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Sample records for adolescent psychological flexibility

  1. Inflexible parents, inflexible kids: a 6-year longitudinal study of parenting style and the development of psychological flexibility in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kathryn E; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C L

    2012-08-01

    Parenting behaviors have been linked to children's self regulation, but it is less clear how they relate to adolescent psychological flexibility. Psychological flexibility is a broad construct that describes an individual's ability to respond appropriately to environmental demands and internal experiences in the service of their goals. We examined the longitudinal relationships between perceived parenting style and psychological flexibility among students at five Australian schools (N= 749) over 6 years, beginning in Grade 7 (50.3% female, mean age 12.39 years). Parenting style was measured in Grades 7 and 12, and psychological flexibility from Grade 9 through 12. Psychological flexibility decreased, on average, with age. Multi-level modelling indicated that authoritarian parenting (low warmth, high control) in Grade 7 predicted later (low) psychological flexibility. Moreover, increases in authoritarian parenting and decreases in authoritative parenting (high warmth and control) were associated with adolescent psychological flexibility across the high school years. Change in parenting predicted future psychological flexibility but did not predict change over time. Structural Equation Modelling revealed that adolescent psychological flexibility in Grade 9 predicted later decreases in authoritarian and increases in authoritative parenting. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding how parenting changes and the consequences of such change for the development of psychological flexibility. PMID:22311519

  2. Inflexible Parents, Inflexible Kids: A 6-Year Longitudinal Study of Parenting Style and the Development of Psychological Flexibility in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Kathryn E.; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C. L.

    2012-01-01

    Parenting behaviors have been linked to children's self regulation, but it is less clear how they relate to adolescent psychological flexibility. Psychological flexibility is a broad construct that describes an individual's ability to respond appropriately to environmental demands and internal experiences in the service of their goals. We examined…

  3. Advances in Adolescent Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Violato, Claudio; Travis, Leroy

    Adolescence is a multiplicity of events, experiences, behavior, people, and cultural meanings. This book attempts to provide detailed and in-depth analysis of the central issues related to adolescent psychology, while taking this multiplicity into account. A comprehensive representation of the topic is provided through integration of historical,…

  4. Adolescent Psychology around the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This book paints a portrait of adolescent psychology in 4 major regions: Africa/the Middle East, Asia, the Americas, and Europe. Featuring 24 revised and updated chapters from the "International Encyclopedia of Adolescence" (2007), readers are introduced to the way the majority of the world's adolescents actually live. Most contributors are…

  5. Psychological Dynamics of Adolescent Satanism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Anthony R.; Story, Donald W.

    1990-01-01

    Attempts to describe the psychological processes that predispose an individual to adopt a Satanic belief system. Describes processes in terms of child-parent relationships and the developmental tasks of adolescence. Proposes a model called the web of psychic tension to represent the process of Satanic cult adoption. Describes techniques for…

  6. The Positive Psychology of Youth and Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Grant Jewell

    2003-01-01

    Introduces this theme issue that explores the nature of adolescence and the positive psychology movement that focuses on positive aspects of adolescent development. Articles in this collection provide a window into the exploration of youth strengths. (SLD)

  7. Jungian Feminine Psychology and Adolescent Prostitutes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton-Ruddy, Lara; Handelsman, Mitchell M.

    1986-01-01

    Explores Jungian feminine psychology and its application in the treatment of adolescent prostitutes. Discusses Wolff's (1956) work on feminine functions and Leonard's (1982) work with father-daughter wounds. Explores techniques for applying these concepts with adolescent prostitutes. (Author)

  8. Psychological Characteristics of Adolescent Steroid Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Kent F.; Kleiman, Mark E.

    1994-01-01

    Used Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory and Profile of Mood States to assess psychological characteristics in 72 adolescent males: 24 adolescent athletes who reported steroid use, 24 athletes with no steroid use, and 24 nonathletes. Although some personality variables differentiated between athletes and nonathletes, no personality variables…

  9. Psychological Adjustment in Adolescents with Vision Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P.

    2012-01-01

    The present study compared psychological adjustment of 158 adolescents with vision impairment and 158 sighted adolescents with a matched-pair design using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Adolescent self-reports and teacher reports on emotional problems, peer problems, and total difficulties showed higher scores in students with…

  10. Experiences of Psychological and Physical Aggression in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Links to Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; Garrido, Edward; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This research examined links between adolescents' experiences of psychological and physical relationship aggression and their psychological distress. Experiences of psychological and physical aggression were expected to correlate positively with symptoms of psychological distress, but experiences of psychological aggression were…

  11. Subjective psychological symptoms in outpatient asthmatic adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lebowitz, M D; Thompson, H C; Strunk, R C

    1981-12-01

    Outpatient adolescent asthmatics were studied using the Asthma Symptom Checklist (ASC) of Kinsman et al. The study showed that outpatient asthmatic adolescents are similar in many respects to older institutionalized asthmatics, except that in the former, psychological symptoms are more diffuse and recognition of respiratory symptoms is less severe. Further studies are needed to determine which psychological symptoms are most important in predicting prognosis in affected asthmatics or the development of "psychosomatic" asthma. PMID:7338897

  12. The Psychology of Adolescents: Symposium IV A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keng, Chiam Heng; Park, Joon Hee

    These two symposium papers provide: (1) a profile of rural adolescents in Malaysia, by Chiam Heng Keng; and (2) report the findings of a study of the psychology and life of Korean children and adolescents, by Joon Hee Park. In the former report, 521 boys and 550 girls completed a checklist consisting of 195 problems and indicated problems which…

  13. Psychological Types of Academically Gifted Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Tracy L.; Neumeister, Kristie L. Speirs; Cassady, Jerrell C.

    2007-01-01

    This study provides descriptive information about the psychological types of a sample of 931 gifted adolescents who attended a public residential academy. Psychological types are assessed with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The MBTI reports on four pairs of personality types: Extraversion/Introversion (E/I), Sensing/Intuition (S/N),…

  14. Psychological Flexibility as a Fundamental Aspect of Health

    PubMed Central

    Kashdan, Todd B.

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally, positive emotions and thoughts, strengths, and the satisfaction of basic psychological needs for belonging, competence, and autonomy have been seen as the cornerstones of psychological health. Without disputing their importance, these foci fail to capture many of the fluctuating, conflicting forces that are readily apparent when people navigate the environment and social world. In this paper, we review literature to offer evidence for the prominence of psychological flexibility in understanding psychological health. Thus far, the importance of psychological flexibility has been obscured by the isolation and disconnection of research conducted on this topic. Psychological flexibility spans a wide range of human abilities to: recognize and adapt to various situational demands; shift mindsets or behavioral repertoires when these strategies compromise personal or social functioning; maintain balance among important life domains; and be aware, open, and committed to behaviors that are congruent with deeply held values. In many forms of psychopathology, these flexibility processes are absent. In hopes of creating a more coherent understanding, we synthesize work in emotion regulation, mindfulness and acceptance, social and personality psychology, and neuropsychology. Basic research findings provide insight into the nature, correlates, and consequences of psychological flexibility and applied research provides details on promising interventions. Throughout, we emphasize dynamic approaches that might capture this fluid construct in the real-world. PMID:21151705

  15. Psychological Adjustment in Young Korean American Adolescents and Parental Warmth

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunjung

    2008-01-01

    Problem: The relation between parental warmth and psychological adjustment is not known for young Korean American adolescents. Methods: 103 adolescents' perceived parental warmth and psychological adjustment were assessed using, respectively, the Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire and the Child Personality Assessment Questionnaire. Findings: Low perceived maternal and paternal warmth were positively related to adolescents' overall poor psychological adjustment and almost all of its attributes. When maternal and paternal warmth were entered simultaneously into the regression equation, only low maternal warmth was related to adolescents' poor psychological adjustment. Conclusion: Perceived parental warmth is important in predicting young adolescents' psychological adjustment as suggested in the parental acceptance-rejection theory. PMID:19885379

  16. Psychological Adaptation of Adolescents with Immigrant Backgrounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sam, David Lackland

    2000-01-01

    Examines three theoretical perspectives (family values, acculturation strategies, and social group identity) as predictors of the psychological well-being of adolescents from immigrant backgrounds. Reveals that the perspectives accounted for between 12% and 22% of variance of mental health, life satisfaction, and self-esteem, while social group…

  17. Psychological Adjustment and Academic Achievement among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmood, Khalid; Iqbal, Muhammad Maqsood

    2015-01-01

    This study was studied that emotional and behavioural problems of young students who are directly related to their academic achievement and thus play a vital role in the development of young learners carrier. This study helped to fill a gap by conducting an exploration of psychological adjustment and academic achievement among adolescents. It also…

  18. Psychological Skill Training and the Aggressive Adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Arnold P.; Pentz, MaryAnn

    1984-01-01

    This paper focuses on the structured learning approach to psychological skill training with aggressive adolescents, examining 30 evaluation-oriented studies of skills training with such youth. Emphasized are relevant experimental designs, prescriptive utilization of skills training, means for enhancing trainee motivation, transfer and maintenance,…

  19. Disordered Eating-Related Cognition and Psychological Flexibility as Predictors of Psychological Health among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masuda, Akihiko; Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page L.; Wendell, Johanna W.

    2010-01-01

    The present cross-sectional study investigated the relation among disordered eating-related cognition, psychological flexibility, and poor psychological outcomes among a nonclinical college sample. As predicted, conviction of disordered eating-related cognitions was positively associated with general psychological ill-health and emotional distress…

  20. NORMAL PSYCHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN ADOLESCENCE

    PubMed Central

    Teicher, Joseph D.

    1956-01-01

    It behooves physicians to be aware that adolescents are different people, that they have a vast capacity for change, that they often exhibit the sickest kind of behavior, which may be very frightening to us and to them. Physicians have to be able to wait and not become panicked by the turbulences, confusions, and contradictions that mark the adolescent's behavior; to keep in mind at all times that much of what is going on is relatively normal behavior in the drive toward maturation and adulthood; that the adolescent has to cope with his sexual drive which is continually frustrated, that he has to cope with the problems of emancipation from parental authority, that he has to cope with an aggressive drive to achieve and to dominate. Parents, too, have to be understanding and ready to render unselfish support, for they continue to be the source of strength and security, and even the source of healthy restrictions. Adults must be aware that the adolescent struggles with his conscience and its dictates, and we should look upon cliques, groups and clubs as a healthy assistance in the preservation of standards, ethics, and mores. PMID:13356179

  1. Adolescence, stress, and psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Siddique, C M; D'Arcy, C

    1984-12-01

    The present study analyzes the mental-health consequences of stress in a sample of 1,038 adolescents (526 females and 512 males) from a Canadian prairie city. The study examined the relationship between perceived stress in family, school, and peer-group situations and four measures of psychological well-being, i.e., anxiety, depression, social dysfunction, and anergia. The moderator effects of locus of control orientation (mastery) on stress-outcome relationships were also examined, as were the sex differences in health and the perception of stress. All three sources of stress were found to be related to the four measures of mental health, with family stress having the strongest negative health impact. The health-protective role of locus of control was limited for the large part to the stresses emanating from school and peer groups. Substantial sex differences were found in the perception of family- and peer-related stresses as well as in levels of psychological distress. A tentative explanation of these differences was examined with reference to prevailing structural conditions and differences in locus of control orientation, with female adolescents showing greater externality. Implications of the results are drawn for the long-standing debate on the relative impact of stress and its sources on adolescents' psychosocial development and for a current controversy in adolescent theory between proponents of "classical" and proponents of "empirical" conceptions of adolescence. PMID:24306949

  2. Adolescents' Willingness to Seek Psychological Help: Promoting and Preventing Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Jeanie K.; Fiorenza, Erika; Sofronoff, Kate

    2004-01-01

    Although a relatively high percentage of Australian adolescents experience mental health problems, many disturbed adolescents do not receive the help they require, and only a small proportion of adolescents seek professional psychological help. The present study examined adolescents' willingness to seek help and investigated factors that promote…

  3. Parental Psychological Control and Adolescent Adjustment: The Role of Adolescent Emotion Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Lixian; Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Criss, Michael M.; Houltberg, Benjamin J.; Silk, Jennifer S.

    2014-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective This study investigated associations between parental psychological control and aggressive behavior and depressive symptoms among adolescents from predominantly disadvantaged backgrounds. The indirect effects of psychological control on adolescent adjustment through adolescent emotion regulation (anger and sadness regulation) were examined as well as the moderating effects of adolescent emotion regulation. Design 206 adolescents (ages 10–18) reported on parental psychological control and their own depressive symptoms, and parents and adolescents reported on adolescent emotion regulation and aggressive behavior. Indirect effect models were tested using structural equation modeling; moderating effects were tested using hierarchical multiple regression. Results The associations between parental psychological control and adolescent aggressive behavior and depressive symptoms were indirect through adolescents’ anger regulation. Moderation analyses indicated that the association between parental psychological control and adolescent depressive symptoms was stronger among adolescents with poor sadness regulation and the association between psychological control and aggressive behavior was stronger among older adolescents with poor anger regulation. Conclusions Psychological control is negatively associated with adolescent adjustment, particularly among adolescents who have difficulty regulating emotions. Emotion regulation is one mechanism through which psychological control is linked to adolescent adjustment, particularly anger dysregulation, and this pattern holds for both younger and older adolescents and for both boys and girls. PMID:25057264

  4. Flexibility and Sequence: Educational Psychology and the Training of Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinder, Robert E.

    To increase the relevance of educational psychology the School of Education at the University of Wisconsin now offers one-credit, 5-week modules in its entire foundational area. The modules offer students a wide range of options and provide instructors greater flexibility and manageability and subject matter presentations. Before the new program…

  5. Social Isolation, Psychological Health, and Protective Factors in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall-Lande, Jennifer A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Christenson, Sandra L.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships among social isolation, psychological health, and protective factors in adolescents. Feelings of social isolation may influence psychological health in adolescents, but protective factors such as family connectedness, school connectedness, and academic achievement may also play a key role. The sample…

  6. Parents' Promotion of Psychological Autonomy, Psychological Control, and Mexican-American Adolescents' Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sher-Censor, Efrat; Parke, Ross D.; Coltrane, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Mexican-American adolescents are at an elevated risk for adjustment difficulties. In an effort to identify parenting practices that can affect the adjustment of Mexican-American youth, the current study examined parents' promotion of psychological autonomy and parents' psychological control as perceived by Mexican-American early adolescents, and…

  7. Psychological Autopsy Provides Insight into Gifted Adolescent Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Tracy

    1996-01-01

    This article highlights findings of a study on the suicides of three academically talented male adolescents. Results of the psychological autopsies are reported in terms of commonalities with adolescent suicide in the general population; commonalities among the three cases related to their giftedness; and themes emerging across the cases,…

  8. Peer Victimization and Parental Psychological Control in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Ting-Lan; Bellmore, Amy

    2012-01-01

    With a sample of 831 U.S. adolescents (49% girls) followed from 9th to 11th grade, the directionality of the association between school-based peer victimization and adolescents' perception of their parents' psychological control were examined. Possible mediating influences of internalizing symptoms were also explored. The results highlight the…

  9. Culture and Parenting: Psychological Adjustment among Chinese Canadian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Cynthia S. M.; Miller, Lynn D.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between adolescents' cultural identification, perceptions of maternal and paternal parenting, and psychological adjustment with a sample of 192 Chinese Canadian adolescents. Participants were recruited from public urban high schools and completed 4 self-report questionnaires. Data were analyzed using…

  10. Psychological and Social Predictors of Suicidal Ideation among Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkcaldy, Bruce D.; Eysenck, Michael W.; Siefen, Georg R.

    2004-01-01

    Although there is an enormous amount of literature demonstrating socio-psychological determinants of suicide and self-injurious behaviour among adults or clinical samples of children and adolescents, there is a scarcity of studies focussing on non-clinical adolescent samples. The current study examined associations between self-reported data on…

  11. The Effects of Psychological Trauma on Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armsworth, Mary W.; Holaday, Margot

    1993-01-01

    Literature review of cognitive, affective, behavioral, and somatic-psychological effects as a consequence of overwhelming life events in children and adolescents is compared with DSM-III-R definition of Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome. Responses likely in children and adolescents are discussed; suggestions for future research and counseling…

  12. Parental Problem Drinking and Adolescent Psychological Problems: The Moderating Effect of Adolescent-Parent Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine whether adolescent-parent communication moderates the relationship between parental problem drinking and adolescent psychological problems. Surveys were administered to a community sample of 1,001 adolescents in the spring of 2007. Results indicate that paternal problem drinking was associated with…

  13. Psychological Disorder in Adolescents and Adults with Asperger Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tantam, Digby

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of psychological disorder in adolescents and adults with Asperger syndrome suggests that these individuals commonly develop a psychological disorder secondary to Asperger syndrome including affective disorders, anxiety-related disorders, and conduct disorders. Treatment usually involves a combination of psychoeducation, social change,…

  14. Father's and Mother's Psychological Violence and Adolescent Behavioral Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melancon, Claudiane; Gagne, Marie-Helene

    2011-01-01

    Maternal and paternal psychological violence were examined as potential risk factors for internalized and externalized behavior problems displayed by adolescents. Childhood family violence (physical and psychological parental violence), current extrafamily violence (bullying and dating violence), and family structure were taken into account. A…

  15. Adolescents and the Media: Medical and Psychological Impact. Developmental Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry, Volume 33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strasburger, Victor C.

    Aimed at primary care physicians and nurses, educators, and parents, this book reviews media effects on adolescent behavior and psychology. The book notes that television is a powerful medium to which adolescents are uniquely susceptible and how studies have shown television's ability to shape social attitudes. Theories of how television affects…

  16. The coherence of critical event narratives and adolescents' psychological functioning.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; McAnally, Helena M; Wang, Qi; Reese, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the coherence of low- and high-point life-event narratives among adolescents (aged between 12 and 21 years) and their psychological functioning in terms of well-being and prosocial behaviour. The results showed robust age-related increases in narrative coherence. Age and gender significantly moderated the associations between narrative coherence and psychological functioning. Specifically, higher levels of coherence were significantly associated with prosocial behaviour only for older adolescents. Higher levels of narrative coherence were also associated with lower levels of well-being among adolescent boys, but not among adolescent girls. Results are discussed in terms of why coherent life-event narratives may not be linked to benefits for younger adolescents and for boys, and how low- and high-point life events both contribute to identity construction. PMID:22716656

  17. Parental Psychological Control, Psychological Autonomy, and Acceptance as Predictors of Self-Esteem in Latino Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Roy A.; Northrup, Jason C.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines several key parenting variables (psychological control, psychological autonomy, and acceptance) in predicting self-esteem among Latino adolescents using structural equation modeling analyses. Nested models are tested and parental acceptance variables are omitted from the model and group gender comparisons are examined. Two…

  18. Father's and mother's psychological violence and adolescent behavioral adjustment.

    PubMed

    Melançon, Claudiane; Gagné, Marie-Hélène

    2011-03-01

    Maternal and paternal psychological violence were examined as potential risk factors for internalized and externalized behavior problems displayed by adolescents. Childhood family violence (physical and psychological parental violence), current extrafamily violence (bullying and dating violence), and family structure were taken into account. A sample of 278 adolescents (mean age: 14.2) were recruited in three public schools located in low to high socioeconomic areas. Participants were in the 7th, 8th, and 9th grades, and each completed a self-administered questionnaire. Frequency of current psychological violence is about the same for each parental figure. The three most frequent and least frequent psychologically violent parental practices were also the same for both parental figures. Psychological violence of both parents was related to internalized and externalized behavior problems over and above family structure, childhood family violence, and current extrafamily violence. PMID:20460552

  19. [Psychological well-being and adolescence: associated factors].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Pontes, Lívia Malta; Faria, Augusto Duarte; Souza, Luciano Dias de Mattos; Cruzeiro, Ana Laura Sica; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares

    2007-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the factors associated with psychological well-being among adolescents in a southern Brazilian city. A cross-sectional study was performed with a representative sample (n = 960) of adolescents (15-18 years). Eighty-six households were visited in each of the 90 randomized census tracts. Parents signed a written consent form before the adolescent answered a self-reported questionnaire. Psychological well-being was evaluated with a scale containing seven figures representing expressions varying from extreme happiness to extreme sadness. Adolescents were asked to mark the figure that best resembled the way they felt about their lives, and 72.33% reported a high level of psychological well-being. Prevalence of psychological well-being was higher in families with better economic status and higher maternal schooling. Adolescents who practiced a religion, did not smoke or consume alcohol, and wished to lose weight showed a higher level of psychological well-being, suggesting an interrelationship between health behaviors. PMID:17486234

  20. Learning disabilities and psychological development in childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Cohen, J

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between learning disabilities and psychological development is a complex, ongoing intrapsychic and psychosocial process. The results of two clinical-psychological investigations about a group of learning-disabled children and a group of learning-disabled adolescents is summarized. Although the learning-disabled youngsters were psychologically more heterogeneous than homogeneous, several common configurations emerged that characterized these children and adolescents: (1) problems in work and learning (due to the learning disability itself and to psychogenic factors related directly and/or indirectly to the disability); (2) chronic, low-level depression and relatively high, free floating anxiety; (3) characteristic unconscious concerns about self and others. In addition, learning disabilities organize psychological development in determining strengths, weaknesses, interests, and defensive strategies. And, the intermittent nature of mild to moderately severe learning disabilities seems to contribute to a sense of being traumatized and to character riqidity. The educational and clinical implications are briefly discussed. PMID:24243465

  1. The relationship between psychological distress and adolescent polydrug use.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Adrian B; Chan, Gary C K; Mason, W Alex; Williams, Joanne W

    2015-09-01

    Polydrug use is relatively common among adolescents. Psychological distress is associated with the use of specific drugs, and may be uniquely associated with polydrug use. The purpose of this study was to test the association of psychological distress with polydrug use using a large adolescent sample. The sample consisted of 10,273 students aged 12-17 years from the State of Victoria, Australia. Participants completed frequency measures of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, inhalant, and other drug use in the past 30 days, and psychological distress. Control variables included age, gender, family socioeconomic status, school suspensions, academic failure, cultural background, and peer drug use. Drug-use classes were derived using latent-class analysis, then the association of psychological distress and controls with drug-use classes was modeled using multinomial ordinal regression. There were 3 distinct classes of drug use: no drug use (47.7%), mainly alcohol use (44.1%), and polydrug use (8.2%). Independent of all controls, psychological distress was higher in polydrug users and alcohol users, relative to nondrug users, and polydrug users reported more psychological distress than alcohol users. Psychological distress was most characteristic of polydrug users, and targeted prevention outcomes may be enhanced by a collateral focus on polydrug use and depression and/or anxiety. PMID:26415064

  2. Challenges of Adolescent Psychology in the European Identity Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lannegrand-Willems, Lyda; Barbot, Baptiste

    2015-01-01

    In Europe, the question of identity and youth civic engagement constitutes a challenge both for the European Union (EU) and for research on adolescent psychology. In this article, we discuss the European historical context and the current initiatives from the EU that aim to encourage civic engagement among young people. Then, we suggest some…

  3. Weight Perception, Academic Performance, and Psychological Factors in Chinese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Bin; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Reynolds, Kim; Clark, Florence; Palmer, Paula H.; Gallaher, Peggy; Sun, Ping; Guo, Qian; Johnson, C. Anderson

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate weight perception and related psychological factors in Chinese adolescents. Methods: A questionnaire on weight perception, academic performance, stress, hostility, and depression was completed by 6863 middle and high school students. Weight and height were measured. Results: Overweight perception was related to…

  4. The Psychological and Social Characteristics of Asian Adolescent Overdose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsbury, Stephen

    1994-01-01

    Compared social and psychological features of Asian (n=13) and Caucasian (n=37) adolescents who had taken drug overdoses. Found that Asians were more socially isolated than Caucasians and that, despite Asians having low suicidal intent, they had higher rates of depression, hopelessness, long premeditation time, and previous overdose. (Author/NB)

  5. Psychological Approaches to Problems of Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Jeff, Ed.

    This document, intended as a resource for school psychologists, contains articles addressing a variety of psychological and behavioral problems of children and adolescents. Each chapter includes the following content: background information concerning the specific topic, approaches for assessing the behavior of concern, intervention possibilities,…

  6. Psychological Vulnerability among Overweight/Obese Minority Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martyn-Nemeth, Pamela A.; Penckofer, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Depression is associated with obesity among adolescents, with racial/ethnic variability noted. Psychological correlates that may influence this relationship have not been adequately explored. The primary objective of this secondary analysis was to compare levels of stress, self-esteem, coping, social support, and depressive mood between normal…

  7. Where Do Jamaican Adolescents Turn for Psychological Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Dahra Jackson

    2012-01-01

    Background: Stigma about mental health is a significant problem in Jamaica and the wider English-speaking Caribbean. In general, negative attitudes and opinions about mental illness have been found to negatively impact psychological help-seeking among several populations. Objective: This study examined Jamaican adolescents' preferential sources of…

  8. Multiple Regression Analyses in Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaccard, James; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Johansson, Margaret; Bouris, Alida

    2006-01-01

    A major form of data analysis in clinical child and adolescent psychology is multiple regression. This article reviews issues in the application of such methods in light of the research designs typical of this field. Issues addressed include controlling covariates, evaluation of predictor relevance, comparing predictors, analysis of moderation,…

  9. Eating Attitudes and Their Psychological Correlates among Turkish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bas, Murat; Asci, F. Hulya; Karabudak, Efsun; Kiziltan, Gul

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the eating attitudes and psychological characteristics of Turkish late adolescents. Seven hundred eighty-three university students were administered the Eating Attitudes Test, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Social Physique Anxiety Scale. More than one in ten (9.2% of the males and 13.1% of the…

  10. Psychological Approaches to Problems of Children and Adolescents. [Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Jeff, Ed.; Thomas, Alex, Ed.

    This document contains articles addressing a variety of psychological and behavioral problems of adolescents and children and is intended as a resource tool for school psychologists. Articles include background information, approaches regarding assessment of the behavior of concern, intervention possibilities, monitoring methods, and references.…

  11. Childhood & Adolescence: A Psychology of the Growing Person.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, L. Joseph; Church, Joseph

    This textbook on the physical and psychological development of children and adolescents is organized as follows: (1) the birth of the baby--physical appearance, basic life processes, behavioral capacities, prenatal development, prenatal environmental influences, biological inheritance, the birth process; (2) the infant--landmarks in the infant's…

  12. Adolescent Dating Violence Victimization and Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Michelle R.; Tolman, Richard M.; Saunders, Daniel G.

    2003-01-01

    This study assesses the relationship between adolescents' dating violence victimization and their psychological well-being. The participants were 190 high school students, ages 13 to 19 years, with just over half being boys (53%) and the remainder being girls (47%). Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. For girls, increasing…

  13. The Exceptional Adolescent: A Bibliography for Psychology and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurray, J. G.

    Presented is a bibliography of Journal articles printed in English and published since 1970 on the psychology and education of the exceptional adolescent. Entries are divided into six major sections (subdivisions are in parentheses): general (background reading, technology, management, mental health, curriculum, counseling, etc.), intellectual…

  14. [Possibilities of group psychological correction of depressiveness among adolescents].

    PubMed

    Markeviciūte, Aurelija; Gostautas, Antanas; Pilkauskiene, Ina

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the possibility of psychological correction in groups to decrease depressiveness among senior schoolchildren. Data of 87 (53 girls and 34 boys) depressive schoolchildren, who participated in the sessions for developing communication skills were analyzed. Depressiveness was assessed by the Depression scale of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory for Adolescents. Communication skills training method consisted of ten structured hourly sessions. The effectiveness of psychological correction was assessed by the Abbreviated self-awareness scale and the Depression scale of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory for Adolescents. The results showed decrease in depressiveness and self-worth both among boys and girls (p<0.005). Among boys decrease in average present self-worth scores was noted, while among girls decrease in average present self-worth and average self-worth deviation. Depressiveness as well as self-worth decreased better among boys and girls, which had attended most sessions (p<0.005). CONCLUSIONS. Psychological correction enabled adolescents to decrease the manifestation of depressiveness, and to increase their self-worth: they became more active, communicable, optimistic and in a better mood. Depressiveness among boys decreased better among adolescents, who attended most sessions. Depressiveness decreased better among girls irrespective of their involvement in the sessions, and among actively involved boys. Self-awareness among boys and girls increased better among adolescents, who attended most sessions. Self-awareness increased better among girls irrespective of their involvement in the sessions, and among actively involved boys. PMID:12878825

  15. Measuring psychological flexibility in medical students and residents: a psychometric analysis

    PubMed Central

    Palladino, Christie L.; Ange, Brittany; Richardson, Deborah S.; Casillas, Rhonda; Decker, Matt; Gillies, Ralph A.; House, Amy; Rollock, Michael; Salazar, William H.; Waller, Jennifer L.; Zeidan, Ronnie; Stepleman, Lara

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Psychological flexibility involves mindful awareness of our thoughts and feelings without allowing them to prohibit acting consistently with our values and may have important implications for patient-centered clinical care. Although psychological flexibility appears quite relevant to the training and development of health care providers, prior research has not evaluated measures of psychological flexibility in medical learners. Therefore, we investigated the validity of our learners’ responses to three measures related to psychological flexibility. Methods Fourth-year medical students and residents (n=275) completed three measures of overlapping aspects of psychological flexibility: (1) Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II); (2) Cognitive Fusion Questionnaire (CFQ); and (3) Mindful Attention and Awareness Questionnaire (MAAS). We evaluated five aspects of construct validity: content, response process, internal structure, relationship with other variables, and consequences. Results We found good internal consistency for responses on the AAQ (α=0.93), MAAS (α=0.92), and CFQ (α=0.95). Factor analyses demonstrated a reasonable fit to previously published factor structures. As expected, scores on all three measures were moderately correlated with one another and with a measure of life satisfaction (p<0.01). Conclusion Our findings provide preliminary evidence supporting validity of the psychological flexibility construct in a medical education sample. As psychological flexibility is a central concept underlying self-awareness, this work may have important implications for clinical training and practice. PMID:23948496

  16. Childhood psychological maltreatment subtypes and adolescent depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Paul, Elise; Eckenrode, John

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to understand how subtypes and the timing of psychological maltreatment contribute to adolescent depressive symptoms at age 14. The sample included 638 youth from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN). At age 12, youth reported experiences of psychological maltreatment (degradation, isolating, and terrorizing), physical abuse (endangerment and physical injury), and sexual abuse that occurred before and during elementary school/last year. Multivariable regression models were conducted separately for females and males at each of the two time periods and accounted for demographics, primary caregiver depressive symptoms, other maltreatment subtypes, and youth-reported age 12 depressive symptoms. For girls, caregiver degradation was the only maltreatment subtype that contributed unique variance to depressive symptoms. Degradation before elementary school and chronic degradation had a stronger impact on depression symptoms. Only caregiver isolating behaviors during elementary school/last year and chronic isolation predicted depressive symptoms in boys. These results suggest that childhood psychological maltreatment is multi-dimensional and is implicated in the etiology of adolescent depressive symptoms. Future prevention efforts should consider parental psychological maltreatment in reducing risk for adolescent depression. PMID:26105164

  17. Psychological Adjustment of Adolescents with Myelodysplasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Mary M.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The psychosocial development of 20 adolescents with congenital paralysis due to myelodysplasia is compared to 20 age-and gender-matched subjects with no physical handicaps. On many of the measures, the myelodysplasia group showed poorer social and emotional adjustment and lower self esteem than the controls. (Author/GDC)

  18. Physical Activity and Adolescent Female Psychological Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covey, Linda A.; Feltz, Deborah L.

    1991-01-01

    Relationships between self-reported past and present physical activity levels and self-image, sense of mastery, gender role identity, self-perceived physical ability, and self-perceived attractiveness were studied for 149 female high school sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Results are discussed in terms of adolescent emotional health. (SLD)

  19. Social Psychological Factors in Adolescent Cigarette Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Steven J.; And Others

    Results emanating from smoking cessation programs suggest the necessity for a greater commitment to research for primary smoking prevention. Because of the early onset of smoking, more research must focus on adolescents and preadolescents who have not yet begun to smoke regularly. Three areas of concentrated study are proposed: (1) the initiation…

  20. Self-Psychology, Shame, and Adolescent Suicide: Theoretical and Practical Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shreve, Barry W.; Kunkel, Mark A.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses role of shame in adolescent suicidal behaviors using psychoanalytic self-psychology of Heinz Kohut as theoretical foundation. Describes shame as central component of suicidal behavior within context of adolescence. Offers theoretical explanation of adolescent suicidal behavior from self-psychology perspective. Presents suggestions for…

  1. Psychological Determinants of Adolescent Exercise Adherence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douthitt, Vicki L.

    1994-01-01

    High school physical education students completed questionnaires which represented four psychological variables, and one physical activity variable (exercise adherence) in classroom setting (n=132) and in summer setting (n=110). Found Perceived Romantic Appeal predictive of male exercise adherence and Perceived Athletic Competency, Perceived…

  2. Laptops in Psychology: Conducting Flexible In-Class Research and Writing Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Benjamin R.

    2005-01-01

    This chapter describes an undergraduate psychology research methods course in which laptops facilitated online organization, electronic portfolios, and flexible laboratories to improve student engagement, capability, and understanding. (Contains 3 figures.)

  3. The role of psychological flexibility in the relationship between self-concealment and disordered eating symptoms.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Akihiko; Boone, Matthew S; Timko, C Alix

    2011-04-01

    The present cross-sectional study investigated whether psychological flexibility mediates the association between self-concealment and disordered eating (DE) symptoms among non-clinical college students. Data of 209 male and female participants (nfemale =165), aged 18-22 years old, were used for analyses. Self-concealment was found to be positively associated with DE symptoms (i.e., general eating disorder symptoms and eating disorder-related cognitions) and negatively associated with psychological flexibility. Psychological flexibility was inversely associated with DE symptoms. Finally, psychological flexibility was found to mediate the association between self-concealment and DE symptoms after accounting for gender, ethnic background, and body mass index (BMI). PMID:21385643

  4. Psychological Therapy in Adolescents with Chronic Daily Headache.

    PubMed

    Chiappedi, Matteo; Mensi, Martina Maria; Termine, Cristiano; Balottin, Umberto

    2016-01-01

    Chronic daily headache is a serious disease, causing significant problems in terms of reduced quality of life and disability, with pain localized to the head (headache) occurring 15 or more days per month for more than 3 months (>180 days per year). Drugs, both used as preventive medications or as pain-killers, are insufficient for the management of these patients; a more global approach has been advocated. This paper reviews existing data concerning different psychological approaches, with a focus on adolescence. This leads to evidence still unanswered questions but also the importance to include psychological treatments in the management of this potentially disabling condition. PMID:26695063

  5. Eating attitudes and their psychological correlates among Turkish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Baş, Murat; Aşçi, F Hülya; Karabudak, Efsun; Kiziltan, Gül

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the eating attitudes and psychological characteristics of Turkish late adolescents. Seven hundred eighty-three university students were administered the Eating Attitudes Test, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Social Physique Anxiety Scale. More than one in ten (9.2% of the males and 13.1% of the females) had abnormal eating attitude scores. Chi-square analysis revealed that there were no significant differences in the prevalance of abnormal eating behaviors based on gender. Analysis of covariance indicated that participants who had disturbed eating attitudes had lower self-esteem, higher social physique anxiety, and higher trait anxiety than those who had normal eating attitudes. It was concluded that the prevalence of disturbed eating attitudes was high among these Turkish late adolescents, and that disturbed eating attitudes were related to several psychological characteristics. PMID:15673232

  6. Consequences of psychological distress in adolescents with acne.

    PubMed

    Misery, Laurent

    2011-02-01

    Acne may cause psychological distress that is associated with many psychiatric disorders. In this issue, Halvorsen et al. report suicidal ideation, mental health problems, and affective isolation to be relatively frequent in adolescents with acne. This report suggests that adverse events that have been attributed to therapies for acne, including suicidal ideation and depression, may reflect the burden of substantial acne rather than the effect of medications. PMID:21228811

  7. The Contributions of Attachment Styles, Irrational Beliefs and Psychological Symptoms to the Prediction of Cognitive Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunduz, Bülent

    2013-01-01

    In this research, the contributions of styles of attachment, irrational beliefs and psychological symptoms to the prediction of cognitive flexibility were analysed. The sample consists of 436 students studying in various departments and faculties in Mersin University. The Cognitive Flexibility Scale, Relationships Scale, Irrational Beliefs Scale…

  8. Moral Identity and Psychological Distance: The Case of Adolescent Parental Socialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Sam A.; Bhattacharjee, Amit; Reed, Americus, II; Aquino, Karl

    2010-01-01

    A mediation model using a sample of 1059 adolescents (56% girls; "M" age = 16.02, SD = 1.37) tested relations between parenting, adolescent moral identity, and the formation of psychological distance towards others. In short, adolescent moral identity mediated relations between parenting and the ways in which adolescents oriented others in their…

  9. The Acceptance and Action Questionnaire – Stigma (AAQ-S): Developing a measure of psychological flexibility with stigmatizing thoughts

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Michael E.; Luoma, Jason B.; Lillis, Jason; Hayes, Steven C.; Vilardaga, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The current study sought to develop and test the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire – Stigma (AAQ-S), a measure of psychological flexibility with stigmatizing thoughts. A sample of 604 undergraduate students completed an online survey, which included an initial pool of 43 AAQ-S items as well as measures related to psychological flexibility and stigma. Expert judge ratings and factor analysis were used to identify and refine two distinct subscales; psychological flexibility and psychological inflexibility relating to stigmatizing thoughts. Analyses indicated that the AAQ-S psychological flexibility and inflexibility subscales, as well as a combined total score, correlate with other measures of psychological flexibility and stigma in expected ways, and are more predictive of stigma than a general measure of psychological flexibility. Overall, the results suggest that the AAQ-S could be a useful measure in conducting future stigma research. PMID:25485230

  10. Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Longitudinal Links with Maternal Empathy and Psychological Control.

    PubMed

    Werner, Lente L A A; der Graaff, Jolien Van; Meeus, Wim H J; Branje, Susan J T

    2016-08-01

    Building on self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan in Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268. doi: 10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01 , 2000), the aim of the current study was to examine the role of maternal affective and cognitive empathy in predicting adolescents' depressive symptoms, through mothers' psychological control use. Less empathic mothers may be less sensitive to adolescents' need for psychological autonomy, and thus prone to violating this need using psychological control, which may in turn predict adolescents' depressive symptoms. Moreover, according to interpersonal theory of depression (Coyne in Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 85, 186-193. doi: 10.1037/0021-843x.85.2.186 , 1976), adolescents' depressive symptoms may elicit rejecting responses, such as mothers' psychological control. For six waves, 497 adolescents (57 % boys, M age T1 = 13.03) annually completed questionnaires on depressive symptoms and maternal psychological control, while mothers reported on their empathy. Cross-lagged path analyses showed that throughout adolescence, both mothers' affective and cognitive empathy indirectly predicted boys' and girls' depressive symptoms, through psychological control. Additionally, depressive symptoms predicted psychological control for boys, and early adolescent girls. These results highlight the importance of (1) mothers' affective and cognitive empathy in predicting adolescents' depressive symptoms, and (2) taking gender into account when examining adolescent-effects. PMID:26627889

  11. [Uterovaginal agenesis and polycystic ovary syndrome: psychological disturbance in adolescence].

    PubMed

    Laggari, V; Christogiorgos, S; Deligeoroglou, E; Tsiantis, J; Creatsas, G

    2012-01-01

    Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser Syndrome (MRKHS) is characterized by complete or partial absence of the vagina, uterus and proximal fallopian tubes and diagnosis is usually made in late adolescence, when primary amenorrhea appears as the major symptom. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS), which is the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age, includes a variety of clinical manifestations (menstrual irregularities, hirsuitism, acne, alopecia, obesity and infertility), due to androgen hypersecretion, insulin resistance and chronic anovulation. Both MRKHS and PCOS have been studied concerning the psychological aspects and have been associated with emotional distress as well as self-esteem, body image, identity and femininity impairment. The purpose of this study was to assess psychological functioning in adolescents with uterovaginal agenesis and primary amenorrhea due to MRKHS and those with hyperandrogenism and oligomenorrhea due to PCOS, compared with healthy adolescents. The participants were 70 adolescent girls, of whom 24 with MRKHS, 22 with PCOS and 24 healthy eumenorrheic adolescents (control group) matched by age and school grade. Psychological assessment included self report questionnaires, standardized in Greek population sample. Particularly, the "Beck Depression Inventory" (BDI), the "State-Trait Anxiety Inventory" (STAI-Gr) and the "Youth Self Report" (YSR) were used to measure depression, anxiety and psychopathology respectively, while the "Symptom Checklist-90-R" was used to measure psychopathology for the patients >18 years old. The results showed significantly higher scores on the state - anxiety scale for the MRKHS group compared with the control group. The MRKHS patients in late adolescence (18-20 years old) presented also significantly higher scores in depression and psychopathology scales (symptoms of anxiety, aggressive behavior and phobic disorder) than PCOS patients of the same age. On the contrary, regarding PCOS patients

  12. Psychological vulnerability among overweight/obese minority adolescents.

    PubMed

    Martyn-Nemeth, Pamela A; Penckofer, Sue

    2012-08-01

    Depression is associated with obesity among adolescents, with racial/ethnic variability noted. Psychological correlates that may influence this relationship have not been adequately explored. The primary objective of this secondary analysis was to compare levels of stress, self-esteem, coping, social support, and depressive mood between normal weight and overweight/obese minority adolescents (as defined using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention standards). Adolescents (n = 101) aged 14-18 years who were largely minority (87%) were recruited from two Midwestern-area high schools. Using a descriptive comparative design, individuals were grouped into normal weight (>5th to <85th percentile) and overweight/obese (≥ 85 th percentile) for comparison on measures. Self-reported levels of stress, coping, self-esteem, social support, depressive mood, and body mass index were obtained. Obese/overweight adolescents reported significantly lower self-esteem than did those with normal weight (p < .05). Although stress was a significant predictor of depressive mood in both groups (p < .001), low self-esteem was also a significant predictor of depressive mood in the overweight/obese group (p = .001). Strategies to manage stress and improve self-esteem may help alleviate depressive mood in high school adolescents. PMID:22140141

  13. Psychological, autonomic, and serotonergic correlates of parasuicide among adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Crowell, Sheila E; Beauchaine, Theodore P; McCauley, Elizabeth; Smith, Cindy J; Stevens, Adrianne L; Sylvers, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Although parasuicidal behavior in adolescence is poorly understood, evidence suggests that it may be a developmental precursor of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Current theories of both parasuicide and BPD suggest that emotion dysregulation is the primary precipitant of self-injury, which serves to dampen overwhelmingly negative affect. To date, however, no studies have assessed endophenotypic markers of emotional responding among parasuicidal adolescents. In the present study, we compare parasuicidal adolescent girls (n=23) with age-matched controls (n=23) on both psychological and physiological measures of emotion regulation and psychopathology. Adolescents, parents, and teachers completed questionnaires assessing internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, substance use, trait affectivity, and histories of parasuicide. Psychophysiological measures including electrodermal responding (EDR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia, and cardiac pre-ejection period (PEP) were collected at baseline, during negative mood induction, and during recovery. Compared with controls, parasuicidal adolescents exhibited reduced respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) at baseline, greater RSA reactivity during negative mood induction, and attenuated peripheral serotonin levels. No between-group differences on measures of PEP or EDR were found. These results lend further support to theories of emotion dysregulation and impulsivity in parasuicidal teenage girls. PMID:16613433

  14. A psychological flexibility conceptualisation of the experience of injustice among individuals with chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    McCracken, Lance M; Trost, Zina

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the experience of injustice in patients with chronic pain is associated with poorer pain-related outcomes. Despite this evidence, a theoretical framework to understand this relationship is presently lacking. This review is the first to propose that the psychological flexibility model underlying Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) may provide a clinically useful conceptual framework to understand the association between the experience of injustice and chronic pain outcomes. A literature review was conducted to identify research and theory on the injustice experience in chronic pain, chronic pain acceptance, and ACT. Research relating injustice to chronic pain outcomes is summarised, the relevance of psychological flexibility to the injustice experience is discussed, and the subprocesses of psychological flexibility are proposed as potential mediating factors in the relationship between injustice and pain outcomes. Application of the psychological flexibility model to the experience of pain-related injustice may provide new avenues for future research and clinical interventions for patients with pain. Summary points • Emerging research links the experience of pain-related injustice to problematic pain outcomes. • A clinically relevant theoretical framework is currently lacking to guide future research and intervention on pain-related injustice. • The psychological flexibility model would suggest that the overarching process of psychological inflexibility mediates between the experience of injustice and adverse chronic pain outcomes. • Insofar as the processes of psychological inflexibility account for the association between injustice experiences and pain outcomes, methods of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) may reduce the impact of injustice of pain outcomes. • Future research is needed to empirically test the proposed associations between the experience of pain-related injustice, psychological

  15. Examining temporal associations between perceived maternal psychological control and early adolescent internalizing problems.

    PubMed

    Loukas, Alexandra

    2009-11-01

    The present study examined a) the associations between adolescent-reported maternal psychological control and self-reported internalizing problems one year later, while simultaneously examining the opposite direction of effects and b) the equivalence of these associations across gender. Participants were 479 10-to-14-year old adolescents (55% female) participating in two waves of a study. Results from multi-group, cross-lagged panel analyses indicated that although early adolescents' depressive symptoms and social anxiety predicted change in perceived maternal psychological control one year later, perceived maternal psychological control did not predict change in early adolescents' internalizing problems. Elevated levels of depressive symptoms were associated with increased levels of perceived maternal psychological control one year later, whereas elevated levels of social anxiety were associated with decreased levels. Aforementioned findings were consistent across boys' and girls' data. Study findings extend limited research on adolescent effects, demonstrating that early adolescents' internalizing problems play a role in perceived maternal psychological control. PMID:19562478

  16. Violent behavior in Chinese adolescents with an economic disadvantage. Psychological, family and interpersonal correlates.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T; Tang, Vera

    2003-01-01

    Two studies investigating the psychological, family and interpersonal correlates of adolescent violent behavior are reported in this paper. In Study 1, secondary school students (N = 1,519) responded to established scales assessing their psychological attributes, family functioning, parenting qualities and psychosocial support and conflict. Results of Study 1 showed that: a) adolescents who showed higher levels of perceived stress and psychological symptoms displayed more signs of adolescent violence; b) adolescents who had a higher sense of mastery and existential mental health displayed less signs of violence; c) adolescents' attitudes towards poverty and traditional Chinese beliefs about adversity were significantly related to adolescent violence; d) higher levels of family functioning, positive parenting styles as well as interpersonal support and lower levels of interpersonal conflicts were associated with a lower level of adolescent violence. Results further showed that some of the above factors were more strongly related to adolescent violence in adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage than in adolescents who did not experience economic disadvantage. Some of the findings of Study 1 were replicated in Study 2, where adolescents from 229 families (either families on welfare or low income families) were recruited. These studies suggested that several psychological, family and interpersonal factors are related to adolescent violent behavior, particularly in adolescents with economic disadvantage. PMID:12964444

  17. African American Adolescents with Sickle Cell Disease: Support Groups and Psychological Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Marilyn M.; Telfair, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    Studied the impact of support groups on the psychological well-being of adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD). Response of 79 adolescent SCD group members show that psychological well-being was best predicted by fewer physical symptoms and greater satisfaction with the group. Findings suggest the beneficial effects of SCD support groups. (SLD)

  18. Media Use and Adolescent Psychological Adjustment: An Examination of Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2009-01-01

    This study examined media use and psychological adjustment (as indicated by depression and anxiety symptomatology) in a sample of 328 14- to 16-year-old adolescents. Primary goals of the study were to explore whether media use differs by gender, whether media use is related to adolescent psychological problems, and whether media use moderates the…

  19. Characteristics of Adolescents at Risk for Psychological Dysfunction and School Failure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salzman, Kenneth P.; Salzman, Stephanie A.

    This study examined factors that may place adolescents at risk for psychological dysfunction and school failure. Subjects were 70 adolescents who were admitted to a psychiatric hospital from September 1986 to March 1988. Demographic, academic performance, familial, and psychological data were retroactively gathered from patient files, tabulated…

  20. Psychological Symptoms and Drug Use Severity among Israeli Adolescents Presenting for Outpatient Drug Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, G.M.; Izzard, M.C.; Kedar, T.; Hutlzer, A.; Mell, H.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the rates of externalizing and internalizing symptoms, and the relation between psychological symptoms and drug use severity, among 117 Israeli adolescents presenting for outpatient drug abuse treatment. Psychological symptoms were assessed via both adolescent self-report and parent report. Drug use was…

  1. Children's Views Matter Too! A Pilot Project Assessing Children's and Adolescents' Experiences of Clinical Psychology Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Michael; Russo, Kate

    2009-01-01

    This pilot study explored the experiences and understanding of clinical psychology practices and services of children and adolescents attending clinical psychology outpatient appointments. Fifteen young participants took part in the study. A content analysis indicated that young children and adolescents have an appropriate understanding of the…

  2. Disparity of Ego-Identity Components in Relation to Psychological Security of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Diyar, Mosaad Abu; Salem, Ashraf Atta M. S.

