89 weeks) in the NMD group. In comparison with the pre-RMT values, the post-RMT values for MIP and MEP were significantly higher in both groups, whereas those for PEF and PCF were significantly higher only in the NMD group. We found no correlation between the duration and the effect of RMT. CONCLUSIONS: Home-based RMT appears to be an effective strategy for increasing respiratory muscle strength in children and adolescents with CLD or NMD, although it increased the ability to cough effectively only in those with NMD. PMID:25610503

  4. Influence of music training on academic examination-induced stress in Thai adolescents.

    PubMed

    Laohawattanakun, Janejira; Chearskul, Supornpim; Dumrongphol, Hattaya; Jutapakdeegul, Nuanchan; Yensukjai, Juntima; Khumphan, Nipaporn; Niltiean, Songwit; Thangnipon, Wipawan

    2011-01-10

    Several pieces of evidence suggest that academic examinations fulfill the classical requirement of a psychological stressor. Academic examinations represent a stressful challenge to many students, but studies on examination-dependent corticosteroid response, a sensitive physiological indicator of a stress response, are inconsistent. In addition, several studies showed that music can decrease cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, and other studies have found that music also may enhance a variety of cognitive functions, such as attention, learning, communication and memory. The present study investigated cortisol response in saliva of Thai adolescents taking academic examinations and analyzed the differences of the stress response between musician and control subjects. Also, we observed whether the academic examination-dependent corticosteroid response affected learning and memory in the test subjects, which comprised 30 musician and 30 control students, age ranging from 15 to 17 years. Mathematical examinations were used as the stressor. Pre- and post-academic examination saliva cortisol levels were measured including self-estimated stress levels. Results showed that the pre-academic examination saliva cortisol concentrations of the musician group are significantly lower than those of the control group, whereas there is no difference in the stress inventory scores. Interestingly, among students with grade point average (GPA) of >3.50, pre-academic examination cortisol levels are significantly lower in the musician compared with control group. This study suggests that under academic examination-induced stress condition, music training can reduce saliva cortisol level in Thai adolescents.

  5. Pilot evaluation of the Frankfurt Social Skills Training for children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Herbrecht, Evelyn; Poustka, Fritz; Birnkammer, Sabine; Duketis, Eftichia; Schlitt, Sabine; Schmötzer, Gabriele; Bölte, Sven

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a group-based intervention aiming at improving social and communication skills in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Over a period of 11 months, N = 17 children and adolescents received treatment according to the manualised Frankfurt Social Skills Training (KONTAKT). Parent, teacher, expert and blind expert ratings were assessed to judge outcome regarding peer interaction, autistic behaviours, adaptive functioning and family burden. The participants exhibited improvements pre to follow-up treatment, particularly in the area of autistic symptomatology. Effect sizes (partial eta squared) ranged from 0.02 to 0.69. Among other things, regression models showed a positive influence of IQ and language skills on gains in social skills. Findings indicate that KONTAKT might be useful for enhancing social skills and reducing autism-related psychopathology over time in different contexts. Nevertheless, controlled trials are needed to reassure its effectiveness.

  6. Integrative training for children and adolescents: techniques and practices for reducing sports-related injuries and enhancing athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Myer, Gregory D; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Chu, Donald A; Falkel, Jeff; Ford, Kevin R; Best, Thomas M; Hewett, Timothy E

    2011-02-01

    As more children and adolescents participate in sports and conditioning activities (sometimes without consideration for cumulative workload), it is important to establish age-appropriate training guidelines that may reduce the risk of sports-related injury and enhance athletic performance. The purpose of this article is to review the scientific evidence on youth strength and conditioning and to provide age-appropriate recommendations for integrating different strength and conditioning activities into a well-designed program that is safe, effective, and enjoyable. Integrative training is defined as a program or plan that incorporates general and specific strength and conditioning activities that enhance both health- and skill-related components of physical fitness. The cornerstone of integrative training is age-appropriate education and instruction by qualified professionals who understand the physical and psychosocial uniqueness of children and adolescents.

  7. Cultural psychiatry: a general perspective.

    PubMed

    Alarcón, Renato D

    2013-01-01

    The current scene in the field of cultural psychiatry shows a vigorous growth, multifaceted conceptual and research developments and more relevant clinical presence. After a pertinent definition of the discipline, this chapter examines the contribution of cultural psychiatry to the etiopathogenesis of mental disorders, to the variations of clinical presentations in numerous entities, to psychiatric diagnosis and treatment and to the relatively unexplored rubric of preventive psychiatry. Advanced concepts of neurosciences and technology-based research can find a place in the realm of biocultural correlates. The role of culture in the definition of mental illness, the renewed notions of the old 'culture-bound syndromes', hope, cognition and culture in psychiatric treatments (including the so-called 'cultural therapies'), and resiliency are areas duly examined and discussed. Cultural psychiatry has re-emerged as a reliable body of knowledge aimed at a comprehensive assessment of human beings as patients.

  8. Acute Responses To Resistance And High Intensity Interval Training In Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Harris, Nigel; Dulson, Deborah; Logan, Greig; Warbrick, Isaac; Merien, Fabrice; Lubans, David

    2016-08-16

    The purpose of this study was to compare the acute physiological responses within and between resistance training (RT) and high intensity interval training (HIIT) matched for time and with comparable effort, in a school setting. Seventeen early adolescents (12.9 ± 0.3 y) performed both RT (2-5 repetitions perceived short of failure at the end of each set) and HIIT (90% of age predicted maximum heart rate), equated for total work set and recovery period durations comprising of 12 'sets' of 30 s work followed by 30 s recovery (total session time 12 min). Variables of interest included oxygen consumption, set and session heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE), and change in salivary cortisol (SC), salivary alpha amylase (SαA), and blood lactate (BL) from pre- to post-session. Analyses were conducted to determine responses within and between the two different protocols. For both RT and HIIT there were very large increases pre- to post-trial for SC and BL, and only BL increased greater in HIIT (9.1 ± 2.6 mmol·L) than RT (6.8 ± 3.3 mmol·L). Mean set HR for both RT (170 ± 9.1 bpm) and HIIT (179 ± 5.6 bpm) was at least 85% of HR maximum. VO2 over all 12 sets was greater for HIIT (33.8 ± 5.21 mL·kg·min) than RT (24.9 ± 3.23 mL·kg·min). Brief, repetitive, intermittent forays into high, but not supra-maximal intensity exercise utilising either RT or HIIT appeared to be a potent physiological stimulus in adolescents.

  9. Mental Imagery-Based Training to Modify Mood and Cognitive Bias in Adolescents: Effects of Valence and Perspective.

    PubMed

    Burnett Heyes, S; Pictet, A; Mitchell, H; Raeder, S M; Lau, J Y F; Holmes, E A; Blackwell, S E

    2017-01-01

    Mental imagery has a powerful impact on emotion and cognitive processing in adults, and is implicated in emotional disorders. Research suggests the perspective adopted in mental imagery modulates its emotional impact. However, little is known about the impact of mental imagery in adolescence, despite adolescence being the key time for the onset of emotional dysfunction. We administered computerised positive versus mixed valence picture-word mental imagery training to male adolescent participants (N = 60, aged 11-16 years) across separate field and observer perspective sessions. Positive mood increased more following positive than mixed imagery; pleasantness ratings of ambiguous pictures increased following positive versus mixed imagery generated from field but not observer perspective; negative interpretation bias on a novel scrambled sentences task was smaller following positive than mixed imagery particularly when imagery was generated from field perspective. These findings suggest positive mental imagery generation alters mood and cognition in male adolescents, with the latter moderated by imagery perspective. Identifying key components of such training, such as imagery perspective, extends understanding of the relationship between mental imagery, mood, and cognition in adolescence.

  10. Hands-On Surgical Training Workshop: an Active Role-Playing Patient Education for Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wongkietkachorn, Apinut; Boonyawong, Pangpoom; Rhunsiri, Peera; Tantiphlachiva, Kasaya

    2016-01-20

    Most patient education involves passive learning. To improve patient education regarding surgery, an active learning workshop-based teaching method is proposed. The objective of this study was to assess level of patient surgical knowledge, achievement of workshop learning objectives, patient apprehension about future surgery, and participant workshop satisfaction after completing a surgical training workshop. A four-station workshop (surgical scrub, surgical suture, laparoscopic surgery, and robotic surgery) was developed to teach four important components of the surgical process. Healthy, surgery-naive adolescents were enrolled to attend this 1-h workshop-based training program. Training received by participants was technically and procedurally identical to training received by actual surgeons. Pre- and post-workshop questionnaires were used to assess learning outcomes. There were 1312 participants, with a mean age 15.9 ± 1.1 years and a gender breakdown of 303 males and 1009 females. For surgical knowledge, mean pre-workshop and post-workshop scores were 6.1 ± 1.5 and 7.5 ± 1.5 (out of 10 points), respectively (p < 0.001). Out of 5 possible points, achievement of learning objectives, decreased apprehension about future surgery, and overall workshop satisfaction scores were all higher than 4.5. Active, hands-on patient education is an effective way to improve understanding of surgery-related processes. This teaching method may also decrease apprehension that patients or potential patients harbor regarding a future surgical procedure.

  11. The development of an RDoC-based treatment program for adolescent depression: "Training for Awareness, Resilience, and Action" (TARA).

    PubMed

    Henje Blom, Eva; Duncan, Larissa G; Ho, Tiffany C; Connolly, Colm G; LeWinn, Kaja Z; Chesney, Margaret; Hecht, Frederick M; Yang, Tony T

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the current leading causes of disability worldwide. Adolescence is a vulnerable period for the onset of depression, with MDD affecting 8-20% of all youth. Traditional treatment methods have not been sufficiently effective to slow the increasing prevalence of adolescent depression. We therefore propose a new model for the treatment of adolescent depression - Training for Awareness, Resilience, and Action (TARA) - that is based on current understanding of developmental and depression neurobiology. The TARA model is aligned with the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) of the National Institute of Mental Health. In this article, we first address the relevance of RDoC to adolescent depression. Second, we identify the major RDoC domains of function involved in adolescent depression and organize them in a way that gives priority to domains thought to be driving the psychopathology. Third, we select therapeutic training strategies for TARA based on current scientific evidence of efficacy for the prioritized domains of function in a manner that maximizes time, resources, and feasibility. The TARA model takes into consideration the developmental limitation in top-down cognitive control in adolescence and promotes bottom-up strategies such as vagal afference to decrease limbic hyperactivation and its secondary effects. The program has been informed by mindfulness-based therapy and yoga, as well as modern psychotherapeutic techniques. The treatment program is semi-manualized, progressive, and applied in a module-based approach designed for a group setting that is to be conducted one session per week for 12 weeks. We hope that this work may form the basis for a novel and more effective treatment strategy for adolescent depression, as well as broaden the discussion on how to address this challenge.

  12. Forensic psychiatry in nineteenth-century Saxony: the case of Woyzeck.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Holger; Schmidt-Recla, Adrian; Schmideler, Sebastian

    2007-01-01

    In contrast to other areas of psychiatry, little work has been done on the history of forensic psychiatry, and such work is especially scarce regarding the first half of the 19th century, when forensic psychiatry began to develop together with the neurosciences. One newly discovered archival source bears immediate witness to the genesis of forensic psychiatry and is presented for the first time in this study. That source helps us to better understand, in particular, one of the most important cases in 19th-century German forensic psychiatry - namely, that of Johann Christian Woyzeck, the murderer who became the lead figure and the decisive model for the famous eponymous drama by German poet Georg Büchner. Duke Friedrich August, the heir to the throne of the German kingdom of Saxony, submitted a separately recorded special vote (or, very roughly speaking, a brief) that denied the criminal responsibility of the murderer since he had committed his crime out of jealousy and in an emotionally agitated state of mind that eliminated the offender's free will. Though possessing no relevant professional training, the duke applied, and argued in support of, a syndrome - partial mania - that was then the subject of ongoing controversy in general psychiatry. In that context, his vote and analysis can be seen a part of the conceptual development not only of forensic psychiatry, but also of German psychiatry and criminal law.

  13. Outlines of a concept of industrial psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Mindus, Erland

    1955-01-01

    The author sees the task of industrial psychiatry as one of preventing emotional maladjustment and the more serious mental disorders in the industrial population, and of treating early cases of emotional disorders. He classifies the preventive functions as: giving “emotional” first-aid, holding psychiatric consultations, and training in mental health. The function of the psychiatrist is to concentrate on patients who are too difficult to be handled by the industrial medical officer, his nurse, or the psychologist, and to train management and medical staff to collaborate in preventive mental health activity. Some of the techniques used by the psychiatrist are described, and the important problem of how to handle confidential material is discussed. The author points out that the selection of medical staff for such work is extremely important, and that choosing the right type of psychiatrist is of primary importance for the whole organization. PMID:13276810

  14. [Research and Post-graduate in Psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Carlos, A Palacio A

    2012-01-01

    The research component and the acquisition of skills related to the generation of knowledge in the training of medical and surgical specialists in the country is an issue that has recently begun to be discussed. For over 50 years this training has included only the area of professionalism as a copy of an educational model from the mid-twentieth century. Currently the country requires specialists with critical and analytical skills to question their actions and knowledge and generate alternative clinical care to apply to the general population in the search of bettering their own welfare. This article is a review in which the current situation of the teaching of psychiatry and the inclusion of research in the academic processes of our medical specialties in the country are analyzed.

  15. Longitudinal research in child and adolescent psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Verhulst, F C; Koot, H M

    1991-05-01

    An indispensable approach to the study of variations in individual development and of causal mechanisms and processes underlying the course of psychopathology is the longitudinal method. In this introductory review, the strengths and weaknesses of longitudinal research are discussed, and factors hampering progress in this field are outlined. The many advantages of this approach warrant continuing efforts to develop strategies that minimize its drawbacks.

  16. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol disrupts hippocampal neuroplasticity and neurogenesis in trained, but not untrained adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Steel, Ryan W J; Miller, John H; Sim, Dalice A; Day, Darren J

    2014-02-22

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug, and disruption of learning and memory are commonly reported consequences of cannabis use. We have previously demonstrated a spatial learning impairment by ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats (Steel et al., 2011). The molecular mechanisms underlying behavioural impairment by cannabis remain poorly understood, although the importance of adaptive changes in neuroplasticity (synaptic number and strength) and neurogenesis during learning are accepted. Here we aimed to identify any effects of THC on the early induction of these adaptive processes supporting learning, so we conducted our analyses at the mid-training point of our previous study. Both untrained and trained (15 days of training) adolescent (P28-P42) Sprague-Dawley rats were treated daily with THC (6 mg/kg i.p.) or its vehicle, and changes in the levels of markers of hippocampal neuroplasticity (CB1R, PSD95, synapsin-I, synapsin-III) and neurogenesis (Ki67, DCX, PSA-NCAM, BrdU labelling) by training were measured. Training of control animals, but not THC-treated animals increased neuroplasticity marker levels. However training of THC-treated animals, but not control animals reduced immature neuronal marker levels. Levels of hippocampal proliferation, and survival of the BrdU-labelled progeny of these divisions were unaffected by THC in trained and untrained animals. These data show a smaller neuroplastic response, and a reduction of new-born neuronal levels not attributable to effects on proliferation or survival by THC-treatment during training. Importantly no effects of THC were seen in the absence of training, indicating that these effects represent specific impairments by THC on training-induced responses.

