Sagone, Elisabetta; De Caroli, Maria Elvira; Nima, Ali Al
Background One important aspect of subjective judgments about one’s well-being (i.e., subjective well-being: life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) is that cultural features, such as, nationality seem to shape cognitive judgments about the “the ideal life.” In this comparative study we examined differences in subjective well-being and psychological well-being between Italian and Swedish adolescents and tested if the relationship between the three constructs of subjective well-being (i.e., satisfaction with life, positive affect, and negative affect) and psychological well-being was moderated by the adolescents’ nationality. Method Italian (n = 255) and Swedish (n = 277) adolescents answered to the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule, and Ryff’s Scales of Psychological Well-Being. Differences between samples were tested using a Multiple Analysis of Variance. We also conducted a multiple group analysis (Italy and Sweden) using Structural Equation Modelling to investigate the relationship between all three subjective well-being constructs and psychological well-being. Results Italian adolescents scored significantly higher in satisfaction with life than Swedish adolescents. Additionally, across countries, girls scored significantly higher in negative affect than boys. In both countries, all three constructs of subjective well-being were significantly associated to adolescents’ psychological well-being. Nevertheless, while the effect of the relationship between affect and psychological well-being was almost the same across countries, life satisfaction was more strongly related to psychological well-being among Swedish adolescents. Conclusions The present study shows that there are larger variations between these two cultures in the cognitive construct of subjective well-being than in the affective construct. Accordingly, associations between the cognitive component, not the affective component, of
Trainor, Sarah; Delfabbro, Paul; Anderson, Sarah; Winefield, Anthony
We examined the validity of the reported link between well-being and leisure participation in adolescents. Nine hundred and forty-seven, Year 10 students from 19 schools in Adelaide, South Australia, were recruited. Participants completed a questionnaire concerning participation in social, non-social and unstructured leisure activities as well as…
Gardner, Marilyn M.; Telfair, Joseph
Studied the impact of support groups on the psychological well-being of adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD). Response of 79 adolescent SCD group members show that psychological well-being was best predicted by fewer physical symptoms and greater satisfaction with the group. Findings suggest the beneficial effects of SCD support groups. (SLD)
Shek, D T
In this longitudinal study, the relationships between perceived parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being were examined in a sample of Hong Kong Chinese adolescents (N = 378). The results indicated that global parenting styles and specific parenting behaviors are concurrently related to hopelessness, life satisfaction, self-esteem, purpose in life, and general psychiatric morbidity at Time 1 and Time 2. Longitudinal and prospective analyses (Time 1 predictors of Time 2 criterion variables) suggested that the relations between parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being are bidirectional in nature. The results indicated that the strengths of association between perceived parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being are stronger in female than in male adolescents. Relative to maternal parenting characteristics, paternal parenting was found to exert a stronger influence on adolescent psychological well-being.
Holopainen, Leena; Lappalainen, Kristiina; Junttila, Niina; Savolainen, Hannu
This study examines the relationship between social competence and psychological well-being of adolescents. The role of academic learning disabilities with social competence and psychological well-being was also studied. The sample (n = 412; 207 girls and 205 boys), one complete age group (mean age 15.5 years), was followed from last year of…
Corsano, Paola; Majorano, Marinella; Champretavy, Lorella
This study investigated the influence of loneliness and relationships with parents and friends on the psychological well-being or adolescent malaise. Data were collected via two questionnaires (LLCA--Marcoen, Goossens & Caes, 1987; TRI--Bracken, 1996) from a sample of 330 Italian adolescents, males and females, aged between 11 and 19. As…
Fuligni, Andrew J.; Hardway, Christina
The daily diary method was used to examine the daily dynamics of adolescent sleep time, activities, and psychological well-being among an ethnically diverse sample of over 750 adolescents approximately 14-15 years of age. Studying and stressful demands during the day were modestly but consistently associated with less sleep that evening. Receiving…
Yeatts, Paul E.; Martin, Scott B.; Petrie, Trent A.; Greenleaf, Christy
Background: Adolescence is a critical time for the development of psychological well-being. Weight gain and the emergence of body image concerns during this period can lead to the development of negative psychological states. To explore this issue, we examined the relationship between weight control behavior (WCB; i.e., trying to lose, gain, stay…
Shek, D T
Adolescents' (N = 378) perceptions of and satisfaction with parenting styles, perceived parent-adolescent conflict, perceived frequency of parent-adolescent communication and related feelings, perceived parent-adolescent relationship, and mental health were assessed with rating scales and structured interviews on 2 occasions separated by 1 year. Results showed that the questionnaire and interview measures at each time could be grouped into 2 stable factors: Paternal Parenthood Qualities (PPQ) and Maternal Parenthood Qualities (MPQ). Although both factors generally had significant concurrent and longitudinal correlations with adolescents' mental health, PPQ at Time 1-predicted changes in adolescent life satisfaction, hopelessness, self-esteem, purpose in life, and general psychiatric morbidity at Time 2, whereas MPQ at Time 1 did not predict those changes. Adolescents' mental health at Time 1 was found to predict changes in MPQ but not PPQ at Time 2. Relative to maternal qualities, paternal qualities were generally found to exert a stronger impact on adolescent psychological well-being.
Sarkova, Maria; Bacikova-Sleskova, Maria; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Katreniakova, Zuzana; van den Heuvel, Wim; van Dijk, Jitse P.
Background: The school environment has shown itself to be an important factor in explaining adolescent behaviour. The relationships and experiences that pupils have at school have been found to influence their development, psychological well-being, self-esteem and social adjustment. Purpose: The aim of the study is to explore whether there is a…
Sujoldzić, Anita; De Lucia, Amelia
Physical, psychological and social changes that occur during adolescence can markedly affect dietary habits and nutritional health. Physical changes including rapid growth place extra nutritional requirements on adolescents, while culture and society require adjustments in all of the aspects of daily living, including psychosocial well-being. Adolescents become focused on the physical appearance and any deviation from the ideal figure can result in negative dieting behavior, social withdrawal, poor self-esteem and increased health vulnerability. The paper presents some of the results of an international comparative study on risk and protective factors of adolescent health and well being, related to BMI, dieting behavior and body image and their relationship to psychosocial well-being (somatic stress, anxiety, depression, life satisfaction and self-esteem). Within an ecological cultural framework, it looks at group-specific differences of Albanian and Bosnian adolescents within different socio-cultural contexts across six European countries: two EU members (Italy and Austria) and four communities in the state of socioeconomic and political transition (Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Albania and Kosovo). The survey collected data from 2000 adolescents between 15 and 18 years of age. The study demonstrated a strong relationship between BMI and body dissatisfaction, between body image and dietary habits, and strong effects of body image on all indicators of psychosocial health. In addition to expected marked gender differences in all countries, the obtained results indicate significant intracultural variations related to socioeconomic status as well as considerable intercultural variations due to variable influence specific social and cultural contexts.
Heizomi, Haleh; Allahverdipour, Hamid; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Safaian, Abdolrasul
In the present decade, adolescents' mental problems are known as critical problems which have many destructive consequences. This study aimed to measure students' happiness and psychological well-being status in a sample of high school students. The cross sectional study consisted of 403 randomly selected high school students in Tabriz, Iran. Numerous variables including general health status, happiness, self-efficacy, perceived stress, hopefulness and life satisfaction were measured by using self-reported written questionnaires. Significant relation observed between happiness and psychological well-being (r=0.48). Those students with good relationship and those who had reported to enjoy attending social events indicated better mental health status. No causal inferences were investigated due to the non-experimental nature of the study. The findings also revealed that students with higher happiness score have a better school performance. Integration of happiness promotion initiatives into the comprehensive school health programs is recommended to have pleasant environments for a healthy population of adolescents.
Long, Jennie J.; Davis, James O.
This study examined the effects of an expressive writing intervention on male, juvenile offenders' (n=25) psychological and emotional well being. Using a quasi-experimental design, participants were assigned to one of three writing conditions and were instructed to write for 15 minutes for five consecutive days about one of the following topics:…
Telzer, Eva H; Fuligni, Andrew J
The daily diary method was used to examine the implications of adolescents' daily assistance behaviors for both positive and negative aspects of psychological well-being among an ethnically diverse sample of 752 adolescents of ages 14 to 15 years. Results indicated that, contrary to the expectations of some observers, providing daily assistance to the family generally was not stressful for adolescents. Rather, assisting the family was associated with higher levels of happiness due, in large part, to the sense of role fulfillment it provided the adolescents. Few individual or group differences were observed in the association between family assistance and psychological well-being. These results suggest that family assistance serves as a meaningful activity in adolescents' lives by creating a sense of connection to the family.
Arroyo, C G; Zigler, E
The relation between racial identity and personal psychological functioning was examined within the framework of the "racelessness" construct proposed by Fordham and Ogbu (S. Fordham, 1988; S. Fordham & J. U. Ogbu, 1986). These researchers have proposed that academically successful African American students achieve their success by adopting behaviors and attitudes that distance them from their culture of origin, resulting in increased feelings of depression, anxiety, and identity confusion. Studies 1 and 2 describe the development of the Racelessness Scale (RS) designed to test these assumptions. Study 2 also investigated Race X Achievement level differences in students' responses to the RS. In Study 3, correlations between the RS and measures of depression, self-efficacy, anxiety, alienation, and collective self-esteem were assessed. The pattern of results in Study 2 suggest that the behaviors and attitudes described by Fordham and Ogbu are common to high-achieving adolescents and not specific to African Americans. However, racial differences in the pattern of associations between the RS and measures of depression suggest that racelessness may have important psychological consequences for African American adolescents.
Shek, Daniel T L
On two occasions separated by one year, Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage in Hong Kong (N = 199) responded to instruments measuring perceived parental parenthood qualities (indexed by perceived parenting styles, support and help from parents, and conflict and relationship with the parents) and psychosocial adjustment (psychological well-being, substance abuse, and delinquency). Results showed that parental parenthood variables were concurrently associated with different measures of adolescent psychological well-being and problem behavior at Time 1 and Time 2. While paternal parenthood qualities at Time 1 predicted changes in existential well-being and delinquency in adolescent boys, but not in adolescent girls, at Time 2, maternal parenthood qualities at Time 1 predicted changes in the mental health and problem behavior in adolescent girls, but not in adolescent boys, at Time 2. There is no strong support for the thesis that adolescent adjustment influences perceived parental parenthood qualities over time. The present study suggests that the influences of fathers and mothers on the adjustment of Chinese adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage vary with the gender of adolescent children.
Background On 26 April 1986, the Chernobyl nuclear power plant suffered an accident. Several areas of central Norway were heavily affected by far field radioactive fallout. The present study focuses on the psychological well-being of adolescents who were exposed to this radiation as fetuses. Methods The adolescents (n = 53) and their mothers reported their perceptions of the adolescents' current psychological health as measured by the Youth Self Report and Child Behaviour Checklist. Results In spite of previous reports of subtle cognitive deficits in these exposed adolescents, there were few self-reported problems and fewer problems reported by the mothers. This contrasts with findings of studies of children from the former Soviet Union exposed in utero, in which objective measures are inconsistent, and self-reports, especially by mothers, express concern for adolescents' cognitive functioning and psychological well-being. Conclusion In the current paper, we explore possible explanations for this discrepancy and suggest that protective factors in Norway, in addition to perceived physical and psychological distance from the disaster, made the mothers less vulnerable to Chernobyl-related anxiety, thus preventing a negative effect on the psychological health of both mother and child. PMID:21496337
Seaton, Eleanor K.; Yip, Tiffany
The present study examined contextual influences on the relationship between racial discrimination (individual, cultural, and collective/institutional) and psychological well-being. Two hundred and fifty two African American adolescents (46% male and 54% female, average age = 16) completed measures of racial discrimination, self-esteem, depressive…
Benjet, Corina; Hernandez-Guzman, Laura
Studied the role of pubertal development on depression, externalizing behavior problems, self-esteem, and body-image of 951 Mexican early adolescents. Findings show that the acute experience of menarche adversely affected the psychological well-being of girls, specifically in terms of depressive symptomatology. Pubertal change in boys did not…
Hartley, Sigan L.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Head, Lara; Abbeduto, Leonard
The psychological well-being of fathers of children with developmental disabilities remains poorly understood. The present study examined depressive symptoms, pessimism, and coping in fathers of adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome (DS;n = 59), autism spectrum disorders (ASDs;n = 135), and Fragile X syndrome (n = 46). Fathers of sons or…
Shek, D T
Chinese secondary school students (N = 365) responded to instruments measuring their family environment, psychological well-being, school adjustment, and problem behavior. Measures of the family environment include perceived paternal and maternal parenting styles, family functioning, and conflict with father and mother. Results from bivariate and canonical correlation analyses showed that in general, adolescents' perceptions of parenting styles, family functioning, and parent-adolescent conflict were significantly related to scores on measures of psychological well-being (general psychiatric morbidity, life satisfaction, purpose in life, hopelessness, and self-esteem), school adjustment (perceived academic performance and school conduct), and problem behavior (smoking and psychotropic drug abuse). The findings suggest that family factors play an important role in influencing the psychosocial adjustment, particularly the positive mental health, of Chinese adolescents.
Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.
Using cluster analysis of Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (ATAS) scores in a sample of 300 adolescents ("M" age = 16 years; "SD" = 1.25; 60% male; 41% European American; 25.3% Asian American; 11% African American; 10.3% Latino), the authors identified five time attitude profiles based on positive and negative attitudes toward…
Erickson, Sarah J.; Feldstein, Sarah W.
Objective: This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ) in measuring adolescent humor, including the relationship between humor and coping style, defense style, depressive symptoms, and adjustment in a non-clinical sample of adolescents. Method: Humor, coping, defense strategies, depressive symptoms,…
Tian, Lili; Pi, Luyang; Huebner, E S; Du, Minmin
Based on the relation between gratitude and general subjective well-being (SWB), and Basic Psychological Needs Theory (Ryan and Deci, 2000), the present study's aim was to use structural equation modeling to test the multiple mediational roles of the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs at school in accounting for the association between gratitude and SWB in school (school satisfaction, school affect) in adolescents. A total of 881 Chinese adolescents (427 males; Mean age = 12.97) completed a multi-measure questionnaire that tapped the targeted variables. Findings revealed that gratitude related significantly, positively to adolescents' SWB in school. Moreover, a multiple-mediators analysis suggested that relatedness and competence needs satisfaction at school mediated the relation between gratitude and SWB in school. Lastly, a multiple-mediators analysis also indicated that autonomy needs satisfaction mediated the relation between relatedness and competence needs and SWB in school. Limitations and practical applications of the study were discussed.
Gartrell, Nanette; Bos, Henny; Peyser, Heidi; Deck, Amalia; Rodas, Carla
As part of the largest, longest running prospective American study of same-sex parent families, the present investigation examined relationship dissolution in planned lesbian families. Data were collected from 40 separated couples and their 17-year-old adolescent offspring--19 girls and 21 boys. Nearly all breakups occurred before the former…
Cripps, Kayla; Zyromski, Brett
Adolescence is a critical period of development. Previous research suggests parent involvement in school directly impacts student success. However, different types of parental involvement and the efforts of middle school personnel to educate parents about these effective practices have received scant attention in the literature. The level and type…
Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Gravely, Amy A.; Roseth, Cary J.
"Self-determination theory" emphasizes the importance of school-based autonomy and belongingness to academic achievement and psychological adjustment, and the theory posits a model in which engagement in school mediates the influence of autonomy and belongingness on these outcomes. To date, this model has only been evaluated on academic outcomes.…
SHAHIMI, Farnaz; HEAVEN, Patrick; CIARROCHI, Joseph
Background This longitudinal study aims to examine the relationships between the perception of parental style, hope, self-esteem and Eysenck’s psychoticism dimension throughout the span of four years. Methods: The sample was composed of 884 students from the Wollongong Youth Study, which commenced when students entered high school. During the course of the 4 years of the study, each participant completed the test booklets each time data was collected. Data was analyzed using one way ANOVA, Post-hoc test, Repeated Measurement, Pearson and Partial Correlation and General Linear Model in order to provide the aims of the study. Results: The mean score of hope and self-esteem among adolescents from authoritative parents were higher from permissive and authoritarian families while the hope with a permissive perception were lower than those with authoritarian, and self-esteem was lower in the authoritarian group compared to the permissive group. Children with a permissive perception reported higher psychoticism compared to the two other. Significant correlations were found between authoritative perception and hope, self-esteem and psychoticism. Finally, hope, self-esteem and psychoticism showed a significant inter correlation in all of the parental styles. Conclusion: Adolescents with the perception of each kind of parental style showed significant between group differences in psychological well-being throughout the four years of the study. PMID:23967424
This paper examines the psychological well-being of high school adolescents immigrating from Russia and Ukraine to Israel without parents. Data were collected in a 3-year longitudinal study that covered the premigration through postmigration periods. Immigrant adolescents were compared with nonemigrating adolescents in Russia and Ukraine.…
Eniola, M. S.; Ajobiewe, Abthonia Ifeoma
This current study, investigated the relative effectiveness of Emotional Intelligence Training (EIT) and Locus of Control Training (LCT) on the psychological well-being of adolescent with visual impairment. The pretest-posttest control group experimental design with a 3x2x2 factorial matrix was used. The participants were 120 adolescents with…
Shek, Daniel T L; Lee, Tak Yan
This paper examines whether Chinese adolescents' perceptions (N = 3,017) of parental behavioral control (parental knowledge, expectation, monitoring, discipline, and demandingness as well as parental control based on indigenous Chinese concepts), parental psychological control, parent-child relational qualities (perceived parental trust, child's trust of the parents, child's readiness to communicate with the parents, and child's satisfaction with parental control), and adolescent psychological well-being (hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction and self-esteem) differed in intact and non-intact families. Results showed that relative to non-intact families, parental behavioral control processes were higher and parent-child relational qualities were better in intact families. In contrast, parental psychological control was higher in non-intact families than in intact families. Finally, the psychological well-being of adolescents in non-intact families was poorer than that of adolescents in intact families.
Shoshani, Anat; Steinmetz, Sarit; Kanat-Maymon, Yaniv
As positive psychology is a nascent area of research, there are very few empirical studies assessing the impact and sustained effects of positive psychology school interventions. The current study presents a 2-year longitudinal evaluation of the effects of a school-based positive psychology program on students' subjective well-being, school engagement, and academic achievements. The study investigated the effectiveness of the Maytiv school program using a positive psychology-based classroom-level intervention with 2517 seventh- to ninth-grade students in 70 classrooms, from six schools in the center of Israel. The classes were randomly assigned to intervention and control conditions, which were comparable in terms of students' age, gender, and socio-economic status. Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed positive intervention effects on positive emotions, peer relations, emotional engagement in school, cognitive engagement, and grade point average scores (Cohen's ds 0.16-0.71). In the control group, there were significant decreases in positive emotions and cognitive engagement, and no significant changes in peer relations, emotional engagement or school achievements. These findings demonstrate the significant socio-emotional and academic benefits of incorporating components of positive psychology into school curricula.
Savage, Jessica Ann
This study investigated the variance in subjective well-being (SWB) of early adolescents ( n = 54) exposed to a positive psychology intervention aimed at increasing positive affect and life satisfaction as well as decreasing negative affect through intentional activities (e.g., gratitude journals, acts of kindness, use of character strengths,…
Shek, Daniel T. L.
The author assessed the relationships between poverty and perceived parenting style, parent-child relationships, and adolescent psychological well-being in Chinese secondary school students (N = 3,017). Participants completed questionnaires designed to assess (a) the degree to which their parents used monitoring, discipline, and other techniques…
Loth, Katie; Wall, Melanie; Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Objective In this research study, we examine how both overweight and nonoverweight adolescent girls and boys fared from 1999 to 2010 in terms of disordered eating behaviors and psychosocial well-being. Method A repeated cross-sectional design was used. Participants were recruited from public schools in 1999 (n = 3072, mean age = 14.6 ± 1.8) and 2010 (n = 2793, mean age = 14.4 ± 2.0). Secular trends were examined by weight status and gender using inverse probability weighting to control for changes in socio-demographics. Results In general, the prevalence of disordered eating behaviors and markers of psychosocial well-being among overweight girls and boys remained the same from 1999 to 2010. In contrast, among nonoverweight girls, chronic dieting, unhealthy weight control behaviors, and extreme weight control behaviors decreased, and body satisfaction improved during this time period. Further, among non-overweight boys, the prevalence of unhealthy and extreme weight control behaviors decreased, as did mean depression scores. Discussion Overall, findings indicate a strong need to ensure that messages about the dangers of disordered eating behaviors are reaching overweight youth. Obesity prevention interventions should not overlook the comorbid nature of obesity, disordered eating and poor psychosocial health; prevention programming should address shared risk factors, including dieting, media use, body dissatisfaction, and weight-related teasing. PMID:25641764
Background Multi-dimensional behavioral rating scales like the CBCL and YSR are available for diagnosing psychosocial maladjustment in adolescents, but these are unsuitable for large-scale usage since they are time-consuming and their many sensitive questions often lead to missing data. This research applies multiple imputation to tackle the effects of missing data in order to develop a simple questionnaire-based predictive instrument for psychosocial maladjustment. Methods Questionnaires from 2919 Chinese sixth graders in 21 schools were collected, but 86% of the students were missing one or more of the variables for analysis. Fifteen (10 training, 5 validation) samples were imputed using multivariate imputation chain equations. A ten-variable instrument was constructed by applying stepwise variable selection algorithms to the training samples, and its predictive performance was evaluated on the validation samples. Results The instrument had an AUC of 0.75 (95% CI: 0.73 to 0.78) and a calibration slope of 0.98 (95% CI: 0.86 to 1.09). The prevalence of psychosocial maladjustment was 18%. If a score of > 1 was used to define a negative test, then 80% of the students would be classified as negative. The resulting test had a diagnostic odds ratio of 5.64 (95% CI: 4.39 to 7.24), with negative and positive predictive values of 88% and 43%, and negative and positive likelihood ratios of 0.61 and 3.41, respectively. Conclusions Multiple imputation together with internal validation provided a simple method for deriving a predictive instrument in the presence of missing data. The instrument's high negative predictive value implies that in populations with similar prevalences of psychosocial maladjustment test-negative students can be confidently excluded as being normal, thus saving 80% of the resources for confirmatory psychological testing. PMID:21854626
Armsden, Gay G.; Greenberg, Mark T.
The development and validation of the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA), a self-report instrument for use with adolescents, is described. Item content of the instrument was suggested by Bowlby's theoretical formulations concerning the nature of feelings toward attachment figures. A hierarchical regression model was employed to…
Moreira, Paulo A. S.; Cloninger, C. Robert; Dinis, Liliana; Sá, Laura; Oliveira, João T.; Dias, Adelaide; Oliveira, Joana
Different profiles of the character dimensions of self-directedness, cooperativeness and self-transcendence result in different levels of wellbeing among adults. However, the influence of the multidimensional character profiles on adolescents' composite wellbeing remains unexplored. This study builds on previous studies with adults, and examines the linear and non-linear associations between the dimensions of the psychobiological model of personality and well-being in adolescents. Participated in this study 1540 adolescents (M = 15.44, SD = 1.731). Personality was assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Well-being was evaluated in a composite perspective: satisfaction with social support, health-related quality of life, satisfaction with life and affect. Variable-centered and individual-centered analyses were performed. Self-directedness was strongly associated with all dimensions of affective and cognitive well-being regardless of the other two character traits. Cooperativeness was associated with non-affective well-being and with positive affect, but only when associated to elevation of Self-directedness and Self-transcendence. Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness explained 15.5% of the non-affective well-being variance. Self-Directedness and Self-Transcendence explained 10.4% of the variance in affective well-being. This study confirms the tendencies found in previous studies with adults from other societies, where each character dimension gives an independent contribution to well-being depending on the interactions with other Character dimensions. Also, this study highlights the importance of considering the non-linear influences of the character dimensions in understanding of adolescents' wellbeing. These results have strong implications for youth positive mental health promotion, including for school-based policies and practices. PMID:25610408
Greenleaf, Christy; Petrie, Trent A.; Martin, Scott B.
Background: To date, research has focused primarily on psychological correlates of weight-based teasing. In this study, we extended previous work by also examining physical health-related variables (eg, physical self-concept and physical fitness [PF]). Methods: Participants included 1419 middle school students (637 boys and 782 girls). Of these,…
Cracknell, Deborah; White, Mathew P.; Pahl, Sabine; Nichols, Wallace J.; Depledge, Michael H.
Exposure to natural environments can have calming and stress-reducing effects on humans. Moreover, previous studies suggest that these benefits may be greater in areas with higher species richness. Our study took advantage of a “natural experiment” to examine people’s behavioral, physiological, and psychological reactions to increases in levels of marine biota in a large aquarium exhibit during three stages of restocking: Unstocked, Partially stocked, and Fully stocked. We found that increased biota levels were associated with longer spontaneous viewing of the exhibit, greater reductions in heart rate, greater increases in self-reported mood, and higher interest. We suggest that higher biota levels, even in managed settings, may be associated with important well-being and health benefits, particularly for individuals not able to access the natural analogues of managed environments. PMID:27818525
Wang, Ligang; Tao, Ting; Fan, Chunlei; Gao, Wenbin
The Internet has been building a new context, in which adolescents and young people complete their academic tasks, do their work, engage in social interaction, and even conduct anonymous identity experimentation. Therefore, it becomes very significant to assess psychological need satisfaction online, and to relate it to well-being. This study investigated the influence on well-being of psychological need satisfaction perceived online and the regulatory role in this relationship of psychological need satisfaction perceived in daily life. A total of 1,727 students from junior and senior high schools and universities in China were surveyed using the Basic Psychological Needs in General scale, the Basic Psychological Needs in the Online World scale, and the Index of Well-Being, Index of General Affect scale. The mean age of the adolescent sample was 17.47 years (ranging from 12.50 to 25.42 years). The results indicated that both need satisfaction perceived online and that perceived in daily life positively predicted psychological well-being, and psychological need satisfaction in daily life qualified the association between psychological need satisfaction perceived online and well-being. In particular, students who perceived higher psychological need satisfaction in daily life were found to benefit from psychological need satisfaction perceived online, but students with low psychological need satisfaction perceived in daily life did not. We suggest that people who perceive lower basic need satisfaction in daily life are more likely to use the Internet for socioaffective regulation and to consider cyberspace as a new world. Thus, need satisfaction perceived online may not transform into "real" happiness.
The purpose of this study is to identify protective factors in college student development as they relate to psychological well-being (PWB). Using archival data from National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) dataset, this research was guided by a blend of models and constructs to capture the association between college student…
Hamilton, N. A.; Nelson, C. A.; Stevens, N.; Kitzman, Heather
Although many studies have linked sleep problems with symptoms of psychopathology, fewer studies have examined the relationship between sleep and dimensions of psychological health as well as depression. To fill this gap, 502 community residents were surveyed about sleep habits, symptoms of anxiety and depression, as well as Ryff's six dimensions…
Doornwaard, Suzan M; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Baams, Laura; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; ter Bogt, Tom F M
Although a growing body of literature addresses the effects of young people's use of sexually explicit Internet material, research on the compulsive use of this type of online content among adolescents and its associated factors is largely lacking. This study investigated whether factors from three distinct psychosocial domains (i.e., psychological well-being, sexual interests/behaviors, and impulsive-psychopathic personality) predicted symptoms of compulsive use of sexually explicit Internet material among adolescent boys. Links between psychosocial factors and boys' compulsive use symptoms were analyzed both cross-sectionally and longitudinally with compulsive use symptoms measured 6 months later (T2). Data were used from 331 Dutch boys (M age = 15.16 years, range 11-17) who indicated that they used sexually explicit Internet material. The results from negative binomial regression analyses indicated that lower levels of global self-esteem and higher levels of excessive sexual interest concurrently predicted boys' symptoms of compulsive use of sexually explicit Internet material. Longitudinally, higher levels of depressive feelings and, again, excessive sexual interest predicted relative increases in compulsive use symptoms 6 months later. Impulsive and psychopathic personality traits were not uniquely related to boys' symptoms of compulsive use of sexually explicit Internet material. Our findings, while preliminary, suggest that both psychological well-being factors and sexual interests/behaviors are involved in the development of compulsive use of sexually explicit Internet material among adolescent boys. Such knowledge is important for prevention and intervention efforts that target the needs of specific problematic users of sexually explicit Internet material.
Chen, Lung Hung; Kee, Ying Hwa
Two cross-sectional studies were conducted to examine the relationships between gratitude and athletes' well-being. Study 1 examines the relationship between dispositional gratitude and well-being, while Study 2 investigates the relationship between sport-domain gratitude and well-being. In Study 1, 169 Taiwanese senior high school athletes (M =…
Durkin, John; Joseph, Stephen
Studies have shown that posttraumatic growth is associated with greater well-being. However, it is not clear whether posttraumatic growth is related to subjective well-being (SWB) or psychological well-being (PWB). Whereas SWB is derived from the hedonistic tradition, PWB is derived from the eudaimonic tradition. In a sample of 125 college…
Rieger, Gerulf; Savin-Williams, Ritch C
Both a same-sex sexual orientation and gender nonconformity have been linked with poorer well-being; however, sexual orientation and gender nonconformity are also correlated. It is, therefore, critical to investigate their independent contributions to well-being. Based on survey responses of 230 female and 245 male high school seniors, the present study is one of the first to provide empirical data on this topic. Both childhood and adolescent gender nonconformity were negatively related to well-being. In the same analyses, neither sexual orientation nor biological sex was a significant predictor of well-being. These results suggest that gender-atypical traits may be more relevant for psychological health than a same-sex sexual orientation. Both environmental and biological influences may account for these findings.