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed at investigating the Ego-identity components and the disparity of these components in relation to the psychological security of adolescents in Egypt. The sample of the study consisted of (400) male and female adolescents. The researchers used two main instruments; the psychological security scale and the Ego-identity scale.…

  3. Psychological Subtyping Finds Pathological, Impulsive, and "Normal" Groups among Adolescents Who Self-Harm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford, Sarah; Jones, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Research to date suggests that as many as 12-15% of young people engage in self-harm behaviour; however, the current understanding of the psychological basis of adolescent self-harm is limited. The objective was to determine whether adolescents who self-harm are a psychologically homogenous group. It was hypothesised that psychological…

  4. Caregiver Experiences of Discrimination and African American Adolescents' Psychological Health over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Kahlil R.; Hurd, Noelle M.; Jagers, Robert J.; Sellers, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of caregivers' experiences of racial discrimination on their adolescent children's psychological functioning among a sample of 264 African American dyads. Potential relations between caregiver discrimination experiences and a number of indicators of adolescents' (aged 12-17) psychological functioning over time…

  5. Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction in Leisure Activities and Adolescents' Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leversen, Ingrid; Danielsen, Anne G.; Birkeland, Marianne S.; Samdal, Oddrun

    2012-01-01

    Participation in leisure activities is an important arena for the positive psychological development of adolescents. The present study set out to examine the relationship between adolescents' satisfaction of the psychological needs for competence, relatedness, and autonomy in their participation in leisure activities and their perceived life…

  6. The influence of psychological flexibility on work redesign: mediated moderation of a work reorganization intervention.

    PubMed

    Bond, Frank W; Flaxman, Paul E; Bunce, David

    2008-05-01

    This quasi-experiment tested the extent to which an individual characteristic, psychological flexibility, moderated the effects of a control-enhancing work reorganization intervention in a call center. Results indicated that, compared with a control group, this intervention produced improvements in mental health and absence rates, particularly for individuals with higher levels of psychological flexibility. Findings also showed that these moderated intervention effects were mediated by job control. Specifically, the intervention enhanced perceptions of job control, and hence its outcomes, for the people who received it, especially for those who had greater psychological flexibility. Discussion highlights the benefits of understanding the processes (e.g., mediators, moderators, and mediated moderators) involved in work reorganization interventions. PMID:18457492

  7. Do Personality Traits Moderate Relations Between Psychologically Controlling Parenting and Problem Behavior in Adolescents?

    PubMed

    Mabbe, Elien; Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Van Leeuwen, Karla

    2016-06-01

    This research examined whether and how adolescents' personality traits moderate associations between psychologically controlling parenting and problem behaviors. On the basis of self-determination theory, we also examined the mediating role of psychological need frustration in the effects of psychologically controlling parenting. A cross-sectional study in two samples (N = 423 and 292; Mage = 12.43 and 15.74 years) was conducted. While in Sample 1 both mothers and adolescents provided reports of parenting and problem behavior, Sample 2 relied on adolescent-reported parenting and mother-reported problem behavior. Psychologically controlling parenting was related to internalizing and externalizing problems in both samples. Little systematic evidence was obtained for the moderating role of personality, with the exception of a moderating effect of Agreeableness. In both samples, psychological control was unrelated to externalizing problems among adolescents high on Agreeableness. Analyses of Sample 2 showed that associations between psychological control and problem behavior were mediated by psychological need frustration. Adolescent personality plays a modest role as a moderator of associations between psychologically controlling parenting and problem behavior. Frustration of adolescents' basic and universal psychological needs can account for the undermining effects of psychologically controlling parenting. Directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25676732

  8. Parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being: a longitudinal study in a Chinese context.

    PubMed

    Shek, D T

    1999-02-01

    In this longitudinal study, the relationships between perceived parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being were examined in a sample of Hong Kong Chinese adolescents (N = 378). The results indicated that global parenting styles and specific parenting behaviors are concurrently related to hopelessness, life satisfaction, self-esteem, purpose in life, and general psychiatric morbidity at Time 1 and Time 2. Longitudinal and prospective analyses (Time 1 predictors of Time 2 criterion variables) suggested that the relations between parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being are bidirectional in nature. The results indicated that the strengths of association between perceived parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being are stronger in female than in male adolescents. Relative to maternal parenting characteristics, paternal parenting was found to exert a stronger influence on adolescent psychological well-being. PMID:10063611

  9. The Role of Shame in Adolescent Suicide: A Self-Psychological Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shreve, Barry W.; Kunkel, Mark A.

    Using the psychoanalytic self-psychology of Heinz Kohut as the theoretical foundation, this article discusses the role of shame in adolescent suicidal behaviors. Shame is described as an essential aspect of adolescent suicidal behavior because of the significance of the stage of adolescence in the development of the healthy self. Normal…

  10. Psychological, Behavioral, and Social Characteristics Associated with Early Forced Sexual Intercourse among Pregnant Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanz, Jean B.

    1995-01-01

    Explored patterns of substance use and sexual behavior among pregnant adolescents under age 18. Data were examined for associations between a history of early forced sexual intercourse and indicators of psychological, behavioral, and social problems during adolescence. Many pregnant adolescents were found to have experienced early forced sexual…

  11. Psychological dysregulation, white matter disorganization and substance use disorders in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Duncan B.; Chung, Tammy; Thatcher, Dawn L.; Pajtek, Stefan; Long, Elizabeth C.

    2011-01-01

    Aims Adolescents with substance use disorders (SUD) have difficulties with cognitive, behavioral and affective regulation. White matter (WM) disorganization has been observed in adolescents with SUD and may be related to psychological dysregulation. This study compared adolescents with SUD and control adolescents to investigate relationships among psychological dysregulation, WM disorganization, and SUD symptoms. Design Cross-sectional observation. Setting Adolescents with SUD were recruited from SUD treatment programs. Controls were recruited from the community. Participants The 55 participants were ages 14–19; 35 with SUD, 20 controls without SUD. Measurements Psychological dysregulation was characterized by the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function. WM disorganization was measured by diffusion tensor imaging, and fractional anisotropy, radial diffusivity and axial diffusivity were examined within cortical regions of interest. Findings Compared to controls, SUD adolescents showed significantly greater psychological dysregulation and prefrontal and parietal WM disorganization. WM disorganization was positively correlated with psychological dysregulation and cannabis-related symptoms. In multivariate mediation models, the results were consistent with both the Neurodevelopmental Immaturity model, in which WM disorganization leads to psychological dysregulation and cannabis-related symptoms, and with the Substance Effects Model, in which cannabis-related symptoms lead to WM disorganization and psychological dysregulation. Conclusions In adolescents, substance use disorder and psychological dysregulation appear to be associated with reduced frontoparietal network white matter maturation. PMID:21752141

  12. Psychological predictors of headache remission in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Carasco, Marcel; Kröner-Herwig, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Objective Longitudinal studies on headaches often focus on the identification of risk factors for headache occurrence or “chronification”. This study in particular examines psychological variables as potential predictors of headache remission in children and adolescents. Methods Data on biological, social, and psychological variables were gathered by questionnaire as part of a large population-based study (N=5,474). Children aged 9 to 15 years who suffered from weekly headaches were selected for this study sample, N=509. A logistic regression analysis was conducted with remission as the dependent variable. In the first step sex, age, headache type, and parental headache history were entered as the control variables as some data already existed showing their predictive power. Psychological factors (dysfunctional coping strategies, internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, anxiety sensitivity, somatosensory amplification) were entered in the second step to evaluate their additional predictive value. Results Highly dysfunctional coping strategies reduced the relative probability of headache remission. All other selected psychological variables reached no significance, ie, did not contribute additionally to the explanation of variance of the basic model containing sex and headache type. Surprisingly, parental headache and age were not predictive. The model explained only a small proportion of the variance regarding headache remission (R2=0.09 [Nagelkerke]). Conclusion Successful coping with stress in general contributed to remission of pediatric headache after 2 years in children aged between 9 and 15 years. Psychological characteristics in general had only small predictive value. The issue of remission definitely needs more scientific attention in empirical studies. PMID:27186149

  13. A social psychologic model of female adolescents' compliance with contraceptives.

    PubMed

    DuRant, R H; Jay, M S

    1987-06-01

    A theoretical model is proposed to help the clinician organize the multiple interrelationships between factors that may influence a female adolescent's compliance with her birth control method. 1 variable that has been found to be predictive for compliance in adults that was not included in the model is the quality of the patient-physician relationship. This variable was excluded because the model is a social psychological model that focuses on the attitudes and behavior of the female adolescent. The female adolescent's perception of the quality of her relationship with her health care provider can be accounted for under the component of the model discussing costs of acquiring birth control. A table contains a checklist of information the clinician may want to obtain from a patient to help determine if she may be at risk for noncompliance. Factors that influence contraceptive compliance are reviewed: frequency of sexual intercourse, perceived probability of pregnancy, premarital sexual standards and experiences, intimacy of sexual relationship, physical and emotional development, cognitive assessment of pregnancy, parental and peer support, and personality development. Lindemann and DeLamater argue that frequency of intercourse is the "prime mover" in the process of acquiring and using birth control. As the frequency of coitus increases or decreases, awareness of the possibility will increase or decrease. DeLamater hypothesizes that before assessing that pregnancy may be undesirable and thus initiating contraceptive use to prevent pregnancy, a woman 1st must perceive that she is at significant risk for becoming pregnant. Russ proposes that a major reason that sexually active female adolescents fail to use effective birth control is that they do not fully accept sexual intercourse as morally acceptable for themselves and thus are unable to rationally prepare for it. Rains argues that when a female adolescent initiates sexual activity, she is in a state of moral

  14. Racial Identity Matters: The Relationship between Racial Discrimination and Psychological Functioning in African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellers, Robert M.; Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Martin, Pamela P.; Lewis, R. L'Heureux

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the interrelationships among racial discrimination, racial identity, and psychological functioning in a sample of 314 African American adolescents. Racial discrimination was associated with lower levels of psychological functioning as measured by perceived stress, depressive symptomatology, and psychological well-being.…

  15. The Ability of Psychological Flexibility and Job Control to Predict Learning, Job Performance, and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Frank W.; Flaxman, Paul E.

    2006-01-01

    This longitudinal study tested the degree to which an individual characteristic, psychological flexibility, and a work organization variable, job control, predicted ability to learn new skills at work, job performance, and mental health, amongst call center workers in the United Kingdom (N = 448). As hypothesized, results indicated that job…

  16. Assessing Psychological Flexibility: What Does It Add above and beyond Existing Constructs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gloster, Andrew T.; Klotsche, Jens; Chaker, Samia; Hummel, Katrin V.; Hoyer, Jurgen

    2011-01-01

    The construct of psychological flexibility (PF) is a central concept in acceptance and commitment therapy. It is defined as the process of contacting the present moment fully as a conscious human being and persisting in or changing behavior in the service of chosen values. PF is hypothesized to be an important aspect of healthy psychological…

  17. Emotional Intelligence, Cognitive Flexibility and Psychological Symptoms in Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunduz, Bulent

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence, cognitive flexibility and psychological symptoms in pre-service teachers. The study included 414 pre-service teachers at the Faculty of Education, Mersin University, Turkey. Pearson product-moment correlation and multiple regression analyses were used to…

  18. The Pitfalls of Valenced Labels and the Benefits of Properly Calibrated Psychological Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNulty, James K.; Fincham, Frank D.

    2012-01-01

    Replies to comments by Sonja Lyubomirsky (see record 2012-27130-008), Riva Guiseppe (see record 2012-27130-009), and Alan S. Waterman (see record 2012-27130-010) on the original article by McNulty and Fincham (see record 2011-15476-001) regarding the pitfalls of valenced labels and the benefits of properly calibrated psychological flexibility.

  19. Predictors and moderators of psychological changes during the treatment of adolescent bulimia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Ciao, Anna C.; Accurso, Erin C.; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E.; Le Grange, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This study examined predictors of psychological change among 80 adolescents with bulimia nervosa (BN) participating in a randomized-controlled trial comparing family-based treatment (FBT) to supportive psychotherapy (SPT). Psychological outcomes (cognitive eating disorder pathology, depression, and self-esteem) were explored at baseline, post-treatment, and 6-month follow-up. Multi-level growth models examined predictors of rate of change in psychological outcomes and moderators of treatment effects. All psychological outcomes improved through 6-month follow-up (moderate to large effect sizes) across both treatments. Overall, few significant predictors were identified. Older adolescents had faster change in self-esteem relative to younger adolescents (p=.03). Adolescents taking psychotropic medication at baseline had faster change in eating concerns relative to adolescents not taking medication (p=.02). Age (p=.02) and baseline purging severity (p=.03) moderated the relationship between treatment condition and change in eating concerns, where younger adolescents and individuals with high baseline purging had greater change when treated with FBT relative to SPT. Age and purging did not significantly moderate change in other psychological outcomes. Bulimic symptom improvement did not predict change in psychological symptoms. Generally, FBT and SPT were equally efficacious with respect to psychological improvement, although FBT may be more efficacious in younger adolescents and those with more frequent purging. PMID:25874955

  20. Predictors and moderators of psychological changes during the treatment of adolescent bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Ciao, Anna C; Accurso, Erin C; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Le Grange, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    This study examined predictors of psychological change among 80 adolescents with bulimia nervosa (BN) participating in a randomized-controlled trial comparing family-based treatment (FBT) to supportive psychotherapy (SPT). Psychological outcomes (cognitive eating disorder pathology, depression, and self-esteem) were explored at baseline, post-treatment, and 6-month follow-up. Multi-level growth models examined predictors of rate of change in psychological outcomes and moderators of treatment effects. All psychological outcomes improved through 6-month follow-up (moderate to large effect sizes) across both treatments. Overall, few significant predictors were identified. Older adolescents had faster change in self-esteem relative to younger adolescents (p = 0.03). Adolescents taking psychotropic medication at baseline had faster change in eating concerns relative to adolescents not taking medication (p = 0.02). Age (p = 0.02) and baseline purging severity (p = 0.03) moderated the relationship between treatment condition and change in eating concerns, where younger adolescents and individuals with high baseline purging had greater change when treated with FBT relative to SPT. Age and purging did not significantly moderate change in other psychological outcomes. Bulimic symptom improvement did not predict change in psychological symptoms. Generally, FBT and SPT were equally efficacious with respect to psychological improvement, although FBT may be more efficacious in younger adolescents and those with more frequent purging. PMID:25874955

  1. Moral identity and psychological distance: the case of adolescent parental socialization.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Sam A; Bhattacharjee, Amit; Reed Ii, Americus; Aquino, Karl

    2010-02-01

    A mediation model using a sample of 1059 adolescents (56% girls; M age=16.02, SD=1.37) tested relations between parenting, adolescent moral identity, and the formation of psychological distance towards others. In short, adolescent moral identity mediated relations between parenting and the ways in which adolescents oriented others in their psychological space. Specifically, adolescent-report parenting style dimensions (responsiveness, autonomy-granting, and demandingness) were positively related to the formation of both private and public moral identity dimensions (internalization and symbolization), which were in turn associated with a tendency to construct psychological distance towards others (negatively with social dominance orientation and positively with the circle of moral regard). Therefore, one way parents may be able to influence how adolescents relate to their peers is by fostering a sense of moral identity in their children through authoritative parenting. PMID:19570572

  2. Dysphoric Adolescents as Young Adults: A Prospective Study of the Psychological Sequelae of Depressed Mood in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjerde, Per F.; Westenberg, P. Michiel

    1998-01-01

    Evaluated the longitudinal implications of age-18 dysphoric mood in 23-year olds using a multidata, multi informant design. Findings indicated that adolescent dysphoric mood was an important predictor of psychological distress in young adults, especially in young adult women, for whom the prospective correlations of adolescent dysphoria were more…

  3. Psychological Interventions for Vaccine Injections in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Birnie, Kathryn A.; Taddio, Anna; McMurtry, C. Meghan; Noel, Melanie; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca; Shah, Vibhuti

    2015-01-01

    Background: This systematic review evaluated the effectiveness of psychological interventions for reducing vaccination pain and related outcomes in children and adolescents. Design/Methods: Database searches identified relevant randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials. Data were extracted and pooled using established methods. Pain, fear, and distress were considered critically important outcomes. Results: Twenty-two studies were included; 2 included adolescents. Findings showed no benefit of false suggestion (n=240) for pain (standardized mean difference [SMD] −0.21 [−0.47, 0.05]) or distress (SMD −0.28 [−0.59, 0.11]), or for use of repeated reassurance (n=82) for pain (SMD −0.18 [−0.92, 0.56]), fear (SMD −0.18 [−0.71, 0.36]), or distress (SMD 0.10 [−0.33, 0.54]). Verbal distraction (n=46) showed reduced distress (SMD −1.22 [−1.87, −0.58]), but not reduced pain (SMD −0.27 [−1.02, 0.47]). Similarly, video distraction (n=328) showed reduced distress (SMD −0.58 [−0.82, −0.34]), but not reduced pain (SMD −0.88 [−1.78, 0.02]) or fear (SMD 0.08 [−0.25, 0.41]). Music distraction demonstrated reduced pain when used with children (n=417) (SMD −0.45 [−0.71, −0.18]), but not with adolescents (n=118) (SMD −0.04 [−0.42, 0.34]). Breathing with a toy (n=368) showed benefit for pain (SMD −0.49 [−0.85, −0.13]), but not fear (SMD −0.60 [−1.22, 0.02]); whereas breathing without a toy (n=136) showed no benefit for pain (SMD −0.27 [−0.61, 0.07]) or fear (SMD −0.36 [−0.86, 0.15]). There was no benefit for a breathing intervention (cough) in children and adolescents (n=136) for pain (SMD −0.17 [−0.41, 0.07]). Conclusions: Psychological interventions with some evidence of benefit in children include: verbal distraction, video distraction, music distraction, and breathing with a toy. PMID:26348163

  4. Psychological profiles and adolescent adjustment: a person-centered approach.

    PubMed

    Crockett, Lisa J; Moilanen, Kristin L; Raffaelli, Marcela; Randall, Brandy A

    2006-01-01

    The association between young adolescents' psychological profiles and their subsequent adjustment was examined in a sample of 606 adolescents (ages 12-13) drawn from the mother-child data set of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Cluster analysis was used to identify distinct groups of youth based on self-regulation, proneness to risk, self-worth, and perceived academic competence. Five replicable clusters were identified corresponding to optimal, average, behavioral risk, low self-regulation, and emotional risk groups. These clusters were associated with distinct patterns of adjustment 4 years later. At ages 16-17, youth in the optimal group tended to report better academic performance, less problem behavior, and less depression than youth in the three risk groups; however, their functioning did not differ significantly from youth in the average group. The three risk groups differed in self-reported depression symptoms and academic performance but not in levels of problem behavior. Differences among the five groups persisted when demographic and contextual variables were controlled. These results support the existence of different groups of youth who follow distinct developmental trajectories and may experience different patterns of adjustment. PMID:16478559

  5. [Social and psychological aspects of contraception in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Fortier, L

    1976-09-01

    Reasons for the high adolescent birthrate in the U.S., medical, psychological, and social repercussions of teenage pregnancy, and facts and myths about sex education and contraception for young people are discussed. About 30% of U.S. women under 20 become pregnant outside marriage, and many more are pregnant when they marry. The reasons for the high pregnancy rates in young people include recent early menarch, which accounts for 94% fertility in 17.5-year-olds, better health, and ignorance about contraception and basic facts about reproduction. Pregnant adolescents risk toxemia, anemia, puerperal morbidity, prematurity, neonatal mortality, and congenital defects such as mental retardation in the baby. They face family alienation, loss of educational and employment opportunities, forced marriage, and high suicide rates in addition to the trials of puberty. Many girls believe that their fertile period is during menses, that pills are dangerous, that they are not fertile. Studies have shown that sex education can lower repeat pregnancies 67%. Recent research has negated the belief that many young women desire pregnancy unconsciously. Current information shows that supplying contraception will not encourage young people to begin having intercourse. Most sex education courses in the U.S. are given after the average teenagers become active sexually. It is believed that contraception should be provided universally for young people, and that parental authorization of contraception would probably mend family ties, certainly better than would unwanted pregnancy. PMID:987631

  6. [Psychological contract in the light of flexible employment: The review of studies].

    PubMed

    Żołnierczyk-Zreda, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Changing employment relations between employees and employers due to the increasing employment flexibility have contributed to the development of a new paradigm to analyze these relations based on the concept of psychological contract. This paradigm might be particularly relevant in Poland where the employment flexibility understood as the number of workers with temporary contracts is the highest in Europe. In this paper the concept of psychological contract is presented along with the existing findings related to its range, balance and contract fulfilment vs. contract breach. The results of studies showing the differences in psychological contract of temporary and permanent workers are also presented. The majority of them indicate that psychological contracts of temporary workers are limited in their extent, less balanced and asymmetric (to workers' disadvantage), as well as more transactional in their nature than those of permanent workers. The temporary workers' well-being and attitudes towards work and their reaction to psychological contract breach largely depends on their preferences for this type of employment, on their qualifications and on a labor market situation. Med Pr 2016;67(4):529-536. PMID:27623833

  7. Effects of Voluntary Alcohol Intake on Risk Preference and Behavioral Flexibility during Rat Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    McMurray, Matthew S.; Amodeo, Leslie R.; Roitman, Jamie D.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use is common in adolescence, with a large portion of intake occurring during episodes of binging. This pattern of alcohol consumption coincides with a critical period for neurocognitive development and may impact decision-making and reward processing. Prior studies have demonstrated alterations in adult decision-making following adolescent usage, but it remains to be seen if these alterations exist in adolescence, or are latent until adulthood. Here, using a translational model of voluntary binge alcohol consumption in adolescents, we assess the impact of alcohol intake on risk preference and behavioral flexibility during adolescence. During adolescence (postnatal day 30–50), rats were given 1-hour access to either a 10% alcohol gelatin mixture (EtOH) or a calorie equivalent gelatin (Control) at the onset of the dark cycle. EtOH consuming rats were classified as either High or Low consumers based on intake levels. Adolescent rats underwent behavioral testing once a day, with one group performing a risk preference task, and a second group performing a reversal-learning task during the 20-day period of gelatin access. EtOH-High rats showed increases in risk preference compared to Control rats, but not EtOH-Low animals. However, adolescent rats did a poor job of matching their behavior to optimize outcomes, suggesting that adolescents may adopt a response bias. In addition, adolescent ethanol exposure did not affect the animals' ability to flexibly adapt behavior to changing reward contingencies during reversal learning. These data support the view that adolescent alcohol consumption can have short-term detrimental effects on risk-taking when examined during adolescence, which does not seem to be attributable to an inability to flexibly encode reward contingencies on behavioral responses. PMID:25007338

  8. Psychological Characteristics Of Academically Gifted Adolescents Attending A Residential Academy: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Tracy L.; Adams, Cheryll; Dixon, Felicia; Holland, Jason

    2004-01-01

    Students attending a state-supported residential academy for academically gifted adolescents (N = 139) completed the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory for Adolescents (MMPI-A; Butcher et al., 1992) upon entrance to document their psychological characteristics. The same students completed a postadministration of the MMPI-A at the end of…

  9. Examining Relationships between Ethnic Identity, Family Environment, and Psychological Outcomes for African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Street, Jalika; Harris-Britt, April; Walker-Barnes, Chanequa

    2009-01-01

    Ethnic identity has been linked to a number of healthy psychological outcomes for African American adolescents. The levels of conflict and cohesion in the family environment have also been found to be predictive of adolescent mental health. This study examined whether the ethnic identity and levels of conflict and cohesion in the family…

  10. The Relationships among Caregiver and Adolescent Identity Status, Identity Distress and Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Rachel E.; Berman, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    The present study addresses the relationships of caregiver identity status on their adolescent children's identity distress and psychological symptom severity among a sample of adolescents (age 12-19) in treatment at a community mental health center (N = 60 caregiver-child dyads). A significant proportion of caregivers (10%) and their adolescent…

  11. Sexual Orientation and Psychological Distress in Adolescence: Examining Interpersonal Stressors and Social Support Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueno, Koji

    2005-01-01

    Adolescents with homosexual and bisexual orientations have higher levels of psychological distress than other adolescents. Drawing from previous studies, I hypothesize that this epidemiological pattern is due largely to the interpersonal problems that sexual minorities experience at home and at school. Analysis of longitudinal data based on a…

  12. Mother Knows Best? Inhibitory Maternal Gatekeeping, Psychological Control, and the Mother-Adolescent Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Erin Kramer; Dunn, KayLee C.; Harper, James; Dyer, W. Justin; Day, Randal D.

    2013-01-01

    We used structural equation modeling to explore associations between inhibitory maternal gatekeeping attitudes, reports of inhibitory maternal gatekeeping behaviors, maternal psychological control, observed mother-adolescent warmth, and adolescent reports of maternal involvement. Our random stratified sample consisted of 315 mothers and their…

  13. A Complexity Approach to Psychological Well-Being in Adolescence: Major Strengths and Methodological Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Monica; Casas, Ferran; Coenders, Germa

    2007-01-01

    Psychological well-being in adolescence is an increasing field of study. Deepening in its knowledge during this period of life can be of a lot of help to the designing of more adjusted prevention programs aimed to avoid or reduce the problems adolescents might be experiencing. Complexity theories can be a productive alternative to the important…

  14. Effects of Childhood Aggression on Parenting during Adolescence: The Role of Parental Psychological Need Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Haan, Amaranta D.; Soenens, Bart; Dekovic, Maja; Prinzie, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the explanatory role of satisfaction of parental psychological needs in effects of childhood aggression on various adolescent-perceived parenting behaviors in middle adolescence. Research questions were examined in a large multi-informant, prospective community study of ethnic majority Belgian families…

  15. Parental Psychological Violence and Adolescent Behavioral Adjustment: The Role of Coping and Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagne, Marie-Helene; Melancon, Claudiane

    2013-01-01

    The role of coping strategies (approach and avoidance) as a mediating factor between parental psychological violence and adolescent behavior problems, both internalized and externalized, as well as the protective role of social support were examined separately for boys and girls. A group of 278 adolescents (mean age: 14.2) were recruited in three…

  16. Clarifying the Link between Parental Psychological Control and Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms: Reciprocal versus Unidirectional Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soenens, Bart; Luyckx, Koen; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Duriez, Bart; Goossens, Luc

    2008-01-01

    Research has demonstrated consistent positive associations between perceived parental psychological control and adolescents' depressive symptoms, but the direction of influence remains unclear. Using a cross-lagged longitudinal design in two samples of late (Study 1, N = 396) and middle (Study 2, N = 724) adolescents, this study compared three…

  17. Daily Variation in Adolescents' Sleep, Activities, and Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuligni, Andrew J.; Hardway, Christina

    2006-01-01

    The daily diary method was used to examine the daily dynamics of adolescent sleep time, activities, and psychological well-being among an ethnically diverse sample of over 750 adolescents approximately 14-15 years of age. Studying and stressful demands during the day were modestly but consistently associated with less sleep that evening. Receiving…

  18. Examining Temporal Associations between Perceived Maternal Psychological Control and Early Adolescent Internalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loukas, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined a) the associations between adolescent-reported maternal psychological control and self-reported internalizing problems one year later, while simultaneously examining the opposite direction of effects and b) the equivalence of these associations across gender. Participants were 479 10-to-14-year old adolescents (55%…

  19. Brief Report: Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies and Psychological Adjustment in Adolescents with a Chronic Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garnefski, Nadia; Koopman, Hendrik; Kraaij, Vivian; ten Cate, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Objective of the study was to examine how cognitive emotion regulation strategies were related to psychological maladjustment in adolescents with a chronic disease. The sample consisted of adolescents with a diagnosis of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA). A self-report questionnaire was used to assess Internalizing problems and Quality of Life.…

  20. Adolescents' Psychological Health and Experiences with Unwanted Sexual Behavior at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmerman, Greetje

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between experiences with unwanted sexual behavior at school and adolescents' health. Adolescent boys and girls (N = 2,808) participated in a 1998/1999 survey of secondary school students in two regions of The Netherlands. The psychological issues investigated included psychosomatic problems and self-esteem. It…

  1. Cortisol Reactivity, Distress Behavior, and Behavioral and Psychological Problems in Young Adolescents: A Longitudinal Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Susman, Elizabeth J.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Examined blood cortisol levels, at three 6-month intervals, for young adolescent outpatients in relation to psychological measures derived from patient interviews preceding clinic visits and observed stress behaviors during visits. Found that adolescents in the increased cortisol reactivity group reported more behavior problems and depression…

  2. Adolescents Coping with Poverty-Related Family Stress: Prospective Predictors of Coping and Psychological Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Martha E.; Berger, Lauren E.

    2006-01-01

    Examined prospective associations among poverty-related family stress, coping, involuntary stress reactivity, and psychological symptoms in a sample of 79 rural, low-income adolescents. Poverty-related family stress predicted adolescents' anxious/depressed and aggressive behavior 8 months later, controlling for prior symptoms. Coping interacted…

  3. Psychological Well-Being in Adolescence: The Contribution of Interpersonal Relations and Experience of Being Alone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsano, Paola; Majorano, Marinella; Champretavy, Lorella

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of loneliness and relationships with parents and friends on the psychological well-being or adolescent malaise. Data were collected via two questionnaires (LLCA--Marcoen, Goossens & Caes, 1987; TRI--Bracken, 1996) from a sample of 330 Italian adolescents, males and females, aged between 11 and 19. As…

  4. Positive Psychology and Adolescent Mental Health: False Promise or True Breakthrough?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Thomas M.

    2004-01-01

    The emerging field of positive psychology has pledged to improve the mental health of American adolescents. Yet, without a principle-based conceptual foundation to guide its study of optimal youth functioning, positive psychology will ultimately fail to keep its promise. This paper suggests that the principles of Mind, Thought and Consciousness…

  5. Direct and Relational Bullying among Children and Adolescents: Coping and Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampel, Petra; Manhal, Simone; Hayer, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    Previous research highlighted that pupils actively involved in bullying and victimization are prone to develop diverse psychological problems. The overall aim of our study was to investigate effects of different forms of bullying and victimization on coping with interpersonal stressors and psychological adjustment among children and adolescents.…

  6. Thyroid Hormone Levels and Psychological Symptoms in Sexually Abused Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haviland, Mark G.; Sonne, Janet L.; Anderson, Donald L.; Nelson, Jerald C.; Sheridan-Matney, Clare; Nichols, Joy G.; Carlton, Esther I.; Murdoch, William G. C.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationships between psychological symptoms and thyroid hormone levels in adolescent girls who had experienced the traumatic stress of sexual abuse. Method: The study design was cross-sectional/correlational. Subjects ("N"=22; age range=12-18 years) had their blood drawn, and they completed 2 psychological tests…

  7. Effects of Peer Victimization on Psychological and Academic Adjustment in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rueger, Sandra Yu; Jenkins, Lyndsay N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to investigate the effects of frequency of peer victimization experiences on psychological and academic adjustment during early adolescence, with a focus on testing psychological adjustment as a mediator, as well as differences based on gender and type of victimization. The sample in this short-term longitudinal…

  8. The Role of Social Competence in the Psychological Well-Being of Adolescents in Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holopainen, Leena; Lappalainen, Kristiina; Junttila, Niina; Savolainen, Hannu

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between social competence and psychological well-being of adolescents. The role of academic learning disabilities with social competence and psychological well-being was also studied. The sample (n = 412; 207 girls and 205 boys), one complete age group (mean age 15.5 years), was followed from last year of…

  9. Weight Control Behavior as an Indicator of Adolescent Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeatts, Paul E.; Martin, Scott B.; Petrie, Trent A.; Greenleaf, Christy

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adolescence is a critical time for the development of psychological well-being. Weight gain and the emergence of body image concerns during this period can lead to the development of negative psychological states. To explore this issue, we examined the relationship between weight control behavior (WCB; i.e., trying to lose, gain, stay…

  10. Are Discrepancies in Perceptions of Psychological Control Related to Maladjustment? A Study of Adolescents and Their Parents in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaban, E. Helin; Sayil, Melike; Tepe, Yeliz Kindap

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined whether adolescent-parent discrepancies in the perception of psychological control are associated with adolescent maladjustment. The sample consisted of 552 Turkish adolescents attending high school and their parents. Half of the adolescents had similar scores to their parents, while the remaining half thought…

  11. Cosmetic and Reconstructive Breast Surgery in Adolescents: Psychological, Ethical, and Legal Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Crerand, Canice E.; Magee, Leanne

    2013-01-01

    Cosmetic and reconstructive breast surgery has increased in popularity among adolescents in the United States. As more adolescents pursue these procedures, an understanding of the psychological aspects of these surgeries becomes increasingly important for the benefit of both patients and providers. The authors review the psychological aspects of cosmetic and reconstructive surgical breast procedures as they pertain to adolescents, including augmentation mammoplasty, gynecomastia correction, breast reduction, and asymmetry correction. They include a discussion of the medicolegal and ethical implications of these procedures and recommendations for clinical management. PMID:24872744

  12. Media Use and Adolescent Psychological Adjustment: An Examination of Gender Differences.

    PubMed

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2009-08-01

    This study examined media use and psychological adjustment (as indicated by depression and anxiety symptomatology) in a sample of 328 14- to 16-year-old adolescents. Primary goals of the study were to explore whether media use differs by gender, whether media use is related to adolescent psychological problems, and whether media use moderates the relationship between parental alcoholism and adolescent psychological adjustment. Adolescents were surveyed in the spring of 2006, and again one year later. Gender differences in media use were observed with boys spending more time playing video games than girls and girls spending more time talking on the phone than boys. Strikingly, none of the types of media examined was associated with depression or anxiety. Moreover, media use acted as a protective factor for boys. Boys who spent relatively more time playing video games and watching television had the lowest levels of anxiety, especially those from alcoholic homes. The opposite pattern emerged for girls. PMID:21359124

  13. Undermining Adolescent Autonomy With Parents and Peers: The Enduring Implications of Psychologically Controlling Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Hare, Amanda L.; Szwedo, David E.; Schad, Megan M.; Allen, Joseph P.

    2014-01-01

    This study used a longitudinal, multi-method design to examine whether teens’ perceptions of maternal psychological control predicted lower levels of adolescent autonomy displayed with their mothers and peers over time. Significant predictions from teens’ perceptions of maternal psychological control to teens’ displays of autonomy in maternal and peer relationships were found at age 16 after accounting for adolescent displays of autonomy with mothers and peers at age 13, indicating relative changes in teens’ autonomy displayed with their mother and a close peer over time. Results suggest that the ability to assert one’s autonomy in mid-adolescence may be influenced by maternal behavior early in adolescence, highlighting the importance of parents minimizing psychological control to facilitate autonomy development for teens. PMID:26788023

  14. Media Use and Adolescent Psychological Adjustment: An Examination of Gender Differences

    PubMed Central

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2011-01-01

    This study examined media use and psychological adjustment (as indicated by depression and anxiety symptomatology) in a sample of 328 14- to 16-year-old adolescents. Primary goals of the study were to explore whether media use differs by gender, whether media use is related to adolescent psychological problems, and whether media use moderates the relationship between parental alcoholism and adolescent psychological adjustment. Adolescents were surveyed in the spring of 2006, and again one year later. Gender differences in media use were observed with boys spending more time playing video games than girls and girls spending more time talking on the phone than boys. Strikingly, none of the types of media examined was associated with depression or anxiety. Moreover, media use acted as a protective factor for boys. Boys who spent relatively more time playing video games and watching television had the lowest levels of anxiety, especially those from alcoholic homes. The opposite pattern emerged for girls. PMID:21359124

  15. International note: Maternal warmth, behavioral control, and psychological control: Relations to adjustment of Ghanaian early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Salaam, Braima; Mounts, Nina S

    2016-06-01

    This investigation addressed the relation between maternal warmth, behavioral control, psychological control, and psychological adjustment in a sample of 119 Ghanaian adolescents (42% boys) living in an urban area (mean age = 14.19). Adolescents in the sample reported clinically elevated levels of depression and anxiety. Significant associations were found between warmth, behavioral control, and psychological control and adolescents' anxiety, physical aggression, relational aggression, positive friendship quality, and conflict with friends. Warmth moderated the effect of behavioral control on anxiety, physical aggression, and relational aggression such that higher levels of warmth in combination with higher levels of behavioral control were related to more positive adjustment. Higher levels of warmth in conjunction with higher psychological control were related to higher levels of anxiety. Boys who reported lower levels of warmth in combination with higher behavioral control reported higher levels of physical aggression. For boys reporting higher levels of warmth, higher behavioral control was associated with lower physical aggression. PMID:27038973

  16. Psychological Health and Life Experiences of Pregnant Adolescent Mothers in Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Wilson-Mitchell, Karline; Bennett, Joanna; Stennett, Rosain

    2014-01-01

    A recent Jamaican school-based survey revealed that 23.1% of 13–15 year-olds, had attempted suicide one or more times during the last 12 months. Research that links adolescent pregnancy and suicidal behaviour is lacking in Jamaica. Psychological distress and suicidal behaviours amongst pregnant adolescents elsewhere in the Americas has been documented at prevalence of between 13.3%–20%. The purpose of the study was to explore the experiences and the impact of pregnancy on pregnant adolescent psychological health. Individual interviews and focus groups were conducted with adolescents in two Jamaican antenatal clinics. One clinic was designed as a ‘Teen Pregnancy Clinic’ and the other used the standard antenatal clinic design. The following themes were identified: decision-making, resilience, social support, community support system, distress, and perceptions of service. Participants reported positively on the specific interventions tailored to their needs at the Teen Clinic. Although motherhood is valued, none of the pregnancies in this study were planned by the mother. Of the 30 adolescents interviewed, seven cases were referred for counseling due to their need for emotional and psychological support. One of the adolescents reported recent sexual violence and another reported having experienced childhood sexual abuse. Historically, Jamaican adolescent mothers faced barriers to education, self determination, and family planning. Empowering, adolescent-centred healthcare and comprehensive reproductive health education may mitigate psychosocial distress. PMID:24785743

  17. Flexibility Now, Consistency Later: Psychological Distance and Construal Shape Evaluative Responding

    PubMed Central

    Ledgerwood, Alison; Trope, Yaacov; Chaiken, Shelly

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have long been interested in understanding the conditions under which evaluations will be more or less consistent or context-dependent. The current research explores this issue by asking when stability or flexibility in evaluative responding would be most useful. Integrating construal level theory with research suggesting that variability in the mental representation of an attitude object can produce fluctuations in evaluative responding, we propose a functional relationship between distance and evaluative flexibility. Because individuals construe psychologically proximal objects more concretely, evaluations of proximal objects will tend to incorporate unique information from the current social context, promoting context-specific responses. Conversely, because more distal objects are construed more abstractly, evaluations of distal objects will be less context-dependent. Consistent with this reasoning, the results of 4 studies suggest that when individuals mentally construe an attitude object concretely, either because it is psychologically close or because they have been led to adopt a concrete mindset, their evaluations flexibly incorporate the views of an incidental stranger. However, when individuals think about the same issue more abstractly, their evaluations are less susceptible to incidental social influence and instead reflect their previously reported ideological values. These findings suggest that there are ways of thinking that will tend to produce more or less variability in mental representation across contexts, which in turn shapes evaluative consistency. Connections to shared reality, conformity, and attitude function are discussed. PMID:20565184

  18. Some Psychological Aspects of T1DM in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pop-Jordanova, Nada; Gucev, Zoran

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus type 1 (T1DM) is a chronic disease with long term consequences dictating daily struggle to maintain a good metabolic control. Children and adolescents with T1DM seem to have inferior psychological adjustment to their normal counterparts, which might be associated with glycemic control and disease duration. The aim of this study is to evaluate the psychological characteristics of children and adolescents with T1DM treated last year in the University Children Hospital in Skopje, Macedonia and to propose some response measures. For psychological evaluation we used CBCL (Child Behavior Check List), GAS (General Anxiety Scale), EPQ (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire) and MMPI-201 (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory). The results confirmed the following psychological characteristics: mild depression and anxiety, emotional instability, need for social acceptance, as well as the possible psychopathic traits. Suffering for a complex metabolic and chronic illness, these patients need psychological evaluation and intervention in the management. PMID:27442404

  19. Positive psychology and adolescent mental health: false promise or true breakthrough?

    PubMed

    Kelley, Thomas M

    2004-01-01

    The emerging field of positive psychology has pledged to improve the mental health of American adolescents. Yet, without a principle-based conceptual foundation to guide its study of optimal youth functioning, positive psychology will ultimately fail to keep its promise. This paper suggests that the principles of Mind, Thought and Consciousness can provide positive psychology with a clearer understanding of optimal psychological functioning, serve as a unifying conceptual framework to guide its proposed mission, and lead to a true breakthrough in adolescent mental health. It first describes how the logic of these principles accounts for all subjective human experience. It then demonstrates how optimal mental health is generated, and how it can be maintained irrespective of present or past circumstances. Finally, it discusses how several contemporary models of positive psychology (i.e., Csikszentmihalyi's flow. Seligman's learned optimism, Goleman's emotional intelligence, and Buss's evolutionary perspective) can be simplified and clarified using the logic of the above three principles. PMID:15563037

  20. Psicologia social de la adolescencia (Social Psychology of the Adolescent).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havighurst, Robert J.

    An attempt is made (1) to define adolescence as a biological phenomenon, (2) to describe the characteristics of the adolescent in Latin America, and (3) to identify the adolescent within certain social and cultural groups of specific Latin American countries. The perspective of the four-part monograph is entirely sociological, and the report is…

  1. Exploring mediating factors in the association between parental psychological distress and psychosocial maladjustment in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Campoy, Eric; Chaix, Basile; Chauvin, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Parental psychopathology is associated with increased psychosocial maladjustment in adolescents. We examined, from a psychosocial perspective, the association between parental psychological distress and psychosocial maladjustment in adolescents and assessed the mediating role of psychosocial covariates. This is a cross-sectional survey and the setting include representative sample of Quebec adolescents in 1999. The participants of the study include 13- and 16-year-old children (N = 2,346) in the Social and Health Survey of Quebec Children and Adolescents. The main outcome measures are internalizing disorders, externalizing disorders, substance use, and alcohol consumption. For statistical analysis, we used structural equation modeling to test for mediation. Internalizing and externalizing disorders were significantly associated with parental psychological distress, but not substance use or alcohol consumption. The higher the parental distress, the higher the risk of adolescent mental health disorders. The association between parental psychological distress and internalizing disorders was mediated by adolescent self-esteem, parental emotional support and extrafamilial social support. As for externalizing disorders, these variables only had an independent effect. In conclusion, A family’s well being is a necessary condition for psychosocial adjustment in adolescence. Beyond the psychiatric approach, psychosocial considerations need to be taken into consideration to prevent negative mental health outcomes in children living in homes with distressed parents. PMID:20127380

  2. Predictors of curve flexibility in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a retrospective study of 100 patients.

    PubMed

    Ameri, Ebrahim; Behtash, Hamid; Mobini, Bahram; Daraie, Ariasb

    2015-01-01

    Curve flexibility in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) was one of the major concerns of spinal surgeons since the evolution of surgical correction techniques. In this respect, many tried to identify which criteria denote more rigid curve. In the present study, we aimed toward determining important factors influencing AIS curve flexibility on supine bending films. We assessed radiographs of 100 patients with AIS for direction of curves, number of involved vertebrae, apical vertebral translation and rotation, magnitude of main thoracic curve and T5-T12 kyphosis. Statistical analysis performed via stepwise linear regression model with these variables plus age and sex against flexibility index. According to regression analysis, there was a clear relationship between flexibility indexes (FI) and magnitude of main thoracic curve at all (P<0.001). When we consider flexible curves (FI>50%) against rigid curves, apical vertebral rotation was a major determinant of curve flexibility also (P<0.001). Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis curves with larger Cobb's angle and apical vertebral rotation show less flexibility on supine bending films. PMID:25796026

  3. Does Social Support Protect against Depression & Psychological Distress? Findings from the RELACHS Study of East London Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khatib, Yasmin; Bhui, Kamaldeep; Stansfeld, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    Few prospective studies have examined the relationship between social support and psychological distress and depressive symptoms in adolescents. The aims of this study were to test whether social support is protective against psychological distress and depressive symptoms in an ethnically diverse population of adolescents and whether differences…

  4. Psychological adjustment in adolescents conceived by assisted reproduction techniques: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ilioi, Elena Cristiana; Golombok, Susan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Adolescence is a transitional time for identity formation and relationships with parents. While people born through assisted reproduction techniques (ART) appear to be well adjusted in childhood, it is unclear whether these findings carry into adolescence, and whether diverse ART have different psychological outcomes. This review summarizes what is known about the psychological adjustment and family relationships of the growing number of children born through ART who are reaching adolescence. METHODS The Pubmed, Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO and Scopus databases were searched systematically for peer reviewed papers focusing on adolescent psychological adjustment and parent–adolescent relationships in families created by ART. Key search inclusion criteria included all papers published in English relating to adolescents aged between 11 and 18 years. RESULTS Seventeen publications with varied methodologies were identified by this review. Only papers relating to in vitro fertilization (IVF), egg donation and donor insemination were identified. Results were categorized according to ART that used the parents' own gametes (IVF) and those that involved reproductive donation (egg donation, and donor insemination). Compared with naturally conceived adolescents and standardized normative samples, adolescents born through all ARTs seemed to be equally well adjusted, and to have positive parent–adolescent relationships. Some differences were however identified based on the type of ART used. In particular, the sex of the parent and child, along with age and process of disclosure of the adolescent's conception were identified as key mediators of parent–adolescent relationships in families created by donor insemination. CONCLUSIONS The studies in this review indicate that children born through ART have positive parent–adolescent relationships and are well adjusted, with some slight differences based on different ART. The generalizability of findings may be limited

  5. Mental traveling along psychological distances: The effects of cultural syndromes, perspective flexibility, and construal level.

    PubMed

    Wong, Vincent Chi; Wyer, Robert S

    2016-07-01

    Individuals' psychological distance from the stimuli they encounter in daily life can influence the abstractness or generality of the mental representations they form of these stimuli. However, these representations can also depend on the perspective from which the stimuli are construed. When individuals have either an individualistic social orientation or a short-term temporal orientation, they construe psychologically distal events more globally than they construe proximal ones, as implied by construal level theory (Trope & Liberman, 2010). When they have either a collectivistic social orientation or a long-term temporal orientation, however, they not only construe the implications of distal events more concretely than individuals with an egocentric perspective but also construe the implications of proximal events in more abstract terms. These effects are mediated by the flexibility of the perspectives that people take when they make judgments. Differences in perspective flexibility account for the impact of both situationally induced differences in social and temporal orientation and more chronic cultural differences in these orientations. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27337139

  6. Trajectories of Adolescent Mother–Grandmother Psychological Conflict During Early Parenting and Children's Problem Behaviors at Age 7

    PubMed Central

    Buckingham-Howes, Stacy; Oberlander, Sarah E.; Hurley, Kristen M.; Fitzmaurice, Shannon; Black, Maureen M.

    2016-01-01

    This study extends the determinants of parenting model to adolescent mothers by examining how adolescent mother–grandmother psychological conflict and perceptions of infant fussiness from birth through age 2 years relate to children's problem behaviors at age 7. Participants were 181 adolescent mother, child, and grandmother triads living in multigenerational households and recruited at delivery. Psychological conflict was characterized by two stable trajectories. In multivariate models that included maternal depression, both psychological conflict and perceptions of infant fussiness predicted externalizing behavior at age 7. Perceptions of infant fussiness, but not psychological conflict, predicted internalizing behavior at age 7. PMID:21534055

  7. Cognitive flexibility in adolescence: neural and behavioral mechanisms of reward prediction error processing in adaptive decision making during development.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Tobias U; Iannaccone, Reto; Walitza, Susanne; Brandeis, Daniel; Brem, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is associated with quickly changing environmental demands which require excellent adaptive skills and high cognitive flexibility. Feedback-guided adaptive learning and cognitive flexibility are driven by reward prediction error (RPE) signals, which indicate the accuracy of expectations and can be estimated using computational models. Despite the importance of cognitive flexibility during adolescence, only little is known about how RPE processing in cognitive flexibility deviates between adolescence and adulthood. In this study, we investigated the developmental aspects of cognitive flexibility by means of computational models and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We compared the neural and behavioral correlates of cognitive flexibility in healthy adolescents (12-16years) to adults performing a probabilistic reversal learning task. Using a modified risk-sensitive reinforcement learning model, we found that adolescents learned faster from negative RPEs than adults. The fMRI analysis revealed that within the RPE network, the adolescents had a significantly altered RPE-response in the anterior insula. This effect seemed to be mainly driven by increased responses to negative prediction errors. In summary, our findings indicate that decision making in adolescence goes beyond merely increased reward-seeking behavior and provides a developmental perspective to the behavioral and neural mechanisms underlying cognitive flexibility in the context of reinforcement learning. PMID:25234119

  8. Perceived Economic Strain and Psychological Well-Being: The Mediational Role of Parental Relations in Turkish Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uçanok, Zehra; Güre, Ays?en

    2014-01-01

    This study primarily aims to explore the association between perceived economic strain, parent-adolescent relational qualities and psychological well-being and to investigate the dyadic parental relationships during early adolescence. A total of 414 adolescents between the ages of 10 and 14 (M= 12.58, SD = 0.90) from three different socioeconomic…

  9. Trajectories of Adolescent Mother-Grandmother Psychological Conflict during Early Parenting and Children's Problem Behaviors at Age 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckingham-Howes, Stacy; Oberlander, Sarah E.; Hurley, Kristen M.; Fitzmaurice, Shannon; Black, Maureen M.