  17. TABADO: "Evaluation of a smoking cessation program among Adolescents in Vocational Training Centers": Study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Most of the efforts to reduce teenagers' tobacco addiction have focused on smoking prevention and little on smoking cessation. A smoking cessation program (TABADO study), associating pharmacologic and cognitive-behavioural strategy, on a particularly vulnerable population (vocational trainees), was developed. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of the program which was offered to all smokers in a population aged 15 to 20 years in Vocational Training Centers (VTC). This paper presents the TABADO study protocol. Methods The study is quasi-experimental, prospective, evaluative and comparative and takes place during the 2 years of vocational training. The final population will be composed of 2000 trainees entering a VTC in Lorraine, France, during the 2008-2009 period. The intervention group (1000 trainees) benefited from the TABADO program while no specific intervention took place in the "control" group (1000 trainees) other than the treatment and education services usually available. Our primary outcome will be the tobacco abstinence rate at 12 months. Discussion If the program proves effective, it will be a new tool in the action against smoking in populations that have been seldom targeted until now. In addition, the approach could be expanded to other young subjects from socially disadvantaged backgrounds in the context of a public health policy against smoking among adolescents. Trial registration Clinical trial identification number is NTC00973570. PMID:19912627

  18. Acceptability and Preliminary Outcomes of a Peer-Led Depression Prevention Intervention for African American Adolescents and Young Adults in Employment Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tandon, Darius; Mendelson, Tamar; Mance, GiShawn

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the acceptability and preliminary outcomes from an open trial of a depression prevention intervention for low-income African American adolescents and young adults in employment training programs. The sample (N=42) consisted of predominately African American adolescents and young adults (mean age=19.1) exhibiting subclinical…

  19. Psychiatry and movies.

    PubMed

    Damjanović, Aleksandar; Vuković, Olivera; Jovanović, Aleksandar A; Jasović-Gasić, Miroslava

    2009-06-01

    As one of the most potent and substantial form of mass communication, film exercises a very significant influence upon the perceptions of the audience, especially in relation to mental illness issues, and that perception is very much blurred with populists' misinterpretation and lack of awareness regarding problems faced by persons suffering from mental disorders. Movies such as "Psycho", "One Flew Over Cuckoo's Nest", "Exorcist", despite being valuable in an artistic sense, corroborated and encouraged confusion and undermined the clarity and certainty concerning the fine line separating mental health from mental illness. Modern film makers and movie theoreticians try to overcome these limitations which are often generated by exploitation of stereotypes and myths referring to mentally ill people. This paper defines and discusses the most frequent thematic stereotypes seen in movies which are perpetuating stigmatization of mentally ill people. They are: free-spirited rebel, maniac on a killing spree, seducer, enlightened member of society, narcissistic parasite, beastly person (stereotype of animal sort). Psychiatry and cinematography are linked inseparably not only because they creatively complement each other, but also as an opportunity of mutual influences blending into didactical categories and professional driving forces, benefiting both the filmmakers' and the psychiatrists' professions.

  20. The Foundation Programme in psychiatry: a qualitative study into the effects of a foundation placement

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Ann; Davies, Sophie; Dogra, Nisha; Perry, Jennifer; Fosker, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    Aims and method There is a drive to increase the number of psychiatry foundation placements to ensure that training keeps up with the changing health and social care landscape. This qualitative study aimed to explore, by interview, the experiences of 17 doctors who have completed a foundation placement in psychiatry. Results The study highlights the benefits of foundation psychiatry placements and some of their positive and negative aspects. Clinical implications Those developing foundation placements will need to ensure they are of high quality. PMID:27752349

  1. Expanding the playing field: public and community psychiatry fellowship and beyond.

    PubMed

    Runnels, Patrick; Ronis, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Fellowship training in public and community psychiatry has been shown to both extend career tenure and promote leadership attainment. While starting and sustaining a successful fellowship involves overcoming several hurdles, a successful fellowship can serve as a foundation for developing a viable academic division. Case Western Reserve University has redesigned and expanded its public and community psychiatry fellowship. At the same time, it has retained several fellowship graduates by developing a division of public and community psychiatry with a unique academic identity. This model could serve as a blueprint for other programs looking to establish or expand similar programs.

  2. Adequacy of Psychiatric Training: A Singaporean Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tor, Phern-Chern; Ng, Tze-Pin; Kua, Ee-Heok

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The specialty training program for psychiatry in Singapore is transitioning to a seamless 5-year training program. It is timely to assess the perceived adequacy of current psychiatric specialty training. Methods: An anonymous survey was sent to all psychiatry trainees and psychiatrists in the public sector to assess the current adequacy…

  3. Pharmacological and psychosocial treatments for adolescents with ADHD: an updated systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Margaret H; Kuriyan, Aparajita B; Evans, Steven W; Waxmonsky, James G; Smith, Bradley H

    2014-04-01

    Smith, Waschbusch, Willoughby, and Evans (2000) reviewed a small treatment literature on ADHD in adolescents and concluded that methylphenidate stimulant medication was a well-established treatment and behavior therapy (BT) demonstrated preliminary efficacy. This review extends and updates the findings of the prior one based on the previous 15years of research. Studies published since 1999 were identified and coded using standard criteria and effect sizes were calculated where appropriate. Highlights of the last 15years of research include an expansion of pharmacological treatment options and developmentally appropriate psychosocial treatment packages for adolescents with ADHD. Additionally, nonstimulant medications (e.g., atomoxetine) are now approved for the treatment of ADHD in adolescence. The review concludes that medication and BT produce a similar range of therapeutic effects on the symptoms of adolescents with ADHD. However, results suggest that BT may produce greater overall benefits on measures of impairment. There was no evidence that cognitive enhancement trainings, such as working memory training or neurofeedback improved the functioning of adolescents with ADHD. Whether to use medication, BT, or their combination to treat an adolescent with ADHD is complicated and we provide evidence-informed guidelines for treatment selection. The reviewed evidence does not support current American Academy of Pediatrics and American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry professional guidelines, which state that stimulant medication is the preferred treatment for adolescents with ADHD. Recommendations for assessment, practice guidelines, and future research are discussed.

  4. Combined cognitive and parent training interventions for adolescents with ADHD and their mothers: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Steeger, Christine M; Gondoli, Dawn M; Gibson, Bradley S; Morrissey, Rebecca A

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the individual and combined effects of two nonpharmacological treatments for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Cogmed working memory training (CWMT) for adolescents and behavioral parent training (BPT) for mothers. Ninety-one adolescents (ages 11-15) and their mothers were randomized to one of four CWMT and BPT treatment and active control (placebo) group combinations of 5-week interventions. At pre- and posttest, mothers and teachers completed rating forms, and adolescents completed neuropsychological measures of working memory (WM). Individual intervention effects showed that treatment CWMT significantly improved WM spans, whereas there were no significant differences for treatment or control BPT on reports of parent-related outcomes. Combined treatment effects indicated an overall pattern of greatest improvements for the control CWMT/treatment BPT group, as compared to the other three groups, on adolescent WM deficit, behavioral regulation problems, and global executive deficit. Most significant effects for outcomes were main effects of improvements over time. A combination of CWMT and BPT did not result in increased treatment gains. However, potential effects of combined treatment may have been masked by greater perceived benefits arising from lack of struggle in the nonadaptive, CWMT active control condition. Future combined intervention research should focus on specific, theoretically driven WM deficits among individuals with ADHD, should include possible adaptations to the standard CWMT program, should examine effectiveness of cognitive treatments combined with contextual interventions and should utilize appropriate control groups to fully understand the unique and combined effects of interventions.

  5. Columbia University's fellowship in public psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Ranz, J; Rosenheck, S; Deakins, S

    1996-05-01

    In 1981 the fellowship in public psychiatry was established at New York State Psychiatric Institute and Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons to provide subspecialty training for psychiatrists who plan careers in the public sector. Ten one-year postresidency fellowships are awarded annually. The fellowship consists of supervised work and didactic experiences focused on the clinical modalities most effective in public mental health services and the managerial skills that the psychiatrist must possess to make those services work well. Fellows work three days a week at collaborating public-sector agencies throughout the New York metropolitan area. The curriculum includes an academic seminar, which gives fellows an introductory overview of major topics in public psychiatry; an organizational practicum, which is an exercise in management principles and practices; an evaluation practicum, which addresses the theory and practice of program evaluation; and an applied seminar, organized as a cycle of clinical, administrative, fiscal, and evaluation presentations in which each fellow applies the concepts learned in the other seminars to his or her field placement work. Of the 75 fellows who have graduated from the program, only six have chosen to leave the public arena. Nearly all work full time in the public sector, where more than half hold management positions. More than three-fourths hold academic appointments at medical schools in the area in which they are working as public psychiatrists.

  6. The Effects of 17 Weeks of Ballet Training on the Autonomic Modulation, Hormonal and General Biochemical Profile of Female Adolescents.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Carla Cristiane; Goldberg, Tamara Beres Lederer; Soares-Caldeira, Lúcio Flávio; Dos Santos Oliveira, Ricardo; de Paula Ramos, Solange; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo

    2015-09-29

    This study aimed to examine the alterations in physiological and biochemical markers, after 17 weeks of ballet training in high level ballet dancers. Twenty four female ballet dancers from 12 to 15 years old took part in the study. The study followed 17 weeks of ballet training and analyzed changes in body composition, the autonomic nervous system and biochemical variables before and after (post) training. The internal training load was obtained using the session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE) method, calculated as the mean weekly session-RPE, monotony and strain. After 17 weeks of training there were significant increases in body mass, height, lean body mass, total protein, urea, hemoglobin concentration, testosterone and thyroxine. During this period, decreases in relative body fat, uric acid, red blood cells, C-reactive protein, and ferritin were also found. After the training period, the autonomic modulation demonstrated significant positive alterations, such as increases in parasympathetic related indices. Based on the results obtained we concluded that ballet training led to improvements in body composition and autonomic modulation. In general hematological and biochemical variables demonstrated that the training did not have adverse effects on the health state of the adolescents.

  7. The Effects of 17 Weeks of Ballet Training on the Autonomic Modulation, Hormonal and General Biochemical Profile of Female Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Carla Cristiane; Goldberg, Tamara Beres Lederer; Soares-Caldeira, Lúcio Flávio; dos Santos Oliveira, Ricardo; de Paula Ramos, Solange; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the alterations in physiological and biochemical markers, after 17 weeks of ballet training in high level ballet dancers. Twenty four female ballet dancers from 12 to 15 years old took part in the study. The study followed 17 weeks of ballet training and analyzed changes in body composition, the autonomic nervous system and biochemical variables before and after (post) training. The internal training load was obtained using the session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE) method, calculated as the mean weekly session-RPE, monotony and strain. After 17 weeks of training there were significant increases in body mass, height, lean body mass, total protein, urea, hemoglobin concentration, testosterone and thyroxine. During this period, decreases in relative body fat, uric acid, red blood cells, C-reactive protein, and ferritin were also found. After the training period, the autonomic modulation demonstrated significant positive alterations, such as increases in parasympathetic related indices. Based on the results obtained we concluded that ballet training led to improvements in body composition and autonomic modulation. In general hematological and biochemical variables demonstrated that the training did not have adverse effects on the health state of the adolescents. PMID:26555850

  8. [Pharmacogenetics/pharmacogenomics in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Ueda, Mikito; Ishiguro, Shin; Watanabe, Takashi; Saeki, Yoshinori; Shimoda, Kazutaka

    2010-01-01

    Pharmacogenetics/pharmacogenomics has been developed so rapidly in these twenty years and the pharmacogenetic/pharmacogenomic research in psychiatry is also the case. Especially, the impact of genetic polymorphism (e.g., cytochrome P450 (CYP)) on pharmacokinetics of psychotropics have been extensively studied, however, recently, most of the studies in this field have been moved to pharmacodynamic study, i.e., the studies on impact of genetics polymorphism on clinical response and adverse effects to pharmacotherapy with psychotropics. Development of pharmacogenetics/ pharmacogenomics in psychiatry may well lead to a future of individualized pharmacotherapy for psychiatric disorders.

  9. Incidence of exercise-induced asthma in adolescent athletes under different training and environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Sidiropoulou, Maria P; Kokaridas, Dimitrios G; Giagazoglou, Paraskevi F; Karadonas, Michalis I; Fotiadou, Eleni G

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to establish if there were differences in the incidence of exercise-induced bronchospasm between athletes in different sports, which take place under different environmental conditions such as open places, closed courses, and swimming pools with similar exercise intensity (football, basketball, water polo) using the free running test. The study included 90 adolescents (3 groups of 30) aged 14-18 years recruited from academies in northern Greece. All the participants were initially subjected to (a) a clinical examination and cardiorespiratory assessment by a physician and (b) free running test of a 6-minute duration and measurement with a microspirometer of the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV₁). Only the participants who had measured a decrease in FEV₁ ≥ 10% were reevaluated with the microspirometer during a training session. The examination of all the participants during the free running test showed that 22 athletes, that is, 9, 8, and 5 of football, basketball, and water polo athletes, respectively, demonstrated an FEV₁ ≥ 10 drop. Reevaluation of the 22 participants during training showed that 5 out 9 (55%) football athletes, 4 out of 8 basketball athletes (50%), and none of the 5 athletes of the water polo team displayed a drop of FEV₁ ≥ 10%. Despite the absence of any significant statistical differences between the 3 groups, the analysis of variances did show a trend of a lower incidence of EIA in the water polo athletes. It was found that a football or basketball game can induce EIA in young athletes but to a lesser degree than the free running test can induce. The water polo can be a safer sport even for participants with a medical history of asthma or allergies.

  10. Child and adolescent depression: psychotherapeutic, ethical, and related nonpharmacologic considerations for general psychiatrists and others who prescribe.

    PubMed

    Dell, Mary Lynn

    2012-03-01

    Depression is a common, recurring disorder affecting millions of youth at some point before they reach mature adulthood. Given the shortage of and uneven distribution of psychiatrists who have completed specialized fellowships in child and adolescent psychiatry, a significant number of depressed youth will receive their pharmacotherapy from general psychiatrists and other prescribers with varying degrees of interest, training, and even willingness to treat children and adolescents. For general psychiatrists who will prescribe antidepressants for minors, knowledge of the training and expertise of nonphysician mental health professionals, the psychotherapies they may employ, and familiarity with school services are essential. Physicians who typically work only with adults will also need familiarity with differing ethical, legal, and regulatory issues and standards applicable to pediatric psychopharmacology. General psychiatrists, pediatricians, family physicians, nurse practitioners, and others contribute greatly to the care of depressed children, adolescents, and their families, and many find this work to be a very rewarding part of their professional practices.

  11. Kung Fu Training Improves Physical Fitness Measures in Overweight/Obese Adolescents: The “Martial Fitness” Study

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Tracey W.; Kohn, Michael R.; Chow, Chin Moi; Fiatarone Singh, Maria Antoinette

    2010-01-01

    Aim. To examine the efficacy of a six-month Kung Fu (KF) program on physical fitness in overweight/obese adolescents. Methods. Subjects were randomly assigned to the KF or sham exercise (Tai Chi, TC) control group. Physical measurements in cardiovascular fitness and muscle fitness occurred at baseline and after 6 months of training thrice weekly. Results. Twenty subjects were recruited. One subject was lost to follow-up, although overall compliance to the training sessions was 46.7 ± 27.8%. At follow-up, the cohort improved in absolute upper (P = .002) and lower (P = .04) body strength, and upper body muscle endurance (P = .02), without group differences. KF training resulted in significantly greater improvements in submaximal cardiovascular fitness (P = .03), lower body muscle endurance (P = .28; significant 95% CI: 0.37–2.49), and upper body muscle velocity (P = .03) relative to TC training. Conclusions. This short-term KF program improved submaximal cardiovascular fitness, lower body muscle endurance, and muscle velocity, in overweight/obese adolescents with very low baseline fitness. PMID:20798764

  12. A Randomized Depression Prevention Trial Comparing Interpersonal Psychotherapy--Adolescent Skills Training to Group Counseling in Schools.

    PubMed

    Young, Jami F; Benas, Jessica S; Schueler, Christie M; Gallop, Robert; Gillham, Jane E; Mufson, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Given the rise in depression disorders in adolescence, it is important to develop and study depression prevention programs for this age group. The current study examined the efficacy of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a group prevention program for adolescent depression, in comparison to group programs that are typically delivered in school settings. In this indicated prevention trial, 186 adolescents with elevated depression symptoms were randomized to receive IPT-AST delivered by research staff or group counseling (GC) delivered by school counselors. Hierarchical linear modeling examined differences in rates of change in depressive symptoms and overall functioning from baseline to the 6-month follow-up assessment. Cox regression compared rates of depression diagnoses. Adolescents in IPT-AST showed significantly greater improvements in self-reported depressive symptoms and evaluator-rated overall functioning than GC adolescents from baseline to the 6-month follow-up. However, there were no significant differences between the two conditions in onset of depression diagnoses. Although both intervention conditions demonstrated significant improvements in depressive symptoms and overall functioning, results indicate that IPT-AST has modest benefits over groups run by school counselors which were matched on frequency and duration of sessions. In particular, IPT-AST outperformed GC in reduction of depressive symptoms and improvements in overall functioning. These findings point to the clinical utility of this depression prevention program, at least in the short-term. Additional follow-up is needed to determine the long-term effects of IPT-AST, relative to GC, particularly in preventing depression onset.