Leung, Cherry Y.; Leung, Gabriel M.; Schooling, C. Mary
Background Informal child care (child care by untrained family members, relatives or employees in the home) in Western populations is often associated with poorer psychological well-being, which may be confounded by socioeconomic position. We examined the association of informal child care, common in non-Western settings, with adolescent psychological well-being, using Hong Kong’s Chinese “Children of 1997” birth cohort. Methods Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the adjusted associations of informal child care (at 0.5, 3, 5 and 11 years) with parent-reported Rutter score for child behavior at 11 years, self-reported Culture-Free Self-Esteem Inventories score at 11 years and self-reported Patient Health Questionnaire-9 depressive symptom score at 13 years. Model comparisons were used to identify the best representation of child care, in terms of a critical period of exposure to informal child care (independent variable) at a specific age, combination of exposures to informal child care at several ages or an accumulation of exposures to informal child care. Results Child care was not associated with behavioral problems. A model considering child care at 3 years best represented the association of child care with self-esteem while a model considering child care at 5 years best represented the association of child care with depressive symptoms. Informal child care at 3 years was associated with lower self-esteem (-0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.26 to -0.14). Informal child care at 5 years was associated with more depressive symptoms (0.45, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.73). Conclusion In a developed non-Western setting, informal child care was associated with lower self-esteem and more depressive symptoms. PMID:25781484
The concept of 'psychological well-being' (as opposed to 'psychological disorder') is considered from the standpoint of George Kelly's personal construct theory (Kelly, 1955). It is argued that the origin of psychological disorder lies in a difficulty in 'person construing', with particular reference to 'self-construing'. For some (like schizophrenics) this may be a relatively permanent state of affairs, whereas for others it may reflect a temporary crisis or transition. It seems that the ability to maintain a relatively stable, yet flexible, self-construction may be crucial. Social relationships, however, although potentially validating, also carry the risk of invalidating our self-construction. An individual's particular response to 'invalidation' may be substantially determined by commonality of construing in his particular context, e.g. an adolescent female may turn to slimming whereas a young male may turn to alcohol. Although the theory has proved to be most useful at an explanatory level, it has been applied therapeutically only to a limited extent. It is argued that psychologists may make a greater contribution to the enhancement of psychological well-being by applying constructive alternativism within a learning or educational context rather than the clinical setting.
Golombok, Susan; MacCallum, Fiona; Goodman, Emma
Compared parent-child relationships and early adolescent well-being in families with children conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF), adoptive families, and families with a naturally conceived child. Found that IVF children were functioning well and did not differ from other children in social or emotional adjustment. (Author/KB)
Recently, Gomez and Fisher (Gomez R and Fisher JW (2003) Pers Individ Dif 35: 1975-1991) proposed that four facets of spiritual well-being exist, namely, personal, communal, environmental, and transcendental spiritual well-being. Based on data from three independent studies, the present research effort tested the validity of a German version of (Gomez R and Fisher JW (2003) Pers Individ Dif 35: 1975-1991) of the Spiritual Well-Being Questionnaire (SWBQ-G). It was found that the SWBQ-G was factorially valid and that each of the four SWBQ-G scales was discriminant to mental, physical, and emotional well-being. Also, it was found that the SWBQ-G predicted levels of subsequent happiness, psychological well-being (positive relationship), and stress (negative relationship). These results add to our knowledge about the validity of the construct of spiritual well-being.
Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Lack, Leon C.; Wright, Helen R.; Dohnt, Hayley
Aim: Adolescent sleep patterns vary between countries, and these differences influence adolescent functioning and well-being. The present study provides data on the sleep and well-being of Australian adolescents. Methods: 385 adolescents aged 13-18 years were recruited from 8 South Australian schools spanning the socio-economic spectrum.…
Krause, Neal; Ingersoll-Dayton, Berit; Ellison, Christopher G.; Wulff, Keith M.
Study looks at whether religious doubt is related to psychological well-being, and tests for age differences in the relationship between these two constructs. Findings suggest that religious doubt tends to erode feelings of psychological well-being. The deleterious effects of doubt were found to be greater for younger than older people.…
The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship between Internet addiction and psychological well-being. Participants were 479 university students who completed a questionnaire package that included the Online Cognition Scale and the Scales of Psychological Well-Being. The relationships between Internet addiction and psychological…
Panahi, Soheila; Yunus, Aida Suraya Md; Roslan, Samsilah; Kadir, Rusnani Abdul; Jaafar, Wan Marzuki Wan; Panahi, Mohammad Saeed
Investigations in the field of psychology have traditionally paid attention to studying mental health problems and their prevention (Kaplan, Shema, & Leite, 2008; Kokko, Korkalainen, Lyyra, & Feldt, 2012). However, a lack of psychological problems is not necessarily an indicator of the psychological well-being of individuals. Therefore,…
Jackson, Linda A; Fitzgerald, Hiram E; Zhao, Yong; Kolenic, Anthony; von Eye, Alexander; Harold, Rena
The relationship between four types of information technology use and eight dimensions of psychological well-being were examined in a sample of 500 African American and Anglo-American girls and boys. Both parent and child ratings of well-being were considered. Findings indicated that greater IT use, but especially greater videogame use, was associated with lower psychological well-being, with one exception: greater Internet use for purposes other than communication was associated with greater psychological well-being. Greater Internet use for communication was associated with more social problems in real life. Gender and race differences in psychological well-being and IT use suggest that African American males may be at risk for the adverse effects of IT use because their videogame playing equals that of Anglo-American males, but their Internet use is the least of all groups.
A conceptual model is presented to examine the hypothesis that androgyny is advantageous to the psychological well-being of both females and males in American society. A format for the multi-dimensional assessment of both sex-role components and indices of well-being is proposed, and possibilities for exploring the interface between these sets of…
Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Lin, Gloria
With the growing popularity of Internet communication applications among adolescents, the Internet has become an important social context for their development. This paper examined the relationship between adolescent online activity and well-being. Participants included 156 adolescents between 15 to 18.4 years of age who were surveyed about their…
Ryff, Carol D.
This article reviews the research and interventions that have grown up around a model of psychological well-being (Ryff, 1989) generated more than two decades ago to address neglected aspects of positive functioning, such as purposeful engagement in life, realization of personal talents and capacities, and enlightened self-knowledge. The conceptual origins of this formulation are revisited and scientific products emerging from six thematic areas are examined: (1) how well-being changes across adult development and later life, (2) what are the personality correlates of well-being, (3) how well-being is linked with experiences in family life, (4) how well-being relates to work and other community activities, (5) what are the connections between well-being and health, including biological risk factors, (6) and via clinical and intervention studies, how psychological well-being can be promoted for ever greater segments of society. Together, these topics illustrate flourishing interest across diverse scientific disciplines in understanding adults as striving, meaning-making, proactive organisms who are actively negotiating the challenges of life. A take-home message is that increasing evidence supports the health protective features of psychological well-being in reducing risk for disease and promoting length of life. A recurrent and increasingly important theme is resilience – the capacity to maintain or regain well-being in the face of adversity. Implications for future research and practice are considered. PMID:24281296
Videon, Tami M.
This study explores the unique influence of fathers on adolescents' psychological well-being. Analyses are based on a nationally representative sample (Add Health) of students in Grades 7 through 12 living in intact homes. Results of multivariate analyses reveal that the father-adolescent relationship has an independent impact on adolescents'…
Rafanelli, Chiara; Ruini, Chiara
The measures of disease status alone are insufficient to describe the burden of illness or one's attitudes toward illness and life. The subjective health status including psychological resources and well-being is as valid as that of the clinician when it comes to evaluating outcomes. The aim of this chapter is to provide a theoretical framework for the assessment of psychological well-being and positive functioning and to review the literature supporting the influence of these positive dimensions on illness development and health protection. We selected the assessment tools such as Kellner's Symptom Questionnaire, Antonovsky's Sense of Coherence, Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scales and Psychosocial Index that we found most helpful in clinical and psychosomatic practice and that displayed clinimetric properties of sensitivity in research.
Liddle, Ian; Carter, Greg F. A.
The Stirling Children's Well-being Scale (SCWBS) was developed by the Stirling Council Educational Psychology Service (UK) as a holistic, positively worded measure of emotional and psychological well-being in children aged eight to 15 years. Drawing on current theories of well-being and Positive Psychology, the aim was to provide a means of…
Lever, Joaquina Palomar; Pinol, Nuria Lanzagorta; Uralde, Jorge Hernandez
This study was carried out for the purpose of explaining the mediating effects of a number of psychological variables (strategies for coping with stress, competitiveness, mastery, locus of control, depression and self-esteem) in the relationship between poverty and the well-being of individuals. To carry out the study, a non-probabilistic,…
Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.; van Hooijdonk, Mare; Van Viersen, Sietske; Middel-Lalleman, Marieke M. N.; Reijnders, Julièt J. W.
This study examined the psychological well-being of gifted primary school children. From a screening sample of 233 children in Grades 1 and 2 across five schools in the Netherlands, 35 children achieving high scores on two out of three selection criteria (teacher nomination, creativity, and nonverbal reasoning ability) and 34 typically developing…
van der Wal, Reine C.; Karremans, Johan C.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.
Although the ability to forgive offending peers may be crucial for maintaining long-term friendships in childhood, little is actually known about forgiveness among peers in childhood. In the present research, we examined whether forgiveness among children is related to enhanced psychological well-being. Importantly, we hypothesized that this…
Orthner, Dennis K.; Rose, Roderick
Using family resilience and ecological theories, we examine the relationship between partner work-required travel separations and spouse psychological well-being. The study examines the role of work-organization-provided supports for families and of informal support networks, including marital satisfaction, as factors that can reduce the risks for…
Ess, Brian C.
The growth of Internet usage in American society has added new modes of communication, primarily through computer-mediated communication (CMC)on the Internet. Research on the relationship between Internet use and psychological well-being has been mixed and this study attempted to reconcile the discrepancies in results by exploring the…
Borges, António; Gaspar de Matos, Margarida; Diniz, José Alves
The study examines the impact of body image in adolescents' well-being. Well-being was assessed with the scale Kidscreen10, with the Cantril ladder for satisfaction with life and with an ad hoc happiness scale. The study presents data on adolescent health from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC)/World Health Organization study in Portugal (2006), with a sample of 4,877 adolescents, average age of 14 years old and gender distribution at 49,6% males. Portuguese adolescents showed differences between gender and age group regarding their body image-related satisfaction/dissatisfaction and self-perceived body image, being that both components have a direct impact on the levels of well-being. The male gender has better results in the perception of body image and, consequently, well-being. The largest inter-gender differences for well-being is at 15 years of age. The main predictors of well-being are the look and body satisfaction/dissatisfaction, with greater importance on the affective component. This research highlights the importance of body image for adolescents' well-being, as well as to prepare educational strategies adapted to adolescents' age and gender, by helping them to develop skills concerning self-knowledge and caring for their look.
Ponterotto, Joseph G; Costa-Wofford, Catarina I; Brobst, Karen Elizabeth; Spelliscy, Dorota; Kacanski, Jaclyn Mendelsohn; Scheinholtz, Jennifer; Martines, Danielle
The authors investigated the empirical relationship between K. I. van der Zee and J. P. van Oudenhoven's (2000, 2001) multicultural personality dispositions and C. D. Ryff's (1989b) dimensions of psychological well-being. The present sample included 270 students from one primarily graduate university and one primarily undergraduate university in the northeast region of the United States. Factor analysis indicated that a three-dimensional model of the multicultural personality was the best fit structure for the sample. Correlations between multicultural personality scores and psychological well-being scores were generally positive and in the predicted directions. However, the academic setting of the participants appeared to influence the pattern of relationships. The authors identified the multicultural personality as a promising construct for research across diverse psychology specialties.
McAllister, Jan; Collier, Jacqueline; Shepstone, Lee
Background: Developmental stuttering is associated with increased risk of psychological distress and mental health difficulties. Less is known about the impact of other developmental speech problems on psychological outcomes, or the impact of stuttering and speech problems once other predictors have been adjusted for. Aims: To determine the impact…
The literature is divided on the issue of what matters for adolescents' well-being, with one approach focusing on quality and the other on routine family time. Using the experience sampling method, a unique form of time diary, and survey data drawn from the 500 Family Study ("N" = 237 adolescents with 8,122 observations), this study examined the…
Bohanek, Jennifer G.; Fivush, Robyn
Relations between narratives, especially the inclusion of internal state language within narratives, and well-being have been found in adults. However, research with adolescents has been sparse and the findings inconsistent. We examined gender differences in adolescents' personal autobiographical narratives as well as relations between internal…
King, Valarie; Sobolewski, Juliana M.
Using data from 453 adolescents in Wave 2 of the National Survey of Families and Households, we examine how multiple dimensions of nonresident father involvement are associated with different dimensions of child well-being. Father-child relationship quality and responsive fathering are modestly associated with fewer externalizing and internalizing problems among adolescents. The quality of the mother-child relationship, however, has stronger effects on child well-being. Nevertheless, even if adolescents have weak ties to mothers, those who have strong ties to nonresident fathers exhibit fewer internalizing problems and less acting out at school than adolescents who have weak ties to both parents. Adolescents are worst off on a range of outcomes when they have weak ties to both their mothers and nonresident fathers. PMID:18270550
Díaz, Darío; Rodríguez-Carvajal, Raquel; Blanco, Amalio; Moreno-Jiménez, Bernardo; Gallardo, Ismael; Valle, Carmen; van Dierendonck, Dirk
The aim of this paper is to adapt to Spanish the D. van Direndonck version of Carol Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scales, and to analyse its consistency and factorial validity. All the scales exhibited good internal reliabilities, with Cronbach alpha's ranging from 0.83 (Self-acceptance) to 0.68 (Personal growth). However, confirmatory factor analyses didn't corroborate the six-factor model (Self-acceptance, Positive relations, Autonomy, Environmental mastery, Purpose in life, and Personal growth) with a second order factor called Psychological Well-Being . To improve the psychometric properties, a new reduced version was proposed that indeed will facilitate the application. The scales of the new version maintain and raise its internal consistency (Cronbach alpha's 0.84 to 0.70). Furthermore, the scales shown an excellent fit to the theoretical model proposed by D. van Dierendonck.
Reed, Sarah C.; Edwards, Todd C.
Objectives. We examined associations between parental military service and adolescent well-being. Methods. We used cross-sectional data from the 2008 Washington State Healthy Youth Survey collected in public school grades 8, 10, and 12 (n = 10 606). We conducted multivariable logistic regression analyses to test associations between parental military service and adolescent well-being (quality of life, depressed mood, thoughts of suicide). Results. In 8th grade, parental deployment was associated with higher odds of reporting thoughts of suicide among adolescent girls (odds ratio [OR] = 1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.19, 2.32) and higher odds of low quality of life (OR = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.43, 3.10) and thoughts of suicide (OR = 1.75; 95% CI = 1.15, 2.67) among adolescent boys. In 10th and 12th grades, parental deployment was associated with higher odds of reporting low quality of life (OR = 2.74; 95% CI = 1.79, 4.20), depressed mood (OR = 1.50; 95% CI = 1.02, 2.20), and thoughts of suicide (OR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.13, 2.38) among adolescent boys. Conclusions. Parental military deployment is associated with increased odds of impaired well-being among adolescents, especially adolescent boys. Military, school-based, and public health professionals have a unique opportunity to develop school- and community-based interventions to improve the well-being of adolescents in military families. PMID:21778477
Vrangalova, Zhana; Savin-Williams, Ritch C.
The link between adolescent sexual activity and psychological well-being is a controversial issue in developmental psychology. This cross-sectional study investigated the association between three aspects of teenage sexuality (genital sexual experience, age of sexual onset, and number of sex partners) and positive well-being (hedonic, eudaimonic,…
Evans, Gary W
Childhood disadvantage has repeatedly been linked to adult physical morbidity and mortality. We show in a prospective, longitudinal design that childhood poverty predicts multimethodological indices of adult (24 y of age) psychological well-being while holding constant similar childhood outcomes assessed at age 9. Adults from low-income families manifest more allostatic load, an index of chronic physiological stress, higher levels of externalizing symptoms (e.g., aggression) but not internalizing symptoms (e.g., depression), and more helplessness behaviors. In addition, childhood poverty predicts deficits in adult short-term spatial memory.
Brown, Steven D; Lent, Robert W
The present review organizes the vocational psychology literature published between 2007 and 2014 into three overarching themes: Promoting (a) agency in career development, (b) equity in the work force, and (c) well-being in work and educational settings. Research on career adaptability, self-efficacy beliefs, and work volition is reviewed in the agency section, with the goal of delineating variables that promote or constrain the exercise of personal agency in academic and occupational pursuits. The equity theme covers research on social class and race/ethnicity in career development; entry and retention of women and people of color in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields; and the career service needs of survivors of domestic violence and of criminal offenders. The goal was to explore how greater equity in the work force could be promoted for these groups. In the well-being section, we review research on hedonic (work, educational, and life satisfaction) and eudaimonic (career calling, meaning, engagement, and commitment) variables, with the goal of understanding how well-being might be promoted at school and at work. Future research needs related to each theme are also discussed.
Petts, Richard J
Despite numerous studies on adolescent well-being, longitudinal research on the influence of religion on well-being is lacking, and limited studies have looked at how family and religion may work in conjunction with one another to influence adolescent well-being. This study addresses these limitations by using longitudinal data on 5,739 youth to explore whether family structure, changes in family structure, parent-child relationship quality, and religious attendance (overall and with parents) influence trajectories of psychological well-being independently and in conjunction with one another. Results support previous research in showing that parental interaction and attending religious services with parent(s) in late childhood are associated with higher psychological well-being, whereas conflict with parents and residing in a nontraditional family in late childhood are associated with lower well-being among youth. Finally, there is evidence suggesting that attending religious services with parent(s) amplifies the positive influence of parental interaction on psychological well-being, and overall levels of religious attendance over time are less likely to increase well-being among adolescents raised by single parents than for adolescents raised by married parents.
Long, Rachel F; Huebner, E Scott; Wedell, Douglas H; Hills, Kimberly J
The tripartite model of subjective well-being (SWB) incorporates 3 components: frequent positive emotions, infrequent negative emotions, and an overall positive evaluation of life circumstances (Diener, Suh, Lucas, & Smith, 1999). In light of the large amount of time that youth spend in school, this study investigated a tripartite model of school-related SWB among adolescents, based on 3 measures of SWB appropriate for adolescents. The measures included a measure of school satisfaction (SS) and measures of positive and negative emotions experienced specifically during school hours. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to analyze the factorial validity of 3- and 4-factor models of school-related SWB in a sample of 921 adolescents. Results indicated that a 4-factor model comprised of positive emotions, negative emotions, fear-related negative emotions, and SS best described the structure of school-related SWB in the current sample. Results also revealed a comparable factor structure for male and female students. The study points to the possible benefits of a contextualized approach to SWB that takes into account the specific environments in which adolescents live.
Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Lin, Gloria
With the growing popularity of Internet communication applications among adolescents, the Internet has become an important social context for their development. This paper examined the relationship between adolescent online activity and well-being. Participants included 156 adolescents between 15 to 18.4 years of age who were surveyed about their access to and use of the Internet. Participants also completed measures of loneliness and perceived social support. An ANOVA suggested that loneliness was not related to the total time spent online, nor to the time spent on e-mail, but was related to participants' gender. Regression analyses suggested that gender and participants' perceptions regarding their online relationships were the only variables that predicted loneliness. Adolescents who felt that their relationship with online partners was one that they could turn to in times of need were more lonely. However, perceived support from significant others was not related to time spent online, time on e-mail, participants' relationships with online partners, and to their perceptions about these relationships. The implications of our results for researchers, parents, and other lay persons are discussed.
Pérez-Garín, Daniel; Molero, Fernando; Bos, Arjan E R
This study examines the relationships between internalized stigma, psychological well-being, and subjective well-being in a sample of people with mental illness. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 213 outpatients from the Spanish public social care network. The results showed that (a) internalized stigma was significantly negatively correlated with psychological well-being and subjective well-being (affect balance and life satisfaction) (all correlations are significant with at least p<0.05; most with p<0.001), (b) the two types of well-being were significantly positively correlated and regressions models were significant and (all correlations are at least p<0.01, and regression models are also significant), (c) the effect of internalized stigma on affect balance and life satisfaction was mediated by psychological well-being. The component of internalized stigma most consistently associated with both types of well-being was alienation (life satisfaction: B=-0.35, p=0.001; affect balance: B=-0.38, p=0.001). These findings should be confirmed in future longitudinal or experimental research. On the basis of these results we recommend that interventions to combat self-stigma aim to reduce feelings of alienation and improve self-acceptance and other aspects of positive psychological functioning.
Kenyon, DenYelle Baete; Carter, Jessica S.
Limited research has examined how ethnic identity and sense of community may be associated with psychological well-being in American Indian adolescents. Via survey data, we examined the relationships among ethnic identity, sense of community, psychosomatic symptoms, positive affect, and feelings of depression with students from a tribal high…
Sweeting, Helen; Hunt, Kate
Studies of adults and adolescents suggest subjective socio-economic status (SES) is associated with health/well-being even after adjustment for objective SES. In adolescence, objective SES may have weaker relationships with health/well-being than at other life stages; school-based social status may be of greater relevance. We investigated the associations which objective SES (residential deprivation and family affluence), subjective SES and three school-based subjective social status dimensions (“SSS-peer”, “SSS-scholastic” and “SSS-sports”) had with physical symptoms, psychological distress and anger among 2503 Scottish 13–15 year-olds. Associations between objective SES and health/well-being were weak and inconsistent. Lower subjective SES was associated with increased physical symptoms and psychological distress, lower SSS-peer with increased psychological distress but reduced anger, lower SSS-scholastic with increased physical symptoms, psychological distress and anger, and lower SSS-sports with increased physical symptoms and psychological distress. Associations did not differ by gender. Objective and subjective SES had weaker associations with health/well-being than did school-based SSS dimensions. These findings underline the importance of school-based SSS in adolescence, and the need for future studies to include a range of school-based SSS dimensions and several health/well-being measures. They also highlight the need for a focus on school-based social status among those working to promote adolescent health/well-being. PMID:25306408
Størksen, Ingunn; Røysamb, Espen; Holmen, Turid L; Tambs, Kristian
This study investigates the long-term effects of parental divorce on adolescent psychological adjustment and well-being, and to what extent the effects are accounted for by parental psychological distress. Data were collected among 8,984 Norwegian adolescents (13-19 years) and their parents. Outcome variables were symptoms of anxiety and depression, subjective well-being, and three areas of school problems. Parental divorce was found to be associated with both higher mean levels and larger variances in adolescent problems. Divorce and parental distress contributed independently to adolescent distress, supporting the notion of "double exposure" effects. The prevalence of adolescents with substantial distress symptoms was 14% among those with non-distressed non-divorced parents and 30% among those with divorced and distressed parents. In general effects remained when controlling for demographic factors. Long-term effects of divorce on symptoms of anxiety and depression were stronger among girls than among boys.
Hunter, Simon C.; Houghton, Stephen; Wood, Lisa
While there is increasing recognition of the need to go beyond measures of mental ill health, there is a relative dearth of validated tools for assessing mental well-being among adolescents. The Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) is a promising tool for use in this context, and this study evaluated its use in an Australian context.…
van den Wittenboer, Godfried; van der Wolf, Kees; van Dixhoorn, Jan
Among the relations between respiration and psychological state, associations with respiratory variability have been contradictory. In this study, respiration was measured noninvasively in 162 children with a mean age of 11 years (from 9 to 13). They completed a battery of psychological tests. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM or LISREL) revealed a model that fit the data well (chi 2 = 88.201, df = 79, p = .224). In this model, respiratory variability was positively related to anger-in and negatively to negative fear of failure and neurotic complaints. Respiration rate was positively related to positive fear of failure, and duty cycle was positively related to the latent variable of negative affect. Variability in resting time components of respiration was higher among children with less fear of failure and fewer complaints. Therefore, respiratory variability need not necessarily be a sign of psychological dysfunctions, and interventions should not always impose a fixed breathing pattern.
A growing body of research reveals that religious doubt may have a deleterious effect on well-being. However, relatively less is known about how people try to cope with doubt. The purpose of this study is to see whether providing tangible help to others offsets the effects of religious doubt on well-being. Findings from a nationwide survey of middle-aged and older adults indicate that helping strangers reduces the negative relationship between religious doubt and three indicators of well-being: self-esteem, life satisfaction, and optimism. But in contrast, similar dissonance reduction benefits were not provided by helping family members and friends.
Wakefield, W. David; Hudley, Cynthia
Identity is a major developmental task for adolescents, and the development of ethnic identity is a unique and significant developmental task for many adolescents. This article reviews theoretical and empirical literature that informs our understanding of the development of a positive ethnic identity, and the consequences for adolescent mental…
Froh, Jeffery J.; Sefick, William J.; Emmons, Robert A.
The development and manifestation of gratitude in youth is unclear. We examined the effects of a grateful outlook on subjective well-being and other outcomes of positive psychological functioning in 221 early adolescents. Eleven classes were randomly assigned to either a gratitude, hassles, or control condition. Results indicated that counting…
In this research, to what extent the variables of perceived social support (family, friends and special people) and assertiveness predicted the psychological well-being levels of candidate psychological counselors. The research group of this study included totally randomly selected 308 candidate psychological counselors including 174 females…
Juszczak, Linda; Cooper, Kathleen
Adolescent men are at risk of having significant unmet health care needs. Like adolescent girls, they have complex health care needs and are more likely than younger children to be to be uninsured. They are less likely than women and other age groups to seek medical attention from traditional sources of care. Because of inadequate youth-oriented services, as well as teens' developmental stage, they have a tendency to receive care that is brief and problem oriented . Such care is not likely to address complex problems that may be related to risk behaviors. Adolescent boys are also more concerned with the skills of the provider offering services than with the system in which the provider functions. Opportunities for outreach to adolescent men exist within many institutions. Nurses as advocates, educators, counselors, and providers of preventive health care have a creative opportunity for enhancing services to the teenage boy. The school is a natural place to begin as adolescents spend a significant part of each day there. Family planning and STI clinics are a source of care that are not well used by adolescent males, but when they do attend it is an opportunity to identify problems, provide counseling and referrals, and offer continuity. These health care institutions are not often welcoming or comfortable for the male youth. Use of these clinics will be enhanced by providers demonstrating increased acceptance of the adolescent when he attends as well as actively requesting that he attend with his partner. The most unusual but sorely needed outreach must be made to incarcerated and delinquent adolescent male. Residential facilities for delinquent youth need to be encouraged to provide a multidisciplinary comprehensive medical, mental health, and social services model. This approach will not only benefit the adolescent but the youth's community as well. Emergency rooms represent another crucial, missed opportunity to connect with young men. With some forethought
Espinosa-Hernández, Graciela; Vasilenko, Sara A; McPherson, Jenna L; Gutierrez, Estefania; Rodriguez, Andrea
Guided by theoretical (Brooks-Gunn & Paikoff, 1997) and empirical work (Horne & Zimmer-Gembeck, 2005), this cross-sectional study examined whether sexual well-being (sexual self-acceptance, importance of mutual consent, importance of safe sex) was associated with life satisfaction among Mexican adolescents, and whether these associations were moderated by gender, age, and familism. Mexican adolescents (54% girls, 72% middle schoolers, 30% sexually active) completed surveys. Findings indicated that a greater belief in the importance of safe sex was associated with higher levels of life satisfaction. Greater sexual self-acceptance was associated with life satisfaction, and familism moderated this association. This association was stronger among adolescents who reported low familism. This study contributes to the understanding of sexual adolescent well-being and psychological adjustment in Mexico, an understudied cultural context.
Mesch, Gustavo S.; Turjeman, Hagit; Fishman, Gideon
This study draws on the social-discount and social-rejection hypotheses to examine the effect of perceived discrimination on immigrant youths' depressive moods, self-efficacy, and preferences for in-group socialization experiences. Data from a panel study of immigrant young adolescents (aged 12-18) who came to Israel from countries of the former…
Ciairano, Silvia; Bonino, Silvia; Kliewer, Wendy; Miceli, Renato; Jackson, Sandy
Associations among dating, sexual activity, gender, and adjustment were investigated in 2,273 Italian adolescents (54% female, ages 14 to 19 years) attending public high schools. After controlling for age and type of school attended, both being in a dating relationship and being male were associated with less alienation, more positive views of the…
Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Lee, Jungeun; Morrison, Diane M.; Lindhorst, Taryn
Research suggests that adult marriages confer benefits. Does marriage following a teenage birth confer benefits similar to those observed for adults? Longitudinal data from a community sample of 235 young women who gave birth as unmarried adolescents were used to examine this question. Controlling for socioeconomic status and preexisting…
Dimitrova, Radosveta; Chasiotis, Athanasios; Bender, Michael; van de Vijver, Fons J R
In Europe and specifically in Bulgaria, Roma represent the largest indigenous ethnic minority exposed to severe discrimination, social exclusion, poverty, and compromised well-being. To improve their conditions, identifying sources of psychological well-being for Roma is theoretically relevant and practically important. This study investigated the relation between ethnic, familial, and religious identities as salient collective identity components for psychological well-being among 194 Roma adolescents (age: M = 16.11 years, SD = 1.36) and their mothers (age: M = 35.95 years, SD = 3.54). The results indicated that in line with marginalization models of acculturation, Roma youth and their mothers showed a low endorsement of both Bulgarian mainstream and Roma ethnic identity. The average scores of well-being were also low. For both groups, familial identity was stronger compared to Roma, Bulgarian, and religious identity. A path model showed that collective identity was a positive predictor of well-being in both adolescents and mothers and that the mothers' collective identity was a predictor of adolescent well-being. Bulgarian mainstream identity had the strongest relationship with collective identity. It is concluded that, for Roma youth and their mothers, family is an important identity domain as it represents the most salient identification source that is not challenged in their environment.