    2011-01-01

    This study extends the "determinants of parenting model" to adolescent mothers by examining how adolescent mother-grandmother psychological conflict and perceptions of infant fussiness from birth through age 2 years relate to children's problem behaviors at age 7. Participants were 181 adolescent mother, child, and grandmother triads living in…

  10. Adolescents' Internalizing and Aggressive Behaviors and Perceptions of Parents' Psychological Control: A Panel Study Examining Direction of Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Arne K.; Galambos, Nancy L.; Jansson, S. Mikael

    2007-01-01

    This panel study investigated the directionality of relations between adolescents' perceptions of their parents' psychological control and adolescents' self-reported internalizing and aggressive (physical and relational) behaviors. Data were collected from a random, community sample of 530 adolescents ages 12-19 years old at time 1, and again 2…

  11. Adolescent binge ethanol treatment alters adult brain regional volumes, cortical extracellular matrix protein and behavioral flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Leon Garland; Liu, Wen; Oguz, Ipek; Styner, Martin; Crews, Fulton T.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents binge drink more than any other age group, increasing risk of disrupting the development of the frontal cortex. We hypothesized that adolescent binge drinking would lead to persistent alterations in adulthood. In this study, we modeled adolescent weekend underage binge-drinking, using adolescent mice (post-natal days [P] 28–37). The adolescent intermittent binge ethanol (AIE) treatment includes 6 binge intragastric doses of ethanol in an intermittent pattern across adolescence. Assessments were conducted in adulthood following extended abstinence to determine if there were persistent changes in adults. Reversal learning, open field and other behavioral assessments as well as brain structure using magnetic imaging and immunohistochemistry were determined. We found AIE did not impact adult Barnes Maze learning. However, AIE did cause reversal learning deficits in adults. AIE also caused structural changes in the adult brain. AIE was associated with adulthood volume enlargements in specific brain regions without changes in total brain volume. Enlarged regions included the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, 4%), cerebellum (4.5%), thalamus (2%), internal capsule (10%) and genu of the corpus callosum (7%). The enlarged OFC volume in adults after AIE is consistent with previous imaging studies in human adolescents. AIE treatment was associated with significant increases in the expression of several extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in the adult OFC including WFA (55%), Brevican (32%), Neurocan (105%), Tenacin-C (25%), and HABP (5%). These findings are consistent with AIE causing persistent changes in brain structure that could contribute to a lack of behavioral flexibility. PMID:24275185

  12. Parental psychological violence and adolescent behavioral adjustment: the role of coping and social support.

    PubMed

    Gagné, Marie-Hélène; Melançon, Claudiane

    2013-01-01

    The role of coping strategies (approach and avoidance) as a mediating factor between parental psychological violence and adolescent behavior problems, both internalized and externalized, as well as the protective role of social support were examined separately for boys and girls. A group of 278 adolescents (mean age: 14.2) were recruited in three high schools located in low, moderate, and high socioeconomic areas. Participants were in the seventh, eighth, and ninth grades, and each completed a self-administered questionnaire. The use of avoidant coping strategies partially mediated the link between parental psychological violence and behavior problems among girls. The use of approach coping strategies partially mediated the link between parental psychological violence and behavior problems among boys. In all cases, coping enhanced this link. No protective role of social support was found. On the contrary, this variable was found to increase the relationship between parental psychological violence and externalized behavior problems among boys. These findings suggest that interventions aimed at strengthening coping skills and social support in adolescents may not be effective in alleviating various behavioral symptoms associated with parental psychological violence. They highlight the importance of prevention of psychologically violent parental practices, instead of only reacting to the problem after it has occurred. PMID:22829215

  13. Psychological impact of acne on 21st-century adolescents: decoding for better care.

    PubMed

    Revol, O; Milliez, N; Gerard, D

    2015-07-01

    The psychological consequences of acne have been the subject of many studies. As a particularly visible skin disorder, acne complicates the daily lives of adolescents who are undergoing multiple transformations: physical, intellectual and emotional. While it is well established that acne can be responsible for depression and low self-esteem, it is likely that this impact is aggravated by the sociological evolution of adolescents in the 21st century. Understanding the codes of adolescents today (who can be characterized as being more concerned by their appearance than previous generations at the same age) allows us to optimize our medical approach to acne and facilitates treatment compliance and adherence. PMID:25702715

  14. Saving in Childhood and Adolescence: Insights from Developmental Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Annette

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses variables related to child and adolescent saving and explains the development of skills and behaviors that facilitate saving from an economic socialization perspective. References are made to the differences between the economic world of children, adolescents, and adults as well as to existing theories of saving. Children's…

  15. Adolescent Sleep Patterns: Biological, Social, and Psychological Influences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carskadon, Mary A., Ed.

    Noting that healthy, adequate sleep fosters longevity and the optimal use of waking hours, and that adolescents, although rarely included in previous studies of sleep, are among the most sleep-deprived populations, this book explores the genesis and development of sleep patterns during adolescence, including biological and cultural factors that…

  16. A Synthesis of Research on Psychological Types of Gifted Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sak, Ugur

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the author synthesizes results of studies about personality types of gifted adolescents. Fourteen studies were coded with 19 independent samples. The total number of identified participants in original studies was 5,723. The most common personality types among gifted adolescents were "intuitive" and "perceiving." They were higher on…

  17. Developmental Psychology of Adolescent Girls: Conflicts and Identity Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Katherine C.

    2004-01-01

    Adolescents, particularly girls, have many identity conflicts and low self-esteem that may affect school success and development of a healthy identity. Many teenagers experience new societal expectations and responsibilities giving rise to identity confusion or internal conflicts that need to be resolved during adolescence. Their conflicts may…

  18. Psychological Distress and Alcohol Use in Hispanic Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alva, Sylvia Alatorre

    1995-01-01

    Hispanic adolescents (n=171) completed a questionnaire on levels of psychosocial stress, anxiety, depression, and patterns of alcohol use. A strong association between psychosocial stress, depression, and alcohol use was found, suggesting that Hispanic American adolescents use alcohol as a way of coping. (SLD)

  19. Adolescent Health Problems: Behavioral Perspectives. Advances in Pediatric Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallander, Jan L., Ed.; Siegel, Lawrence J., Ed.

    This book examines the relationship between adolescent risk-taking behaviors and health. The health-related problems of adolescents frequently are manifestations of social, economic, or behavioral factors. Following an overview (Siegal), the chapters in the first section of the book explore general and conceptual issues: (1) "Epidemiology of…

  20. Flexibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, L. Dennis

    1981-01-01

    Flexibility is an important aspect of all sports and recreational activities. Flexibility can be developed and maintained by stretching exercises. Exercises designed to develop flexibility in ankle joints, knees, hips, and the lower back are presented. (JN)

  1. The Role of Parental and Peer Attachment in the Psychological Health and Self-Esteem of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Ross B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of 3 studies examining the relationships of parental attachment, peer attachment, and self-esteem to adolescent psychological health. A model is presented in which parental attachment directly influences both psychological health and self-esteem and the influence of peer attachment on psychological health is totally…

  2. A Long-Term Psychological Observation in an Adolescent Affected with Gardner Diamond Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bizzi, Fabiola; Sciarretta, Lucia; D’Alessandro, Matteo; Picco, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Gardner-Diamond syndrome (GDS) is an uncommon disease clinically characterized by a wide spectrum of psycho-emotive symptoms associated with painful ecchymoses/purpuric lesions and positivity of auto-erythrocyte sensitization skin test. Herein, a perspective clinical and psychological observation of an adolescent GDS is firstly reported focusing on her psychological features long-term monitored for a 1-year period. The administration of a standardized tools battery allowed us to define psychological features of the young patient over time and to monitored clinical course and response to treatment. PMID:27011410

  3. Comprehending Psychological Defenses: Developmental Differences between Normal and Disturbed Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Andrew; Rybash, John

    Investigated were similarities and differences in the ability of 26 normally developing and 26 conduct-disordered children and adolescents to comprehend psychologically defensive behavior and the cognitive processes underlying differences due to age. Matched by cognitive level, subjects viewed vignettes depicting another child behaving…

  4. The Counterintuitive Psychological Benefits of Intergenerational Discrepancies in Family Prioritization for Jamaican Adolescent-Parent Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Gail M.

    2013-01-01

    The current study tests a prediction of Relational Discrepancy Theory (RDT; i.e., emotional distress will not accompany discrepancies in hierarchical relationships) for family obligations discrepancies among adolescent-parent dyads in Jamaica, a moderately collectivistic and hierarchical society. Ninety-five dyads reported psychological adjustment…

  5. Peer Rejection during Adolescence: Psychological Long-Term Effects--A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Nuttman-Shwartz, Orit; Sternberg, Rotem

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the psychological long-term effects of social peer rejection (SPR) experienced during adolescence as retrospectively perceived by young adults. A convenient sample of 387 undergraduate university students were administered self-report questionnaires consisting of the following measures: demographic variables, traumatic…

  6. The Academic and Psychological Benefits of Exercise in Healthy Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Martin; Laumann, Karin

    2013-01-01

    This review examines the psychological benefits exercise is connected to in healthy children and adolescents. Studies on the effect of exercise on academic performance, self-esteem, emotions, and mood were examined. Academic performance is found to be maintained when normal academic classes are reduced and replaced by an increase in exercise,…

  7. Psychological and Behavioral Risk Factors for Obesity Onset in Adolescent Girls: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Shaw, Heather; Rohde, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Because little is known about risk factors for obesity, the authors tested whether certain psychological and behavioral variables predicted future onset of obesity. The authors used data from a prospective study of 496 adolescent girls who completed a baseline assessment at age 11-15 years and 4 annual follow-ups. Self-reported dietary restraint,…

  8. Combating Weight Bias among Adolescents in School Settings: A Sport and Exercise Psychology Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyairi, Maya; Reel, Justine J.

    2011-01-01

    Weightism involves stigmatization of individuals based on size, shape, or weight. Weight bias represents a form of bullying and is psychologically damaging to children and adolescents. Although weightism is reinforced by the media, family, and in schools, educators can play an important role in changing their class climate. This article described…

  9. Autonomy Support versus Psychological Control, Perfectionism, and Taiwanese Adolescents' Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Shu-Shen

    2013-01-01

    The author attempted to explore potential antecedents of achievement goals and relations of teacher and parental autonomy support versus psychological control to Taiwanese adolescents' perfectionistic tendencies. A total of 512 eighth-grade students completed self-reported questionnaires assessing variables of interest. Results indicated that…

  10. Perceived Emotional Intelligence as Predictor of Psychological Adjustment in Adolescents: A 1-Year Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salguero, Jose M.; Palomera, Raquel; Fernandez-Berrocal, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, emotional intelligence has appeared as a predictor of adults' mental health, but little research has examined its involvement in adolescents' psychological adjustment. In this paper, we analyzed the predictive validity of perceived emotional intelligence (attention to feelings, emotional clarity, and emotional repair) over…

  11. Stability of Physical and Psychological Adolescent Dating Aggression across Time and Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritz, Patti A. Timmons; Slep, Amy M. Smith

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the stability of adolescent physical and psychological dating aggression across both time and partners in a sample of 664 high school students using both nonparametric and growth curve (GC) modeling techniques. Nonparametric and GC modeling tests demonstrated moderate levels of stability of all forms of aggression.…

  12. Coping Style and Psychological Health among Adolescent Prisoners: A Study of Young and Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ireland, J.L.; Boustead, R.; Ireland, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    The current study explores the role of coping styles as a predictor of poor psychological health among adolescent offenders. It presents the first study to compare young and juvenile offenders. Two hundred and three male offenders took part: 108 young (18-21 years) and 95 juvenile (15-17 years) offenders. All completed the General Health…

  13. Psychological therapies (remotely delivered) for the management of chronic and recurrent pain in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Emma; Law, Emily; Palermo, Tonya M; Eccleston, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To determine the effectiveness of psychological therapies delivered remotely compared to waiting-list, treatment-as-usual, or active control for the management of chronic pain in children and adolescents. PMID:25221436

  14. Ethnic Identity and the Daily Psychological Well-Being of Adolescents from Mexican and Chinese Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa; Yip, Tiffany; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda; Witkow, Melissa; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2006-01-01

    Protective effects of ethnic identity on daily psychological well-being were examined in a sample of 415 ninth graders from Mexican and Chinese backgrounds. Utilizing daily diary assessments and multilevel modeling, adolescents with a greater regard for their ethnic group exhibited greater levels of daily happiness and less daily anxiety averaged…

  15. Shy Adolescents' Perceptions of Parents' Psychological Control and Emotional Warmth: Examining Bidirectional Links

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Zalk, Nejra; Kerr, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Two kinds of parental behaviors--psychological control and emotional warmth--have been linked with children's shy behaviors. The questions we addressed are whether this applies to adolescent shyness, and whether shyness in itself might also affect perceptions of parental behaviors. The participants were 916 seventh to ninth graders in a…

  16. Experience of Teacher Education Students in Taking the Course of Adolescent Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yii-nii; Chiu, Yi-hsing Claire; Lai, Pi-hui

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the learning and development experiences of teacher education students after taking an introductory course on adolescent psychology. The instructor adopted the developmental instruction model (DIM) (Knefelkamp, 1998) in this study and facilitated students learn through experiential learning. Fifteen students (aged between 20…

  17. Perceptions of the School Psychological Environment in Predicting Adolescent Mothers' Educational Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalil, Ariel

    2002-01-01

    Drawing on theories of educational motivation, this study investigated how perceptions of the school psychological environment predict change over time in educational expectations among low-income adolescent mothers. Findings indicated that teenage mothers' perceptions that teachers devalued them intellectually by underestimating their abilities…

  18. Academic and Psychological Functioning in Late Adolescence: The Importance of School Belonging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Laura D.; Richmond, Adeya

    2007-01-01

    Few researchers have considered the influence of school context, an important construct at earlier ages, on late adolescents' college adjustment. In a sample of second-semester freshmen (N = 266), the authors explored associations between a sense of school belonging and academic and psychological adjustment. Students' reports of belonging at the…

  19. Basic psychological need satisfaction in leisure activities and adolescents' life satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Leversen, Ingrid; Danielsen, Anne G; Birkeland, Marianne S; Samdal, Oddrun

    2012-12-01

    Participation in leisure activities is an important arena for the positive psychological development of adolescents. The present study set out to examine the relationship between adolescents' satisfaction of the psychological needs for competence, relatedness, and autonomy in their participation in leisure activities and their perceived life satisfaction. The aim was to identify the extent to which satisfaction of the three needs explained the relationship between participation in leisure activities and life satisfaction. These proposed mechanisms were based on previous empirical work and the theoretical frameworks of self-determination theory, and were tested in a nationally representative sample of Norwegian adolescents (N = 3,273) aged 15 and 16 years (51.8 % boys). The structural equation analysis showed that competence and relatedness satisfaction fully mediated the association between participation in activities and life satisfaction. Autonomy satisfaction had a direct positive effect on life satisfaction but did not show any mediation effect. The positive processes of psychological need satisfaction, and especially the need for competence and relatedness, experienced in the leisure activity domain thus seem to be beneficial for adolescents' well-being. These findings add to previous research investigating the positive impact of need satisfaction in other important domains in the lives of children and adolescents. PMID:22627625

  20. Agreement Between Face-to-Face and Free Software Video Analysis for Assessing Hamstring Flexibility in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Moral-Muñoz, José A; Esteban-Moreno, Bernabé; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel; Cobo, Manuel J; Herrera-Viedma, Enrique

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the level of agreement between face-to-face hamstring flexibility measurements and free software video analysis in adolescents. Reduced hamstring flexibility is common in adolescents (75% of boys and 35% of girls aged 10). The length of the hamstring muscle has an important role in both the effectiveness and the efficiency of basic human movements, and reduced hamstring flexibility is related to various musculoskeletal conditions. There are various approaches to measuring hamstring flexibility with high reliability; the most commonly used approaches in the scientific literature are the sit-and-reach test, hip joint angle (HJA), and active knee extension. The assessment of hamstring flexibility using video analysis could help with adolescent flexibility follow-up. Fifty-four adolescents from a local school participated in a descriptive study of repeated measures using a crossover design. Active knee extension and HJA were measured with an inclinometer and were simultaneously recorded with a video camera. Each video was downloaded to a computer and subsequently analyzed using Kinovea 0.8.15, a free software application for movement analysis. All outcome measures showed reliability estimates with α > 0.90. The lowest reliability was obtained for HJA (α = 0.91). The preliminary findings support the use of a free software tool for assessing hamstring flexibility, offering health professionals a useful tool for adolescent flexibility follow-up. PMID:26313580

  1. Are the Psychological Needs of Adolescent Survivors of Pediatric Cancer Adequately Identified and Treated?

    PubMed Central

    Kahalley, Lisa S.; Wilson, Stephanie J.; Tyc, Vida L.; Conklin, Heather M.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping; Stancel, Heather H.; Hinds, Pamela S.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To describe the psychological needs of adolescent survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or brain tumor (BT), we examined: (a) the occurrence of cognitive, behavioral, and emotional concerns identified during a comprehensive psychological evaluation, and (b) the frequency of referrals for psychological follow-up services to address identified concerns. Methods Psychological concerns were identified on measures according to predetermined criteria for 100 adolescent survivors. Referrals for psychological follow-up services were made for concerns previously unidentified in formal assessment or not adequately addressed by current services. Results Most survivors (82%) exhibited at least one concern across domains: behavioral (76%), cognitive (47%), and emotional (19%). Behavioral concerns emerged most often on scales associated with executive dysfunction, inattention, learning, and peer difficulties. CRT was associated with cognitive concerns, χ2(1,N=100)=5.63, p<0.05. Lower income was associated with more cognitive concerns for ALL survivors, t(47)=3.28, p<0.01, and more behavioral concerns for BT survivors, t(48)=2.93, p<0.01. Of survivors with concerns, 38% were referred for psychological follow-up services. Lower-income ALL survivors received more referrals for follow-up, χ2(1,N=41)=8.05, p<0.01. Referred survivors had more concerns across domains than non-referred survivors, ALL: t(39)=2.96, p<0.01, BT: t(39)=3.52, p<0.01. Trends suggest ALL survivors may be at risk for experiencing unaddressed cognitive needs. Conclusions Many adolescent survivors of cancer experience psychological difficulties that are not adequately managed by current services, underscoring the need for long-term surveillance. In addition to prescribing regular psychological evaluations, clinicians should closely monitor whether current support services appropriately meet survivors’ needs, particularly for lower-income survivors and those treated with CRT. PMID:22278930

  2. Cognitive Flexibility and Social Responsiveness in Children and Adolescents with Tourette Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Güler, Ayşegül Selcen; Berkem, Meral; Yazgan, Yanki; Kalaça, Sibel

    2015-12-01

    This study examined cognitive flexibility and social responsiveness in children and adolescents with Tourette Syndrome (TS). Thirty one subjects with TS were compared to 32 age-matched healthy controls. Assessments included semi-structured interviews to assess psychopathology, parent-rated Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and a brief neuropsychological battery selected as measures of cognitive flexibility. Completion time for both Trail Making Tests (TMT-A and TMT-B) were significantly longer for TS group than controls, however the difference in perseverative errors on Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) was not significant. SRS total score was significantly higher in the TS group compared to controls, indicating greater impairment in social responsiveness. Group difference for TMTs and SRS failed to reach significance after controlling for co-occurring conditions. Clinicians might consider social impairment in the evaluation plan of children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome. PMID:25631951

  3. Pain-related and Psychological Symptoms in Adolescents With Musculoskeletal and Sleep Problems

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sue; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Two-thirds of adolescents with chronic musculoskeletal pain report a concurrent sleep problem. Both musculoskeletal pain and sleep problems can have deleterious effects on physiological and psychological well-being. We explored the prevalence of sleep problems and musculoskeletal pain, using data on 3568 adolescents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Children. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive battery of questionnaires was administered to derive clinical phenotypes of musculoskeletal pain. Adolescents with single symptoms were compared with those reporting both musculoskeletal pain and sleep problems. Linear and logistic regression analyses were used to compare groups on pain-related variables and psychological complaints. The association between sociodemographic variables and comorbid musculoskeletal pain and sleep problems was assessed using logistic regression. Results: Over half the sample was female (n=2076, 58.2%) and the majority of European ancestry (n=3174, 97.7%). Only 5.5% (n=196) of participants were identified as having a pain condition, while 21.2% (n=749) reported a significant sleep problem, and 2.8% (n=99) reported comorbid musculoskeletal pain and sleep problems. Adolescents with comorbid problems experienced greater pain intensity and pain-related anxiety. Other psychological complaints were also higher in those who experienced concurrent problems, including depression, fatigue, concentration, and overall severity of psychological symptoms. Discussion: Comorbid sleep and pain problems were associated with a higher incidence of pain-related and psychological symptoms. Sleep problems may therefore be an important modifiable risk factor for alleviating distress in adolescents with musculoskeletal pain. PMID:25974623

  4. Training creative cognition: adolescence as a flexible period for improving creativity

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Claire E.; Kleibeuker, Sietske W.; de Dreu, Carsten K. W.; Crone, Eveline A.

    2014-01-01

    Creativity commonly refers to the ability to generate ideas, solutions, or insights that are novel yet feasible. The ability to generate creative ideas appears to develop and change from childhood to adulthood. Prior research, although inconsistent, generally indicates that adults perform better than adolescents on the alternative uses task (AUT), a commonly used index of creative ideation. The focus of this study was whether performance could be improved by practicing alternative uses generation. We examined the effectiveness of creative ideation training in adolescents (13–16 years, N = 71) and adults (23–30 years, N = 61). Participants followed one of three types of training, each comprising eight 20-min practice sessions within 2 week time: (1) alternative uses generation (experimental condition: creative ideation); (2) object characteristic generation (control condition: general ideation); (3) rule-switching (control condition: rule-switching). Progression in fluency, flexibility, originality of creative ideation was compared between age-groups and training conditions. Participants improved in creative ideation and cognitive flexibility, but not in general ideation. Participants in all three training conditions became better in fluency and originality on the AUT. With regard to originality, adolescents benefitted more from training than adults, although this was not specific for the creative ideation training condition. These results are interpreted in relation to (a) the different underlying processes targeted in the three conditions and (b) developmental differences in brain plasticity with increased sensitivity to training in adolescents. In sum, the results show that improvement can be made in creative ideation and supports the hypothesis that adolescence is a developmental stage of increased flexibility optimized for learning and explorative behavior. PMID:25400565

  5. Paternal and maternal influences on the psychological well-being of Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shek, D T

    1999-08-01

    Adolescents' (N = 378) perceptions of and satisfaction with parenting styles, perceived parent-adolescent conflict, perceived frequency of parent-adolescent communication and related feelings, perceived parent-adolescent relationship, and mental health were assessed with rating scales and structured interviews on 2 occasions separated by 1 year. Results showed that the questionnaire and interview measures at each time could be grouped into 2 stable factors: Paternal Parenthood Qualities (PPQ) and Maternal Parenthood Qualities (MPQ). Although both factors generally had significant concurrent and longitudinal correlations with adolescents' mental health, PPQ at Time 1-predicted changes in adolescent life satisfaction, hopelessness, self-esteem, purpose in life, and general psychiatric morbidity at Time 2, whereas MPQ at Time 1 did not predict those changes. Adolescents' mental health at Time 1 was found to predict changes in MPQ but not PPQ at Time 2. Relative to maternal qualities, paternal qualities were generally found to exert a stronger impact on adolescent psychological well-being. PMID:10441875

  6. Perceived parenting style, self-esteem and psychological distress in adolescents with heart disease.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Miri; Mansoor, Daniela; Gagin, Roni; Lorber, Avraham

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the relationships between perceived parenting style, depressed mood, anxiety and self-esteem in adolescents with heart disease compared with healthy adolescents. Forty-five adolescents, aged 12-18 with congenital or acquired heart disease and 50 healthy age-matched adolescents answered perceived parental behaviour, self-esteem, depressed mood and anxiety questionnaires. The study group reported higher perceived acceptance and lower perceived parental control than healthy adolescents, but similar levels of depressed mood, anxiety and self-esteem. Fischer's r-to-z transformation and regression analyses showed different associations between perceived parenting style and depressed mood, anxiety and self esteem. In the study group, higher perceived parental acceptance was associated with lower depressed mood and higher self-esteem, whereas these associations were not significant in the control group. In the control, but not the study group, higher perceived parental control was associated with lower depressed mood and lower anxiety. Parenting style proved to exert a differential effect on adolescents with and without heart disease. For the former, perceived parental acceptance had a more substantial effect on psychological well-being than perceived parental control. Professionals caring for these adolescents should be aware of the special importance of parenting style on the well-being of adolescents with heart disease, and address this issue in the clinical setting with the patients and their parents. PMID:18825577

  7. Assessing psychological flexibility: what does it add above and beyond existing constructs?

    PubMed

    Gloster, Andrew T; Klotsche, Jens; Chaker, Samia; Hummel, Katrin V; Hoyer, Jürgen

    2011-12-01

    The construct of psychological flexibility (PF) is a central concept in acceptance and commitment therapy. It is defined as the process of contacting the present moment fully as a conscious human being and persisting in or changing behavior in the service of chosen values. PF is hypothesized to be an important aspect of healthy psychological functioning. Despite its potential importance, the distinctness of PF from other constructs has not been adequately demonstrated, and psychometric evaluations of measures designed to assess it are limited. This study aimed at extending current knowledge about PF by examining the construct in 2 help-seeking samples, including panic disorder with agoraphobia (n = 368), clinically relevant social phobia (n = 209), and 2 nonclinical samples including students (n = 495) and individuals visiting an employment office (n = 95). Results across all samples indicate that PF, as measured by the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (2nd version; AAQ-II), is a unitary construct with a 1 factor model. PF correlated with other variables largely consistent with predictions, differentiated patients from healthy controls, and showed preliminary indications of treatment sensitivity. Incremental validity was partially demonstrated, especially for indices of functioning. Surprisingly, PF also explained unique variance above more established measures for some indices of symptomatology. Results suggest that PF adds some incremental clinical validity, yet further and more stringent tests are required to fully elucidate its strengths and limitations. PMID:21767025

  8. Parent Discrimination Predicts Mexican-American Adolescent Psychological Adjustment 1 Year Later.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Guadalupe; Gonzales, Nancy A; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    This study examined whether Mexican-American parents' experiences with discrimination are related to adolescent psychological adjustment over time. The extent to which associations between parent discrimination and adolescent adjustment vary as a function of parents' ethnic socialization of their children was also examined. Participants included 344 high school students from Mexican or Mexican-American backgrounds (primarily second generation; ages 14-16 at Wave 1) and their primary caregivers who completed surveys in a 2-year longitudinal study. Results revealed that parent discrimination predicted internalizing symptoms and self-esteem among adolescents 1 year later. Additionally, adolescents were more likely to report low self-esteem in relation to parents' increased experiences of discrimination when parents conveyed ethnic socialization messages to them. PMID:27224903

  9. A Web-Based Adolescent Positive Psychology Program in Schools: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Manicavasagar, Vijaya; Batterham, Philip J; Miller, Leonie M; Talbot, Elizabeth; Lum, Alistair

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescent mental health is characterized by relatively high rates of psychiatric disorders and low levels of help-seeking behaviors. Existing mental health programs aimed at addressing these issues in adolescents have repeated inconsistent results. Such programs have generally been based on techniques derived from cognitive behavioral therapy, which may not be ideally suited to early intervention among adolescent samples. Positive psychology, which seeks to improve well-being rather than alleviate psychological symptoms, offers an alternative approach. A previous community study of adolescents found that informal engagement in an online positive psychology program for up to 6 weeks yielded significant improvements in both well-being and depression symptoms. However, this approach had not been trialed among adolescents in a structured format and within a school setting. Objective This study examines the feasibility of an online school-based positive psychology program delivered in a structured format over a 6-week period utilizing a workbook to guide students through website content and interactive exercises. Methods Students from four high schools were randomly allocated by classroom to either the positive psychology condition, "Bite Back", or the control condition. The Bite Back condition consisted of positive psychology exercises and information, while the control condition used a series of non-psychology entertainment websites. Both interventions were delivered online for 6 hours over a period of 4-6 weeks during class time. Symptom measures and measures of well-being/flourishing and life satisfaction were administered at baseline and post intervention. Results Data were analyzed using multilevel linear modeling. Both conditions demonstrated reductions in depression, stress, and total symptom scores without any significant differences between the two conditions. Both the Bite Back and control conditions also demonstrated significant improvements in

  10. Toward a Transactional Model of Parent-Adolescent Relationship Quality and Adolescent Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanti, Kostas A.; Henrich, Christopher C.; Brookmeyer, Kathryn A.; Kuperminc, Gabriel P.

    2008-01-01

    The present study includes externalizing problems, internalizing problems, mother-adolescent relationship quality, and father-adolescent relationship quality in the same structural equation model and tests the longitudinal reciprocal association among all four variables over a 1-year period. A transactional model in which adolescents'…

  11. "Sexting" among U.S. adolescents: psychological and legal perspectives.

    PubMed

    Judge, Abigail M

    2012-01-01

    This article will discuss the phenomenon of "sexting" (i.e., the exchange of sexually explicit images between adolescents via cell phone) in the United States, with a particular focus on clinical and legal implications. Although sexting is frequently discussed in the popular press, there is virtually no scientific literature available on this topic. In contrast, the legal literature has discussed sexting more comprehensively due to the implications of child pornography statutes for the social response to involved youth. This article will consider sexting from a clinical and legal perspective, and recommend ways to understand and address this practice clinically with adolescent patients. PMID:22512742

  12. Does cognitive flexibility predict treatment gains in Internet-delivered psychological treatment of social anxiety disorder, depression, or tinnitus?

    PubMed Central

    Flodman, Erik; Hebert, Amanda; Poysti, Stephanie; Hagkvist, Filip; Johansson, Robert; Zetterqvist Westin, Vendela; Berger, Thomas; Andersson, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the individual factors that predict outcomes in Internet-administered psychological treatments. We hypothesized that greater cognitive flexibility (i.e. the ability to simultaneously consider several concepts and tasks and switch effortlessly between them in response to changes in environmental contingencies) would provide a better foundation for learning and employing the cognitive restructuring techniques taught and exercised in therapy, leading to greater treatment gains. Participants in three trials featuring Internet-administered psychological treatments for depression (n = 36), social anxiety disorder (n = 115) and tinnitus (n = 53) completed the 64-card Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) prior to treatment. We found no significant associations between perseverative errors on the WCST and treatment gains in any group. We also found low accuracy in the classification of treatment responders. We conclude that lower cognitive flexibility, as captured by perseverative errors on the WCST, should not impede successful outcomes in Internet-delivered psychological treatments. PMID:27114881

  13. The mediating role of self-compassion in the relationship between victimization and psychological maladjustment in a sample of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Játiva, Raquel; Cerezo, M Angeles

    2014-07-01

    The objectives of the present study were to analyze the relationship between victimization and psychological maladjustment in adolescents and the role of self-compassion as a mediator in this relationship. The sample was composed of 109 adolescents aged from 15 to 18 years old with poor school performance. The participants filled out a battery of questionnaires made up of: a socio-demographic data questionnaire; the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ); the Youth Self-Report (YSR); and the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS). Results indicated that victimization was positively associated with psychological maladjustment. Moreover, adolescents reporting poly-victimization showed significantly higher level of psychological maladjustment and different types of victimization show different effects on adolescents' psychological maladjustment. Self-compassion partially mediated the relationship between victimization and psychological maladjustment and reduced negative consequences in adolescents who reported having been victimized. Adolescence is a time of development and search for identity in which strengthening personal protective factors could help overcome any traumas experienced. Therefore, developing self-compassion in adolescence could be a good way to help young people recover from bad experiences and protect themselves against future negative experiences. As self-compassion can be improved with practice it could be included in adolescent intervention and prevention programs. PMID:24811571

  14. Transactional cascades of destructive interparental conflict, children's emotional insecurity, and psychological problems across childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Davies, Patrick T; Martin, Meredith J; Coe, Jesse L; Cummings, E Mark

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the transactional interplay among dimensions of destructive interparental conflict (i.e., hostility and dysphoria), children's emotional insecurity, and their psychological problems from middle childhood and adolescence. Participants were 232 families, with the first of five measurement occasions occurring when children were in first grade (M age = 7 years). Cross-lagged, autoregressive models were conducted with a multiple-method, multiple-informant measurement approach to identify developmental cascades of interparental and child cascades. Results indicated that emotional insecurity was a particularly powerful mediator of prospective associations between interparental conflict (i.e., dysphoria and hostility) and child adjustment during adolescence rather than childhood. In reflecting bidirectionality in relationships between interparental and child functioning, children's psychological problems predicted increases in interparental dysphoria during childhood and adolescence. Although emotional insecurity was not identified as a proximal predictor of interparental difficulties, an indirect cascade was identified whereby insecurity in early adolescence was associated with increases in teen psychological problems, which in turn predicted greater interparental dysphoria over time. Results are interpreted in the context of how they advance transactional formulation of emotional security theory and its resulting translational implications for clinical initiatives. PMID:27427798

  15. Leisure Activities and Adolescent Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trainor, Sarah; Delfabbro, Paul; Anderson, Sarah; Winefield, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    We examined the validity of the reported link between well-being and leisure participation in adolescents. Nine hundred and forty-seven, Year 10 students from 19 schools in Adelaide, South Australia, were recruited. Participants completed a questionnaire concerning participation in social, non-social and unstructured leisure activities as well as…

  16. Psychological Assessment of Adolescents and Adults with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Juan; del Sol Fortea Sevilla, Maria

    1993-01-01

    This study compared scores of 17 children with autism and mental retardation on the Psychoeducational Profile with scores on the Adolescent and Adult Psychoeducational Profile 5 years later. Eye-hand coordination predicted scores in vocational skills, independent functioning, and vocational behavior; imitation predicted interpersonal behavior;…

  17. Detrimental Psychological Outcomes Associated with Pubertal Timing in Adolescent Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendle, Jane; Ferrero, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Though often discussed as a discrete event, puberty comprises one segment of a larger developmental continuum and is notable for rapid transformation across a multitude of domains. While an earlier timing of puberty relative to peers stands as one of the most well-replicated antecedents of adolescent difficulties for girls, findings have been less…

  18. Date Violence and Rape among Adolescents: Associations with Psychological Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackard, Diann M.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    This study assessed the prevalence of date violence and rape among adolescents in order to examine the associations between date violence and rape, and eating disorders and psychopathology. The study also attempted to determine if these associations remained significant after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. A Minnesota…

  19. Migration and Psychological Status of Adolescents in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksel, Seyda; Gun, Zubeyit; Irmak, Turkan Yilmaz; Cengelci, Banu

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of involuntary migration on an adolescent population that had moved with their families to either one of two culturally different locations in Turkey. One of these groups had moved from a village in Eastern Turkey to a nearby town, while the other had moved a considerable distance to a large…

  20. Understanding Adolescent and Family Influences on Intimate Partner Psychological Violence During Emerging Adulthood and Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Lohman, Brenda J.; Neppl, Tricia K.; Senia, Jennifer M.; Schofield, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    The intergenerational transmission of violence directed toward intimate partners has been documented for the past three decades. Overall, the literature shows that violence in the family of origin leads to violence in the family of destination. However, this predominately cross–sectional or retrospective literature is limited by self–selection, endogeneity, and reporter biases as it has not been able to assess how individual and family behaviors simultaneously experienced during adolescence influence intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. The present study used data from the Iowa Youth and Families Project (IYFP; N = 392; 52 % Female), a multi–method, multi–trait prospective approach, to overcome this limitation. We focused on psychological intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood (19 – 23 years) and adulthood (27 – 31 years), and include self and partner ratings of violence as well as observational data in a sample of rural non-Hispanic white families. Controlling for a host of individual risk factors as well as interparental psychological violence from adolescence (14 – 15 years), the results show that exposure to parent–to–child psychological violence during adolescence is a key predictor of intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. In addition, negative emotionality and the number of sexual partners in adolescence predicted intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood and adulthood. Exposure to family stress was associated positively with intimate partner violence in adulthood but not in emerging adulthood, whereas academic difficulties were found to increase violence in emerging adulthood only. Unlike previous research, results did not support a direct effect of interparental psychological violence on psychological violence in the next generation. Gender differences were found only in emerging adulthood. Implications of these findings are discussed in light of the current literature and future directions

  1. A Psychological Rationale for Adventure Therapy with Hospitalized Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, H. L.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to examine the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) profiles of two treatment populations and present a theoretical rationale for using adventure therapy. Data for the first group were obtained from the psychological testing records of 150 randomly selected inpatients (81 males, 69 females)…

  2. [Obesity in children and adolescents. Risks, causes, and therapy from a psychological perspective].

    PubMed

    Mata, J; Munsch, S

    2011-05-01

    The proportion of overweight and obese children and adolescents in Germany and Europe has increased dramatically since the 1990s. About a third of obese preschool children and half of obese school children will become obese adults; the economic, medical, and psychosocial consequences are substantial. This article presents an overview of psychological risk factors and causes of obesity in children and adolescents, including comorbidity with psychological disorders, stigmatization, and relationships with peers, family, and other environment factors, as well as interactions between genes and behavior. Understanding risk factors and causes for obesity is the basis for adequate psychological interventions. We provide an overview of psychological aspects of obesity, such as motivation and impulsivity, and present components of cognitive behavioral therapy and modalities of intervention. A better understanding of psychological factors is necessary to achieve more effective interventions and long-term success of behavior change. This also holds true for changes in the social, media, and physical environment structures with the goal of promoting healthy eating and physical activity. PMID:21547645

  3. [Adolescent dating in Brazil: the circularity of psychological violence in different relationship contexts].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Queiti Batista Moreira; de Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Njaine, Kathie; Pires, Thiago Oliveira

    2014-03-01

    The scope of this paper is to evaluate the perpetration of psychological violence in current male and female dating relationships and their link to psychological violence experienced in other contexts of their lives, namely family, relationships with friends and dating partners. 3,205 students in the 2nd year of high school (15 to 19 years old) in public and private schools in ten Brazilian cities filled out a closed and self-administered questionnaire. The results highlight the fact that the increase in the number of psychologically violent events perpetrated by adolescents in their intimate relationships is related to greater verbal aggression of the mother and father, and the more frequent experiences of psychological violence between parents, siblings, friends and that existing in earlier dating relationships. This reinforces the notion of circularity of psychological violence in various contexts of socialization of adolescents and highlights the continuity of aggressive behavior in other dating relationships, and those between siblings, family and friends. PMID:24714886

  4. [Psychological aspects of diet therapy of children and adolescents suffering from digestive system diseases].

    PubMed

    Skumin, V A

    1987-01-01

    Clinicopsychological investigations of 361 patients, aged from 6 to 17 years, suffering from diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, have revealed in 60.7% of them negative psychological attitude to the dietotherapy they received. Among children and adolescents with concomitant neurotic disorders such attitude was noted in 79.6%. A system of special measures has been developed including three main elements: 1) psychotherapeutic mediation of dietotherapy before its administration and in the process of the therapy; 2) creation of the psychologic attitude to the diet adherence; 3) alteration of the patient's taste stereotype. Realization of such measures has been conducive to higher effectiveness of the dietotherapy. PMID:3439083

  5. Coping and psychological distress in mothers of adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Jaser, Sarah S; Linsky, Rebecca; Grey, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe coping in mothers of adolescents with type 1 diabetes and to examine the association among mothers' diabetes-related stress and coping strategies and maternal psychological distress (e.g., symptoms of anxiety and depression), adolescent adjustment (e.g., symptoms of depression, quality of life), diabetes-related family conflict, and glycemic control. One hundred and eighteen mother-adolescent dyads completed measures of diabetes-related stress, coping, symptoms of anxiety and depression, quality of life, and family conflict. Data on glycemic control were collected from adolescents' medical charts. Single/divorced mothers and mothers of color were significantly more likely to use disengagement coping strategies (e.g., avoidance) than White and married/partnered mothers. Mothers' use of primary control coping (e.g., problem solving) and secondary control coping (e.g., acceptance) strategies was related to fewer symptoms of anxiety (r = - .51, -.39) and depression (r = - .32, -.37) and less family conflict (r = - .22, -.30, all p < .05). Mothers' use of disengagement coping strategies was related to greater symptoms of anxiety (r = .30) and depression (r = .27, both p < .01). Further, secondary control coping was found to mediate the relationship between diabetes-related stress and maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression. Maternal coping was not significantly associated with adolescent outcomes. The ways in which mothers of adolescents with type 1 diabetes cope with diabetes-related stress are associated with psychological distress and family conflict. By identifying and improving mothers' coping through screening and targeted interventions, we may have the potential to improve both maternal and adolescent outcomes. PMID:23420308

  6. Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on Interpersonal Problemsand Psychological Flexibility in Female High School Students With Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Azadeh, Sayedeh Monireh; Kazemi-Zahrani, Hamid; Besharat, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Social anxiety is a psychological disorder which has devastative and pernicious effects on interpersonal relationships and one's psychological flexibility. The aim of this research was to determine the effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on interpersonal problems and psychological flexibility in female high school students with social anxiety disorder. With a semi-experimental design, the subjects were assessed using the Social Anxiety Scale and clinical interview. The statistical population of the research was high school female students studying in 5 areas of Isfahan. 30 individuals were purposively selected as the sample. The subjects of the research were randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy was given in 10 sessions of 90 minutes in the experimental group and the control group did not receive any treatment. Pre-test and post-test scores of Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, and Acceptance and Action Questionnaire were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance & the results showed that after the intervention, there was a significant difference between the scores of the subjects in the experimental and control groups. This means that Acceptance and Commitment Therapy can influence interpersonal problems and their six dimensions and psychological flexibility as well. PMID:26493425

  7. Relationships between body satisfaction and psychological functioning and weight-related cognitions and behaviors in overweight adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Cromley, Taya R.; Knatz, Stephanie; Rockwell, Roxanne; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; Boutelle, Kerri

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine how differences in body satisfaction may influence weight control behaviors, eating, weight and shape concerns, and psychological well-being among overweight adolescents. Methods A sample of 103 overweight adolescents completed a survey assessing body satisfaction, weight control behaviors, eating-related thoughts and behaviors, importance placed on thinness, self-esteem, anger, and symptoms of depression and anxiety between 2004-2006. Logistic regression analyses compared overweight adolescents with high and low body satisfaction. Results Higher body satisfaction was associated with a lower likelihood of engaging in unhealthy weight control behaviors, less frequent fears of losing control over eating, and less importance placed on thinness. Overweight adolescents with higher body satisfaction reported higher levels of self-esteem and were less likely to endorse symptoms of depression, anxiety, and anger than overweight adolescents with lower body satisfaction. Conclusions Adolescents with higher body satisfaction may be protected against the negative behavioral and psychological factors associated with overweight. PMID:22626496

  8. Family Functioning and Adolescent Psychological Maladjustment: The Mediating Role of Coping Strategies.

    PubMed

    Francisco, Rita; Loios, Sara; Pedro, Marta

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to analyze the mediating role of coping strategies in the relationship between family functioning and youth maladjustment. A community sample of 341 adolescents (M = 15.11 years old; SD = 1.71) completed self-report measures about such variables. Results showed that a perception of an inadequate family functioning was associated with the use of maladaptive coping strategies, as well as with youth psychological maladjustment. The results also revealed that rumination and support-seeking mediated the relationship between family functioning and internalizing behavior, and hostile expression of feelings played a mediating role between family functioning and externalizing behavior. No gender differences were found in the relationship between variables. This study emphasizes the importance of coping strategies used by adolescents to understand the relationship between family functioning and youth psychological maladjustment. PMID:26615594

  9. Exploring the Relationship between Measures of Self-Esteem and Psychological Adjustment among Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Sara; Craig, Jaime; Slinger, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study examines the relationships between self-esteem and psychological adjustment among 19 adolescents with Asperger syndrome and 19 typically developing adolescents using a model developed by Harter. The groups were matched for age (mean 13 years), sex (M:F 16:3) and ethnicity (white British). Participants completed four…

  10. Exposure to Violence and Parenting as Mediators between Poverty and Psychological Symptoms in Urban African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, K.E.; McCormick, A.; Poindexter, L.; Simpkins, T.; Janda, C.M.; Thomas, K.J.; Campbell, A.; Carleton, R.; Taylor, J.

    2005-01-01

    The present study builds on past research that has found support for a conceptual model in which poverty is linked with adolescent psychological symptoms through economic stressors and impaired parenting. The present study examined this model in a sample of urban African American mothers and their adolescent children. In addition, an alternative…

  11. Stigmatization and Promotive Factors in Relation to Psychological Health and Life Satisfaction of Adolescents in Planned Lesbian Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Gelderen, Loes; Gartrell, Nanette N.; Bos, Henny M. W.; Hermanns, Jo M. A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether stigmatization was associated with psychological adjustment in adolescents from planned lesbian families and, if so, to examine whether individual and interpersonal promotive factors influenced this association. Seventy-eight adolescents (39 girls, 39 boys; mean age = 17.05 years) completed an…

  12. Disguised Distress in Children and Adolescents "Flying under the Radar": Why Psychological Problems Are Underestimated and How Schools Must Respond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flett, Gordon L.; Hewitt, Paul L.

    2013-01-01

    It is now recognized that there is a very high prevalence of psychological disorders among children and adolescents and relatively few receive psychological treatment. In the current article, we present the argument that levels of distress and dysfunction among young people are substantially underestimated and the prevalence of psychological…

  13. The relation between weight-based teasing and psychological adjustment in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Goldfield, Gary; Moore, Ceri; Henderson, Katherine; Buchholz, Annick; Obeid, Nicole; Flament, Martine

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of weight-based teasing, and evaluate its association with depression, anxiety and unhealthy eating behaviour in a large sample of adolescents in the Ottawa (Ontario) area. METHODS: A total of 1491 adolescents from public and private middle schools and high schools in rural and urban areas of Ottawa responded confidentially to surveys. RESULTS: More girls than boys reported that they experienced weight-based teasing (33% versus 18%). The prevalence of weight-based teasing by peers was significantly higher among overweight and obese youth than among normal weight youth (45% versus 22%). Teasing about body weight was consistently associated with anxiety, psychological distress and disordered eating, and these associations held for both boys and girls, and were independent of weight status. CONCLUSIONS: Weight-based teasing is a common experience among Ottawa-area adolescents, especially among overweight girls, and was found to be associated with psychological morbidity. Effective interventions are needed to help victims cope with and prevent further weight-based teasing and its harmful psychological sequelae. PMID:21532792

  14. Disclosure and Psychological Well-Being of Sexually Abused Adolescents in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lam, Kindy Yuk-Ip

    2015-01-01

    The role of disclosure on psychological well-being of adolescents with child sexual abuse experience was investigated in a subsample of 74 disclosers among 800 adolescents recruited in the community in Hong Kong. The results supported that CSA experiences have differential impact on adolescents' psychological well-being. Family characteristics of the disclosers accounted for only a small amount of the variance in an array of psychological well-being measures. CSA characteristics were robust predictors of disclosers' sexual eroticism and externalizing behavioral symptoms. Disclosers' cognitive appraisal of CSA experience and quality of parental attachment were strong predictors of their self-esteem and internalizing behavioral problems. After controlling for the aforementioned factors, negative disclosure experience still significantly predicted lower self-esteem, higher sexual anxiety, more internalizing behavior, and more severe post-traumatic stress disorder responses. Research to understand the factors that generate negative disclosure experiences is needed for developing effective intervention strategies to mitigate the negative consequences of disclosure. PMID:26479960

  15. Contribution of personal and environmental factors on positive psychological functioning in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fadda, Daniela; Scalas, L Francesca; Meleddu, Mauro

    2015-08-01

    This study examined self-esteem as mediator in the relations of personal (extraversion, neuroticism) and environmental (maternal, paternal, peer-relationships) variables with domains of positive psychological functioning (PPF) in adolescence (Satisfaction with life, Mastery, Vigor, Social Interest, Social Cheerfulness). We compared one-sided and multidimensional models using a sample of 1193 high school students (592 males and 601 females). We examined variations in adolescent PPF as a function of parenting styles via independent examination of maternal and paternal bonding. Results supported the multidimensional models, which indicated direct effects of personality traits, maternal care and peer relationships, as well as indirect effects, mediated by self-esteem, of all predictors on most PPF dimensions. Overall, our study provided a broader picture of personal and environmental predictors on different dimensions of PPF, which supported the mediating role of self-esteem and emphasized the importance of considering multidimensional models to characterize PPF in adolescents. PMID:26093819

  16. Adolescent sexual offenders: a self-psychological perspective.

    PubMed

    Chorn, R; Parekh, A

    1997-01-01

    Following a request for assistance in formulating a treatment philosophy for adolescent sexual offenders, a qualitative study of seven adolescent offenders was designed with a view to elaborating pre-offense, and post-offense dynamics. The point of departure was the hypothesis that sexual offending had relation to object relations. It was further hypothesized that offenders' object relations and self-development had been disfigured in childhood and adolescent development. The developmental theories of Mahler, Stern, Winnicott, and Kohut were reviewed in order to shed light on the connection between disfigured self-development and sexual offending. Mahler's work suggested that anomalies during the separation-individuation process were heavily implicated. Winnicott's thinking on transitional functioning in potential space and his employment of the concepts of the true self and false self were especially useful. These bodies of work were assimilated to Kohut's theory of self development in which three nuclear sectors of the self, namely, the grandiose-exhibitionistic sector, the idealizing-voyeuristic sector, and the twinship-alterego sector, gradually coalesce and cohere through the moderating influence of parental empathy with the child's developmental tasks. Where such empathy is unforthcoming, or when the normal parental functions are obliterated by traumatic experiences of abuse, unmoderated needs for exhibitionism and voyeurism continue through childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Victims of sexual offending were hypothesized to perform functions of restoration and preservation of a chronically weak and threatened self. The sample's interview transcripts were qualitatively analyzed and aggregated. Analysis suggested that, indeed, offenses appeared to have been motivated to preserve a weakened sense of self and that the thoughts and perceptions surrounding the offenses resonated with expressions of problematic separation from parental objects. In addition, it

  17. [Psychological Symptom Burden in Children and Adolescents After Leukemia or Lymphoma Diseases].