  13. Historical aspects of Mexican psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Bayardo, Sergio Javier Villaseñor

    2016-04-01

    Mexican psychiatry initiated since pre-Hispanic times. Historically, treatments were a mixture of magic, science and religion. Ancient Nahuas had their own medical concepts with a holistic view of medicine, considering men and cosmos as a whole. The first psychiatric hospital appeared in 1566 and a more modern psychiatric asylum emerged until 1910. International exchanges of theoretical approaches started in the National University with the visit of Pierre Janet. There were other important figures that influenced Mexican psychiatry, such as Erich Fromm, Henri Ey, Jean Garrabé and Yves Thoret. Regarding Mexican psychiatrists, some of the most important contributors to Mexican psychiatry were José Luis Patiño Rojas, Manuel Guevara Oropeza and Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz. This article includes excerpts from "Clinical Psychiatry", a book by Patiño Rojas where he tries to understand and describe the inner world experienced by patients with schizophrenia; also, the thesis conducted by Guevara Oropeza ("Psychoanalisis"), which is a critical comparison between the theories of Janet and Freud. Finally, we include "The study of consciousness: current status" by Ramón de la Fuente, which leads us through the initial investigations concerning consciousness, its evolution, and the contributions made by psychology, philosophy and neurobiology.

  14. Evolutionary theory, psychiatry, and psychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Stein, Dan J

    2006-07-01

    Darwin's seminal publications in the nineteenth century laid the foundation for an evolutionary approach to psychology and psychiatry. Advances in 20th century evolutionary theory facilitated the development of evolutionary psychology and psychiatry as recognized areas of scientific investigation. In this century, advances in understanding the molecular basis of evolution, of the mind, and of psychopathology, offer the possibility of an integrated approach to understanding the proximal (psychobiological) and distal (evolutionary) mechanisms of interest to psychiatry and psychopharmacology. There is, for example, growing interest in the question of whether specific genetic variants mediate psychobiological processes that have evolutionary value in specific contexts, and of the implications of this for understanding the vulnerability to psychopathology and for considering the advantages and limitations of pharmacotherapy. The evolutionary value, and gene-environmental mediation, of early life programming is potentially a particularly rich area of investigation. Although evolutionary approaches to psychology and to medicine face important conceptual and methodological challenges, current work is increasingly sophisticated, and may prove to be an important foundational discipline for clinicians and researchers in psychiatry and psychopharmacology.

  15. American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry

    MedlinePlus

    ... participate in AAGP's annual meeting. I really enjoyed learning about geriatric psychiatry as well as meeting such a warm and caring group of doctors and students. I could see that a lot of work went into the scholars program and I am ...

  16. Social Skills Training for Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder Using Facebook (Project Rex Connect): A Survey Study

    PubMed Central

    Morriss, Danielle; Warren, Nancy; Truelove, James; Warthen, Jennifer; Ross, Charles Paul; Mood, George; Snook, Charlotte Anne; Borckardt, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    Background Adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) spend more time using electronic screen media than neurotypical peers; preliminary evidence suggests that computer-assisted or Web-based interventions may be beneficial for social skills acquisition. The current generation of adolescents accesses the Internet through computers or phones almost daily, and Facebook is the most frequently used social media platform among teenagers. This is the first research study to explore the use of Facebook as a therapeutic tool for adolescents with ASD. Objective To study the feasibility and clinical impact of using a Web-based social platform in combination with social skills training for adolescents with ASD. Methods This pilot study enrolled 6 participants (all males; mean age 14.1 years) in an online social skills training group using Facebook. Data was collected on the participants’ social and behavioral functioning at the start and conclusion of the intervention. Outcome measures included the Social Responsiveness Scale-2, the Social Skills Improvement System Rating Scale, and the Project Rex Parent Survey. Participants were surveyed at the conclusion of the intervention regarding their experience. Results No statistically significant differences in measurable outcomes were observed. However, the online addition of Facebook was well received by participants and their parents. The Facebook intervention was able to be executed with a careful privacy protocol in place and at minimal safety risk to participants. Conclusions The utilization of Facebook to facilitate delivery of social skills training for adolescents with ASD appears to be feasible, although the clinical impact of such an addition is still unclear. It is important to note that social difficulties of participants persisted with the addition of the online platform and participants still required assistance to engage with peers in an online environment. A Web-based intervention such as the one utilized in

  17. Neuromuscular Responses to Short-Term Resistance Training With Traditional and Daily Undulating Periodization in Adolescent Elite Judoka.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Boris; Pelzer, Thiemo; Oliveira, Sergio; Pfeiffer, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Ullrich, B, Pelzer, T, Oliveira, S, and Pfeiffer, M. Neuromuscular responses to short-term resistance training with traditional and daily undulating periodization in adolescent elite judoka. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2083-2099, 2016-The influence of different periodization models on neuromuscular outcomes after short-term strength training periods has not been examined in adolescent athletes. Eleven elite judoka (age: 14.8 ± 0.6 years, height: 163.2 ± 7.5 cm, body mass: 57.3 ± 11.1 kg, 5 boys/6 girls, and strength training experience: 2.7 ± 1.1 years) performed two 4-week strength training mesocycles (each with 12 sessions) with either traditional (TP) or daily undulating (DUP) periodization. Both mesocycles were separated by a 7-week washout period and added to the regular judo training. Strength training was performed as lifting and lowering of weights using squats, knee flexion curl, clean & jerk, snatch, bench press, barbell bench pull, and lat pull-down. The mesocycles were equated for the number of repetitions and different intensity zones (50-90% of 1 repetition maximum [1RM]), addressing the optimization of strength, power, or velocity. Laboratory and 1RM testing was carried out 2 times during the baseline (T1 and T2), after the TP mesocycle (T3), after the washout period (T4), and after the DUP mesocycle (T5). Isometric knee extensor and knee flexor maximum voluntary contractive capacity (MVC), electromyographic-estimated neural drive of the quadriceps femoris, vastus lateralis (VL) muscle architecture, and 1RMs of all training exercises were measured. ANOVA revealed moderate (5.5-13.5%) but significant (p ≤ 0.05) temporal gains in knee extensor MVC, 1RMs, and VL architecture during both the mesocycles. Wilcoxon tests detected no significant differences for the percentage changes of any outcome between the mesocycles. For adolescent judoka, TP and DUP were equally adept in improving neuromuscular outcomes during short-term training periods.

  18. [New developments in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Conus, Philippe; Herrera, Fabrice; Berney, Sylvie; Gailland, Bénédicte; Beretta, Véronique; Vandenberghe, Frederik; Eap, Chin B

    2016-01-13

    Three issues are discussed: i) While number of psychiatric beds has been reduced in most countries and although treatments proposed in psychiatric hospitals have evolved, they continue to be viewed as asylums implementing constraints. Considering this prevents their adequate use and leads to patients' stigmatisation, promotion of a better knowledge of contemporary hospital treatments is needed. 2) In addition, most psychiatric disorders emerging during adolescence and early adulthood, it is important to develop accessible care on university campuses. 3) While risk of weight gain and metabolic syndrome under neuroleptics or mood stabilisers is known, there is a need for the development of that are easy to identify. A 5% increase in weight during the first month of treatment indicates the risk for important later weight gain.

  19. [250 years of English psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Freeman, H

    1996-08-01

    The history of British psychiatry is considered from five main viewpoints: clinical practice, the institutional basis, the legislative basis, lay perspectives of-mental disorder, and European influences. Its philosophical basis can be traced back to the work of the seventeenth-century philosophers. Thomas Hobbes and John Locke. In Scotland, both 'philosophy of mind' and new clinical methods flourished during its Enlightenment; the concept of 'neurosis' was developed by William Cullen. Around 1800, James Prichard's concept of 'moral insanity' became the foundation of modern work on personality disorder and psychopathy. The psychotic illness of King George III, beginning in 1788, led to greater public sympathy for the mentally ill. Attitudes since then have varied, with 'antipsychiatry' becoming very influential in the 1960s. By the mid-eighteenth century, specialised institutions for the mentally ill existed in a number of cities, there were also units attached to charitable general hospitals, but none of these continued after about 1830. The neglect of patients in private madhouses, prisons, and poorhouses led to increasing concern by Parliament, which resulted in the development of public asylums throughout the country. Severe legal restrictions on their activities were modified in 1930 and completely reformed in 1959. From the mid-nineteenth century, French and German influences became increasingly strong, but British universities played no active part in psychiatry until the 1950s. Psycho-analysis did not develop strongly in Britain, where the main contribution was through translation and biography, but some leading analysts came as refugees in the 1930s-as did other psychiatrists from central Europe. Another important influence was that of Adolf Meyer at the Institute of Psychiatry, London, particularly through Sir Aubrey Lewis; physical treatment methods also came to Britain from Europe. In the second half of this century, the most important British

  20. Psychiatry movie club: A novel way to teach psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Gurvinder

    2011-07-01

    For decades, films across the world have entertained people and affected their attitudes regarding certain issues and conditions. Documentary films have been used by governments in different parts of the world to educate the general public and promote health and prevent the spread of disease as part of public health programs. Psychiatry as a branch of medicine like the rest of medicine continues to develop. With an increasing awareness among the general population and popularity of films showing various aspects of mental illnesses on the rise, educators and teachers are turning their attention to using films for education of medical students and psychiatric trainees. Although films may be stereotypical and prejudiced, they can be used successfully in teaching psychiatry trainees. In this paper, development of a movie club and its use are described and suggestions made to improve the use of films in this process.

  1. Combined Cognitive and Parent Training Interventions for Adolescents with ADHD and Their Mothers: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Steeger, Christine M.; Gondoli, Dawn M.; Gibson, Bradley S.; Morrissey, Rebecca A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined the individual and combined effects of two non-pharmacological treatments for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Cogmed working memory training (CWMT) for adolescents, and behavioral parent training (BPT) for mothers. Method Ninety-one adolescents (ages 11–15) and their mothers were randomized to one of four CWMT and BPT treatment and active control (placebo) group combinations of 5-week interventions. At pre- and post-test, mothers and teachers completed rating forms, and adolescents completed neuropsychological measures of working memory (WM). Results Individual intervention effects showed that treatment CWMT significantly improved WM spans, whereas there were no significant differences for treatment or control BPT on reports of parenting-related outcomes. Combined treatment effects indicated an overall pattern of greatest improvements for the control CWMT/treatment BPT group, as compared to the other three groups, on adolescent WM deficit, behavioral regulation problems, and global executive deficit. Most significant effects for outcomes were main effects of improvements over time. Conclusions: Combination CWMT and BPT did not result in increased treatment gains. However, potential effects of combined treatment may have been masked by greater perceived benefits arising from lack of struggle in the non-adaptive, CWMT active control condition. Future combined intervention research should focus on specific, theoretically-driven WM deficits among individuals with ADHD, include possible adaptations to the standard CWMT program, examine effectiveness of cognitive treatments combined with contextual interventions, and utilize appropriate control groups to fully understand the unique and combined effects of interventions. PMID:25731907

  2. [Need to merge child and adult psychiatry into comprehensive developmental psychiatry--consideration from the perspective of forensic psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Toichi, Motomi

    2014-01-01

    The need to merge child and adult psychiatry into a continuum was discussed based on forensic issues in criminal cases involving developmental disorder. Recently, a number of offenders (both juvenile and adult) are being diagnosed with developmental disorder every year, when the system of sending severe juvenile cases from juvenile court to the prosecution as well as the new juror system makes the role of psychiatric examination more important than ever. Because of the unique symptomatology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), conventional forensic psychiatry does not seem applicable to cases of ASD when making a fair judgement on criminal liability. This indicates that there is a need for not only basic knowledge on child psychiatry for all psychiatrists, but also knowledge on the developmental link between child and adult psychiatry. Therefore, there is a need to merge child and adult psychiatry into a comprehensive field of developmental psychiatry.

  3. Evaluation of a Training Program for Street Children and Adolescents At Risk in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandeira, Denise R.; And Others

    An experience in evaluating a program which is designed to help high risk adolescents is described. The program attempts to develop basic work and social skills of adolescents (N=40) living in slums or on the streets in Brazil. Psychological and social effects of the program were assessed by means of interviews and psychological tests…

  4. Effects of Whole Body Vibration Training on Body Composition in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Aguero, Alejandro; Matute-Llorente, Angel; Gomez-Cabello, Alba; Casajus, Jose A.; Vicente-Rodriguez, German

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the effect of 20 weeks of whole body vibration (WBV) on the body composition of adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Thirty adolescent with DS were divided into two groups: control and WBV. Whole body, upper and lower limbs body fat and lean body mass were measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)…

  5. Social Skills Training for Adolescents with Asperger's Syndrome Using a Consultation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minihan, Aileen; Kinsella, William; Honan, Rita

    2011-01-01

    A case study design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of behavioural consultation as a method for improving the social skills of adolescents with Asperger's syndrome. Two case studies were conducted. In each study, two teachers implemented a social skills programme with two to three adolescents with Asperger's syndrome in a group setting with…

  6. Designing a Family Problem Solving Training Program with an Adolescent Diabetic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieren, Dianne K.; And Others

    An educational program was developed to assist family groups with adolescent diabetics to improve their problem-solving skills. The program is based on theoretical assumptions and research findings from a study of family problem-solving, which involved nine intact, well-functioning families (five families with a diabetic adolescent and four…

  7. Prevention Is Better than Cure: Coping Skills Training for Adolescents at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frydenberg, Erica; Lewis, Ramon; Bugalski, Kerry; Cotta, Amanda; McCarthy, Cathy; Luscombe-Smith, Neringa; Poole, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Children and adolescents today face a plethora of stressful problems, including family and relationship conflict, death of close family members or friends, and academic and social pressures. Such problems have been found to contribute to an increased risk of various emotional-social-cognitive difficulties in adolescence. These include academic…

  8. Body Mass, Training, Menses, and Bone in Adolescent Runners: A 3-y Follow-Up

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract: Endurance runners with low bone mass during adolescence may be at risk of developing a low peak bone mineral density (BMD) as a young adult. However, it is possible that they mature late and undergo delayed bone mass accumulation. PURPOSE: We evaluated 40 adolescent runners (age 15.9 ± 0....

  9. The Use of a Behavioral Parent Training Program for Parents of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Annette K.

    2010-01-01

    Adolescence can be a period of increased problem behavior, and parents often report this stage of development as being one of increased conflict with high levels of parenting-related stress and lower levels of confidence in parenting abilities. As a result, parents of adolescents seek out parenting information and support much more often than do…

  10. Effect of Structured and Unstructured Physical Activity Training on Cognitive Functions in Adolescents – A Randomized Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Senthil Kumar; Arunachalam, Vinayathan; Radhakrishnan, Krishnakumar; Ramamurthy, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Background Regular physical activity in children and adolescents promotes not only their physical health but also improves their cognition. Paper and pencil Neurocognitive tests (NCT) are commonly used to assess the various cognitive domains of a person and can be used as simple tests to assess improvements, if any, in the cognitive abilities of growing adolescents who practice regular physical activity. Aim To study the effect of six months of structured and unstructured physical activity on cognitive functions in adolescents. Materials and Methods We recruited 439 healthy adolescent volunteers in the age group of 12 to 17 years (boys 250, girls 189) from a residential school (Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, Pondicherry). The following paper and pencil neuropsychological cognitive tests were administered: Two Target Letter Cancellation test, Trail Making test A and B, Ruff Figural Fluency test (RFFT). These participants were then divided into Structured Physical Activity (SPA: n=219; boys 117, girls 102) and Unstructured Physical Activity (USPA: n=220; boys 119, girls 101) groups based on age and gender block randomization method. Six-month intervention was successfully completed by 347 participants only (SPA group: n= 136; boys 77, girls 59; USPA group: n = 139; boys 75, girls 64) and the tests were repeated. Statistical Analysis The data were recorded and statistically analysed by per-protocol analysis method, using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), version 19. Results After six months of intervention, both SPA and USPA group participants showed significant improvements in all the tested neurocognitive parameters. On inter-group comparison, participants in SPA group showed significantly better improvements. Conclusion Physical activity training in adolescents is more beneficial when structured as per WHO guidelines, probably due to higher cognitive loading. PMID:26675059

  11. Promoting strength and balance in adolescents during physical education: effects of a short-term resistance training.