Dawson, Joe; Singh-Dhesi, Davinder
This article presents one English local authority's educational psychology service's approach to supporting children and young people's psychological well-being. Evidence for the effectiveness of the therapeutic approaches adopted by one intervention (the Child Behaviour Intervention Initiative [CBII]) is presented. The statistical analysis…
McNulty, James K; Fincham, Frank D
The field of positive psychology rests on the assumption that certain psychological traits and processes are inherently beneficial for well-being. We review evidence that challenges this assumption. First, we review data from 4 independent longitudinal studies of marriage revealing that 4 ostensibly positive processes-forgiveness, optimistic expectations, positive thoughts, and kindness-can either benefit or harm well-being depending on the context in which they operate. Although all 4 processes predicted better relationship well-being among spouses in healthy marriages, they predicted worse relationship well-being in more troubled marriages. Then, we review evidence from other research that reveals that whether ostensibly positive psychological traits and processes benefit or harm well-being depends on the context of various noninterpersonal domains as well. Finally, we conclude by arguing that any movement to promote well-being may be most successful to the extent that it (a) examines the conditions under which the same traits and processes may promote versus threaten well-being, (b) examines both healthy and unhealthy people, (c) examines well-being over substantial periods of time, and (d) avoids labeling psychological traits and processes as positive or negative.
Briner, R B
Work environments appear to have both positive and negative impacts on the psychological well-being of workers. This paper reviews a number of models and theories that have addressed this issue. First, those aspects of the psychological work environment, which are thought to be most relevant to well-being, are described. Second, a number of models and theories are considered. How then is it possible to best understand how the work environment creates a psychological environment, which in turn may affect psychological well-being? While some of the available approaches are general and offer descriptive frameworks, others do attempt to explain the relationships between a more narrow set of work characteristics and well-being. Further, recent approaches focus on explaining emotional reactions at work and the role of the psychological contract. A sound understanding of work and well-being is still some way away. However, focusing on more specific kinds of well-being, taking account of other contextual influences, and looking at both the salubrious and harmful effects of the work environment are likely to bring about greater understanding.
Brook, David W.; Rubenstone, Elizabeth; Zhang, Chenshu; Morojele, Neo K.; Brook, Judith S.
This is the first study to examine the pathways from environmental stressors to substance use among a sample of South African adolescents (N=2,195). The study objective was to assess how environmental stressors might affect cigarette smoking and alcohol use among South African adolescents, and to focus on one mechanism, low well-being, which might mediate this association. Participants consisted of 2,195 Black, mixed ancestry (“Coloured”), Indian, and White youth, aged 12 to 17 years old (mean age=14.6; SD=1.8), recruited via a multi-stage stratified sampling procedure in Durban, Cape Town, and Johannesburg, South Africa. Data were collected via individual in-person structured interviews, administered by trained interviewers in the participant’s preferred language. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the interrelationships of environmental stressors (violent victimisation, legal and illegal drug availability) and low well-being (depressive symptoms, low self-esteem, health problems) with respect to adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use. The results supported our hypotheses: Environmental stressors were related to low well-being which, in turn, was linked to both adolescent smoking and alcohol use. There were also direct pathways from environmental stressors to both adolescent smoking and alcohol use. Smoking and alcohol use were significantly correlated. The findings suggest that environmental stressors may be associated with diminished psychological and physical well-being, as well as smoking and alcohol use, among South African adolescents. Longitudinal research is warranted to further understand the interrelationship of environmental stressors, low well-being, and adolescent substance use, so that these issues may be addressed by South African programmes and policies. PMID:21492977
Cooke, Richard; Bewick, Bridgette M.; Barkham, Michael; Bradley, Margaret; Audin, Kerry
This paper profiles the psychological well-being of students in their initial year of university. There were three aims: to measure the impact of arrival at university on the psychological well-being of first year students, to monitor (i.e. profile) the shape of psychological well-being across the first year, and to investigate how students manage…
Gustems-Carnicer, Josep; Calderón, Caterina
The coping strategies used by students play a key role in their psychological well-being. This study examines the relationship between coping strategies and psychological well-being in a sample of 98 undergraduates aged between 19 and 42 years. Coping strategies were evaluated by means of the CRI-A (Moos, 1993), while psychological well-being was…
Winter, Laura Anne; Burman, Erica; Hanley, Terry; Kalambouka, Afroditi; Mccoy, Lauren
There are established links between education and well-being, and between poverty and education. This article draws on interviews with parents of school-aged children impacted by a policy in the UK commonly referred to as the 'bedroom tax'. A critical psychology perspective to education is put forward, acknowledging the complex interrelationships…
KHAN, Yasmin; TAGHDISI, Muhammad Hussain; NOURIJELYANI, Keramat
Background: Adolescence is a critical developmental stage marked by complex transitions. The purpose of study was to assess school adolescents’ PWB, examine the relationship of PA and socio-demographic factors with PWB. Methods: A cross sectional study conducted in five randomly selected schools with 345 adolescents (aged 12–18) from grade 6th–10th. A self-administered Well-Being index was adapted to measure PWB and questionnaire for adolescents PA (PAQ-A). Socio-demographic variables determined: age, gender, household income and parental education. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses performed to examine the association between PWB, PA and covariates. Results: Findings indicated the mean age 14.64 (SD=1.275), 55.4% were female. Without gender difference the majority (43.4%) of adolescents showed moderate, while (23.2%) revealed low level of PWB. Participants with low level likely to have depression but scores were significantly not different between low, moderate and high PWB with PA. Socio-demographic trends of adolescents’ were observed significant (P <0.005) for PWB. In multivariable analysis the mean wellbeing in females adjusted for other covariates was significant (P =0.004) than males. PWB importantly (P <0.001) decreased by 3.36 units as its covariates increased and PA score in boys found 0.05 unit more than girls. Conclusion: The study results are invaluable in addressing low, moderate and high levels of PWB. Inadequate PA and PWB decreasing with some socio-demographic covariates is crucial health issue among female adolescents in Pakistan. Further studies need to find barrier, social indicators of PWB and implication of health among adolescents. PMID:26258093
Ferrari, Laura; Rosnati, Rosa; Manzi, Claudia; Benet-Martínez, Verònica
The ethnic identity development plays a crucial role in adolescence and emerging adulthood and may be more complex for adoptees who do not share their ethnic identity with their adoptive families. Evidence from the studies was mixed, with strong ethnic identity not always found to be indicative of improved psychological adjustment. Recently research carried out on ethnic minorities has highlighted that the relation between ethnic identity and well-being could be influenced by Bicultural Identity Integration (BII) (Benet-Martínez et al., 2002): It reflects how individuals who experience more than one culture organize and combine their dual cultural backgrounds. These results are consistent also among adoptees (Manzi, Ferrari, Rosnati, & Benet-Martínez, 2013) but need to be further explored. A longitudinal study was conducted to investigate whether and the extent to which ethnic identity, national identity, and BII are protective factors for adoptees' psychological well-being. A self-report questionnaire was administered to 79 Italian transracial adoptees, aged between 15 and 25, at two time points, one year apart. In line with predictions, longitudinal analyses showed the crucial role of BII that turned out to increase higher levels of well-being one year later. Results are discussed in relation to implications for intervention with adoptive parents and children.
Psychological well-being is the ultimate "quality of life" measure. The presence of a neurosensory disorder (NSD) in a child, such as ADD, ADHD, Asperger's syndrome, or autism, can rob the child of psychological well-being, or hamper the growth of well-being as the child develops. Fortunately, treatment of NSDs can remove obstacles to the…
Garcia, Giancarlo A; Khoshnevis, Matin; Gale, Jesse; Frousiakis, Starleen E; Hwang, Tiffany J; Poincenot, Lissa; Karanjia, Rustum; Baron, David; Sadun, Alfredo A
Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of profound vision loss on psychological well-being in adolescents, young adults, and middle-aged adults with regard to mood, interpersonal interactions, and career-related goals. In addition, we assessed the significance of the resources that may be used to enhance psychological well-being in cases of profound vision loss, and in particular, examined the utility of low vision aids and the role of the ophthalmologist as a provider of emotional support. Methods A questionnaire was issued to individuals aged 13–65 years with profound vision loss resulting from Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). Depression prevalence was evaluated with questions regarding major depressive disorder symptomatology. Participants appraised the effects of vision loss on their interpersonal interactions and career goals by providing an impact rating (IR) on a 21-point psychometric scale from −10 to +10. Social well-being index was defined as the average of interpersonal IR and career IR. Subjects were additionally asked about the use of low vision aids and sources of emotional support. Results A total of 103 participants (mean age =26.4±11.2 years at LHON diagnosis; mean ± standard deviation) completed the questionnaire. Nearly half (49.5%) met the depression criteria after vision loss. Negative impacts on interpersonal interactions (median IR = −5) and career goals (median IR = −6) were observed; both ratings were worse (P<0.001) for depressed versus nondepressed subjects. Older age at diagnosis corresponded to higher depression prevalence and increased incidence of negative interpersonal IR and career IR. Sixty-eight percent of subjects used electronic vision aids; controlling for age, social well-being index was higher among these individuals than for those who did not use electronic aids (P=0.03). Over half of the participants (52.4%) asserted that they derived emotional support from their ophthalmologist
Culbertson, Satoris S; Fullagar, Clive J; Mills, Maura J
This study seeks to determine the relationship between psychological capital and an employee's eudaimonic and hedonic well-being. Panel data were collected from 102 extension agents over a 2-week interval. In addition, daily surveys were collected from 67 of the participants. Results from the panel data indicated that the relation between psychological capital and hedonic well-being, measured two weeks later, is mediated by eudaimonic well-being. Results from the daily surveys found that daily eudaimonic work well-being was significantly associated with both daily positive mood and daily life satisfaction and that variance in eudaimonic work well-being was predicted by one's psychological capital.
Saleem, Shemaila; Saleem, Tamkeen
Religion has been generally considered as a protective factor for the psychological health of the people. As many studies have publicized a high prevalence of psychological morbidities among the medical students during their academic stages of medical schools, it is significant to investigate whether religiosity functions as a protective factor, to explore religiosity as a predictor of psychological well-being in a sample of medical students, and to compare the results of medical students as well as non-medical students with respect to religiosity and psychological well-being. The study is carried out in Federal Medical and Dental College and International Islamic University, Islamabad. The present study examined a sample of 120 medical students from Federal Medical and Dental College and 120 non-medical students from International Islamic University, Islamabad. Purposive sampling was used. The respondents completed religious orientation scale and scale of psychological well-being scale along with a demographic data sheet. In order to measure the study variables, linear regression and t test were used. The findings revealed that religiosity is a strong predictor of psychological well-being. Extrinsic and intrinsic religiosity predicts psychological well-being among the students. The results indicated a significant difference in psychological well-being between medical and non-medical students. No significant difference was found in religiosity of medical and non-medical students. The gender differences in religiosity and psychological well-being were found to be insignificant. The results emphasize that psychological well-being is prophesied by religiosity. The present research suggests further investigations and also endows with trends for psychological evaluation, development of religious beliefs, and interventions for augmenting psychological well-being among the medical students.
Lindeblad, Emma; Svensson, Idor; Gustafson, Stefan
This study investigated the self-image and psychological well-being in 67 children and adolescents age 10-16 years with severe reading difficulties and/or dyslexia. The participants were assessed with Beck Youth Inventory regarding symptoms of depression, anxiety, and negative self-image. The results showed that the participants do not depict…
Seaton, Eleanor K.
The present study examined the influence of cognitive development in the relationship between multiple types of racial discrimination and psychological well-being. A sample of 322 African American adolescents (53% female), aged 13-18, completed measures of cognitive development, racial discrimination, self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Based on…
McLeod, Jane D.; Owens, Timothy J.
Our analysis focuses on the implications of social status characteristics for children's psychological well-being. Drawing on social evaluation theories and stress-based explanations, we hypothesized that disadvantage cumulates across statuses (the double jeopardy hypothesis) and over time as children move into the adolescent years. To test this…
Huurre, Taina; Aro, Hillevi
The psychosocial well-being of 115 adolescents with visual impairments was compared with 44 adolescents with chronic conditions and 607 typical adolescents. Adolescents with visual impairments, especially those with blindness, had more difficulties in their relationships with friends, but had fewer problems with psychological well-being than those…
Fuller-Iglesias, Heather R.; Webster, Noah J.; Antonucci, Toni C.
This study examines the complex role of family networks in shaping adult psychological well-being over time. We examine the unique and interactive longitudinal influences of family structure (i.e., composition and size) and negative family relationship quality on psychological well-being among young (ages 18-34), middle-aged (ages 35-49), and…
Kilgo, Cindy A.; Mollet, Amanda L.; Pascarella, Ernest T.
This brief examines student psychological well-being, an important issue of growing interest in U.S. higher education. Extensive research focused on student involvement in college suggested that quality involvement leads to higher levels of student learning and development. This study for psychological well-being was measured using the Ryff Scales…
The central aim of this study is to examine the moderating effects of self-transcendence meaning on psychological well-being in respective of college students. The theoretical background of self-transcendence meaning is mainly oriental Buddhism and Taoism philosophy. Measures of stress and psychological well-being are College Stress Scale (CSS)…
Scope and Method of Study: This study was concerned with perceptions of academic facilitators, academic obstacles, and psychological well-being of college honors students. Differences in the way factors of academic success are perceived, and the relationship these perceptions have with psychological well-being were examined. College honors…
Alcaraz, Saul; Torregrosa, Miquel; Viladrich, Carme
Purpose: The purpose of the present research was to test how behavioral regulations are mediated between basic psychological needs and psychological well-being and ill-being in a sample of team-sport coaches. Based on self-determination theory, we hypothesized a model where satisfaction and thwarting of the basic psychological needs predicted…
Bauermeister, Jose A.; Johns, Michelle Marie; Sandfort, Theo G.M.; Eisenberg, Anna; Grossman, Arnold H.; D'Augelli, Anthony R.
Dating in adolescence plays an integral part in the development of sexual and social identities. This process is particularly salient for sexual minority youth who face additional obstacles to their identity formation due to their marginalized status. We investigated the influence of participating in a same-sex relationship (SSR) or an opposite-sex relationship (OSR) on sexual minority youths' psychological well-being (i.e., symptoms of depression, anxiety and internalized homophobia, and self-esteem) in an ethnically-diverse sample of 350 youth (55% male) between the ages of 15-19 years, recruited from three GLBT drop-in centers in the New York City area. Using longitudinal data, we examined youths' SSR and OSR over time. Multivariate regression analyses suggest that involvement in a SSR was positively associated with changes in self-esteem in males, and negatively correlated with changes in internalized homophobia in females. We discuss the implications for positive development in sexual minority adolescent populations. PMID:20535536
Studied the association of personal and parental factors with subjective well-being (SWB) in adolescents through 2 studies involving 97 college students and 185 adolescents in Israel and 121 Israeli adolescents and their parents. Results highlight the importance of mastery, optimism, and positive adolescent-parent relationships in contributing to…
Rae, James R; Lonborg, Susan D
Previous investigations of the relationship between Facebook use and psychological well-being have most commonly considered variables relating to the quantity (e.g., time spent online) and underlying motivations (e.g., making new friends) of Facebook consumption. However, previous research has reached contradictory conclusions in that quantity of Facebook use has been linked to both higher and lower levels of psychological well-being. The current study investigated whether these contradictory findings of quantity of Facebook use could be explained by considering users' motivations for accessing Facebook. We predicted that quantity of use would be positively associated with psychological well-being when users primarily accessed Facebook to maintain existing relationships but negatively associated with psychological well-being when primarily accessed to create new relationships. In a sample of college undergraduates (N = 119), we found that the relationship of quantity of Facebook use on psychological well-being was moderated by the motivation of the user. Quantity of Facebook use was associated with higher levels of psychological well-being among users that accessed Facebook for friendship purposes but was negatively associated with psychological well-being among users that accessed Facebook for connection purposes (e.g., making new friends). We also replicated our results across dimensions of psychological well-being (e.g., anxiety and life satisfaction). The current findings provide initial evidence that quantity and motivations of Facebook use interact with potentially serious implications for psychological well-being and also provide a possible explanation for why quantity of Facebook use can be linked with both positive and negative psychological well-being.
Rae, James R.; Lonborg, Susan D.
Previous investigations of the relationship between Facebook use and psychological well-being have most commonly considered variables relating to the quantity (e.g., time spent online) and underlying motivations (e.g., making new friends) of Facebook consumption. However, previous research has reached contradictory conclusions in that quantity of Facebook use has been linked to both higher and lower levels of psychological well-being. The current study investigated whether these contradictory findings of quantity of Facebook use could be explained by considering users’ motivations for accessing Facebook. We predicted that quantity of use would be positively associated with psychological well-being when users primarily accessed Facebook to maintain existing relationships but negatively associated with psychological well-being when primarily accessed to create new relationships. In a sample of college undergraduates (N = 119), we found that the relationship of quantity of Facebook use on psychological well-being was moderated by the motivation of the user. Quantity of Facebook use was associated with higher levels of psychological well-being among users that accessed Facebook for friendship purposes but was negatively associated with psychological well-being among users that accessed Facebook for connection purposes (e.g., making new friends). We also replicated our results across dimensions of psychological well-being (e.g., anxiety and life satisfaction). The current findings provide initial evidence that quantity and motivations of Facebook use interact with potentially serious implications for psychological well-being and also provide a possible explanation for why quantity of Facebook use can be linked with both positive and negative psychological well-being. PMID:26124733
Donaldson-Feilder, Emma J.; Bond, Frank W.
Psychological acceptance (acceptance) and emotional intelligence (EI) are two relatively new individual characteristics that are hypothesised to affect well-being and performance at work. This study compares both of them, in terms of their ability to predict various well-being outcomes (i.e. general mental health, physical well-being, and job…
Ma, Ze-Wei; Zeng, Wei-Nan; Ye, Kai-Yin
Although gender differences in self-efficacy and subjective well-being have been reported in previous studies, little published research has investigated the interrelationships between these variables in adolescents. 648 Chinese adolescents were administered a series of questionnaires to test the hypothesis that self-efficacy mediates the relationship between gender and subjective well-being. The results indicated that adolescent girls had lower general self-efficacy than adolescent boys, which explained girls' lower subjective well-being. The theoretical and practical implications may help parents and educators to strengthen adolescents' happiness.
Freire, Carlos; Ferradás, María Del Mar; Valle, Antonio; Núñez, José C.; Vallejo, Guillermo
In the transactional model of stress, coping responses are the key to preventing the stress response. In this study, the possible role of psychological well-being as a personal determinant of coping strategies in the academic context was analyzed. Specifically, the study has two objectives: (a) to identify different profiles of students according to their level of psychological well-being; and (b) to analyze the differences between these profiles in the use of three coping strategies (positive reappraisal, support-seeking, and planning). Age, gender, and degree were estimated as covariables. A total of 1,072 university students participated in the study. Latent profile analysis was applied to four indices of psychological well-being: self-acceptance, environmental mastery, purpose in life, and personal growth. An optimal four-profile solution, reflecting significant incremental shifts from low to very high psychological well-being, was obtained. As predicted, the profile membership distinguished between participants in positive reappraisal, support-seeking, and planning. Importantly, the higher the profile of psychological well-being was, the higher the use of the three coping strategies. Gender differences in coping strategies were observed, but no interaction effects with psychological well-being were found. Age and degree were not relevant in explaining the use of coping strategies. These results suggest that psychological well-being stands as an important personal resource to favor adaptive coping strategies for academic stress. PMID:27790168
Freire, Carlos; Ferradás, María Del Mar; Valle, Antonio; Núñez, José C; Vallejo, Guillermo
In the transactional model of stress, coping responses are the key to preventing the stress response. In this study, the possible role of psychological well-being as a personal determinant of coping strategies in the academic context was analyzed. Specifically, the study has two objectives: (a) to identify different profiles of students according to their level of psychological well-being; and (b) to analyze the differences between these profiles in the use of three coping strategies (positive reappraisal, support-seeking, and planning). Age, gender, and degree were estimated as covariables. A total of 1,072 university students participated in the study. Latent profile analysis was applied to four indices of psychological well-being: self-acceptance, environmental mastery, purpose in life, and personal growth. An optimal four-profile solution, reflecting significant incremental shifts from low to very high psychological well-being, was obtained. As predicted, the profile membership distinguished between participants in positive reappraisal, support-seeking, and planning. Importantly, the higher the profile of psychological well-being was, the higher the use of the three coping strategies. Gender differences in coping strategies were observed, but no interaction effects with psychological well-being were found. Age and degree were not relevant in explaining the use of coping strategies. These results suggest that psychological well-being stands as an important personal resource to favor adaptive coping strategies for academic stress.
Anum, Jawaria; Dasti, Rabia
The research determined the relationship of caregiving burden, spirituality and psychological well-being of parents of Pakistani thalassemic patients in a crosssectional research design. The sociodemographic form, Montgomery-Borgatta burden measure (Montgomery et al. in Who should care for the elderly? An east-west value divide. World Scientific, River Edge, pp 27-54, 2000), Multidimensional Measure of Islamic Spirituality (Dasti and Sitwat in J Muslim Ment Health 8(2):47-67, 2014. doi: 10.3998/jmmh.10381607.0008.204 ) and Ryff Scale of Psychological Well-being (Ryff in J Pers Soc Psychol 57(6):1069-1081, 1989. doi: 10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1999 ) were administered on a sample of 80 parents (32 fathers and 48 mothers) recruited from different Thalassemic Centers of Lahore city, Pakistan. Data were analyzed through correlation and mediational analyses. Results indicated that the caregiver burden was negatively correlated with the psychological well-being and the domains of spirituality, while the psychological well-being and spirituality were positively correlated. We identified that the caregiver burden has direct effect on the psychological well-being of the parents and it influences the psychological well-being through the pathway of the two domains of spirituality, i.e., self-discipline and meanness-generosity. These results highlighted the role of spirituality upon the psychological well-being of caregivers, which could be utilized to prevent pathological influences (such as hard feelings, hopelessness, depressed mood, anxiety, and relationship problems) of caregiver burden and enhance psychological well-being through spiritual counseling. Caregivers can work on their well-being and burden by disciplining their lives and forgoing hard feelings toward others.
Momtaz, Yadollah Abolfathi; Ibrahim, Rahimah; Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Yahaya, Nurizan
Spousal death is one the most stressful life events that seriously affects the psychological well being of widowed. This study examined the mediating effects of social and personal religiosity on the psychological well being of widowed elderly people. The sample for this study was comprised of 1367 widowed and married elderly Muslims from Malaysia. Psychological well being, religiosity, and physical health were measured using WHO-5 Well being Index, Intrinsic Extrinsic religiosity scale, and a checklist of 16 physical health problems, respectively. Data analysis was conducted using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (version-13). As expected, bivariate correlation analysis revealed that widowhood is statistically and negatively associated with psychological well being. Results of multiple hierarchical regression analyses and Sobel test showed that only the indirect effect of widowhood through personal religiosity was statistically significant (Sobel = -2.79, p < .01). Sobel test for social religiosity was not significant (Sobel = -1.54, p > .05). The results of this study confirmed earlier studies, which found that widowhood negatively affects psychological well being of elderly people. Overall, the findings show that the potential solace provided by religiosity can decrease the negative effects of widowhood on the psychological well being of widowed elderly people.
Coley, Rebekah Levine; Leventhal, Tama; Lynch, Alicia Doyle; Kull, Melissa
Extant research has highlighted the importance of multiple characteristics of housing but has not comprehensively assessed a broad range of housing characteristics and their relative contributions to children's well-being. Using a representative, longitudinal sample of low-income children and adolescents from low-income urban neighborhoods (N = 2,437, ages 2-21 years) from the Three-City Study, this study assessed housing quality, stability, type (i.e., ownership status and subsidy status), and cost simultaneously to delineate their unique associations with children's development. Hierarchical linear models found that poor housing quality was most consistently associated with children's and adolescents' development, including worse emotional and behavioral functioning and lower cognitive skills. These associations operated in part through mothers' psychological functioning. Residential instability showed mixed links with functioning, whereas housing cost and type were not consistently predictive. Results suggest that housing contexts are associated with functioning across the developmental span from early childhood through late adolescence, with some differences in patterns by child age.
Mañas, Miguel A; Salvador, Carmen; Boada, Joan; González, Esperanza; Agulló, Esteban
Satisfaction and psychological well-being as antecedents of organisational commitment. The role of organisational commitment in public administration and its repercussions on the institution are examined in this study. It reports part of a larger research project that studies job satisfaction, life satisfaction, and psychological well-being as antecedents of organisational commitment. Data were collected from 697 public-sector employees, using questionnaires. Results showed that job satisfaction, life satisfaction, and psychological well-being were strong predictors of organisational commitment. Higher levels of job satisfaction, life satisfaction, and psychological well-being were associated with more favourable perceptions of organisational commitment. Furthermore, this study highlights the impact of dynamic work on the employee's commitment.
Brown, Kirk Warren; Kasser, Tim
Happiness and ecological well-being are often portrayed as conflictual pursuits, but they may actually be complementary. In samples of adolescents (Study 1) and adults (Study 2), we tested this proposition and examined the role of three factors in promoting both subjective well-being (SWB) and ecologically responsible behavior (ERB). In both…
Positive psychology is influencing educational policy and practice in Britain and North America. This article reveals how this psychological discourse and its offshoot school-based training programs, which stress happiness, self-improvement and well-being, align with an emergent socio-economic formation: cognitive capitalism. Three key points are…
Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Jayasena, Asoka N. S.
This article illustrates the application of psychological and educational consultation in an international setting. With the goal of promoting psychological well-being of the school-age population, a partnership was formed between an American school psychologist and a Sri Lankan educational sociologist and teacher educator. The partners, or…
Bore, Miles; Pittolo, Chris; Kirby, Dianne; Dluzewska, Teresa; Marlin, Stuart
Previous research has found university students report higher levels of psychological distress compared to the general population. Our aim was to investigate the degree to which personality and contextual factors predict psychological distress and well-being in students over the course of a semester. We also examined whether resilience-building…
Goodmon, Leilani B.; Middleditch, Ashlea M.; Childs, Bethany; Pietrasiuk, Stacey E.
The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of a positive psychology course on student well-being, depressive symptoms, and stress in a repeated measure, nonequivalent control design. As hypothesized, the positive psychology students reported higher overall happiness, life satisfaction, routes to happiness, and lower depressive…
Cohrs, J. Christopher; Christie, Daniel J.; White, Mathew P.; Das, Chaitali
In this article, we analyze the relationship between positive psychology and peace psychology. We discuss how positive emotions, engagement, meaning, personal well-being, and resilience may impact peace at different levels, ranging from the personal and interpersonal to community, national, and global peace. First, we argue that an…
significantly correlated with affect [e.g., 6] and life satisfaction . Personality has been found to consistently predict variance in psychological well ...of variance in psychological well -being ( life satisfaction and psychological health symptoms) and perceptions of training (training satisfaction and...between neuroticism and humour as well as between neuroticism and problem-solving were the only unique predictors of life satisfaction . Specifically, for
Hu, Xiaomeng; Kim, Andrew; Siwek, Nicholas; Wilder, David
Research suggests that Facebooking can be both beneficial and detrimental for users' psychological well-being. The current study attempts to reconcile these seemingly mixed and inconsistent findings by unpacking the specific effects of Facebooking on users' online-oﬄine social relationship satisfaction and psychological well-being. Using structural equation modeling, pathways were examined between Facebook intensity, online-oﬄine social relationship satisfaction, perceived social support, social interaction anxiety, and psychological well-being. Personality differences on each of those paths were also assessed. Employing a sample of 342 American university students, results indicated that intensive Facebooking was positively associated with users' psychological well-being through online social relationship satisfaction, and simultaneously negatively linked to users' psychological well-being through oﬄine social relationship satisfaction. Multiple group analyses revealed that the linkage between perceived social support and psychological well-being was stronger for introverts than for extraverts. Our findings indicate that the benefits or detriments of Facebooking are contingent upon both personality characteristics and online-oﬄine social contexts.
Hu, Xiaomeng; Kim, Andrew; Siwek, Nicholas; Wilder, David
Research suggests that Facebooking can be both beneficial and detrimental for users’ psychological well-being. The current study attempts to reconcile these seemingly mixed and inconsistent findings by unpacking the specific effects of Facebooking on users’ online–oﬄine social relationship satisfaction and psychological well-being. Using structural equation modeling, pathways were examined between Facebook intensity, online–oﬄine social relationship satisfaction, perceived social support, social interaction anxiety, and psychological well-being. Personality differences on each of those paths were also assessed. Employing a sample of 342 American university students, results indicated that intensive Facebooking was positively associated with users’ psychological well-being through online social relationship satisfaction, and simultaneously negatively linked to users’ psychological well-being through oﬄine social relationship satisfaction. Multiple group analyses revealed that the linkage between perceived social support and psychological well-being was stronger for introverts than for extraverts. Our findings indicate that the benefits or detriments of Facebooking are contingent upon both personality characteristics and online–oﬄine social contexts. PMID:28197114
Call, Kathleen Thiede; Riedel, Aylin Altan; Hein, Karen; McLoyd, Vonnie; Petersen, Anne; Kipke, Michele
Examines the current health and well-being of adolescents around the world. Considers the implications for adolescent health and well-being in the twenty-first century of societal trends, including growing poverty and income disparities, the changing health care system, increased migration and urbanization, and new information technology.…
Sarriera, Jorge Castella; Abs, Daniel; Casas, Ferran; Bedin, Livia Maria
This paper's main objective is to show relations between interest in media, perceived social support and adolescents' personal well-being. For this purpose, 1,589 Brazilian adolescents answered a questionnaire containing Cummins' Personal Well-Being, Vaux's Social Support Appraisals and Casas' interest in media scales. The media in study are: The…
Subjective well-being is as important for adolescents as it is in other stages of life. This study thus aims to develop a model for subjective well-being, which is limited to need satisfaction in adolescence and reasons for living, and to test the validity of the model. Participants were a total of 227 individuals, 120 females and 107 males. Data…
Orkibi, Hod; Ronen, Tammie; Assoulin, Naama
Although adolescents' well-being has long been considered a central goal in therapy and education, research focusing on the link between subjective well-being (SWB; happiness) and studying in specialized school classes is rather limited. Using a between-subjects design, the present study examined whether adolescents studying in sports, arts, or…
Ziv, Ido; Kiasi, Mali
Studies of correlations between general internet use and psychological well-being have shown mixed results. The present study aimed to elucidate the relationship between Facebook use and psychological well-being, with mental resilience expected to moderate the relationship. Two hundred Israeli adolescents and young adults completed questionnaires assessing their Facebook use, mental resilience, and psychological well-being. Results showed that Facebook use was positively correlated with psychological well-being, and that this relationship was particularly strong for participants with low mental resilience. The findings support a positive effect of Facebook use as providing a virtual supportive community for individuals who may lack the social skills needed to develop social capital and confidence through traditional communication paths.