    PubMed

    Sautier, Leon Philip; Sarkar, Susanne; Petersen, Marie; Mehnert, Anja; Escherich, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Psychological Symptom Burden in Children and Adolescents After Leukemia or Lymphoma Diseases. A cancer diagnosis represents a major challenge for children and young people at an early stage in life. Objective of the present study is the investigation of mental health and psychosocial burden in children and young adolescents two or more years after the treatment of leukemia (ALL, AML) or lymphoma disease (NHL) compared to peers not suffering from cancer as well as available standard values. 42 former patients and 23 healthy peers were included in the comparative analysis. In addition to socio-demographic and medical information the following validated questionnaires were used: the General Depression Scale (ADS), the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) for the detection of behavioral difficulties and strengths, the KINDL-R questionnaire for assessing quality of life in children and adolescents, the Herth Hope Index (HHI), the Social Questionnaire (SFS 4-6) for assessing the educational integration and the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE) to measure self-efficacy. Children and young adolescent survivors of leukemia or lymphoma report significantly less depressive symptoms and significantly higher quality of life compared to a healthy age-matched comparison sample and representative standard values. Beyond, former patients do not differ significantly in psychological and psychosocial aspects compared to a healthy age-matched comparison sample and available standard values. PMID:25968412

  18. Self-determined choices and consequences: the relationship between basic psychological needs satisfactions and aggression in late adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kuzucu, Yaşar; Şimşek, Ömer Faruk

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the mediatory role of life purpose and career indecision in the relationship between the satisfaction of basic psychological needs and aggression. Data were collected from high school students (n = 466) and results showed that life purpose and career indecision fully mediated the relationship between basic psychological needs satisfaction and aggression. These findings suggested that unsatisfied basic psychological needs foster late adolescents' aggression by promoting less clear life purposes and career indecision. PMID:24837531

  19. Gender specific effect of psychological stress and cortisol reactivity on adolescent risk taking.

    PubMed

    Daughters, Stacey B; Gorka, Stephanie M; Matusiewicz, Alexis; Anderson, Katelyn

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate how psychological stress, gender and cortisol response to stress relate to risk behavior among 132 14-18 year old adolescents. Participants completed a laboratory based risk task prior to and immediately after a computerized psychological stress task, and salivary cortisol was collected from pre-stress to 60 min following initial stress exposure. Results indicate that adolescent boys (n = 59) and girls (n = 73) demonstrate different patterns of risk taking (RT) in response to stress, such that boys evidenced an increase in RT following stress exposure, whereas girls evidenced a decrease in RT. In addition, a gender by cortisol interaction demonstrated that for boys, both a smaller total cortisol output (AUCg) and peak cortisol response to stress (PC) was associated with greater stress-induced RT. Both cortisol measures were unrelated to stress-induced RT among girls. Taken together, data suggest that among boys, a blunted cortisol response to stress underlies an increase in risk taking in the context of psychological stress. Further research with an additional behavioral stress task is needed prior to drawing conclusions regarding the relation between female gender, cortisol response to stress, and risk taking in the context of psychological stress. PMID:23338478

  20. Psychological Impact of Nuclear Disasters in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Latif, Finza; Yeatermeyer, Jessica; Horne, Zachary D; Beriwal, Sushil

    2015-10-01

    Although much has been written about the psychological impact of natural disasters, the impact of nuclear disasters has not been extensively studied in children. Nuclear disasters are unique because they are man-made and represent a failure of the safety systems put in place to contain dangerous radioactive materials. This article summarizes the available literature on 3 of the biggest nuclear disasters in history. There is a need for further investigation not only of the impact on children but also of whether the consequences are a direct result of the disaster, radiation exposure, or the psychosocial disruptions resulting from the disaster. PMID:26346391

  1. Vocational identity and psychological adjustment: a study in French adolescents and emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Lannegrand-Willems, Lyda; Perchec, Cyrille; Marchal, Clotilde

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present research was to study vocational identity in French adolescent and emerging adult students by using a French adaptation of the Vocational Identity Status Assessment (VISA), and to analyze the links between vocational identity formation and negative and positive psychological adjustment. Participants were 1077 French students who completed self-report scales about vocational identity, depression and satisfaction with life. The French version of the VISA showed good psychometric properties and six identity statuses were derived by means of cluster analysis: achievement, foreclosure, moratorium, searching moratorium, diffused diffusion and carefree diffusion. The main findings show that diffused diffusion and moratorium represent the dark sides of identity because of their negative psychological adjustment, and that the two processes of reconsideration of commitment were differently associated with psychological adjustment. These findings demonstrate that clinical interventions should be adapted to the individual's identity profile. PMID:26603910

  2. Changes in Sleep Problems and Psychological Flexibility following Interdisciplinary Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Chronic Pain: An Observational Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Daly-Eichenhardt, Aisling; Scott, Whitney; Howard-Jones, Matthew; Nicolaou, Thaleia; McCracken, Lance M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Cognitive and behavioral treatments (CBT) for sleep problems and chronic pain have shown good results, although these results could improve. More recent developments based on the psychological flexibility model, the model underlying Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) may offer a useful addition to traditional CBT. The aim of this study was to examine whether an ACT-based treatment for chronic pain is associated with improved sleep. Secondly, we examined the associations between changes on measures of psychological flexibility and sleep-related outcomes. Methods: The study used an observational cohort methodology. Participants were 252 patients (73.8% female) attending a 4-week, interdisciplinary, pain management program in London, United Kingdom. Participants completed standard self-report measures of pain and functioning, sleep outcomes, and processes of psychological flexibility. Pre- to post-treatment, and pre-treatment to follow-up measures were examined for statistically significant differences using paired samples t-tests. Secondarily, hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine change in process measures in relation to change in treatment outcome. Results: Participants showed statistically significant improvements (all p < 0.001) at post-treatment on measures of insomnia severity (d = 0.45), sleep interference (d = 0.61), and sleep efficiency (d = 0.32). Significant improvements in insomnia severity and sleep interference were also observed at 9-month follow up. Small to medium effect sizes were observed across the sleep outcomes. Statistically significant changes were also observed on measures of psychological flexibility, and these improvements were significantly associated with improvements on sleep-related outcomes, independently contributing up to 19% of unique variance. Conclusion: This study supports the potential usefulness of ACT-based treatments for chronic pain for addressing co-occurring sleep difficulties

  3. Flexible integration of visual cues in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Pellicano, Elizabeth; Mareschal, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Although children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show atypical sensory processing, evidence for impaired integration of multisensory information has been mixed. In this study, we took a Bayesian model‐based approach to assess within‐modality integration of congruent and incongruent texture and disparity cues to judge slant in typical and autistic adolescents. Human adults optimally combine multiple sources of sensory information to reduce perceptual variance but in typical development this ability to integrate cues does not develop until late childhood. While adults cannot help but integrate cues, even when they are incongruent, young children's ability to keep cues separate gives them an advantage in discriminating incongruent stimuli. Given that mature cue integration emerges in later childhood, we hypothesized that typical adolescents would show adult‐like integration, combining both congruent and incongruent cues. For the ASD group there were three possible predictions (1) “no fusion”: no integration of congruent or incongruent cues, like 6‐year‐old typical children; (2) “mandatory fusion”: integration of congruent and incongruent cues, like typical adults; (3) “selective fusion”: cues are combined when congruent but not incongruent, consistent with predictions of Enhanced Perceptual Functioning (EPF) theory. As hypothesized, typical adolescents showed significant integration of both congruent and incongruent cues. The ASD group showed results consistent with “selective fusion,” integrating congruent but not incongruent cues. This allowed adolescents with ASD to make perceptual judgments which typical adolescents could not. In line with EPF, results suggest that perception in ASD may be more flexible and less governed by mandatory top‐down feedback. Autism Res 2016, 9: 272–281. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26097109

  4. Flexible integration of visual cues in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Bedford, Rachael; Pellicano, Elizabeth; Mareschal, Denis; Nardini, Marko

    2016-02-01

    Although children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show atypical sensory processing, evidence for impaired integration of multisensory information has been mixed. In this study, we took a Bayesian model-based approach to assess within-modality integration of congruent and incongruent texture and disparity cues to judge slant in typical and autistic adolescents. Human adults optimally combine multiple sources of sensory information to reduce perceptual variance but in typical development this ability to integrate cues does not develop until late childhood. While adults cannot help but integrate cues, even when they are incongruent, young children's ability to keep cues separate gives them an advantage in discriminating incongruent stimuli. Given that mature cue integration emerges in later childhood, we hypothesized that typical adolescents would show adult-like integration, combining both congruent and incongruent cues. For the ASD group there were three possible predictions (1) "no fusion": no integration of congruent or incongruent cues, like 6-year-old typical children; (2) "mandatory fusion": integration of congruent and incongruent cues, like typical adults; (3) "selective fusion": cues are combined when congruent but not incongruent, consistent with predictions of Enhanced Perceptual Functioning (EPF) theory. As hypothesized, typical adolescents showed significant integration of both congruent and incongruent cues. The ASD group showed results consistent with "selective fusion," integrating congruent but not incongruent cues. This allowed adolescents with ASD to make perceptual judgments which typical adolescents could not. In line with EPF, results suggest that perception in ASD may be more flexible and less governed by mandatory top-down feedback. PMID:26097109

  5. Psychological aspects of traumatic injury in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Caffo, Ernesto; Belaise, Carlotta

    2003-07-01

    Each year millions of children are exposed to some form of extreme traumatic stressor. These traumatic events include natural disasters (e.g., tornadoes, floods, hurricanes), motor vehicle accidents, life-threatening illnesses and associated painful medical procedures (e.g., severe burns, cancer, limb amputations), physical abuse, sexual assault, witnessing domestic or community violence, kidnapping, and sudden death of a parent. During times of war, violent and nonviolent trauma (e.g., lack of fuel and food) may have terrible effects on children's adjustment. The events of September 11, 2001 and the unceasing suicidal attacks in the Middle East underscore the importance of understanding how children and adolescents react to disasters and terrorism. The body of literature related to children and their responses to disasters and trauma is growing. Mental health professionals are increasing their understanding about what factors are associated with increased risk (vulnerability) and affect how children cope with traumatic events. Researchers recognize that children's responses to major stress are similar to adults' (reexperiencing the event, avoidance, and arousal) and that these responses are not transient. A review of the literature indicates that PTSD is the most common psychiatric disorder after traumatic experiences, including physical injuries. There is also evidence for other comorbid conditions, including mood, anxiety, sleep, conduct, learning, and attention problems. In terms of providing treatment, CBT emerges as the best validated therapeutic approach for children and adolescents who experienced trauma-related symptoms, particularly symptoms associated with anxiety or mood disorders. The best approach to the injured child requires injury and pain assessment followed by specific interventions, such as pain management, brief consultation, and crisis intervention immediately after the specific traumatic event. Family support also may be necessary to help the

  6. Psychological maltreatment, emotional and behavioral problems in adolescents: The mediating role of resilience and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Gökmen

    2016-02-01

    In this study, structural equation modeling was used to examine the mediating role of resilience and self-esteem in the relationships between psychological maltreatment-emotional problems and psychological maltreatment-behavioral problems in adolescents. Participants were 937 adolescents from different high schools in Turkey. The sample included 502 female (53.6%) and 435 male (46.4%) students, 14-19 years old (mean age=16.51, SD=1.15). Results indicated that psychological maltreatment was negatively correlated with resilience and self-esteem, and positively correlated with behavioral problems and emotional problems. Resilience and self-esteem also predicted behavioral problems and emotional problems. Finally, psychological maltreatment predicted emotional and behavioral problems mediated by resilience and self-esteem. Resilience and self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between psychological maltreatment-behavioral and psychological maltreatment-emotional problems in adolescents. Thus, resilience and self-esteem appear to play a protective role in emotional problems and behavioral problems in psychologically maltreated individuals. Implications are discussed and suggestions for psychological counselors and other mental health professionals are presented. PMID:26518981

  7. Psychological interventions for parents of children and adolescents with chronic illness

    PubMed Central

    Eccleston, Christopher; Palermo, Tonya M; Fisher, Emma; Law, Emily

    2012-01-01

    Background Psychological therapies have been developed for parents of children and adolescents with a chronic illness. Such therapies include parent only or parent and child/adolescent, and are designed to treat parent behaviour, parent mental health, child behaviour/disability, child mental health, child symptoms and/or family functioning. No comprehensive, meta-analytic reviews have been published in this area. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of psychological therapies that include coping strategies for parents of children/adolescents with chronic illnesses (painful conditions, cancer, diabetes mellitus, asthma, traumatic brain injury, inflammatory bowel diseases, skin diseases or gynaecological disorders). The therapy will aim to improve parent behaviour, parent mental health, child behaviour/disability, child mental health, child symptoms and family functioning. Search methods We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsyclNFO for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of psychological interventions that included parents of children and adolescents with a chronic illness. The initial search was from inception of these databases to June 2011 and we conducted a follow-up search from June 2011 to March 2012. We identified additional studies from the reference list of retrieved papers and from discussion with investigators. Selection criteria Included studies were RCTs of psychological interventions that delivered treatment to parents of children and adolescents (under 19 years of age) with a chronic illness compared to active control, wait list control or treatment as usual. We excluded studies if the parent component was a coaching intervention, the aim of the intervention was health prevention/promotion, the comparator was a pharmacological treatment, the child/adolescent had an illness not listed above or the study included children with more than one type of chronic illness. Further to this, we excluded studies when the sample size of either comparator

  8. Evaluating the Psychological Concomitants of Other-Sex Crush Experiences During Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Bowker, Julie C; Etkin, Rebecca G

    2016-05-01

    Very little empirical attention has been paid to other-sex crush experiences during adolescence. As a result, it is not known whether such experiences, which appear to be relatively common, impact psychological adjustment outcomes. This two-wave (3 month interval) longitudinal study of 268 young adolescents (48 % girls; M age at Time 1 = 11.84 years) examined the psychological concomitants of other-sex crush experiences (having and being viewed by others as a crush). Anxious-withdrawal and gender were evaluated as moderators. Peer nomination measures at Time 1 assessed both types of crush experiences and mutual friendship involvement, and participants completed self-report measures of loneliness and depressive symptoms at Times 1 and 2. The results from regression analyses revealed significant associations between having an other-sex crush and depressive symptoms at Time 1 and loneliness at Time 2, after accounting for the effects of mutual friendship. Two interaction effects also revealed that crush status was a risk factor for depressive symptoms at low levels of anxious-withdrawal but a protective factor at high levels. The findings provide the first empirical evidence that other-sex crush experiences are developmentally significant during early adolescence. PMID:26984754

  9. Combating adolescent obesity: an integrated physiological and psychological perspective

    PubMed Central

    ten Hoor, Gill A.; Plasqui, Guy; Schols, Annemie M.W.J.; Kok, Gerjo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Optimizing the approach to combat childhood obesity, we emphasize the importance of combining both biological and psychological knowledge. In such an approach, strength exercises might be an important aspect in the treatment and prevention of childhood obesity. Recent findings Recent evidence indicates plausible effects of the role of resistance exercise in combating the negative health effects of childhood obesity. When looking at body composition, overweight youngsters do not only have a higher fat mass, but also a higher muscle mass compared with their normal-weight counterparts. With that, they are also stronger and better in exercises wherein the focus is on absolute strength, making them – under the right circumstances – more motivated to engage in resistance exercise and ultimately maintain a physically active lifestyle. Summary More and more children are obese, and obese children become obese adults. One reason that overweight youngsters are not physically active is that they are outperformed by normal-weight youngsters, and one reason they are overweight is because they are not physically active. To combat childhood obesity, strength exercise might be a solution to break the vicious cycle. PMID:25084398

  10. Paternal and maternal influences on the psychological well-being, substance abuse, and delinquency of Chinese adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2005-03-01

    On two occasions separated by one year, Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage in Hong Kong (N = 199) responded to instruments measuring perceived parental parenthood qualities (indexed by perceived parenting styles, support and help from parents, and conflict and relationship with the parents) and psychosocial adjustment (psychological well-being, substance abuse, and delinquency). Results showed that parental parenthood variables were concurrently associated with different measures of adolescent psychological well-being and problem behavior at Time 1 and Time 2. While paternal parenthood qualities at Time 1 predicted changes in existential well-being and delinquency in adolescent boys, but not in adolescent girls, at Time 2, maternal parenthood qualities at Time 1 predicted changes in the mental health and problem behavior in adolescent girls, but not in adolescent boys, at Time 2. There is no strong support for the thesis that adolescent adjustment influences perceived parental parenthood qualities over time. The present study suggests that the influences of fathers and mothers on the adjustment of Chinese adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage vary with the gender of adolescent children. PMID:15515041

  11. The psychological well-being of Norwegian adolescents exposed in utero to radiation from the Chernobyl accident

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background On 26 April 1986, the Chernobyl nuclear power plant suffered an accident. Several areas of central Norway were heavily affected by far field radioactive fallout. The present study focuses on the psychological well-being of adolescents who were exposed to this radiation as fetuses. Methods The adolescents (n = 53) and their mothers reported their perceptions of the adolescents' current psychological health as measured by the Youth Self Report and Child Behaviour Checklist. Results In spite of previous reports of subtle cognitive deficits in these exposed adolescents, there were few self-reported problems and fewer problems reported by the mothers. This contrasts with findings of studies of children from the former Soviet Union exposed in utero, in which objective measures are inconsistent, and self-reports, especially by mothers, express concern for adolescents' cognitive functioning and psychological well-being. Conclusion In the current paper, we explore possible explanations for this discrepancy and suggest that protective factors in Norway, in addition to perceived physical and psychological distance from the disaster, made the mothers less vulnerable to Chernobyl-related anxiety, thus preventing a negative effect on the psychological health of both mother and child. PMID:21496337

  12. A Prospective Study of Psychological Distress and Weight Status in Adolescents/Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kubzansky, Laura D.; Gilthorpe, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    Background The obesity–psychological distress relationship remains controversial. Purpose This study aims to assess whether adolescents’ psychological distress was associated with body mass index (BMI) class membership determined by latent class analysis. Methods Distress (anxiety, depression) and BMI were measured annually for 4 years in 1,528 adolescents. Growth mixture modeling derived latent BMI trajectory classes for models with 2–11 classes. The relationship of distress to class membership was examined in the best-fitting model using vector generalized linear regression. Results BMI trajectories were basically flat. The five-class model [normal weight (48.8%), overweight (36.7%), obese who become overweight (3.7%), obese (9.4%), and severely obese (1.3%)] was the preferred model (Bayesian information criterion=22789.2, df=31; ρ=0.84). Greater distress was associated with higher baseline BMI and, therefore, class membership. Conclusions Psychological distress is associated with higher BMI class during adolescence. To determine whether distress “leads” to greater weight gain may require studies of younger populations. PMID:22090262

  13. Early Adolescent Peer Foundations of Late Adolescent and Young Adult Psychological Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Chango, Joanna M.; Allen, Joseph P.; Szwedo, David; Schad, Megan M.

    2014-01-01

    The long-term impacts of failing to establish autonomy and relatedness within close friendships are poorly understood. Adolescent behaviors undermining autonomy and relatedness in friendships at 13 were examined as predictors of friendship competence at 18 and depressive symptoms and social withdrawal at 21. A diverse community sample of 184 adolescents participated in self, peer, and observational assessments. Teens’ inability to establish autonomy and connection with friends at 13 predicted decreases in friendship competence at 18 (ß=-.20, p=.02). Direct links to increases in depressive symptoms (ß=.34, p<.001) and social withdrawal (ß=.18, p=.03) were observed, with friendship competence partially mediating these relations. Results highlight the importance of problematic adolescent peer relationships as risk factors for the development of young adult internalizing symptoms. PMID:26640356

  14. The Role of Disordered-Eating Cognitions and Psychological Flexibility on Distress in Asian American and European American College Females in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masuda, Akihiko; Le, Jane; Cohen, Lindsey L.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated whether different forms of disordered-eating-related cognitions and psychological flexibility were associated with psychological distress among female Asian American and European American college students in the United States. Disordered-eating-related cognitions examined in the present study included thoughts (a)…

  15. The Specificity of Psychological Factors Associated with Binge Eating in Adolescent Boys and Girls.

    PubMed

    Sehm, Marie; Warschburger, Petra

    2015-11-01

    Low self-esteem, lack of interoceptive awareness, perfectionism, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, weight teasing, and internalization of the societal body ideal are known to be associated with binge eating (BE) in adolescents. The purpose of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate whether these attributes are BE-specific and whether different patterns exist for boys and girls. We assessed BE, internalizing symptoms and psychological factors in 1039 adolescents from a community sample by self-report. Using multinomial logistic regression and controlling for measured height and weight, we compared adolescents with BE with individuals from a healthy control group and adolescents reporting internalizing symptoms. Individuals from the BE-group reported a greater lack of interoceptive awareness and higher body dissatisfaction than individuals from the healthy control group. Additionally, we found a significant interaction between gender and body dissatisfaction. Internalization of the societal body ideal was related to BE when compared to internalizing symptoms. Results suggest, that the lack of interoceptive awareness and body dissatisfaction display substantial associations with BE, and that the latter effect is especially strong in boys. The internalization of societal standards of beauty emerged as a BE-specific factor and this finding emphasizes the role of the societal body ideal in the nature of eating pathology in boys and in girls. Increasing body satisfaction and the acceptance of realistic body ideals might be effective strategies in preventing eating pathology. PMID:25936287

  16. Brief report: Association between psychological sense of school membership and mental health among early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gaete, Jorge; Rojas-Barahona, Cristian A; Olivares, Esterbina; Araya, Ricardo

    2016-07-01

    Mental health problems among adolescents are prevalent and are associated with important difficulties for a normal development during this period and later in life. Understanding better the risk factors associated with mental health problems may help to design and implement more effective preventive interventions. Several personal and family risk factors have been identified in their relationship to mental health; however, much less is known about the influence of school-related factors. One of these school factors is school belonging or the psychological sense of school membership. This is a well-known protective factor to develop good academic commitment, but it has been scarcely studied in its relationship to mental health. We explored this association in a sample of early adolescents and found that students who reported having a high level of school membership had lower mental health problems, even after controlling for several personal and family factors. PMID:27149432

  17. Assessment of Psychological and Psycho-physiological Problems Among Visually Impaired Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bhuvaneswari, Mohanraj; Immanuel Selvaraj, Chinnadurai; Selvaraj, Balakrishnan; Srinivasan, Thiruvengadam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Visual impairment tends to evoke more discomfiture than any other disability. Primarily, the biggest issue may be that blindness is visible. Furthermore, visual impairment develops serious medical, psychological, social and economic problems. Objectives: The focus of the current study was to investigate the psychological and psycho physiological problems of visually impaired adolescent students. Patients and Methods: Purposive sampling was adopted to select 150 visually impaired students (71 males and 72 females) from five schools in Coimbatore city of the Tamil Nadu state, India. Anxiety, frustration, aggression and social and personal adjustment levels of the visually impaired students were measured in this study using Taylor’s manifest anxiety scale, frustration test, aggression scale and the adolescent adjustment inventory, respectively. Results: Anxiety (χ2 = 185.66, P = 0 at P < 0.01), frustration (χ2 = 167.23, P = 0 at P < 0.01) and aggression (χ2 = 57.66, P = 0 at P < 0.01) were significantly related to adjustment among visually impaired students. The adjustment score had a significant positive correlation with anxiety (r = 0.919, P = 0 at P < 0.01), frustration (r = 0.887, P = 0 at P < 0.01) and aggression levels (r = 0.664, P = 0 at P < 0.01), anxiety was significantly correlated with frustration (r = 0. 961, P = 0 at P < 0.01) and aggression levels (r = 0.727, P < 0.01) and frustration was significantly correlated with aggression level (r = 0. 637, P = 0 at P < 0.01) of visually impaired adolescents. There was a positive relationship between psycho-physiological disorders and anxiety frustration, aggression and adjustment among visually impaired students. Conclusions: Visually impaired students exhibited significant levels of psychological and psycho-physiological problems. PMID:27284280

  18. Psychological, behavioural, and social adjustment in children and adolescents with juvenile chronic arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Huygen, A; Kuis, W; Sinnema, G

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess the psychological, behavioural and social adjustment of children (7-11 years) and adolescents (12-16 years) with juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA). Higher rates of maladjustment were expected to be found in these patients.
METHODS—Self report questionnaires were used within the context of personal interviews. Family functioning and social support were studied as well. Forty seven patients with JCA, 52 healthy peers and their respective parents participated in the study.
RESULTS—Self esteem, perceived competence and body image in patients with JCA were as positive as they were in healthy participants. There were no differences between ill and healthy youngsters with respect to the incidence of psychopathology. Patients with JCA, in general, perceived themselves as socially competent, but they seemed to have somewhat less opportunity or energy to participate in social activities. Children with JCA showed a high level of aspiration to cope with social expectations. This aspiration seemed to be even stronger in case the disease caused more strains, for example, in periods of inflammation and in the systemic onset type. The high level of social adjustment in children with JCA seemed to be supported by highly cohesive family structures. Generally, adolescents with JCA experienced much social support.
CONCLUSIONS—In contrast with our expectation, children and adolescents with JCA seemeed to cope quite well with the psychological and social consequences of their long term condition. For future studies, it is hypothesised that the high levels of adaptation might imply an enduring psychological strain, which is reflected in an altered function of the autonomic nervous system.

 PMID:10733474

  19. Detrimental Psychological Outcomes Associated with Early Pubertal Timing in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Mendle, Jane; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    Though often discussed as though it were a discrete event, puberty comprises one segment of a larger developmental continuum and is notable for rapid transformation across a multitude of domains. Research suggests that an earlier rate of pubertal maturation in girls correlates with a number of detrimental outcomes compared with on-time or later maturation. The present review synthesizes the research on negative psychological sequelae of early pubertal timing in adolescent girls. Emphasis is on three theoretical perspectives by which precocious development is believed to affect the emergence of adverse outcomes: biological, psychosocial, and selection effects. PMID:20740062

  20. Mechanisms Linking Violence Exposure and School Engagement Among African American Adolescents: Examining the Roles of Psychological Problem Behaviors and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Voisin, Dexter R.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Hunnicutt, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    This study examines whether the relationship between violence exposure and school engagement is mediated by psychological problem behaviors and whether such relationships are gendered. Five hundred and sixty-three high school African American adolescents (ages 13 to 19 years) completed questionnaires which assessed two types of violence exposure (community violence and marital conflict), psychological problem behaviors (e.g., PTSD symptoms, anxiety, withdrawal, and aggressive behaviors), and school engagement (i.e., student-teacher connectedness and grade point average [GPA] obtained from school records). For male adolescents, psychological problem behaviors collectively mediated the relationship between community violence exposure and student-teacher connectedness. For female adolescents, both community violence and marital conflict exposure were negatively related to both GPA and student-teacher connectedness via aggressive behavior. Findings suggest that the differential impact of type of violence exposure and its sequela based on gender should be considered when addressing low school engagement among African American youth. PMID:21219276

  1. Psychological Treatments for Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gutermann, Jana; Schreiber, Franziska; Matulis, Simone; Schwartzkopff, Laura; Deppe, Julia; Steil, Regina

    2016-06-01

    Meta-analyses of the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in childhood and adolescence are restricted to specific trauma, selected interventions, and methodologically rigorous studies. This large meta-analysis quantifies the effects of psychological treatments for PTSD symptoms in children and adolescents. An extensive literature search yielded a total of 13,040 articles; 135 studies with 150 treatment conditions (N = 9562 participants) met the inclusion criteria (psychological interventions with children and/or adolescents with PTSD symptoms that report quantitative measures of symptom change). The mean effect sizes (ESs) for PTSD symptoms ranged from large to small, depending on the control condition. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) yielded the highest ESs. Age and caretaker involvement were identified as moderators. CBT, especially when conducted in individual treatment with the inclusion of parents, is a highly effective treatment for trauma symptoms. Psychological treatments need to be modified to address younger patients' specific needs. PMID:27059619

  2. The psychological impact of menarche on early adolescent females: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Greif, E B; Ulman, K J

    1982-12-01

    This paper reviews research on the psychological impact of onset of menstruation (menarche). Menarche is an important event for all girls, yet there is relatively little research on this topic, and the existing research contains a number of conceptual and methodological problems. In this paper, we review attitudes toward menarche and personality characteristics of pubertal girls. Then we look at memories of menarche from late adolescents and adult women. Finally, we examine studies of the impact of timing (early and late menarche). Overall, the studies indicate that menarche is a memorable and significant event for girls. Frequently the experience is perceived negatively, but there is also a positive, integrating result to menarche. Factors influencing the psychological impact of menarche include age at time of first period, social factors, amount of preparation, and cultural factors. The paper focuses on research problems and provides suggestions for future research. PMID:6756807

  3. The relationship between self-esteem and psychological adjustment in young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, R D; Seth-Smith, M; Callan, V

    1992-03-01

    The study adopts a multi-dimensional construct of self-esteem to examine the relationship between self-perception and psychological adjustment in order to identify specific dimensions that discriminate between disturbed and non-disturbed groups. The disturbed group (n = 33) is derived from a clinical sample and are matched with a non-disturbed group (n = 33) of adolescents. Results indicate that dimensional self-concept scores are significantly lower for clinical subjects while there are no significant differences between groups on the mathematics, honesty, and physical ability dimensions. These findings provide a more fine grained understanding of the relationship between self-esteem and psychological adjustment and emphasize the need to examine self-esteem in terms of its particular dimensions. PMID:1607427

  4. Interrelationships of adolescent physical activity, screen-based sedentary behaviour, and social and psychological health

    PubMed Central

    Iannotti, Ronald J.; Janssen, Ian; Haug, Ellen; Kololo, Hanna; Annaheim, Beatrice; Borraccino, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Summary Objectives To examine how adolescent physical activity (PA) and screen-based media sedentary behaviours (SBM) relate to psychological and social health and identify cross-national differences in these relationships. Methods Associations were examined in five regions using two Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) countries from each. Results Self-reported psychological and social health indices such as self-image, perceived health status, and quality of life were positively related to PA in all five regions but, with a few exceptions, negatively related to SBM. Negative health indices such as health complaints and tobacco use were negatively related to PA but, with exceptions, positively related to SBM. Significant regional differences were present. Conclusions Regional differences in correlates of PA and SBM suggest cultural differences in potential effects of PA and SBM and the need to tailor school and public health efforts to the different meanings of PA and SBM for positive and negative health consequences. PMID:19639256

  5. The Impact of Parental Support, Behavioral Control, and Psychological Control on the Academic Achievement and Self-Esteem of African American and European American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Roy A.; Bush, Kevin R.; McKenry, Patrick C.; Wilson, Stephan M.

    2003-01-01

    Relationships between adolescent functioning and parent support, behavioral control, and psychological control were examined among European American and African American adolescents. A number of correlations were significant, including maternal support and academic achievement and self-esteem, and paternal psychological control and self-esteem.…

  6. Psychological barriers to optimal insulin therapy: more concerns in adolescent females than males

    PubMed Central

    Wisting, Line; Bang, Lasse; Skrivarhaug, Torild; Dahl-Jørgensen, Knut; Rø, Øyvind

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to investigate psychological barriers (illness perceptions, insulin beliefs, and coping strategies) to optimal insulin therapy among adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D), with a specific focus on gender differences and mode of treatment (insulin pump vs pen). Methods A total of 105 males and females (12–20 years) participated in this study. The Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire, and the Adolescent Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences were completed. Additionally, diabetes clinical data were collected by the Norwegian Childhood Diabetes Registry. Results Females had significantly more negative illness perceptions than males on all dimensions (p<0.05), with moderate-to-large effect sizes. Regarding insulin beliefs, females scored significantly higher than males on insulin concern (p<0.001), indicating more concerns about insulin. There were no significant gender differences on perceptions of insulin necessity. Finally, females scored significantly higher on the coping strategies being social and solving family problems (p<0.01), indicating more positive coping among females than males for these subscales. In terms of treatment mode, the only statistically significant difference in the psychological aspects was for the illness perception treatment control, with patients using insulin pen reporting more negative perceptions on this dimension than patients using insulin pump. Conclusions Addressing psychological aspects may be a clinically important supplement to standard somatic T1D care. The consistent finding of gender differences across the psychological measures implies that a tailored treatment approach for males and females with T1D may be warranted. PMID:27403325

  7. [Psychology and nutrition in the ontogenetic development in the infant-adolescence years].

    PubMed

    Fuillerat Alfonso, R

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between the psychic development and the nutritional condition from the fetal stage up to the teenage years is the innermost objective of this study. The importance of eating and having an adequate diet during the pregnancy period, the training of the future mother to breast feed in the first months of the baby's life and the subsequent application of the ablactación process and its relation with psychomotor development and the personality progression in the different stages of the psychological, physiological and social development of the infant-adolescent period. The results shown were obtained from various studies carried out in the Nutritional Clinical Service. They are related to the reinduction of breast feeding in children less than 4 months of age with protein energetic malnutrition, as well as other stages of the infant-juvenile obese and other chronic and genetic diseases related to the nourishment and nutrition (diabetes, fenilcetonuria, hiperamonemia, homocistinuria y fibrosis quística), in which the close relationship betweeen the Psychology, and the Nutrition stands, all through the Psychotherapeutic and educational treatments and based on the application of the clinic psychology in the prevention, promotion and treatment of the nutritional alterations and other chronic and genetic diseases related to nourishment and malnutrition. Aspects related to the psychological and social characterizations as well as the personality evolution of these patients and their relatives environment are established. PMID:15315112

  8. Bridging Diversity and Family Systems: Culturally Informed and Flexible Family Based Treatment for Hispanic Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Santisteban, Daniel A.; Mena, Maite P.; Abalo, Clara

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest in identifying interventions that have been tested and found efficacious with minority families. This interest is fueled in part by the growth of Hispanics in the U.S. as well as by research findings that suggest that Hispanics have better outcomes when treatments are adapted to their unique experiences, and risk and protective factors. Family-based treatments for culturally diverse populations require the integration of advances from both the cultural and family systems domains. Current intervention research has begun to move towards developing and advancing individualized interventions for patients/clients. Adaptive interventions, tailored interventions, adapted interventions, and targeted interventions have all been identified in the literature as appropriate for addressing distinct cultural characteristics which generic interventions may not address effectively. To date, research has focused less on tailored or adaptive interventions partly due to the fact that they require decision rules, more careful implementation, and measurement of individualized outcomes. In this article we present evidence for the usefulness of adaptive interventions that can address not only subgroup variability but within group variability as well. Culturally Informed and Flexible Family-Based Treatment for Adolescents is presented as an adaptive treatment that allows for the tailoring of treatment to the unique clinical and cultural variations of individual adolescents and families, but that does so in a systematic and replicable fashion. By building decision-making processes into the manualized treatment, the transportability of the treatment may be enhanced as family therapists appreciate it’s flexibility to address the complexity of clinical work. PMID:24772378

  9. The impact of menstrual cycle-related physical symptoms on daily activities and psychological wellness among adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    van Iersel, Kirsten C; Kiesner, Jeff; Pastore, Massimiliano; Scholte, Ron H J

    2016-06-01

    Associations between perimenstrual physical and psychological symptoms have not been adequately studied among adolescent girls. The purpose of the present study was to test a mediation hypothesis postulating that perimenstrual disengagement from daily activities would mediate the association between physical symptoms and psychological symptoms. A non-clinical sample of N = 208 Italian adolescent girls (age M = 16.68 years) completed a 95-item online retrospective questionnaire regarding perimenstrual symptoms, and how these symptoms affect their daily activities. Structural Equation Modeling was used to test the mediation hypothesis. Results showed that physical and psychological symptoms were strongly associated. More importantly, results supported the hypothesis that perimenstrual disengagement from daily activities mediates the association between physical symptoms and psychological symptoms, but only for depressed mood and cognitive symptoms. This study provides support for a novel theoretical framework linking diverse aspects of menstrual cycle change. Longitudinal research is needed to replicate these findings. PMID:27017504

  10. Psychological therapies (remotely delivered) for the management of chronic and recurrent pain in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Emma; Law, Emily; Palermo, Tonya M; Eccleston, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic pain is common during childhood and adolescence and is associated with negative outcomes such as increased severity of pain, reduced function (e.g. missing school), and low mood (e.g. high levels of depression and anxiety). Psychological therapies, traditionally delivered face-to-face with a therapist, are efficacious at reducing pain intensity and disability. However, new and innovative technology is being used to deliver these psychological therapies remotely, meaning barriers to access to treatment such as distance and cost can be removed or reduced. Therapies delivered with technological devices, such as the Internet, computer-based programmes, smartphone applications, or via the telephone, can be used to deliver treatment to children and adolescents with chronic pain. Objectives To determine the efficacy of psychological therapies delivered remotely compared to waiting-list, treatment-as-usual, or active control treatments, for the management of chronic pain in children and adolescents. Search methods We searched four databases (CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO) from inception to June 2014 for randomised controlled trials of remotely delivered psychological interventions for children and adolescents (0 to 18 years of age) with chronic pain. We searched for chronic pain conditions including, but not exclusive to, headache, recurrent abdominal pain, musculoskeletal pain, and neuropathic pain. We also searched online trial registries for potential trials. A citation and reference search for all included studies was conducted. Selection criteria All included studies were randomised controlled trials that investigated the efficacy of a psychological therapy delivered remotely via the Internet, smartphone device, computer-based programme, audiotapes, or over the phone in comparison to an active, treatment-as-usual, or waiting-list control. We considered blended treatments, which used a combination of technology and face-to-face interaction

  11. Preliminary Examination of the Interpersonal Psychological Theory of Suicide in an Adolescent Clinical Sample.

    PubMed

    Horton, Sarah E; Hughes, Jennifer L; King, Jessica D; Kennard, Betsy D; Westers, Nicholas J; Mayes, Taryn L; Stewart, Sunita M

    2016-08-01

    This study offers a preliminary examination of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS; Joiner 2005) in an adolescent clinical sample. The IPTS offers a nuanced framework that has many conceptual and practical merits. Although this theory has a growing base of evidence among adults, it has yet to be tested in adolescents using direct measures of its central constructs. Participants were 147 adolescents (76.2 % girls) on an inpatient psychiatric unit, who completed measures of key IPTS constructs of thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, acquired capability for suicide, as well as depression severity, hopelessness, and severity of suicidal symptoms. Our findings were largely consistent with hypotheses derived from the IPTS: perceived burdensomeness, and at a marginal level, thwarted belongingness, were independently associated with current suicidal ideation. The thwarted belongingness by perceived burdensomeness interaction marginally distinguished between adolescents with passive and active suicidal ideation. Acquired capability for suicide was associated with recent suicidal intent. Examination of all three IPTS constructs simultaneously revealed main effects of each construct (with a marginal effect of thwarted belongingness), and interaction effects for thwarted belongingness by perceived burdensomeness, and thwarted belongingness by perceived burdensomeness by acquired capability for suicide in association with suicidal symptom severity. Sex, age, depression severity, and hopelessness were controlled in all analyses. This study offers strong, albeit preliminary, support of the IPTS in a clinical adolescent sample. Assessment of IPTS constructs may be useful in determining persistent risk for suicide attempt. Prospective tests of the theory, and extensions to intervention and prevention should be considered in future IPTS research. PMID:26667025

  12. Psychological Factors as Predictors of Suicidal Ideation among Adolescents in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Norhayati; Amit, Noh; Suen, Melia Wong Yuin

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been a drastic increase in the rate of suicides over the past 45 years in Malaysia. The statistics show that adolescents aged between 16 and 19 years old are at high risk of committing suicide. This could be attributed to issues relating to the developmental stage of adolescents. During this stage, adolescents face challenges and are exposed to various stressful experiences and risk factors relating to suicide. Method The present study examined psychological factors (i.e., depression, anxiety and stress) as predictors for suicidal ideation among adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 190 students (103 males and 87 females), aged 15 to 19 years old from two different schools in Kuala Lumpur. The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21-item version (DASS-21) was used to measure depression, anxiety and stress among the students, and the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSS) to measure suicidal ideation. The data were analysed using Pearson's correlation and multiple regression analysis. Results The results show that 11.10%, 10.00%, and 9.50% of the students reported that they were experiencing severe depression, anxiety and stress, respectively. There were significant correlations between depression, anxiety, and stress with suicidal ideation. However, only depression was identified as a predictor for suicidal ideation. Conclusion Hence, this study extends the role of depression in predicting suicidal ideation among adolescents in the Malaysian context. The findings imply that teenagers should be assisted in strengthening their positive coping strategies in managing distress to reduce depression and suicidal ideation. PMID:25340331

  13. Psychological interventions for parents of children and adolescents with chronic illness

    PubMed Central

    Eccleston, Christopher; Fisher, Emma; Law, Emily; Bartlett, Jess; Palermo, Tonya M

    2016-01-01

    Background Psychological therapies have been developed for parents of children and adolescents with a chronic illness. Such therapies include interventions directed at the parent only or at parent and child/adolescent, and are designed to improve parent, child, and family outcomes. This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 8, 2012, (Psychological interventions for parents of children and adolescents with chronic illness). Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of psychological therapies that include parents of children and adolescents with chronic illnesses including painful conditions, cancer, diabetes mellitus, asthma, traumatic brain injury (TBI), inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), skin diseases, or gynaecological disorders. We also aimed to evaluate the adverse events related to implementation of psychological therapies for this population. Secondly, we aimed to evaluate the risk of bias of included studies and the quality of outcomes using the GRADE assessment. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of psychological interventions that included parents of children and adolescents with a chronic illness. Databases were searched to July 2014. Selection criteria Included studies were RCTs of psychological interventions that delivered treatment to parents of children and adolescents with a chronic illness compared to an active control, waiting list, or treatment as usual control group. Data collection and analysis Study characteristics and outcomes were extracted from included studies. We analysed data using two categories. First, we analysed data by each individual medical condition collapsing across all treatment classes at two time points. Second, we analysed data by each individual treatment class; cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), family therapy (FT), problem solving therapy (PST) and multisystemic therapy

  14. The Psychological Well-Being of Unaccompanied Minors: A Longitudinal Study of Adolescents Immigrating from Russia and Ukraine to Israel without Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tartakovsky, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the psychological well-being of high school adolescents immigrating from Russia and Ukraine to Israel without parents. Data were collected in a 3-year longitudinal study that covered the premigration through postmigration periods. Immigrant adolescents were compared with nonemigrating adolescents in Russia and Ukraine.…

  15. Racial identity, academic achievement, and the psychological well-being of economically disadvantaged adolescents.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, C G; Zigler, E

    1995-11-01

    The relation between racial identity and personal psychological functioning was examined within the framework of the "racelessness" construct proposed by Fordham and Ogbu (S. Fordham, 1988; S. Fordham & J. U. Ogbu, 1986). These researchers have proposed that academically successful African American students achieve their success by adopting behaviors and attitudes that distance them from their culture of origin, resulting in increased feelings of depression, anxiety, and identity confusion. Studies 1 and 2 describe the development of the Racelessness Scale (RS) designed to test these assumptions. Study 2 also investigated Race X Achievement level differences in students' responses to the RS. In Study 3, correlations between the RS and measures of depression, self-efficacy, anxiety, alienation, and collective self-esteem were assessed. The pattern of results in Study 2 suggest that the behaviors and attitudes described by Fordham and Ogbu are common to high-achieving adolescents and not specific to African Americans. However, racial differences in the pattern of associations between the RS and measures of depression suggest that racelessness may have important psychological consequences for African American adolescents. PMID:7473037

  16. Early Adolescent Sexual Initiation and Physical/Psychological Symptoms: A Comparative Analysis of Five Nations

    PubMed Central

    Farhat, Tilda; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Godeau, Emmanuelle; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic

    2010-01-01

    Although most people in developed countries experience sexual initiation during adolescence, little is known about inter-country variability in the psychosocial correlates of early initiation. Population-based samples of 15-year-olds (n = 6,111, 52% female) who participated in the Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children Study (Finland, Scotland, France and Poland, 1997/1998) or the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (United States, 1996) self-reported sexual intercourse experience and physical (headaches, trouble sleeping) or psychological (unhappiness, loneliness, sadness, moodiness) symptoms. Analyses were conducted stratified by gender. Sexual initiation prevalence and symptoms scores varied significantly across nations. In adjusted models, sexual initiation was not related to symptoms among boys in any nation, but significantly positively related to symptoms among girls in Poland and the US. Results support variability by gender and nation in the relationship between adolescents’ sexual initiation and physical/psychological symptoms. Empirically investigating specific features of national contexts that generate these differences should be explored further. PMID:20333456

  17. Higher psychological and psychovegetative strain in adolescents with atypical pigment naevi.

    PubMed

    Trapp, Michael; Egger, Josef Wilhelm; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Trapp, Eva-Maria; Rohrer, Peter Michael; Hörlesberger, Nina; Schwantzer, Gerold; Komericki, Peter; Linder, Michael Dennis; Lvov, Andrey; Baulmann, Johannes; Richtig, Erika

    2015-01-01

    An observational, exploratory, cross-sectional study was performed to assess whether the presence of atypical naevi (AN) in adolescents is associated with psychological and psychovegetative stress parameters. Fifty-one students of a secondary school in Graz, Austria, completed a defined test procedure consisting of an initial period of rest, a standardised mental stress task, another period rest and a questionnaire, the change-sensitive symptom list (ASS-SYM). Electrocardiogram and blood pressure were recorded continuously. The study population was divided in two groups: probands without AN (NAN, n = 33), and probands with at least one AN (n = 18). We found higher values for the AN group in all scales of ASS-SYM, reaching statistical significance in the dimensions "nervousness and mental tension" (p = 0.025), "psychophysiological dysregulation" (p = 0.020), burden of pain" (p = 0.023) and "general symptoms and problems" (p = 0.031). Regarding physiological parameters, the AN group showed higher vegetative strain reflected in heart rate and heart rate varibility during the periods of rest as well as a reduced baroreceptor sensitivity. On the basis of our results, the presence of AN in adolescents seems to be associated with a higher vegetative arousal. Additionally, participants with AN complained significantly more often about stress-associated general psychological symptoms and problems. PMID:24604032

  18. Recovery of Psychological Readiness May Differ Between Genders Following ACL Reconstruction in Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Milewski, Matthew David; Kostyun, Regina; Iannicelli, Julie P.; Kostyun, Kyle J.; Solomito, Matthew; Nissen, Carl W.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a traumatic and emotional event for adolescent athletes. Preparation to return to play (RTP) and the potential risk of re-injury are often equally as emotional as the injury, and have been identified as possible limiting factors to a successful rehabilitation and RTP. In order to create a comprehensive rehabilitation model, further understanding of psychological readiness following surgical intervention is needed. The purpose of this study was to determine if clinical outcomes of subjective knee function and psychological readiness differ between genders following ACL reconstruction surgery in adolescent athletes, and if higher knee function and physiological readiness was associated with an earlier to RTP. Methods: Athletes who underwent ACL reconstruction surgery and were successfully returned back to unrestricted sport were included in the analysis. At approximately six months post surgery, knee function was assessed using the validated International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Subjective Form, and psychological readiness was assessed using the validated ACL-Return to Sport after Injury (ACL-RSI) scale. Formal clearance to resume unrestricted sport was obtained from clinic notes. A T-test was used to determine if demographics, IKDC and ACL-RSI scores between genders. A mixed effects random intercept regression model was used to determine the association of time to RTP with IKDC and ACL-RSI scores. Results: A total of 45 adolescent athletes (23 females) were included in this analysis. No significant differences were found between males and females for age (16.2±1.5 years, 16.3±2.2 years) and average time to RTP (7.3±2.0 months, 7.3±1.8 months). No significant differences in IKDC scores were found between males and females (88±10%, 87±10%). A trend was identified that males demonstrated higher ACL-RSI scores at six month post surgery than females (81±14%, 72±17%, p = 0.063). In females

  19. Associations between trajectories of perceived racial discrimination and psychological symptoms among African American adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Bynum, Mia A.; Lambert, Sharon F.; English, Devin; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2014-01-01

    Many African American adolescents experience racial discrimination, with adverse consequences; however, stability and change in these experiences over time have not been examined. We examined longitudinal patterns of perceived racial discrimination assessed in grades 7 – 10 and how these discrimination trajectories related to patterns of change in depressive and anxious symptoms and aggressive behaviors assessed over the same 4-year period. Growth mixture modeling performed on a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (n = 504) revealed three trajectories of discrimination: (1) increasing, (2) decreasing, and (3) stable low. As predicted, African American boys were more frequent targets for racial discrimination as they aged, and were more likely to be in the increasing group. Results of parallel process growth mixture modeling revealed that youth in the increasing racial discrimination group were four times more likely to be in an increasing depression trajectory than youth in the low stable discrimination trajectory. Though youth in the increasing racial discrimination group were nearly twice as likely to be in the high aggression trajectory, results were not statistically significant. These results indicate an association between variation in the growth of perceived racial discrimination and youth behavior and psychological well-being over the adolescent years. PMID:24955844

  20. Oxytocin Receptor Gene (OXTR) Polymorphism, Perceived Social Support, and Psychological Symptoms in Maltreated Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hostinar, Camelia E.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the detrimental consequences of child maltreatment on developmental processes, some individuals show remarkable resilience, with few signs of psychopathology, while others succumb to dysfunction. Given that oxytocin has been shown to be involved in social affiliation, attachment, social support, trust, empathy, and other social or reproductive behaviors, we chose to examine the possible moderation of maltreatment effects on perceived social support and on psychological symptoms by a common SNP (rs53576) in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR). We studied adolescents (N = 425) aged approximately 13-15, including participants with objectively documented maltreatment histories (N = 263) and a non-maltreated comparison group from a comparable low-socioeconomic status background (N = 162). There was a significant genotype by maltreatment interaction such that maltreated adolescents with the G/G genotype perceived significantly lower social support compared to maltreated A-carriers, with no effect of genotype in the comparison group. Maltreated G/Gs also reported higher levels of Internalizing symptoms than A-carriers, even though they did not differ from them on objective measures of maltreatment (type, duration, or severity). G/G homozygotes may be more attuned to negative social experiences such as family maltreatment, while maltreated A-carriers were indistinguishable from non-maltreated adolescents in levels of mental health symptoms. PMID:24621832

  1. Demographic and Psychological Predictors of Parent–Adolescent Communication About Sex: A Representative Statewide Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Constantine, Norman A.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual communication is a principal means of transmitting sexual values, beliefs, expectations, and knowledge between parents and children. Although this area has received considerable research attention, more studies with representative samples are needed to assure that findings are reflective of populations of interest. A representative statewide sample of households with adolescents (N = 907) from a large and diverse state in the United States was employed to examine the content and extent of sexual communication between parents and their adolescents, and the influence of selected primary demographic (age and gender), socio-demographic (Hispanic ethnicity, education, and religious attendance), and psychological (self-reported comfort, knowledge, and sexual communication difficulties) factors on the number of topics discussed. More than two-thirds of the parents reported experiencing some type of sexual communication difficulty, such as developmental concerns and embarrassment. Hierarchical regression results indicated that self-reported comfort, knowledge, and sexual communication difficulties strongly predicted the number of topics discussed, beyond the effect of demographic variables. These findings reinforce the notion that sexual communication between parents and adolescents can be universally challenging, and parents of both genders, all ages, and all socio-demographic characteristics might benefit from education and support. PMID:20458614

  2. Physical constraint as psychological holding: Mental-health treatment for difficult and violent adolescents in France.