    PubMed

    Granacher, Urs; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Doerflinger, Britta; Strohmeier, Ralf; Gollhofer, Albert

    2011-04-01

    Secular trends in strength and postural control have been reported for children and adolescents. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the impact of a short-term ballistic strength training (BST) followed by detraining on measures of strength and postural control in adolescents. Twenty-eight high-school students participated in this study and were assigned to either an intervention (n = 14, age 16.7 ± 0.6 years, body mass index [BMI] 21.1 ± 1.7 kg · m) or a control group (n = 14, age 16.8 ± 0.7 years, BMI 19.9 ± 1.7 kg · m). The intervention class participated in a short-term (8 week) lower extremity BST program 2 times a week integrated in their regular physical education lessons. Pre, post, and follow-up tests included the measurements of maximal isometric force (MIF) and rate of force development (RFD) of the leg extensors on a leg press with the feet resting on a force platform, vertical jumping height (countermovement jump [CMJ]) on a force plate and the assessment of static (1-legged stance on a balance platform), and dynamic (mediolateral perturbation impulse on a balance platform) postural control. Ballistic strength training resulted in statistically significant improvements in MIF (p = 0.001) and CMJ height (p < 0.001), which were still present after detraining for MIF (p = 0.04). Furthermore, tendencies in terms of small to medium interaction effects yet not statistically significant improvements were found for RFD (p = 0.38), and measures of static (p = 0.15) but not of dynamic postural control. In adolescents, lower extremity BST is a suitable training modality for the application in a school setting (particularly during physical education lessons) that produced transient improvements in strength variables. These results could have an impact on improving the performance level in various motor fitness skills and sports activities in physical education.

  12. [Development of forensic psychiatry in Serbia].

    PubMed

    Milovanović, Srdjan; Jovanović, Aleksandar; Jasović-Gasić, Miroslava; Ilanković, Nikola; Dunjić, Dusan; Lakić, Aneta; Djukić-Dejanović, Slavica; Nenadović, Milutin; Randjelović, Dragisa; Milovanović, Dimitrije

    2013-01-01

    The development of legislation in the field of mental health in our region is linked with the emergence and development of the oldest psychiatric hospitals in Serbia.The principle that the mentally ill who committed a criminal offense need to be placed in a psychiatric hospital instead of a prison was introduced at the same time as in the most developed European countries. The founders of the Serbian forensic psychiatry, Dr. Jovan Danić, Dr.Vojislav Subotić Jr. and Dr. Dusan Subotić, were all trained at the first Serbian Psychiatric Hospital ("Home for the Unsound of Mind") that was founded in 1861 in the part of Belgrade called Guberevac. Their successors were psychiatric enthusiasts Prof. Dr.Vladimir F.Vujić and Prof. Dr. Laza Stanojević. A formal establishment of the School of Medicine of Belgrade, with acquirement of new experience and positive shifts within this field, based on the general act of the University in 1932, led to the formation of the Council of the School of Medicine, which, as a collective body passed expert opinions. Thus, the first Forensic Medicine Committee of the School of Medicine was formed and started its activities in 1931 when Forensic Medicine Committee Regulations were accepted. After the World War II prominent educators in the field of mental health, and who particularly contributed to further development of forensic psychiatry in Serbia were Prof. Dr. Uros Jekić, Prof Dr. Dusan Jevtić, Dr. Stevan Jovanović, Prof. Dr. Borislav Kapamadzija, Prof. Dr. Maksim Sternić, Prof. Dr. Josif Vesel and Prof. Dr. Dimitrije Milovanović.

  13. Training increases anabolic response and reduces inflammatory response to a single practice in elite male adolescent volleyball players.

    PubMed

    Nemet, Dan; Portal, Shawn; Zadik, Zvi; Pilz-Burstein, Rutie; Adler-Portal, Dana; Meckel, Yoav; Eliakim, Alon

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effect of training on hormonal and inflammatory response to a single volleyball practice in elite adolescent players. Fourteen male, elite, national team-level, Israeli volleyball players (age, 16.3±1.1 years, Tanner stage 4-5) participated in the study. Blood samples were collected before and immediately after a typical 60-min volleyball practice, before and after 7 weeks of training during the initial phases of the volleyball season. Hormonal measurements included the anabolic hormones growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein 3, and testosterone; the catabolic hormone cortisol; the pro-inflammatory markers interleukin (IL) 6, and the anti-inflammatory marker IL-1 receptor antagonist. Training led to a significant improvement of both anaerobic and aerobic properties. Before the training intervention, the typical volleyball practice was associated with a significant increase of GH and testosterone and also with a significant increase of IL-6. Training resulted in a significantly greater GH response (ΔGH, 2.5±2.4 vs. 4.7±3.0 ng/mL, before and after training, respectively; p<0.02) and reduced IL-6 response (ΔIL-6, 2.0±1.6 vs. 0.6±0.7 pg/mL, before and after training, respectively; p<0.01) to the same relative intensity volleyball practice. The results suggest that, along with the improvement of anaerobic and aerobic characteristics, training leads to a greater anabolic and reduced inflammatory response to exercise.

  14. The Two Cultures in Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Cleghorn, R A

    1965-07-10

    The division between the two cultures of the literary and scientific worlds is considered, as is the division between the two cultures of humanism and somaticism. The development of psychiatric thought important to this latter dichotomy is described through the Age of Enlightenment, the Romantic Movement and the New Enlightenment. The two cultures of our present literary and scientific milieux are equated with the romanticism and somaticism of the past. The development of two cultures in psychiatry is traced, beginning with Freud's attempt to combine science and romanticism, to the present day where one finds some degree of convergence between the somatic and psychoanalytic approaches. Criteria are presented for a greater union of the two cultures in psychiatry.

  15. The Two Cultures in Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Cleghorn, R. A.

    1965-01-01

    The division between the two cultures of the literary and scientific worlds is considered, as is the division between the two cultures of humanism and somaticism. The development of psychiatric thought important to this latter dichotomy is described through the Age of Enlightenment, the Romantic Movement and the New Enlightenment. The two cultures of our present literary and scientific milieux are equated with the romanticism and somaticism of the past. The development of two cultures in psychiatry is traced, beginning with Freud's attempt to combine science and romanticism, to the present day where one finds some degree of convergence between the somatic and psychoanalytic approaches. Criteria are presented for a greater union of the two cultures in psychiatry. PMID:20328284

  16. Secular humanism and "scientific psychiatry"

    PubMed Central

    Szasz, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The Council for Secular Humanism identifies Secular Humanism as a "way of thinking and living" committed to rejecting authoritarian beliefs and embracing "individual freedom and responsibility ... and cooperation." The paradigmatic practices of psychiatry are civil commitment and insanity defense, that is, depriving innocent persons of liberty and excusing guilty persons of their crimes: the consequences of both are confinement in institutions ostensibly devoted to the treatment of mental diseases. Black's Law Dictionary states: "Every confinement of the person is an 'imprisonment,' whether it be in a common prison, or in private house, or in the stocks, or even by forcibly detaining one in the public streets." Accordingly, I maintain that Secular Humanism is incompatible with the principles and practices of psychiatry. PMID:16759353

  17. Secular humanism and "scientific psychiatry".

    PubMed

    Szasz, Thomas

    2006-04-25

    The Council for Secular Humanism identifies Secular Humanism as a "way of thinking and living" committed to rejecting authoritarian beliefs and embracing "individual freedom and responsibility ... and cooperation." The paradigmatic practices of psychiatry are civil commitment and insanity defense, that is, depriving innocent persons of liberty and excusing guilty persons of their crimes: the consequences of both are confinement in institutions ostensibly devoted to the treatment of mental diseases. Black's Law Dictionary states: "Every confinement of the person is an 'imprisonment,' whether it be in a common prison, or in private house, or in the stocks, or even by forcibly detaining one in the public streets." Accordingly, I maintain that Secular Humanism is incompatible with the principles and practices of psychiatry.

  18. Ethics in psychiatry: a framework

    PubMed Central

    LOLAS, FERNANDO

    2006-01-01

    Defining bioethics as the rational use of dialogue in the formulation, justification, and application of ethical principles, with the aim ofgenerating good practices in research, clinical practice, and advocacy, this paper focuses on methods for bioethical deliberation relevantto psychiatry. Stressing that bioethics fuses the two main ethical traditions in Western thought, the deontological and the teleological, thepaper emphasizes the three conditions that any intervention, if considered in the context of bioethics, should fulfil: it should be appropriateto the problem at hand, it should be good (in the sense that it does good to those who receive it but also to those who perform it),and it should be just (in the sense that its outcomes can be generalized to the whole of society). Some implications of these notions for thepractice and teaching of psychiatry are presented. PMID:17139356

  19. Psychiatric comorbidity in forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Palijan, Tija Zarković; Muzinić, Lana; Radeljak, Sanja

    2009-09-01

    For the past several years a numerous studies in the field of forensic psychiatry confirmed a close relationship between violent offenders and comorbid substance abuse. The comorbid substance abuse in violent offenders was usually unrecognized and misdiagnosed. Furthermore, comorbidity in forensic psychiatry describes the co-occurrence of two or more conditions or psychiatric disorder known in the literature as dual diagnosis and defined by World Health Organization (WHO). In fact, many violent offenders have multiple psychiatric diagnoses. Recent studies have confirmed causal relationship between major psychiatric disorders and concomitant substance abuse (comorbidity) in 50-80% of forensic cases. In general, there is a high level of psychiatric comorbidity in forensic patients with prevalence of personality disorders (50-90%), mood disorders (20-60%) and psychotic disorders (15-20%) coupled with substance abuse disorders. Moreover, the high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities could be found in mentally retarded individuals, as well as, in epileptic patients. Drugs and alcohol abuse can produce serious psychotoxic effects that may lead to extreme violent behavior and consequently to serious criminal offence such as physical assault, rape, armed robbery, attempted murder and homicide, all due to an altered brain function and generating psychotic-like symptoms. Studies have confirmed a significant statistical relevance in causal relationship between substance abuse and violent offences. In terms of forensic psychiatry, the comorbidity strongly contributes in the process of establishing psychiatric diagnosis of diminished mental capacity or insanity at the time of the offence in the course of clinical assessment and evaluation of violent offenders. Today, the primary focus of forensic psychiatry treatment services (in-patient or community) is management of the violent offenders with psychiatric comorbidity which requires a multilevel, evidence based approach to

  20. Using Technology to Improve Treatment Outcomes for Children and Adolescents with Eating Disorders.

    PubMed

    Darcy, Alison M; Lock, James

    2017-01-01

    Dissemination and implementation of evidence-based treatments are among the biggest challenges facing clinical psychiatry. Developing scalable evidence-based treatments is a major priority and fraught with challenges. This article describes the development of 3 technology-based innovations. It discusses the use of massive open online courses (MOOCs) and mobile applications. Three projects are presented: (1) the modification of a MOOC methodology for psychotherapy training clinicians in manualized family-based therapy (FBT) for adolescents with anorexia nervosa; (2) a modified MOOC platform for the delivery of FBT; and (3) the development of mobile applications for treatment augmentation and delivery.

  1. Attitudes of Medical Students toward Psychiatry and Psychiatry as a Career: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Zaza

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The discipline of psychiatry, and psychiatry as a career option, have been negatively regarded by medical students for decades. There is a large amount of literature on attitudes of students and the factors that attract them to and detract from psychiatry. The aim of this article is to systematically review this literature from 1990 to…

  2. Positive psychiatry: its time has come.

    PubMed

    Jeste, Dilip V; Palmer, Barton W; Rettew, David C; Boardman, Samantha

    2015-06-01

    Traditionally, psychiatry has been defined and practiced as a branch of medicine focused on the diagnosis and treatment of mental illnesses. Based on growing empirical evidence, we believe that this definition warrants expansion to include the concept of positive psychiatry. In the present article, we provide a critical overview of this emerging field and a select review of relevant scientific literature. Positive psychiatry may be defined as the science and practice of psychiatry that seeks to understand and promote well-being through assessment and interventions involving positive psychosocial characteristics (PPCs) in people who suffer from or are at high risk of developing mental or physical illnesses. It can also benefit nonclinical populations. Positive psychiatry has 4 main components: (1) positive mental health outcomes (eg, well-being), (2) PPCs that comprise psychological traits (resilience, optimism, personal mastery and coping self-efficacy, social engagement, spirituality and religiosity, and wisdom-including compassion) and environmental factors (family dynamics, social support, and other environmental determinants of overall health), (3) biology of positive psychiatry constructs, and (4) positive psychiatry interventions including preventive ones. There are promising empirical data to suggest that positive traits may be improved through psychosocial and biological interventions. As a branch of medicine rooted in biology, psychiatry, especially with the proposed conceptualization of positive psychiatry, is well poised to provide major contributions to the positive mental health movement, thereby impacting the overall health care of the population.

  3. Muscular strength and jumping performance after handball training versus physical education program for pre-adolescent children.

    PubMed

    Oxyzoglou, Nikolaos; Kanioglou, Aggelos; Rizos, Stelios; Mavridis, George; Kabitsis, Christos

    2007-06-01

    The purpose was to compare a 6-mo. specific handball training program and a typical physical education program on various strength and jumping skills. The participants (M age= 13.7 yr., SD= 1.5) were divided into the Handball Group (n=51) and the Physical Education Group (n=70). The latter performed 3 sessions/ week (60 min.) including ball-handling drills, horizontal and vertical jump shots, fast break, and several defensive skills. The former performed the program provided by the Ministry of Education including track and field and other team sport drills. Analyses of covariance showed that the handball group displayed greater improvement in explosive strength of upper limbs, jumping performance, maximum isometric force of right grip, and 10-m running velocity. Handball training can significantly improve pre-adolescent performance with upper and lower limbs. Inclusion of specific handball drills in the physical education program is recommended.

  4. Evaluation of the observer effect on compliance training in adolescents with autism.

    PubMed

    Marroquin, Michael; Alvero, Alicia; Sturmey, Peter

    2014-02-01

    Three mothers conducted behavioral observations of video clips of a mother conducting compliance training to varying degrees of accuracy. Subsequently, two mothers correctly conducted compliance training and their children emitted compliant behavior. Upon addition of feedback, the third mother correctly implemented compliance training and her child also emitted complaint behavior. Conducting behavioral observations may be a viable and efficient option for training parents to conduct compliance training and, if ineffective, can be supplemented by feedback.

  5. The association between Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and Psychiatry as the specialty choice

    PubMed Central

    Richard, George; Durkin, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this pilot study is to examine the association between Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and prospective psychiatry residents. Methods Forty-six American medical schools were contacted and asked to participate in this study. Data were collected and an aggregated list was compiled that included the following information: date of MBTI administration, academic year, MBTI form/version, residency match information and student demographic information. The data includes 835 American medical students who completed the MBTI survey and matched into a residency training program in the United States. All analyses were performed using R 3.1.2. Results The probability of an introvert matching to a psychiatry residency is no different than that of an extravert (p= 0.30). The probability of an intuitive individual matching to a psychiatry residency is no different than that of a sensing type (p=0.20). The probability of a feeling type matching to a psychiatry residency is no different than that of a thinking type (p= 0.50). The probability of a perceiving type matching to a psychiatry residency is no different than that of a judging type (p= 0.60). Conclusions Further analyses may elicit more accurate information regarding the personality profile of prospective psychiatry residents. The improvement in communication, team dynamics, mentor-mentee relationships and reduction in workplace conflicts are possible with the awareness of MBTI personality profiles. PMID:26851600

  6. International study of student career choice in psychiatry (ISoSCCiP): results from Modena, Italy.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Silvia; Reggianini, Corinna; Mattei, Giorgio; Rigatelli, Marco; Pingani, Luca; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2013-08-01

    Italy was one of the 16 countries to take part in the International Study of Student Career Choice in Psychiatry (ISoSCCiP). This paper reports and comments on the IsoSCCiP data on Italian medical students. Italian final year medical students from the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia were asked to fill in an on-line questionnaire during the first semester of two consecutive academic years (2009-2010, 2010-2011). Step-wise logistic regressions were performed. Of the 231 students invited, 106 returned completed questionnaires (response rate = 46.7%). Women constituted 66%, and mean age was 25.14 (SD = 1.15). Psychiatry was the second most common choice of possible career by students (5.7%, n = 6). Choosing psychiatry was predicted by having volunteered for further clinical/research activities in psychiatry (p = 0.01), believing that 'the problems presented by psychiatric patients are often particularly interesting and challenging' (p < 0.01), and by accounts of personal/family experience with physical illness (p < 0.01). Both personal factors and factors related to training may be involved in the choice of psychiatry among Italian medical students. Cultural and organizational specificities of Italian mental healthcare may be involved, particularly the strong tradition of social psychiatry.