Cohrs, J Christopher; Christie, Daniel J; White, Mathew P; Das, Chaitali
In this article, we analyze the relationship between positive psychology and peace psychology. We discuss how positive emotions, engagement, meaning, personal well-being, and resilience may impact peace at different levels, ranging from the personal and interpersonal to community, national, and global peace. First, we argue that an individual's positive experiences, personal well-being, and personal resilience, as defined in current positive psychology, may in fact contribute to personal and interpersonal peace but can also entail detrimental consequences for other individuals, communities, and nations. Second, we describe how peace psychology contains traces of positive psychology, especially with its focus on the pursuit of social justice. Third, reviewing and extending the concept of community resilience, we outline directions for further conceptual and empirical work in positive psychology inspired by peace psychology. Such work would do well to transcend positive psychology's current bias toward individualism and nationalism and to conceptualize well-being and resilience at the level of the "global community." This extended "positive peace psychology" perspective would have important implications for our understanding of how to overcome oppression and work toward global peace.
Wong, Shyh Shin
This study examines the relationships of positive thinking versus negative thinking with psychological well-being and psychological maladjustment. Three hundred and ninety-eight undergraduate students from Singapore participated in this study. First, positive thinking were positively correlated with indicators psychological well-being--life…
Higher psychological well-being among married persons may be because of social selection in marriage or of marriage effects. Findings from approximately 9,000 persons revealed that predictive power of well-being measures remained stable throughout 2- to 4-year period. Concluded that selection may play important part in producing association…
Maybury, Karol K.
This study examined the influence of participation in a positive psychology course on undergraduates' well-being. Twenty-three students from a small liberal arts college in the Northeastern United States participated in this study. As hypothesized, students reported gains in hope, self-actualization, well-being, agency, and pathway hopefulness,…
Suitor, J. Jill; Gilligan, Megan; Pillemer, Karl
Purpose: Theory and research suggest that congruence between individuals' preferences for future care and the patterns of care received will affect well-being. In this article, we explore whether older mothers' psychological well-being was affected by the children they preferred as future caregivers and provide assistance at a later point when the…
Cummings, Sherry M.
Examines the psychological well-being of elderly assisted-living residents and factors associated with well-being. Depression, life satisfaction, and demographic, health, and social support variables were measured through interviews. A sizeable minority of the residents reported high levels of depressive symptoms and low life satisfaction.…
Hahn, Verena C; Dormann, Christian
This study examined the role of partners and children for employees' psychological detachment from work during off-job time. Building on boundary theory, we hypothesized that not only employees' own work-home segmentation preference but also their partners' work-home segmentation preference is associated with employees' psychological detachment. In addition, partners' psychological detachment should influence employees' psychological detachment. We hypothesized that the presence of children in the household moderates partners' influence on employees' psychological detachment. Further, we expected both employees' and their partners' psychological detachment to contribute to employees' well-being. Participants were 114 dual-earner couples who responded to Web-based questionnaires. The hypotheses were tested with multilevel analyses, using the actor-partner interdependence model. Results confirmed our hypotheses. Employees' and their partners' work-home segmentation preferences were associated with employees' psychological detachment. The presence of children moderated the relation between partners' work-home segmentation preference and employees' psychological detachment. The relation was weaker when there were children in the household. Moreover, employees' and their partners' psychological detachment were positively associated. Again, the relation was weaker when there were children in the household. Finally, both employees' and their partners' psychological detachment contributed to employees' well-being.
Smith, Leann E.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick
The present study investigated the impact of social support on the psychological well-being of mothers of adolescents and adults with ASD (n = 269). Quantity of support (number of social network members) as well as valence of support (positive support and negative support) were assessed using a modified version of the "convoy model" developed by…
Greenman, Emily; Xie, Yu
The relationship between assimilation and the well-being of immigrant children has been the focus of debate in the recent sociological literature. Much of this work has questioned whether classical theories of immigrant adaptation, which assumed assimilation to be an integral part of the process of upward mobility for immigrants, are still applicable to today's immigrant children. This study reevaluates the applicability of classical assimilation theory with a comprehensive empirical assessment of the relationship between assimilation and the well-being of Hispanic and Asian immigrant adolescents. Using Add Health data, we examine the effect of different aspects of assimilation on educational achievement, psychological well-being, and at-risk behaviors. We find that the effect of assimilation varies greatly depending on the ethnic group and outcome under consideration, but that it is generally related to both greater academic achievement and more at-risk behavior. We conclude that assimilation theory is still relevant, but suggest an interpretation that emphasizes a process of decreasing differences between groups rather than either detrimental or beneficial effects of assimilation.
Abraído-Lanza, Ana F.
Tested a theoretical model on the effects of social role identity, illness intrusion, and competence on psychological well-being among 109 low-income Latinas with arthritis. All six roles studied were rated as highly important identities. Sex-role nontraditionalism was associated with less importance of the homemaker, mother, and grandmother roles. Negative affect increased as a function of intrusions into valued identities. Having important role identities contributed to feelings of competence (i.e., self-esteem and self-efficacy), which in turn, contributed to psychological well-being. Competence also mediated the effects of pain, identity, and illness intrusions on psychological well-being. Results suggest competence processes play an important role in well-being. PMID:9485576
Avey, James B; Luthans, Fred; Smith, Ronda M; Palmer, Noel F
The recently recognized core construct of psychological capital or PsyCap (consisting of the positive psychological resources of efficacy, hope, optimism, and resilience) has been demonstrated to be related to various employee attitudinal, behavioral, and performance outcomes. However, to date, the impact of this positive core construct over time and on important employee well-being outcomes has not been tested. This study meets this need by analyzing the relationship between a broad cross-section of employees' (N = 280) level of PsyCap and two measures of psychological well-being over time. The results indicated that employees' PsyCap was related to both measures of well-being and, importantly, that PsyCap explained additional variance in these well-being measures over time. The limitations, needed future research, and practical implications conclude the article.
Ferrari, Laura; Rosnati, Rosa; Manzi, Claudia; Benet-Martínez, Verònica
The ethnic identity development plays a crucial role in adolescence and emerging adulthood and may be more complex for adoptees who do not share their ethnic identity with their adoptive families. Evidence from the studies was mixed, with strong ethnic identity not always found to be indicative of improved psychological adjustment. Recently…
Valkenburg, Patti M; Peter, Jochen; Schouten, Alexander P
The aim of this study was to investigate the consequences of friend networking sites (e.g., Friendster, MySpace) for adolescents' self-esteem and well-being. We conducted a survey among 881 adolescents (10-19-year-olds) who had an online profile on a Dutch friend networking site. Using structural equation modeling, we found that the frequency with which adolescents used the site had an indirect effect on their social self-esteem and well-being. The use of the friend networking site stimulated the number of relationships formed on the site, the frequency with which adolescents received feedback on their profiles, and the tone (i.e., positive vs. negative) of this feedback. Positive feedback on the profiles enhanced adolescents' social self-esteem and well-being, whereas negative feedback decreased their self-esteem and well-being.
Meanley, Steven; Pingel, Emily S.; Bauermeister, José A.
Religiosity and spirituality are often integral facets of human development. Young gay and bisexual men (YGBM), however, may find themselves at odds when attempting to reconcile potentially conflicting identities like religion and their sexual orientation. We sought to explore how different components of religiosity (participation, commitment, spiritual coping) are linked to different markers of psychological well-being (life purpose, self-esteem, and internalized homophobia). Using data collected in Metro Detroit (N = 351 ages 18–29 years; 47% African American, 29% Non-Latino White, 8% Latino, 16% Other Race), we examined how components of religiosity/spirituality were associated with psychological well-being among religious/spiritual-identified participants. An overwhelming majority (79.5%) identified as religious/spiritual, with most YGBM (91.0%) reporting spirituality as a coping source. Over three quarters of our religious/spiritual sample (77.7%) reported attending a religious service in the past year. Religious participation and commitment were negatively associated with psychological well-being. Conversely, spiritual coping was positively associated with YGBM’s psychological well-being. Programs assisting YGBM navigate multiple/conflicting identities through sexuality-affirming resources may aid improve of their psychological well-being. We discuss the public health potential of increasing sensitivity to the religious/spiritual needs of YGBM across social service organizations. PMID:28163799
Coley, Rebekah Levine; Leventhal, Tama; Lynch, Alicia Doyle; Kull, Melissa
Extant research has highlighted the importance of multiple characteristics of housing, but has not comprehensively assessed a broad range of housing characteristics and their relative contributions to children's well-being. Using a representative, longitudinal sample of low-income children and adolescents from low-income urban neighborhoods (N = 2,437, ages 2 through 21 years) from the Three-City Study, this study assessed housing quality, stability, type (i.e., ownership status and subsidy status), and cost simultaneously to delineate their unique associations with children's development. Hierarchical linear models found that poor housing quality was most consistently associated with children's and adolescents’ development, including worse emotional and behavioral functioning and lower cognitive skills. These associations operated in part through mothers’ psychological functioning. Residential instability showed mixed links with functioning, whereas housing cost and type were not consistently predictive. Results suggest that housing contexts are associated with functioning across the developmental span from early childhood through late adolescence, with some differences in patterns by child age. PMID:23244408
Matthews, Nic; Kilgour, Lindsey; Christian, Polly; Mori, Kate; Hill, Denise M.
The well-being of young people is of considerable concern with many initiatives targeting the health behaviors of this population. Educators are among the professional groups being challenged to understand, evidence, and enhance childhood well-being. Working with a case study U.K. school adolescent subjective well-being (SWB) was examined through…
Balistreri, Kelly Stamper; Alvira-Hammond, Marta
Objectives Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) have been consistently linked in a strong and graded fashion to a host of health problems in later adulthood but few studies have examined the more proximate effect of ACE on health and emotional well-being in adolescence. Study Design Nationally representative cross-sectional study. Methods Using logistic regression on the 2011/12 National Survey of Children’s Health, we examined the cumulative effect of total ACE score on the health and emotional well-being of US adolescents ages 12 through 17. We investigated the moderating effect of family functioning on the impact of ACE on adolescent health and emotional well-being. Results Adolescents with higher ACE scores had worse reported physical and emotional well-being than adolescents with fewer ACEs net of key demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Family functioning moderated the negative impact of cumulative ACE on adolescent health and emotional well-being. Conclusions Adolescent well-being has enduring consequences; identifying children with ACE exposure who also have lower-functioning family could also help identify those families at particular risk. PMID:26718424
Bobowik, Magdalena; Basabe, Nekane; Páez, Darío
The aim of this study was to examine the multi-dimensional structure of well-being in immigrant population, as well as to explore the complexity of well-being disparities between immigrants and host nationals. We analyzed hedonic, psychological, and social well-being in a sample of 1250 immigrants from Bolivia, Colombia, Morocco, Romania and Sub-Saharan Africa, together with that of 500 matched host nationals from Spain. Participants were selected by means of probability sampling with stratification by age and sex. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the re-specified tripartite model of well-being, including hedonic, psychological, and social components of the individual's functioning, was the best fitting model, as compared to alternative models. Importantly, after adjustment for perceived friendship and support, marital status, income, sex and age, immigrants presented higher levels of well-being than host nationals. Compared to host nationals, immigrants reported especially higher eudaimonic well-being: social contribution and actualization, personal growth, self-acceptance, and purpose in life, and lower levels of well-being only in terms of positive relations with others and negative affect. These results are discussed in the context of positive psychology.
Tomba, Elena; Tecuta, Lucia; Schumann, Romana; Ballardini, Donatella
Psychological well-being changes following cognitive-behavioral therapy-based treatment were investigated in outpatients with eating disorders (ED). While it is known that CBT reduces symptomatology in EDs, less is known about how changes in positive functioning may ensue. One-hundred and eighty five ED outpatients were analyzed for pre-treatment and post-treatment changes in psychological well-being (PWB) by last observation carried forward - Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Significant gains in all PWB dimensions were found, with moderate effect size correlations in environmental mastery (r=-.418), personal growth (r=-.351) and self-acceptance (r=-.341). A subsample of patients in remission (n=51) was selected and compared to healthy controls in PWB post-treatment scores through Mann-Whitney U tests. Remitted patients showed significantly lower psychological well-being in two dimensions compared to controls: PWB-positive relations (r=-.360) and PWB-self-acceptance (r=-.288). However, more than 50% of ED outpatients in remission had PWB scores that fell below the 50th percentile of healthy controls in all psychological well-being dimensions, despite significant treatment response. Several mechanisms of psychological well-being change following CBT-based treatment are discussed. The assessment of treatment outcome in EDs may benefit from considering changes in positive functioning such as psychological well-being, in addition to the standard measurement of BMI, symptomatology and behavioral parameters. CBT-based treatment outcomes may be strengthened by promoting the development of optimal domains particularly in the interpersonal realm, such as building of quality and warm relationships and focusing on enhancing self-acceptance.
Pahlevani, M; Ebrahimi, M; Radmehr, S; Amini, F; Bahraminasab, M; Yazdani, M
Objective: an appropriate psychological intervention to promote the level of the public health and mental well-being of nurses has a great importance. This investigation was aimed to study the effectiveness of stress management training on the psychological welfare of nurses in Imam Khomeini Hospital. Methodology: this study was quasi-experimental with pretest-posttest that used a control group. Hence, 40 of the nurses in Imam Khomeini Hospital were selected by using a convenience sampling method and placed in the experimental group and the control group. Both groups were pretested by using psychological well-being 84-question scale. Afterwards, the experimental group was trained for ten sessions under stress management skill exercise, and the check group got no intervention. Next, both societies were post-tested, and the acquired data were analyzed by using inferential and descriptive statistical methods accompanied by SPSS 21 software. Findings: the results indicated that stress management training significantly led to the promotion of psychological well-being in nurses (p < 0.001). Conclusion: it was found from the research that due to the high level of effectiveness of stress management training, its low cost, and its high acceptability by the patients, especially when it was performed in a group, had a significant positive impact on the promotion of psychological well-being in nurses. PMID:28316750
Pahlevani, M; Ebrahimi, M; Radmehr, S; Amini, F; Bahraminasab, M; Yazdani, M
Objective: an appropriate psychological intervention to promote the level of the public health and mental well-being of nurses has a great importance. This investigation was aimed to study the effectiveness of stress management training on the psychological welfare of nurses in Imam Khomeini Hospital. Methodology: this study was quasi-experimental with pretest-posttest that used a control group. Hence, 40 of the nurses in Imam Khomeini Hospital were selected by using a convenience sampling method and placed in the experimental group and the control group. Both groups were pretested by using psychological well-being 84-question scale. Afterwards, the experimental group was trained for ten sessions under stress management skill exercise, and the check group got no intervention. Next, both societies were post-tested, and the acquired data were analyzed by using inferential and descriptive statistical methods accompanied by SPSS 21 software. Findings: the results indicated that stress management training significantly led to the promotion of psychological well-being in nurses (p < 0.001). Conclusion: it was found from the research that due to the high level of effectiveness of stress management training, its low cost, and its high acceptability by the patients, especially when it was performed in a group, had a significant positive impact on the promotion of psychological well-being in nurses.
Mazzucato, Valentina; Cebotari, Victor; Veale, Angela; White, Allen; Grassi, Marzia; Vivet, Jeanne
When parents migrate, leaving their children in the origin country, transnational families are formed. Transnational family studies on children who are "left behind" indicate that children suffer psychologically from parental migration. Many of the factors identified as affecting children's responses to parental migration however are not considered in child psychology and family sociology studies. This study aims to bridge these areas of knowledge by quantitatively investigating the association between transnational families and children's psychological well-being. It analyzes a survey conducted in three African countries in 2010-11 (Ghana N = 2760; Angola N = 2243; Nigeria N = 2168) amongst pupils of secondary schools. The study compares children in transnational families to those living with their parents in their country of origin. Children's psychological well-being is measured through the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Multiple regression analyses reveal that children in transnational families fare worse than their counterparts living with both parents but not in Ghana where living conditions mediate this relationship. This paper also looks at four characteristics of transnational families and finds that specific characteristics of transnational families and country contexts matter: (1) changing caregivers is associated with poorer well-being in all countries; (2) which parent migrates does not make a difference in Ghana, when mothers migrate and fathers are caregivers results in poorer well-being in Nigeria, and both mother's and father's migration result in worse outcomes in Angola; (3) the kin relationship of the caregiver is not associated with poorer well-being in Ghana and Nigeria but is in Angola; (4) children with parents who migrate internationally do not show different results than children whose parents migrate nationally in Ghana and Nigeria but in Angola international parental migration is associated with poorer psychological well-being
Merino, M Dolores; Privado, Jesús
Employee recognition is one of the typical characteristics of healthy organizations. The majority of research on recognition has studied the consequences of this variable on workers. But few investigations have focused on understanding what mechanisms mediate between recognition and its consequences. This work aims to understand whether the relationship between employee recognition and well-being, psychological resources mediate. To answer this question a sample of 1831 workers was used. The variables measured were: employee recognition, subjective well-being and positive psychological functioning (PPF), which consists of 11 psychological resources. In the analysis of data, structural equation models were applied. The results confirmed our hypothesis and showed that PPF mediate the relationship between recognition and well-being. The effect of recognition over PPF is two times greater (.39) with peer-recognition than with supervisor-recognition (.20), and, the effect of PPF over well-being is .59. This study highlights the importance of promoting employee recognition policies in organizations for the impact it has, not only on well-being, but also on the positive psychological functioning of the workers.
Martire, L M; Stephens, M A; Townsend, A L
Theorists have proposed that greater centrality (personal importance) of a social role is associated with better psychological well-being but that role centrality exacerbates the negative effects of stress in that same social role on well-being. The present study found evidence to support both hypotheses in a sample of 296 women who simultaneously occupied the roles of parent care provider, mother, wife, and employee. Greater centrality of all four roles was related to better psychological well-being. As predicted, wife centrality exacerbated the effects of wife stress on life satisfaction, and employee centrality exacerbated the effects of employee stress on depressive symptoms. Contrary to prediction, centrality of the mother role buffered women from the negative effects of mother stress on depressive symptoms. These findings point to an aspect of role identity that can benefit well-being but that has complex effects in the context of role stress.
Onraet, Emma; Van Hiel, Alain; Dhont, Kristof
The relationship between right-wing ideological attitudes and psychological well-being has been intensively studied. Although some studies supported the hypothesis that right-wing attitudes are negatively related with well-being, other research yielded positive or nonsignificant relationships. We conducted a meta-analysis (total samples = 97, total N = 69,221) of measures of well-being, including positive and negative affect, life satisfaction, self-esteem, and intrinsic goal pursuit. The obtained effect sizes were generally weak and nonsignificant, except for a moderate relationship between intrinsic goal pursuit and social dominance orientation. Our results thus do not support previous theories that claim that right-wing attitudes yield substantial relationships with psychological well-being.
Leidenfrost, Corey M; Calabrese, William; Schoelerman, Ronald M; Coggins, Evelyn; Ranney, Michael; Sinclair, Samuel Justin; Antonius, Daniel
While improving the psychological health and well-being of individuals with serious mental illness can help reduce emotional distress and increase resilience, not enough is known about the well-being of incarcerated individuals with mental illness. Using the Schwartz Outcome Scale-10, the authors examined changes in subjective well-being and its association with other clinical symptoms and personality features in 43 mentally ill inmates in a large jail. All participants demonstrated significant improvement in general psychopathology and negative emotions. For well-being, however, different trajectories were associated with high versus low baseline ratings. Furthermore, those in the high well-being group were more likely to show features of aggression, dominance, hostility, mania, and more positive affect. These findings suggest that the level of well-being among inmates with serious mental illness may be an early indicator of personality features, clinical changes, and resilience, which is essential knowledge required when completing effective treatment planning.
Brown, Jane D.; Bobkowski, Piotr S.
The past decade's research on the use and effects of older (television, music, movies, magazines) and newer media (the Internet, cell phones, social networking) on adolescents' health and well-being is reviewed. A portrait of patterns of use of the media is provided and then the predictors and effects of those patterns on adolescents' mental…
Jakobsson, Niklas; Persson, Mattias; Svensson, Mikael
This paper analyzes whether class size has an effect on the prevalence of mental health problems and well-being among adolescents in Swedish schools. We use cross-sectional data collected in year 2008 covering 2755 Swedish adolescents in ninth grade from 40 schools and 159 classes. We utilize different econometric approaches to address potential…
Cenkseven-Onder, Fulya; Colakkadiaglu, Oguzhan
The purpose of this study is to examine subjective well-being with respect to problem solving, self-esteem in decision-making and decision-making styles in adolescents. For this purpose, "Positive and Negative Affect Scale", "Satisfaction with Life Scale", "Adolescent Decision Making Scale" and "Problem Solving…
Musick, Kelly; Meier, Ann
Adolescents who share meals with their parents score better on a range of well-being indicators. Using 3 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (N = 17,977), the authors assessed the causal nature of these associations and the extent to which they persist into adulthood. They examined links between family dinners and…
Barker, Erin T.; Hartley, Sigan L.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Floyd, Frank J.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Orsmond, Gael I.
Raising an adolescent or adult child with a developmental disability confers exceptional care giving challenges on parents. We examined trajectories of 2 indicators of emotional well-being (depressive symptoms and anxiety) in a sample of primarily Caucasian mothers (N = 379; M[subscript age] = 51.22 years at Time 1) of adolescent and adult…
Sola-Carmona, Juan Jesus; Lopez-Liria, Remedios; Padilla-Gongora, David; Daza, Maria Teresa; Sanchez-Alcoba, Manuel Alejandro
In this study, the relation between levels of anxiety, self-esteem and subjective psychological well-being is analyzed in a Spanish sample of 28 fathers and 33 mothers of blind children. The results reveal a positive correlation between subjective psychological well-being and self-esteem, and a negative correlation between anxiety and subjective…
Weine, Stevan Merrill; Ware, Norma; Hakizimana, Leonce; Tugenberg, Toni; Currie, Madeleine; Dahnweih, Gonwo; Wagner, Maureen; Polutnik, Chloe; Wulu, Jacqueline
Background Adolescent refugees face many challenges but also have the potential to become resilient. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize the protective agents, resources, and mechanisms that promote their psychosocial well-being. Methods Participants included a purposively sampled group of 73 Burundian and Liberian refugee adolescents and their families who had recently resettled in Boston and Chicago. The adolescents, families, and their service providers participated in a two-year longitudinal study using ethnographic methods and grounded theory analysis with Atlas/ti software. A grounded theory model was developed which describes those persons or entities who act to protect adolescents (Protective Agents), their capacities for doing so (Protective Resources), and how they do it (Protective Mechanisms). Protective agents are the individuals, groups, organizations, and systems that can contribute either directly or indirectly to promoting adolescent refugees’ psychosocial well-being. Protective resources are the family and community capacities that can promote psychosocial well-being in adolescent refugees. Protective mechanisms are the processes fostering adolescent refugees’ competencies and behaviors that can promote their psychosocial well-being. Results Eight family and community capacities were identified that appeared to promote psychosocial well-being in the adolescent refugees. These included 1) finances for necessities; 2) English proficiency; 3) social support networks; 4) engaged parenting; 5) family cohesion; 6) cultural adherence and guidance; 7) educational support; and 8) faith and religious involvement. Nine protective mechanisms identified were identified and grouped into three categories: 1) Relational (supporting, connecting, belonging); 2) Informational (informing, preparing), and; 3) Developmental (defending, promoting, adapting). Conclusions To further promote the psychosocial well-being of adolescent refugees
Aranda, Maria P.
Although religion has not been a mainline topic of empirical inquiry in the gerontological social work literature, there has been growing recognition in the past two decades of the health protective effects of religious involvement on both physical and psychological well-being. Depression interferes with both individual and social functioning that…
Panaccio, Alexandra; Vandenberghe, Christian
Using longitudinal data (N=220), we examined the contribution of perceived organizational support and four mindsets of organizational commitment (affective, normative, perceived sacrifice associated with leaving and perceived lack of alternatives) to employee psychological well-being. In order to assess the contribution of support and commitment…
Li, Jiaqi; Wang, Yanlin; Xiao, Feiya
The present article reports a systematic review of the studies related to psychological well-being among East Asian international students. A total of 18 quantitative studies published in peer-reviewed journals from 2000 to 2011 were reviewed. Our review revealed three major results: (1) a majority of researchers (n = 13, 72.2%) tend to choose…
Barlow, J. H.; Cullen-Powell, L. A.; Cheshire, A.
Little is known about the proportion of mothers of children with cerebral palsy (CP) who experience distress, particularly in terms of depressed and anxious moods. The present study aimed to address this issue by examining the level of maternal anxious and depressed moods. The associations between maternal psychological well-being and…
Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Fergus, Stevenson; Reisen, Carol A.; Poppen, Paul J.; Zea, Maria Cecilia
Theories of social integration and stress process posit that community involvement may buffer or may compensate the adverse effects of stigma on psychological well-being. In this article, the authors explore this thesis in a stigmatized and seldom studied group of HIV-positive Latino gay men. Specifically, they examine the effects of community…
Thompson, Maxine Seaborn; Ensminger, Margaret E.
Examines relationship between changing family living arrangements and psychological well-being of childrearing women. Finds long-term single parenting may be considered a chronic stressor. Reports death of a family member or close friend, unemployment, and residence change are associated with increased distress while friendship and church…
Wetzel, Kathrin; Mertens, Anne; Röbken, Heinke
Little is known about differences in the impact of economic stress on students as compared to persons holding secure job positions. Besides the macroeconomic effects, an economic downturn can also affect individual's physical health and psychological well-being (Aytaç & Rankin, 2009). Prior research showed that socio-demographic…
Lightsey, Owen Richard, Jr.
An expanding literature reveals that personality traits and psychological resources (PRs) are important in human well-being. This article reviews the literature regarding four PRs (positive thoughts, hardiness, generalized self-efficacy, and optimism), discusses the relationships among PRs and between PRs and personality characteristics, and…
Marks, Nadine F.; Lambert, James David; Choi, Heejeong
Examines the effects of transitioning into caregiving activity for a child, spouse, parent, other relative, or non-kin associate on nine dimensions of psychological well-being. Results from multivariate regression models confirmed that the transition to caregiving for primary kin was associated with an increase in depressive symptoms. However, in…
Hill, Anne C.
This paper is a review of current research on the effects of children's exposure to domestic violence in the home in regard to their psychological well-being. Specific areas of focus include studies that examine general effects of witnessing domestic violence, the presence of trauma-like and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, potential…
O'Reilly, Aileen; Ryan, Dermot; Hickey, Tina
This article reports on an empirical study of the psychosocial adaptation of international students in Ireland. Using measures of social support, loneliness, stress, psychological well-being, and sociocultural adaptation, data were obtained from international students and a comparison sample of Irish students. The study found that, although…
Research in general has shown a beneficial effect of ethnic identity on adoptees' psychological well-being. However, studies also indicate that overemphasis on birth culture and racial/ethnic differences may negatively impact adoptees' overall adjustment. Using Rojewski's (2005) and Brodzinsky's (1987) propositions of a balanced approach to…
Bewick, Bridgette; Koutsopoulou, Gina; Miles, Jeremy; Slaa, Esther; Barkham, Michael
This article investigates the psychological well-being of students from all faculties across their undergraduate degree from pre-registration to semester two of year three at one UK university. Data were collected on seven occasions, with 66% of students who began their studies between 2000 and 2002 taking part in the project. Psychological…
Baruch, Grace K.
A two-stage study of women aged 35-55 focused on issues, concerns, and gratification and their relationship to family status, work status, age, and sense of psychological well-being. The sample was composed of women who occupied jointly one of three family statuses (never married, married without children, married with children) and one of six…
Afonso, Rosa Maria; Bueno, Belen; Loureiro, Manuel Joachim; Pereira, Henrique
This paper analyzes the impact of a reminiscence program on the psychological well-being and ego integrity of elderly people with depressive symptomatology. Ninety people aged 65 and over participated in a quasi-experimental design with pretest and posttest evaluations. They were assigned to one of three groups: (a) experimental group…
Graham, Elspeth; Jordan, Lucy P.
Several million children currently live in transnational families, yet little is known about impacts on their health. We investigated the psychological well-being of left-behind children in four Southeast Asian countries. Data were drawn from the CHAMPSEA study. Caregiver reports from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) were used to…
Ciyin, Gülten; Erturan-Ilker, Gökçe
This study adopted Self-Determination Theory tenets and aimed to explore whether student physical education (PE) teachers' satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs independently predicts well-being. 267 Turkish student PE teachers were recruited for the study. Two stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed in which each outcome…
Hermon, David A.; Hazler, Richard J.
Investigates the relationship between college students' perceived psychological well-being and the quality of their lives on five variables associated with a five-factor holistic wellness model. Results revealed a significant relationship between five dimensions of wellness and both short-term state and long-term trait constructs of psychological…
Uruk, Ayse C.; Sayger, Thomas V.; Cogdal, Pamela A.
This study specifically examined the influence of family cohesion and adaptability on college students' trauma symptoms and psychological well-being in a sample of 189 undergraduate students. The participants were administered the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales-III (FACES-III), L.A. Symptom Checklist, and Scales of…
Measham, Toby; Guzder, Jaswant; Rousseau, Cécile; Pacione, Laura; Blais-McPherson, Morganne; Nadeau, Lucie
The support of refugee children and their families is a worldwide concern. This article will highlight models of mental health care for refugee children and their families, focusing on collaborative care with primary care providers. Case vignettes are provided to illustrate how collaborative care can support refugee children׳s psychological well-being and positive adaptation following migration.
Chae, Mark H.; Foley, Pamela F.
The current investigation examined the relationship of ethnic identity, acculturation, and psychological functioning among 334 Chinese, Japanese, and Korean American participants. Multiple regression analyses revealed that ethnic identity and acculturation differentially predicted well-being on the basis of ethnic group membership. Results also…
Boehm, Julia K.; Kubzansky, Laura D.