    PubMed

    Gansel, Yannis; Lézé, Samuel

    2015-10-01

    The phrase "Contraindre est thérapeutique"--constraining is therapeutic--underpins the principle of numerous interventions within the field of mental health in France, ranging from traditional psychiatric units to the courthouse to violence management and prevention of dangerousness. The treatment of violence in "difficult and violent adolescents" provides a paradigmatic and revealing example of this tendency. The aim of this article is to understand how the clinical category--contenir, or "to contain"--was formed and is used. The perspective taken is that of the political anthropology of mental health and the article combines a genealogical approach of the notion with a multisite ethnographical study (conducted between September 2008 and June 2012 in three facilities for adolescent care). This study will show how "psychological holding" is used to justify "physical constraint" in the treatment of adolescent crisis and violence. Furthermore, we will see how this "dirty work", delegated to front-line professionals (educators, social workers, nurses), is used within a moral economy of suffering that promotes care and control measures in a population largely from immigrant backgrounds, judged to be both potentially vulnerable and dangerous. PMID:26048583

  3. Oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism, perceived social support, and psychological symptoms in maltreated adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hostinar, Camelia E; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A

    2014-05-01

    Despite the detrimental consequences of child maltreatment on developmental processes, some individuals show remarkable resilience, with few signs of psychopathology, while others succumb to dysfunction. Given that oxytocin has been shown to be involved in social affiliation, attachment, social support, trust, empathy, and other social or reproductive behaviors, we chose to examine the possible moderation of maltreatment effects on perceived social support and on psychological symptoms by a common single nucleotide polymorphism (rs53576) in the oxytocin receptor gene. We studied adolescents (N = 425) aged approximately 13-15, including participants with objectively documented maltreatment histories (N = 263) and a nonmaltreated comparison group from a comparable low socioeconomic status background (N = 162). There was a significant genotype by maltreatment interaction, such that maltreated adolescents with the G/G genotype perceived significantly lower social support compared to maltreated A-carriers, with no effect of genotype in the comparison group. Maltreated G/Gs also reported higher levels of internalizing symptoms than did A-carriers, even though they did not differ from them on objective measures of maltreatment (type, duration, or severity). G/G homozygotes may be more attuned to negative social experiences, such as family maltreatment, while maltreated A-carriers were indistinguishable from nonmaltreated adolescents in levels of mental health symptoms. PMID:24621832

  4. Association between Psychological Flexibility and Health Beliefs in the Uptake of Influenza Vaccination among People with Chronic Respiratory Diseases in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Kin Wai; Mak, Yim Wah

    2016-01-01

    It is common for elderly people and those with such chronic disorders as respiratory diseases to suffer severe complications from influenza, a viral infection. The voluntary uptake of vaccination is vital to the effectiveness of influenza prevention efforts. The Health Belief Model (HBM) is the most commonly used framework in the field of vaccination behavior to explain the decision that people make to accept or refuse vaccination. In addition, psychological flexibility is considered helpful in causing people to be open to adopting new practices that are consistent with their values. This study examined the role of psychological flexibility and health beliefs in predicting the uptake of influenza vaccination among people in Hong Kong. Eligible participants were Hong Kong permanent residents aged 18 years or above with a history of chronic respiratory diseases (CRD). A convenience sample of 255 patients was recruited to participate in a cross-sectional survey in which HBM components and factors of psychological flexibility were assessed. The following variables were found to be significant predictors of vaccination: age, smoking status, comorbidity, previous hospitalization, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, and psychological flexibility. Enhancing psychological flexibility might be a potential new direction for motivating people to accept influenza vaccination. PMID:26805870

  5. The relationships of adolescent school-related deviant behaviour and victimization with psychological distress: testing a general model of the mediational role of parents and teachers across groups of gender and age.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Juan; Estévez, Estefanía; Musitu, Gonzalo

    2006-10-01

    Deviant behaviour and victimization at school have been consistently related to poor psychological adjustment in adolescents. This research explores the mediating role that parents and teachers have in adolescent psychological distress in 973 Spanish students aged 11-16 years old. Structural equation analyses results showed that adolescent deviant behaviour and victimization were positively related to psychological distress as seen by the total effects. However, while victimization was directly related to psychological distress, the association of deviant behaviour and psychological distress was mediated by adolescent-parent communication and adolescent-teacher relationships. Multigroup analyses showed that relationships among variables were not significantly different for groups of age and gender. PMID:16263163

  6. "Bad Romance": Links between Psychological and Physical Aggression and Relationship Functioning in Adolescent Couples.

    PubMed

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Burk, William J

    2015-01-01

    Assortative mating is an important issue in explaining antisocial, aggressive behavior. It is yet unclear, whether the similarity paradigm fully explains frequent displays of aggression in adolescents' romantic relationships. In a sample of 194 romantic partner dyads, differences between female and male partners' reports of aggression (psychological and physical) and different measures of relationship functioning (e.g., jealousy, conflicts, and the affiliative and romantic quality of the relationship) were assessed. A hierarchical cluster analysis identified five distinct subgroups of dyads based on male and female reports of psychological and physical aggression: nonaggressive couples, couples with higher perceived aggressiveness (both physical and psychological) by females, couples with higher aggressiveness perceived by males and mutually aggressive couples. A substantial number of non-aggressive dyads emerged. Of note was the high number of females showing one-sided aggression, which was, however, not countered by their partner. The mutually aggressive couples showed the least adaptive relationship functioning, with a lack of supportive, trusting relationship qualities, high conflict rates and high jealousy. The discussion focuses on the different functions of aggression in these early romantic relations, and the aggravating impact of mutual aggression on relationship functioning and its potential antisocial outcomes. PMID:26067515

  7. Competitive active video games: Physiological and psychological responses in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lisón, Juan F; Cebolla, Ausias; Guixeres, Jaime; Álvarez-Pitti, Julio; Escobar, Patricia; Bruñó, Alejandro; Lurbe, Empar; Alcañiz, Mariano; Baños, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent strategies to reduce sedentary behaviour in children include replacing sedentary screen time for active video games. Active video game studies have focused principally on the metabolic consumption of a single player, with physiological and psychological responses of opponent-based multiplayer games to be further evaluated. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether adding a competitive component to playing active video games impacts physiological and psychological responses in players. METHODS: Sixty-two healthy Caucasian children and adolescents, nine to 14 years years of age, completed three conditions (8 min each) in random order: treadmill walking, and single and opponent-based Kinect active video games. Affect, arousal, rate of perceived exertion, heart rate and percentage of heart rate reserve were measured for each participant and condition. RESULTS: Kinect conditions revealed significantly higher heart rate, percentage of heart rate reserve, rate of perceived exertion and arousal when compared with treadmill walking (P<0.001). Opponent-based condition revealed lower values for the rate of perceived exertion (P=0.02) and higher affect (P=0.022) when compared with single play. CONCLUSION: Competitive active video games improved children’s psychological responses (affect and rate of perceived exertion) compared with single play, providing a solution that may contribute toward improved adherence to physical activity. PMID:26526217

  8. Effects of peer victimization on psychological and academic adjustment in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Rueger, Sandra Yu; Jenkins, Lyndsay N

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of the current study is to investigate the effects of frequency of peer victimization experiences on psychological and academic adjustment during early adolescence, with a focus on testing psychological adjustment as a mediator, as well as differences based on gender and type of victimization. The sample in this short-term longitudinal design study consists of 7th and 8th graders (n = 670, 50% male) from an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse middle school. Victimization was measured using 10 items that assessed frequency of verbal, physical, and relational victimization experiences, and outcomes were assessed with the Behavior Assessment System for Children (2nd ed.) and school records. There was support for gender differences in frequency of peer victimization experiences based on type of victimization. More specifically, boys reported higher levels of physical and verbal victimization, and girls reported higher levels of relational victimization. In addition, there were statistically significant differences between boys and girls on the relation between victimization and anxiety, attendance, and grades, with girls experiencing more maladjustment than boys in response to peer victimization. Finally, results demonstrated no gender differences in indirect effects of psychological adjustment on the relation between peer victimization and academic outcomes, whether victimization was physical, verbal, and relational. These findings highlight the importance of addressing social-emotional functioning as well as peer victimization in the schools for both boys and girls, as both affect students' academic functioning. PMID:24015982

  9. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in a Community Sample of Adolescents: Subgroups, Stability, and Associations with Psychological Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjarehed, Jonas; Wangby-Lundh, Margit; Lundh, Lars-Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    Patterns of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and their association with other psychological difficulties were studied in a community sample of young Swedish adolescents, by a two-wave longitudinal design with a 1-year interval. Hierarchical cluster analysis at T1 identified eight NSSI subgroups in each gender, of which five were clearly replicated…

  10. Parent-Adolescent Relationship Quality and Nondisclosure as Mediators of the Association between Exposure to Community Violence and Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinizulu, Sonya Mathies; Grant, Kathryn E.; Bryant, Fred B.; Boustani, Maya M.; Tyler, Donald; McIntosh, Jeanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: African American youth residing in urban poverty have been shown to be at increased risk for exposure to violence and for psychological symptoms, but there has been little investigation of mediating processes that might explain this association. Objectives: This study tested the quality of parent-adolescent relationships and adolescent…

  11. Adolescents' Psychological Response to the Experience of Community Interpersonal Violence: A Cross-National and a Cross-Cultural Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Beth Spenciner; Wilson, W. Cody

    2006-01-01

    A comparative cross-national study investigating the level of experience with community interpersonal violence, level of psychological distress, and the relationship between exposure and distress among adolescents is presented. Participants were 617 first-year college students comprising African Americans and Jamaican Americans living in New York…

  12. Maternal Psychological Control and Peer Victimization in Early Adolescence: An Application of the Family Relational Schema Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batanova, Milena D.; Loukas, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Guided by the family relational schema model, the current study examined the direct and indirect contributions of maternal psychological control to subsequent relational and overt peer victimization, via early adolescents' conduct problems, fear of negative evaluation, and depressive symptoms. Participants were 499 10- to 14-year-olds (53%…

  13. Resolution of Unwanted Pregnancy during Adolescence through Abortion versus Childbirth: Individual and Family Predictors and Psychological Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Priscilla K.

    2006-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, various demographic, psychological, educational, and family variables were explored as predictors of pregnancy resolution. Only 2 of the 17 variables examined were significantly associated with pregnancy resolution (risk-taking and the desire to leave home). After controlling…

  14. Psychological Well-Being in Fathers of Adolescents and Young Adults with Down Syndrome, Fragile X Syndrome, and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Sigan L.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Head, Lara; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2012-01-01

    The psychological well-being of fathers of children with developmental disabilities remains poorly understood. The present study examined depressive symptoms, pessimism, and coping in fathers of adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome (DS;n = 59), autism spectrum disorders (ASDs;n = 135), and Fragile X syndrome (n = 46). Fathers of sons or…

  15. An Investigation of Comorbid Psychological Disorders, Sleep Problems, Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Epilepsy in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannion, Arlene; Leader, Geraldine; Healy, Olive

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated comorbidity in eighty-nine children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Ireland. Comorbidity is the presence of one or more disorders in addition to a primary disorder. The prevalence of comorbid psychological disorders, behaviours associated with comorbid psychopathology, epilepsy, gastrointestinal…

  16. A Short-Term Longitudinal Study of Pubertal Change, Gender, and Psychological Well-Being of Mexican Early Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjet, Corina; Hernandez-Guzman, Laura

    2002-01-01

    Studied the role of pubertal development on depression, externalizing behavior problems, self-esteem, and body-image of 951 Mexican early adolescents. Findings show that the acute experience of menarche adversely affected the psychological well-being of girls, specifically in terms of depressive symptomatology. Pubertal change in boys did not…

  17. Psychological Effects of a Suicide Prevention Curriculum on Adolescents' Levels of Stress, Anxiety, and Hopelessness: Implications for Mental Health Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silbert, Kathy L.; Berry, Gordon L.

    Suicide is currently the third leading cause of death among teenagers between the ages of 15 and 19 years in the United States. Some of the psychological variables which may be indicators of adolescent suicidal risk are a longstanding history of stress, anxiety, depression, and hopelessness. This study examined the effects of a senior high school…

  18. School and Neighborhood Contexts, Perceptions of Racial Discrimination, and Psychological Well-Being among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Yip, Tiffany

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined contextual influences on the relationship between racial discrimination (individual, cultural, and collective/institutional) and psychological well-being. Two hundred and fifty two African American adolescents (46% male and 54% female, average age = 16) completed measures of racial discrimination, self-esteem, depressive…

  19. Adolescents' Psychological Well-Being and Self-Esteem in the Context of Relationships at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarkova, Maria; Bacikova-Sleskova, Maria; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Katreniakova, Zuzana; van den Heuvel, Wim; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The school environment has shown itself to be an important factor in explaining adolescent behaviour. The relationships and experiences that pupils have at school have been found to influence their development, psychological well-being, self-esteem and social adjustment. Purpose: The aim of the study is to explore whether there is a…

  20. Prevalence of internet addiction and its association with stressful life events and psychological symptoms among adolescent internet users.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jie; Yu, Yizhen; Du, Yukai; Ma, Ying; Zhang, Dongying; Wang, Jiaji

    2014-03-01

    Internet addiction (IA) among adolescents is a serious public health problem around the world. However, there have been few studies that examine the association between IA and stressful life events and psychological symptoms among Chinese adolescent internet users. We examined the association between IA and stressful life events and psychological symptoms among a random sample of school students who were internet users (N=755) in Wuhan, China. Internet addiction, stressful life events, coping style and psychological symptoms were measured by self-rated scales. The prevalence rate of internet addiction was 6.0% among adolescent internet users. Logistic regression analyses indicated that stressors from interpersonal problem and school related problem and anxiety symptoms were significantly associated with IA after controlling for demographic characteristics. Analyses examining the coping style with the IA revealed that negative coping style may mediate the effects of stressful life events to increase the risk of IA. However, no significant interaction of stressful life events and psychological symptoms was found. These findings of the current study indicate a high prevalence of internet addiction among Chinese adolescent internet users and highlight the importance of stressors from interpersonal problem and school related problem as a risk factor for IA which mainly mediated through negative coping style. PMID:24388433

  1. Community Violence and Psychological Distress: The Protective Effects of Emotional Social Support and Sense of Personal Control among Older Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Beth Spenciner; Wilson, W. Cody

    2008-01-01

    This empirical study investigated three mechanisms of protection (preventive, compensatory, buffering) for two factors (emotional social support, sense of personal control) in the relationship between exposure to community violence and psychological distress among 947 diverse, older adolescents. Findings indicate that social support and sense of…

  2. Adolescents' True-Self Behavior and Adjustment: The Role of Family Security and Satisfaction of Basic Psychological Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldner, Limor; Berenshtein-Dagan, Tal

    2016-01-01

    Associations between security within the family, satisfaction of basic psychological needs, true-self behavior, and knowledge of true self, as well as levels of adjustment, were explored in a sample of early adolescents and midadolescents in Israel (N = 302, mean age = 14.19 years). Both security within the family and needs satisfaction were found…

  3. The Relationship between Spirituality and Religiosity on Psychological Outcomes in Adolescents and Emerging Adults: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonker, Julie E.; Schnabelrauch, Chelsea A.; DeHaan, Laura G.

    2012-01-01

    The present study used meta-analytic techniques to examine the association between spirituality and religiosity (S/R) and psychological outcomes in adolescents and emerging adults. The outcome measures of risk behavior, depression, well-being, self-esteem, and personality were examined with respect to the influence of S/R across 75 independent…

  4. Daily Variation in Ethnic Identity, Ethnic Behaviors, and Psychological Well-Being among American Adolescents of Chinese Descent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Tiffany; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2002-01-01

    This study examined links among global ethnic identity and ethnic behaviors, ethnic identity salience, and psychological well-being among Chinese American adolescents. Analysis of daily diary entries over a 2-week period indicated a positive daily association between engagement in ethnic behaviors and ethnic salience, while links between ethnic…

  5. Social Support, Life Events, and Behavioral Characteristics of Psychologically Distressed Adolescents at High Risk for Attempting Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWilde, E. J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Group of suicide attempters and depressed adolescents distinguished itself from psychologically most "normal" group in study by reporting less support/understanding from siblings and relations outside family, more changes in living situation, more changes in caretaker and physical abuse during childhood, more siblings leaving home during preceding…

  6. Parental Level of Education: Associations with Psychological Well-Being, Academic Achievement and Reasons for Pursuing Higher Education in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlechter, Melissa; Milevsky, Avidan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to determine the interconnection between parental level of education, psychological well-being, academic achievement and reasons for pursuing higher education in adolescents. Participants included 439 college freshmen from a mid-size state university in the northeastern USA. A survey, including indices of…

  7. Adolescents' Perception of the Psychological Security of School Environment, Emotional Development and Academic Performance in Secondary Schools in Gombe Metropolis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musa, Alice K. J.; Meshak, Bibi; Sagir, Jummai Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine adolescents' perceptions of the psychological security of their schools environments and their relationship with their emotional development and academic performance in secondary schools in Gombe Metropolis. A sample of 239 (107 males and 133 females) secondary school students selected via stratified…

  8. Reciprocal prospective associations between disordered eating and other psychological problems in a community sample of Swedish adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Viborg, Njördur; Wångby-Lundh, Margit; Lundh, Lars-Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Disordered eating and its associations with psychological difficulties and body satisfaction were prospectively studied in a community sample of 13-15 year old adolescent girls (N=428). General psychological difficulties (including hyperactivity-inattention) and lower levels of body satisfaction at T1 were found to predict disordered eating at follow-up one year later (T2). Furthermore, reciprocal associations were found between disordered eating and psychological difficulties (but not body dissatisfaction) so that disordered eating at T1 predicted general psychological difficulties (including hyperactivity-inattention) at T2. The results support the notion of a vicious interplay between disordered eating and other subclinical psychological problems, which may represent a potential mechanism for the development of clinically significant eating disorders. It is suggested that it could be important to identify these kinds of bidirectional processes at an early stage, in order to prevent further developments of clinical forms of psychopathology. PMID:24411769

  9. Family environment and adolescent psychological well-being, school adjustment, and problem behavior: a pioneer study in a Chinese context.

    PubMed

    Shek, D T

    1997-03-01

    Chinese secondary school students (N = 365) responded to instruments measuring their family environment, psychological well-being, school adjustment, and problem behavior. Measures of the family environment include perceived paternal and maternal parenting styles, family functioning, and conflict with father and mother. Results from bivariate and canonical correlation analyses showed that in general, adolescents' perceptions of parenting styles, family functioning, and parent-adolescent conflict were significantly related to scores on measures of psychological well-being (general psychiatric morbidity, life satisfaction, purpose in life, hopelessness, and self-esteem), school adjustment (perceived academic performance and school conduct), and problem behavior (smoking and psychotropic drug abuse). The findings suggest that family factors play an important role in influencing the psychosocial adjustment, particularly the positive mental health, of Chinese adolescents. PMID:9120405

  10. Asian and European American Cultural Values, Bicultural Competence, and Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help among Asian American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omizo, Michael M.; Kim, Bryan S. K.; Abel, Nicholas R.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the extent to which Asian American adolescents who were living in Hawaii adhered to Asian and European American cultural values in relation to mental health variables including collective self-esteem (membership, private, public, importance to identity), cognitive flexibility, general self-efficacy, and attitudes toward…

  11. Linking family cohesion and flexibility with expressed emotion, family burden and psychological distress in caregivers of patients with psychosis: A path analytic model.

    PubMed

    Koutra, Katerina; Simos, Panagiotis; Triliva, Sofia; Lionis, Christos; Vgontzas, Alexandros N

    2016-06-30

    The present study aimed to evaluate a path analytic model accounting for caregivers' psychological distress that takes into account perceived family cohesion and flexibility, expressed emotion and caregiver's burden associated with the presence of mental illness in the family. 50 first-episode and 50 chronic patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder (most recent episode manic severe with psychotic features) recruited from the Inpatient Psychiatric Unit of the University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete, Greece, and their family caregivers participated in the study. Family functioning was assessed in terms of cohesion and flexibility (FACES-IV), expressed emotion (FQ), family burden (FBS) and caregivers' psychological distress (GHQ-28). Structural equation modelling was used to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of family dynamics on caregivers' psychological distress. The results showed that neither family cohesion nor family flexibility exerted significant direct effects on caregivers' psychological distress. Instead, the effect of flexibility was mediated by caregivers' criticism and family burden indicating an indirect effect on caregivers' psychological distress. These results apply equally to caregivers of first episode and chronic patients. Family interventions aiming to improve dysfunctional family interactions by promoting awareness of family dynamics could reduce the burden and improve the emotional well-being of family caregivers. PMID:27085666

  12. School performance, peer association, psychological and behavioral adjustments: a comparison between Chinese adolescents with and without siblings.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruth X; Lin, Wei; Chen, Zeng-yin

    2010-06-01

    We test theoretically informed hypotheses using survey reports of adolescents attending three middle schools in the outskirts of Fuzhou, Fujian, China. Results yielded by regression analyses are quite consistent with the hypothesized relationships, that is, Chinese singleton adolescents are more likely to anticipate going to college than non-singleton adolescents. Further, singletons are more associated with conventional peers and they report better adjustments both psychologically and behaviorally than non-singleton adolescents. Singletons and non-singletons, however, are not different in their self-reported performance in four school subjects, namely, Chinese, Math, English, and Political Studies. These results are discussed in light of the theoretical literature, especially related to attachment theory, resource dilution theory as well as confluence model. PMID:19651433

  13. Attachment and psychological well-being among adolescents with and without disabilities in Kenya: the mediating role of identity formation.

    PubMed

    Abubakar, Amina; Alonso-Arbiol, Itziar; Van de Vijver, Fons J R; Murugami, Margret; Mazrui, Lubna; Arasa, Josephine

    2013-10-01

    The current study is aimed at evaluating the relationship between attachment and identity development, and their influence on psychological well-being in adolescents with and without disabilities in Kenya. The sample was composed of 296 adolescents (151 with disabilities and 145 without any disability). The mean age in our sample was 16.84 years (SD = 1.75). Adolescents with disabilities had significantly lower scores in identity formation, paternal attachment, and life satisfaction. A path model indicated that identity formation partially mediated the relationship between secure attachment and psychological well-being. Our findings indicate that both parent and peer attachment play an important role in the identity formation and psychological well-being of adolescents in Kenya, irrespective of a disabling condition. A multigroup analysis indicated that while the structure of the relationship between variables held for groups, the pattern and strength of the relationships differed. Implications for practice, especially the guidance and counseling services in schools, are discussed. PMID:24011101

  14. Bidirectional Linkages between Psychological Symptoms and Sexual Activities among African- American Adolescent Girls in Psychiatric Care

    PubMed Central

    Starr, Lisa R.; Donenberg, Geri R.; Emerson, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Objective The current study examines longitudinal associations between light and heavy sexual experiences and psychiatric symptoms in African-American girls receiving mental health care. Research supports bidirectional associations between adolescent romantic and sexual behaviors and depression and other mental health problems, but this finding has not been examined among African-American youth or in clinical samples. African-American girls in psychiatric treatment suffer disparities in HIV/AIDS vulnerability, and understanding the context of girls’ risk-taking (and how psychological symptoms contribute) may aid prevention efforts. Method 265 African-American girls seeking psychiatric care were assessed for mental health symptoms and light and heavy sexual behaviors. Participants completed a six-month follow-up. Results Baseline light sexual activity predicted increased internalizing and externalizing symptoms and substance use at follow-up. Internalizing and externalizing symptoms predicted increased heavy sexual behaviors over time, including HIV-risk behaviors. Conclusions Results support the association between romantic involvement and depression. Psychological symptoms may play a key role in the emergence of risky sexual behaviors among African-American girls in psychiatric care, and should be considered in prevention program development. PMID:22742458

  15. Parental behavioral and psychological control and problematic internet use among Chinese adolescents: the mediating role of self-control.

    PubMed

    Li, Xian; Li, Dongping; Newman, Joan

    2013-06-01

    Previous research has reported contradictory effects of parental control on adolescents' problematic Internet use (PIU). To reconcile the discrepant findings, the current study examined the differential effects of parental behavioral control (solicitation and restriction) and psychological control (guilt induction, love withdrawal, and authority assertion) on adolescents' PIU. The mediating effect of self-control on the relationships between parental control and PIU was also examined. A total of 694 Chinese adolescents (M=13.67 years) completed questionnaire measures of parental behavioral control, psychological control, self-control, and PIU. After adjusting for age, gender, and family financial status, it was found that parental restriction (a form of behavioral control) was negatively associated with PIU, whereas love withdrawal (a form of psychological control) was positively associated with PIU. Increased self-control was associated with decreased PIU, and changes in self-control at least partially mediated the differential effects of parental behavioral and psychological control on PIU. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:23509987

  16. Psychological distress among adolescents in Chengdu, Sichuan at 1 month after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Lau, Joseph T F; Yu, Xiaonan; Zhang, Jianxin; Mak, Winnie W S; Choi, Kai Chow; Lui, Wacy W S; Zhang, Jianxin; Chan, Emily Y Y

    2010-05-01

    A devastating earthquake occurred on May 12, 2008 in Sichuan, China. This study investigated the prevalence and factors in association with psychological problems among secondary school students living in Chengdu (90 km away from the disaster epicenter) in June 2008. In a cross-sectional survey, 3,324 secondary students self-administered a structured questionnaire in classroom setting. Validated scales were used in this study. Among all respondents, 22.3% reported post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); 22.6% were probable depression cases; 10.6% reported suicidal ideation; and 14.1% would like to receive psychological counseling. No gender differences were found. While social/emotional support from teachers or peers (OR from 0.40 to 0.78) and exposure to positive news reports (OR from 0.59 to 0.62) were found protective, prior experience of severe mental distress (OR from 1.60 to 2.68) and corporal punishment (OR from 1.31 to 1.58), worry about future aftershocks (OR from 1.64 to 3.11), absence from school when it was not closed (OR from 1.38 to 1.48), exposures to scary or sorrowful disaster media coverage (OR from 1.39 to 2.07), post-disaster visits to affected sites (OR from 1.51 to 1.59), separation from parents (OR = 1.61), etc., were risk factors predictive of some of the aforementioned psychological problems. Negative mental health impacts were prevalent among the respondents. Teachers, parents, and the mass media are all important in maintaining good mental health among adolescents that are indirectly affected by the severe earthquake. The results have important implications for earthquake preparedness and relief work in the future. PMID:20405226

  17. The Influence of Family Therapy on Flexibility and Cohesion among Family Members Seeking Male Residential Treatment for Adolescent and Young Adult Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlowe, Stephanie L.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated within a substance abuse treatment center the influence of family therapy on flexibility and cohesion among family members. Past studies have suggested adolescents who abuse substances exist in families who have a lack of balance of flexibility and cohesion. Unfortunately, few studies have examined the influence of…

  18. The Relationships of Adolescent School-Related Deviant Behaviour and Victimization with Psychological Distress: Testing a General Model of the Mediational Role of Parents and Teachers Across Groups of Gender and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrero, Juan; Estevez, Estefania; Musitu, Gonzalo

    2006-01-01

    Deviant behaviour and victimization at school have been consistently related to poor psychological adjustment in adolescents. This research explores the mediating role that parents and teachers have in adolescent psychological distress in 973 Spanish students aged 11-16 years old. Structural equation analyses results showed that adolescent deviant…

  19. Potentially traumatic interpersonal events, psychological distress and recurrent headache in a population-based cohort of adolescents: the HUNT study

    PubMed Central

    Stensland, Synne Øien; Dyb, Grete; Thoresen, Siri; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Zwart, John-Anker

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Recurrent headache co-occurs commonly with psychological distress, such as anxiety or depression. Potentially traumatic interpersonal events (PTIEs) could represent important precursors of psychological distress and recurrent headache in adolescents. Our objective was to assess the hypothesised association between exposure to PTIEs and recurrent migraine and tension-type headache (TTH) in adolescents, and to further examine the potential impact of psychological distress on this relationship. Design Population-based, cross-sectional cohort study. The study includes self-reported data from youth on exposure to potentially traumatic events, psychological distress and a validated interview on headache. Setting The adolescent part of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 2006–2008 (HUNT), conducted in Norway. Participants A cohort of 10 464 adolescents were invited to the study. Age ranged from 12 to 20 years. The response rate was 73% (7620), of whom 50% (3832) were girls. Main outcome measures Data from the headache interview served as the outcome. Recurrent headache was defined as headache recurring at least monthly during the past year, and was subclassified into monthly, weekly and daily complaints. Subtypes were classified as TTH, migraine, migraine with TTH and/or non-classifiable headache, in accordance with the International Classification of Headache Disorders criteria, second edition. Results Multiple logistic regression analysis, adjusted for sociodemographics, showed consistently significant associations between exposure to PTIEs and recurrent headache, regardless of the frequency or subtype of headache. Increasing exposure to PTIEs was associated with higher prevalence of recurrent headache, indicating a dose–response relationship. The strength of associations between exposure to PTIEs and all recurrent headache disorders was significantly attenuated when psychological distress was entered into the regression equation. Conclusions The

  20. Examining the relationship between psychological distress and adherence to anti-retroviral therapy among Ugandan adolescents living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Mutumba, Massy; Musiime, Victor; Lepkwoski, James M; Harper, Gary W; Snow, Rachel C; Resnicow, Ken; Bauermeister, Jose A

    2016-07-01

    Psychological distress is common among adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) worldwide, and has been associated with non-adherence to anti-retroviral therapy (ART), leading to poor virologic suppression, drug resistance, and increased risk for AIDS morbidity and mortality. However, only a few studies have explored the relationship between psychological distress and ART adherence among adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. The paper examines the relationship between psychological distress and ART adherence, and effect of psychosocial resources on ART adherence. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 464 ALHIV (aged 12-19; 53% female) seeking HIV care at a large HIV treatment center in Kampala, Uganda. ALHIV were recruited during routine clinic visits. Three self-reported binary adherence measures were utilized: missed pills in the past three days, non-adherence to the prescribed medical regimen, and self-rated adherence assessed using a visual analog scale. Psychological distress was measured as a continuous variable, and computed as the mean score on a locally developed and validated 25-item symptom checklist for Ugandan ALHIV. Psychosocial resources included spirituality, religiosity, optimism, social support, and coping strategies. After adjusting for respondents' socio-demographic characteristics and psychosocial resources, a unit increase in psychological distress was associated with increased odds of missing pills in past 3 days (Odds Ratio(OR) = 1.75; Confidence Interval (CI): 1.04-2.95), not following the prescribed regimen (OR = 1.63; CI: 1.08-2.46), and lower self-rated adherence (OR = 1.79; CI: 1.19-2.69). Psychosocial resources were associated with lower odds for non-adherence on all three self-report measures. There is a need to strengthen the psychosocial aspects of adolescent HIV care by developing interventions to identify and prevent psychological distress among Ugandan ALHIV. PMID:27294696

  1. Psychologic Effects of Illness in Adolescence. II. Impact of Illness in Adolescents--Crucial Issues and Coping Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeltzer, Lonnie; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Adolescent perceptions of the impact of illness were measured through the administration of an original questionnaire to 345 healthy adolescents and 168 adolescents (mean age of both groups, 15) with diabetes mellitus, cystic fibrosis, cancer, and cardiac, renal, or rheumatologic diseases. Journal availability: C. V. Mosby Co; 11830 Westline…

  2. A case study of school support and the psychological, emotional and behavioural consequences of HIV and AIDS on adolescents.

    PubMed

    Asikhia, Olubusayo Aduke; Mohangi, Kesh

    2015-01-01

    Various studies have reported a huge increase in the numbers of orphaned adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa and its effects on their psychological, emotional and behavioural development. Yet, their needs are seldom recognised or adequately addressed in policy and programmes.This article uses a qualitative study to report the experiences of 11 orphaned adolescents (5 boys and 6 girls aged between 15 and 18 years) affected by HIV and AIDS in a secondary school (in Atteridgeville, Pretoria, South Africa) and the school support provided by them. The primary data-generation strategies were informal interviews and the Beck Youth Inventories-II (BYI-II) (adopted to measure the participants' level of emotional, behavioural and psychological problems). All interview transcriptions with the participants were thematically analysed. BYI-II data were subjected to T scores (in percentages) to know the participant's psychological, behavioural and emotional problems in order to compare it with their perceptions on the degree of support provided by the school. Result shows that participants have a high prevalence of psychological, behavioural and emotional problems and that the school support provided to them (teachers' support, the general school environment and the degree of discrimination, labelling and bullying that exists in the school) was not sufficient. The participants, however, reported a high level of support from the principal. In conclusion, we have suggested the urgent need for teachers to acquire and possess basic knowledge and skills in caring and paying attention to learners affected by HIV and AIDS and for government agencies and NGOs working with HIV-and AIDS-affected children, to focus on proposals that address the psychological, behavioural and emotional problems in such affected adolescents. PMID:26771076

  3. A Short-Term, Prospective Test of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Ideation in an Adolescent Clinical Sample.

    PubMed

    Miller, Adam Bryant; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Leichtweis, Richard N

    2016-06-01

    The present prospective study tested a portion of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide (IPTS) in an adolescent clinical sample. Participants were 143 adolescents consecutively admitted to a partial hospitalization program who completed assessments at intake and discharge from the program. Results partially supported the IPTS and suggest that (1) perceived burdensomeness may be an important socially based cognition for understanding concurrent risk for suicidal ideation (SI); (2) thwarted belongingness affects depression symptom severity over time, which indirectly predicts SI over a short follow-up time frame; and (3) the IPTS constructs may function differently in a high-risk clinical adolescent sample, compared to adults, although findings are preliminary. PMID:26456085

  4. The associations between suicidal ideation and attempt and anxiety symptoms and the demographic, psychological, and social moderators in Taiwanese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Lai, Chien-Yu; Ko, Chih-Hung; Liu, Tai-Ling; Tang, Tze-Chun; Wu, Yu-Yu; Yang, Pinchen

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the associations between suicidal ideation and attempt and anxiety symptoms and the moderators in 5,027 Taiwanese adolescents. The associations between suicidal ideation and attempt and anxiety symptoms on the Taiwanese version of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC-T) were examined using logistic regression analysis. The moderating effects of demographic (gender and age), psychological (problematic alcohol use, severe depressive symptoms, and low self-esteem), and social factors (bullying victimization, and low family function) on the associations were examined. Adolescents who had anxiety symptoms were more likely to have suicidal ideation and attempt than those who did not have anxiety symptoms. Bullying victimization had a moderating effect on the association between suicidal ideation and anxiety symptoms. Assessment of suicidal ideation and attempt should be routine practice among adolescents who present with anxiety symptoms. PMID:24354459

  5. Frequent Use of Social Networking Sites Is Associated with Poor Psychological Functioning Among Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Lewis, Rosamund F

    2015-07-01

    Social networking sites (SNSs) have gained substantial popularity among youth in recent years. However, the relationship between the use of these Web-based platforms and mental health problems in children and adolescents is unclear. This study investigated the association between time spent on SNSs and unmet need for mental health support, poor self-rated mental health, and reports of psychological distress and suicidal ideation in a representative sample of middle and high school children in Ottawa, Canada. Data for this study were based on 753 students (55% female; Mage=14.1 years) in grades 7-12 derived from the 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the associations between mental health variables and time spent using SNSs. Overall, 25.2% of students reported using SNSs for more than 2 hours every day, 54.3% reported using SNSs for 2 hours or less every day, and 20.5% reported infrequent or no use of SNSs. Students who reported unmet need for mental health support were more likely to report using SNSs for more than 2 hours every day than those with no identified unmet need for mental health support. Daily SNS use of more than 2 hours was also independently associated with poor self-rating of mental health and experiences of high levels of psychological distress and suicidal ideation. The findings suggest that students with poor mental health may be greater users of SNSs. These results indicate an opportunity to enhance the presence of health service providers on SNSs in order to provide support to youth. PMID:26167836

  6. Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackmore, Susan; Fouad, Nadya; Kagan, Jerome; Kosslyn, Stephen; Posner, Michael; Sternburg, Robert; Driscoll, Marcy; Ge, Xun; Parrish, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of psychology were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Susan Blackmore, Nadya Fouad, Jerome Kagan, Stephen Kosslyn, Michael Posner, and Robert Sternberg.…

  7. Short-term and long-term influences of family arguments and gender difference on developing psychological well-being in Taiwanese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fu-Gong; Chou, Yu-Ching; Wu, Cheng-Hsun; Lin, Jing-Ding

    2014-11-01

    Adolescent mental health is crucial for social competence and accomplishment in later life. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that approximately 20% of adolescents suffer from psychological symptoms. However, improving family risk and school environments can largely promote adolescent mental health. A longitudinal survey was conducted to investigate adolescent psychological well-being (PWB) status and associated factors in adolescents 15-20 years of age. Family and school context variables were interviewed and recorded. A total of 2896 participants were included from high, middle, and less urbanized resident areas in Northern Taiwan with completed interview data. Using multivariate regression analysis, factors associated with adolescent PWB at various stages included quarrelsome parents, quarrels with parents, severed friendships, and cigarette and alcohol use. In all three adolescent stages, females yielded higher psychological symptom scores than did males, and diverse weights of risk factors on PWB were observed between genders. Family arguments and cigarette and alcohol use were found to have more pronounced effects on outcomes among females than males. Whereas males are more sensitive to severed friendships than females, cigarette and alcohol use showed more harmful effects on mental health in earlier adolescence than in later life. Moreover, family arguments and severed friendships in earlier adolescence were found to have lasting effects on PWB in later adolescence. In this study, gender differences were observed in the temporal relationship on adolescent mental health. Variables of family arguments and severed friendships exhibited short-term and long-term effects on adolescent mental health across the early to late developmental stages. The family argument environment and regulating cigarette and alcohol use are worthy of focus to promote adolescent mental health. PMID:25077832

  8. Perceived Parental Psychological Control and Adolescent Depressive Experiences: A Cross-Cultural Study with Belgian and South-Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soenens, Bart; Park, Seong-Yeon; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Mouratidis, Athanasios

    2012-01-01

    In recent research on psychologically controlling parenting, debate has arisen about the cross-cultural relevance of this construct, with some scholars arguing that the developmental outcomes of psychological control are culture-bound and others arguing that the detrimental effects of psychological control generalize across cultures. This study…

  9. The impact of formal, informal, and societal support networks on the psychological well-being of black adolescent mothers.

    PubMed

    Thompson, M S; Peebles-Wilkins, W

    1992-07-01

    Although several researchers argue that informal support systems provide economic and psychological resources for black families, little empirical research is available to inform policy and intervention programs. This article examines the impact of informal, formal, and societal support systems on the mental health of black adolescent mothers. Using the social work generalist theoretical framework, several types of resources are considered separately to determine whether they contribute similarly to psychological well-being. Data from a survey of black teenage mothers show that both lay and professional supports were important for the young mother's psychological well-being. Support from a male partner, caseworker contact, and membership in a support group decreased psychological distress and depression. Support from the male partner also enhanced psychological well-being. Support from friends, on the other hand, was associated with higher levels of psychological distress. A professional service plan that effectively incorporates informal and societal supports in a complementary manner offers the best possibility for reducing the distress of black teenage mothers. PMID:1641689

  10. Resiliency in adolescents at high-risk for substance abuse: flexible adaptation via subthalamic nucleus and linkage to drinking and drug use in early adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Weiland, Barbara J.; Nigg, Joel T.; Welsh, Robert C.; Yau, Wai-Ying Wendy; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Zucker, Robert A.; Heitzeg, Mary M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The personality trait resiliency is the ability to flexibly adapt impulse control relative to contextual demand. Low resiliency has been linked to later alcohol/drug problems. The underlying psychological and neural mechanisms are unknown but neurocomputational models suggested relations between resiliency and working memory. Cortical-striatal connectivity has been proposed to underlie adaptive switches between cautious and risky behaviors. Methods Working memory was probed in sixty-seven 18–22 year olds from a larger community study of alcoholism, using the n-back task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Functional connectivity between task-related regions was investigated with psychophysiological interaction analysis. Resiliency was measured in early teen years and related to early adulthood measures of drinking/drug use, task activation and connectivity. Relationships with risk factors, including family history, age of drinking onset and number of alcohol problems were also investigated. Results Higher resiliency was related to lower levels of substance use, fewer alcohol problems and better working memory performance. Whole brain regression revealed resiliency negatively correlated with activation of subthalamic nucleus (STN) and pallidum during the n-back. High and Low resiliency quartile groups (n=17 each) differed in coupling strength between STN and median cingulate cortex, a region of reduced activation during working memory. The High resiliency group had later onset of drinking, fewer alcohol problems, had used fewer illicit drugs and were less likely to smoke cigarettes than their Low resiliency counterparts, Conclusions These findings suggest that resiliency in early adolescence may protect against alcohol problems and drug use, though the direction of this effect is currently unknown. This protective factor may relate to executive functioning as supported by the finding of a neural link shared between resiliency and working

  11. Perceived parental control processes, parent-child relational qualities, and psychological well-being in chinese adolescents with and without economic disadvantage.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2005-06-01

    The author assessed the relationships between poverty and perceived parenting style, parent-child relationships, and adolescent psychological well-being in Chinese secondary school students (N = 3,017). Participants completed questionnaires designed to assess (a) the degree to which their parents used monitoring, discipline, and other techniques to control their behavior; (b) the extent to which their parents attempted to control them in a way that undermined their psychological development; (c) the parent-child relational qualities, such as the child's readiness to communicate with the parents and perceived mutual trust; and (d) the child's psychological well-being. Although adolescents with economic disadvantage did not differ from adolescents without economic disadvantage on the maternal variables (except on parental knowledge and parental monitoring), adolescents whose families were receiving public assistance generally perceived paternal behavioral control and father-child relational qualities to be more negative than did adolescents who were not receiving public assistance. The author found psychological well-being (shown by hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction, self-esteem) of adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage to be weaker than that of adolescents not experiencing economic disadvantage. PMID:15906930

  12. Psychological Symptoms of Sexually Victimized Children and Adolescents Compared With Other Maltreatment Subtypes.

    PubMed

    Münzer, Annika; Fegert, Jörg M; Goldbeck, Lutz

    2016-04-01

    The differential effects of sexual victimization and other forms of maltreatment on psychological functioning are not well understood. A sample of sexually victimized children and adolescents (N = 70; 6.3-17.9 years) and a group of youth with a history of nonsexual maltreatment (N = 108; 6.7-16.9 years) were compared using measures of mental health and psychosocial functioning. Assessments included standardized clinical interviews on individual maltreatment history and current psychopathology as well as questionnaires on behavioral and emotional symptoms, including posttraumatic stress symptoms. The results from this study suggest that the risk of experiencing any current mental disorders was independent of type of maltreatment. The risk of meeting the criteria for a current diagnosis of major depression, however, is greater among youth with a history of maltreatment that includes sexual victimization. The significant impact of sexual victimization on posttraumatic stress symptoms was found to be nonsignificant after controlling for age and gender effects. The results indicate that the outcomes of child maltreatment depend on type of maltreatment, but age and gender must be taken into account. PMID:27135385

  13. The psychological benefits of exercise and the treatment of delinquent adolescents.

    PubMed

    MacMahon, J R

    1990-06-01

    The conviction that athletic participation imparts desirable educational, social and personal values has been the basis for including recreational sports in the remedial programme for juvenile delinquents. More recently, the psychological benefits of aerobic exercise and increased fitness have been investigated. Changes following intensive exercise include reductions in anxiety, tension and depression, and increased self-esteem. These effects have been variously hypothesised as due to a sense of increased control or mastery, a meditative effect or to alterations in neurotransmitter-levels. Delinquent adolescents comprise a heterogeneous population characterised by clusters of risk factors, handicapping conditions and psychopathology, with a prevalence of depression and low self-esteem far exceeding that of the population at large. Intervention which can benefit these characteristics may be especially useful in preventive or therapeutic programmes in this group. While less intensive recreational play or physically challenging 'Outward Bound' programmes can be effective in improving social attitudes and self-esteem, intensive aerobic exercise may produce greater improvements in self-esteem and depression. Future research must identify the mechanisms by which exercise confers these benefits, whether it enhances other areas, such as social skills or academic performance, and which populations are benefitted by such programmes. PMID:2192424

  14. Religious Identity, Religious Participation, and Psychological Well-Being in Asian American Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Davis, Richard F; Kiang, Lisa

    2016-03-01

    Religiosity plays a prominent spiritual and social role in adolescents' lives. Yet, despite its developmental salience, few studies have examined normative changes in religiosity or the implications of these changes for psychological well-being. We explored longitudinal variation in and associations between religiosity, as defined by private regard, centrality, and participation in religious activities, and diverse indicators of well-being including self-esteem, depressive symptoms, positive and negative affect, and both the presence of and search for meaning in life. The participants were two cohorts of Asian American high school students (N = 180; 60 % female) followed for 4 years and living in the southeastern US. Using hierarchical linear modelling and controlling for gender and generational status, results revealed that religious identity (i.e., regard, centrality) did not normatively increase or decrease over time, but participation increased. Religious identity was significantly associated with higher self-esteem, greater positive affect, the presence of meaning in life, and reduced depressive symptoms (for females), and participation was positively associated with positive affect and the presence of meaning. Our results and discussion emphasize the utility of further examining how religion plays a role in health and well-being, particularly among immigrant youth. PMID:26346036

  15. Associations of muscular fitness with psychological positive health, health complaints, and health risk behaviors in Spanish children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Moledo, Carmen; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B; Mora, Jesús; Castro-Piñero, José

    2012-01-01

    We examined the association of muscular fitness with psychological positive health, health complaints, and health risk behaviors in 690 (n = 322 girls) Spanish children and adolescents (6-17.9 years old). Lower body muscular strength was assessed with the standing long jump test, and upper-body muscular strength was assessed with the throw basketball test. A muscular fitness index was computed by means of standardized measures of both tests. Psychosocial positive health, health complaints, and health risk behaviors were self-reported using the items of the Health Behavior in School-aged Children questionnaire. Psychological positive health indicators included the following: perceived health status, life satisfaction, quality of family relationships, quality of peer relationships, and academic performance. We computed a health complaints index from 8 registered symptoms: headache, stomach ache, backache, feeling low, irritability or bad temper, feeling nervous, difficulties getting to sleep, and feeling dizzy. The health risk behavior indicators studied included tobacco use, alcohol use, and getting drunk. Children and adolescents with low muscular fitness (below the mean) had a higher odds ratio (OR) of reporting fair (vs. excellent) perceived health status, low life satisfaction (vs. very happy), low quality of family relationships (vs. very good), and low academic performance (vs. very good). Likewise, children and adolescents having low muscular fitness had a significantly higher OR of reporting smoking tobacco sometimes (vs. never), drinking alcohol sometimes (vs. never), and getting drunk sometimes (vs. never). The results of this study suggest a link between muscular fitness and psychological positive health and health risk behavior indicators in children and adolescents. PMID:22158258

  16. Sex differences, learning flexibility, and striatal dopamine D1 and D2 following adolescent drug exposure in rats.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Alicia; Pozos, Hilda; Torre, Adrianna De La; DeShields, Simone; Cevallos, James; Rodriguez, Jonathan; Stolyarova, Alexandra