  7. Preventing Adolescent Substance Use Through an Evidence-Based Program: Effects of the Italian Adaptation of Life Skills Training.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Veronica; Griffin, Kenneth W; Botvin, Gilbert J

    2017-03-28

    Evidence-based preventive interventions for adolescent substance use, violence, and mental health issues are increasingly being adapted and disseminated internationally. In the present paper, we report the results of an effectiveness study that was part of a comprehensive initiative by a coalition of health promotion organizations in the Lombardy region of Italy to select, culturally adapt, implement, evaluate, and sustain an evidence-based drug abuse prevention program developed in the USA. Findings are presented from a large-scale effectiveness study of the Life Skills Training prevention program among over 3000 students attending 55 middle schools in Italy. The prevention program taught drug refusal skills, antidrug norms, personal self-management skills, and general social skills. Relative to comparison group students, students who received the prevention program were less likely to initiate smoking at the post-test and 2-year follow-up, and less likely to initiate weekly drunkenness at the 1-year follow-up. The program had direct positive effects on several cognitive, attitudinal, and skill variables believed to play a protective role in adolescent substance use. The findings from this study show that a drug abuse prevention program originally designed for adolescents in the USA is effective in a sample of Italian youth when a rigorous and systematic approach to cultural adaptation is followed that incorporates the input of multiple stakeholders.

  8. Effects of Short-Term Exercise Training With and Without Milk Intake on Cardiometabolic and Inflammatory Adaptations in Obese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Liu, Maple; Gillis, Linda J; Persadie, Nicholas R; Atkinson, Stephanie A; Phillips, Stuart M; Timmons, Brian W

    2015-11-01

    There is some evidence that a combination of factors can reduce inflammation and associated metabolic risk factors. We studied the early cardiometabolic and inflammatory adaptations to a short-term exercise intervention with and without milk in obese adolescents. Fifty-four adolescents were randomized to consume milk post exercise (MILK) or a carbohydrate beverage (CONT) during one-week of daily exercise. Insulin levels were not different between the groups post training. Glucose was reduced over time in both groups (-9 ± 13 mg/ dl MILK and -6 ± 14 mg/dl CONT, p < .05) but not different between groups. There was a greater decrease in mean arterial pressure (MAP) in the MILK group (-3 ± 6 mmHg MILK vs. 2 ± 7 mmHg CONT, p < .04). Milk provided postexercise did not affect C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) or interleukin-6 (IL-6). The exercise intervention led to an increase in TNF-α in both groups (0.27 ± 0.7 pg/ml MILK and 0.48 ± 0.6 pg/ml CONT, p < .001). The early adaptations to a short-term exercise intervention in obese adolescents include a reduction in MAP and an increase in some inflammatory markers.

  9. Identification of Social Behaviors Important for Adolescent Peer Acceptance: Implications for Social Skills Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inderbitzen-Pisaruk, Heidi; And Others

    Although much attention has been devoted to the study of social competence in the past decade, few researchers have examined the adolescent age group. These two studies examined what behaviors are important for positive peer relations in adolescence. In the first study 1,142 ninth-graders (577 males, M age=14.78; 565 females, M age=14.61) from 7…

  10. Severn School of Psychiatry education fellowships: a new way to promote educational practice and research

    PubMed Central

    Macpherson, Rob; Arulanandam, Sherlie; Undrill, Guy; Atkinson, Simon; Arnott, Steve; Hughes, Sian; Toogood, Hannah; Scheeres, Karl; Matone, Luciana

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a model of training in leadership and project management skills for advanced trainees, using educational projects within the Severn School of Psychiatry. Fellowships lasting 1 year have been developed to enable trainees, working with a senior consultant trainer associated with the School of Psychiatry, to support important new educational initiatives. Linkage with the local university training and learning for health professionals research module has provided academic support for the trainees and the projects. Four examples for the first year of the programme are described and feedback from structured interviews with participants is presented. The development of the fellowships appears to have had wider benefits, in developing educational faculty in the School of Psychiatry and the trainees involved have had opportunities to extend their project management and leadership skills. The fellowship programme is continuing to develop, based on feedback from its first successful year. PMID:26191441

  11. The impact of a multimodal Summer Camp Training on neuropsychological functioning in children and adolescents with ADHD: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Wolf-Dieter; Gerber-von Müller, Gabriele; Andrasik, Frank; Niederberger, Uwe; Siniatchkin, Michael; Kowalski, Jens T; Petermann, Ulrike; Petermann, Franz

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the combined effects of methylphenidate (MPD) and response cost and token strategy (RCT), administered in an intensive ADHD Summer Camp Training (ASCT) format, on neuropsychological functions. Forty children with ADHD were randomly assigned to either the ASCT treatment (MPD plus RCT) or a control group (MPD plus a 1-hour session of standardized parental education/counselling [SPC]). This latter group was structured to be similar to the more typical current treatment. The ASCT treatment was administered for 2½ weeks and included RCT, consisting of elements of social skill training, attention training, and sports participation. RCT was systematically applied in all daily situations and activities. Executive functions and state of regulation using the Test for Attention Performance (TAP) and the Trail-Making Test (TMT) were assessed before training and at a 6-month follow-up. Participants receiving the ASCT improved specific neuropsychological functions in attention regulation and inhibitory control tasks at the 6-month follow-up. No changes occurred for participants assigned to the control condition. The data suggest that an intensive multimodal summer camp treatment program including strategies of instrumental learning can lead to substantial and enduring improvements in neuropsychological functioning of children and adolescents with ADHD.

  12. Rehabilitation of face-processing skills in an adolescent with prosopagnosia: Evaluation of an online perceptual training programme.

    PubMed

    Bate, Sarah; Bennetts, Rachel; Mole, Joseph A; Ainge, James A; Gregory, Nicola J; Bobak, Anna K; Bussunt, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we describe the case of EM, a female adolescent who acquired prosopagnosia following encephalitis at the age of eight. Initial neuropsychological and eye-movement investigations indicated that EM had profound difficulties in face perception as well as face recognition. EM underwent 14 weeks of perceptual training in an online programme that attempted to improve her ability to make fine-grained discriminations between faces. Following training, EM's face perception skills had improved, and the effect generalised to untrained faces. Eye-movement analyses also indicated that EM spent more time viewing the inner facial features post-training. Examination of EM's face recognition skills revealed an improvement in her recognition of personally-known faces when presented in a laboratory-based test, although the same gains were not noted in her everyday experiences with these faces. In addition, EM did not improve on a test assessing the recognition of newly encoded faces. One month after training, EM had maintained the improvement on the eye-tracking test, and to a lesser extent, her performance on the familiar faces test. This pattern of findings is interpreted as promising evidence that the programme can improve face perception skills, and with some adjustments, may at least partially improve face recognition skills.

  13. Medical Decision-Making by Psychiatry Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Mallakh, Rif; Zinner, Jill; Mackey, Amanda; Tamas, Rebecca L.; Martin, Chanley M.; Dalton, Jerad; Dhaliwal, Nitu; Luddington, Nicole; Numan, Farhad U.; Nunes, Ross; Taylor, Stephen; Ye, Lu

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Several conspiring factors have resulted in an increase in the level of medical burden in psychiatric patients. Psychiatry residents require increasing levels of medical sophistication. To assess the medical decision-making of psychiatry residents, the authors examined the outcome in subjects initially seen in the emergency psychiatric…

  14. Women and Teaching in Academic Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirshbein, Laura D.; Fitzgerald, Kate; Riba, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This article explores past, present, and future issues for women and teaching in academic psychiatry. A small study of didactic teaching responsibilities along faculty groups in one academic psychiatry department helps to illustrate challenges and opportunities for women in psychiatric teaching settings. Background: Although women have…

  15. Child Psychiatry Curricula in Undergraduate Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Michael Gifford; Giesen, Femke; Walter, Garry

    2008-01-01

    A study to review the amount of time devoted to child psychiatry in undergraduate medical education is conducted. Results conclude that relatively low priority is given to child psychiatry in medical education with suggestions for international teaching standards on the subject.

  16. Sleep Quality Among Psychiatry Residents

    PubMed Central

    das Chagas Medeiros, Francisco; Meireles Sales de Bruin, Veralice; Pinheiro Santana, José Abraão; Bastos Lima, Alexandre; De Francesco Daher, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Medical residency programs are traditionally known for long working hours, which can be associated with a poor quality of sleep and daytime sleepiness. However, few studies have focused on this theme. Our objective was to investigate sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, and their relation with anxiety, social phobia, and depressive symptoms. Methods: This cross-sectional observational study involved 59 psychiatry residents. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) were used to measure the quality of sleep and excessive daytime sleepiness ([EDS] and ESS > 10), respectively. Results: Among the 59 psychiatry residents, 59.3% had poor sleep quality (PSQI > 5) and 28.8% had EDS. Poor sleep quality was associated with higher EDS (P = 0.03) and the year of residency program (P = 0.03). Only 20% of residents with poor sleep had consulted at least once for sleep problems; 54.2% had used medications for sleep; and 16.9% were using medications at the time of interview. Only 30% obtained medication during medical consultations. Poor sleep was associated with irregular sleep hours (P = 0.001) and long periods lying down without sleep (P = 0.03). Poor sleep quality was also associated with high scores of anxiety symptoms (P < 0.001) and social phobia symptoms (P = 0.02). Conclusion: Psychiatry residents frequently have poor sleep quality and EDS. Considering that sleep disorders can affect quality of life, predispose to metabolic syndrome, and be associated with worse performance at work, attention to this clinical problem is needed. PMID:27582452

  17. The Role of Process Evaluation in the Training of Facilitators for an Adolescent Health Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helitzer, Deborah; Yoon, Soo-Jin; Wallerstein, Nina; Dow y Garcia-Velarde, Lily

    2000-01-01

    Describes the process evaluation of facilitator training for a risk-reduction program that trained college students and community volunteers to teach middle school students. Examination of facilitator characteristics and training, curriculum implementation, and use of the model to promote critical thinking found that most facilitators considered…

  18. [Dualism and malaise in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Chebili, Saïd

    2013-01-01

    The history of psychiatry is characterised by the confrontation of theoretical models, or dualism.The contrast between these trends has always added to the richness of this discipline, from Philippe Pinel to Henri Ey, and from Bénédict-Augustin Morel to Valentin Magnan.Today, we are faced with an epistemological malaise which is the result of the domination of neurosciences. In order to protect against the temptation to allow the domination of one of the theoretical models, a return to dualism is recommended.

  19. Movies in education of psychiatry residents.

    PubMed

    Jukić, Vlado; Brecić, Petrana; Savić, Aleksandar

    2010-06-01

    Movies are a complex entity representing simultaneously an art form, a powerful industry, and a social phenomenon. The movie industry has always shown keen interest in physicians and medicine in general, and psychiatry in particular has often been in the spotlight. While there can be positive aspects of interaction of the movies and the psychiatry, stigmatization and negative public perception are also the results we often have to consider. Movies exploit psychiatric topics, at the same time portrayal of mental conditions, psychiatrists, and psychiatry on big screen could be used in different kinds of education in psychiatry. We present our initial experience with introducing movies in education of psychiatry residents in Psychiatric Hospital Vrapce.

  20. Forensic psychiatry: contemporary scope, challenges and controversies

    PubMed Central

    ARBOLEDA-FLÓREZ, JULIO

    2006-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry is the branch of psychiatry that deals with issues arising in the interface between psychiatry and the law, and with the flow of mentally disordered offenders along a continuum of social systems. Modern forensic psychiatry has benefited from four key developments: the evolution in the understanding and appreciation of the relationship between mental illness and criminality; the evolution of the legal tests to define legal insanity; the new methodologies for the treatment of mental conditions providing alternatives to custodial care; and the changes in attitudes and perceptions of mental illness among the public. This paper reviews the current scope of forensic psychiatry and the ethical dilemmas that this subspecialty is facing worldwide. PMID:16946941

  1. The history of Italian psychiatry during Fascism.

    PubMed

    Piazzi, Andrea; Testa, Luana; Del Missier, Giovanni; Dario, Mariopaolo; Stocco, Ester

    2011-09-01

    Specific features characterized Italian psychiatry during Fascism (1922-45), distinguishing it from Nazi psychiatry and giving rise to different operational outcomes, so we have investigated the state of Italian psychiatry during this period. We review the historical situation that preceded it and describe the social and health policies that Fascism introduced following new legislative and regulatory acts. We examine the preventive and therapeutic role played by psychiatry (the electric shock was an Italian invention) and, thanks to the Enciclopedia Italiano published during those years, we are able to highlight psychiatry's relationship to psychology, psychoanalysis, philosophy and religion. The shortcomings of Italian psychiatric research and practice are also seen in terms of what the State failed to do rather than what it did.

  2. The Relationship between Psychiatry Residency Applicant Evaluations and Subsequent Residency Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawkins, Karon; Ekstrom, R. David; Malthie, Allan; Golden, Robert N.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to measure the predictive value of applicant evaluations for a psychiatry residency in terms of the subsequent performance of those who matriculated in the program. METHOD: The match lists for resident cohorts beginning their course of training over 4 years were divided into thirds, which served as our…

  3. Recruiting Researchers in Psychiatry: The Influence of Residency vs. Early Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberman, Edward K.; Belitsky, Richard; Bernstein, Carol Ann; Cabaniss, Deborah L.; Crisp-Han, Holly; Dickstein, Leah J.; Kaplan, Alan S.; Hilty, Donald M.; Nadelson, Carol C.; Scheiber, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The declining numbers of clinician-researchers in psychiatry and other medical specialties has been a subject of growing concern. Residency training has been cited as an important factor in recruiting new researchers, but there are essentially no data to support this assertion. This study aimed to explore which factors have influenced…

  4. Adjustment to Work: A Follow Up of Mildly Intellectually Handicapped Adolescents Who Have Undergone Training in a Work Preparation Centre. [The Granville Project].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, James; And Others

    The paper reports on a followup study of the work adjustment of 43 mildly retarded adolescents who had undergone training in social and work skills at the Granville Work Preparation Centre in Australia. Among the findings were that 40% of the Ss had a history of full open employment, with no unemployment at all, since leaving the Center; that 21%…

  5. Developing an Emotional Intelligence Program Training and Study Its Effectiveness on Emotional Intelligence of Adolescents with Emotional and Behavioral Problems That Living in Single Parent Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motamedi, Farzaneh; Ghobari-Bonab, Bagher; Beh-pajooh, Ahmad; Yekta, Mohsen Shokoohi; Afrooz, Gholam Ali

    2017-01-01

    Development of children and adolescents' personality is strongly affected by their parents, and absence of one of them has an undesirable effect on their development, and makes them vulnerable to later psychological disorders and behavioral problems. The purpose of this study was to develop an emotional intelligence training program and to…

  6. The Effect of Conflict Theory Based Decision-Making Skill Training Psycho-Educational Group Experience on Decision Making Styles of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colakkadioglu, Oguzhan; Gucray, S. Sonay

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the effect of conflict theory based decision making skill training group applications on decision making styles of adolescents was investigated. A total of 36 students, including 18 students in experimental group and 18 students in control group, participated in the research. When assigning students to experimental group or control…

  7. The cognitive context of examinations in psychiatry using Bloom's taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Miller, D A; Sadler, J Z; Mohl, P C; Melchiode, G A

    1991-11-01

    Psychiatric practice involves complex thinking patterns. In addition to commanding a huge number of facts, the student must learn to manipulate factual knowledge to solve diagnostic problems, develop treatment plans, and critically evaluate those plans. This study demonstrates an empirical method for evaluating the level of cognitive processes tested in multiple choice examinations. Use of Bloom's taxonomy in evaluating test items demonstrated the majority of test items on a psychiatry clerkship examination and a resident in-training examination fell into the most basic cognitive level, that of simple recall. The utility of Bloom's taxonomy is discussed along with implications for medical education.