This review investigates the association between positive psychological well-being (PPWB) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We also consider the mechanisms by which PPWB may be linked with CVD, focusing on the health behaviors (e.g., smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, sleep quality and quantity, and food consumption) and biological…
Wallace, B. Alan; Shapiro, Shauna L.
Clinical psychology has focused primarily on the diagnosis and treatment of mental disease, and only recently has scientific attention turned to understanding and cultivating positive mental health. The Buddhist tradition, on the other hand, has focused for over 2,500 years on cultivating exceptional states of mental well-being as well as…
Li, Jia Qi; Liu, Xun; Wei, Tianlan; Lan, William
In this study, the authors examined the relationships of acculturation as measured with two subscales of cultural maintenance and cultural assimilation, Internet use, and psychological well-being among Chinese international students. A total of 170 Chinese international students participated in this study. Bivariate correlation analyses revealed…
Objective: The aim of this study was to develop a new and shorter Chinese version of Ryff's psychological well-being scale. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: In recent years there have been several versions of this scale, including 84-item, 54-item and 18-item versions. Researchers in different countries have built on Ryff's version to…
Schroeder, David H.
Previous research linking life events and psychological well being may have been biased by traditional retrospective designs. To eliminate retrospective bias, a prospective design was used in which events were measured before the criterion had occurred. Subjects were 209 male and 159 female participants in the Augmented Baltimore Longitudinal…
Isgör, Isa Yücel; Haspolat, Namik Kemal
The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between job satisfaction and psychological well-being levels of different occupational employees (education, security, health, justice, worker, engineer, and religious official) carrying on their duties in different institutions and organizations in a mid-scale provincial center of…
Frazier, Charlotte; Mintz, Laurie B.; Mobley, Michael
Although the importance of religion in the lives of older African Americans is well documented, this is the 1st study to examine the relations between religious involvement and psychological well-being among a sample comprised exclusively of older African Americans. Eighty six participants completed multidimensional measures of religious…
Gostoli, Sara; Cerini, Veronica; Piolanti, Antonio; Rafanelli, Chiara
The aim of this research was to investigate the relationships between creativity, subclinical bipolar disorder symptomatology, and psychological well-being. The study method was of descriptive, correlational type. Significant tests were performed using multivariate regression analysis. Students of the 4th grade of 6 different Italian colleges…
Isgör, Isa Yücel
The purpose of this research was to investigate the predicting effect of high school students' metacognitive skills, exam anxiety and academic success levels upon their psychological well-being in a provincial center with a medium-scale population in Eastern Anatolian Region. The research group included totally 251 high school students including…
Kumcagiz, Hatice; Gündüz, Yüksel
This study was carried out to examine the relationship between university students' levels of psychological well-being and smartphone addiction. The study group consists of a total of 408 students (303 female and 105 male) selected by random sampling method and studying at the departments of Primary Education, Science Teaching, Art and Crafts…
Bian, Hui; Wu, Jingjin; Li, Yan; Largo-Wight, Erin
This study examined Chinese female college students' multiple health behaviors, their quality of life, and mental and psychological well-being and compared that with American counterparts. A convenience sample of 293 female undergraduates participated in the study during spring 2010, in Eastern China. A traditional self-report paper-pencil…
Perry, Alison; Casey, Erica; Cotton, Sue
Background: Quality of life (QoL) is an important construct when assessing treatment outcomes. Aims: To examine the relative contributions of functioning, psychological well-being and self-efficacy on self-perceived QoL with a sample of total laryngectomy patients in Australia who had surgery for advanced laryngeal cancer. Methods &…
This study investigated the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Scales of Psychological Well-being (Ryff, 1989a). The sample of the study consists of 1214 university students. Results of language equivalency showed that correlations between the Turkish and English forms were 0.94 for autonomy, 0.97 for environmental mastery,…
Krause, Neal; Ellison, Christopher G.
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships among forgiveness by God, forgiveness of others, and psychological well-being with data provided by a nationwide survey of older adults. Three main findings emerge from the analyses. First, the data suggest that forgiving others tends to enhance psychological well-being, and these salubrious effects are greater than those associated with forgiveness by God. Second, the findings indicate that how older people go about forgiving others is important: older adults who require transgressors to perform acts of contrition experience more psychological distress than those who forgive unconditionally. Third, the results reveal that forgiveness by God may be involved in this process because older people who feel they are forgiven by God are less likely to expect transgressors to perform acts of contrition. PMID:21373377
Simon, Christopher R; Durand-Bush, Natalie
Despite increasing research on physician well-being, factors appearing to account for individual variation in levels of optimal functioning are largely unclear. One such factor could be self-regulation, which reflects how individuals effectively manage their thoughts, emotions and behaviours, and cope with adversity in their environment. The purpose of this study was to determine if self-regulation capacity could significantly predict psychological well-being in a sample of Canadian physicians. A total of 132 physicians completed the Scales of Psychological Well-Being and the short form of the Self-Regulation Questionnaire. Regression analyses confirmed the hypothesis that a significant amount of variance in levels of psychological well-being would be explained by self-regulation capacity. There was a particularly strong relationship between self-regulation capacity and the dimensions of purpose in life and environmental mastery, which suggests that physicians who effectively self-manage may be better able to preserve a sense of purpose and an adequate work-life balance in their daily life. Physicians today face consistently growing demands stemming from increasingly challenging work environments. Results of this study mark an important step in increasing our understanding of a potentially valuable skill that may help physicians to achieve well-being.
Wallace, B Alan; Shapiro, Shauna L
Clinical psychology has focused primarily on the diagnosis and treatment of mental disease, and only recently has scientific attention turned to understanding and cultivating positive mental health. The Buddhist tradition, on the other hand, has focused for over 2,500 years on cultivating exceptional states of mental well-being as well as identifying and treating psychological problems. This article attempts to draw on centuries of Buddhist experiential and theoretical inquiry as well as current Western experimental research to highlight specific themes that are particularly relevant to exploring the nature of mental health. Specifically, the authors discuss the nature of mental well-being and then present an innovative model of how to attain such well-being through the cultivation of four types of mental balance: conative, attentional, cognitive, and affective.
Hall, Cathy W; Row, Kathleen A; Wuensch, Karl L; Godley, Katelyn R
The relation of self-compassion to physical and psychological well-being was investigated among 182 college students. The self-compassion scale was delineated into three composites, following the proposition by Neff that self-compassion consists of three main components: self-judgment versus self-kindness (SJ-SK), a sense of isolation versus common humanity (I-CH), and over-identification versus mindfulness (OI-M). Findings support the association between self-compassion and psychological and physical well-being, but the composites demonstrate different influences. SJ-SK and I-CH were predictive of both depressive symptomatology and physical well-being, and SJ-SK and OI-M were predictive of managing life stressors. The results of this study support and expand prior research on self-compassion.
Musick, Kelly; Meier, Ann
Adolescents who share meals with their parents score better on a range of well-being indicators. Using three waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (N = 17,977), we assessed the causal nature of these associations and the extent to which they persist into adulthood. We examined links between family dinners and adolescent mental health, substance use, and delinquency at wave 1, accounting for detailed measures of the family environment to test whether family meals simply proxy for other family processes. As a more stringent test of causality, we estimated fixed effects models from waves 1 and 2, and we used wave 3 to explore persistence in the influence of family dinners. Associations between family dinners and adolescent well-being remained significant, net of controls, and some held up to stricter tests of causality. Beyond indirect benefits via earlier well-being, however, family dinners associations did not persist into adulthood. PMID:23794750
Morgan, Melissa L.; Vera, Elizabeth M.; Gonzales, Rufus R.; Conner, Wendy; Vacek, Kim Bena; Coyle, Laura Dick
This study examined the relationship between subjective well-being criteria (negative affect, positive affect, and subjective well-being) and individual, family, friend, school, and neighborhood predictor variables in 159 ethnically diverse, urban adolescents. Results indicated that negative affect was significantly predicted by family variables,…
Uqdah, Aesha L.; Tyler, Kenneth M.; DeLoach, Chante
The goal of this study is to explore the relationships between academic self-concept, perception of competency in related domains, and academic motivation (intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivation), and reported anxiety and depression among Black American psychology graduate students. The major research question asks whether there is a relationship…
Tian, Lili; Pi, Luyang; Huebner, E. S.; Du, Minmin
Based on the relation between gratitude and general subjective well-being (SWB), and Basic Psychological Needs Theory (Ryan and Deci, 2000), the present study’s aim was to use structural equation modeling to test the multiple mediational roles of the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs at school in accounting for the association between gratitude and SWB in school (school satisfaction, school affect) in adolescents. A total of 881 Chinese adolescents (427 males; Mean age = 12.97) completed a multi-measure questionnaire that tapped the targeted variables. Findings revealed that gratitude related significantly, positively to adolescents’ SWB in school. Moreover, a multiple-mediators analysis suggested that relatedness and competence needs satisfaction at school mediated the relation between gratitude and SWB in school. Lastly, a multiple-mediators analysis also indicated that autonomy needs satisfaction mediated the relation between relatedness and competence needs and SWB in school. Limitations and practical applications of the study were discussed. PMID:27708601
Waters, Theodore E. A.; Fivush, Robyn
Objective The hypothesis that the ability to construct a coherent account of personal experience is reflective, or predictive, of psychological adjustment cuts across numerous domains of psychological science. It has been argued that coherent accounts of identity are especially adaptive. We tested these hypotheses by examining relations between narrative coherence of personally significant autobiographical memories and three psychological well-being components (Purpose and Meaning; Positive Self View; Positive Relationships). We also examined the potential moderation of the relations between coherence and well-being by assessing the identity content of each narrative. Method We collected two autobiographical narratives of personally significant events from 103 undergraduate students and coded them for coherence and identity content. Two additional narratives about generic/recurring events were also collected and coded for coherence. Results We confirmed the prediction that constructing coherent autobiographical narratives is related to psychological well-being. Further, we found that this relation was moderated by the narratives’ relevance to identity and that this moderation held after controlling for narrative ability more generally (i.e. coherence of generic/recurring events). Conclusion These data lend strong support to the coherent narrative identity hypothesis and the prediction that unique events are a critical feature of identity construction in emerging adulthood. PMID:25110125
Waters, Theodore E A; Fivush, Robyn
The hypothesis that the ability to construct a coherent account of personal experience is reflective, or predictive, of psychological adjustment cuts across numerous domains of psychological science. It has been argued that coherent accounts of identity are especially adaptive. We tested these hypotheses by examining relations between narrative coherence of personally significant autobiographical memories and three psychological well-being components (i.e., purpose and meaning, positive self-view, positive relationships). We also examined the potential moderation of the relations between coherence and well-being by assessing the identity content of each narrative. We collected two autobiographical narratives of personally significant events from 103 undergraduate students and coded them for coherence and identity content. Two additional narratives about generic/recurring events were also collected and coded for coherence. We confirmed the prediction that constructing coherent autobiographical narratives is related to psychological well-being. Further, we found that this relation was moderated by the narratives' relevance to identity and that this moderation held after controlling for narrative ability more generally (i.e., coherence of generic/recurring events). These data lend strong support to the coherent narrative identity hypothesis and the prediction that unique events are a critical feature of identity construction in emerging adulthood.
Seaton, Eleanor K; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Sellers, Robert M; Jackson, James S
The present study examined whether combinations of ethnicity, gender, and age moderated the association between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being indicators (depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and life satisfaction) in a nationally representative sample of Black youth. The data were from the National Survey of American Life, which includes 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black adolescents. The results indicated main effects such that perceived discrimination was linked to increased depressive symptoms and decreased self-esteem and life satisfaction. Additionally, there were significant interactions for ethnicity, gender, and race. Specifically, older Caribbean Black female adolescents exhibited higher depressive symptoms and lower life satisfaction in the context of high levels of perceived discrimination compared with older African American male adolescents.
Reyes-García, Victoria; Gravlee, Clarence C; McDade, Thomas W; Huanca, Tomás; Leonard, William R; Tanner, Susan
Researchers have hypothesized that the degree to which an individual's actual behavior approximates the culturally valued lifestyle encoded in the dominant cultural model has consequences for physical and mental health. We contribute to this line of research by analyzing data from a longitudinal study composed of five annual surveys (2002-2006 inclusive) of 791 adults in one society of foragers-farmers in the Bolivian Amazon, the Tsimane'. We estimate the association between a standard measure of individual achievement of the cultural model and (a) four indicators of psychological well-being (sadness, anger, fear and happiness) and (b) consumption of four potentially addictive substances (alcohol, cigarette, coca leaves and home-brewed beer) as indicators of stress behavior. After controlling for individual fixed effects, we found a negative association between individual achievement of the cultural model and psychological distress and a positive association between individual achievement of the cultural model and psychological well-being. Only the consumption of commercial alcohol bears the expected negative association with cultural consonance in material lifestyle, probably because the other substances analyzed have cultural values attached. Our work contributes to research on psychological health disparities by showing that a locally defined and culturally specific measure of lifestyle success is associated with psychological health.
Croom, Adam M.
In Flourish, the positive psychologist Seligman (2011) identifies five commonly recognized factors that are characteristic of human flourishing or well-being: (1) “positive emotion,” (2) “relationships,” (3) “engagement,” (4) “achievement,” and (5) “meaning” (p. 24). Although there is no settled set of necessary and sufficient conditions neatly circumscribing the bounds of human flourishing (Seligman, 2011), we would mostly likely consider a person that possessed high levels of these five factors as paradigmatic or prototypical of human flourishing. Accordingly, if we wanted to go about the practical task of actually increasing our level of well-being, we ought to do so by focusing on practically increasing the levels of the five factors that are characteristic of well-being. If, for instance, an activity such as musical engagement can be shown to positively influence each or all of these five factors, this would be compelling evidence that an activity such as musical engagement can positively contribute to one’s living a flourishing life. I am of the belief that psychological research can and should be used, not only to identify and diagnose maladaptive psychological states, but identify and promote adaptive psychological states as well. In this article I advance the hypothesis and provide supporting evidence for the claim that musical engagement can positively contribute to one’s living a flourishing life. Since there has not yet been a substantive and up-to-date investigation of the possible role of music in contributing to one’s living a flourishing life, the purpose of this article is to conduct this investigation, thereby bridging the gap and stimulating discussion between the psychology of music and the psychology of well-being. PMID:22232614
Tavakkoli, Sodeh; Asaadi, Mohammad Mahdy; Pakpour, Amir H; Hajiaghababaei, Marzieh
Objective: Environmental psychology as a science could be useful in understanding the dissociation between the man and the environment. The aim of this study was to compare mental health, job satisfaction and well-being of nurses who work in hospital environments with different designs. Material: This was a quasi-experimental study, in which 250 nurses filled out the mental health, well-being and job satisfaction questionnaires. They were categorized into 3 groups randomly. Group1 included 63 nurses who worked in an environment without any natural elements; group 2 included 100 nurses who worked in an environment with natural elements and group 3 included 87 nurses who worked in an environment without any psychological and ergonomic design. The last group was only stimulated by demonstrating visual stimulus. Data were analyzed using the ANOVA and Tukey’s pursuit statistical method. Results: The nurses who were working in an environment without any natural elements reported significantly lower scores on mental health, well-being and job satisfaction compared to those who were working in other groups, with the exception of social functioning. Moreover, depression and anxiety were more common in nurses who were working in environments without any natural elements compared to those in the other groups (p<0.05). Conclusions: We can increase job satisfaction, and mental health and well-being of the nurses through the use of natural design and environmental psychology indexes in hospital buildings. PMID:26877749
Langton, Callie E.; Berger, Lawrence M.
This study uses data from the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to examine family structure's associations with adolescent physical health, behavior, and emotional well-being. Findings suggest that adolescents in most other family types tend to have poorer outcomes than those in two-biological-parent families. Adolescents living with their biological father but not their mother have similar outcomes to those living with their single, biological mother. Although transitioning to a single-parent family is adversely associated with multiple outcomes, few associations are found for other types of transitions, and there are few differences in adolescent outcomes by parental marital status. Estimates from models utilizing adolescent- and caregiver-reported outcome measures, though similar with regard to behavior problems, differ considerably with regard to physical health and emotional well-being such that those using adolescent reports suggest a stronger relation between family structure and adolescent well-being than those using caregiver reports. PMID:23788821
Calabrò, Rocco S; De Cola, Maria C; Leo, Antonino; Reitano, Simone; Balletta, Tina; Trombetta, Giovanni; Naro, Antonino; Russo, Margherita; Bertè, Francesco; De Luca, Rosaria; Bramanti, Placido
Although gait abnormality is one of the most disabling events following stroke, cognitive, and psychological impairments can be devastating. The Lokomat is a robotic that has been used widely for gait rehabilitation in several movement disorders, especially in the acute and subacute phases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gait robotic rehabilitation in patients affected by chronic stroke. Psychological impact was also taken into consideration. Thirty patients (13 women and 17 men) affected by chronic stroke entered the study. All participants underwent neurological examination with respect to ambulation, Ashworth, Functional Independence Measure, and Tinetti scales to assess their physical status, and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Psychological General Well-being Index, and Coping Orientation to Problem Experienced to evaluate the Lokomat-related psychological impact before and after either a conventional treatment or the robotic training. During each rehabilitation period (separated by a no-treatment period), patients underwent a total of 40 1 h training sessions (i.e. five times a week for 8 weeks). After the conventional treatment, the patients did not achieve a significant improvement in the functional status, except balance (P<0.001) and walking ability (P<0.01), as per the Tinetti scale. Indeed, after the robotic rehabilitation, significant improvements were detected in almost all the motor and psychological scales that we investigated, particularly for Psychological General Well-being Index and Coping Orientation to Problem Experienced. Manual and robotic-assisted body weight-supported treadmill training optimizes the sensory inputs relevant to step training, repeated practice, as well as neuroplasticity. Several controlled trials have shown a superior effect of Lokomat treatment in stroke patients' walking ability and velocity in particular. Therefore, our preliminary results proved that active robotic training not only
Zeiders, Katharine H; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Jahromi, Laudan B; Updegraff, Kimberly A
The current study examined intergenerational processes related to familism values among grandmothers, adolescent mothers, and their children. Mexican-origin families (N = 180) participated in in-home interviews during adolescent mothers' third trimester of pregnancy and 10-, 24-, 48-, and 60-months postpartum. Using longitudinal path analyses, we linked grandmothers' familism values and behaviors to adolescent mothers' parenting processes and, in turn, their child's well-being, taking into account developmentally relevant needs of adolescent mothers. Results revealed that grandmothers' familism values before the birth of the baby predicted child-rearing support and communication within the grandmother-adolescent mother dyad after the birth of the baby. Support, but not communication, was in turn predictive of adolescent mothers' parenting self-efficacy, but only at high levels of autonomy granting within the grandmother-adolescent mother dyad. Finally, adolescent mothers' parenting self-efficacy predicted children's greater social competence (48 months old), which in turn, predicted greater academic functioning (60 months old). Our findings shed light on the behavioral correlates of familism values within Mexican-origin families with adolescent mothers and highlight the need to consider factors that are developmentally salient (e.g., autonomy) when understanding how familism behaviors benefit adolescent mothers and their children.
Standen, P; Daniels, K; Lamond, D
Home-based telework is a growing phenomenon with great potential to affect employees' psychological well-being. Although prior studies show both positive and negative effects on work-family interaction, conclusions are limited by the way telework, well-being, and work-family interaction have been modeled. The authors present a conceptual framework that describes telework as a multidimensional phenomenon and separates the effects of the home environment from those of distance from the organization. Propositions concerning work-family interaction are developed from P. Warr's (1987) model of the environmental antecedents of well-being, prior telework studies, and the work-family literature. Spillover between work and nonwork domains of well-being is discussed, and suggestions for future research on this complex issue are presented.
Du, Hongfei; Li, Xiaoming; Chi, Peilian; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang
Self-esteem can be derived from the relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem). However, it is unclear what the importance of relational self-esteem is for mental health and whether social support from others promotes relational self-esteem. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between relational self-esteem and a multitude of indicators of psychological well-being among children affected by HIV. We also examined how social support from others would affect relational self-esteem. Results indicated that relational self-esteem was positively associated with psychological well-being. Support from significant others rather than others predicted increased relational self-esteem. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.
TRUDEL-FITZGERALD, Claudia; BOEHM, Julia K.; KIVIMAKI, Mika; KUBZANSKY, Laura D.
Background Previous studies have shown that psychological well-being is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. However, whether well-being might be specifically associated with reduced risk of hypertension has not been rigorously investigated in prospective studies. Objective This study examined the prospective association between two measures of psychological well-being and incident hypertension. Methods Participants were 6,384 healthy British civil servants age 39 to 63 from the Whitehall II cohort. Psychological well-being (emotional vitality and optimism) and cardiovascular risk factors (demographic characteristics, health status, health behaviors, psychological ill-being) were assessed during the 1991-1994 baseline. Incident hypertension was defined by clinical measures of systolic or diastolic blood pressure >140/90 mmHg, self-reported physician-diagnosed hypertension, or treatment for hypertension. Follow-up assessments of hypertension took place approximately every three years through 2002-2004. Cox proportional hazards regression models estimated hazard ratios. Results There were 2,304 cases of incident hypertension during the follow-up period. High versus low emotional vitality was associated with a significantly reduced risk of hypertension in an age-adjusted model (hazard ratio = 0.89; 95% confidence interval 0.80-0.98). This association was maintained after controlling for demographic characteristics and health status, but was slightly attenuated after adjusting for health behaviors and ill-being. Optimism was not significantly associated with hypertension. Conclusions High emotional vitality was associated with reduced hypertension risk; favorable health behaviors explained only part of the relationship. Associations did not differ by age, were similar for men and women and were maintained after accounting for ill-being. PMID:24786293
Hill, Eric D; Terrell, Heather K; Hladkyj, Steven; Nagoshi, Craig T
Two studies examined correlates of the Narrative Emplotment Scale (NES), which measures the extent to which individuals perceive chance events and unchosen experiences as meaningfully connected. In Study 1 (N=99), the NES demonstrated adequate test-retest stability and good internal reliability. The scale was positively related to paranormal beliefs, mystical experiences, and absorption. In Study 2 (N=342), personality measures indicative of external locus of control, intrinsic religiosity, well-being, satisfaction with life, and a measure of frequency of coincidence experience were all positively correlated with narrative emplotment, providing further support for the construct validity of the scale. In terms of the question of whether meaning making is predictive of better or worse psychological adjustment, analyses indicated that the relationship between narrative emplotment and psychological adjustment was moderated by individual differences in coping strategies. Path analysis indicated that emplotment was a mediator of the pathway between religiosity and well-being. Emplotment had a negative effect on well-being through chance locus of control. These analyses suggest that this type of meaning-making is an important variable for understanding religious/spiritual beliefs and their influence on psychological adjustment.
LaJoie, Andrew Scott; Sprang, Ginny; McKinney, William Paul
Hurricane Katrina of August 2005 forced more than one million people to evacuate the Gulf Coast of the United States. This study examines the psychological health and well-being of a subset of evacuees to determine the prevalence of ongoing mental health problems. Interviews were conducted with 101 adults who evacuated to Louisville, Kentucky, and were living in the state at the one-year anniversary of the event or had recently returned to the Gulf Coast. The psychological health and well-being of respondents was evaluated using several well-validated measures. More than one-half met the criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder and a majority were suffering from depression and anxiety. The mean quality of life score was 0.6 on a scale from 0-1, suggesting that adaptation and return to pre-hurricane well-being had not occurred 12 months after the storm. The potential for long-term psychological damage exists in this sample of Hurricane Katrina evacuees. Results suggest other evacuees may also be at heightened risk.
Uraz, Ahu; Tocak, Yasemin Sezgin; Yozgatligil, Ceylan; Cetiner, Sedat; Bal, Belgin
This study investigated the psychological well-being and overall health of a group of Turkish dental students and their sources of stress. Two hundred and seventy-seven students (57 percent female) from Gazi University Dental Faculty completed the Dental Environment Stress (DES) questionnaire, the Psychological General Well-Being (PGWB) index, and the SF-36 Health Survey. The results showed that the DES scores increased over the five-year period. Pressure to perform, faculty and administration, workload, and students' perceptions of their self-efficacy were the most stress-provoking factors. Students whose first choice was dentistry experienced less stress and fewer health problems (p<0.05) than students whose first choice had not been dentistry. Psychological well-being and overall health were significantly associated with year of study. Statistically significant gender differences were observed on depressed mood and anxiety dimension scores of PGWB. Female students experienced greater stress than males, while male students had better overall health than females (p<0.01). Students who lived with their parents had lower PGWB scores (p<0.05). Age was significantly related with the DES and PGWB scores. These results found that stress among these Turkish dental students was influenced by gender, year of study, social background, and lifestyle. Based on the results of this study, recommendations can be made for changes in the dental education system in order to reduce stress among dental students especially during the last two years of study.
Van Ouytsel, Joris; Ponnet, Koen; Walrave, Michel
This brief report describes dating violence victimization among adolescents in Flanders, Belgium, and focuses on how dating violence is related to adolescents' well-being and engagement in risk behaviors, such as substance use, sexual behaviors, and engagement in vandalism or fighting. A survey was conducted in Flanders, Belgium among 1187 adolescents (61.3% female, n = 728). A total of 466 respondents between 16 and 22 years old (M = 17.82 years, SD = 0.92) were in a relationship (71.0% female, n = 331), and, therefore, formed the subsample of the present study. The results show that adolescents, who consume alcohol at a younger age, have ever used marihuana, or were involved in vandalism have a higher probability to become victim of dating violence than adolescents who are not involved in these behaviors. Dating violence victimization was also linked with symptoms of depression and a lower self-esteem.
McFarlane, A H; Bellissimo, A; Norman, G R
This study assessed the association between parental style, family functioning and adolescent well being, contrasting intact families with those of changed configuration. Eight hundred and one grade 10 general level teenagers in 11 high schools of a single educational system were the subjects. Results indicated that the configuration of the family was not the key determinant of effectiveness of family functioning. Instead the style of parenting turned out to be the main determinant of both family functioning and well being of the adolescents. While both "parents" were judged to have contributed to these outcomes cross gender effects were found.
Yamaguchi, Ayano; Kim, Min-Sun; Oshio, Atsushi; Akutsu, Satoshi
In a large national sample of American and Japanese older adults, this study investigated how bicultural identity affects perception of health and well-being in 11 individual psychological variables (i.e. positive well-being: self-esteem, optimism, subjective well-being Japanese equivalent, gratitude, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule–positive adjectives, and satisfaction with life; negative well-being: depression, pessimism, social anxiety, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule–negative adjectives, and perceived stress). This sample consisted of 1248 Americans from the Midlife in the United States survey, 2004–2006, and 380 Japanese from the Midlife in Japan survey in Tokyo, Japan, 2008–2010. Results showed that bicultural individuals (having both highly independent and interdependent self-construals) in both countries tend to exhibit higher scores across most perceived health and well-being measures when compared to other groups (i.e. marginal, interdependent, and independent). Cultural-specific aspects of self-construal, health, and well-being are explained to support the findings. Discussion of these findings and their implications is also provided. PMID:28070404
Carter, Nathan T; Guan, Li; Maples, Jessica L; Williamson, Rachel L; Miller, Joshua D
Although conscientiousness exhibits positive relations with psychological well-being, theoretical and empirical work suggests individuals can be too conscientious, resulting in obsessive-compulsiveness, and therein less positive individual outcomes. However, the potential for curvilinearity between conscientiousness and well-being has been underexplored. We measured 912 subjects on facets of conscientiousness, obsessive-compulsive personality, and well-being variables (life satisfaction, job satisfaction, self-esteem, positive affect, negative affect, work stress). Methods of scoring included traditional sum-scoring, traditional item response theory (IRT), and a relatively new IRT approach. Structural models were estimated to evaluate curvilinearity. Results confirmed the curvilinear relationship between conscientiousness and well-being, and demonstrated that differential facet-level relationships underlie weaker curvilinearity at the general trait level. Consistency was found in the strength of relation between conscientiousness facets with their obsessive-compulsive variants and their contribution to decreased well-being. The most common association was that higher standing on conscientiousness facets was positively related to negative affect. Findings support the idea that extreme standing on facets of conscientiousness more strongly linked to their obsessive-compulsive variants contributed to lower well-being, highlighting the importance of considering alternative functional representations of the relationship between personality and other constructs. Future work should seek to further clarify the link between conscientiousness and negative affect.
El Ansari, Walid; Labeeb, Shokria; Moseley, Lawrence; Kotb, Safaa; El-Houfy, Amira
Background: We examined perceived health status and physical and psychological well-being of 3,271 undergraduate students attending eleven faculties in a university in Egypt. Methods: During 2009-2010, participants completed a self-administered questionnaire that gathered socio-demographic, physical and psychological health data. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from students’ measured height and weight. Differences across these variables were computed by gender and participating faculties. Results: Whilst more females watched and rated their health favorably, they were more likely to feel psychosomatic/physical health problems, to have seen a medical practitioner or been ill that they had to stay in bed. Females were consistently more likely to feel burdened overall, and across several aspects apart from financial problems. Less females had ‘normal’ BMI, were satisfied with current weight, perceived their body image as ‘just right’, or were not worried about their shape. More males rated their quality of life favorably. About 25% of males and 32% of females were either overweight/obese. Exams, presentations, and the lack of time for studies were the frequently-reported burdens. Comparisons of health/well-being indicators across the participating faculties suggested some evidence of ‘clustering’: Favorable indicators would cluster at some faculties; and conversely, less favorable variables would cluster at other faculties. Conclusions: Generally, the levels of some health complaints and psychological problems/burdens are higher than in other countries. Increased vigilance of university administrators and leaders to monitoring the health and well-being of their students, as well as their health needs is required if policy makers are to operate from a valid evidence base platform. Given cultural factors prevalent in the Eastern Mediterranean region generally, female students might require particular attention. The clustering effects suggest the need
Sola-Carmona, Juan J; Lopez-Liria, Remedios; Padilla-Gongora, David; Daza, María T; Aguilar-Parra, Jose M
The aim of this work was to examine family well-being in a sample of Spanish families with blind children. Sixty-one participants reported their perceived economic status, the level of job satisfaction, and state-anxiety symptoms. The participants of our study scored higher on state-anxiety and lower on material well-being than the normative sample, although these differences did not reach statistical significance. They also scored higher on job satisfaction and family satisfaction than the general population. A negative correlation was found between state-anxiety and material well-being (r = - 0.62, p = 0.001) and between state-anxiety and family satisfaction (r = - 0.57, p = 0.001). A positive correlation was found between material well-being and job satisfaction (r = 0.40, p = 0.001), and between material well-being and family satisfaction (r = 0.41, p = 0.001). Higher levels of material well-being, job satisfaction, and family satisfaction were associated with lower levels of anxiety in these families. However, no statistically significant correlation was found between family satisfaction and job satisfaction. Our results suggest that the family experience of having a disabled child is evolving, and this implies achieving greater job and family satisfaction than the normative samples, although anxiety scores continue to be higher and material well-being scores remain lower. On the whole, our results confirm that it is necessary to provide these families with more economic resources, which would have a positive impact on their subjective psychological well-being, decreasing their state-anxiety, and increasing their satisfaction with life.