    2016-07-15

    Corticostriatal circuitry supports flexible reward learning and emotional behavior from the critical neurodevelopmental stage of adolescence through adulthood. It is still poorly understood how prescription drug exposure in adolescence may impact these outcomes in the long-term. We studied adolescent methylphenidate (MPH) and fluoxetine (FLX) exposure in rats and their impact on learning and emotion in adulthood. In Experiment 1, male and female rats were administered MPH, FLX, or saline (SAL), and compared with methamphetamine (mAMPH) treatment beginning in postnatal day (PND) 37. The rats were then tested on discrimination and reversal learning in adulthood. In Experiment 2, animals were administered MPH or SAL also beginning in PND 37 and later tested in adulthood for anxiety levels. In Experiment 3, we analyzed striatal dopamine D1 and D2 receptor expression in adulthood following either extensive learning (after Experiment 1) or more brief emotional measures (after Experiment 2). We found sex differences in discrimination learning and attenuated reversal learning after MPH and only sex differences in adulthood anxiety. In learners, there was enhanced striatal D1, but not D2, after either adolescent MPH or mAMPH. Lastly, also in learners, there was a sex x treatment group interaction for D2, but not D1, driven by the MPH-pretreated females, who expressed significantly higher D2 levels compared to SAL. These results show enduring effects of adolescent MPH on reversal learning in rats. Developmental psychostimulant exposure may interact with learning to enhance D1 expression in adulthood, and affect D2 expression in a sex-dependent manner. PMID:27091300

  17. Sex differences, learning flexibility, and striatal dopamine D1 and D2 following adolescent drug exposure in rats

    PubMed Central

    Izquierdo, Alicia; Pozos, Hilda; De La Torre, Adrianna; DeShields, Simone; Cevallos, James; Rodriguez, Jonathan; Stolyarova, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Corticostriatal circuitry supports flexible reward learning and emotional behavior from the critical neurodevelopmental stage of adolescence through adulthood. It is still poorly understood how prescription drug exposure in adolescence may impact these outcomes in the long-term. We studied adolescent methylphenidate (MPH) and fluoxetine (FLX) exposure in rats and their impact on learning and emotion in adulthood. In Experiment 1, male and female rats were administered MPH, FLX, or saline (SAL), and compared with methamphetamine (mAMPH) treatment beginning in postnatal day (PND) 37. The rats were then tested on discrimination and reversal learning in adulthood. In Experiment 2, animals were administered MPH or SAL also beginning in PND 37 and later tested in adulthood for anxiety levels. In Experiment 3, we analyzed striatal dopamine D1 and D2 receptor expression in adulthood following either extensive learning (after Experiment 1) or more brief emotional measures (after Experiment 2). We found sex differences in discrimination learning and attenuated reversal learning after MPH and only sex differences in adulthood anxiety. In learners, there was enhanced striatal D1, but not D2, after either adolescent MPH or mAMPH. Lastly, also in learners, there was a sex x treatment group interaction for D2, but not D1, driven by the MPH-pretreated females, who expressed significantly higher D2 levels compared to SAL. These results show enduring effects of adolescent MPH on reversal learning in rats. Developmental psychostimulant exposure may interact with learning to enhance D1 expression in adulthood, and affect D2 expression in a sex-dependent manner. PMID:27091300

  18. Recurrent headache and interpersonal violence in adolescence: the roles of psychological distress, loneliness and family cohesion: the HUNT study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recurrent headache is the most common and disabling pain condition in adolescence. Co-occurrence of psychosocial adversity is associated with increased risk of chronification and functional impairment. Exposure to interpersonal violence seems to constitute an important etiological factor. Thus, knowledge of the multiple pathways linking interpersonal violence to recurrent headache could help guide preventive and clinical interventions. In the present study we explored a hypothetical causal model where the link between exposure to interpersonal violence and recurrent headache is mediated in parallel through loneliness and psychological distress. Higher level of family cohesion and male sex is hypothesized to buffer the adverse effect of exposure to interpersonal violence on headache. Methods The model was assessed using data from the cross-sectional, population-based Young-HUNT 3 study of Norwegian adolescents, conducted from 2006–2008. A cohort of 10 464 adolescents were invited. The response rate was 73% (7620), age ranged from 12 and 20 years, and 50% (3832) were girls. The study comprised self-report measures of exposure to interpersonal violence, loneliness, psychological distress and family cohesion, in addition to a validated interview on headache, meeting the International Classification of Headache Disorders criteria. Recurrent headache was defined as headache recurring at least monthly during the past year, and sub-classified into monthly and weekly headache, which served as separate outcomes. Results In Conditional Process Analysis, loneliness and psychological distress consistently posed as parallel mediating mechanisms, indirectly linking exposure to interpersonal violence to recurrent headache. We found no substantial moderating effect of family cohesion or sex. Conclusions Loneliness and psychological distress seem to play crucial roles in the relationship between exposure to interpersonal violence and recurrent headache. To facilitate

  19. The Role of Adolescent Attachment in Moderating and Mediating the Links between Parent and Adolescent Psychological Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodhouse, Susan S.; Ramos-Marcuse, Fatima; Ehrlich, Katherine B.; Warner, Stephanie; Cassidy, Jude

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether adolescent attachment security and attachment-related representations moderate and mediate, respectively, the link between parent symptoms (depressive and anxiety) and adolescent depressive symptoms. Participants were 189 (118 girls) eleventh graders and their parents in a community sample. Results showed that…

  20. Mother-adolescent relationship quality as a moderator of associations between racial socialization and adolescent psychological adjustment.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Sharon F; Roche, Kathleen M; Saleem, Farzana T; Henry, Jessica S

    2015-09-01

    Parents' racial socialization messages, including messages focused on awareness, preparation, and strategies for managing racial discrimination, are necessary to help African American youth successfully navigate their daily lives. However, mixed findings regarding the utility of preparation for bias messages for African American youth's mental health adjustment raise questions about the conditions under which these protective racial socialization messages are most beneficial to African American youth. The current study examined the degree to which communication and trust as well as anger and alienation in the mother-adolescent relationship moderated associations between 2 types of preparation for bias messages, cultural alertness to discrimination and cultural coping with antagonism, and adolescent mental health. Participants were 106 African American adolescents (57% female; mean age = 15.41) who reported about their receipt of racial socialization messages, mother-adolescent relationship quality, and depressive symptoms. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that positive associations between cultural alertness to racial discrimination and youth depressive symptoms were weaker for boys in the context of higher mother-adolescent communication and trust; communication and trust were not similarly protective for girls. For boys, the positive associations between cultural coping with antagonism messages and depressive symptoms were stronger in the context of high anger and alienation in the mother-adolescent relationship. Findings suggest that qualities of the mother-adolescent relationship, in which preparation for bias messages are delivered, are important for understanding the mental health adjustment of African American adolescents. PMID:26460701

  1. Children of perestroika: the changing socioeconomic conditions in Russia and Ukraine and their effect on the psychological well-being of high-school adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tartakovsky, Eugene

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigates how the changing socioeconomic conditions in Russia and Ukraine affect the psychological well-being of high-school adolescents in these countries. Six indexes of psychological well-being, the adolescents' perception of the economic conditions in their families, perceived parental practices (care and autonomy providing), and perceived social support were measured in 1999 and 2007. Macro-level socioeconomic conditions in Russia and Ukraine, as well as the adolescents' perception of the economic conditions in their family, substantially improved from 1999 to 2007. However, the psychological well-being of the adolescents, as well as their perception of parental practices and the social support received from parents, peers, and teachers did not change. Russian adolescents consistently reported higher self-esteem and school competence than their Ukrainian peers, as well as higher parental care and autonomy providing, and higher social support received from peers. At the individual level, perceived parental care and autonomy providing, as well as perceived social support from parents, peers, and teachers were the major contributors to the adolescents' psychological well-being. The obtained results are discussed in light of the conservation of resources and ecological systems theories. PMID:19319455

  2. The Psychology of Gifted Adolescents as Measured by the MMPI-A

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Tracy L.; Cassady, Jerrell C.; Dixon, Felicia A.; Adams, Cheryll M.

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this study is an examination of gifted students' responses on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) in relation to the adolescent norming sample. The comparisons on clinical, content, and Harris-Lingoes scales provide evidence that gifted adolescent boys' and girls' responses do not differ from one…

  3. Resilience against All Odds: A Positive Psychology Perspective of Adolescent-Headed Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lethale, Praline S.; Pillay, Jace

    2013-01-01

    As a result of the AIDS pandemic, adolescent-headed families are becoming a common trend in South Africa. However, little is known about the experiences of the adolescent, especially within the school context. Hence the purpose of this article was to explore the experiences of adolescents within the school context. During our initial review of…

  4. Some Social and Psychological Factors Associated with Black Unmarried Adolescent Fatherhood: A Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Leo E.

    Preliminary findings are presented to address the issue of the extent to which measures of external locus of control, contraception use, educational achievement, and religiosity discriminate between black unmarried adolescent fathers and nonfathers. Forty-eight unmarried adolescent fathers and 50 unmarried adolescent nonfathers were identified by…

  5. Economic Stress, Psychological Well-Being and Problem Behavior in Chinese Adolescents with Economic Disadvantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2003-01-01

    Studied the association between perceived economic stress and adolescent adjustment in 229 Chinese adolescents using children and parent reports of economic stress. Findings show differences in perceived stress between parents and children. A lower level of perceived economic stress was generally related to better adolescent mental health and…

  6. Advising adolescents on the use of psychotropic medication: attitudes among medical and psychology students

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Michèle; Spitz, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    Background There is evidence that medical students are more aware of the benefits of psychotropic treatment than are members of the general public, and that the more knowledge students acquire about psychiatry and pharmacology, the more favorable their attitudes become towards psychotropic drugs and other treatments. Objectives This study among students investigates the relationship between certain aspects of personality and attitudes towards advising adolescents with psychosocial problems about the use of psychotropic medication. Methods Two groups of healthcare students were recruited from universities in Eastern France. 41 fourth-year medical students (MS) who had completed their psychiatry course, and 76 third-year psychology students (PS) in the faculty of human sciences. Respondents completed a self-administered instrument (20 brief case studies, and a personality inventory) at the end of a lecture. Participation was voluntary and unpaid. Results MS would recommend psychotropic drugs in 40% of the 20 cases, PS in 27%. MS who would prescribe psychotropic medication differed in personality profile from PS. MS with a tendency to experience anger and related states such as frustration, and who did not see fulfilling moral obligations as important were more likely to prescribe psychotropic drugs. Also more likely to recommend psychotropic drugs, but for different reasons, were PS who were susceptible to stress but not shy or socially anxious, who showed friendliness but little interest in others, and who lacked distance in their decision-making. Conclusion Health promotion is not simply a matter of educating those young people who take psychotropic drugs – health professionals must also question the criteria that inform their decisions. It is as important to investigate the attitudes of the future health professionals (advisers or prescribers) as it is to focus on consumer-related issues. PMID:17626618

  7. Gay and bisexual adolescent boys' sexual experiences with men: an empirical examination of psychological correlates in a nonclinical sample.

    PubMed

    Rind, B

    2001-08-01

    Over the last quarter century the incest model, with its image of helpless victims exploited and traumatized by powerful perpetrators, has come to dominate perceptions of virtually all forms of adult-minor sex. Thus, even willing sexual relations between gay or bisexual adolescent boys and adult men, which differ from father-daughter incest in many important ways, are generally seen by the lay public and professionals as traumatizing and psychologically injurious. This study assessed this common perception by examining a nonclinical, mostly college sample of gay and bisexual men. Of the 129 men in the study, 26 were identified as having had age-discrepant sexual relations (ADSRs) as adolescents between 12 and 17 years of age with adult males. Men with ADSR experiences were as well adjusted as controls in terms of self-esteem and having achieved a positive sexual identity. Reactions to the ADSRs were predominantly positive, and most ADSRs were willingly engaged in. Younger adolescents were just as willing and reacted at least as positively as older adolescents. Data on sexual identity development indicated that ADSRs played no role in creating same-sex sexual interests, contrary to the "seduction" hypothesis. Findings were inconsistent with the incest model. The incest model has come to act as a procrustean bed, narrowly dictating how adult-minor sexual relations quite different from incest are perceived. PMID:11446197

  8. Preliminary analysis of the psychometric properties of Ryff's scales of psychological well-being in Portuguese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Helder Miguel; Vasconcelos-Raposo, José; Teixeira, Carla Maria

    2010-11-01

    This article presents a set of research studies that aim to adapt Carol Ryff's scales of psychological wellbeing (SPWB) and to analyze its psychometric properties in adolescents. The first two studies focused on the reliability and factorial validity of different Portuguese short versions of SPWB, revealing measurement models inadequacies and low internal consistency. In the third study we developed a shortened version (30 items), taking into account the application of psychometric criteria suggested by van Dierendonck (2005). The scales of this version revealed better reliability and adequate goodness of fit indices for the six-factor model, as proposed by Carol Ryff's PWB theory. Although further research focused on the psychometrical properties reanalysis of this shortened version of SPWB is needed, this article provides a contribution to the research and intervention on positive mental health during adolescence. PMID:20977050

  9. Trajectories of ethnic-racial discrimination among ethnically diverse early adolescents: associations with psychological and social adjustment.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Erika Y; Way, Niobe; Hughes, Diane L

    2014-01-01

    Using longitudinal data, the authors assessed 585 Dominican, Chinese, and African American adolescents (Grades 6-8, M(age) at W1 = 11.83) to determine patterns over time of perceived ethnic-racial discrimination from adults and peers; if these patterns varied by gender, ethnicity, and immigrant status; and whether they are associated with psychological (self-esteem, depressive symptoms) and social (friend and teacher relationship quality, school belonging) adjustment. Two longitudinal patterns for adult discrimination and three longitudinal patterns for peer discrimination were identified using a semiparametric mixture model. These trajectories were distinct with regard to the initial level, shape, and changes in discrimination. Trajectories varied by gender and ethnicity and were significantly linked to psychological and social adjustment. Directions for future research and practice are discussed. PMID:25345480

  10. A Multicountry Study of Cross-Cultural Differences in Psychological Wellness of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asamsama, Octaviana Hemmy; Huang, Leesa; Nelson, R. Brett; Chen, Cin-Ru; Huang, Lily; Kwon, Kyongboon; Kodama, Naoko

    2014-01-01

    Relative to positive psychology, a focus on increasing psychological well-being has been recently supported. Positive psychology is the study of influences and processes that contribute to the successful and optimal functioning of individuals. Nurturing and encouraging wellness competencies creates a buffer against mental illness and fosters…

  11. Assessment of Perceived Parental Psychological Control in Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: There is no validated self-report measure of parental psychological control in the Chinese culture. The reliability and validity of the Chinese Paternal Psychological Control Scale (CPPCS) and Chinese Maternal Psychological Control Scale (CMPCS) were examined. Method: A total of 3,017 Chinese secondary school students responded to the…

  12. Correlates of Scientific Reasoning in Adolescents: Experience, Locus of Control, Age, Field Dependence-Independence, Rigidity/Flexibility, IQ, and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuessy, Carol Liebe

    A model for the development of scientific reasoning in adolescents was formulated largely upon the basis of Piagetian theory. Included as potential determinants of scientific reasoning were experience, age, locus of control, field independence-dependence (FID), rigidity/flexibility, intelligence quotient (IQ), and sex. Causal relationships between…

  13. Predicting Educational Outcomes and Psychological Well-Being in Adolescents Using Time Attitude Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.

    2014-01-01

    Using cluster analysis of Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (ATAS) scores in a sample of 300 adolescents ("M" age = 16 years; "SD" = 1.25; 60% male; 41% European American; 25.3% Asian American; 11% African American; 10.3% Latino), the authors identified five time attitude profiles based on positive and negative attitudes toward…

  14. Bidirectional Linkages between Psychological Symptoms and Sexual Activities among African American Adolescent Girls in Psychiatric Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Lisa R.; Donenberg, Geri R.; Emerson, Erin

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines longitudinal associations between light and heavy sexual experiences and psychiatric symptoms in African American adolescent girls receiving mental health care. Research supports bidirectional associations between adolescent romantic and sexual behaviors and depression and other mental health problems, but this finding…

  15. School-Based Mental Health Services for Adolescents: School Psychology in Contemporary Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crespi, Tony D.; Hughes, Tammy L.

    2004-01-01

    Adolescents are in crisis in school, home, and in the community. With an increasing array of problems, from alcohol and drug addiction to teenage pregnancy, the nation's youth are facing difficult challenges. In particular, family problems experienced by adolescents alone can seem daunting, with such issues as divorce, abuse, and discord changing…

  16. Psychological Effects of Illness in Adolescence. I. Anxiety, Self-Esteem, and Perception of Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellerman, Jonathan; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Healthy adolescents were compared with adolescents (mean age of both groups, 15) with various chronic or serious diseases on standardized measures of trait anxiety, self-esteem, and health locus of control (perception of self-control over health and illness). Journal availability: C. V. Mosby Co., 11830 Westline Industrial Dr., St. Louis, MO…

  17. Personality psychopathology, drug use and psychological symptoms in adolescents with substance use disorders and community controls

    PubMed Central

    Forns, Maria; Goti, Javier; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2015-01-01

    Substance use is a risk behavior that tends to increase during adolescence, a time when part of the personality is still in development. Traditionally, personality psychopathology has been measured in terms of categories, although dimensional models have demonstrated better consistency. This study aimed to analyze differences in personality profiles between adolescents with substance use disorders (SUD n = 74) and matched community controls (MCC n = 74) using the Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) dimensional model. Additionally, we compared age at first drug use, level of drug use and internalizing and externalizing symptoms between the groups. In this study, the PSY-5 model has proved to be useful for differentiating specific personality disturbances in adolescents with SUD and community adolescents. The Disconstraint scale was particularly useful for discriminating adolescents with substance use problems and the Delinquent Attitudes facet offered the best differentiation. PMID:26082873

  18. A Comparison of the Psychological Evaluation of Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa and of Adolescents with Conduct Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Donna P.; And Others

    While the descriptive features of anorexia nervosa are well known and agreed upon, the level of personality organization and the character style of anorexia patients is more controversial. To study and compare the cognitive style and personality functioning of anorectic patients with that of conduct disordered patients, 20 adolescent females (10…

  19. Divergent Realities and Perceived Inequalities: Adolescents', Mothers', and Observers' Perceptions of Family Interactions and Adolescent Psychological Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Deborah P.; Galliher, Renee V.; Powers, Sally I.

    1998-01-01

    Used two approaches to examine mothers', adolescents', and observers' discrepancies in perceptions of family interaction in rural, working-class families. Results using the divergent-realities approach support a developmental lifespan perspective positing that developmental tasks influence perception. Results using perceived-inequalities approach…

  20. Relationship between obesity, negative affect and basal heart rate in predicting heart rate reactivity to psychological stress among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Park, Andres E.; Huynh, Pauline; Schell, Anne M.; Baker, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Reduced cardiovascular responses to psychological stressors have been found to be associated with both obesity and negative affect in adults, but have been less well studied in children and adolescent populations. These findings have most often been interpreted as reflecting reduced sympathetic nervous system response, perhaps associated with heightened baseline sympathetic activation among the obese and those manifesting negative affect. However, obesity and negative affect may themselves be correlated, raising the question of whether they both independently affect cardiovascular reactivity. The present study thus examined the separate effects of obesity and negative affect on both cardiovascular and skin conductance responses to stress (e.g., during a serial subtraction math task) in adolescents, while controlling for baseline levels of autonomic activity during rest. Both obesity and negative affect had independent and negative associations with cardiovascular reactivity, such that reduced stress responses were apparent for obese adolescents and those with high levels of negative affect. In contrast, neither obesity nor negative affect was related to skin conductance responses to stress, implicating specifically noradrenergic mechanisms rather than sympathetic mechanisms generally as being deficient. Moreover, baseline heart rate was unrelated to obesity in this sample, which suggests that heightened baseline of sympathetic activity is not necessary for the reduced cardiovascular reactivity to stress. PMID:26049136

  1. The impulsivity and sensation-seeking mediators of the psychological consequences of pathological gambling in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Estevez, Ana; Herrero-Fernández, David; Sarabia, Izaskun; Jauregui, Paula

    2015-03-01

    Pathological gambling has severe consequences for adolescents and their families and friends. Despite its high prevalence, pathological gambling in adolescents has been insufficiently studied. Sensation seeking and impulsivity are two variables that are related to the appearance and maintenance of pathological gambling. However, few studies have determined the role these variables play in the development of the dysfunctional symptomatology of gambling behavior in adolescents and young adults. The aims of this study were to analyze the consequences of gambling in young adults and adolescents, and to evaluate the roles of sensation seeking and impulsivity in the appearance of dysfunctional symptomatology. The sample consisted of 1,241 young adults and adolescents recruited from scholar centers and free-time groups, as well as 71 subjects from associations that assist pathological gamblers. Pathological gambling, impulsive behavior, dysfunctional symptomatology and sensation seeking were assessed. The results confirmed that young adults and adolescents who gamble pathologically have more dysfunctional symptomatology related to anxiety, depression, hostility, obsessive-compulsive behavior and somatization, as well as sensation seeking, impulsivity and addictive behavior. Moreover, the results showed that sensation seeking did not mediate the appearance of dysfunctional symptomatology and that impulsivity partially mediated the appearance of anxiety, phobic anxiety, depression and psychosis and perfectly mediated somatization, obsessive-compulsive behavior, interpersonal sensitivity, paranoid ideation and hostility. These results have consequences for the development of treatment and prevention programs for adolescent pathological gambling. PMID:24297606

  2. Problematic digital gaming behavior and its relation to the psychological, social and physical health of Finnish adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Männikkö, Niko; Billieux, Joël; Kääriäinen, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The aim of this study was to identify problematic gaming behavior among Finnish adolescents and young adults, and evaluate its connection to a variety of psychological, social, and physical health symptoms. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted with a random sample of 293 respondents aged from 13 to 24 years. Participants completed an online survey. Problematic gaming behavior was measured with the Game Addiction Scale (GAS). Self-reports covered health measures such as psychological health (psychopathological symptoms, satisfaction with life), social health (preferences for social interaction), and physical health (general health, Body Mass Index [BMI], body discomfort, physical activity). Results Problematic gaming behavior was found to relate to psychological and health problems, namely fatigue, sleep interference, depression and anxiety symptoms. Multiple linear regression indicated that the amount of weekly gaming, depression and a preference for online social interaction predicted increased problematic gaming symptoms. Conclusions This research emphasized that problematic gaming behavior had a strong negative correlation to a variety of subjective health outcomes. PMID:26690623

  3. The Psychological Problems of North Korean Adolescent Refugees Living in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Mun; Shin, Ok Ja

    2012-01-01

    Objective As the number of North Korean adolescent refugees drastically increased in South Korea, there is a growing interest in them. Our study was conducted to evaluate the mental health of the North Korean adolescent refugees residing in South Korea. Methods The subjects of this study were 102 North Korean adolescent refugees in Hangyeore middle and high School, the public educational institution for the North Korean adolescent refugees residing in South Korea, and 766 general adolescents in the same region. The Korean version of Child Behavior Check List (K-CBCL) standardized in South Korea was employed as the mental health evaluation tool. Results The adolescent refugees group showed a significantly different score with that of the normal control group in the K-CBCL subscales for sociality (t=29.67, p=0.000), academic performance (t=17.79, p=0.000), total social function (t=35.52, p=0.000), social withdrawal (t=18.01, p=0.000), somatic symptoms (t=28.85, p=0.000), depression/anxiety (t=13.08, p=0.000), thought problems (t=6.24, p=0.013), attention problems (t=4.14, p=0.042), internalized problems (t=26.54, p=0.000) and total problems (t=5.23, p=0.022). Conclusion The mental health of the North Korean adolescent refugees was severe particularly in internalized problems when compared with that of the general adolescents in South Korea. This result indicates the need for interest in not only the behavior of the North Korean adolescent refugees but also their emotional problem. PMID:22993519

  4. Increasing Adolescents' Subjective Well-Being: Effects of a Positive Psychology Intervention in Comparison to the Effects of Therapeutic Alliance, Youth Factors, and Expectancy for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Jessica Ann

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the variance in subjective well-being (SWB) of early adolescents ( n = 54) exposed to a positive psychology intervention aimed at increasing positive affect and life satisfaction as well as decreasing negative affect through intentional activities (e.g., gratitude journals, acts of kindness, use of character strengths,…

  5. Is weight gain really a catalyst for broader recovery?: The impact of weight gain on psychological symptoms in the treatment of adolescent anorexia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Accurso, Erin C.; Ciao, Anna C.; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E.; Lock, James D.; Le Grange, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The main aims of this study were to describe change in psychological outcomes for adolescents with anorexia nervosa across two treatments, and to explore predictors of change, including baseline demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as weight gain over time. Participants were 121 adolescents with anorexia nervosa from a two-site (Chicago and Stanford) randomized controlled trial who received either family-based treatment or individual adolescent supportive psychotherapy. Psychological symptoms (i.e., eating disorder psychopathology, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem) were assessed at baseline, end of treatment, 6-month, and 12-month follow-up. Conditional multilevel growth models were used to test for predictors of slope for each outcome. Most psychological symptoms improved significantly from baseline to 12 month follow-up, regardless of treatment type. Depressive symptoms and dietary restraint were most improved, weight and shape concerns were least improved, and self-esteem was not at all improved. Weight gain emerged as a significant predictor of improved eating disorder pathology, with earlier weight gain having a greater impact on symptom improvement than later weight gain. Adolescents who presented with more severe, complex, and enduring clinical presentations (i.e., longer duration of illness, greater eating disorder pathology, binge-eating/purging subtype) also appeared to benefit more psychologically from treatment. PMID:24632109

  6. Perceived Parental Control Processes, Parent-Child Relational Qualities, and Psychological Well-Being in Chinese Adolescents with and without Economic Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2005-01-01

    The author assessed the relationships between poverty and perceived parenting style, parent-child relationships, and adolescent psychological well-being in Chinese secondary school students (N = 3,017). Participants completed questionnaires designed to assess (a) the degree to which their parents used monitoring, discipline, and other techniques…

  7. A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Family, Friends, and School Experiences on the Psychological Adjustment of Ethnic Minority, Low-SES Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Way, Niobe; Robinson, Melissa G.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the influence over time of demographic variables and perceived family and friend support and school climate on changes in psychological adjustment among Black, Latino, and Asian American adolescents from low-income families. Found a greater increase in self-esteem in students reporting more positive perceptions of school climate and,…

  8. Antecedents of Chinese Parents' Autonomy Support and Psychological Control: The Interplay between Parents' Self-Development Socialization Goals and Adolescents' School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qian; Chan, Hoi-Wing; Lin, Li

    2012-01-01

    Despite ample evidence for the benefits of parental autonomy support and the harms of parental psychological control to Chinese adolescents' well-being, little is known about what foreshadows these parenting behaviors among Chinese parents. The current research addressed this gap in the literature. It tested the hypothesis that parents'…

  9. The Co-Occurrence of Adolescent Boys' and Girls' Use of Psychologically, Physically, and Sexually Abusive Behaviours in Their Dating Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, Heather A.; Sandra Byers, E.; Lisa Price, E.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the co-occurrence of and risk factors for adolescent boys' and girls' self-reported use of psychologically, physically, and sexually abusive behaviours in their dating relationships. The participants were 324 boys and 309 girls in grades 7, 9, or 11 who completed surveys at school. Descriptive analyses showed that 19% of boys and 26%…

  10. Social, Family and Psychological Predictors of Obsessive-Compulsive Behaviour among Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkcaldy, B. D.; Furnham, A. F.; Siefen, R. G.

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of "pure" obsessive-compulsive disorders in the clinical population was found to be around 1.2 percent for a clinical sample record--stretching over a 2.5-year period--of around 2500 adolescents in a German child and adolescent psychiatry clinic. Over a 3-month period (time-frame) a sample of 350 new entries to the clinic were given…

  11. Culture-general and -specific associations of attachment avoidance and anxiety with perceived parental warmth and psychological control among Turk and Belgian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Güngör, Derya; Bornstein, Marc H

    2010-10-01

    Both the adolescent peer attachment and perceived parenting style literatures emphasize the role of the quality of the parent-child relationship in children's healthy adjustment beyond the family, but few studies have investigated links between adolescents' peer attachment and perceptions of parenting. We investigate relations of adolescents' perceptions of warmth and psychological control from parents with avoidance and anxiety in attachment to close friends in two contrasting cultures. Altogether, 262 Turk and 263 Belgian youth between 14 and 18 years of age participated. Cross-culturally, attachment avoidance was negatively related to maternal warmth, and attachment anxiety positively related to maternal and paternal control and negatively to paternal warmth. Beyond these general relations, attachment avoidance was associated with paternal psychological control in Belgians but not in Turks. The study provides cross-cultural evidence for specific relations between peer attachment and perceived parenting and suggests a culture-specific pathway for the development of attachment avoidance. PMID:20079527

  12. Focus on anorexia nervosa: modern psychological treatment and guidelines for the adolescent patient

    PubMed Central

    Espie, Jonathan; Eisler, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a serious condition associated with high mortality. Incidence is highest for female adolescents, and prevalence data highlight a pressing unmet need for treatment. While there is evidence that adolescent-onset anorexia has relatively high rates of eventual recovery, the illness is often protracted, and even after recovery from the eating disorder there is an ongoing vulnerability to psychosocial problems in later life. Family therapy for anorexia in adolescence has evolved from a generic systemic treatment into an eating disorder-specific format (family therapy for anorexia nervosa), and this approach has been evidenced as an effective treatment. Individual treatments, including cognitive behavioral therapy, also have some evidence of effectiveness. Most adolescents can be effectively and safely managed as outpatients. Day-patient treatment holds promise as an alternative to inpatient treatment or as an intensive program following a brief medical admission. Evidence is emerging of advantages in detecting and treating adolescent anorexia nervosa in specialist community-based child and adolescent eating-disorder services accessible directly from primary care. Limitations and future directions for modern treatment are considered. PMID:25678834

  13. Focus on anorexia nervosa: modern psychological treatment and guidelines for the adolescent patient.

    PubMed

    Espie, Jonathan; Eisler, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a serious condition associated with high mortality. Incidence is highest for female adolescents, and prevalence data highlight a pressing unmet need for treatment. While there is evidence that adolescent-onset anorexia has relatively high rates of eventual recovery, the illness is often protracted, and even after recovery from the eating disorder there is an ongoing vulnerability to psychosocial problems in later life. Family therapy for anorexia in adolescence has evolved from a generic systemic treatment into an eating disorder-specific format (family therapy for anorexia nervosa), and this approach has been evidenced as an effective treatment. Individual treatments, including cognitive behavioral therapy, also have some evidence of effectiveness. Most adolescents can be effectively and safely managed as outpatients. Day-patient treatment holds promise as an alternative to inpatient treatment or as an intensive program following a brief medical admission. Evidence is emerging of advantages in detecting and treating adolescent anorexia nervosa in specialist community-based child and adolescent eating-disorder services accessible directly from primary care. Limitations and future directions for modern treatment are considered. PMID:25678834

  14. Long-term consequences of perinatal and adolescent cannabinoid exposure on neural and psychological processes.

    PubMed

    Higuera-Matas, Alejandro; Ucha, Marcos; Ambrosio, Emilio

    2015-08-01

    Marihuana is the most widely consumed illicit drug, even among adolescents and pregnant women. Given the critical developmental processes that occur in the adolescent and fetal nervous system, marihuana consumption during these stages may have permanent consequences on several brain functions in later adult life. Here, we review what is currently known about the long-term consequences of perinatal and adolescent cannabinoid exposure. The most consistent findings point to long-term impairments in cognitive function that are associated with structural alterations and disturbed synaptic plasticity. In addition, several neurochemical modifications are also evident after prenatal or adolescent cannabinoid exposure, especially in the endocannabinoid, glutamatergic, dopaminergic and opioidergic systems. Important sexual dimorphisms are also evident in terms of the long-lasting effects of cannabinoid consumption during pregnancy and adolescence, and cannabinoids possibly have a protective effect in adolescents who have suffered traumatic life challenges, such as maternal separation or intense stress. Finally, we suggest some future research directions that may encourage further advances in this exciting field. PMID:25960036

  15. Predicting adolescent problematic online game use from teacher autonomy support, basic psychological needs satisfaction, and school engagement: a 2-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chengfu; Li, Xian; Zhang, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Problematic online game use (POGU) has become a serious global public health concern among adolescents. However, its influencing factors and mediating mechanisms remain largely unknown. This study provides the first longitudinal design to test stage-environment fit theory empirically in POGU. A total of 356 Chinese students reported on teacher autonomy support, basic psychological needs satisfaction, school engagement, and POGU in the autumn of their 7th-9th grade years. Path analyses supported the proposed pathway: 7th grade teacher autonomy support increased 8th grade basic psychological needs satisfaction, which in turn increased 9th grade school engagement, which ultimately decreased 9th grade POGU. Furthermore, 7th grade teacher autonomy support directly increased 9th grade school engagement, which in turn decreased 9th grade POGU. These findings suggest that teacher autonomy support is an important protective predictor of adolescent POGU, and basic psychological needs satisfaction and school engagement are the primary mediators in this association. PMID:25803769

  16. Differences in psychological health and family dysfunction by sexual victimization type in a clinical sample of African American adolescent women.

    PubMed

    Cecil, Heather; Matson, Steven C

    2005-08-01

    We examined levels of sexual victimization among a sample of 249 14- to 19-year-old African American adolescent women. Victimization was common: 32.1% reported having been raped, 33.7% had experienced sexual coercion, and 10.8% reported an attempted rape. Only 23.4% had never been victimized. We investigated whether levels of psychological health and family dysfunction varied as a function of the type of sexual victimization. Girls who had been raped had lower levels of self-esteem and mastery and higher levels of depression compared to girls who reported no sexual victimization. Significantly higher levels of family cohesion and significantly lower levels of family support were reported by girls who had been raped versus girls who reported no sexual victimization. These findings are a starting point for future studies by providing evidence that levels of mental health and family dysfunction vary by the type of sexual victimization experienced. PMID:19817034

  17. School and Neighborhood Contexts, Perceptions of Racial Discrimination, and Psychological Well-being Among African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Tiffany

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined contextual influences on the relationship between racial discrimination (individual, cultural, and collective/institutional) and psychological well-being. Two hundred and fifty two African American adolescents (46% male and 54% female, average age = 16) completed measures of racial discrimination, self-esteem, depressive symptoms and life satisfaction. Archival information regarding the racial/ethnic composition of the participants’ neighborhoods and schools was used and increased school diversity was linked to increased perceptions of cultural discrimination. Regardless of school and neighborhood diversity, high perceptions of collective/institutional discrimination were linked to lower self-esteem for students in high diversity settings. Further, high levels of collective/institutional discrimination were associated with lower life satisfaction for African American youth in low diversity settings. PMID:19636714

  18. Psychological Well-being in Fathers of Adolescents and Young Adults with Down Syndrome, Fragile X Syndrome, and Autism.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Sigan L; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Head, Lara; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2012-04-01

    The psychological well-being of fathers of children with developmental disabilities remains poorly understood. The present study examined depressive symptoms, pessimism, and coping in fathers of adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome (DS; n = 59), autism spectrum disorders (ASDs; n = 135), and fragile X syndrome (FXS; n = 46) Fathers of sons/daughters with ASDs reported a higher level of depressive symptoms than the other groups of fathers. Fathers of sons/daughters with DS reported a lower level of pessimism than the other groups of fathers. There were no group differences in paternal coping style. Group differences in paternal depressive symptoms and pessimism were, in part, related to differences in paternal age, the child's behavior problems, risk of having additional children with a disability, and maternal depressive symptoms. Findings from this study can be used to educate providers and design services for fathers during the later parenting years. PMID:22611299

  19. Reading, demographic, social and psychological factors related to pre-adolescent smoking and non-smoking behaviors and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Sunseri, A J; Alberti, J M; Kent, N D; Schoenberger, J A; Sunseri, J K; Amuwo, S; Vickers, P

    1983-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine reading, demographic, social and psychological factors related to pre-adolescent smoking and non-smoking behaviors and attitudes. The school-home humanistic education program was implemented in a large, urban public school system. It stressed responsible decision-making, increased self-esteem and the inter-relationships among the acquisition of knowledge of the consequences of smoking, personal feelings, family relationships and behavior. The results showed that family involvement was necessary to affect smoking attitudes and behaviors. Of all the variables studied, reading had a most pervasive relationship. Peer influence and self-esteem also were related to smoking knowledge, smoking attitude, future smoking intentions and the "purchase" of cigarettes. Two of several conclusions drawn from the results are: 1. Family involvement is necessary to affect attitudes and behaviors. 2. Health education research that does not investigate the relationship between program outcomes and reading achievement may be misleading. PMID:6552341

  20. The Moderating Effects of Sex and Age on the Association between Traumatic Brain Injury and Harmful Psychological Correlates among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ilie, Gabriela; Adlaf, Edward M.; Mann, Robert E.; Boak, Angela; Hamilton, Hayley; Asbridge, Mark; Colantonio, Angela; Turner, Nigel E.; Rehm, Jürgen; Cusimano, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although it is well established that sex is a risk factor in acquiring a traumatic brain injury (TBI) among adolescents, it has not been established whether it also moderates the influence of other TBI psychological health correlates. Methods and Findings Data were derived from a 2011 population-based cross-sectional school survey, which included 9,288 Ontario 7th–12th graders who completed anonymous self-administered questionnaires in classrooms. Response rate was 62%. Preliminary analyses found no evidence of nonresponse bias in the reporting of TBI. TBI was defined as a hit or blow to the head that resulted in a 5 minutes loss of consciousness or at least one overnight hospitalization due to symptoms associated with it. Reports of lifetime TBI were more common among males than females (23.1%, 95% CI: 20.5, 25.8 vs. 17.1%, 95% CI: 14.7, 19.8). Thirteen correlates were examined and included cigarette smoking, elevated psychological distress, suicide ideation, bully victimization (at school, as well as cyber bullying), bullying others, cannabis use, cannabis dependence and drug use problems, physical injuries, daily smoking, drinking alcohol, binge drinking, use of cannabis, and poor academic performance. Among the outcomes examined, sex moderated the relationship between lifetime TBI and cigarette smoking. In addition, sex and age jointly moderated the relationship between lifetime TBI and daily smoking, alcohol use and physical injuries. Late adolescent males who reported lifetime TBI, relative to females, displayed elevated daily smoking and injuries, whereas their females counterparts displayed elevated past year drinking. Possible bias related to self-report procedures and the preclusion of causal inferences due to the cross-sectional nature of the data are limitations of this study. Conclusions TBI differences in outcomes need to be assessed for potential moderating effects of sex and age. Results have important implications for more tailored

  1. Assessment of psychological functioning in adolescent earthquake victims in Colombia using the MMPI-A.

    PubMed

    Scott, Ronald L; Knoth, Russell L; Beltran-Quiones, Monica; Gomez, Nelson

    2003-02-01

    The earthquake that hit Armenia, Colombia, on January 25, 1999, dramatically impacted the lives of thousands of people, including children and adolescents. This study used the Hispanic MMPI-A to clinically assess for ongoing psychopathology in a group of 59 adolescent earthquake victims. Their scores on the basic, content, and supplementary scales of the instrument were compared to those of a control group of 62 Colombian adolescents with similar socioeconomic, educational, and ethnic backgrounds. The results showed no clinically significant elevations for the earthquake victims indicating that the disaster had not resulted in diagnosable psychopathology. When compared to controls, earthquake victims showed significant elevations on D, Pt, and Sc indicating that they were mildly affected (but within the normal range) by the earthquake. The results are discussed in the context of cultural factors and the contemporary disaster and resiliency literature. PMID:12602652

  2. Substance Use Behavior among Early-Adolescent Asian American Girls: The Impact of Psychological and Family Factors

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Lin; Barnes-Ceeney, Kevin; Schinke, Steven P.

    2012-01-01

    Confronting developmental tasks and challenges associated with bridging two different cultures, Asian American adolescent girls face increasing risks for substance use. Identifying risk and protective factors in this population is essential, particularly when those factors can inform preventive programs. Guided by family interaction theory, the present cross-sectional study explored the associations of psychological and familial factors with use of alcohol, prescription drugs, and other drugs among early-adolescent Asian American girls. Between August 2007 and March 2008, 135 pairs of Asian American girls (mean age 13.21 years, SD = 0.90) and their mothers (mean age 39.86 years, SD = 6.99) were recruited from 19 states that had significant Asian populations. Girls and mothers each completed an online survey. Relative to girls who did not use substances, girls who did had higher levels of depressive symptoms, perceived peer substance use, and maternal substance use. Multiple logistic regression modeling revealed that they also had significantly lower levels of body satisfaction, problem-solving ability, parental monitoring, mother-daughter communication, family involvement, and family rules about substance use. Household composition, acculturation, and academic achievement were not associated with girls’ substance use. These findings point to directions for substance abuse prevention programming among Asian American girls. PMID:22082244

  3. The Interrelations among the Perception of Parental Styles and Psychological Well-Being in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    SHAHIMI, Farnaz; HEAVEN, Patrick; CIARROCHI, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Background This longitudinal study aims to examine the relationships between the perception of parental style, hope, self-esteem and Eysenck’s psychoticism dimension throughout the span of four years. Methods: The sample was composed of 884 students from the Wollongong Youth Study, which commenced when students entered high school. During the course of the 4 years of the study, each participant completed the test booklets each time data was collected. Data was analyzed using one way ANOVA, Post-hoc test, Repeated Measurement, Pearson and Partial Correlation and General Linear Model in order to provide the aims of the study. Results: The mean score of hope and self-esteem among adolescents from authoritative parents were higher from permissive and authoritarian families while the hope with a permissive perception were lower than those with authoritarian, and self-esteem was lower in the authoritarian group compared to the permissive group. Children with a permissive perception reported higher psychoticism compared to the two other. Significant correlations were found between authoritative perception and hope, self-esteem and psychoticism. Finally, hope, self-esteem and psychoticism showed a significant inter correlation in all of the parental styles. Conclusion: Adolescents with the perception of each kind of parental style showed significant between group differences in psychological well-being throughout the four years of the study. PMID:23967424

  4. Biological, psychological, and sociocultural correlates of body change strategies and eating problems in adolescent boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; van de Blom, Willemien; Mayer, Birgit

    2005-01-01

    The present study examines correlates of body change strategies and eating problems in youths. A large sample of adolescents aged 12 to 16 years (N = 307) was asked to complete a set of questionnaires, which measured biological (age, pubertal status, and body mass index [BMI]), psychological (self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, body importance, and body comparison), and sociocultural variables (influence of media, parents, and peers), as well as body change strategies and disturbed eating attitudes and behaviors. Results showed that boys generally try to become more muscular, whereas girls attempt to lose weight. Further, correlational and regression analyses demonstrated that biological, psychological, and sociocultural influences made unique and significant contributions to various body image and body change/eating problems variables. Finally, hierarchical regression analyses yielded theoretically meaningful models for the main body change strategies in boys and girls. In these models, BMI, self-esteem, and sociocultural influences turned out to be significant predictor variables, while body-image-related factors, and in particular body comparison (i.e., the tendency to compare one's body with that of others), partially or fully mediated the influence of some predictor variables. PMID:15567107

  5. From Violence in the Home to Physical Dating Violence Victimization: The Mediating Role of Psychological Distress in a Prospective Study of Female Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cascardi, Michele

    2016-04-01

    Symptoms of psychological distress may be one pathway through which child maltreatment and witnessing violence in the home relate to dating violence victimization. This study examined whether psychological distress in mid-adolescence mediated the link between child maltreatment and witnessing violence in early adolescence and dating violence victimization in young adulthood. The sample included female participants (N = 532) from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well Being who were 18 years or older in the fifth and final wave of data collection. At the time of entry into the study, participants were 12.81 (SD = 1.23) years old. Sixteen percent of participants identified as Hispanic; 53 % identified their race as White, 33 % as Black, and 11 % as American Indian. Results showed that psychological distress may play a causal role in the relationship of violence in the home to dating violence victimization. Interventions targeting psychological distress, particularly in samples at risk for child maltreatment, may reduce the risk of dating violence victimization. PMID:26902469

  6. Family Characteristics, Custody Arrangements, and Adolescent Psychological Well-Being after Lesbian Mothers Break up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartrell, Nanette; Bos, Henny; Peyser, Heidi; Deck, Amalia; Rodas, Carla

    2011-01-01

    As part of the largest, longest running prospective American study of same-sex parent families, the present investigation examined relationship dissolution in planned lesbian families. Data were collected from 40 separated couples and their 17-year-old adolescent offspring--19 girls and 21 boys. Nearly all breakups occurred before the former…

  7. Physical and Psychological Aggression in Dating Relationships of Spanish Adolescents: Motives and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Fuertes, Andres A.; Fuertes, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of the study was to examine three aspects of romantic relationships of Spanish adolescents: the prevalence of verbal-emotional and physical aggressive behaviors, correlates of dating violence perpetration (both verbal-emotional and physical aggression), and consequences of violence for victims' well-being. Method: A…

  8. Early Adolescent Sexual Initiation and Physical/Psychological Symptoms: A Comparative Analysis of Five Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Farhat, Tilda; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Godeau, Emmanuelle; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse

    2010-01-01

    Although most people in developed countries experience sexual initiation during adolescence, little is known about inter-country variability in the psychosocial correlates of early initiation. Population-based samples of 15-year-olds (n = 6,111, 52% female) who participated in the Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children Study (Finland, Scotland,…

  9. Risk and Resilience for Psychological Distress amongst Unaccompanied Asylum Seeking Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodes, Matthew; Jagdev, Daljit; Chandra, Navin; Cunniff, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Background: To investigate the level of posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms, and background risk and protective factors that might increase or ameliorate this distress amongst unaccompanied asylum-seeking children and adolescents (UASC). Methods: Cross-sectional survey carried out in London. Participants were 78 UASC aged 13-18 years,…

  10. Social and Psychological Factors of Drug Abuse Among Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barter, James T.; Werme, Paul H.

    This paper is devoted to a selected review of literature on drug abuse and dependence among children and adolescents. It is divided into seven sections, each giving information on studies, both nationally and internationally, on a particular drug. These are: nicotine, alcohol, organic solvents (sniffing of substances such as plastic cement, laquer…

  11. The psychology of antecedents to adult reproductive disorders in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Covington, Sharon N; Martinez, Pedro E; Popat, Vaishali; Nandagopal, Radha; Ryan, Mary; Nelson, Lawrence M

    2008-01-01

    The normal developmental tasks and roles of adolescence are altered by a diagnosis of a reproductive disorder. The crisis of impaired fertility affects both parent and child, stressing the family system. For the adolescent girl, a reproductive disorder has an impact on her developing sense of self, body-image, and sexuality, which, in turn, can affect her self-esteem and relationships with others. Because of the sexual nature of a reproductive disorder, feelings of embarrassment or protectiveness are often engendered that can make it difficult for families to discuss. Nonetheless, families do best with openness and honesty regarding the condition and should be discouraged from keeping the diagnosis a secret. Adolescence encompasses a broad spectrum of emotional maturity, which needs to be considered by parents and clinicians when communicating information. Understanding that the family is an emotional unit, a family systems approach to deal with health issues is most appropriate. In this context, parents need to first deal with their own feelings about the diagnosis, before they can help their child. Secondly, parents must be provided with tools to build an ongoing conversation with their child that will avoid stigmatizing her condition and handicapping her growth into healthy adulthood. The goal for parent and clinician is to help the adolescent girl formulate positive self-esteem and body image, despite impaired fertility. PMID:18574221

  12. Trait Emotional Intelligence, Psychological Well-Being and Peer-Rated Social Competence in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mavroveli, Stella; Petrides, K. V.; Rieffe, Carolien; Bakker, Femke

    2007-01-01

    The trait emotional intelligence (trait EI or trait emotional self-efficacy) framework provides comprehensive coverage of emotion-related self-perceptions and dispositions. In this study, we investigated the relationship between trait EI and four distinct socioemotional criteria on a sample of Dutch adolescents (N = 282; 136 girls, 146 boys; mean…

  13. Why Individuals with Intellectual Disability Turn to Religion: Behavioral and Psychological Motives of Adolescents and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lifshitz, Hefziba; Weiss, Izhak; Fridel, Sara; Glaubman, Rivka

    2009-01-01

    This study compared behavioral (fulfillment of religious commandments), and motivational components of religiosity among 54 Jewish adolescents (aged 13-21 years) and 35 adults (30-60 years) with intellectually disability (ID) (IQ = 40-69). A special questionnaire was constructed. Results yielded similarities between the religious profile of…

  14. Information Management Strategies in Early Adolescence: Developmental Change in Use and Transactional Associations with Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Robert D.; Marrero, Matthew D.; Melching, Jessica A.; Kuhn, Emily S.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents use various strategies to manage their parents' access to information. This study tested developmental change in strategy use, longitudinal associations between disclosing and concealing strategies, and longitudinal associations linking disclosing and concealing strategies with antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms. Self-report…

  15. Psychological Symptoms Linking Exposure to Community Violence and Academic Functioning in African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busby, Danielle R.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    African American adolescents are exposed disproportionately to community violence, increasing their risk for emotional and behavioral symptoms that can detract from learning and undermine academic outcomes. The present study examined whether aggressive behavior and depressive and anxious symptoms mediated the association between exposure to…

  16. Invited Commentary: Childhood and Adolescent Obesity--Psychological and Behavioral Issues in Weight Loss Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarwer, David B.; Dilks, Rebecca J.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity has tripled in the past three decades. This increase has been accompanied by a dramatic rise in obesity-related health complications among American youth. Thus, many obese youth are now experiencing illnesses that will threaten their life expectancy in the absence of significant weight loss.…

  17. Race-Ethnic Inequality and Psychological Distress: Depressive Symptoms from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, J. Scott; Meadows, Sarah O.; Elder, Glen H., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Social inequality is well established in the mental health of race-ethnic groups, but little is known about this disparity from adolescence to young adulthood. This study examined differences in trajectories of depressive symptoms across 4 race-ethnic groups (Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians) using 3 waves of the National Longitudinal Study…

  18. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing for treating psychological disturbances in Taiwanese adolescents who experienced Typhoon Morakot.