  8. Against Explanatory Minimalism in Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The idea that psychiatry contains, in principle, a series of levels of explanation has been criticized not only as empirically false but also, by Campbell, as unintelligible because it presupposes a discredited pre-Humean view of causation. Campbell’s criticism is based on an interventionist-inspired denial that mechanisms and rational connections underpin physical and mental causation, respectively, and hence underpin levels of explanation. These claims echo some superficially similar remarks in Wittgenstein’s Zettel. But attention to the context of Wittgenstein’s remarks suggests a reason to reject explanatory minimalism in psychiatry and reinstate a Wittgensteinian notion of levels of explanation. Only in a context broader than the one provided by interventionism is that the ascription of propositional attitudes, even in the puzzling case of delusions, justified. Such a view, informed by Wittgenstein, can reconcile the idea that the ascription mental phenomena presupposes a particular level of explanation with the rejection of an a priori claim about its connection to a neurological level of explanation. PMID:26696908

  9. [Coercion in Psychiatry - a taboo?].

    PubMed

    Meise, Ullrich; Frajo-Apor, Beatrice; Stippler, Stippler; Wancata, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    History shows that the discussion concerning coercive measures against mentally ill is as old as psychiatry itself. The dilemma of psychiatry lies in its double role - having both a therapeutic and a regulatory function. Violence against sick and disabled people conflicts with the ethical principles of helping professions. This, however, is where the danger lies: that the violent parts of psychiatric work - which in the opinion of experts cannot be entirely avoided - are repressed or seen as taboo and are therefore more difficult to control. Comparisons between EU countries of the nature, frequency and duration of coercive measures are difficult because of the heterogeneity of regulation and differences in established practice. Scientific examination of this issue seems to be insufficient. There are only a few studies on important issues such as how patients rate these measures. An open and thorough debate about the meaning and meaninglessness of coercion and violence in psychiatric treatment would be necessary to prevent "routine violence" or the excessive use of force against the mentally ill.

  10. Against Explanatory Minimalism in Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The idea that psychiatry contains, in principle, a series of levels of explanation has been criticized not only as empirically false but also, by Campbell, as unintelligible because it presupposes a discredited pre-Humean view of causation. Campbell's criticism is based on an interventionist-inspired denial that mechanisms and rational connections underpin physical and mental causation, respectively, and hence underpin levels of explanation. These claims echo some superficially similar remarks in Wittgenstein's Zettel. But attention to the context of Wittgenstein's remarks suggests a reason to reject explanatory minimalism in psychiatry and reinstate a Wittgensteinian notion of levels of explanation. Only in a context broader than the one provided by interventionism is that the ascription of propositional attitudes, even in the puzzling case of delusions, justified. Such a view, informed by Wittgenstein, can reconcile the idea that the ascription mental phenomena presupposes a particular level of explanation with the rejection of an a priori claim about its connection to a neurological level of explanation.

  11. Effects of iron intake through food or supplement on iron status and performance of healthy adolescent swimmers during a training season.

    PubMed

    Tsalis, G; Nikolaidis, M G; Mougios, V

    2004-05-01

    Maintenance of a normal iron status is important for swimming performance during training and competition. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether 1) the iron status of healthy adolescent swimmers changes during a training season of six months, and 2) increasing daily iron intake affects iron status or performance. Forty-two (21 male and 21 female) swimmers, aged 12 - 17, without anemia or iron deficiency were divided into three equal groups. Group A received an iron supplement of 47 mg per day, group B followed a dietary plan rich in iron (providing, on average, 26 mg per day), and group C had a regular diet. Blood samples were taken before the beginning of the study and at the end of each of three training phases (moderate intensity training, high intensity training, and tapering) for the determination of hematological and iron status parameters. To evaluate performance, swimming tests at different distances were conducted along with blood sampling. The results showed significant fluctuations of iron status during the training season, including an increase in erythrocyte parameters during moderate intensity training. No significant differences in iron status or performance were found among the three groups. In conclusion, iron status and performance of healthy adolescent swimmers were affected by training irrespective of iron intake ranging from one to over five times the RDA over a period of six months.

  12. Facilitation of internal locus of control in adolescent alcoholics through a brief biofeedback-assisted autogenic relaxation training procedure.

    PubMed

    Sharp, C; Hurford, D P; Allison, J; Sparks, R; Cameron, B P

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if autogenic relaxation training facilitated through biofeedback promotes an increase in internal levels of locus of control. The participants were residents of two Southwest Missouri alcohol treatment centers and ranged in age from 18 to 21 years. Treatment and control groups were compared on their responses on the Drinking Related Locus of Control Scale (DRIE) and fingertip temperature pre- and posttraining. The training was effective in teaching autogenic relaxation as demonstrated by increased fingertip temperature for the treatment group posttraining, while no differences were observed for the control group. Most importantly, the treatment group was not only significantly more internal in their locus of control after training but were also significantly more internal than the control group posttraining. Given that alcoholics are significantly more external in their locus of control than nonalcoholics, and that an internal locus of control implies an individual's belief that he or she has control and is responsible for his or her behavior, autogenic relaxation facilitated through biofeedback may be a very important component in therapeutic intervention for adolescent alcoholics.

  13. Reproductive health in the adolescent and young adult cancer patient: an innovative training program for oncology nurses.

    PubMed

    Vadaparampil, Susan T; Hutchins, Nicole M; Quinn, Gwendolyn P

    2013-03-01

    In 2008, approximately 69,200 adolescents and young adults (AYAs) were diagnosed with cancer, second only to heart disease for males in this age group. Despite recent guidelines from professional organizations and clinical research that AYA oncology patients want information about reproductive health topics and physician support for nurses to address these issues with patients, existing research finds few oncology nurses discuss this topic with patients due to barriers such as lack of training. This article describes an innovative eLearning training program, entitled Educating Nurses about Reproductive Issues in Cancer Healthcare. The threefold purpose of this article is to: (1) highlight major reproductive health concerns relevant to cancer patients, (2) describe the current status of reproductive health and oncology communication and the target audience for the training, and (3) present a systematic approach to curriculum development, including the content analysis and design stages as well as the utilization of feedback from a panel of experts. The resulting 10-week curriculum contains a broad-based approach to reproductive health communication aimed at creating individual- and practice-level change.

  14. Creativity Development in Adolescence: Insight from Behavior, Brain, and Training Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleibeuker, Sietske W.; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.; Crone, Eveline A.

    2016-01-01

    Creativity is a multifaceted construct that recruits different cognitive processes. Here, we summarize studies that show that creativity develops considerably during adolescence with different developmental trajectories for insight, verbal divergent thinking, and visuospatial divergent thinking. Next, these developmental time courses are mapped to…

  15. Computer-Aided Design Training and Spatial Visualization Ability in Gifted Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Warren E.

    1995-01-01

    An experimental group of 20 gifted adolescents received 3 weeks of computer-assisted design (CAD) instruction. Comparison of their scores on Revised Minnesota Paper Form Board test with those of 20 gifted controls showed CAD did not improve spatial visualization ability. Possible causes were differential computer experience, lack of random…

  16. Cognitive Training, Conflict Resolution and Exercise: Effects on Young Adolescents' Wellbeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Mark; Gillies, Robyn M.; Ashman, Adrian F.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study builds on previous studies reporting that depressive symptoms among adolescents are reduced and personal satisfactions with one's achievements and competence with peers are enhanced when students are taught strategies for engaging in more optimistic thinking (explanatory style) (Gillham, Reivich, & Freres et al., 2006)…

  17. Mindfulness and Compassion Training in Adolescence: A Developmental Contemplative Science Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeser, Robert W.; Pinela, Cristi

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period of risk, as well as a window of opportunity for cultivating positive development and thriving. It is characterized by simultaneous changes in the brain, body, mind, and social domains that offer a platform for building new skills and habits. This chapter discusses the role that secular forms of mindfulness and…

  18. Evidence-Based Social Skills Training for Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: The UCLA PEERS Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laugeson, Elizabeth A.; Frankel, Fred; Gantman, Alexander; Dillon, Ashley R.; Mogil, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the efficacy and durability of the PEERS Program, a parent-assisted social skills group intervention for high-functioning adolescents with ASD. Results indicate that teens receiving PEERS significantly improved their social skills knowledge, social responsiveness, and overall social skills in the areas of social…

  19. Social Inference Training of Retarded Adolescents at the Pre-Vocational Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonson, Barbara; And Others

    The relationship between the difficulty with which the retarded adolescent decodes visual social cues and the appropriateness of his social behavior was the basis of a study to determine whether social cue decoding could be taught the retarded in a manner analogous to the teaching of reading and writing, with beneficial behavioral results. The…

  20. Effects of Plyometric and Sprint Training on Physical and Technical Skill Performance in Adolescent Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Sáez de Villarreal, Eduardo; Suarez-Arrones, Luis; Requena, Bernardo; Haff, Gregory G; Ferrete, Carlos

    2015-07-01

    To determine the influence of a short-term combined plyometric and sprint training (9 weeks) within regular soccer practice on explosive and technical actions of pubertal soccer players during the in-season. Twenty-six players were randomly assigned to 2 groups: control group (CG) (soccer training only) and combined group (CombG) (plyometric + acceleration + dribbling + shooting). All players trained soccer 4 times per week and the experimental groups supplemented the soccer training with a proposed plyometric-sprint training program for 40 minutes (2 days per weeks). Ten-meter sprint, 10-m agility with and without ball, CMJ and Abalakov vertical jump, ball-shooting speed, and Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test were measured before and after training. The experimental group followed a 9-week plyometric and sprint program (i.e., jumping, hurdling, bouncing, skipping, and footwork) implemented before the soccer training. Baseline-training results showed no significant differences between the groups in any of the variables tested. No improvement was found in the CG; however, meaningful improvement was found in all variables in the experimental group: CMJ (effect size [ES] = 0.9), Abalakov vertical jump (ES = 1.3), 10-m sprint (ES = 0.7-0.9), 10-m agility (ES = 0.8-1.2), and ball-shooting speed (ES = 0.7-0.8). A specific combined plyometric and sprint training within regular soccer practice improved explosive actions compared with conventional soccer training only. Therefore, the short-term combined program had a beneficial impact on explosive actions, such as sprinting, change of direction, jumping, and ball-shooting speed which are important determinants of match-winning actions in soccer performance. Therefore, we propose modifications to current training methodology for pubertal soccer players to include combined plyometric and speed training for athlete preparation in this sport.

  1. Why psychiatry needs psychedelics and psychedelics need psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Sessa, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Without researching psychedelic drugs for medical therapy, psychiatry is turning its back on a group of compounds that could have great potential. Without the validation of the medical profession, the psychedelic drugs, and those who take them off-license, remain archaic sentiments of the past, with the users maligned as recreational drug abusers and subject to continued negative opinion. These two disparate groups--psychiatrists and recreational psychedelic drug users--are united by their shared recognition of the healing potential of these compounds. A resolution of this conflict is essential for the future of psychiatric medicine and psychedelic culture alike. Progression will come from professionals working in the field adapting to fit a conservative paradigm. In this way, they can provide the public with important treatments and also raise the profile of expanded consciousness in mainstream society.

  2. High-Intensity Interval Training for Overweight Adolescents: Program Acceptance of a Media Supported Intervention and Changes in Body Composition.

    PubMed

    Herget, Sabine; Reichardt, Sandra; Grimm, Andrea; Petroff, David; Käpplinger, Jakob; Haase, Michael; Markert, Jana; Blüher, Susann

    2016-11-08

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) consists of short intervals of exercise at high intensity intermitted by intervals of lower intensity and is associated with improvement of body composition and metabolic health in adults. Studies in overweight adolescents are scarce. We conducted a randomized controlled trial in overweight adolescents to compare acceptance and attendance of HIIT with or without weekly motivational encouragement through text messages and access to a study website. HIIT was offered for six months (including summer vacation) twice a week (60 min/session). Participation rates were continuously assessed and acceptance was measured. Clinical parameters were assessed at baseline and after six months. Twenty-eight adolescents participated in this study (age 15.5 ± 1.4; 54% female). The standard deviation score for body mass index over all participants was 2.33 at baseline and decreased by 0.026 (95% CI -0.048 to 0.10) units, p = 0.49. Waist to height ratio was 0.596 at baseline and decreased by 0.013 (95% CI 0.0025 to 0.024), p = 0.023. Participation within the first two months ranged from 65% to 75%, but fell to 15% within the last three months. Attendance in the intervention group was 14% (95% CI -8 to 37), p = 0.18, higher than the control group. Overall program content was rated as "good" by participants, although high drop-out rates were observed. Summer months constitute a serious problem regarding attendance. The use of media support has to be assessed further in appropriately powered trials.

  3. High-Intensity Interval Training for Overweight Adolescents: Program Acceptance of a Media Supported Intervention and Changes in Body Composition

    PubMed Central

    Herget, Sabine; Reichardt, Sandra; Grimm, Andrea; Petroff, David; Käpplinger, Jakob; Haase, Michael; Markert, Jana; Blüher, Susann

    2016-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) consists of short intervals of exercise at high intensity intermitted by intervals of lower intensity and is associated with improvement of body composition and metabolic health in adults. Studies in overweight adolescents are scarce. We conducted a randomized controlled trial in overweight adolescents to compare acceptance and attendance of HIIT with or without weekly motivational encouragement through text messages and access to a study website. HIIT was offered for six months (including summer vacation) twice a week (60 min/session). Participation rates were continuously assessed and acceptance was measured. Clinical parameters were assessed at baseline and after six months. Twenty-eight adolescents participated in this study (age 15.5 ± 1.4; 54% female). The standard deviation score for body mass index over all participants was 2.33 at baseline and decreased by 0.026 (95% CI −0.048 to 0.10) units, p = 0.49. Waist to height ratio was 0.596 at baseline and decreased by 0.013 (95% CI 0.0025 to 0.024), p = 0.023. Participation within the first two months ranged from 65% to 75%, but fell to 15% within the last three months. Attendance in the intervention group was 14% (95% CI −8 to 37), p = 0.18, higher than the control group. Overall program content was rated as “good” by participants, although high drop-out rates were observed. Summer months constitute a serious problem regarding attendance. The use of media support has to be assessed further in appropriately powered trials. PMID:27834812

  4. The Use of Health Information Technology Within Collaborative and Integrated Models of Child Psychiatry Practice.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Sara; Vanderlip, Erik; Sarvet, Barry

    2017-01-01

    There is a consistent need for more child and adolescent psychiatrists. Despite increased recruitment of child and adolescent psychiatry trainees, traditional models of care will likely not be able to meet the need of youth with mental illness. Integrated care models focusing on population-based, team-based, measurement-based, and evidenced-based care have been effective in addressing accessibility and quality of care. These integrated models have specific needs regarding health information technology (HIT). HIT has been used in a variety of different ways in several integrated care models. HIT can aid in implementation of these models but is not without its challenges.

  5. Effectiveness of an Upper Extremity Exercise Device Integrated With Computer Gaming for Aerobic Training in Adolescents With Spinal Cord Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Widman, Lana M; McDonald, Craig M; Abresch, R. Ted

    2006-01-01

    Background/Objective: To determine whether a new upper extremity exercise device integrated with a video game (GameCycle) requires sufficient metabolic demand and effort to induce an aerobic training effect and to explore the feasibility of using this system as an exercise modality in an exercise intervention. Design: Pre-post intervention. Setting: University-based research facility. Subject Population: A referred sample of 8 adolescent subjects with spina bifida (4 girls, 15.5 ± 0.6 years; 4 boys, 17.5 ± 0.9 years) was recruited to participate in the project. All subjects had some level of mobility impairment that did not allow them to participate in mainstream sports available to their nondisabled peers. Five subjects used a wheelchair full time, one used a wheelchair occasionally, but walked with forearm crutches, and 2 were fully ambulatory, but had impaired gait. Main Outcome Measures: Peak oxygen uptake, maximum work output, aerobic endurance, peak heart rate, rating of perceived exertion, and user satisfaction. Results: Six of the 8 subjects were able to reach a Vo2 of at least 50% of their Vo2 reserve while using the GameCycle. Seven of the 8 subjects reached a heart rate of at least 50% of their heart rate reserve. One subject did not reach either 50% of Vo2 reserve or 50% of heart rate reserve. Seven of the 8 subjects increased their maximum work capability after training with the GameCycle at least 3 times per week for 16 weeks. Conclusions: The data suggest that the GameCycle seems to be adequate as an exercise device to improve oxygen uptake and maximum work capability in adolescents with lower extremity disability caused by spinal cord dysfunction. The subjects in this study reported that the video game component was enjoyable and provided a motivation to exercise. PMID:17044386

  6. A look at cultural psychiatry in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Pedro

    2011-08-01

    Cultural psychiatry, as a subspecialty of psychiatry and thus medicine, has grown steadily and extensively in the 20th century, especially during the second part of this century. In this article, we look at the origins of cultural psychiatry; at its history through the centuries; at its role in the clinical, educational, and research domains; at its significance in today's conceptualization of the fields of psychiatry and mental health; and at its future perspectives within the realms of both medicine and psychiatry.