Sola-Carmona, Juan J.; Lopez-Liria, Remedios; Padilla-Gongora, David; Daza, María T.; Aguilar-Parra, Jose M.
The aim of this work was to examine family well-being in a sample of Spanish families with blind children. Sixty-one participants reported their perceived economic status, the level of job satisfaction, and state-anxiety symptoms. The participants of our study scored higher on state-anxiety and lower on material well-being than the normative sample, although these differences did not reach statistical significance. They also scored higher on job satisfaction and family satisfaction than the general population. A negative correlation was found between state-anxiety and material well-being (r = - 0.62, p = 0.001) and between state-anxiety and family satisfaction (r = - 0.57, p = 0.001). A positive correlation was found between material well-being and job satisfaction (r = 0.40, p = 0.001), and between material well-being and family satisfaction (r = 0.41, p = 0.001). Higher levels of material well-being, job satisfaction, and family satisfaction were associated with lower levels of anxiety in these families. However, no statistically significant correlation was found between family satisfaction and job satisfaction. Our results suggest that the family experience of having a disabled child is evolving, and this implies achieving greater job and family satisfaction than the normative samples, although anxiety scores continue to be higher and material well-being scores remain lower. On the whole, our results confirm that it is necessary to provide these families with more economic resources, which would have a positive impact on their subjective psychological well-being, decreasing their state-anxiety, and increasing their satisfaction with life. PMID:27092095
Barlow, J H; Cullen, L A; Rowe, I F
As a basis for developing interventions to meet the psycho-educational needs of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) outpatients attending a regional hospital have been investigated. Specifically, patients' preferences for interventions addressing education (e.g. the disease and its treatment), self-management (e.g. pain-management, exercise) and the consequences (e.g. emotions, impact on work, family relationships) of RA were examined. In addition, psychological well-being and self-efficacy were examined. Results showed that patients preferred education about the disease and its treatment to be delivered on a one-to-one basis by health professionals. Similarly, emotional issues were believed to be best dealt with one-to-one although this could be with a similar other (i.e. a patient). Group interventions were the preferred format for self-management, exercise and relationship issues, whereas videos were thought to be useful for demonstrating use of aids and how other families cope. None of the participants would welcome computer-based interventions. Psychological well-being (e.g. depression, anxiety) remained stable over a 12-month period. Both physical and psychological health status were correlated with arthritis self-efficacy. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to development of interventions to better meet the psycho-educational needs of outpatients with RA.
Coyle, Laura D.; Vera, Elizabeth M.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether uncontrollable stress related to levels of subjective well-being (SWB) in a group of ethnically diverse urban adolescents. Additionally, the researchers examined what types of coping skills were utilized in the face of high levels of uncontrollable stress. Finally, a moderation model was proposed,…
Vera, Elizabeth M.; Vacek, Kimberly; Blackmon, Sha'kema; Coyle, Laura; Gomez, Kenia; Jorgenson, Katherine; Luginbuhl, Paula; Moallem, Isabel; Steele, John C.
This study examines stressors, general stress levels, coping strategies, and subjective well-being in a sample of 144 ethnically diverse, urban adolescents (mean age of 13). The most frequently reported stressors include the death of a family member, feeling socially isolated, family financial problems, injury of a family member, and parents…
Vacek, Kimberly R.; Coyle, Laura D.; Vera, Elizabeth M.
This study examined hope, optimism, self-esteem, social support, stress, and indices of subjective well-being (SWB) in 137 low-income, urban, ethnic minority adolescents. Hope, optimism, and self-esteem were significant predictors of SWB indices, but stress predicted only 1 SWB index: negative affect. No moderators of stress and negative affect…
Suldo, Shannon M.; Friedrich, Allison A.; White, Tiffany; Farmer, Jennie; Minch, Devon; Michalowski, Jessica
Adolescents' subjective well-being (SWB) is associated with a variety of schooling experiences, particularly their perceptions of teacher support. This article presents results of a mixed-methods study conducted to identify which types of perceived social support enacted by teachers are most strongly associated with middle school students' SWB…
Coley, Rebekah Levine; Leventhal, Tama; Lynch, Alicia Doyle; Kull, Melissa
Extant research has highlighted the importance of multiple characteristics of housing but has not comprehensively assessed a broad range of housing characteristics and their relative contributions to children's well-being. Using a representative, longitudinal sample of low-income children and adolescents from low-income urban neighborhoods (N =…
Bond, Bradley James; Loewenstern, Joshua Noah
The relationship between lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) identities and negative psychoemotional outcomes among teens is well established; this study analyzed happy memory narratives written by 390 LGB adolescents to investigate positive life experiences that might improve the well-being of LGB youth. A significant number of narratives were…
Vera, Elizabeth M.; Moallem, B. Isabel; Vacek, Kimberly R.; Blackmon, Sha'kema; Coyle, Laura D.; Gomez, Kenia L.; Lamp, Kristen; Langrehr, Kimberly J.; Luginbuhl, Paula; Mull, Megan K.; Telander, Kyle J.; Steele, J. Corey
Gender differences in predicting subjective well-being (SWB) were examined in 168 urban adolescents. School satisfaction predicted life satisfaction for boys; for girls, family satisfaction predicted life satisfaction and neighborhood satisfaction predicted negative affect. Self-esteem predicted positive affect for both genders, but friends…
Traylor, Amy C.; Williams, Javonda D.; Kenney, Jennifer L.; Hopson, Laura M.
This article examines friend support and behavior, assessing for interdependent relationships with adolescent behavior and well-being. Keeping with an ecological framework, relationships were examined in the context of other risk and protective factors in youths' homes, neighborhoods, and schools. Using data from the School Success Profile,…
Yates, Yvonne; Atkinson, Cathy
This article outlines the use of Human Givens (HG) therapy with adolescents reporting poor subjective well-being. HG therapy is based on the assumption that human beings have innate needs, which, if unmet, lead to emotional distress and mental health problems. Hitherto, there has been no independently published empirical research into the efficacy…
Creed, Peter A; Muller, Juanita; Patton, Wendy
This paper examines the well-being and career decision-making self-efficacy (CDMSE) of adolescents before and after leaving school, and tests for the changes in these variables as a result of leaving school. While at high school, 309 students were assessed on levels of school achievement, well-being (psychological distress, self-esteem, life satisfaction) and CDMSE. Nine months after leaving school, 168 of these students completed the above surveys and measures of their access to the latent (e.g. social contact, time structure) and manifest (i.e. financial) benefits of employment, and work commitment. At T2, 21% were full-time students, 35% were full-time students who were also working part-time, 22% were employed in full-time jobs, and 21% were in the labour market but not employed full-time. These groupings were differentiated at T2 on aspects of well-being, self-efficacy, and access to the latent and manifest benefits of work, and at T1 on aspects of well-being and confidence. Leaving school improved well-being and confidence for some. One group was disadvantaged by having poorer well-being while at school, which predisposed them to disadvantage in the labour market. Results are discussed in relation to models of well-being and drift/social causation.
Leerlooijer, Joanne N.; Kok, Gerjo; Weyusya, Joseph; Bos, Arjan E. R.; Ruiter, Robert A. C.; Rijsdijk, Liesbeth E.; Nshakira, Nathan; Bartholomew, Leona K.
Out-of-wedlock pregnancy among adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa is a major concern, because of its association with health, social, psychological, economic and demographic factors. This article describes the development of the Teenage Mothers Project, a community-based intervention to improve psychological and social well-being of unmarried…
Nelis, Delphine; Kotsou, Ilios; Quoidbach, Jordi; Hansenne, Michel; Weytens, Fanny; Dupuis, Pauline; Mikolajczak, Moïra
This study builds on earlier work showing that adult emotional competencies (EC) could be improved through a relatively brief training. In a set of 2 controlled experimental studies, the authors investigated whether developing EC could lead to improved emotional functioning; long-term personality changes; and important positive implications for physical, psychological, social, and work adjustment. Results of Study 1 showed that 18 hr of training with e-mail follow-up was sufficient to significantly improve emotion regulation, emotion understanding, and overall EC. These changes led in turn to long-term significant increases in extraversion and agreeableness as well as a decrease in neuroticism. Results of Study 2 showed that the development of EC brought about positive changes in psychological well-being, subjective health, quality of social relationships, and employability. The effect sizes were sufficiently large for the changes to be considered as meaningful in people's lives.
The mind receives deep effect of harmonizing from incantatory spiritual verse known as "mantra." This ancient Indian spiritual science of sound vibrations had been used to help the mind, body and life. Students in top-ranking colleges often feel pressurized and complain of depression. Mantras could help ease their stress. This work attempts to study the impact of mantra on the psychological well-being of college students. Volunteers selected and listened to the mantra of their choice in the test period. Psychological tests were conducted before and after the test period. Data collected were analyzed by psychologists. The findings reveal a clear improvement in the general cheerfulness and clarity of mind of the subjects.
Vetter, Stefan; Endrass, Jerome; Schweizer, Ivo; Teng, Hsun-Mei; Rossler, Wulf; Gallo, William T
Background The association between poverty and mental health has been widely investigated. There is, however, limited evidence of mental health implications of working poverty, despite its representing a rapidly expanding segment of impoverished populations in many developed nations. In this study, we examined whether working poverty in Switzerland, a country with substantial recent growth among the working poor, was correlated with two dependent variables of interest: psychological health and unmet mental health need. Methods This cross-sectional study used data drawn from the first 3 waves (1999–2001) of the Swiss Household Panel, a nationally representative sample of the permanent resident population of Switzerland. The study sample comprised 5453 subjects aged 20–59 years. We used Generalized Estimating Equation models to investigate the association between working poverty and psychological well-being; we applied logistic regression models to analyze the link between working poverty and unmet mental health need. Working poverty was represented by dummy variables indicating financial deficiency, restricted standard of living, or both conditions. Results After controlling other factors, restricted standard of living was significantly (p < .001) negatively correlated with psychological well-being; it was also associated with approximately 50% increased risk of unmet mental health need (OR = 1.55; 95% CI 1.17 – 2.06). Conclusion The findings of this study contribute to our understanding of the potential psychological impact of material deprivation on working Swiss citizens. Such knowledge may aid in the design of community intervention programs to help reduce the individual and societal burdens of poverty in Switzerland. PMID:16952322
Palmer, Christina G S; Boudreault, Patrick; Baldwin, Erin E; Fox, Michelle; Deignan, Joshua L; Kobayashi, Yoko; Sininger, Yvonne; Grody, Wayne; Sinsheimer, Janet S
Limited data suggest that enhanced self-knowledge from genetic information related to non-medical traits can have a positive impact on psychological well-being. Deaf individuals undertake genetic testing for deaf genes to increase self-knowledge. Because deafness is considered a non-medical trait by many individuals, we hypothesized that deaf individuals receiving a genetic explanation for why they are deaf will experience increased psychological well-being. We report results from a prospective, longitudinal study to determine the impact of genetic testing (GJB2, Cx26; GJB6, Cx30) on perceived personal control (PPC), anxiety, and depression in deaf adults (N = 209) assessed following pre-test genetic counseling as well as 1-month and 6-months following test result disclosure. Participants were classified as Cx positive (n = 82) or Cx negative/inconclusive (n = 127). There was significant evidence for Cx group differences in PPC and anxiety over time (PPC: Cx group*time interaction p = 0.0007; anxiety: Cx group*time interaction p = 0.002), where PPC scores were significantly higher, and anxiety scores were significantly lower for the Cx positive group relative to the negative/inconclusive group following test result disclosure. Compared to pre-test, PPC scores increased at 1-month (p = 0.07) and anxiety scores decreased at 6-months (p = 0.03) for the Cx positive group. In contrast, PPC scores decreased (p = 0.009, p < 0.0001) and anxiety scores increased (p = 0.09, p = 0.02) for the Cx negative/inconclusive group at 1- and 6-months post test result disclosure. Genetic testing for deaf genes affects the psychological well-being of deaf individuals. Increasing deaf adults' access to genetic testing may potentially enhance self-knowledge and increase psychological well-being for those who receive a genetic explanation, which could offer downstream health benefits.
Molina-García, J; Castillo, I; Queralt, A
An analysis of psychological well-being (self-esteem and subjective vitality) of 639 Spanish university students was performed, while accounting for the amount of leisure-time physical activity. The Spanish versions of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Subjective Vitality Scale were employed. Participants were divided into four groups (Low, Moderate, High, and Very high) depending on estimation of energy expenditure in leisure-time physical activity. Men and women having higher physical activity rated higher mean subjective vitality; however, differences in self-esteem were observed only in men, specifically between Very high and the other physical activity groups.
Kajbafnezhad, Hadi; Khaneh Keshi, Ali
The aim of this study was to predict psychological resilience by psychological well-being and its components. The research sample consisted of 216 girl students who were selected through multistage random sampling. The data were collected by implementing psychological resilience and psychological well-being questionnaire and analyzed by using…
Stuart, Jaimee; Jose, Paul E
The present study examined whether discrepancies between adolescent and parent ratings of family dynamics predict adolescent well-being over time. Self-report data from 972 adolescent-parent dyads collected at two time points separated by one year were analyzed. Both adolescents and parents rated a variety of family dynamics (e.g., cohesion), and adolescents reported on their levels of well-being (confidence, purpose in life, and positive relations with others). Significant discrepancies between adolescents' and parents' perceptions of family functioning were found for all positive family dynamics, but not for family conflict. Furthermore, discrepancies increased over time and larger discrepancies were noted for older adolescents. Results from the residualized path model showed that discrepancies were bidirectionally related to adolescent well-being. In addition, age was found to moderate the predictive model. Specifically, 14-15 year olds (year 10) were found to be more stable in their well-being over time than younger adolescents. Also, results indicate that well-being is a significantly stronger negative predictor of discrepancies over time for the 14-15 year olds (year 10) than the for 10-11 year olds (year 6). The authors suggest that future research would benefit from investigations of the relationship between divergent perspectives of family members and adjustment outcomes of adolescents.
Jose, Paul E.; Ryan, Nicholas; Pryor, Jan
This longitudinal study was designed to investigate whether or not social connectedness predicts psychological well-being over time. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the temporal relations between these constructs assessed yearly for 3 years for a sample of 1,774 10- to 15-year-olds (at Time 1). Results indicated that global…
Min, Alice A; Sbarra, David A; Keim, Samuel M
Background Medical residency can be a time of increased psychological stress and sleep disturbance. We examine the prospective associations between self-reported sleep quality and resident wellness across a single training year. Methods Sixty-nine (N=69) resident physicians completed the Brief Resident Wellness Profile (M=17.66, standard deviation [SD]=3.45, range: 0-17) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (M=6.22, SD=2.86, range: 12-25) at multiple occasions in a single training year. We examined the 1-month lagged effect of sleep disturbances on residents' self-reported wellness. Results Accounting for residents' overall level of sleep disturbance across the entire study period, both the concurrent (within-person) within-occasion effect of sleep disturbance (B=-0.20, standard error [SE]=0.06, p=0.003, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.33, -0.07) and the lagged within-person effect of resident sleep disturbance (B=-0.15, SE=0.07, p=0.037, 95% CI: -0.29, -0.009) were significant predictors of decreased resident wellness. Increases in sleep disturbances are a leading indicator of resident wellness, predicting decreased well-being 1 month later. Conclusions Sleep quality exerts a significant effect on self-reported resident wellness. Periodic evaluation of sleep quality may alert program leadership and the residents themselves to impending decreases in psychological well-being.
Min, Alice A.; Sbarra, David A.; Keim, Samuel M.
Background Medical residency can be a time of increased psychological stress and sleep disturbance. We examine the prospective associations between self-reported sleep quality and resident wellness across a single training year. Methods Sixty-nine (N=69) resident physicians completed the Brief Resident Wellness Profile (M=17.66, standard deviation [SD]=3.45, range: 0–17) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (M=6.22, SD=2.86, range: 12–25) at multiple occasions in a single training year. We examined the 1-month lagged effect of sleep disturbances on residents’ self-reported wellness. Results Accounting for residents’ overall level of sleep disturbance across the entire study period, both the concurrent (within-person) within-occasion effect of sleep disturbance (B=−0.20, standard error [SE]=0.06, p=0.003, 95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.33, −0.07) and the lagged within-person effect of resident sleep disturbance (B=−0.15, SE=0.07, p=0.037, 95% CI: −0.29, −0.009) were significant predictors of decreased resident wellness. Increases in sleep disturbances are a leading indicator of resident wellness, predicting decreased well-being 1 month later. Conclusions Sleep quality exerts a significant effect on self-reported resident wellness. Periodic evaluation of sleep quality may alert program leadership and the residents themselves to impending decreases in psychological well-being. PMID:26202848
Adler, Jonathan M; Poulin, Michael J
Making meaning out of negative experiences is one of the primary psychological challenges in the wake of adversity. Much of the empirical attention that psychologists have paid to meaning making has focused on personal hardships, but national tragedies similarly pose a challenge to meaning making. In the present study, which is grounded in the theoretical tradition of the narrative study of lives, a nationally representative sample of 395 adults wrote accounts about the 9/11 terrorist attacks approximately 2 months after 9/11. Accounts were coded for 3 narrative themes: closure, redemption, and contamination. Psychological well-being was significantly related to accounts that were high in closure and national redemption and, among those more directly exposed to the attacks, accounts high in redemptive imagery. Psychological distress was significantly related to accounts that were low in closure and high in themes of personal contamination. Understanding the narrative styles that characterize personal accounts of political events has important ramifications for the study of the socially embedded individual.
Gausia, K; Ryder, D; Ali, M; Fisher, C; Moran, A; Koblinsky, M
Women in developing countries experience postnatal depression at rates that are comparable with or higher than those in developed countries. However, their personal experiences during pregnancy and childbirth have received little attention in relation to postnatal depression. In particular, the contribution of obstetric complications to their emotional well-being during the postpartum period is still not clearly understood. This study aimed to (a) describe the pregnancy and childbirth experiences among women in Bangladesh during normal childbirth or obstetric complications and (b) examine the relationship between these experiences and their psychological well-being during the postpartum period. Two groups of women--one group with obstetric complications (n=173) and the other with no obstetric complications (n=373)--were selected from a sample of women enrolled in a community-based study in Matlab, Bangladesh. The experiences during pregnancy and childbirth were assessed in terms of a five-point rating scale from 'severely uncomfortable=1' to 'not uncomfortable at all=5'. The psychological status of the women was assessed using a validated local version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at six weeks postpartum. Categorical data were analyzed using the chi-square test and continuous data by analysis of variance. Women with obstetric complications reported significantly more negative experiences during their recent childbirth [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.36-1.61, p<0.001] compared to those with normal childbirth. There was a significant main effect on emotional well-being due to experiences of pregnancy [F (4,536)=4.96, p=0.001] and experiences of childbirth [F (4,536)=3.29, p=0.01]. The EPDS mean scores for women reporting severe uncomfortable pregnancy and childbirth experiences were significantly higher than those reporting no such problems. After controlling for the background characteristics, postpartum depression was significantly associated
Ransford, H E; Palisi, B J
This research examines relationships between different forms of aerobic exercise (swim, walk, jog, dance) and two measures of health: subjective health and psychological well-being. We hypothesize that the relationship between aerobic exercise and subjective health/well-being will be notably stronger for older than younger persons and females than males. This prediction is based on Homans' exchange theory of investments and rewards. Since social norms concerning aerobic exercise are likely to be weaker among older (than younger) persons and among women than men, older persons and women who do exercise are making special investments and should expect greater rewards (good health). The concept of 'exercise norms' implies social comparisons with others. Accordingly, age comparative data were analyzed to see if older persons who exercise see themselves as more active than their age peers than do younger persons. Data come from a national probability sample of 3025 adults (National Survey of Personal Health Practices and Consequences). As predicted, exercise was much more strongly related to subjective health and well-being among older than younger respondents. In the main, the gender hypothesis was not supported.
Fivush, Robin; Bohanek, Jennifer G; Zaman, Widaad
Narratives of the self are embedded within families in which narrative interaction is a common practice. Especially in adolescence, when issues of identity and emotional regulation become key, narratives provide frameworks for understating self and emotion. The authors' research on family narratives suggests that adolescents' personal narratives are at least partly shaped by intergenerational narratives about their parents' childhoods. Both personal and intergenerational narratives emerge frequently in typical family dinner conversations, and these narratives reflect gendered ways of being in the world. Adolescents who tell intergenerational narratives that are rich in intergenerational connections and perspective-taking show higher levels of well-being. These findings suggest that individual narrative selves are created within families and across generations.
Khanna, Pulkit; Singh, Kamlesh
The aim of the present paper was to study the impact of a gratitude building intervention on adolescents' gratitude and well-being indicators. The sample comprised 177 students aged 11--14 years (M[subscript Age] = 12.29 years, SD = 0.67, 58% male) attending two schools in North India. Using quasi-experimental design, participating classrooms from…
Wang, Yijie; Benner, Aprile D
Racial/ethnic minority youth live at the intersection of diverse cultures, yet little is known about cultural socialization outside families or how cultural socialization in multiple settings conjointly influences adolescent well-being. In a sample of 236 8th graders (51 % female; 89 % Latinos, 11 % African Americans), we examined adolescents' perceptions of family and peer cultural socialization toward the heritage culture and the mainstream American culture. A variable-centered approach demonstrated that the socioemotional and academic benefits of family cultural socialization were most evident when peer cultural socialization was congruently high. Although family and peer cultural contexts are often assumed to be drastically different, we identified similar proportions of adolescents experiencing congruently high, congruently low, and incongruent cultural socialization from families and peers using a person-centered approach. Although the incongruent group received relatively high levels of cultural socialization in one setting, their well-being was similar to the congruently low group. The findings highlight the importance of considering cultural socialization across multiple developmental settings in understanding racial/ethnic minority youth's well-being.
Felder, Jennifer N; Lemon, Elizabeth; Shea, Kerry; Kripke, Kate; Dimidjian, Sona
Self-compassion is associated with depression and anxiety in general samples. Although recent research indicates that dysfunctional maternal attitudes predict the development of perinatal depression and anxiety symptoms, no research to date has examined the construct of self-compassion and its relationship with psychological well-being in perinatal women. Pregnant and postpartum women (N = 189) completed self-report measures of depression and anxiety history, current depression and anxiety symptom severity, and self-compassion. Women with higher depression and anxiety symptom severity had significantly lower self-compassion. Additionally, women with self-reported prior history of depression or anxiety had significantly lower self-compassion even while controlling for current depression or anxiety symptom severity, respectively. Our results suggest that self-compassion warrants further attention in the study of the development, maintenance, and treatment of perinatal mood and anxiety disorders.
Crescentini, Cristiano; Capurso, Viviana; Furlan, Samantha; Fabbro, Franco
Mindfulness-based interventions are increasingly being used as methods to promote psychological well-being of clinical and non-clinical adult populations. Much less is known, however, on the feasibility of these forms of mental training on healthy primary school students. Here, we tested the effects of a mindfulness-meditation training on a group of 16 healthy children within 7–8 years of age from an Italian primary school. An active control condition focused on emotion awareness was employed on a group of 15 age-matched healthy children from the same school. Both programs were delivered by the same instructors three times per week, for 8 total weeks. The same main teacher of the two classes did not participate in the trainings but she completed questionnaires aimed at giving comprehensive pre-post training evaluations of behavior, social, emotion, and attention regulation skills in the children. A children’s self-report measure of mood and depressive symptoms was also used. From the teacher’s reports we found a specific positive effect of the mindfulness-meditation training in reducing attention problems and also positive effects of both trainings in reducing children’s internalizing problems. However, subjectively, no child in either group reported less depressive symptoms after the trainings. The findings were interpreted as suggestive of a positive effect of mindfulness-meditation on several children’s psychological well-being dimensions and were also discussed in light of the discrepancy between teacher and children’s reports. More generally, the results were held to speak in favor of the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions for healthy primary school children. PMID:27375510
Crescentini, Cristiano; Capurso, Viviana; Furlan, Samantha; Fabbro, Franco
Mindfulness-based interventions are increasingly being used as methods to promote psychological well-being of clinical and non-clinical adult populations. Much less is known, however, on the feasibility of these forms of mental training on healthy primary school students. Here, we tested the effects of a mindfulness-meditation training on a group of 16 healthy children within 7-8 years of age from an Italian primary school. An active control condition focused on emotion awareness was employed on a group of 15 age-matched healthy children from the same school. Both programs were delivered by the same instructors three times per week, for 8 total weeks. The same main teacher of the two classes did not participate in the trainings but she completed questionnaires aimed at giving comprehensive pre-post training evaluations of behavior, social, emotion, and attention regulation skills in the children. A children's self-report measure of mood and depressive symptoms was also used. From the teacher's reports we found a specific positive effect of the mindfulness-meditation training in reducing attention problems and also positive effects of both trainings in reducing children's internalizing problems. However, subjectively, no child in either group reported less depressive symptoms after the trainings. The findings were interpreted as suggestive of a positive effect of mindfulness-meditation on several children's psychological well-being dimensions and were also discussed in light of the discrepancy between teacher and children's reports. More generally, the results were held to speak in favor of the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions for healthy primary school children.
Soga, Masashi; Cox, Daniel T C; Yamaura, Yuichi; Gaston, Kevin J; Kurisu, Kiyo; Hanaki, Keisuke
With an ever-increasing urban population, promoting public health and well-being in towns and cities is a major challenge. Previous research has suggested that participating in allotment gardening delivers a wide range of health benefits. However, evidence from quantitative analyses is still scarce. Here, we quantify the effects, if any, of participating in allotment gardening on physical, psychological and social health. A questionnaire survey of 332 people was performed in Tokyo, Japan. We compared five self-reported health outcomes between allotment gardeners and non-gardener controls: perceived general health, subjective health complaints, body mass index (BMI), mental health and social cohesion. Accounting for socio-demographic and lifestyle variables, regression models revealed that allotment gardeners, compared to non-gardeners, reported better perceived general health, subjective health complaints, mental health and social cohesion. BMI did not differ between gardeners and non-gardeners. Neither frequency nor duration of gardening significantly influenced reported health outcomes. Our results highlight that regular gardening on allotment sites is associated with improved physical, psychological and social health. With the recent escalation in the prevalence of chronic diseases, and associated healthcare costs, this study has a major implication for policy, as it suggests that urban allotments have great potential for preventative healthcare.
Roche, Maree; Haar, Jarrod M; Luthans, Fred
In today's highly competitive and extremely complex global economy, organizational leaders at all levels are facing unprecedented challenges. Yet, some seem to be handling the pressure better than others. Utilizing 4 samples of CEOs/presidents/top (n = 205), middle (n = 183), and junior (n = 202) managers, as well as 107 entrepreneurs, using Structural Equation Modeling we tested the direct effect that their level of mindfulness (heightened awareness) and the mediating effect of their psychological capital (i.e., hope, efficacy, resilience, and optimism) may have on their mental well-being. In all 4 samples, mindfulness was found to be negatively related to various dysfunctional outcomes such as anxiety, depression, and negative affect of the managerial leaders and burnout (i.e., emotional exhaustion and cynicism) of the entrepreneurs. For all 4 samples, the model with psychological capital mediating the effects of mindfulness on dysfunctional outcomes fit the data best. The study limitations, future research and practical implications of these findings conclude the article.
Soga, Masashi; Cox, Daniel T. C.; Yamaura, Yuichi; Gaston, Kevin J.; Kurisu, Kiyo; Hanaki, Keisuke
With an ever-increasing urban population, promoting public health and well-being in towns and cities is a major challenge. Previous research has suggested that participating in allotment gardening delivers a wide range of health benefits. However, evidence from quantitative analyses is still scarce. Here, we quantify the effects, if any, of participating in allotment gardening on physical, psychological and social health. A questionnaire survey of 332 people was performed in Tokyo, Japan. We compared five self-reported health outcomes between allotment gardeners and non-gardener controls: perceived general health, subjective health complaints, body mass index (BMI), mental health and social cohesion. Accounting for socio-demographic and lifestyle variables, regression models revealed that allotment gardeners, compared to non-gardeners, reported better perceived general health, subjective health complaints, mental health and social cohesion. BMI did not differ between gardeners and non-gardeners. Neither frequency nor duration of gardening significantly influenced reported health outcomes. Our results highlight that regular gardening on allotment sites is associated with improved physical, psychological and social health. With the recent escalation in the prevalence of chronic diseases, and associated healthcare costs, this study has a major implication for policy, as it suggests that urban allotments have great potential for preventative healthcare. PMID:28085098
Schwarz, Susan Wile; Aratani, Yumiko
For policymakers, adolescence presents an invaluable opportunity to ensure that all young people can access the high-quality services and supports they need to improve their odds of becoming successful, healthy, productive adults. At an historic moment when the provisions and breadth of health care reform are under vigorous debate, it is important…
Barker, Erin T.; Hartley, Sigan L.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Floyd, Frank J.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Orsmond, Gael I.