    PubMed

    Tang, Tze-Chun; Yang, Pinchen; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Liu, Tai-Ling

    2015-07-01

    In this case-control study, we aimed to assess the intervention effects of four-session eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) on reducing the severity of disaster-related anxiety, general anxiety, and depressive symptoms in Taiwanese adolescents who experienced Typhoon Morakot. A total of 83 adolescents with posttraumatic stress disorder related to Typhoon Morakot, major depressive disorder, or current moderate or high suicide risk after experiencing Typhoon Morakot were allocated to a four-session course of EMDR (N = 41) or to treatment as usual (TAU; N = 42). A multivariate analysis of covariance was performed to examine the effects of EMDR in reducing the severity of disaster-related anxiety, general anxiety, and depressive symptoms in adolescents by using preintervention severity values as covariates. The multivariate analysis of covariance results indicated that the EMDR group exhibited significantly lower preintervention severity values of general anxiety and depression than did the TAU group. In addition, the preintervention severity value of disaster-related anxiety in the EMDR group was lower than that in the TAU group (p = 0.05). The results of this study support that EMDR could alleviate general anxiety and depressive symptoms and reduce disaster-related anxiety in adolescents experiencing major traumatic disasters. PMID:26162817

  19. Social Influence and Psychological Determinants of Smoking among Inner-City Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Jennifer A.; Botvin, Gilbert J.; Diaz, Tracy

    1999-01-01

    Study focuses on a sample of economically disadvantaged adolescents attending New York City schools (N=1,875). Longitudinal predictors of smoking from four domains were tested, with findings supporting both social learning theory and problem behavior theory. Discusses the key components for effective smoking prevention approaches. (Author/GCP)

  20. Verbal Interaction and Development in Families with Adolescents. Advances in Applied Developmental Psychology, Volume 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofer, Manfred, Ed.; Youniss, James, Ed.; Noack, Peter, Ed.

    Individuation theory is rooted in the belief that it is a major developmental task for adolescents to establish their identity while simultaneously maintaining a relationship with their parents. Building on the individuation paradigm, the researchers contributing to this edited volume zeroed in on discourse as a critical mechanism through which…

  1. Psychological Adjustment and Substance Use among Adolescents before and after a Parental Divorce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, William J.; Needle, Richard H.

    1991-01-01

    Examined the well-being of adolescents before and after a parental divorce. Boys demonstrated ill effects after the divorce but not prior to the separation. Girls showed negative reactions before the separation, but these did not become worse after the divorce. (BC)

  2. Date Violence and Date Rape among Adolescents: Associations with Disordered Eating Behaviors and Psychological Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackard, Diann M.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2002-01-01

    A study assessed prevalence of date violence and rape in 81,247 adolescents. Approximately 9% of girls and 6% of boys had experienced date violence or rape. Date violence and rape was associated with higher rates of disordered eating behaviors and suicidal thoughts and attempts, and lower emotional well-being and self-esteem. (Contains…

  3. Adolescents' Psychological Well-Being and Perceived Parental Involvement: Implications for Parental Involvement in Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cripps, Kayla; Zyromski, Brett

    2009-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period of development. Previous research suggests parent involvement in school directly impacts student success. However, different types of parental involvement and the efforts of middle school personnel to educate parents about these effective practices have received scant attention in the literature. The level and type…

  4. Impact of Demographics, Sexual History, and Psychological Functioning on the Acquisition of STDs in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Susan L.; Biro, Frank M.; Succop, Paul A.; Bernstein, David I.; Stanberry, Lawrence R.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the variables related to multiple episodes of sexually transmitted disease (STD) among adolescent females (n=88) and males (n=44). Results indicate that acquisition of an STD is related to the demographic characteristics of age and gender, as well as to the number of lifetime partners and attitudes about STD acquisition. (RJM)

  5. Perceptions of Self-Determination and Psychological Empowerment of Adolescents with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehmeyer, Michael L.

    1994-01-01

    This study evaluated locus of control orientations, perceptions of efficacy, and outcome expectancies of 282 adolescents with mental retardation and compared them to students with learning disabilities and at-risk students. Subjects were found to hold unrealistic understandings and perceptions of causality and excessively external global…

  6. Cyber Victimization and Perceived Stress: Linkages to Late Adolescents' Cyber Aggression and Psychological Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Michelle F.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined multiple sources of strain, particular cyber victimization, and perceived stress from parents, peers, and academics, in relation to late adolescents' (ages 16-18; N = 423) cyber aggression, anxiety, and depression, each assessed 1 year later (Time 2). Three-way interactions revealed that the relationship between Time 1…

  7. Psychological Distress among Adolescents in Chengdu, Sichuan at 1 Month after the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaonan; Zhang, Jianxin; Mak, Winnie W. S.; Choi, Kai Chow; Lui, Wacy W. S.; Zhang, Jianxin; Chan, Emily Y. Y.

    2010-01-01

    A devastating earthquake occurred on May 12, 2008 in Sichuan, China. This study investigated the prevalence and factors in association with psychological problems among secondary school students living in Chengdu (90 km away from the disaster epicenter) in June 2008. In a cross-sectional survey, 3,324 secondary students self-administered a structured questionnaire in classroom setting. Validated scales were used in this study. Among all respondents, 22.3% reported post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); 22.6% were probable depression cases; 10.6% reported suicidal ideation; and 14.1% would like to receive psychological counseling. No gender differences were found. While social/emotional support from teachers or peers (OR from 0.40 to 0.78) and exposure to positive news reports (OR from 0.59 to 0.62) were found protective, prior experience of severe mental distress (OR from 1.60 to 2.68) and corporal punishment (OR from 1.31 to 1.58), worry about future aftershocks (OR from 1.64 to 3.11), absence from school when it was not closed (OR from 1.38 to 1.48), exposures to scary or sorrowful disaster media coverage (OR from 1.39 to 2.07), post-disaster visits to affected sites (OR from 1.51 to 1.59), separation from parents (OR = 1.61), etc., were risk factors predictive of some of the aforementioned psychological problems. Negative mental health impacts were prevalent among the respondents. Teachers, parents, and the mass media are all important in maintaining good mental health among adolescents that are indirectly affected by the severe earthquake. The results have important implications for earthquake preparedness and relief work in the future. PMID:20405226

  8. Cognitive flexibility and performance in children and adolescents with threshold and sub-threshold bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Dickstein, Daniel P; Axelson, David; Weissman, Alexandra B; Yen, Shirley; Hunt, Jeffrey I; Goldstein, Benjamin I; Goldstein, Tina R; Liao, Fangzi; Gill, Mary Kay; Hower, Heather; Frazier, Thomas W; Diler, Rasim S; Youngstrom, Eric A; Fristad, Mary A; Arnold, L Eugene; Findling, Robert L; Horwitz, Sarah M; Kowatch, Robert A; Ryan, Neal D; Strober, Michael; Birmaher, Boris; Keller, Martin B

    2016-06-01

    Greater understanding of cognitive function in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder (BD) is of critical importance to improve our ability to design targeted treatments to help with real-world impairment, including academic performance. We sought to evaluate cognitive performance among children with either BD type I, II, or "not otherwise specified" (NOS) participating in multi-site Course and Outcome of Bipolar Youth study compared to typically developing controls (TDC) without psychopathology. In particular, we sought to test the hypothesis that BD-I and BD-II youths with full threshold episodes of mania or hypomania would have cognitive deficits, including in reversal learning, vs. those BD-NOS participants with sub-threshold episodes and TDCs. N = 175 participants (BD-I = 81, BD-II = 11, BD-NOS = 28, TDC = 55) completed Cambridge Neuropsychological Automated Testing Battery (CANTAB) tasks. A priori analyses of the simple reversal stage of the CANTAB intra-/extra-dimensional shift task showed that aggregated BD-I/II participants required significantly more trials to complete the task than either BD-NOS participants with sub-syndromal manic/hypomanic symptoms or than TDCs. BD participants across sub-types had impairments in sustained attention and information processing for emotionally valenced words. Our results align with prior findings showing that BD-I/II youths with distinct episodes have specific alterations in reversal learning. More broadly, our study suggests that further work is necessary to see the interaction between neurocognitive performance and longitudinal illness course. Additional work is required to identify the neural underpinnings of these differences as targets for potential novel treatments, such as cognitive remediation. PMID:26438382

  9. Rural Behavioral Health Services for Children and Adolescents: An Ecological and Community Psychology Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heflinger, Craig Anne; Christens, Brian

    2006-01-01

    While psychology has tended to focus on urban issues in research and practice, rural areas have undergone a series of changes in recent years that have increased the need for behavioral health services. A variety of social and economic factors has contributed both to the increasing needs and to the inability of the existing services to meet them.…

  10. Parent-Child Relations and Psychological Adjustment among High-Achieving Chinese and European American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qin, Desiree Baolian; Rak, Eniko; Rana, Meenal; Donnellan, M. Brent

    2012-01-01

    Chinese American students are often perceived as problem-free high achievers. Recent research, however, suggests that high-achieving Chinese American students can experience elevated levels of stress, especially comparing to their peers from other ethnic groups. In this paper, we examine how family dynamics may influence psychological adjustment…

  11. Racial Identity, Maternal Support, and Psychological Distress among African American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Bernat, Debra Hilkene; Sellers, Robert M.; Notaro, Paul C.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the role of racial identity and maternal support in reducing psychological distress among African American twelfth-graders. Results provided little support for a direct association between racial identity or maternal support and depressive symptoms and anxiety within a multivariate context. Influence of racial identity and…

  12. Perceived Parental Behavioral Control and Psychological Control in Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong: A Replication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2007-01-01

    Perceived paternal and maternal behavioral control (including dimensions of parental knowledge, expectation, monitoring, discipline and demandingness) and psychological control in 2,748 Chinese Secondary 2 students were examined. Results showed that two stable dimensions (paternal and maternal behavioral control) were extracted from the parental…

  13. Pen and Paper: A Prescription for Adolescents' Emotional and Psychological Well Being?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Jennie J.; Davis, James O.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an expressive writing intervention on male, juvenile offenders' (n=25) psychological and emotional well being. Using a quasi-experimental design, participants were assigned to one of three writing conditions and were instructed to write for 15 minutes for five consecutive days about one of the following topics:…

  14. The Psychological Impact of an Educational Unit about Conflict and Nuclear War on Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Daniel J.; Hanley, C. Patricia

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the psychological impact of nuclear issues education on preadolescents in order to obtain data that might be useful in developing public policy concerning the role of nuclear issues education. Teachers presented "Choices," an educational unit on nuclear war and conflict, to sixth, seventh, and eighth grade…

  15. Bullying and Victimization in Adolescence: Concurrent and Stable Roles and Psychological Health Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menesini, Ersilia; Modena, Marco; Tani, Franca

    2009-01-01

    From an initial sample of 1,278 Italian students, the authors selected 537 on the basis of their responses to a self-report bully and victim questionnaire. Participants' ages ranged from 13 to 20 years (M = 15.12 years, SD = 1.08 years). The authors compared the concurrent psychological symptoms of 4 participant groups (bullies, victims,…

  16. Experiences of Being Ignored by Peers during Late Adolescence: Linkages to Psychological Maladjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Julie C.; Adams, Ryan E.; Fredstrom, Bridget K.; Gilman, Rich

    2014-01-01

    In this study on being ignored by peers, 934 twelfth-grade students reported on their experiences of being ignored, victimized, and socially withdrawn, and completed measures of friendship and psychological adjustment (depression, self-esteem, and global satisfaction). Peer nominations of being ignored, victimized, and accepted by peers were also…

  17. Doing Well vs. Feeling Well: Understanding Family Dynamics and the Psychological Adjustment of Chinese Immigrant Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qin, Desiree Baolian

    2008-01-01

    Despite their average high levels of educational achievement, Asian American students often report poor psychological and social adjustment, suggesting an achievement/adjustment paradox. Yet, the reasons for this paradox remain unclear. Drawing on 5-year longitudinal qualitative interview data, this paper compares the family dynamics of two groups…

  18. Healthcare Reform and Preparing the Future Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology Workforce.

    PubMed

    Janicke, David M; Fritz, Alyssa M; Rozensky, Ronald H

    2015-01-01

    The healthcare environment is undergoing important changes for both patients and providers, in part due to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). Ultimately the healthcare delivery system will function very differently by the end of this decade. These changes will have important implications for the education, training, scientific inquiry, and practice of clinical child and adolescent psychologists. In this article we provide a brief description of the fundamental features of the ACA, with a specific focus on critical components of the act that have important, specific implications for clinical child and adolescents psychologists. We then provide recommendations to help position our field to thrive in the evolving healthcare environment to help facilitate further awareness and promote discussion of both challenges and opportunities that face our field in this evolving health care environment. PMID:26158589

  19. Determinants of early alcohol use in healthy adolescents: the differential contribution of neuroimaging and psychological factors.

    PubMed

    Nees, Frauke; Tzschoppe, Jelka; Patrick, Christopher J; Vollstädt-Klein, Sabine; Steiner, Sabina; Poustka, Luise; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia J; Garavan, Hugh; Heinz, Andreas; Gallinat, Jürgen; Lathrop, Mark; Mann, Karl; Artiges, Eric; Paus, Tomas; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Robbins, Trevor W; Rietschel, Marcella; Smolka, Michael N; Spanagel, Rainer; Struve, Maren; Loth, Eva; Schumann, Gunter; Flor, Herta

    2012-03-01

    Individual variation in reward sensitivity may have an important role in early substance use and subsequent development of substance abuse. This may be especially important during adolescence, a transition period marked by approach behavior and a propensity toward risk taking, novelty seeking and alteration of the social landscape. However, little is known about the relative contribution of personality, behavior, and brain responses for prediction of alcohol use in adolescents. In this study, we applied factor analyses and structural equation modeling to reward-related brain responses assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging during a monetary incentive delay task. In addition, novelty seeking, sensation seeking, impulsivity, extraversion, and behavioral measures of risk taking were entered as predictors of early onset of drinking in a sample of 14-year-old healthy adolescents (N=324). Reward-associated behavior, personality, and brain responses all contributed to alcohol intake with personality explaining a higher proportion of the variance than behavior and brain responses. When only the ventral striatum was used, a small non-significant contribution to the prediction of early alcohol use was found. These data suggest that the role of reward-related brain activation may be more important in addiction than initiation of early drinking, where personality traits and reward-related behaviors were more significant. With up to 26% of explained variance, the interrelation of reward-related personality traits, behavior, and neural response patterns may convey risk for later alcohol abuse in adolescence, and thus may be identified as a vulnerability factor for the development of substance use disorders. PMID:22113088

  20. Psychological health and academic success in rural Appalachian adolescents exposed to physical and sexual interpersonal violence.

    PubMed

    Martz, Denise M; Jameson, John Paul; Page, Amy Dellinger

    2016-01-01

    Interpersonal violence (IPV) in adolescence is a serious public health concern and may have lasting behavioral effects and implications for adult relationships. Adolescents from 2 rural Appalachian high schools in 2011/2012 were surveyed using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Youth Risk Behavioral Surveillance (YRBS) survey, which assessed (a) physical IPV within a dating relationship, (b) sexual IPV (defined as forced sex/rape), and (c) those who experienced both. We present baseline rates of each form of IPV for these rural male and female adolescents and assessed the strength and statistical significance of these associations between physical and sexual IPV and other risk factors using χ2 tests and relative risk ratios. Results suggested that each form of IPV was associated with greater risk for depression and suicidal behaviors, substance use, risky sexual behaviors for both sexes, and lower academic grades for females. Relative risk ratios tended to be more robust and statistically significant for females compared with males on most risk behaviors. Furthermore, victimization for both forms of IPV was more pernicious for these students than either form of IPV alone. We discuss the implications of these results for students, parents, school personnel, and mental health providers in these communities. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27148751

  1. Examining Impacts of Allergic Diseases on Psychological Problems and Tobacco Use in Korean Adolescents: The 2008–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Yoon Hong; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yong-Gyu; Yoon, Jong-seo; Kim, Hyun Hee; Kim, Jin Tack; Jeong, Dae Chul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Asthma during adolescence can induce social, psychological, and behavioral problems. We examined the impact of asthma and other allergic diseases on psychological symptoms and health risk behaviors among South Korean adolescents. Methods In this population-based cross-sectional study, 3192 adolescents (10–18 years of age) participating in the 2008–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were enrolled. Psychological problems associated with clinically diagnosed asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis were assessed using questionnaires and surveys. Data was analyzed using logistic regression to determine the association of depression with allergic disease while controlling for age, sex, body mass index, smoking experience, and alcohol use. Results Asthma and atopic dermatitis were associated with a higher prevalence of depression (17.2% and 13%, respectively). After adjusting for the covariates, asthma patients were approximately two times as likely to have depression as non-allergic participants (odds ratio, 1.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.22–2.68). Psychosocial stress significantly increased in the following order: no allergy, any allergy without asthma, asthma only, and asthma with any allergy (p for linear trend = 0.01). The asthma without other allergies group showed the highest prevalence of cigarette smoking (p = 0.007). Conclusions In this study, asthma with or without other allergies was significantly related to increases in depression, psychosocial stress, and smoking experience. Thus, care should be taken to adjust treatment to account for the psychological symptoms and health risk behaviors common among asthmatic adolescents. PMID:25897790

  2. “Bad Romance”: Links between Psychological and Physical Aggression and Relationship Functioning in Adolescent Couples

    PubMed Central

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Burk, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Assortative mating is an important issue in explaining antisocial, aggressive behavior. It is yet unclear, whether the similarity paradigm fully explains frequent displays of aggression in adolescents’ romantic relationships. In a sample of 194 romantic partner dyads, differences between female and male partners’ reports of aggression (psychological and physical) and different measures of relationship functioning (e.g., jealousy, conflicts, and the affiliative and romantic quality of the relationship) were assessed. A hierarchical cluster analysis identified five distinct subgroups of dyads based on male and female reports of psychological and physical aggression: nonaggressive couples, couples with higher perceived aggressiveness (both physical and psychological) by females, couples with higher aggressiveness perceived by males and mutually aggressive couples. A substantial number of non-aggressive dyads emerged. Of note was the high number of females showing one-sided aggression, which was, however, not countered by their partner. The mutually aggressive couples showed the least adaptive relationship functioning, with a lack of supportive, trusting relationship qualities, high conflict rates and high jealousy. The discussion focuses on the different functions of aggression in these early romantic relations, and the aggravating impact of mutual aggression on relationship functioning and its potential antisocial outcomes. PMID:26067515

  3. Adolescent Social Defeat Induced Alterations in Social Behavior and Cognitive Flexibility in Adult Mice: Effects of Developmental Stage and Social Condition

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Yuan, Sanna; Shao, Feng; Wang, Weiwen

    2016-01-01

    Negative social experiences during adolescence increase the risk of psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Using “resident-intruder” stress, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of adolescent social defeat on emotional and cognitive symptoms associated with psychiatric disorders during adulthood and the effects of the developmental stage and social condition on this process. In Experiment 1, animals were exposed to social defeat or manipulation for 10 days during early adolescence (EA, postnatal days [PND] 28–37), late adolescence (LA, PND 38–47), and adulthood (ADULT, PND 70–79) and then singly housed until the behavioral tests. Behaviors, including social avoidance of the defeat context and cortically mediated cognitive flexibility in an attentional set-shifting task (AST), were assessed during the week following stress or after 6 weeks during adulthood. We determined that social defeat induced significant and continuous social avoidance across age groups at both time points. The mice that experienced social defeat during adulthood exhibited short-term impairments in reversal learning (RL) on the AST that dissipated after 6 weeks. In contrast, social defeat during EA but not LA induced a delayed deficit in extra-dimensional set-shifting (EDS) in adulthood but not during adolescence. In Experiment 2, we further examined the effects of social condition (isolation or social housing after stress) on the alterations induced by social defeat during EA in adult mice. The adult mice that had experienced stress during EA exhibited social avoidance similar to the avoidance identified in Experiment 1 regardless of the isolation or social housing after the stress. However, social housing after the stress ameliorated the cognitive flexibility deficits induced by early adolescent social defeat in the adult mice, and the social condition had no effect on cognitive function. These findings suggest that the effects of social defeat on emotion and cognitive

  4. Vegetarianism and eating disorders: association between eating attitudes and other psychological factors among Turkish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Baş, Murat; Karabudak, Efsun; Kiziltan, Gül

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether differences exist in eating attitudes, self-esteem, social trait anxiety and social physique anxiety of self-reported vegetarian and nonvegetarian Turkish adolescents. The sample for the Turkish University' students is designed to provide the estimates of vegetarian indicators and prevalence. The participants were 608 females and 597 males, in total 1205 adolescents aged between 17 and 21 years. Disturbed eating behaviors (EAT-26> or =20) was found in 45.2% (14 of vegetarian) of the total vegetarian sample; which included two of the male vegetarians and 12 of the female vegetarians. The mean BMI was 19.78+/-1.49 kg/m(2) for female vegetarians and 20.78+/-2.46 kg/m(2) for female nonvegetarians (p<0.05). Male vegetarians had significantly higher score than male nonvegetarians on EAT-26 (17.25+/-11.18 for male vegetarians and 9.38+/-6.60 for male nonvegetarians), dieting (6.50+/-7.65 for male vegetarians and 2.55+/-3.87 for male nonvegetarians) and oral control (6.13+/-4.67 for male vegetarians and 3.20+/-3.19 for male nonvegetarians) scores (p<0.05). Besides, female vegetarians had significantly higher score than female nonvegetarians on EAT-26 (22.04+/-13.62 for female vegetarians and 11.38+/-8.28 for female nonvegetarians), dieting (10.35+/-9.58 for female vegetarians and 4.41+/-5.30 for female nonvegetarians), oral control (7.78+/-5.13 for female vegetarians and 3.33+/-3.51 for female nonvegetarians) and STAI (51.39+/-7.28 for female vegetarians and 47.29+/-5.13 for female nonvegetarians) scores (p<0.05). As a conclusion, the present study indicated abnormal eating attitudes, low self-esteem, high social physique anxiety, and high trait anxiety in Turkish vegetarian adolescents. The vegetarian adolescents may be more likely to display disordered eating attitudes and behaviors than nonvegetarians. PMID:15927731

  5. Psychological treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Rosa-Alcázar, Ana I; Sánchez-Meca, Julio; Rosa-Alcázar, Ángel; Iniesta-Sepúlveda, Marina; Olivares-Rodríguez, José; Parada-Navas, José L

    2015-01-01

    Although several meta-analyses have investigated the efficacy of psychological treatments for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), there is not yet a consensus on the most efficacious treatment components. A meta-analysis was carried out to examine the efficacy of the different treatment techniques used in the psychological interventions of pediatric OCD. An exhaustive literature search from 1983 to February 2014 enabled us to locate 46 published articles that applied some kind of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). For each group the effect size was the standardized pretest-posttest mean change, and it was calculated for obsessive-compulsive symptoms and for other outcome measures. The results clearly showed large effect sizes for CBT in reducing obsessive-compulsive symptoms and, to a lesser extent, other outcome measures (d + = 1.860; 95% CI: 1.639; 2.081). The most promising treatments are those based on multicomponent programs comprising ERP, cognitive strategies, and relapse prevention. The analysis of other potential moderator variables and the implications for clinical practice are discussed. PMID:25901842

  6. An Adolescent with Bestiality Behaviour: Psychological Evaluation and Community Health Concerns.

    PubMed

    Satapathy, Sujata; Swain, Rajanikanta; Pandey, Vidhi; Behera, Chittaranjan

    2016-01-01

    Bestiality is a serious but less commonly reported form of animal cruelty occurring in a society. It is a punishable sexual offence in India. Bestiality has received little attention in recent psychiatric literature, and even though case reports have been published, an elaborate psychological assessment is often missing. This case report of 18 year old male presented here highlighted the importance of psychological assessment to emphasize on its implications for the further risk assessment of the person, family psycho-education and non-pharmacological intervention for bestialists. The overall assessment suggested of absence of any brain dysfunction and active psychopathology, average intelligence (IQ) and intact cognitive functioning. The findings portrayed physical and sexual inadequacies, emotional and sexual immaturity, difficulty in emotional attachment, internalized hostility, voyeuristic tendencies and infantile social behaviour, excitement seeker, inability to delay gratification of impulses, lacks empathy, poor self-discipline, less conscientiousness and less sensitive to criticism. The report also emphasized the role of child sexual abuse on sexual behavior later life. The importance of including the topic within the community health/sexual and reproductive health education programmes was highlighted. PMID:26917869

  7. An Adolescent with Bestiality Behaviour: Psychological Evaluation and Community Health Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Satapathy, Sujata; Swain, Rajanikanta; Pandey, Vidhi; Behera, Chittaranjan

    2016-01-01

    Bestiality is a serious but less commonly reported form of animal cruelty occurring in a society. It is a punishable sexual offence in India. Bestiality has received little attention in recent psychiatric literature, and even though case reports have been published, an elaborate psychological assessment is often missing. This case report of 18 year old male presented here highlighted the importance of psychological assessment to emphasize on its implications for the further risk assessment of the person, family psycho-education and non-pharmacological intervention for bestialists. The overall assessment suggested of absence of any brain dysfunction and active psychopathology, average intelligence (IQ) and intact cognitive functioning. The findings portrayed physical and sexual inadequacies, emotional and sexual immaturity, difficulty in emotional attachment, internalized hostility, voyeuristic tendencies and infantile social behaviour, excitement seeker, inability to delay gratification of impulses, lacks empathy, poor self-discipline, less conscientiousness and less sensitive to criticism. The report also emphasized the role of child sexual abuse on sexual behavior later life. The importance of including the topic within the community health/sexual and reproductive health education programmes was highlighted. PMID:26917869

  8. Association of biological, psychological and lifestyle risk factors for eating disturbances in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Teresa; Espinoza, Paola; Penelo, Eva; Mora, Marisol; González, Marcela L; Rosés, Rocío; Raich, Rosa M

    2015-06-01

    We aimed to assess the association of several risk factors for eating disturbances in adolescents. Participants were 448 girls and boys aged 12-15 years. Being female, higher body mass index, internalisation of standard of appearance, perfectionism, body dissatisfaction, number of lifetime addictive behaviours and lower self-esteem were associated with higher eating disturbance scores, whereas frequency of sedentary behaviours and physical activity were not (R(2) ⩾ 41%). Findings suggest the need to guide prevention efforts towards the broad spectrum of individual potentially modifiable factors. A non-specific comprehensive perspective may be adequate to prevent problems related to weight, body image and drug use. PMID:26032800

  9. Perception of weight and psychological variables in a sample of Spanish adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio; Bolaños-Ríos, Patricia; Santiago-Fernández, María José; Garrido-Casals, Olivia; Sánchez, Elsa

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study explored the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and weight perception, self-esteem, positive body image, food beliefs, and mental health status, along with any gender differences in weight perception, in a sample of adolescents in Spain. Methods: The sample comprised 85 students (53 females and 32 males, mean age 17.4 ± 5.5 years) with no psychiatric history who were recruited from a high school in Écija, Seville. Weight and height were recorded for all participants, who were then classified according to whether they perceived themselves as slightly overweight, very overweight, very underweight, slightly underweight, or about the right weight, using the question “How do you think of yourself in terms of weight?”. Finally, a series of questionnaires were administered, including the Irrational Food Beliefs Scale, Body Appreciation Scale, Self Esteem Scale, and General Health Questionnaire. Results: Overall, 23.5% of participants misperceived their weight. Taking into account only those with a normal BMI (percentile 5–85), there was a significant gender difference with respect to those who perceived themselves as overweight (slightly overweight and very overweight); 13.9% of females and 7.9% of males perceived themselves as overweight (χ2 = 3.957, P < 0.05). There was a significant difference for age, with participants who perceived their weight adequately being of mean age 16.34 ± 3.17 years and those who misperceived their weight being of mean age 18.50 ± 4.02 years (F = 3.112, P < 0.05). Conclusion: Misperception of overweight seems to be more frequent in female adolescents, and mainly among older ones. Misperception of being overweight is associated with a less positive body image, and the perception of being very underweight is associated with higher scores for general psychopathology. PMID:21792323

  10. Children and adolescents with complex regional pain syndrome: More psychologically distressed than other children in pain?

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Deirdre E; Williams, Sara E; Carullo, Veronica P; Claar, Robyn Lewis; Bruehl, Stephen; Berde, Charles B

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Historically, in both adult and pediatric populations, a lack of knowledge regarding complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and absence of clear diagnostic criteria have contributed to the view that this is a primarily psychiatric condition. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that children with CRPS are more functionally disabled, have more pain and are more psychologically distressed than children with other pain conditions. METHODS: A total of 101 children evaluated in a tertiary care pediatric pain clinic who met the International Association for the Study of Pain consensus diagnostic criteria for CRPS participated in the present retrospective study. Comparison groups included 103 children with abdominal pain, 291 with headache and 119 with back pain. Children and parents completed self-report questionnaires assessing disability, somatization, pain coping, depression, anxiety and school attendance. RESULTS: Children with CRPS reported higher pain intensity and more recent onset of pain at the initial tertiary pain clinic evaluation compared with children with other chronic pain conditions. They reported greater functional disability and more somatic symptoms than children with headaches or back pain. Scores on measures of depression and anxiety were within normal limits and similar to those of children in other pain diagnostic groups. CONCLUSIONS: As a group, clinic-referred children with CRPS may be more functionally impaired and experience more somatic symptoms compared with children with other pain conditions. However, overall psychological functioning as assessed by self-report appears to be similar to that of children with other chronic pain diagnoses. Comprehensive assessment using a biopsychosocial framework is essential to understanding and appropriately treating children with symptoms of CRPS. PMID:23662291

  11. Flexible Literacies, Cultural Crossings and Global Identities: Three Singaporean Adolescent Boys' Reading and Identity Practices' in a Globalized World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Chin Ee

    2010-01-01

    This case examines the reading and identity practices of three highly literate adolescent boys from an elite all-boys school in Singapore, focusing on how they constructed their identities as global and local citizens through their reading practices. There have not been any studies examining the reading and identity practices of adolescent boys…

  12. Like Circles on the Water: A Study of Adolescent Identity. Linkoping Studies in Education and Psychology, No. 62.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Lena

    This thesis explores the subject of identity development during late adolescence by analyzing research from three studies: "Self-concept and questions of life: Identity development during late adolescence" (Adamson and Lyxell, 1996); "Adolescent identity--a qualitative approach: Self-concept, existential questions and adult contacts" (Adamson and…

  13. Flexible Lifestyles for Youth (FL3X) behavioural intervention for at-risk adolescents with Type 1 diabetes: a randomized pilot and feasibility trial

    PubMed Central

    Mayer-Davis, E. J.; Seid, M.; Crandell, J.; Dolan, L.; Lagarde, W. H.; Letourneau, L.; Maahs, D. M.; Marcovina, S.; Nachreiner, J.; Standiford, D.; Thomas, J.; Wysocki, T.

    2014-01-01

    Aim To determine the potential effect sizes for the Flexible Lifestyle for Youth (FL3X) behavioural intervention to improve glycaemic control (HbA1c) and quality of life for at-risk adolescents with Type 1 diabetes. Methods Participants [n=61; age 12–16 years, HbA1c 64–119 mmol/mol (8–13%)] were randomized to FL3X (minimum three sessions) or usual care. Effect sizes (Cohen’s d), comparing the mean difference between the groups, were calculated. Results Study retention (95%), attendance at intervention sessions (87% attended all three sessions) and acceptability were high (100% of the adolescents and 91% of parents would recommend the programme to others). Overall, 41% of participants in the intervention group and 24% of participants in the control group were ‘responders’ [HbA1c decreased by > 6 mmol/mol (0.5%); d=0.37]. HbA1c levels decreased (d= −0.18), diabetes-specific quality of life increased (d=0.29), but generic quality of life decreased (d= −0.23) in the intervention compared with the control group. Conclusions The FL3X programme merits further study for improving HbA1c and diabetes-specific quality of life in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes. PMID:25424501

  14. Psychological and behavioral interventions to reduce HIV risk: evidence from a randomized control trial among orphaned and vulnerable adolescents in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Thurman, T R; Kidman, R; Carton, T W; Chiroro, P

    2016-01-01

    Evidence-based approaches are needed to address the high levels of sexual risk behavior and associated HIV infection among orphaned and vulnerable adolescents. This study recruited adolescents from a support program for HIV-affected families and randomly assigned them by cluster to receive one of the following: (1) a structured group-based behavioral health intervention; (2) interpersonal psychotherapy group sessions; (3) both interventions; or (4) no new interventions. With 95% retention, 1014 adolescents were interviewed three times over a 22-month period. Intent-to-treat analyses, applying multivariate difference-in-difference probit regressions, were performed separately for boys and girls to assess intervention impacts on sexual risk behaviors. Exposure to a single intervention did not impact behaviors. Exposure to both interventions was associated with risk-reduction behaviors, but the outcomes varied by gender: boys reported fewer risky sexual partnerships (β = -.48, p = .05) and girls reported more consistent condom (β = 1.37, p = .02). There was no difference in the likelihood of sexual debut for either gender. Providing both psychological and behavioral interventions resulted in long-term changes in sexual behavior that were not present when either intervention was provided in isolation. Multifaceted approaches for reducing sexual risk behaviors among vulnerable adolescents hold significant promise for mitigating the HIV epidemic among this priority population. PMID:26886261

  15. Psychological and behavioral interventions to reduce HIV risk: evidence from a randomized control trial among orphaned and vulnerable adolescents in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Thurman, T. R.; Kidman, R.; Carton, T. W.; Chiroro, P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Evidence-based approaches are needed to address the high levels of sexual risk behavior and associated HIV infection among orphaned and vulnerable adolescents. This study recruited adolescents from a support program for HIV-affected families and randomly assigned them by cluster to receive one of the following: (1) a structured group-based behavioral health intervention; (2) interpersonal psychotherapy group sessions; (3) both interventions; or (4) no new interventions. With 95% retention, 1014 adolescents were interviewed three times over a 22-month period. Intent-to-treat analyses, applying multivariate difference-in-difference probit regressions, were performed separately for boys and girls to assess intervention impacts on sexual risk behaviors. Exposure to a single intervention did not impact behaviors. Exposure to both interventions was associated with risk-reduction behaviors, but the outcomes varied by gender: boys reported fewer risky sexual partnerships (β = −.48, p = .05) and girls reported more consistent condom (β = 1.37, p = .02). There was no difference in the likelihood of sexual debut for either gender. Providing both psychological and behavioral interventions resulted in long-term changes in sexual behavior that were not present when either intervention was provided in isolation. Multifaceted approaches for reducing sexual risk behaviors among vulnerable adolescents hold significant promise for mitigating the HIV epidemic among this priority population. PMID:26886261

  16. Maternal and Paternal Psychological Control as Moderators of the Link between Peer Attitudes and Adolescents' Risky Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Hessel, Elenda T.; Szwedo, David E.; Spilker, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Maternal and paternal psychological control, peer attitudes, and the interaction of psychological control and peer attitudes at age 13 were examined as predictors of risky sexual behavior before age 16 in a community sample of 181 youth followed from age 13 to 16. Maternal psychological control moderated the link between peer attitudes and sexual…

  17. A pilot analysis of the psychological themes found during the CARING at Columbia--Music Therapy program with refugee adolescents from North Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Carolyn Mi Hwan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the psychological themes found during the modified CARING at Columbia-Music Therapy (CAC-MT) program with refugee adolescents from North Korea. Nine students attending an alternative school participated in this study. Academically, students belong to an equivalent middle school level. Students participated in a music therapy program comprised of 25 sessions. A multiple case analysis was conducted to gather qualitative results. Students were found to be exposed to various psychosocially stressful life situations such as lack of social support system, family separation, academic difficulty, and economic hardship throughout their adaptation process to their new country. There were 5 common psychological themes--avoidance, distrust, loneliness, feelings of loss, and fear--found among the refugee students over the course of the CAC-MT treatment. For future research, studies with a larger sample size and differing types of session structure should be conducted to closely examine the effects of this program on refugee adolescents. PMID:21488604

  18. Adolescents-Family Connectedness: A First Cross-Cultural Research on Parenting and Psychological Adjustment of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwairy, Marwan; Achoui, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Connectedness between children and their family is a major factor that distinguishes between collective and individualistic cultures. The "Multigenerational Interconnectedness Scale", measuring adolescents-family connectedness was administered to adolescents in nine western and eastern countries. The findings show that connectedness in eastern…

  19. Psychological Distress for African-American Adolescent Males: Exposure to Community Violence and Social Support as Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxton, Keisha Carr; Robinson, W. LaVome; Shah, Seema; Schoeny, Michael E.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined exposure to community violence and depressive and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms within a non-random sample of low-income, African-American male adolescents. The moderating effect of social support on these relationships was also examined. Seventy-seven African-American adolescent males were recruited from an…

  20. Pathways between Interparental Conflict and Adolescent Psychological Adjustment: Bridging Links through Children's Cognitive Appraisals and Coping Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Katherine H.; Harold, Gordon T.

    2008-01-01

    Using a three-wave longitudinal design, the present study examined adolescents' cognitive appraisals and coping strategies following exposure to interparental conflict and their long-term symptoms of emotional and behavioral distress. Participants were 252 adolescents (122 boys, 130 girls; ages 11 to 12 years in the 1st year of the study), their…

  1. Psychological Distress as a Mediator of the Relation between Perceived Maternal Parenting and Normative Maladaptive Eating among Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blodgett Salafia, Elizabeth H.; Gondoli, Dawn M.; Corning, Alexandra F.; McEnery, Amanda M.; Grundy, Amber M.

    2007-01-01

    Burgeoning research on the adolescent (e.g., middle-school) years suggests that this is a particularly vulnerable period for the development of maladaptive eating patterns. Prior research has established a link between perceptions of maternal parenting practices and adolescent onset of problematic eating behaviors. The authors hypothesized that…

  2. Integrating Mixed Method Data in Psychological Research: Combining Q Methodology and Questionnaires in a Study Investigating Cultural and Psychological Influences on Adolescent Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, Anke; Worrell, Marcia; Vögele, Claus

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, combining quantitative and qualitative research methods in the same study has become increasingly acceptable in both applied and academic psychological research. However, a difficulty for many mixed methods researchers is how to integrate findings consistently. The value of using a coherent framework throughout the research…

  3. Lower Psychological Well-Being and Excessive Sexual Interest Predict Symptoms of Compulsive Use of Sexually Explicit Internet Material Among Adolescent Boys.

    PubMed

    Doornwaard, Suzan M; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Baams, Laura; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; ter Bogt, Tom F M

    2016-01-01

    Although a growing body of literature addresses the effects of young people's use of sexually explicit Internet material, research on the compulsive use of this type of online content among adolescents and its associated factors is largely lacking. This study investigated whether factors from three distinct psychosocial domains (i.e., psychological well-being, sexual interests/behaviors, and impulsive-psychopathic personality) predicted symptoms of compulsive use of sexually explicit Internet material among adolescent boys. Links between psychosocial factors and boys' compulsive use symptoms were analyzed both cross-sectionally and longitudinally with compulsive use symptoms measured 6 months later (T2). Data were used from 331 Dutch boys (M age = 15.16 years, range 11-17) who indicated that they used sexually explicit Internet material. The results from negative binomial regression analyses indicated that lower levels of global self-esteem and higher levels of excessive sexual interest concurrently predicted boys' symptoms of compulsive use of sexually explicit Internet material. Longitudinally, higher levels of depressive feelings and, again, excessive sexual interest predicted relative increases in compulsive use symptoms 6 months later. Impulsive and psychopathic personality traits were not uniquely related to boys' symptoms of compulsive use of sexually explicit Internet material. Our findings, while preliminary, suggest that both psychological well-being factors and sexual interests/behaviors are involved in the development of compulsive use of sexually explicit Internet material among adolescent boys. Such knowledge is important for prevention and intervention efforts that target the needs of specific problematic users of sexually explicit Internet material. PMID:26208829

  4. Effortful control as predictor of adolescents' psychological and physiological responses to a social stress test: the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey.

    PubMed

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Hartman, Catharina A; Nederhof, Esther; Riese, Harriëtte; Ormel, Johan

    2011-05-01

    Effortful control is thought to foster adaptive action in defensive contexts and may thereby protect individuals against anxious inhibition and focus on their own distress. We examined if effortful control predicted adolescents' perceived arousal, unpleasantness, and control as well as autonomic (heart rate [HR]) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (cortisol) responses during social stress. The data came from a focus sample of the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey, a prospective population study of Dutch adolescents (N = 715, 50.9% girls; mean age = 16.11, SD = 0.59), who participated in a laboratory session including a social stress task (public speaking and mental arithmetic). Perceived and physiological stress measures were assessed before, during, and after the social stress task. Effortful control was measured using various questionnaires and informants, as well as by means of a reaction time (RT) task assessing response inhibition. Overall, adolescents with high questionnaire-based effortful control tended to feel more relaxed, pleasant, and in control during the laboratory session than adolescents with lower levels of control and had stronger HR responses to the stress test. Adolescent girls with high inhibitory control as measured by the RT task also had strong HR responses, but inhibitory control was associated with high rather than low perceived arousal. Our results suggest that both questionnaire and RT measures of effortful control predict strong HR responses to challenging situations, but associational patterns diverge with regard to perceived stress measures. PMID:23786703

  5. “You need to get them where they feel it”: Conflicting Perspectives on How to Maximize the Structure of Text-Message Psychological Interventions for Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ranney, Megan L.; Thorsen, Margaret; Patena, John V.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Boyer, Edward W.; Walton, Maureen A.; Spirito, Anthony; Zatzick, Douglas F.; Morrow, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Mobile psychological interventions are of growing interest, particularly for populations with little access to traditional mental health services. Optimum structural components of these interventions are unknown. In this study, twenty-one adolescents (age 13-17) with past two week depressive symptoms were recruited from the emergency department to participate in a semi-structured interview, to inform development of a text-message-based depression prevention intervention. Teens expressed conflict about intervention structure. Although trust and reliability were essential to sustain engagement, teens disagreed about how to best maintain reliability; whether the program should be “pushed” or “pulled”; and what the ideal degree of human interaction would be. These findings highlight the challenges in automating psychological interventions that are normally delivered face-to-face. Data indicate a broad desire for developing tailoring methods for system design (duration, frequency, and level of interactivity). The paper closes with thoughts about potential solutions to these structural issues for mobile psychological interventions. PMID:26640419

  6. Validation of the internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4) and its link to academic performance and psychological adjustment among Asian American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hyung Chol; Miller, Matthew J; Yip, Pansy

    2015-04-01

    There is limited research examining psychological correlates of a uniquely racialized experience of the model minority stereotype faced by Asian Americans. The present study examined the factor structure and fit of the only published measure of the internalization of the model minority myth, the Internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4; Yoo et al., 2010), with a sample of 155 Asian American high school adolescents. We also examined the link between internalization of the model minority myth types (i.e., myth associated with achievement and myth associated with unrestricted mobility) and psychological adjustment (i.e., affective distress, somatic distress, performance difficulty, academic expectations stress), and the potential moderating effect of academic performance (cumulative grade point average). Results suggested the 2-factor model of the IM-4 had an acceptable fit to the data and supported the factor structure using confirmatory factor analyses. Internalizing the model minority myth of achievement related positively to academic expectations stress; however, internalizing the model minority myth of unrestricted mobility related negatively to academic expectations stress, both controlling for gender and academic performance. Finally, academic performance moderated the model minority myth associated with unrestricted mobility and affective distress link and the model minority myth associated with achievement and performance difficulty link. These findings highlight the complex ways in which the model minority myth relates to psychological outcomes. PMID:25198414

  7. An Investigation of the Relationship between Psychological Strengths and the Perception of Bullying in Early Adolescents in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Chris G.; Rawana, Edward P.; Brownlee, Keith; Whitley, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the association between psychological strengths and perceptions of being a victim of a bullying relationship in the school environment. Using self-report questionnaires with grades 7 and 8 students, the role of psychological strengths as potential protective factors against various forms of bullying were examined including the…

  8. The Role of Parents' Control in Early Adolescents' Psychological Functioning: A Longitudinal Investigation in the United States and China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qian; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Chen, Huichang

    2007-01-01

    This research compared the effects over time of parents' control and autonomy support on children's functioning in the United States and China. American and Chinese (N = 806) seventh graders (mean age = 12.73 years) participated in a 6-month longitudinal study. Children reported on their parents' psychological control, psychological autonomy…

  9. The Scope of Sexual, Physical, and Psychological Abuse in a Bedouin-Arab Community of Female Adolescents: The Interplay of Racism, Urbanization, Polygamy, Family Honor, and the Social Marginalization of Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbedour, Salman; Abu-Bader, Soleman; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Abu-Rabia, Aref; El-Aassam, Salman

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: This is an exploratory study of the abuse--especially sexual--of female adolescents in a conservative and traditional Bedouin-Arab community in southern Israel. The objectives were (1) to examine the rate of sexual abuse, (2) to examine the rate of physical and psychological abuse, and (3) to develop regression models to predict these…

  10. Direct and indirect effects of caregiver social support on adolescent psychological outcomes in two South African AIDS-affected communities

    PubMed Central

    Casale, Marisa; Cluver, Lucie; Crankshaw, Tamaryn; Kuo, Caroline; Lachman, Jamie M.; Wild, Lauren G.

    2015-01-01

    Caregiver social support has been shown to be protective for caregiver mental health, parenting and child psychosocial outcomes. This is the first known analysis to quantitatively investigate the relationship between caregiver social support and adolescent psychosocial outcomes in HIV-endemic, resource-scarce Southern African communities. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted over 2009-2010 with 2477 South African adolescents aged 10-17 and their adult caregivers (18 years or older) in one urban and one rural community in South Africa’s KwaZulu-Natal province. Adolescent adjustment was assessed using adult caregiver reports of the Strengths and Difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), which measures peer problems, hyperactivity, conduct problems, emotional symptoms and child prosocial behavior. Hierarchical linear regressions and multiple mediation analyses, using bootstrapping procedures, were conducted to assess for: a) direct effects of more caregiver social support on better adolescent psychosocial wellbeing; and b) indirect effects mediated by better parenting and caregiver mental health. Direct associations (p<.001), and indirect associations mediated through better parenting, were found for all adolescent outcomes. Findings reinforce the importance of social support components within parenting interventions but also point to scope for positive intervention on adolescent psychosocial wellbeing through the broader family social network. PMID:25623784

  11. Direct and Indirect Effects of Caregiver Social Support on Adolescent Psychological Outcomes in Two South African AIDS-Affected Communities.

    PubMed

    Casale, Marisa; Cluver, Lucie; Crankshaw, Tamaryn; Kuo, Caroline; Lachman, Jamie M; Wild, Lauren G

    2015-06-01

    Caregiver social support has been shown to be protective for caregiver mental health, parenting and child psychosocial outcomes. This is the first known analysis to quantitatively investigate the relationship between caregiver social support and adolescent psychosocial outcomes in HIV-endemic, resource-scarce Southern African communities. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted over 2009-2010 with 2,477 South African adolescents aged 10-17 and their adult caregivers (18 years or older) in one urban and one rural community in South Africa's KwaZulu-Natal province. Adolescent adjustment was assessed using adult caregiver reports of the Strengths and Difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), which measures peer problems, hyperactivity, conduct problems, emotional symptoms and child prosocial behavior. Hierarchical linear regressions and multiple mediation analyses, using bootstrapping procedures, were conducted to assess for: (a) direct effects of more caregiver social support on better adolescent psychosocial wellbeing; and (b) indirect effects mediated by better parenting and caregiver mental health. Direct associations (p < .001), and indirect associations mediated through better parenting, were found for all adolescent outcomes. Findings reinforce the importance of social support components within parenting interventions but also point to scope for positive intervention on adolescent psychosocial wellbeing through the broader family social network. PMID:25623784

  12. Differences between children and adolescents who commit suicide and their peers: A psychological autopsy of suicide victims compared to accident victims and a community sample

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to gain knowledge about the circumstances related to suicide among children and adolescents 15 years and younger. Methods We conducted a psychological autopsy, collecting information from parents, hospital records and police reports on persons below the age of 16 who had committed suicide in Norway during a 12-year period (1993-2004) (n = 41). Those who committed suicide were compared with children and adolescents who were killed in accidents during the same time period (n = 43) and with a community sample. Results: Among the suicides 25% met the criteria for a psychiatric diagnosis and 30% had depressive symptoms at the time of death. Furthermore, 60% of the parents of the suicide victims reported the child experienced some kind of stressful conflict prior to death, whereas only 12% of the parents of the accident victims reported such conflicts. Conclusion One in four suicide victims fulfilled the criteria for a psychiatric diagnosis. The level of sub-threshold depression and of stressful conflict experienced by youths who committed suicide did not appear to differ substantially from that of their peers, and therefore did not raise sufficient concern for referral to professional help. PMID:22216948

  13. Effects of the Maytiv positive psychology school program on early adolescents' well-being, engagement, and achievement.