  7. Holistic-medical foundations of American psychiatry: a bicentennial.

    PubMed

    Lipowski, Z J

    1981-07-01

    American psychiatry has reached its bicentennial. Holistic-medical foundations have been its hallmark, inspiration, and source of preeminence. Incorporated by psychobiology, the American school, they enabled the growth of psychiatry as a medical specialty and scientific discipline and stimulated unparalleled growth of general hospital psychiatry, psychiatric research and teaching, and psychosomatic medicine and liaison psychiatry. Holistic conceptions, a product of a democratic system and the liberal mind, continue to provide the best framework for psychiatry and an antidote to dogma and fanaticism.

  8. [Use of informatics technology in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Margariti, M; Papadimitriou, G N

    2012-01-01

    Computer technology dominates our daily lives and has become an integral professional tool in medical practice and by extension, in psychiatry as well. The widespread use of internet technology has taken place with unprecedented speed in the history of human civilization, spreading in a few decades to all countries of the world, offering novel possibilities for transmitting information, and leading to the globalization of knowledge. However, the speed with which computer technology is becoming a part of our lives is accompanied by difficulties in integration. The continued evolution of applications often leads to the impression that to be modern and efficient we have to run continuously after developments, dedicating time and effort that we cannot often afford. At the same time, its widespread use alters the needs of our patients, and our efficiency is constantly judged in a globalized environment which, while offering new possibilities, also has new demands. The initial impression that computer technology is simply a tool that can facilitate the work of those who are willing and able to use it has been replaced by the perception that the practice of medicine, in both clinical and academic level, requires sufficient knowledge of modern technology and the development of relevant skills for ongoing training and following innovative applications. The result of this assumption is the introduction of technology courses in the curricula of medical schools in the country. This article offers a brief description of the uses of information technology in psychiatry. In particular, e-mail is one of the most popular Internet services and there is internationally an increasing pressure from the public to be able to contact their doctor by e-mail. Furthermore, almost all psychiatric journals now have a digital electronic edition, thus increasing the volume of articles published, the ease of accessing the required information, and ultimately the reduction of the time it takes a

  9. Deinstitutionalizing the history of contemporary psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Eghigian, Greg

    2011-06-01

    While contemporary mental health services have been marked by the burgeoning of outpatient and preventive care, the historiography of psychiatry remains largely tied to the study of custodial and palliative treatment.The work in which contemporary psychiatry has been involved cannot be adequately understood as a singular, autonomous enterprise based in a residential facility. It has become a technoscience that operates in numerous settings and alongside multiple sciences, technologies and decision-makers. This paper explores what it might mean to 'deinstitutionalize' the history of contemporary psychiatry by examining the case of social therapy for sex offenders in West Germany.

  10. Commentary: Is ethical forensic psychiatry an oxymoron?

    PubMed

    Dike, Charles C

    2008-01-01

    The role of psychiatry in the legal arena is grossly misunderstood and even controversial. Some respected psychiatrists and members of the public have argued that the current state of the science of psychiatry is such that it has little to offer the legal system, and consequently, psychiatrists should be banned from the courts. Alan Stone's critique of forensic psychiatry 25 years ago is probably the most pointed. In this article, a summary of four different responses to Alan Stone's critique will be presented and analyzed.

  11. A Marxist approach to psychology and psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Nahem, J

    1982-01-01

    Marxism considers psychology and psychiatry to be young and complex sciences which are powerfully affected by the nature of society. Marxism contributes to these sciences by applying dialectical and historical materialism to their study and development. The Marxist critique of psychology and psychiatry under capitalism identifies the immense harmful effect on them of capitalist class ideology in a number of areas: anti-working class theories, racism, national chauvinism, sexism, theories of fixed evil human nature, and false or one-sided theories. Socialism is held to provide a healthy environment for individual psychological development and to utilize psychology and psychiatry for scientific and humane ends.

  12. Age-Related Responses in Circulating Markers of Redox Status in Healthy Adolescents and Adults during the Course of a Training Macrocycle

    PubMed Central

    Zalavras, Athanasios; Fatouros, Ioannis G.; Deli, Chariklia K.; Draganidis, Dimitris; Theodorou, Anastasios A.; Soulas, Dimitrios; Koutsioras, Yiannis; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z.

    2015-01-01

    Redox status changes during an annual training cycle in young and adult track and field athletes and possible differences between the two age groups were assessed. Forty-six individuals (24 children and 22 adults) were assigned to four groups: trained adolescents, (TAD, N = 13), untrained adolescents (UAD, N = 11), trained adults (TA, N = 12), and untrained adults (UA, N = 10). Aerobic capacity and redox status related variables [total antioxidant capacity (TAC), glutathione (GSH), catalase activity, TBARS, protein carbonyls (PC), uric acid, and bilirubin] were assessed at rest and in response to a time-trial bout before training, at mid- and posttraining. TAC, catalase activity, TBARS, PC, uric acid, and bilirubin increased and GSH declined in all groups in response to acute exercise independent of training status and age. Training improved aerobic capacity, TAC, and GSH at rest and in response to exercise. Age affected basal and exercise-induced responses since adults demonstrated a greater TAC and GSH levels at rest and a greater rise of TBARS, protein carbonyls, and TAC and decline of GSH in response to exercise. Catalase activity, uric acid, and bilirubin responses were comparable among groups. These results suggest that acute exercise, age, and training modulate the antioxidant reserves of the body. PMID:25945150

  13. Cultural neuroscience and psychopathology: prospects for cultural psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Suparna; Kirmayer, Laurence J.

    2016-01-01

    There is a long tradition that seeks to understand the impact of culture on the causes, form, treatment, and outcome of psychiatric disorders. An early, colonialist literature attributed cultural characteristics and variations in psychopathology and behavior to deficiencies in the brains of colonized peoples. Contemporary research in social and cultural neuroscience holds the promise of moving beyond these invidious comparisons to a more sophisticated understanding of cultural variations in brain function relevant to psychiatry. To achieve this, however, we need better models of the nature of psychopathology and of culture itself. Culture is not simply a set of traits or characteristics shared by people with a common geographic, historical, or ethnic background. Current anthropology understands culture as fluid, flexible systems of discourse, institutions, and practices, which individuals actively use for self-fashioning and social positioning. Globalization introduces new cultural dynamics and demands that we rethink culture in relation to a wider domain of evolving identities, knowledge, and practice. Psychopathology is not reducible to brain dysfunction in either its causes, mechanisms, or expression. In addition to neuropsychiatric disorders, the problems that people bring to psychiatrists may result from disorders in cognition, the personal and social meanings of experience, and the dynamics of interpersonal interactions or social systems and institutions. The shifting meanings of culture and psychopathology have implications for efforts to apply cultural neuroscience to psychiatry. We consider how cultural neuroscience can refine use of culture and its role in psychopathology using the example of adolescent aggression as a symptom of conduct disorder. PMID:19874976

  14. Psychiatry during the Nazi era: ethical lessons for the modern professional

    PubMed Central

    Strous, Rael D

    2007-01-01

    For the first time in history, psychiatrists during the Nazi era sought to systematically exterminate their patients. However, little has been published from this dark period analyzing what may be learned for clinical and research psychiatry. At each stage in the murderous process lay a series of unethical and heinous practices, with many psychiatrists demonstrating a profound commitment to the atrocities, playing central, pivotal roles critical to the success of Nazi policy. Several misconceptions led to this misconduct, including allowing philosophical constructs to define clinical practice, focusing exclusively on preventative medicine, allowing political pressures to influence practice, blurring the roles of clinicians and researchers, and falsely believing that good science and good ethics always co-exist. Psychiatry during this period provides a most horrifying example of how science may be perverted by external forces. It thus becomes crucial to include the Nazi era psychiatry experience in ethics training as an example of proper practice gone awry. PMID:17326822

  15. The development of an RDoC-based treatment program for adolescent depression: “Training for Awareness, Resilience, and Action” (TARA)

    PubMed Central

    Henje Blom, Eva; Duncan, Larissa G.; Ho, Tiffany C.; Connolly, Colm G.; LeWinn, Kaja Z.; Chesney, Margaret; Hecht, Frederick M.; Yang, Tony T.

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the current leading causes of disability worldwide. Adolescence is a vulnerable period for the onset of depression, with MDD affecting 8–20% of all youth. Traditional treatment methods have not been sufficiently effective to slow the increasing prevalence of adolescent depression. We therefore propose a new model for the treatment of adolescent depression – Training for Awareness, Resilience, and Action (TARA) – that is based on current understanding of developmental and depression neurobiology. The TARA model is aligned with the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) of the National Institute of Mental Health. In this article, we first address the relevance of RDoC to adolescent depression. Second, we identify the major RDoC domains of function involved in adolescent depression and organize them in a way that gives priority to domains thought to be driving the psychopathology. Third, we select therapeutic training strategies for TARA based on current scientific evidence of efficacy for the prioritized domains of function in a manner that maximizes time, resources, and feasibility. The TARA model takes into consideration the developmental limitation in top-down cognitive control in adolescence and promotes bottom-up strategies such as vagal afference to decrease limbic hyperactivation and its secondary effects. The program has been informed by mindfulness-based therapy and yoga, as well as modern psychotherapeutic techniques. The treatment program is semi-manualized, progressive, and applied in a module-based approach designed for a group setting that is to be conducted one session per week for 12 weeks. We hope that this work may form the basis for a novel and more effective treatment strategy for adolescent depression, as well as broaden the discussion on how to address this challenge. PMID:25191250

  16. [IMPACT OF AGING IN PSYCHIATRY].

    PubMed

    Rubin, Romina; Jauregui, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    The changes associated with aging influence the clinical presentation and treatment approach of psychiatric illness. Several psychiatric disorders are common in old age as depression or set of diseases with cognitive impairment requiring geriatric knowledge. In many countries psychiatry of the elderly are called psychogeriatric. Regardless of the name objective of this article is to convey that the psychiatrist who treats patients over 65 years with multiple disorders, with frailty social problems and polypharmacy should have some tools in addition to the thorough understanding of psychiatric illness itself. Teamwork, meet physiological changes of aging and how these affect the response to drugs, atypical presentation of illness and keep in mind the importance of psychosocial and environmental issues both in presentation and in addressing and monitoring of disease.

  17. Sacred psychiatry in ancient Greece

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    From the ancient times, there are three basic approaches for the interpretation of the different psychic phenomena: the organic, the psychological, and the sacred approach. The sacred approach forms the primordial foundation for any psychopathological development, innate to the prelogical human mind. Until the second millennium B.C., the Great Mother ruled the Universe and shamans cured the different mental disorders. But, around 1500 B.C., the predominance of the Hellenic civilization over the Pelasgic brought great changes in the theological and psychopathological fields. The Hellenes eliminated the cult of the Great Mother and worshiped Dias, a male deity, the father of gods and humans. With the Father's help and divinatory powers, the warrior-hero made diagnoses and found the right therapies for mental illness; in this way, sacerdotal psychiatry was born. PMID:24725988

  18. Sacred psychiatry in ancient Greece.

    PubMed

    Tzeferakos, Georgios; Douzenis, Athanasios

    2014-04-12

    From the ancient times, there are three basic approaches for the interpretation of the different psychic phenomena: the organic, the psychological, and the sacred approach. The sacred approach forms the primordial foundation for any psychopathological development, innate to the prelogical human mind. Until the second millennium B.C., the Great Mother ruled the Universe and shamans cured the different mental disorders. But, around 1500 B.C., the predominance of the Hellenic civilization over the Pelasgic brought great changes in the theological and psychopathological fields. The Hellenes eliminated the cult of the Great Mother and worshiped Dias, a male deity, the father of gods and humans. With the Father's help and divinatory powers, the warrior-hero made diagnoses and found the right therapies for mental illness; in this way, sacerdotal psychiatry was born.

  19. The evolution of community psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Dax, E C

    1992-06-01

    Community Psychiatry is sometimes regarded as a separate and even as a recent study. The history of its evolution in Australia shows it to have resulted from a logical progression since the earliest days of the psychiatric services. The demand for care completely outstripped the accommodation available so two separate but parallel methods of dealing with this problem were evolved. The first explored how the numbers in the overcrowded hospitals could be reduced, and the second, the ways in which admission could be avoided. Both methods resulted in the expansion of community services. Present day activities must be viewed in this light and community services recognised to be an indivisible portion of a professionally organised total mental health organisation.

  20. CULTURE, PSYCHIATRY AND NEW ZEALAND

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, A.N.; Dobson, Teara Wharemate

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides a critical appraisal of the importance of cultural perspective in the psychiatric diagnosis and management plan. The working philosophy of mental health services in New Zealand is primarily monocultural and based on Western medical conceptualisation of diagnosis and treatment protocol. In view of the emphasis on bicultural health perspectives in recent years and in tune with the objectives of the Treaty of Waitangi's ethnocultural partnership, the provision of a culturally safe and sensitive mental health coverage of Maori and Pacific Islander clients has become an important health issue in the country. The present discussion of the ethnocultural influence on clinical psychiatry highlights some of the relevant issues from the transcultural perspective. PMID:21206600

  1. Effects of heavy resistance training on maximal and explosive force production, endurance and serum hormones in adolescent handball players.

    PubMed

    Gorostiaga, E M; Izquierdo, M; Iturralde, P; Ruesta, M; Ibáñez, J

    1999-10-01

    To determine the effects of 6-weeks of heavy-resistance training on physical fitness and serum hormone status in adolescents (range 14-16 years old) 19 male handball players were divided into two different groups: a handball training group (NST, n = 10), and a handball and heavy-resistance strength training group (ST, n = 9). A third group of 4 handball goalkeepers of similar age served as a control group (C, n = 4). After the 6-week training period, the ST group showed an improvement in maximal dynamic strength of the leg extensors (12.2%; P < 0.01) and the upper extremity muscles (23%; P < 0.01), while no changes were observed in the NST and C groups. Similar differences were observed in the maximal isometric unilateral leg extension forces. The height of the vertical jump increased in the NST group from 29.5 (SD 4) cm to 31.4 (SD 5) cm (P < 0.05) while no changes were observed in the ST and C groups. A significant increase was observed in the ST group in the velocity of the throwing test [from 71.7 (SD 7) km x h(-1) to 74.0 (SD 7) km x h(-1); P < 0.001] during the 6-week period while no changes were observed in the NST and C groups. During a submaximal endurance test running at 11 km x h(-1), a significant decrease in blood lactate concentration occurred in the NST group [from 3.3 (SD 0.9) mmol x l(-1) to 2.4 (SD 0.8) mmol x l(-1); P < 0.01] during the experiment, while no change was observed in the ST or C groups. Finally, a significant increase (P < 0.01) was noted in the testosterone:cortisol ratio in the C group, while the increase in the NST group approached statistical significance (P < 0.08) and no changes in this ratio occurred in the ST group. The present findings suggested that the addition of 6-weeks of heavy resistance training to the handball training resulted in gains in maximal strength and throwing velocity but it compromised gains in leg explosive force production and endurance running. The tendency for a compromised testosterone:cortisol ratio

  2. [The most important obstacles of the development of Hungarian psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Kalmár, Sándor

    2015-06-01

    A quarter of a century ago the change of the political system in Hungary precipitated a serious value-crisis and caused a lot of harmful effects in nurturing and the development of psychiatry. The author establishes that the attack against psychiatry is more intensive than previously but neither the education and health management nor the psychiatric leadership could cope with these difficulties. It can't be denied that the foundation of lifelong mental health begins in the early life years and about 75% of the first Mental Disorder manifests in adolescence and youth. We are not able to ensure the special rights of every child according to the Hungarian Constitution and the Declaration of the Rights of the Child by the United Nations. The large inequalities within the country, the lack of paramount mental education and nurturing, the lack of essential, consistent eternal values, the lack of required psychiatric care system are huge obstacles of the development of healthy individual and leads to self-destructive behaviour and several, serious physical and mental disorders. The purpose of the author is to call psychiatrists' attention to the main obstacles of the development of Hungarian Psychiatric Care System. The main obstacles of the present psychiatric care system: 1. Unclarified notions, confusion of ideas. 2. Somatic, neurologic, mental, cultural-social and spiritual ignorance. 3. Lack of organization in Mental Education and Psychiatric Care System. 4. Value-crisis in our society despite the fact that the "Council of Wise Men" created a "Scale of the Essential Consistent Eternal Values" for the Hungarian Education System in 2008. 5. Lack of mental health prevention both in education system and health care system. There is no teaching of hygiene lessons in the Hungarian schools. 6. Negligence and selfishness among the population. 7. Disinterest among competent authorities. 8. Leaving the most important possibilities out of consideration. The author establishes

  3. A randomized controlled trial of Kung Fu training for metabolic health in overweight/obese adolescents: the "martial fitness" study.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Tracey W; Kohn, Michael; Chow, Chin Moi; Singh, Maria Fiatarone

    2009-07-01

    Twenty overweight/obese adolescents underwent six months of Kung Fu or placebo (Tai Chi) training, 3x.wk(-1). Outcomes included fasting insulin and insulin resistance, lipids, glucose and HbA(1c), and C-reactive protein (CRP). CRP decreased significantly (p = 0.03) in both groups over time at six months. Although insulin sensitivity did not change, HbA(1c) tended to decrease over time (p = 0.09), again with no group difference (p = 0.60). Reduced CRP was related to increased upper body strength (p = 0.01). Increased lean body mass was related to reductions in HbA(1c), insulin resistance, triglycerides, and total cholesterol. Improvements in lean body mass appear to have a potential role in favorable metabolic outcomes, independent of changes in fat mass. Further research in this area is warranted before definite conclusions can be drawn about the efficacy of martial arts training for metabolic outcomes in this cohort.