Raising an adolescent or adult child with a developmental disability confers exceptional caregiving challenges on parents. We examined trajectories of two indicators of emotional well-being (depressive symptoms and anxiety) in a sample of primarily Caucasian mothers (N = 379; Mage = 51.22 years at Time 1) of adolescent and adult children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD; Mage = 21.91 years at Time 1, 73.2% male). We also investigated within-person associations of child context time-varying covariates (autism symptoms, behavior problems, residential status) and maternal context time-varying covariates (social support network size and stressful family events) with the trajectories of emotional well-being. Data were collected on 5 occasions across a 10-year period. Average patterns of stable (depressive symptoms) and improved (anxiety) emotional well-being were evident and well-being trajectories were sensitive to fluctuations in both child and maternal context variables. On occasions when behavior problems were higher, depressive symptoms and anxiety were higher. On occasions after which the grown child moved out of the family home, anxiety was lower. Anxiety was higher on occasions when social support networks were smaller and when more stressful life events were experienced. These results have implications for midlife and aging families of children with an ASD and those who provide services to these families. PMID:21171753
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), 2007
Monitoring the well-being of children and adolescents is a critical component of efforts to prevent psychological, behavioral, and health problems and to promote their successful development. Research during the past 40 years has helped identify aspects of child and adolescent functioning that are important to monitor. These aspects, which…
Trotter, Michelle Judith
The present study utilized a pre-test, post-test comparison group design to examine effects of participation in a twelve-week Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction (MBSR) course on college students' psychological well-being (Ryff Psychological Well-Being Scale, Medium Form; Ryff, 1989, 1995, 1996), psychological distress (Hopkins Symptom…
Oishi, Shigehiro; Schimmack, Ulrich
What is a good society? Philosophers from Plato to Bentham have argued that a good society is a happy society-namely, a society in which most citizens are happy and free from fear. Since the publication of The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith in 1776, most economists have implicitly assumed that a happy society is a materially wealthy society. Thus, gross national product and related indices became the most popular indicators of the well-being of nations from the 1950s to date. Recently, however, prominent economists as well as political scientists, sociologists, and psychologists have shown that a happy society is not only a materially wealthy society but also a society in which citizens can trust one another, have a sense of freedom, and have close social relationships. The inquiry into the psychological wealth of nations, or the subjective well-being of nations, helps answer a fundamental question in philosophy and social sciences for millennia: "What is a good society?"
Momtaz, Yadollah Abolfathi; Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Ibrahim, Rahimah
Background There are several negative stereotypes about older adults that have negatively influenced people’s attitude about aging. The present study compared emotional well-being between older adults and adolescents. Methods Data for this study came from 1,403 community-dwelling elderly persons and 1,190 secondary school students and were obtained from two national cross-sectional surveys. Emotional well-being was measured using the World Health Organization-Five Well-Being Index. Data analysis was conducted using a multivariate analysis of covariance with SPSS software version 20 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA). Results Elderly people significantly scored higher levels of emotional well-being (mean, 62.3; standard deviation, 22.55) than younger people (mean, 57.9; standard deviation, 18.46; t, 5.32; P≤0.001). The findings from the multivariate analysis of covariance revealed a significant difference between older adults and younger people in emotional well-being [F(3, 2587)=120.21; P≤0.001; η2=0.122] after controlling for sex. Conclusion Contrary to negative stereotypes about aging, our findings show a higher level of emotional well-being among older adults compared with younger people. PMID:24872683
Thwaite, P; Bennett, D L; Pynor, H; Zigmond, H
Feeling effective as a young person depends on a capacity to draw upon one's own resources in the service of healthy living and development. In adolescent health care, there is the need to call upon the talents and creativity of young people, to introduce new and exciting experiences, and to facilitate involvement in their own care in order to nurture optimal growth and development on a physical and psychological level. While hospitalisation can represent a major crisis point in adolescence, the provision of a stimulating environment and the opportunity for creative activities offers an exciting, transformative and healing experience. Art allows adolescents to use alternative languages beyond illness, to engage in endeavours that are distanced from overt therapeutic intent, and to embrace attributes of self-esteem and resilience. Through the process and production of art, and the inclusion of music, poetry, film or theatre, young people can experience personal growth, acquire skills, develop socially and contribute to environmental change. In seeking to illustrate the value and importance of such approaches, this paper draws upon the experiences of a youth arts program attached to an adolescent ward. In a project called Art Injection, art students worked with adolescents to make sculptures from old hospital equipment, with startling results. More recently, the development of personal totem poles and an imaginative mosaic mural has powerfully engaged creativity and community in care. Group and individual art sessions, including the media arts project Creative Well, are offered on weekdays as part of the general hospital routine, enabling hospitalised young people to experience creativity as a daily part of their lives.
Wang, Yijie; Benner, Aprile D.
Racial/ethnic minority youth live at the intersection of diverse cultures, yet little is known about cultural socialization outside families or how cultural socialization in multiple settings conjointly influences adolescent well-being. In a sample of 236 8th graders (51% female; 89% Latinos, 11% African Americans), we examined adolescents’ perceptions of family and peer cultural socialization toward the heritage culture and the mainstream American culture. A variable-centered approach demonstrated that the socioemotional and academic benefits of family cultural socialization were most evident when peer cultural socialization was congruently high. Although family and peer cultural contexts are often assumed to be drastically different, we identified similar proportions of adolescents experiencing congruently high, congruently low, and incongruent cultural socialization from families and peers using a person-centered approach. Although the incongruent group received relatively high levels of cultural socialization in one setting, their well-being was similar to the congruently low group. The findings highlight the importance of considering cultural socialization across multiple developmental settings in understanding racial/ethnic minority youth’s well-being. PMID:26809337
Sodermans, An Katrien; Matthijs, Koen
Shared residence after divorce is rising in most Western countries and legally recommended by law in Belgium since 2006. Living with both parents after divorce is assumed to increase children's well-being, through a better parent-child relationship, but may also be stressful, as children live in 2 different family settings. In this study, we investigate whether the association between the residential arrangement of adolescents and 3 measures of subjective well-being (depressive feelings, life satisfaction, and self-esteem) is moderated by the Big Five personality factors. The sample is selected from the national representative Divorce in Flanders study and contains information about 506 children from divorced parents between 14- and 21-years-old. Our findings indicated a consistent pattern of interactions between conscientiousness and joint physical custody for 2 of the 3 subjective well-being indicators. The specific demands of this residential arrangement (making frequent transitions, living at 2 places, adjustment to 2 different lifestyles, etc.) may interfere with the nature of conscientious adolescents: being organized, ordered, and planful. Our results showed support for a Person × Environment interaction, and demonstrate the need for considering the individual characteristics of the child when settling postdivorce residential arrangements.
Kim, Suk-Sun; Reed, Pamela G; Hayward, R David; Kang, Youngmi; Koenig, Harold G
The family spirituality-psychological well-being model was developed and tested to explore how spirituality influences psychological well-being among elders and caregivers in the context of Korean family caregiving. The sample consisted of 157 Korean elder-family caregiver dyads in Seoul, Korea. The intraclass correlation coefficient and the actor-partner interdependence statistical model were used to analyze the data. There were significant correlations between elders' and caregivers' spirituality and between elders' and caregivers' psychological well-being. Elders' and caregivers' spirituality significantly influenced their own psychological well-being. The caregiver's spirituality significantly influenced the elder's psychological well-being, but the elder's spirituality did not significantly influence the caregiver's psychological well-being. Findings suggest that elders' and caregivers' spirituality should be assessed within the family to provide holistic nursing interventions.
McMahon, Elaine M; Corcoran, Paul; O'Regan, Grace; Keeley, Helen; Cannon, Mary; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Hadlaczky, Gergö; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Balint, Maria; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Cozman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Nemes, Bogdan; Podlogar, Tina; Poštuvan, Vita; Sáiz, Pilar; Sisask, Merike; Tubiana, Alexandra; Värnik, Peeter; Hoven, Christina W; Wasserman, Danuta
In this cross-sectional study, physical activity, sport participation and associations with well-being, anxiety and depressive symptoms were examined in a large representative sample of European adolescents. A school-based survey was completed by 11,110 adolescents from ten European countries who took part in the SEYLE (Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe) study. The questionnaire included items assessing physical activity, sport participation and validated instruments assessing well-being (WHO-5), depressive symptoms (BDI-II) and anxiety (SAS). Multi-level mixed effects linear regression was used to examine associations between physical activity/sport participation and mental health measures. A minority of the sample (17.9 % of boys and 10.7 % of girls; p < 0.0005) reported sufficient activity based on WHO guidelines (60 min + daily). The mean number of days of at least 60 min of moderate-to-vigorous activity in the past 2 weeks was 7.5 ± 4.4 among boys and 5.9 days ± 4.3 among girls. Frequency of activity was positively correlated with well-being and negatively correlated with both anxiety and depressive symptoms, up to a threshold of moderate frequency of activity. In a multi-level mixed effects model more frequent physical activity and participation in sport were both found to independently contribute to greater well-being and lower levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms in both sexes. Increasing activity levels and sports participation among the least active young people should be a target of community and school-based interventions to promote well-being. There does not appear to be an additional benefit to mental health associated with meeting the WHO-recommended levels of activity.
Chen, Yongjie; Yao, Meilin; Yan, Wenfan
Based on self-determination theory, this study explored the potential mediating role of basic psychological need satisfaction in the relationship between materialism and well-being among Chinese college students. The results showed that basic psychological need satisfaction partially mediated the relationship between materialism and life satisfaction and fully mediated the relationships among materialism and emotional well-being, subjective vitality, and self-actualization. The findings indicated the importance of considering both subjective and psychological well-being and the interpretative power of basic psychological need satisfaction and Chinese culture in the flow from materialism to well-being.
Van Hal, Guido
The recent economic crisis has led to many negative consequences, not the least having to do with the mental health and well-being of the populations involved. Although some researchers say it is still too early to speak about a relationship between the economic crisis and a rise in mental health problems resulting in suicides, there is solid evidence for the existence of such a relationship. However, several moderating or mediating mechanisms can also play a role. The main reactions of most policy makers to the economic crisis are (severe) austerity measures. These measures seem to have, however, a detrimental effect on the mental health of the population: Just when people have the highest need for mental help, cost-cutting measures in the health care sector lead to a (substantial) drop in the supply of services for the prevention, early detection, and cure of mental health problems. Policy makers should support moderating mechanisms such as financial and psychological coping and acculturation and the role of primary health care workers in the early detection of suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts, and suicide in times of economic recession. Several examples show that the countries best off regarding the mental health of their populations during the economic crisis are those countries with the strongest social safety net. Therefore, instead of cutting back on health care and social welfare measures, policy makers should in the future invest even more in social protection measures during economic crises. PMID:25657601
Van Hal, Guido
The recent economic crisis has led to many negative consequences, not the least having to do with the mental health and well-being of the populations involved. Although some researchers say it is still too early to speak about a relationship between the economic crisis and a rise in mental health problems resulting in suicides, there is solid evidence for the existence of such a relationship. However, several moderating or mediating mechanisms can also play a role. The main reactions of most policy makers to the economic crisis are (severe) austerity measures. These measures seem to have, however, a detrimental effect on the mental health of the population: Just when people have the highest need for mental help, cost-cutting measures in the health care sector lead to a (substantial) drop in the supply of services for the prevention, early detection, and cure of mental health problems. Policy makers should support moderating mechanisms such as financial and psychological coping and acculturation and the role of primary health care workers in the early detection of suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts, and suicide in times of economic recession. Several examples show that the countries best off regarding the mental health of their populations during the economic crisis are those countries with the strongest social safety net. Therefore, instead of cutting back on health care and social welfare measures, policy makers should in the future invest even more in social protection measures during economic crises.
Warner, Echo L.; Kent, Erin E.; Trevino, Kelly M.; Parsons, Helen M.; Zebrack, Brad J.; Kirchhoff, Anne C.
BACKGROUND A cancer diagnosis during adolescence or young adulthood may negatively influence social well-being. The existing literature concerning the social well-being of adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer was reviewed to identify gaps in current research and highlight priority areas for future research. METHODS A systematic review of the scientific literature published in English from 2000 through 2014 was performed. Eligible studies included patients and survivors diagnosed between the ages of 15 to 39 years that reported on social well-being domains in the City of Hope Cancer Survivor Quality of Life Model. Each article was reviewed for relevance using a standardized template. A total of 253 potential articles were identified. After exclusions, a final sample of 26 articles identified domains of social well-being that are believed to be understudied among AYAs with cancer: 1) educational attainment, employment, and financial burden; 2) social relationships; and 3) supportive care. Articles were read in their entirety, single coded, and summarized according to domain. RESULTS AYAs with cancer report difficulties related to employment, educational attainment, and financial stability. They also report problems with the maintenance and development of peer and family relationships, intimate and marital relationships, and peer support. Supportive services are desired among AYAs. Few studies have reported results in reference to comparison samples or by cancer subtypes. CONCLUSIONS Future research studies on AYAs with cancer should prioritize the inclusion of underserved AYA populations, more heterogeneous cancer samples, and comparison groups to inform the development of supportive services. Priority areas for potential intervention include education and employment reintegration, and social support networks. PMID:26848713
Liu, Xia; Zhao, Jingxin
Perceived discrimination can be harmful to migrant adolescents in China. However, little is known about the processes through which discrimination may be linked to decreased well-being in Chinese migrant adolescents. This study examined the relationship between perceived discrimination and three indices of psychological well-being (self-esteem, life satisfaction, collective self-esteem) in 798 Chinese migrant adolescents (49.4% from public schools). Group identity affirmation and belonging (GIAB) was examined as a protective factor that was expected to alleviate the negative effects of perceived discrimination on well-being, and the type of school was investigated as a potential moderator of the associations of interest. The results indicate that perceived discrimination was negatively linked to the three indices of psychological well-being and that the negative effects of perceived discrimination on psychological well-being were particularly salient for migrant adolescents attending public schools. Additionally, GIAB emerged as a protective buffer against perceived discrimination’s negative effects on collective well-being. PMID:26731529
Cheung, Nicole W T
By comparing rural migrant and urban native adolescents in Guangzhou, the largest city in south China, this study investigated the relationships between social stress, social ties that link migrants to their host cities (local ties) and to their rural home communities (trans-local ties), and the migrants׳ mental well-being. Non-migration social stress was more strongly related to poor psychological health than to weak self-efficacy in both migrant and urban native adolescents. This pattern also applied to the effect of migration-specific assimilation stress on psychological health and self-efficacy in migrants. Social ties directly enhanced these two well-being outcomes in both samples, with the effects of trans-local and local ties proving equally potent among migrants. Trans-local ties were somewhat more useful for migrants in moderating the effects of non-migration social stress and assimilation stress, whereas the stress moderation function of social ties was less pronounced in urban natives. These findings extend the migration, network and social stress literature by identifying how local and trans-local ties protect mental health and mitigate stress in migrants.
Elgar, Frank J; Gariépy, Geneviève; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Currie, Candace
A prevailing hypothesis about the association between income inequality and poor health is that inequality intensifies social hierarchies, increases stress, erodes social and material resources that support health, and subsequently harms health. However, the evidence in support of this hypothesis is limited by cross-sectional, ecological studies and a scarcity of developmental studies. To address this limitation, we used pooled, multilevel data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study to examine lagged, cumulative, and trajectory associations between early-life income inequality and adolescent health and well-being. Psychosomatic symptoms and life satisfaction were assessed in surveys of 11- to 15-year-olds in 40 countries between 1994 and 2014. We linked these data to national Gini indices of income inequality for every life year from 1979 to 2014. The results showed that exposure to income inequality from 0 to 4 years predicted psychosomatic symptoms and lower life satisfaction in females after controlling lifetime mean income inequality, national per capita income, family affluence, age, and cohort and period effects. The cumulative income inequality exposure in infancy and childhood (i.e., average Gini index from birth to age 10) related to lower life satisfaction in female adolescents but not to symptoms. Finally, individual trajectories in early-life inequality (i.e., linear slopes in Gini indices from birth to 10 years) related to fewer symptoms and higher life satisfaction in females, indicating that earlier exposures mattered more to predicting health and wellbeing. No such associations with early-life income inequality were found in males. These results help to establish the antecedent-consequence conditions in the association between income inequality and health and suggest that both the magnitude and timing of income inequality in early life have developmental consequences that manifest in reduced health and well-being in adolescent girls.
The aim of this study is to develop and test a subjective well-being model for adolescents in high school. A total of 326 adolescents in high school (176 female and 150 male) participated in this study. The data was collected by using the general needs satisfaction questionnaire, which is for the adolescents' subjective well-being, and determining…
Reese, Elaine; Myftari, Ella; McAnally, Helena M; Chen, Yan; Neha, Tia; Wang, Qi; Jack, Fiona; Robertson, Sarah-Jane
This study explored links between narrative identity, personality traits, and well-being for 263 adolescents (age 12-21) from three New Zealand cultures: Māori, Chinese, and European. Turning-point narratives were assessed for autobiographical reasoning (causal coherence), local thematic coherence, emotional expressivity, and topic. Across cultures, older adolescents with higher causal coherence reported better well-being. Younger adolescents with higher causal coherence instead reported poorer well-being. Personal development topics were positively linked to well-being for New Zealand European adolescents only, and thematic coherence was positively linked to well-being for Māori adolescents only. Negative expressivity, neuroticism, conscientiousness, and openness were also linked to well-being. Implications of these cultural similarities and differences are considered for theories of narrative identity, personality, and adolescent well-being.
Pacanowski, Carly R; Loth, Katie A; Hannan, Peter J; Linde, Jennifer A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R
Objective This paper describes the prevalence of self-weighing in the transition period from adolescence to young adulthood and examines cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between self-weighing and weight status, psychological, and behavioral outcomes. Design Project EAT (Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults), a longitudinal cohort study that assessed variables 3 times over 10 years. Participants 1,868 adolescents and young adults. Main Outcome Measures weight, BMI, weight disparity, body satisfaction, weight concern, self-esteem, depression and unhealthy weight control behaviors. Analysis cross-sectional and longitudinal. Results Significant positive correlations were found at each time point between self-weighing and weight concern for both genders. Self-weighing was significantly inversely related to self-esteem at each time point in female participants. Increases in endorsement of self-weighing were significantly related to decreases in body satisfaction and self-esteem and increases in weight concern and depression in female participants; and increases in weight concern in male participants. Conclusions and Implications Findings suggest that self-weighing may not be an innocuous behavior for young people, particularly women. Interventions should assess potential harmful consequences of self-weighing in addition to any potential benefits. It may be appropriate for clinicians to ask about self-weighing, and if frequent, explore motivations, perceived benefits, and potential adverse correlates or consequences. PMID:26566095
Demirbatir, Rasim Erol
Few studies have been conducted on music students' psychological well-being and happiness. The purpose was to assess the psychological well-being, happiness and educational satisfaction among a group of university music students. Students participated voluntarily and filled out a sociodemographic questionnaire, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale…
Pisarik, Christopher T.; Larson, Karen R.
The purpose of this study was twofold: to examine the relationship between authenticity and psychological well-being, and to examine the effects of creating and interpreting mandalas on the levels of authenticity and psychological well-being of college students. The results and their implications for practice and future research are discussed.…
Saunders, Kendra J.; Kashubeck-West, Susan
This study examined relations between feminist identity development, gender-role orientation, and psychological well-being in 244 women of varying ages and backgrounds. As hypothesized, both feminist identity development and gender-role orientation contributed independently to the explanation of variance in psychological well-being.…
Khumalo, I. P.; Temane, Q. M.; Wissing, M. P.
Age, gender, marital status, education attainment, employment status, and environmental setting explain different amounts of variance in psychological well-being and mental health. Inconsistent findings are reported for the socio-demographic variables in psychological well-being depending amongst others on the definition and measurement of…
Bartels, Meike; Cacioppo, John T; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C E M; Boomsma, Dorret I
Promotion of mental well-being and prevention of emotional and behavioral problems are suggested to go hand in hand. The present study examined the association between subjective well-being (SWB) and psychopathology and investigated the etiology of this association in a large population-based cohort study of adolescent twins (n = 9,136) and their non-twin siblings (n = 1,474) aged 12-20 years. Phenotypic, genetic, and environmental correlations between SWB and psychopathology were obtained from multivariate genetic modeling conditional on sex. An SWB factor score was used based on measures of subjective happiness, satisfaction with life, and quality of life. Psychopathology was obtained from all syndrome and broad-band scales of the Dutch version of the ASEBA Youth Self Report. Males reported significantly higher levels of SWB than females. Females reported significantly more internalizing problems while males report significantly higher levels of externalizing behavior. In both sexes, significant negative associations were found between SWB and psychopathology, with the strongest associations seen for SWB and the YSR syndrome scale anxious/depression behavior. The observed associations were primarily explained by genetic correlations while non-shared environmental influences were mainly domain specific. The genetic liability to lower levels of SWB are indicative of a genetic liability to higher levels of psychopathology, suggesting that it might be feasible to screen for emotional and behavioral problems before clear signs are present by screening on indices of subjective well-being.
Jayawickreme, Eranda; Brocato, Nicole W; Blackie, Laura E R
How do late adolescents make sense of stressful life events they have experienced in their lives? In a sample of 1320 college students, 676 (58% White, 63% female) reported the stressful events they had experienced in their lifetime up until the present survey and indicated whether they considered each stressful event to be a turning point and/or an opportunity for wisdom. Students also completed measures of personality and well-being. We hypothesized that the tendency to interpret stressful events as turning points or opportunities for wisdom would explain the associations between three personality characteristics (Openness to Experience, Extraversion, and Emotionality) and well-being. We used a multi-step ESEM approach in which we first assessed the measurement structure of our items before testing partial and complete structural models. We tested partial and structural models according to extant guidelines associated with the evaluation of indirect effects models. We did not find support for the indirect effects model, but Openness was associated with the tendency to view stressful events as turning points, and Openness and Extraversion were associated with the tendency to view stressful events as leading to wisdom, as well as with increased well-being.
Creed, Peter A.; Muller, Juanita; Patton, Wendy
Examines the well-being and career decision-making self-efficacy (CDMSE) of adolescents before and after leaving school, and tests for the changes in these variables as a result of leaving school. Results reveal that leaving school improved well-being and confidence for some. One group was disadvantaged by having poorer well-being while at school,…
Health care psychology is distinguished from traditional child psychology in that it emphasizes clinical application and is concerned with primary mental health care. Diagnosis, classification, prediction, and treatment and control strategies in the field offer definite solutions to problems such as tracheotomy addiction, encopresis, psychogenic…
James, Colin; Bore, Miles; Zito, Susanna
Research studies have reported elevated rates of psychological distress (e.g., depression) in practicing lawyers yet little research has examined predictors of such problems in law students. Specific personality traits have been shown to be predictors of a range of psychological problems. We administered a battery of tests to a cohort of 1st-year…
DiBartolo, Patricia Marten; Shaffer, Carey
Examined eating attitudes, body satisfaction, reasons for exercise, and psychological wellbeing among female nonathletes and college athletes. Data from participant surveys revealed less eating disorder symptomatology and more healthy psychological functioning among athletes, suggesting that female athletic involvement could be associated with…
Butner, Jonathan; Berg, Cynthia A.; Osborn, Peter; Butler, Jorie M.; Godri, Carine; Fortenberry, Katie T.; Barach, Ilana; Le, Hai; Wiebe, Deborah J.
This study examined whether intrafamily discrepancies in perceptions of the adolescent's competence and independence were associated with autonomy and well-being for adolescents and parents. The ways in which mothers and fathers consistently differed from their adolescent across measures of independence and competence regarding Type 1 diabetes, a…
Green, Sara; Nurius, Paula S.; Lester, Patricia
Understanding predictors of military spouse psychosocial vulnerability informs efforts to assess, identify, and support at-risk spouses and families. In this analysis we test the effects of family stress and strain on military spouse psychological health, using a sample of female civilian spouses (n=161). Regression findings confirm expectations of the significant contribution of family stressors, strain, and resources in explaining variation in spouses' psychological health, controlling for deployment and socioeconomic factors. Identifying the effects of family stress on military spouse psychological health supports the need for family-centered interventions and prevention programs. PMID:24415897
Williams, Kristi; Dunne-Bryant, Alexandra
Substantial evidence indicates that marital dissolution has negative consequences for adult well-being. Because most research focuses on the average consequences of divorce, we know very little about factors that moderate this association. The present study tests the hypothesis that the effects of marital dissolution on adult well-being are…
Liaquat, Sidra; Sultan, Sarwat; Hussain, Irshad
The purpose of this study was to address the importance of spiritual well-being and hope among cancer patients diagnosed with its different stages. Through stratified sampling techniques, 120 cancer patients from four stages evenly divided into male and female participated in this study. Spiritual Well-being Scale (Paloutzian & Ellison, 1982)…
Bauermeister, Jose A.; Johns, Michelle Marie; Sandfort, Theo G. M.; Eisenberg, Anna; Grossman, Arnold H.; D'Augelli, Anthony R.
Dating in adolescence plays an integral part in the development of sexual and social identities. This process is particularly salient for sexual minority youth who face additional obstacles to their identity formation due to their marginalized status. We investigated the influence of participating in a same-sex relationship (SSR) or an…
Petersen, Anne C.; Kellam, Sheppard G.
This paper presents data on a follow-up study of a project in the 1960's: a classroom assessment and intervention program directed at mental health for all the first grade classrooms of Woodlawn, a black poor community on Chicago's south side. Now, ten years later, the mental health of these adolescents as well as the mental health, structure, and…
Ellison, Christopher G.; Fan, Daisy
This study focuses on one of the most significant recent innovations in the conceptualization and measurement of religiousness and spirituality, the Daily Spiritual Experience scale (DSES; Underwood (2006) "Archive for the Psychology of Religion/Archiv fur Religion Psychologie," 28, 181-218). Using data from 1998 and 2004 NORC General…
Jackson, Aurora P.; Gyamfi, Phyllis; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Blake, Mandy
Investigates the effects of depressive symptomatology, parental stress, and instrumental support on maternal spanking. Results show that employment has a moderating effect on the relationship between mothers' psychological functioning and their decision to use spanking. The availability of instrumental support seems to increase the frequency of…
Amaro, Hortensia; And Others
Examined contributions of job- and gender-related variables to Hispanic women professionals' mental health. Income, Hispanic group, discrimination, job stress, and peer support related to mental health. Spouse support and spouse ethnicity were associated with stress in balancing roles and psychological distress. Married women reported greater…
Carr, Deborah; Friedman, Michael A.
We investigate the frequency and psychological correlates of institutional and interpersonal discrimination reported by underweight, normal weight, overweight, obese I, and obese II/III Americans. Analyses use data from the Midlife Development in the United States study, a national survey of more than 3,000 adults ages 25 to 74 in 1995. Compared…
Vela, Javier C.; Lu, Ming-Tsan P.; Lenz, A. Stephen; Savage, Miranda C.; Guardiola, Rebekah
Positive psychology is a useful framework to understand Mexican American college students' complete mental health. In the current study, we examined how presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, hope, mindfulness, and grit influenced 130 Mexican American college students' life satisfaction and depression. Within the first regression…
van Dierendonck, Dirk; Diaz, Dario; Rodriguez-Carvajal, Raquel; Blanco, Amalio; Moreno-Jimenez, Bernardo
This article aims to provide researchers interested in using Ryff's Scales of Psychological Wellbeing with additional information to make an informed decision on the scales and items to use. It builds on the discussion in the literature on the six factor structure of this measure. An alternative shortened version of this wellbeing measure (Van…
Using Self Determination as a framework, the purpose of the study was to examine the relationships between basic psychological needs, motivational regulations, self-esteem, subjective vitality, and social physique anxiety in physical education. One thousand and eighty two high school students aged between 14 and 19 [mean (M) = 15.89 ± 0.95 years]…
Burris, Jessica L.; Brechting, Emily H.; Salsman, John; Carlson, Charles R.
Objective: Because of the serious nature of psychiatric illness and related problems, the authors attempted to identify demographic, individual, and behavioral factors linked to university students' psychological health. Participants: They surveyed 353 (60.9% female) predominately Caucasian (88.7%) university students attending a large public…
Iturbide, Maria I.; Raffaelli, Marcela; Carlo, Gustavo
The current study investigated whether different ethnic identity components moderate the associations between acculturative stress and psychological adjustment among Mexican American college students (N = 148; 67% female) who completed self-report surveys. For women, ethnic affirmation/belonging and ethnic identity achievement moderated the…
Xin, Ziqiang; Chi, Liping; Yu, Guoliang
This study examined the mediation effect of cognitive appraisals and the moderation role of peer status in the association between interparental conflict and adolescents' affective well-being based on a sample of 549 Chinese adolescents from 7th to 12th grades. Interparental conflict properties, adolescents' cognitive appraisals of conflict,…
LaVeist, Thomas A.; Zeno, Tia L.; Fesahazion, Ruth G.
This article explores the effects of being raised by married parents during childhood on health and well-being in adolescence and young adulthood in a longitudinal sample of African Americans. This study aims to address the following three questions: Does childhood with married parents lead to better health and well-being during adolescence? Does…
Stebbings, Juliette; Taylor, Ian M; Spray, Christopher M
Within the self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) framework, research has considered the consequences of coaches' autonomy supportive and controlling behaviors on various athlete outcomes (e.g., motivation and performance). The antecedents of such behaviors, however, have received little attention. Coaches (N = 443) from a variety of sports and competitive levels completed a self-report questionnaire to assess their psychological need satisfaction, well-being and perceived interpersonal behaviors toward their athletes. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that coaches' competence and autonomy need satisfaction positively predicted their levels of psychological well-being, as indexed by positive affect and subjective vitality. In turn, coaches' psychological well-being positively predicted their perceived autonomy support toward their athletes, and negatively predicted their perceived controlling behaviors. Overall, the results highlight the importance of coaching contexts that facilitate coaches' psychological need satisfaction and well-being, thereby increasing the likelihood of adaptive coach interpersonal behavior toward athletes.