    PubMed

    Shoshani, Anat; Steinmetz, Sarit; Kanat-Maymon, Yaniv

    2016-08-01

    As positive psychology is a nascent area of research, there are very few empirical studies assessing the impact and sustained effects of positive psychology school interventions. The current study presents a 2-year longitudinal evaluation of the effects of a school-based positive psychology program on students' subjective well-being, school engagement, and academic achievements. The study investigated the effectiveness of the Maytiv school program using a positive psychology-based classroom-level intervention with 2517 seventh- to ninth-grade students in 70 classrooms, from six schools in the center of Israel. The classes were randomly assigned to intervention and control conditions, which were comparable in terms of students' age, gender, and socio-economic status. Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed positive intervention effects on positive emotions, peer relations, emotional engagement in school, cognitive engagement, and grade point average scores (Cohen's ds 0.16-0.71). In the control group, there were significant decreases in positive emotions and cognitive engagement, and no significant changes in peer relations, emotional engagement or school achievements. These findings demonstrate the significant socio-emotional and academic benefits of incorporating components of positive psychology into school curricula. PMID:27425567

  14. Excess heart rate and systolic blood pressure during psychological stress in relation to metabolic demand in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lambiase, Maya J; Dorn, Joan; Chernega, Nicholas J; McCarthy, Thomas F; Roemmich, James N

    2012-09-01

    Cardiovascular responses during exercise are matched to the increased metabolic demand, but this may not be the case during psychological stress. No studies to date have tested this hypothesis in youth. Fifty-four youth, ages 13-16 years completed two visits. Heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and oxygen (O(2)) consumption were measured during a graded exercise test on one day and during psychological stress reactivity (star tracing, speech) on another day. Predicted HR and SBP values during psychological stress were calculated based on HR-O(2) and SBP-O(2) relationships calculated during graded exercise. At a given O(2) consumption, actual HR was greater (p<0.02) than predicted for all stress tasks. Actual SBP was greater (p<0.001) than predicted for all stress tasks. This was the first study to demonstrate that cardiovascular responses were in excess of what would be expected based on metabolic demand in youth. PMID:22634388

  15. Young Women's Adolescent Experiences of Oral Sex: Relation of Age of Initiation to Sexual Motivation, Sexual Coercion, and Psychological Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fava, Nicole M.; Bay-Cheng, Laina Y.

    2012-01-01

    Research examining oral sex during adolescence tends to investigate only potential negative consequences without considering its place in sexual development or distinctions between cunnilingus and fellatio. Using retrospective reports from 418 undergraduate women, we examined the relations among young women's ages of initiation of both cunnilingus…

  16. The Impact of Acculturative Stress and Daily Hassles on Pre-Adolescent Psychological Adjustment: Examining Anxiety Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez-Morales, Lourdes; Lopez, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Acculturative stress in relation to anxiety symptoms has not been examined empirically in young Hispanic populations. The present study, conducted with 138 pre-adolescent Hispanic youngsters, investigated this relationship. The findings suggested that acculturative stress was related to physiological, concentration, and worrisome symptoms of…

  17. The Psychological Impact of Forced Displacement and Related Risk Factors on Eastern Congolese Adolescents Affected by War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mels, Cindy; Derluyn, Ilse; Broekaert, Eric; Rosseel, Yves

    2010-01-01

    Background: While the current knowledge base on the mental health effects of displacement is mainly limited to refugees residing in industrialised countries, this paper examines the impact of war-induced displacement and related risk factors on the mental health of Eastern Congolese adolescents, and compares currently internally displaced…

  18. Patterns of Adolescent Friendships, Psychological Adjustment and Antisocial Behavior: The Moderating Role of Family Stress and Friendship Reciprocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciairano, Silvia; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Roggero, Antonella; Bonino, Silvia; Beyers, Wim

    2007-01-01

    This study distinguishes different patterns of friendship quality in terms of support from and conflict with friends, and reciprocity. Associations between friendship patterns and adolescents' adjustment (self-perception, expectations for the future, depressive feelings, sense of alienation, lying, disobedience, and aggression) were hypothesized…

  19. Adolescent psychological and academic adjustment as a function of discrepancies between actual and ideal self-perceptions.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Gail M; Hafen, Christopher A; Laursen, Brett

    2010-12-01

    Actual-ideal discrepancies are associated with adolescent emotional distress and there is evidence that the size of discrepancies matters. However, the direction of discrepancies has not been examined, perhaps due to limitations of widely used self-discrepancy measures. Two hundred and twelve 7th, 9th and 11th grade students (59% female) in a public school in Jamaica described their actual and ideal selves in several different domains--friendship, dating, schoolwork, family, sports, and religion/spirituality--using a Pie measure. Students also completed measures of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and academic achievement. Discrepancies favoring the ideal self and those favoring the actual self were linked to depressive symptoms, low self-esteem, and poor school grades in the domains of friendship, dating, and schoolwork. Effects were stronger among older adolescents than among younger adolescents. Theories of actual/ideal self-discrepancies have focused on problems arising when the ideal self overshadows the actual self; however, the present study finds that self-discrepancies, regardless of their direction, are a liability. Implications for self-discrepancy measurement, adolescent development, and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:19830533

  20. Adolescent Psychological and Academic Adjustment as a Function of Discrepancies between Actual and Ideal Self-Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Gail M.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Laursen, Brett

    2010-01-01

    Actual-ideal discrepancies are associated with adolescent emotional distress and there is evidence that the size of discrepancies matters. However, the direction of discrepancies has not been examined, perhaps due to limitations of widely used self-discrepancy measures. Two hundred and twelve 7th, 9th and 11th grade students (59% female) in a…

  1. Psychological Adjustment among Israeli Adolescent Immigrants: A Report on Life Satisfaction, Self-Concept, and Self-Esteem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Chana; Tatar, Moshe

    2001-01-01

    Examined self-concept, self-esteem, and life satisfaction among 119 immigrants to Israel from the former Soviet Union and 135 Israeli classmates. Immigrant adolescents reported less satisfaction with their lives and less congruence between their self-concept and the ways in which they were perceived by others. (SLD)

  2. Neurodevelopmental and Psychological Assessment of Adolescents Born to Drug-Addicted Parents: Effects of SES and Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornoy, Asher; Daka, Lulu; Goldzweig, Gil; Gil, Yoni; Mjen, Ludmila; Levit, Shabtai; Shufman, Emi; Bar-Hamburger, Rachel; Greenbaum, Charles W.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Prenatal exposure to heroin may have long-term consequences for development during early and middle childhood. The present research studied the cognitive, social, and emotional functioning of adolescents exposed to drugs prenatally, and investigated the extent to which the early adoption of children exposed prenatally to drugs would…

  3. A Grounded Theory of the Social Psychological Process of Involving College Students in a Course on Adolescent Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarbrough, Jane Harper

    Data gathered through ethnographic observations of 25 college students in an adolescent literature course were used to develop a substantive grounded theory of the process of involving students in a class. In addition to observation of the class, data were collected through teacher and student interviews and from lesson plans, class handouts,…

  4. Culturally Informed and Flexible Family-Based Treatment for Adolescents: A Tailored and Integrative Treatment for Hispanic Youth

    PubMed Central

    Santisteban, Daniel; Mena, Maite P.

    2009-01-01

    The increasing utilization of evidence-based treatments has highlighted the need for interventions that are effective with Hispanic substance abusing youth and families. The list of evidence-based treatments is limited in its inclusion of interventions that are responsive to the unique characteristics and treatment needs of young Hispanics and that have been tested with this population. Some treatments that have been tested with Hispanics do not articulate the manner in which cultural characteristics and therapy processes interact. Other treatments have emphasized the important role of culture but have not been tested rigorously. The value of well designed interventions built upon an appreciation for unique patient characteristics was highlighted by Beutler et al.,1996 when they argued that “psychotherapy is comprised of a set of complex tasks, and practitioners need comprehensive knowledge of how different processes used in psychotherapy interact with patient characteristics in order to make treatment decisions that will maximize and optimize therapeutic power” (page 30). A focus on how treatment processes interact with patient characteristics is particularly relevant in the Hispanic population because of the considerable heterogeneity beneath the Hispanic umbrella. Our new program of clinical research focuses on articulating how the varied profiles with regard to immigration stressors, acculturation processes, values clashes, sense of belonging to the community, discrimination, and knowledge about issues important to adolescent health, can be more effectively addressed by a culturally informed treatment. PMID:19579908

  5. Life Satisfaction of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torgoff, Irving; And Others

    The feelings and perceptions of adolescents, apart from objective indices, warrent attention from those who are concerned with adolescent development and psychological stress. There is a need for a reliable baseline measure of adolescent subjective well-being, as manifested by self-reports of life satisfaction, to which future measurements can be…

  6. Excess heart rate and systolic blood pressure during psychological stress in relation to metabolic demand in adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cardiovascular responses during exercise are matched to the increased metabolic demand, but this may not be the case during psychological stress. No studies to date have tested this hypothesis in youth. Fifty-four youth, ages 13-16 years completed two visits. Heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressu...

  7. Relationship between Multiple Sources of Perceived Social Support and Psychological and Academic Adjustment in Early Adolescence: Comparisons across Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rueger, Sandra Yu; Malecki, Christine Kerres; Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated gender differences in the relationship between sources of perceived support (parent, teacher, classmate, friend, school) and psychological and academic adjustment in a sample of 636 (49% male) middle school students. Longitudinal data were collected at two time points in the same school year. The study provided…

  8. Psychological Inflexibility in Childhood and Adolescence: Development and Evaluation of the Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greco, Laurie A.; Lambert, Warren; Baer, Ruth A.

    2008-01-01

    The authors describe the development and validation of the Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth (AFQ-Y), a child-report measure of psychological inflexibility engendered by high levels of cognitive fusion and experiential avoidance. Consistent with the theory underlying acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), items converged into a…

  9. Levels of Psychological Distress Experienced by Family Carers of Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities in an Urban Conurbation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Eric; Robertson, Janet; Wood, Justin

    2004-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to identify factors associated with the level of psychological distress reported by family carers of children with intellectual disability living in a large urban conurbation. Method: Information was collected by postal questionnaire (or interview for family carers who did not have English as their…

  10. The Effects of Autonomy Support versus Psychological Control and Work Engagement versus Academic Burnout on Adolescents' Use of Avoidance Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Shu-Shen

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationships among Taiwanese ninth graders' perceptions of autonomy support versus psychological control in the classroom context, work engagement versus academic burnout, and their avoidance of help seeking as well as self-handicapping behaviors. Four hundred and thirty-five ninth-grade Taiwanese students completed a…

  11. Relationship of Weight-Based Teasing and Adolescents' Psychological Well-Being and Physical Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenleaf, Christy; Petrie, Trent A.; Martin, Scott B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: To date, research has focused primarily on psychological correlates of weight-based teasing. In this study, we extended previous work by also examining physical health-related variables (eg, physical self-concept and physical fitness [PF]). Methods: Participants included 1419 middle school students (637 boys and 782 girls). Of these,…

  12. Adolescent contraceptive risk-taking behavior: a social psychological model of females' use of and compliance with birth control.

    PubMed

    Durant, R H; Sanders Jm; Jay, S; Levinson, R

    1990-01-01

    Assuming that contraceptives are readily available and affordable to most adolescents, but that insufficient contraceptive use and high pregnancy rates stem from adolescent female risk-taking, a multivariate model of adolescent female contraceptive risk-taking behavior is described. Derived from behavioral science theory and empirical research, the model postulates direct and indirect associations between relevant variables. It also assumes behavior is comprised of deciding to initiate birth control, choosing a contraceptive method, complying with the method, and deciding to change methods or discontinue birth control. Premarital sexual standards and experiences, length of sexual relationship, religiosity and traditional values, and physical and sexual development are discussed as variables that directly affect the frequency of sexual intercourse. The frequency of sexual intercourse and perceived risk of pregnancy, and the perceived probability of pregnancy and outcome experiences of sexual activity are also examined. Variables that mediate the impact of coital frequency on contraceptive risk-taking include the cognitive assessment of pregnancy and contraception, support by significant others, personality development, and experience with contraceptives. Empirical tests of the model are discussed. PMID:12317634

  13. Adolescents' Viewing of Suicide-Related Web Content and Psychological Problems: Differentiating the Roles of Cyberbullying Involvement.

    PubMed

    Görzig, Anke

    2016-08-01

    Possible links of cyberbullying with suicide and psychological problems have recently received considerable attention. Suicide-related behaviors have also been linked with viewing of associated web content. Studies on traditional bullying indicate that the roles of bullying involvement (bullies, victims, and bully-victims) matter in terms of associations with specific suicide-related behaviors and psychological problems. Yet, related research in the area of cyberbullying is lacking. The current study investigates the association of cyberbullying roles with viewing of specific suicide-related web content and psychological problems. Data from N = 19,406 (50 percent girls) 11-16-year-olds (M = 13.54, SD = 1.68) of a representative sample of Internet-using children in Europe were analyzed. Self-reports were obtained for cyberbullying role, viewing of web content related to self-harm, and suicide, as well as the emotional, peer, and conduct problem subscales of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed that compared with those not involved in cyberbullying, viewing of web content related to suicide was higher for cybervictims and cyberbully-victims, but not for cyberbullies. Viewing of web content related to self-harm was higher for all cyberbullying roles, especially for cyberbully-victims. Rates of emotional problems were higher among cybervictims and cyberbully-victims, rates of peer problems were higher for cybervictims, and rates of conduct problems were higher for all cyberbullying roles. Moreover, the links between cyberbullying role and viewing of suicide-related web content were independent of psychological problems. The results can be useful to more precisely target efforts toward the specific problems of each cyberbullying role. The outcomes on viewing of web content also indicate an opportunity to enhance the presence of health service providers on Internet platforms. PMID:27448043

  14. A Further Examination of the Distinction between Dependency-Oriented and Achievement-Oriented Parental Psychological Control: Psychometric Properties of the DAPCS with French-Speaking Late Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantzouranis, Gregory; Zimmermann, Gregoire; Mahaim, Elodie Biermann; Favez, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Psychological control refers to parental behaviors that intrude on the psychological and emotional development of the child. In 2010, Soenens et al. proposed a distinction between two domain-specific expressions of psychological control, that is, Dependency-oriented Psychological Control (DPC) and Achievement-oriented Psychological Control (APC).…

  15. Diversity and Flexibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasi, Anne

    1990-01-01

    Responds to five major articles by Duckworth, Goldman, Healy, Sampson, and Goodyear on issues pertaining to testing and assessment in counseling psychology. Suggests that such a diversity of approaches leads to a more comprehensive and flexible model of counseling, adaptable to differences in clients, context, and counselor personalities. (TE)

  16. Trajectories of Change During a Randomized Controlled Trial of Internet-delivered Psychological Treatment for Adolescent Chronic Pain: How does Change in Pain and Function Relate?

    PubMed Central

    Palermo, Tonya M.; Law, Emily F.; Zhou, Chuan; Holley, Amy Lewandowski; Logan, Deirdre; Tai, Gabrielle

    2014-01-01

    Although pain and function improve at immediate post-treatment for youth receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy for chronic pain, limited data are available to understand changes that youth make during psychological treatment. We sought to characterize distinct trajectory patterns of change in pain and function in order to understand the temporal association of these changes during internet-delivered cognitive-behavioral treatment. Weekly repeated assessments of pain and function were conducted during eight weeks of treatment among 135 adolescents, ages 11 to 17 years, with chronic pain who were randomized to the cognitive-behavioral intervention (CBT) arm of an ongoing trial of internet-delivered CBT (Web-Based Management of Adolescent Pain; Web-MAP2). Using random effects growth mixture models we characterized pain and functional disability trajectories finding distinct trajectory groups indicating patterns of both linear as well as quadratic effects. Trajectories of change showed that some patients’ pain and functional disability was improving, others worsened, or changed minimally. Paired t-tests compared the within-subject relative change rate in pain and function demonstrating similar change range for pain and function during the treatment period. There was no support for improvements in either pain or function to precede changes in the other domain. Findings may be useful in informing future studies of psychosocial treatments for pediatric chronic pain to consider how to target treatment strategies to distinct patient response profiles. This may lead to the development of intervention strategies that can both more effectively target children’s pain and function during treatment, and lead to sustained changes following treatment. PMID:25775441

  17. [Adolescent confronting cancer and its place in the family].

    PubMed

    Chavand, Aurélie; Grandjean, Hélène; Vignes, Michel

    2007-04-01

    care, with flexible surrounding, respecting the identity of the adolescent while supporting his educational or professional investments and his personal interests revolving around the exterior world. The psychological and social care must be accessible to all the family members. The terms and conditions of this psychological and material support are itemised. PMID:17449439

  18. Coming from behind to win - A Qualitative research about psychological conditions of adolescents who have undergone open-heart surgery for single ventricle between the ages 0-5

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Early recognition of congenital cardiac pathologies and their treatment by means of palliative or corrective surgery at birth or infancy has vital importance. Successful repair of congenital cardiac defects by surgical methods has gained importance especially during the last twenty years. As the scope of the surveillance increased so did the interest in the outcomes of these treatments when the patients had reached puberty and adulthood. The purpose of our research was to study the psychological framework of the adolescents who had experienced these surgeries by listening both the children and the parents talk about their feelings and experiences. Our data was accumulated through interviews with 17 adolescents and their families, using qualitative methods. The main theme at the end of the analysis was "to be strong and resistive". We reached the conclusion that this condition was not a pathological build up but an attitude of coping, as it did not cause loss of functionality. The defensive psychological mechanisms used by these adolescents consisted of repression, compensation and reaction formation. We believe that this information is important to understand the real meaning of the manners displayed when these adolescents and their families pursue their daily lives, communicate and make relationships with their environment and especially professionals in the health services. PMID:22112589

  19. Coming from behind to win--a qualitative research about psychological conditions of adolescents who have undergone open-heart surgery for single ventricle between the ages 0-5.

    PubMed

    Zahmacioglu, Oguzhan; Yildiz, Cenk Eray; Koca, Bulent; Ugurlucan, Murat; Gokalp, Selman; Cetin, Gurkan; Eroglu, Ayse Guler; Oztunc, Funda

    2011-01-01

    Early recognition of congenital cardiac pathologies and their treatment by means of palliative or corrective surgery at birth or infancy has vital importance. Successful repair of congenital cardiac defects by surgical methods has gained importance especially during the last twenty years. As the scope of the surveillance increased so did the interest in the outcomes of these treatments when the patients had reached puberty and adulthood. The purpose of our research was to study the psychological framework of the adolescents who had experienced these surgeries by listening both the children and the parents talk about their feelings and experiences. Our data was accumulated through interviews with 17 adolescents and their families, using qualitative methods. The main theme at the end of the analysis was "to be strong and resistive". We reached the conclusion that this condition was not a pathological build up but an attitude of coping, as it did not cause loss of functionality. The defensive psychological mechanisms used by these adolescents consisted of repression, compensation and reaction formation. We believe that this information is important to understand the real meaning of the manners displayed when these adolescents and their families pursue their daily lives, communicate and make relationships with their environment and especially professionals in the health services. PMID:22112589

  20. Psychological treatment of eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Wilson, G Terence

    2005-01-01

    Manual-based cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is presently the most effective treatment of bulimia nervosa. Its efficacy is limited, however. Different strategies for improving upon current manual-based CBT are discussed, including combining CBT with antidepressant medication, integrating CBT with alternative psychological therapies, and expanding the scope and flexibility of manual-based CBT. CBT is underutilized in clinical practice. Dissemination of evidence-based treatment is a priority. Research on anorexia nervosa is minimal. Effective treatments have yet to be developed, although the Maudsley method of family therapy has shown the most promise in the treatment of adolescents. The most commonly seen eating disorders in clinical practice are those classified as "eating disorder not otherwise specified." With the exception of binge eating disorder (BED), however, they have been neglected by researchers. Several psychological therapies have been shown to be effective in treating BED. Controversy exists over whether treatment-specific effects have been identified. Whereas treatments have proved effective in eliminating binge eating and associated eating disorder psychopathology, achieving clinically significant weight loss remains a challenge. PMID:17716095

  1. Informal Child Care and Adolescent Psychological Well-Being: Hong Kong’s “Children of 1997” Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Cherry Y.; Leung, Gabriel M.; Schooling, C. Mary

    2015-01-01

    Background Informal child care (child care by untrained family members, relatives or employees in the home) in Western populations is often associated with poorer psychological well-being, which may be confounded by socioeconomic position. We examined the association of informal child care, common in non-Western settings, with adolescent psychological well-being, using Hong Kong’s Chinese “Children of 1997” birth cohort. Methods Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the adjusted associations of informal child care (at 0.5, 3, 5 and 11 years) with parent-reported Rutter score for child behavior at 11 years, self-reported Culture-Free Self-Esteem Inventories score at 11 years and self-reported Patient Health Questionnaire-9 depressive symptom score at 13 years. Model comparisons were used to identify the best representation of child care, in terms of a critical period of exposure to informal child care (independent variable) at a specific age, combination of exposures to informal child care at several ages or an accumulation of exposures to informal child care. Results Child care was not associated with behavioral problems. A model considering child care at 3 years best represented the association of child care with self-esteem while a model considering child care at 5 years best represented the association of child care with depressive symptoms. Informal child care at 3 years was associated with lower self-esteem (-0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.26 to -0.14). Informal child care at 5 years was associated with more depressive symptoms (0.45, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.73). Conclusion In a developed non-Western setting, informal child care was associated with lower self-esteem and more depressive symptoms. PMID:25781484

  2. [Religious conversion, psychological construction and holy violence].

    PubMed

    Oumar Ba-Konaré, Dougoukolo Alpha

    2016-01-01

    The adolescent process is the theatre for the confrontation of oneself with the formation of identity, the learning of limits and psychological compromises as attempts at psychological regulation. Religious radicalisation appears on stage, offering ways of responding to anxieties fuelled by the global socio-political context. Adolescent vulnerability is studied through the prism of all these different conflicting tensions. PMID:26790596

  3. [Psychological, social and cultural factors of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents in México].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Munguía, Carlos; Navarro-Contreras, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Child obesity is a serious problem of public health in México. If we don't reverse it quickly, it will generate unsustainable economical consequences to the health institutions in this country, as well as serious health problems. This article reviews some psychological, social and cultural factors in the health-illness process, in particular in relation to food choices, the function of the family, and the food-related parental practices, changes in physical activity, and the role of media. As a conclusion, we can say it is very important to take into account psychological and cultural aspects, as well as the family as a whole in the creation of public policies in the fight against the obesity epidemic. Other fundamental aspect to bear in mind is the generation and effective monitoring of regulations on food advertising, particularly that aimed to children, and also in regards to a labelling of edible products accessible to all people. An interdisciplinary work is essential to generate synergies that help us to control obesity in the first place, and then to be able to reverse this problem, without disregarding the role of prevention. PMID:24866315

  4. A systematic review of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of pharmacological and psychological interventions for the management of obsessive-compulsive disorder in children/adolescents and adults.

    PubMed Central

    Skapinakis, Petros; Caldwell, Deborah; Hollingworth, William; Bryden, Peter; Fineberg, Naomi; Salkovskis, Paul; Welton, Nicky; Baxter, Helen; Kessler, David; Churchill, Rachel; Lewis, Glyn

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a relatively common and disabling condition. OBJECTIVES To determine the clinical effectiveness, acceptability and cost-effectiveness of pharmacological and psychological interventions for the treatment of OCD in children, adolescents and adults. DATA SOURCES We searched the Cochrane Collaboration Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Trials Registers, which includes trials from routine searches of all the major databases. Searches were conducted from inception to 31 December 2014. REVIEW METHODS We undertook a systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA) of the clinical effectiveness and acceptability of available treatments. Outcomes for effectiveness included mean differences in the total scores of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale or its children's version and total dropouts for acceptability. For the cost-effectiveness analysis, we developed a probabilistic model informed by the results of the NMA. All analyses were performed using OpenBUGS version 3.2.3 (members of OpenBUGS Project Management Group; see www.openbugs.net ). RESULTS We included 86 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in our systematic review. In the NMA we included 71 RCTs (54 in adults and 17 in children and adolescents) for effectiveness and 71 for acceptability (53 in adults and 18 in children and adolescents), comprising 7643 and 7942 randomised patients available for analysis, respectively. In general, the studies were of medium quality. The results of the NMA showed that in adults all selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and clomipramine had greater effects than drug placebo. There were no differences between SSRIs, and a trend for clomipramine to be more effective did not reach statistical significance. All active psychological therapies had greater effects than drug placebo. Behavioural therapy (BT) and cognitive therapy (CT) had greater effects than psychological placebo, but cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) did not

  5. Why do early adolescents bully? Exploring the influence of prestige norms on social and psychological motives to bully.

    PubMed

    Berger, Christian; Caravita, Simona C S

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines psychological (e.g., Machiavellianism) and social (i.e., perceived popularity) motives for bullying, exploring the effects that classroom prestige norms for physical and relational aggression may have on these associations. A longitudinal multilevel study design was adopted, which included 978 5th to 7th graders from four Chilean schools. Participants were assessed three times over one year on self reports on bullying and Machiavellianism, and peer reports on popularity. Classroom prestige norms were calculated as the within classroom association between peer perceived coolness and aggression. Both Machiavellianism and perceived popularity were associated with bullying. However, hierarchical linear modeling analyses showed that Machiavellianism, but not perceived popularity, predicted bullying after controlling for baseline scores. Classroom prestige norms for relational aggression increased the association between Machiavellianism and bullying. Separate models were tested for boys and girls, showing no differences. Results are discussed in light of conceptual and methodological considerations. PMID:26584218

  6. Role of gender, family, lifestyle and psychological factors in self-rated health among urban adolescents in Peru: a school-based cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Bimala; Nam, Eun Woo; Kim, Dohyeong; Yoon, Young Min; Kim, Yeunju; Kim, Ha Yun

    2016-01-01

    Objective We examined the role of gender, family, lifestyle and psychological factors in self-rated health. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting A total of 970 randomly selected students from 11 secondary schools in Lima and Callao, Peru, participated in 2014. Main outcome measure Self-rated health was measured with a single item: ‘In general, how would you rate your health?’ Responses were arranged along a five-point Likert-type scale: ‘excellent’, ‘very good’, ‘good’, ‘fair’ and ‘poor’. The outcome variable was dichotomised as ‘good’ (excellent, very good or good) or ‘poor/fair’ (poor or fair). Methods We calculated adjusted ORs (AORs) and 95% CIs for poor/fair self-rated health using multivariate logistic regression analyses at 3-graded levels. Results 32.5% of the respondents had fair/poor self-rated health, 23.7% of the total males and 40.0% of the total female samples. Males were less likely to have poor/fair self-rated health (AOR 0.61; CI 0.41 to 0.91). Poor family support strongly increased the likelihood of having poor/fair self-rated health (no support, (AOR 3.15; CI 1.63 to 6.09); low support, (AOR 2.50; CI 1.29 to 4.85)). The other associated variables were missed meals due to a shortage of food (AOR 1.97; CI 1.15 to 3.36), television watching during leisure time (AOR 1.70; CI 1.09 to 2.67), low physical activity (AOR 1.49; CI 1.03 to 2.15), school absenteeism (AOR 1.54; CI 1.03 to 2.31) and perceived life satisfaction (AOR 0.28; CI 0.15 to 0.25). Conclusions Gender, missing meals due to a shortage of food, family support, physical activity and life satisfaction influenced self-rated health among adolescents in Peru. Interventions that focus on promoting physical activity for at least 1 h each day for 3 or more days per week, food security and strengthening supportive family roles may improve self-rated health during adolescence. PMID:26842274

  7. The Philosophy of Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feibleman, James K.

    1969-01-01

    The adolescent goes through various stages of physical and psychological development in the years between puberty and maturity. Finding his rightful place in society and refining his ideas about life are two experiences he undergoes during this period. (CK)

  8. Adolescent suicide.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    In the introduction to this report our committee, with its focus on adolescent development, expressed its concern that adolescent suicidal behavior represented a grave crisis in the adolescent, a crisis not only in the development of the adolescent but one that endangers the existence of the adolescent. The possibility of a fatal outcome is abhorrent to us as physicians and psychiatrists, as it is to all those entrusted with the care and development of our fellow human beings. Consequently, we explored the ways in which developmental and other forces lead to adolescent suicide and the measures that can be taken to prevent it. We first considered the historical and cross-cultural aspects of suicidal behaviors. Societal and cultural stresses arise from parental attitudes, beliefs, expectations, and childrearing practices that evolve from the social and economic needs in each culture. If unbalanced by growth-sustaining supports, they may compromise or constrict the existential adaptive ability of the developing adolescent and place the adolescent at risk for suicide. Research into vulnerability in adolescence has revealed gender, ethnic, and geographic differences in the dimension of the problem and has indicated the social, psychological, and biological conditions that increase the likelihood that adolescents will resort to suicidal behaviors. Research is still needed to distinguish those adolescents who commit suicide from those adolescents with similar conditions who do not. Research has only begun to explore the ways in which the interaction of specific individual dynamics, precipitating events, and personal characteristics result in an adolescent's attempt of suicide. We discussed the strengths that adolescents acquire, but we emphasized the weaknesses that ensue as adolescents are faced with the impact of the thrust of their own biological, psychological, and social development with the forces inherent in their cultures. Adolescents progress through this period

  9. Adolescent Perceptions of Parental Behaviors, Adolescent Self-Esteem, and Adolescent Depressed Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plunkett, Scott W.; Henry, Carolyn S.; Robinson, Linda C.; Behnke, Andrew; Falcon, Pedro C., III

    2007-01-01

    Using symbolic interaction, we developed a research model that proposed adolescent perceptions of parental support and psychological control would be related to adolescent depressed mood directly and indirectly through self-esteem. We tested the model using self-report questionnaire data from 161 adolescents living with both of their biological…

  10. [Psychological consequences of obesity].

    PubMed

    Müller, Roland

    2013-02-01

    Overweight and obesity is associated with a broad variety of stigmatization and discrimination in every day live. Obese people have more difficulties in finding a job, have a lower income, and are less often seen in leadership positions. In society, responsibility for the weight situation in seen as lying by the individuals affected altogether, leading to chronic stress, problems with self esteem and perception of loss of control. As a consequence, there is an increased risk for developing serious psychological problems such as affective and anxiety disorders. As a reaction, coping strategies to deal with the psychological pressure such as dysfunctional eating behavior, binge eating and physical inactivity are used. Females, people belonging to another ethnic or social minority, adolescents and people with eating disorders are considered at increased risk of psychological distress. Psychological vulnerabilities and the consequences of stigmatization need to be considered. Moreover, perceived behavioral control and self esteem are key aspects of to be addressed on the treatment. PMID:23385186

  11. Age-related changes in prefrontal norepinephrine transporter density: The basis for improved cognitive flexibility after low doses of atomoxetine in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Sarah E; Agster, Kara L; Waterhouse, Barry D; McGaughy, Jill A

    2016-06-15

    Adolescence is a period of major behavioral and brain reorganization. As diagnoses and treatment of disorders like attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often occur during adolescence, it is important to understand how the prefrontal cortices change and how these changes may influence the response to drugs during development. The current study uses an adolescent rat model to study the effect of standard ADHD treatments, atomoxetine and methylphenidate on attentional set shifting and reversal learning. While both of these drugs act as norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, higher doses of atomoxetine and all doses of methylphenidate also block dopamine transporters (DAT). Low doses of atomoxetine, were effective at remediating cognitive rigidity found in adolescents. In contrast, methylphenidate improved performance in rats unable to form an attentional set due to distractibility but was without effect in normal subjects. We also assessed the effects of GBR 12909, a selective DAT inhibitor, but found no effect of any dose on behavior. A second study in adolescent rats investigated changes in norepinephrine transporter (NET) and dopamine beta hydroxylase (DBH) density in five functionally distinct sub-regions of the prefrontal cortex: infralimbic, prelimbic, anterior cingulate, medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortices. These regions are implicated in impulsivity and distractibility. We found that NET, but not DBH, changed across adolescence in a regionally selective manner. The prelimbic cortex, which is critical to cognitive rigidity, and the lateral orbitofrontal cortex, critical to reversal learning and some forms of response inhibition, showed higher levels of NET at early than mid- to late adolescence. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Noradrenergic System. PMID:26774596

  12. The Role of Emotion in Psychological Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ehrenreich, Jill T.; Fairholme, Christopher P.; Buzzella, Brian A.; Ellard, Kristen K.; Barlow, David H.

    2008-01-01

    This Special Issue of Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice provides a series of articles detailing efforts to consider the concepts of emotion and emotion regulation in relation to clinical assessment and psychopathology intervention efforts across the lifespan. In our commentary, we review some common themes and challenges presented in these articles to move forward the discussion of emotion’s role in psychological therapy. We discuss efforts to conceptualize the role of context in defining emotion concepts and maximizing the relevancy of such concepts to treatment. We review the importance of imbuing efforts to develop emotion-focused treatments with emphases on positive, as well as negative, emotions and flexibility in the expression of these emotions. We also highlight the relevance of a lifespan developmental approach to the accurate use of emotion and emotion regulation concepts within treatment. Finally, we discuss the application of these issues to our own treatment development and evaluation efforts regarding a unified approach to the treatment of emotional disorders in adults and adolescents. PMID:18843381

  13. The Impact of Adolescent Stuttering and Other Speech Problems on Psychological Well-Being in Adulthood: Evidence from a Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Jan; Collier, Jacqueline; Shepstone, Lee

    2013-01-01

    Background: Developmental stuttering is associated with increased risk of psychological distress and mental health difficulties. Less is known about the impact of other developmental speech problems on psychological outcomes, or the impact of stuttering and speech problems once other predictors have been adjusted for. Aims: To determine the impact…

  14. Flexibility Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, G. Patrick

    These brief guidelines for a muscular flexibility program state that the purpose of such a program is to increase the range of motion in order to avoid injuries and eliminate awkwardness in physical activities. A flexibility program is described as an extension of the warm-up period and should be an ongoing, permanent effort to lengthen muscles. A…

  15. Flexible Scheduling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Harold S.; Bechard, Joseph E.

    A flexible schedule allows teachers to change group size, group composition, and class length according to the purpose of the lesson. This pamphlet presents various "master" schedules for flexible scheduling: (1) Simple block schedules, (2) back-to-back schedules, (3) interdisciplinary schedules, (4) school-wide block schedules, (5) open-lab…

  16. Effectiveness of a structured educational intervention using psychological delivery methods in children and adolescents with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes: a cluster-randomized controlled trial of the CASCADE intervention

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Deborah; Thompson, Rebecca; Sawtell, Mary; Allen, Elizabeth; Cairns, John; Smith, Felicity; Jamieson, Elizabeth; Hargreaves, Katrina; Ingold, Anne; Brooks, Lucy; Wiggins, Meg; Oliver, Sandy; Jones, Rebecca; Elbourne, Diana; Santos, Andreia; Wong, Ian C K; O'Neil, Simon; Strange, Vicki; Hindmarsh, Peter; Annan, Francesca; Viner, Russell M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Type 1 diabetes (T1D) in children and adolescents is increasing worldwide with a particular increase in children <5 years. Fewer than 1 in 6 children and adolescents achieve recommended glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values. Methods A pragmatic, cluster-randomized controlled trial assessed the efficacy of a clinic-based structured educational group incorporating psychological approaches to improve long-term glycemic control, quality of life and psychosocial functioning in children and adolescents with T1D. 28 pediatric diabetes services were randomized to deliver the intervention or standard care. 362 children (8–16 years) with HbA1c≥8.5% were recruited. Outcomes were HbA1c at 12 and 24 months, hypoglycemia, admissions, self-management skills, intervention compliance, emotional and behavioral adjustment, and quality of life. A process evaluation collected data from key stakeholder groups in order to evaluate the feasibility of delivering the intervention. Results 298/362 patients (82.3%) provided HbA1c at 12 months and 284/362 (78.5%) at 24 months. The intervention did not improve HbA1c at 12 months (intervention effect 0.11, 95% CI −0.28 to 0.50, p=0.584), or 24 months (intervention effect 0.03, 95% CI −0.36 to 0.41, p=0.891). There were no significant changes in remaining outcomes. 96/180 (53%) families in the intervention arm attended at least 1 module. The number of modules attended did not affect outcome. Reasons for low uptake included difficulties organizing groups and work and school commitments. Those with highest HbA1cs were less likely to attend. Mean cost of the intervention was £683 per child. Conclusions Significant challenges in the delivery of a structured education intervention using psychological techniques to enhance engagement and behavior change delivered by diabetes nurses and dietitians in routine clinical practice were found. The intervention did not improve HbA1c in children and adolescents with poor control

  17. Teaching Pediatric Psychology Concepts to Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, William A.

    The psychiatric/behavioral science component of the medical school curriculum at Texas A&M University, which involves a pediatric psychology rotation, is described. The content areas of pediatric psychology includes the basic curriculum areas of child/adolescent psychodiagnostic categories, behavioral/developmental disorders, and knowledge of…

  18. Stress and Psychological Symptoms in Single and Dual Parent Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Rebecca A.; Compas, Bruce E.

    Stress, coping, and psychological adjustment were compared in single (N=37) and first-time married (N=179) mothers and their young adolescent children. Adolescents completed their questionnaires in school and parents completed theirs at home. Questionnaires measured adolescent stress, behavior problems, perceived competence, and coping; parental…

  19. Are there gender-specific pathways from early adolescence psychological distress symptoms toward the development of substance use and abnormal eating behavior?

    PubMed

    Beato-Fernández, Luis; Rodríguez-Cano, Teresa; Pelayo-Delgado, Esther; Calaf, Myralys

    2007-02-01

    The aim of the present longitudinal community study was to test whether psychological distress at 13 years of age predicted reported substance use problems in boys and abnormal eating behavior in girls 2 years later. The sample consisted of 500 male and 576 female students. The use of substances was evaluated using a semi-structured interview, psychological distress with the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and eating psychopathology with the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40), and the Bulimic Investigatory Test Edinburgh (BITE). Controlling the effect of initial substance use problems, psychological distress predicted later reported substance use problems in males. Girls with an initial score above the cut-off point on the GHQ were two times more likely to be at risk of having an eating disorder 2 years later. Therefore, psychological distress might take different developmental pathways in males and females, leading toward eating problems in the latter versus substance use in the former. PMID:17001526

  20. [Family dynamics around the adolescent].

    PubMed

    Schmit, Gérard

    2005-05-31

    Family dynamics around the adolescent Adolescence modifies the family dynamics around the adolescent because adolescence comprises an unavoidable process of psychological separation between the subject and the parents of his childhood. On the adolescent side, the relations with his parents show a newer claim of recognition. On the parents' side, the mourning deals with several topics. The outcome of the crisis depends on the inner family control of anxiety and on the degree of differentiation of its members. Parents, grandparents and siblings have an important role to play in those transformations. PMID:16097251

  1. Michigan Early Adolescent Survey: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Joanne; And Others

    This document contains the final report from the Michigan Early Adolescent Survey, a study undertaken to: (1) develop a profile of Michigan early adolescents that focused on out-of-school time and included biological, psychological, and sociological information; (2) develop a profile of families which included early adolescents; (3) assess the…

  2. Adolescent Sexuality in a Changing American Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilman, Catherine S.

    All aspects of adolescent sexuality may be viewed as primarily sexual. The primary fact about adolescence is that the young person becomes capable of reproduction. Biological changes interact with psychological ones; the cognitive, motivational, social and emotional aspects are all directed toward becoming a sexual human being. In adolescence,…

  3. Sleep Disturbance Preceding Completed Suicide in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Tina R.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Brent, David A.

    2008-01-01

    We examined sleep difficulties preceding death in a sample of adolescent suicide completers as compared with a matched sample of community control adolescents. Sleep disturbances were assessed in 140 adolescent suicide victims with a psychological autopsy protocol and in 131 controls with a similar semistructured psychiatric interview. Rates of…

  4. [Adolescence and sexuality].

    PubMed

    Kjellberg, G

    2006-03-22

    Different pathological states occurring during adolescence, such as anorexia, bulimia and suicidal attempts are seen as possible manifestations of psychological defence mechanisms against the anxiety-provoking bodily changes of puberty and the necessary psychological transformations inherent to adolescence and sexual maturation. The changes of object of desire and some sexual risk behaviours are illustrated by clinical vignettes. Music is suggested to play a role in the mobilisation of emotions, bodily sensations and in the construction of an imaginary world and thus to be a factor--a part from biological and psycho-social ones--influencing the sexual behaviour of adolescents. Some communication techniques are suggested enabling access to adolescents on sexual matters - a domain of increasing public health importance. PMID:16615726

  5. Adolescents' and Parents' Changing Conceptions of Parental Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smetana, Judith; Crean, Hugh F.; Campione-Barr, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    Adolescents and parents view parents' regulation of some aspects of adolescents' lives as legitimate, but they disagree as to how much personal freedom adolescents should have. Too much parental control over personal issues in early adolescence leads to feelings of psychological control, but increasing autonomy over personal issues in later…

  6. The Role of Friendship in Adolescents' Sense of School Belonging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamm, Jill V.; Faircloth, Beverly S.

    2005-01-01

    Friendships serve as a secure base and buffer that help adolescents to cope with the psychological challenges of the social ecology of high school. Through these relationships, adolescents develop a stronger sense of belonging to their schools.

  7. Residential Mobility and Adolescent Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynie, Dana L.; South, Scott J.

    2005-01-01

    Using two waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examines the impact of recent residential mobility on adolescent violence. A unique focus of our analysis is an examination of the ability of various mechanisms, including parent-child relationships, psychological distress, experiences of victimization,…

  8. Ego and Leadership among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thangarajathi, S.

    2010-01-01

    The period of adolescence is designated as the period of storm and stress and age of revolt. This is considered as being one of the most difficult stage in the life of any individual. Thus adolescence is the most critical stage with a distinct phase of rapid physical, psychological and social behavioral changes and emotional disturbances. As Ego…

  9. [Pregnancy and motherhood in adolescence].

    PubMed

    Desaunay, Pierre; Perrin, Anne-Sophie; Gérardin, Priscille

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence and pregnancy are two periods which involve major psychological and identity changes. Teenage pregnancies are often considered to be a result of a confusion between these periods. The circumstances of teenage pregnancies and early motherhood are diverse and sit within the wider context of the psychopathology of adolescence, the heterogeneity of family configurations and evolutions in society. PMID:27444529

  10. Financial Resources, Parent Psychological Functioning, Parent Co-Caregiving, and Early Adolescent Competence in Rural Two-Parent African-American Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Gene H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined relationships between family financial resources, academic competence, and socioemotional adjustment during early adolescence. Subjects were 90 African American youths and their married parents in the rural South. Found that parents with greater financial resources were less depressed and more optimistic, and their children were better…

  11. The "Test-Tube" Generation: Parent-Child Relationships and the Psychological Well-Being of In Vitro Fertilization Children at Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombok, Susan; MacCallum, Fiona; Goodman, Emma

    2001-01-01

    Compared parent-child relationships and early adolescent well-being in families with children conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF), adoptive families, and families with a naturally conceived child. Found that IVF children were functioning well and did not differ from other children in social or emotional adjustment. (Author/KB)

  12. Moderating Factors in the Path from Physical Abuse to Attempted Suicide in Adolescents: Application of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cero, Ian; Sifers, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Childhood physical abuse is a major risk factor for suicide attempt, but factors that moderate this risk remain largely unexamined. Moderated mediation analysis was used with 186 adolescents who responded to the Profiles of Student Life: Attitudes and Behavior survey. Physical abuse increased risk directly and indirectly through reduced…

  13. A detailed characterisation of pain, disability, physical and psychological features of a small group of adolescents with non-specific chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Astfalck, Roslyn G; O'Sullivan, Peter B; Straker, Leon M; Smith, Anne J

    2010-06-01

    The objective of the study was to provide a detailed biopsychosocial evaluation of adolescent NSCLBP compared to those without LBP. NSCLBP was described by pain level, duration, levels of disability and kinesiophobia, aggravating factors and functional movements. Each pain subject was sub-classified using the O'Sullivan system. Groups were compared on physical activity levels, sitting posture, trunk extensor and thigh muscle endurance, psychosocial behaviour, depression, family functioning and exposure to stressful life events. Adolescents with NSCLBP reported moderate levels of pain (4.4/10 +/- 1.9), disability (17.9 +/- 10.1%) and fear avoidance beliefs (36.1/68 +/- 7.1). Differences between control and pain groups were only found for back muscle (p = 0.033) and squat endurance times (p = 0.032) and stressful life events (p = 0.030). Differences in sitting posture between pain and no pain groups were only found when pain subjects were sub-classified (lumbar angle p = 0.001). In conclusion, adolescents with NSCLBP reported moderate pain and disability with deficits in trunk and squat endurance. That they remained physically active is at odds with the activity avoidance and subsequent deconditioning model proposed for adults with NSCLBP. Differences between control and pain groups on history of stressful life events suggest this may contribute to adolescent NSCLBP. Differences with sitting posture are only seen when patients were sub-classified. PMID:20116326

  14. Positive Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  15. Psychological Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, David H.

    2004-01-01

    Psychology has recently identified itself as a health care profession and codified this change in the bylaws of the American Psychological Association. Although psychologists make a number of contributions to the nation's health-and mental health-the most identifiable activity focuses on treating physical or psychological pathology with…

  16. Improving mood with psychoanalytic and cognitive therapies (IMPACT): a pragmatic effectiveness superiority trial to investigate whether specialised psychological treatment reduces the risk for relapse in adolescents with moderate to severe unipolar depression: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Up to 70% of adolescents with moderate to severe unipolar major depression respond to psychological treatment plus Fluoxetine (20-50 mg) with symptom reduction and improved social function reported by 24 weeks after beginning treatment. Around 20% of non responders appear treatment resistant and 30% of responders relapse within 2 years. The specific efficacy of different psychological therapies and the moderators and mediators that influence risk for relapse are unclear. The cost-effectiveness and safety of psychological treatments remain poorly evaluated. Methods/Design Improving Mood with Psychoanalytic and Cognitive Therapies, the IMPACT Study, will determine whether Cognitive Behavioural Therapy or Short Term Psychoanalytic Therapy is superior in reducing relapse compared with Specialist Clinical Care. The study is a multicentre pragmatic effectiveness superiority randomised clinical trial: Cognitive Behavioural Therapy consists of 20 sessions over 30 weeks, Short Term Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy 30 sessions over 30 weeks and Specialist Clinical Care 12 sessions over 20 weeks. We will recruit 540 patients with 180 randomised to each arm. Patients will be reassessed at 6, 12, 36, 52 and 86 weeks. Methodological aspects of the study are systematic recruitment, explicit inclusion criteria, reliability checks of assessments with control for rater shift, research assessors independent of treatment team and blind to randomization, analysis by intention to treat, data management using remote data entry, measures of quality assurance, advanced statistical analysis, manualised treatment protocols, checks of adherence and competence of therapists and assessment of cost-effectiveness. We will also determine whether time to recovery and/or relapse are moderated by variations in brain structure and function and selected genetic and hormone biomarkers taken at entry. Discussion The objective of this clinical trial is to determine whether there are specific

  17. Flexible cystoscopy.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, T J; Preminger, G M

    1988-08-01

    Flexible fiberoptic technology was first applied to cystoscopy in 1973, with greatly increased usage since 1982. Most procedures formerly performed with rigid cystoscopes can be done using flexible cystoscopes with minimal or no anesthesia. Patient positioning and precystocopy preparation and draping are simplified with the flexible fiberoptic instruments. Complete examination of the urethra and bladder can be performed with a single-lens system and with the patient in a variety of positions. Fiberoptic cystoscopy is limited in patients who are bleeding or have blood clots in their bladders. Withdrawal of irrigant or bladder drainage is cumbersome, and the fiberoptic image is currently not of the same caliber as that of the rigid-lens systems. Fiberoptic cystoscopy has become the procedure of choice for many urologists for ureteral stenting prior to extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy. With the advent of lithotripters that require no anesthesia, this application is likely to broaden. Future applications of flexible cystoscopy may include a flexible videocystoscope for use in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. PMID:3407042

  18. Piping Flexibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A NASA computer program aids Hudson Engineering Corporation, Houston, Texas, in the design and construction of huge petrochemical processing plants like the one shown, which is located at Ju'aymah, Saudi Arabia. The pipes handling the flow of chemicals are subject to a variety of stresses, such as weight and variations in pressure and temperature. Hudson Engineering uses a COSMIC piping flexibility analysis computer program to analyze stresses and unsure the necessary strength and flexibility of the pipes. This program helps the company realize substantial savings in reduced engineering time.

  19. Are There Gender-Specific Pathways from Early Adolescence Psychological Distress Symptoms toward the Development of Substance Use and Abnormal Eating Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beato-Fernandez, Luis; Rodriguez-Cano, Teresa; Pelayo-Delgado, Esther; Calaf, Myralys

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present longitudinal community study was to test whether psychological distress at 13 years of age predicted reported substance use problems in boys and abnormal eating behavior in girls 2 years later. The sample consisted of 500 male and 576 female students. The use of substances was evaluated using a semi-structured interview,…

  20. Cultural Equivalence and Cultural Variance in Longitudinal Associations of Young Adolescent Self-Definition and Interpersonal Relatedness to Psychological and School Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuperminc, Gabriel P.; Blatt, Sidney J.; Shahar, Golan; Henrich, Christopher; Leadbeater, Bonnie J.

    2004-01-01

    Ethnic group differences in the contributions of self-definition (self-worth and efficacy) and interpersonal relatedness with parents and peers to changes in psychological and school adjustment were examined among 448 White, Black, and Latino girls and boys (11-14 years of age). Self-report questionnaires and school records were evaluated for…