  4. Delpech and the origins of occupational psychiatry.

    PubMed Central

    O'Flynn, R R; Waldron, H A

    1990-01-01

    Auguste-Louis Delpech (1818-80) has been remembered principally as the author of the first detailed description of the serious consequences of exposure to carbon disulphide. A close reading of his work suggests that his reputation has been seriously undervalued. The subsequent development of occupational psychiatry, with its emphasis on the distinction between the organic and the functional, may be traced through publications on carbon disulphide. It is argued that a contemporary approach to occupational psychiatry is long overdue. PMID:2183876

  5. What can philosophy do for psychiatry?

    PubMed Central

    Fulford, Kenneth WM; Stanghellini, Giovanni; Broome, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    This article illustrates the practical impact of recent developments in the philosophy of psychiatry in five key areas: patient-centred practice, new models of service delivery, neuroscience research, psychiatric education, and the organisation of psychiatry as an international science-led discipline focused on patient care. We conclude with a note on the role of philosophy in countering the stigmatisation of mental disorder. PMID:16633476

  6. Two weeks of high-intensity interval training improves novel but not traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bond, Bert; Cockcroft, Emma J; Williams, Craig A; Harris, Sam; Gates, Phillip E; Jackman, Sarah R; Armstrong, Neil; Barker, Alan R

    2015-09-15

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) improves traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adolescents, but no study has identified the influence of HIIT on endothelial and autonomic function in this group. Thirteen 13- to 14-yr-old adolescents (6 girls) completed six HIIT sessions over 2 wk. Each training session consisted of eight to ten 1-min repetitions of cycling at 90% peak power interspersed with 75 s of unloaded cycling. Traditional (triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose, insulin, and blood pressure) and novel [flow-mediated dilation (FMD), heart rate variability (HRV)] CVD risk factors were assessed in a fasted and postprandial state before (PRE), 1 day after (POST-1D), and 3 days after (POST-3D) training. Aerobic fitness was determined PRE and POST-3D. Two weeks of HIIT had no effect on aerobic fitness or traditional CVD risk factors determined in the fasted or postprandial state (P > 0.15). Compared with PRE, fasted FMD was improved POST-1D [P = 0.003, effect size (ES) = 0.70] but not POST-3D (P = 0.32, ES = 0.22). Fasted FMD was greater POST-1D compared with POST-3D (P = 0.04, ES = 0.48). Compared with PRE, postprandial FMD was greater POST-1D (P < 0.001, ES = 1.01) and POST-3D (P = 0.01, ES = 0.60). Fasted HRV was greater POST-1D (P = 0.001, ES = 0.71) and POST-3D (P = 0.02, ES = 0.44). The test meal lowered HRV in all laboratory visits (P < 0.001, ES = 0.59), but there were no differences in postprandial HRV between visits (P > 0.32 for all). Two weeks of HIIT enhanced endothelial function and HRV without improvements in traditional CVD risk factors. However, most of this favorable adaptation was lost POST-3D, suggesting that regularly performing high-intensity exercise is needed to maintain these benefits.

  7. Using Personal Mobile Phones to Assess Dietary Intake in Free-Living Adolescents: Comparison of Face-to-Face Versus Telephone Training

    PubMed Central

    Sabaté, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Background Traditional paper-based methods to assess food intake can be cumbersome for adolescents; use of mobile phones to track and photograph what they eat may be a more convenient, reliable, and compelling way to collect data. Objective Our aims were to determine (1) the feasibility of using personal mobile phones to send food records with digital images (FRDIs) among free-living adolescents and (2) whether the quality of food records differed between a high-level intervention group (ie, face-to-face training plus real-time support) and a low-level intervention group (ie, telephone training plus next-day follow-up). Methods Adolescents (N=42, 11 males and 31 females) aged 12-18 years who had a mobile phone with camera enrolled in the study via consecutive sampling. The first group (n=21) received face-to-face training while the second group (n=21) was trained via telephone. Participants received a fiducial marker (FM) and completed a 1-day FRDI using their mobile phones. At every eating occasion, participants were to (1) take clear images of their meals/food with a correctly placed fiducial marker before eating, (2) send the image immediately to a designated email address, (3) right after completing a meal, send a text message listing the time and name of the meal, foods eaten, and amounts eaten, and (4) before sleep, send an “end” text message to indicate completion of food recording. Those who received face-to-face training received real-time support during reporting; those trained by telephone received next-day follow-up. Descriptive statistics and comparison tests were used to determine performance of the groups. Results All participants (N=42) who underwent training completed their 1-day FRDI. A significantly greater proportion of the low-level intervention group compared to the high-level intervention group placed their FM correctly in the image (95% vs 43%, P<.001), had complete information for each meal in their food record (95% vs 71%, P=.04), and

  8. Divergent Fates of the Medical Humanities in Psychiatry and Internal Medicine: Should Psychiatry Be Rehumanized?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Bret R.; Hellerstein, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine the degree to which the medical humanities have been integrated into the fields of internal medicine and psychiatry, the authors assessed the presence of medical humanities articles in selected psychiatry and internal medicine journals from 1950 to 2000. Methods: The journals searched were the three highest-ranking…

  9. Physicians as Managers: Psychiatry Residents' Perceived Gaps in Knowledge and Skills in Administrative Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sockalingam, Sanjeev; Stergiopoulos, Vicky; Maggi, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors determine psychiatry residents' perceived needs and educational preferences for a physician-manager curriculum. Method: The authors surveyed 102 psychiatry residents at the University of Toronto for their perceived current and desired knowledge and skills in specific administrative areas, and their educational preferences…

  10. New image of psychiatry, mass media impact and public relations.

    PubMed

    Jakovljević, Miro; Tomić, Zoran; Maslov, Boris; Skoko, Iko

    2010-06-01

    The mass media has a powerful impact on public attitudes about mental health and psychiatry. The question of identity of psychiatry as a medical profession as well as of the future of psychiatry has been the subject of much controversial discussion. Psychiatry today has the historical opportunity to shape the future of mental health care, medicine and society. It has gained in scientific and professional status by the tremendous increase of knowledge and treatment skills. Psychiatry should build up new transdisciplinary and integrative image of a specialized profession, promote it and make it public. Good public relations are very important for the future of psychiatry.

  11. The influence of developmental, education, and mentorship experiences on career paths in cultural psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Boehnlein, James K

    2011-04-01

    Career paths in cultural psychiatry and other areas of medicine often are influenced by a combination of developmental, academic and training experiences. One of the satisfactions for the cultural psychiatrist is the opportunity to integrate lifelong interests that are not central to medical training, such as anthropology, philosophy, history or geography into one's daily work and career path, and this is not necessarily just applicable to clinical work or research. A background in social sciences can be very helpful in navigating the political and interpersonal challenges of working in an academic medical center or designing effective education programs across the career spectrum in medicine. This article traces the development of my career in academic cultural psychiatry and illustrates the way my clinical and academic interests were influenced both by early developmental and educational experiences and by positive career experiences as a clinician, teacher and researcher in the context of effective mentorship and professional peer relationships. The future of cultural psychiatry is exciting and its continued growth will be dependent on effective nurturance of young physicians who have a broad vision of the important place of cultural psychiatry and how it influences medicine, mental health, and society at large.

  12. Assessment of an undergraduate psychiatry course in an African setting

    PubMed Central

    Baig, Benjamin J; Beaglehole, Anna; Stewart, Robert C; Boeing, Leonie; Blackwood, Douglas H; Leuvennink, Johan; Kauye, Felix

    2008-01-01

    Background International reports recommend the improvement in the amount and quality of training for mental health workers in low and middle income countries. The Scotland-Malawi Mental Health Education Project (SMMHEP) has been established to support the teaching of psychiatry to medical students in the University of Malawi. While anecdotally supportive medical educational initiatives appear of value, little quantitative evidence exists to demonstrate whether such initiatives can deliver comparable educational standards. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of an undergraduate psychiatry course given by UK psychiatrists in Malawi by studying University of Malawi and Edinburgh University medical students' performance on an MCQ examination paper. Methods An undergraduate psychiatry course followed by an MCQ exam was delivered by the SMMHEP to 57 Malawi medical students. This same MCQ exam was given to 71 Edinburgh University medical students who subsequently sat their own Edinburgh University examination. Results There were no significant differences between Edinburgh students' performance on the Malawi exam and their own Edinburgh University exam. (p = 0.65). This would suggest that the Malawi exam is a comparable standard to the Edinburgh exam. Malawi students marks ranged from 52.4%–84.6%. Importantly 84.4% of Malawi students scored above 60% on their exam which would equate to a hypothetical pass by UK university standards. Conclusion The support of an undergraduate course in an African setting by high income country specialists can attain a high percentage pass rate by UK standards. Although didactic teaching has been surpassed by more novel educational methods, in resource poor countries it remains an effective and cost effective method of gaining an important educational standard. PMID:18430237

  13. Psychiatry as a career: A survey of factors affecting students’ interest in Psychiatry as a career

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Mubashir; Taj, Tahir; Ali, Arif; Badar, Nasira; Saeed, Farzan; Abbas, Muhammed; Muzaffar, Saad; Abid, Bilal

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the characteristics of medical students and graduates interested in choosing psychiatry as a career and the obstacles in choosing this field of medicine. Two private and two public medical institutes were surveyed from June 2007 to August 2007. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to third, fourth and final year students and to medical graduates doing their internship in these four medical institutes. A total of 909 medical students and graduates participated in the study. Seventeen percent of participants responded positively regarding their interest in psychiatry as a career. Significantly higher proportion belonged to private medical institutes (14% vs. 24%, P-value =0.001). There was no significant difference in reporting interest for psychiatry in regard to age, sex, year in medical school and whether or not the participant had done a psychiatry ward rotation. However significantly higher proportion of participants (22%, n=43) were reporting their interest in the field of psychiatry who had done more than a month long psychiatry ward rotation as compared to those participants (14%, n=54) with less than a month or no psychiatry rotation (P-value=0.01). More students were reporting their interest in psychiatry with a family history of psychiatric illness as compared to without family history (24% vs 16%, P-value=0.03). In conclusion, students and graduates with more than a month long rotation in psychiatry, studying in private medical colleges and with a family history of psychiatric illness were more interested in choosing psychiatry as a career. PMID:19753292

  14. Effects of Balance Training on Postural Sway, Leg Extensor Strength, and Jumping Height in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granacher, Urs; Gollhofer, Albert; Kriemler, Susi

    2010-01-01

    Deficits in strength of the lower extremities and postural control have been associated with a high risk of sustaining sport-related injuries. Such injuries often occur during physical education (PE) classes and mostly affect the lower extremities. Thus, the objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of balance training on postural…

  15. Social Intervention for Adolescents with Autism and Significant Intellectual Disability: Initial Efficacyof Reciprocal Imitation Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Brooke; Walton, Katherine; Carlsen, Danielle; Hamlin, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with autism have difficulty with social skills across the lifespan. Few social interventions have been examined for older individuals with autism who also have significant intellectual disabilities (ID). Previous research suggests that reciprocal imitation training (RIT) improves imitation and social engagement in young children with…

  16. Use of Peers to Train and Monitor the Performance of Adolescents with Severe Handicaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wacker, David P.; Berg, Wendy K.

    1985-01-01

    Two peer trainers, one moderately and one severely mentally retarded, each taught three severely disabled peers to perform separate steps of a complex assembly line task. Peer trainers were taught to demonstrate correct performance and to praise or correct trainees' performance contingently. Trainers were successful in training and monitoring the…

  17. Virtual Environments for Social Skills Training: Comments from Two Adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Sarah; Leonard, Anne; Mitchell, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Previous research has shown that computer-based tasks can motivate people with autism and encourage learning. As a computer-based medium, Virtual Environments (VEs) offer a potentially useful tool for social skills training for people with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs). However, there are some concerns over whether people with ASDs can…

  18. Effectiveness of a Parent Training Program in (Pre)Adolescence: Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leijten, Patty; Overbeek, Geertjan; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.

    2012-01-01

    The present randomized controlled trial examined the effectiveness of the parent training program Parents and Children Talking Together (PCTT) for parents with children in the preadolescent period who experience parenting difficulties. The program is focused on reducing child problem behavior by improving parents' communication and problem solving…

  19. Neurology and psychiatry in Babylon.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Edward H; Wilson, James V Kinnier

    2014-09-01

    We here review Babylonian descriptions of neurological and psychiatric disorders, including epilepsy, stroke, psychoses, obsessive compulsive disorder, phobias, psychopathic behaviour, depression and anxiety. Most of these accounts date from the first Babylonian dynasty of the first half of the second millennium BC, within a millennium and a half of the origin of writing. The Babylonians were remarkably acute and objective observers of medical disorders and human behaviour. Their detailed descriptions are surprisingly similar to modern 19th and 20th century AD textbook accounts, with the exception of subjective thoughts and feelings which are more modern fields of enquiry. They had no knowledge of brain or psychological function. Some neuropsychiatric disorders, e.g. stroke or facial palsy, had a physical basis requiring the attention of a physician or asû, using a plant and mineral based pharmacology; some disorders such as epilepsy, psychoses, depression and anxiety were regarded as supernatural due to evil demons or spirits, or the anger of personal gods, and thus required the intervention of the priest or ašipu; other disorders such as obsessive compulsive disorder and psychopathic behaviour were regarded as a mystery. The Babylonians were the first to describe the clinical foundations of neurology and psychiatry. We discuss these accounts in relation to subsequent and more modern clinical descriptions.

  20. [Proteomics: biomarker research in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Hünnerkopf, R; Grassl, J; Thome, J

    2007-10-01

    Over the last decade, genomics research in psychiatry and neuroscience has provided important insights into genes expressed under different physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Contrary to the great expectations regarding a clinical use of these datasets, genomics failed to improve markedly the diagnostic and therapeutic options in brain disorders. Due to alternative splicing and posttranslational modifications, one single gene determines a multitude of gene products. Therefore, in order to understand molecular processes in neuropsychiatric disorders, it is necessary to unravel signal transduction pathways and complex interaction networks on the level of proteins, not only DNA and mRNA. Proteomics utilises high-throughput mass spectrometric protein identification that can reveal protein expression levels, posttranslational modifications and protein-protein interactions. Proteomic tools have the power to identify quantitative and qualitative protein patterns in postmortem brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or serum, thus increasing the knowledge about etiology and pathomechanisms of brain diseases. Comparing protein profiles in healthy and disease states provides an opportunity to establish specific diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. In addition, proteomic studies of the effects of medication - in vitro and in vivo - might help to design specific pharmaceutical agents with fewer side effects. In this overview, we present the most widely used proteomic techniques and illustrate the potential and limitations of this field of research. Furthermore, we provide insight into the contributions of proteomics to the study of psychiatric diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, drug addiction, schizophrenia and depression.