Voices of Children and Adolescents in Military Families: Research and Clinical Perspectives on Adjustment and Well-being. Eric M. Flake MD...AND SUBTITLE Voices of Children and Adolescents in Military Families: Research and Clinical Perspectives on Adjustment and Well-being 5a. CONTRACT...Objectives • Sensitize the community to military adolescent culture and support needs. • Candid interviews occurring at camp purple which capture the
Brannan, Megan E; Petrie, Trent A
Research has examined psychological moderators of the body dissatisfaction-bulimic symptomatology relationship, but the focus has been on variables thought to worsen the relationship. In this study, we examined self-esteem, optimism, satisfaction with life, and self-determination as potential buffers. Participants were 847 female undergraduates. Using hierarchical multiple regression (HMR), we controlled for the influences of social desirability and body mass index on bulimic symptomomatology and then determined the main and interactive effects of body dissatisfaction and each moderator. Self-determination, optimism, self-esteem, and satisfaction with life all buffered the deleterious effects of body dissatisfaction, such that when levels of the moderators were high, the relationship between body dissatisfaction and bulimic symptomatology was weakest. Knowing what psychological variables moderate women's body dissatisfaction can assist psychologists and other health professionals in developing effective treatments for lessening disordered eating among women.
van der Kaap-Deeder, Jolene; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Soenens, Bart; Mabbe, Elien
This study examined the unique relations between multiple sources (i.e., mothers, teachers, and siblings) of perceived daily autonomy support and psychological control and children's basic psychological needs and well-being. During 5 consecutive days, 2 children from 154 families (M[subscript age] youngest child = 8.54 years; SD = 0.89 and…
Cross, Tracy L.
After 30 years in the field of gifted education, and, more specifically, 30 years of studying the psychology of gifted students, author Tracy Cross has come to believe that the single greatest threat to the psychological well-being of gifted students is the mismatch between the school's curriculum and the student's needs. Cross argues in…
Li, Fuzhong; Duncan, Terry E.; Duncan, Susan C.; McAuley, Edward; Chaumeton, Nigel R.; Harmer, Peter
Examined whether a Tai Chi exercise program enhanced the psychological well-being of 98 elderly individuals. Analyzed repeated measures data about participants using latent growth curve analysis. Results indicate the beneficial effects of participation in the Tai Chi program. Discusses implications related to the exercise-psychological health…
Di Cagno, A.; Iuliano, E.; Aquino, G.; Fiorilli, G.; Battaglia, C.; Giombini, A.; Calcagno, G.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in psychological well-being, symptomatic psychological disorders and social participation, between blind Torball players and non-players. Thirty blind male participants were recruited, 17 Torball players (aged 36.27 plus or minus 3.46) and 13 non-players (aged 34.80 plus or minus 2.53), and…
Greenfield, Emily A.; Vaillant, George E.; Marks, Nadine F.
Recognizing religiosity and spirituality as related yet distinct phenomena, and conceptualizing psychological well-being as a multidimensional construct, this study examines whether individuals' frequency of formal religious participation and spiritual perceptions are independently associated with diverse dimensions of psychological well-being…
Kenyon, DenYelle Baete; Koerner, Susan Silverberg
Problem: The present study examined whether incoming college student individuation from parents was associated with later well-being and adjustment to college. Method: Data were collected via online surveys with incoming college freshmen (during the summer or first week of class, follow-up three months later). Results: Analyses revealed that…
Gloria, Alberta M.; Castellanos, Jeanett; Orozco, Veronica
Given the unique educational experiences and disproportional representation of Latinas in higher education, this study examined how Latinas' perception of educational barriers and cultural fit influenced their coping responses and subsequent well-being in college. Participants (N = 98) were primarily second-generation Mexican heritage women who…
Ring, L.; Hofer, S.; McGee, H.; Hickey, A.; O'Boyle, C. A.
There is ongoing discussion in the scientific literature about the need for a more theoretical foundation to underpin quality of life (QoL) measurement. This paper applied Keyes et al.'s ["J. Pers. Soc. Psychol." 82 (2002) 1007] model of well-being as a framework to assess whether respondents (n = 136 students) focus on elements of subjective…
Barnett, Rosalind C.; Baruch, Grace K.
Conceptualization of the lives of adult women and the forces affecting their well-being have concentrated on five constructs: (1) chronological age; (2) menopause and the empty nest; (3) marital status; (4) parity; and (5) multiple role involvement as a source of stress. A re-examination of these variables focused on the concerns and…
Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.
This study examines predictors of social support and mental health among 36 lesbian and 39 heterosexual couples who were waiting to adopt. Lesbian preadoptive partners perceived less support from family than heterosexual partners but similar levels of support from friends. Lesbian and heterosexual partners reported similar levels of well-being.…
Gloria, Alberta M.; Castellanos, Jeanett; Scull, Nicholas C.; Villegas, Francisco J.
This study examined 100 male Latino undergraduates' cultural self-esteem, perceived educational barriers, cultural fit, coping responses (CRs), and subsequent well-being within higher education. The most commonly reported CR for Latino males was to actively find out more about the situation and take a positive planned action. Assessing group mean…
Arnold, Kara A
This review paper focuses on answering 2 research questions: (a) Does transformational leadership predict employee well-being? (b) If so, how and when does this prediction occur? A systematic computerized search and review of empirical papers published between January 1980 and December 2015 was conducted. Forty papers were found that met the criteria of reporting empirical results, being published in English, and focused on answering the above research questions. Based on these papers it appears that, in general, transformational leadership positively predicts positive measures of well-being, and negatively predicts negative measures of well-being (i.e., ill-being). However, recent findings suggest that this is not always such a simple relationship. In addition, several mediating variables have been established, demonstrating that in many cases there is an indirect effect of transformational leadership on employee well-being. Although some boundary conditions have been examined, more research is needed on moderators. The review demonstrated the importance of moving forward in this area with stronger research designs to determine causality, specifying the outcome variable of interest, investigating the dimensions of transformational leadership separately, and testing more complicated relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record
Pennell, Claire; Boman, Peter; Mergler, Amanda
This study was an examination of the strength of relations among covitality, and its underlying constructs of belief in self, emotional competence, belief in others, and engaged living, and two outcome variables: subjective well-being and depression. Participants included 361 Australian secondary school students (75 males and 286 females) who…
Beeble, Marisa L.; Bybee, Deborah; Sullivan, Cris M.
This study examined the impact of resource constraints on the psychological well-being of survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV), testing whether resource constraints is one mechanism that partially mediates the relationship between IPV and women's well-being. Although within-woman changes in resource constraints did not mediate the…
Odou, Natasha; Vella-Brodrick, Dianne A.
This study examined the effects of mental imagery ability (MIA) on the efficacy of two positive psychology interventions (PPIs) to enhance well-being. Participants (N = 210) were randomly assigned to either: Three Good Things (TGT), Best Possible Selves (BPS), or a control group and completed well-being questionnaires pre and post intervention.…
Cianfaglione, Rina; Hastings, Richard P.; Felce, David; Clarke, Angus; Kerr, Michael P.
Few published studies have reported on the psychological well-being of family members of individuals with Rett syndrome (RTT). Eighty-seven mothers of girls and women with RTT completed a questionnaire survey about their daughters' behavioral phenotype, current health, and behavior problems, and their own and a sibling's well-being. Mothers…
Bluth, Karen; Blanton, Priscilla W.
Self-compassion has been associated with well-being in adult samples, but has rarely been assessed in adolescents. In this study, 90 students ages 11–18 completed an online survey assessing self-compassion, life satisfaction, perceived stress and positive and negative affect. Findings indicated that older female adolescents had lower self-compassion than either older male adolescents or early adolescents of either gender, and self-compassion was associated significantly with all dimensions of emotional well-being with the exception of positive affect. Additionally, phase of adolescence, but not gender, was found to moderate the relationship between self-compassion and dimensions of well-being; for older adolescents, the inverse relationship between self-compassion and negative affect was stronger. Lastly, the influence of the various components of self-compassion was investigated and discussed. PMID:25750655
Goyal, Madhav; Singh, Sonal; Sibinga, Erica M. S.; Gould, Neda F.; Rowland-Seymour, Anastasia; Sharma, Ritu; Berger, Zackary; Sleicher, Dana; Maron, David D.; Shihab, Hasan M.; Ranasinghe, Padmini D; Linn, Shauna; Saha, Shonali; Bass, Eric B.; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A.
Importance Many people meditate to reduce psychological stress and stress-related health problems. To counsel people appropriately, clinicians need to know what the evidence says about the health benefits of meditation. Objective To determine the efficacy of meditation programs in improving stress-related outcomes (anxiety, depression, stress/distress, positive mood, mental health quality of life, attention, substance use, eating, sleep, pain, and weight) in diverse adult clinical populations. Evidence Review We included randomized trials with active controls that controlled for placebo effects, identified through November 2012 from MEDLINE®, PsycINFO, EMBASE®, PsycArticles, SCOPUS, CINAHL, AMED, Cochrane Library, and hand searches. Independent reviewers screened citations and extracted data. We graded the strength of evidence using four domains (risk of bias, precision, directness, and consistency) and determined the magnitude and direction of effect by calculating the relative difference between groups in change from baseline. When possible, we conducted meta-analyses using standardized mean differences to obtain aggregate estimates of effect size (ES) with 95 percent confidence intervals (CI). Findings After reviewing 17,801 citations, we included 47 trials with 3,320 participants. Mindfulness meditation programs had moderate evidence to improve anxiety [ ES 0.38 (CI 0.12 to 0.64) at 8 weeks; ES 0.22 (0.02 to 0.43) at 3–6 months], depression [ES 0.30 (0.00 to 0.59) at 8 weeks; ES 0.23 (0.05 to 0.42) at 3–6 months] and pain [ES 0.33 (0.03 to 0.62)], and low evidence to improve stress/distress and mental health-related quality of life. We found either low evidence of no effect or insufficient evidence of any effect of meditation programs on positive mood, attention, substance use, eating, sleep, and weight. We found no evidence that meditation programs were better than any active treatment (drugs, exercise, other behavioral therapies). Conclusions and
McAloney, Kareena; McCrystal, Patrick; Percy, Andrew; McCartan, Claire
As Northern Ireland transitions to a post-conflict society the nature of violent victimization and its influence on adolescents following the "Troubles" becomes an even more important area of interest. Adolescents are particularly at risk of victimization and associated social, emotional, and psychological health problems. In this…
Carr, Deborah; Friedman, Michael A
We investigate the frequency and psychological correlates of institutional and interpersonal discrimination reported by underweight, normal weight, overweight, obese I, and obese II/III Americans. Analyses use data from the Midlife Development in the United States study, a national survey of more than 3,000 adults ages 25 to 74 in 1995. Compared to normal weight persons, obese II/III persons (body mass index of 35 or higher) are more likely to report institutional and day-to-day interpersonal discrimination. Among obese II/III persons, professional workers are more likely than nonprofessionals to report employment discrimination and interpersonal mistreatment. Obese II/III persons report lower levels of self-acceptance than normal weight persons, yet this relationship is fully mediated by the perception that one has been discriminated against due to body weight or physical appearance. Our findings offer further support for the pervasive stigma of obesity and the negative implications of stigmatized identities for life chances.
Gilster, Megan E.
Does participating in neighborhood-focused activism confer different benefits than volunteering? The engagement of community members in neighborhood civic life has been identified as an important component of safe and healthy communities. Research on community engagement has encompassed voluntary associations, volunteering, as well as participation in neighborhood activism. A diverse set of research suggests that there are psychological and social benefits to community engagement, but also suggests that there are differences between forms of participation. In order to understand these differences, I examine the relationship of both volunteerism and neighborhood activism to psychosocial outcomes using survey data from a neighborhood-based sample of Chicago residents (n=3105). Findings suggest that activism is different—activists have higher neighborhood and personal mastery than those who only volunteer. Participation in neighborhood activism is also associated with an increased likelihood of contact with local officials and social ties in the neighborhood. PMID:27087709
Gilster, Megan E
Does participating in neighborhood-focused activism confer different benefits than volunteering? The engagement of community members in neighborhood civic life has been identified as an important component of safe and healthy communities. Research on community engagement has encompassed voluntary associations, volunteering, as well as participation in neighborhood activism. A diverse set of research suggests that there are psychological and social benefits to community engagement, but also suggests that there are differences between forms of participation. In order to understand these differences, I examine the relationship of both volunteerism and neighborhood activism to psychosocial outcomes using survey data from a neighborhood-based sample of Chicago residents (n=3105). Findings suggest that activism is different-activists have higher neighborhood and personal mastery than those who only volunteer. Participation in neighborhood activism is also associated with an increased likelihood of contact with local officials and social ties in the neighborhood.
Formagini, Taynara Dutra Batista; Pereira, Laís Helena
Mindfulness is defined as “paying attention in a particular way, on purpose, in the present moment, and nonjudgmentally”. Mindfulness is associated with positive affect, life satisfaction, self-esteem, lower negative affect and rumination. Conversely, evidence suggests a relationship between nicotine dependence and psychiatric disorders. This study aimed to compare the levels of Mindfulness and Subjective Well-Being (SWB) between smokers and non-smokers. Ninety seven smokers and eighty four non-smokers participated in the study (n = 181). The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ-BR) and the Subjective Well-Being Scale (SWBS) were used. In all the factors of SWBS, the total scores in the FFMQ-BR and in the facets of Observing and Non-Reactivity, the non-smokers scored higher than the smokers. This study suggests that smokers present lower levels of Mindfulness and SWB than non-smokers. Consequently, we propose that Mindfulness-Based Interventions (MBI) may help smokers deal with treatment and abstinence by increasing their level of SWB. PMID:26270556
McHale, Susan M.; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kan, Marni; Updegraff, Kimberly A.
A burgeoning body of research documents links between sleep and adjustment in adolescence, but little is known about the role of the social ecology in promoting healthful sleeping habits. This study was aimed at identifying the socio-cultural correlates of adolescents' sleep, including average nighttime sleep duration, average daytime napping, and…
Fivush, Robyn; Bohanek, Jennifer G.; Zaman, Widaad
Narratives of the self are embedded within families in which narrative interaction is a common practice. Especially in adolescence, when issues of identity and emotional regulation become key, narratives provide frameworks for understating self and emotion. The authors' research on family narratives suggests that adolescents' personal narratives…
Fowler, Patrick J; Henry, David B; Marcal, Katherine E
This study investigated the longitudinal effects of family structure changes and housing instability in adolescence on functioning in the transition to adulthood. A model examined the influence of household composition changes and mobility in context of ethnic differences and sociodemographic risks. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health measured household and residential changes over a 12-month period among a nationally representative sample of adolescents. Assessments in young adulthood measured rates of depression, criminal activity, and smoking. Findings suggested housing mobility in adolescence predicted poorer functioning across outcomes in young adulthood, and youth living in multigenerational homes exhibited greater likelihood to be arrested than adolescents in single-generation homes. However, neither family structure changes nor its interaction with residential instability or ethnicity related to young adult outcomes. Findings emphasized the unique influence of housing mobility in the context of dynamic household compositions.
Impacts on lay helpers of participation in part-time work supporting rural elders with severe mental illness were explored in a group of 17 older adults employed in a demonstration project. Self-rated well-being and social support were assessed over 1 year. Ratings of autonomy and positive relations with others varied over 1 year. Perceptions of the amount of social support provided showed a trend toward improvement at 1 year. Results are considered in the context of role theory and illustrated with an ethnographic case study of the service environment. The lay helper role is a form of productive engagement through paid caregiving, with potential to supplement rural mental health service systems while supporting elders' needs for meaningful civic engagement.
Bonifacci, Paola; Storti, Michele; Tobia, Valentina; Suardi, Alessandro
Despite their ascertained neurobiological origin, specific learning disorders (SLD) often have been found to be associated with some emotional disturbances in children, and there is growing interest in the environmental and contextual variables that may modulate children's developmental trajectories. The present study was aimed at evaluating the psychological profile of parents and children and the relationships between their measures. Parents of children with SLD (17 couples, 34 participants) and parents of children with typical development (17 couples, 34 participants) were administered questionnaires assessing parenting styles, reading history, parenting stress, psychopathological indexes, and evaluations of children's anxiety and depression. Children (N = 34, 10.7 ± 1.2 years) were assessed with self-evaluation questionnaires on anxiety, depression, and self-esteem and with a scale assessing their perception of parents' qualities. Results showed that parents of children with SLD have higher parental distress, poorer reading history, and different parenting styles compared to parents of children with TD; there were no differences in psychopathological indexes. The SLD group also rated their children as more anxious and depressed. Children with SLD had lower scholastic and interpersonal self-esteem, but they report ratings of parents' qualities similar to those of TD children. Relationships between parents' and children's measures were further explored. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Hui, Elsie; Chui, Bo Tsan-keung; Woo, Jean
This study was aimed at determining the effects of dancing on the health status of older persons. A pool of 111 community-dwelling subjects were allocated to either an intervention group (IG), which included 23 sessions of dance over 12 weeks, or a control group (CG). All participants were assessed at baseline and 12 weeks. Physical outcome measures included the 6-min timed walking test (6MWT), trunk flexibility, body composition, lower limb endurance and strength, balance, the timed up-and-go test (TUG), resting heart rate and blood pressure. Quality of life was assessed by the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form (SF-36) questionnaire. The IG's views toward dancing were also evaluated at 12 weeks. Significant difference was observed between the groups in six outcome measures: mean change in resting heart rate, 6MWT, TUG, lower limb endurance and the 'general health' and 'bodily pain' domains of SF-36. The majority of the dance group felt the intervention improved their health status. These findings demonstrate that dancing has physical and psychological benefits, and should be promoted as a form of leisure activity for senior citizens.
Williams, David R.; Haile, Rahwa; Mohammed, Selina A.; Herman, Allen; Stein, Dan J.; Sonnega, John; Jackson, James S.
This study uses two national probability samples of adults, the National Survey of American Life (NSAL) and the South African Stress and Health Study (SASH) to systematically assess how the levels of perceived racial and non-racial discrimination and their effects on self-esteem and mastery in the U.S. compares to those in South Africa. Levels of perceived racial discrimination are higher in the U.S. than South Africa. In the U.S. both African Americans and Caribbean blacks have comparable or higher levels of self-esteem and mastery than whites. In contrast, South African Whites have higher levels of both self-esteem and mastery than blacks, Coloureds and Indians. Perceived discrimination, especially chronic everyday discrimination, is inversely related to self-esteem and mastery in both societies. In South Africa, stress and socioeconomic status (SES) but not discrimination are important determinants of racial differences in self-esteem and mastery. Our main findings indicate that in two racialized societies, perceived discrimination acts independent of demographic factors, other stressors, social desirability, racial identity and SES to negatively affect psychological functioning. PMID:22339224
Casale, Silvia; Lecchi, Stefano; Fioravanti, Giulia
Previous studies on problematic Internet use have focused almost exclusively on the fact that presence of negative functioning, such as social anxiety, depressive symptoms, or loneliness, represents a risk factor for unhealthy use of the web. For this reason the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between psychological well-being dimensions and problematic use of Internet communicative services. In the current study 495 undergraduate students were recruited. The Italian adaptations of the Psychological Well-being Scales and the Generalized Problematic Internet Use Scale 2 (GPIUS2) were used to assess psychological well-being dimensions and generalized problematic Internet use, respectively. Psychological well-being dimensions explained a significant portion of variance for the GPIUS2 total score levels, after controlling for sex, age, and occupational status. The levels of Autonomy, Environmental Mastery, and Positive Relations with Others acted as significant negative predictors of the tendency to use the web for regulating negative feelings, compulsive use of the web, and the negative outcomes that can arise as a result. The overall findings of the present study provide preliminary evidence that low psychological well-being is associated with problematic use of Internet communicative services.
Cormio, Claudia; Romito, Francesca; Viscanti, Giovanna; Turaccio, Marina; Lorusso, Vito; Mattioli, Vittorio
Introduction: Although research has shown that many cancer patients report positive life changes following cancer diagnosis, there are few data in the literature related to PTG in caregivers of cancer patients. However, the few studies available have shown that this kind of positive changes can also be experienced by family members. The aims of this study were to explore PTG in caregivers of cancer patients and to investigate correlations between the Posttraumatic growth, psychological status and QoL of caregivers and those of patients, taking into account also clinical and socio-demographic aspects. Methods: We enrolled 60 patient/caregiver pairs in the Department of Medical Oncology of the National Research Center “Giovanni Paolo II” in Bari. Both patients and caregivers were assessed using the following scales: Posttraumatic growth Inventory (PTGI); Hospital anxiety and depression scale; Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36); ECOG Performance Status. Clinical and socio-demographic data were collected. Results: Caregivers showed significantly higher scores than patients in the dimension of “personal strength.” Furthermore, we found a significantly close association between anxiety and depression of caregivers with those of patients. Younger caregivers were better than older ones in terms of physical activity, vitality, mental health, and social activities. Although the degree of relationship with the patient has no significant effect on the dependent variables of the study, it was found that caregivers with a degree of kinship more distant to the patient have less physical pain than the closest relatives. Conclusion: Results of the present study show that caregivers of cancer patients may experience post-traumatic growth as the result of their caregiver role. It would be interesting to investigate in future research which factor may mediate the presence of post-traumatic growth. PMID:25477853
Ju, Chengting; Zhang, Baoshan; You, Xuqun; Alterman, Valeria; Li, Yongkang
Few studies have focused on the relationships among religiousness, social support and subjective well-being in Chinese adolescent populations. This study tries to fill this gap. Using cluster sampling, we selected two groups: Group A, which included 738 Tibetan adolescents with a formal religious affiliation and represented adolescents from a religious culture, and Group B, which included 720 Han adolescents without a religious affiliation and represented adolescents from an irreligious culture. Structural equation modelling showed that only in Group A did social support mediate (partially) the relationship between religious experience and subjective well-being; furthermore, the results of a hierarchical regression analysis showed that only in Group A did social support moderate the relationship between religious ideology and subjective well-being. Possible explanations for the discrepancies between the findings obtained in this study and those obtained in previous studies are discussed.
Mason, Georgia J; Veasey, Jake S
Animal welfare (sometimes termed "well-being") is about feelings - states such as "suffering" or "contentment" that we can infer but cannot measure directly. Welfare indices have been developed from two main sources: studies of suffering humans, and of research animals deliberately subjected to challenges known to affect emotional state. We briefly review the resulting indices here, and discuss how well they are understood for elephants, since objective welfare assessment should play a central role in evidence-based elephant management. We cover behavioral and cognitive responses (approach/avoidance; intention, redirected and displacement activities; vigilance/startle; warning signals; cognitive biases, apathy and depression-like changes; stereotypic behavior); physiological responses (sympathetic responses; corticosteroid output - often assayed non-invasively via urine, feces or even hair; other aspects of HPA function, e.g. adrenal hypertrophy); and the potential negative effects of prolonged stress on reproduction (e.g. reduced gametogenesis; low libido; elevated still-birth rates; poor maternal care) and health (e.g. poor wound-healing; enhanced disease rates; shortened lifespans). The best validated, most used welfare indices for elephants are corticosteroid outputs and stereotypic behavior. Indices suggested as valid, partially validated, and/or validated but not yet applied within zoos include: measures of preference/avoidance; displacement movements; vocal/postural signals of affective (emotional) state; startle/vigilance; apathy; salivary and urinary epinephrine; female acyclity; infant mortality rates; skin/foot infections; cardio-vascular disease; and premature adult death. Potentially useful indices that have not yet attracted any validation work in elephants include: operant responding and place preference tests; intention and vacuum movements; fear/stress pheromone release; cognitive biases; heart rate, pupil dilation and blood pressure
Basow, Susan A; Lilley, Elizabeth; Bookwala, Jamila; McGillicuddy-DeLisi, Ann
Because adult Korean-born adoptees have unique experiences, the factors that contribute to their psychological well-being need to be studied separately from both Caucasian and Korean Americans. In this Internet-based study with 83 adult Korean-born adoptees in the United States, both ethnic identity and adjustment to adoption (considered a component of adoptive identity) were expected to predict psychological well-being. Results supported predictions: Each measure of psychological well-being (personal growth, self-acceptance, and positive relationships with others) was affected by the predictive variables in unique ways. Cultural socialization experiences also were related to personal growth, but this association was fully mediated by strength of ethnic identity. Implications for adoptive parents and counselors are discussed.
Manning, Wendy D; Longmore, Monica A; Copp, Jennifer; Giordano, Peggy C
The complexity of adolescents' dating and sexual lives is not easily operationalized with simple indicators of dating or sexual activity. While building on prior work that emphasizes the "risky" nature of adolescents' intimate relationships, we assess whether a variety of indicators reflecting the complexity of adolescents' relationships influence early adult well-being (i.e., depressive symptoms, self-esteem, gainful activity, intimate partner violence, and relationship quality). Our analysis of longitudinal data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study showed that the number of adolescent dating and sexual partners does not uniformly influence indicators of young adult well-being, which is at odds with a risk framework. The number of dating partners with whom the individual was sexually active, and not the number of "casual" sex partners, increased the odds of intimate partner violence during young adulthood. Relationship churning and sexual nonexclusivity during adolescence were associated with lower relationship quality during young adulthood. Sexual nonexclusivity during adolescence influenced self-reports of depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem among young adults. Future research should develop more nuanced conceptualizations of adolescent dating and sexual relationships and integrate adolescent dating and sexual experiences into research on early adult well-being.
Swisher, Raymond R.; Shaw-Smith, Unique R.
Parental incarceration has been found to be associated with a wide range of negative outcomes in both childhood and adolescence. This Article uses data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to focus on the conditions under which associations of paternal incarceration with adolescent delinquency and depression are strongest. Paternal incarceration is most consistently and positively associated with adolescent delinquency. Associations of paternal incarceration with adolescent depression are weaker and more contingent on gender and other moderating factors. One important moderator is the respondent's retrospective reports that he or she was physically or sexually abused by a parent or other adult caregiver during childhood. For example, in the absence of sexual abuse, paternal incarceration is associated with higher depression among girls. When coupled with reports of sexual abuse, in contrast, paternal incarceration is not associated with girls' depression, suggesting a potential protective effect. The child having ever coresided with his or her father is also found to moderate associations, with paternal incarceration most strongly associated with delinquency and depression among girls who had ever coresided with their fathers. Examination of the duration and timing of paternal incarceration also pointed to gender differences. PMID:27239076
Swisher, Raymond R; Shaw-Smith, Unique R
Parental incarceration has been found to be associated with a wide range of negative outcomes in both childhood and adolescence. This Article uses data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to focus on the conditions under which associations of paternal incarceration with adolescent delinquency and depression are strongest. Paternal incarceration is most consistently and positively associated with adolescent delinquency. Associations of paternal incarceration with adolescent depression are weaker and more contingent on gender and other moderating factors. One important moderator is the respondent's retrospective reports that he or she was physically or sexually abused by a parent or other adult caregiver during childhood. For example, in the absence of sexual abuse, paternal incarceration is associated with higher depression among girls. When coupled with reports of sexual abuse, in contrast, paternal incarceration is not associated with girls' depression, suggesting a potential protective effect. The child having ever coresided with his or her father is also found to moderate associations, with paternal incarceration most strongly associated with delinquency and depression among girls who had ever coresided with their fathers. Examination of the duration and timing of paternal incarceration also pointed to gender differences.
The aim of the present study is to examine whether subjective well-being is predicted by self-oriented perfectionism and self-assessment. The self-oriented perfectionism scale, self-assessment scale and subjective well-being scale (SWB) were administrated to a sample of voluntary 272 eight-grade students from three secondary schools in Sultangazi,…
Houben, Marlies; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Kuppens, Peter
Not only how good or bad people feel on average, but also how their feelings fluctuate across time is crucial for psychological health. The last 2 decades have witnessed a surge in research linking various patterns of short-term emotional change to adaptive or maladaptive psychological functioning, often with conflicting results. A meta-analysis was performed to identify consistent relationships between patterns of short-term emotion dynamics-including patterns reflecting emotional variability (measured in terms of within-person standard deviation of emotions across time), emotional instability (measured in terms of the magnitude of consecutive emotional changes), and emotional inertia of emotions over time (measured in terms of autocorrelation)-and relatively stable indicators of psychological well-being or psychopathology. We determined how such relationships are moderated by the type of emotional change, type of psychological well-being or psychopathology involved, valence of the emotion, and methodological factors. A total of 793 effect sizes were identified from 79 articles (N = 11,381) and were subjected to a 3-level meta-analysis. The results confirmed that overall, low psychological well-being co-occurs with more variable (overall ρ̂ = -.178), unstable (overall ρ̂ = -.205), but also more inert (overall ρ̂ = -.151) emotions. These effect sizes were stronger when involving negative compared with positive emotions. Moreover, the results provided evidence for consistency across different types of psychological well-being and psychopathology in their relation with these dynamical patterns, although specificity was also observed. The findings demonstrate that psychological flourishing is characterized by specific patterns of emotional fluctuations across time, and provide insight into what constitutes optimal and suboptimal emotional functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record
Objectives. There is growing enthusiasm for community initiatives that aim to strengthen neighbor relationships to promote well-being in later life. Nevertheless, few studies have examined the extent to which relationships with neighbors are associated with better psychological well-being among midlife and older adults. Methods. We used data from 1,071 noninstitutionalized, English-speaking adults, aged 40–70 years, who participated in both waves of the 1995–2005 National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States. Lagged dependent regression models were estimated to examine associations between changes in two dimensions of neighbor relationships (contact and perceived support) and psychological well-being. Results. Few associations were found between relationships with neighbors and negative or positive affect. In contrast, having continuously low levels of contact with neighbors, or losing contact with neighbors over the 10-year study period, was associated with declining levels of eudaimonic well-being. Associations between contact and this aspect of well-being were explained, in part, by less perceived support from neighbors. Discussion. Results suggest that continuity and change in relationships with neighbors is especially important for more developmental aspects of psychological well-being. Implications for future research on the meaning of neighbor relationships and aging in community are discussed. PMID:25106785
Bene, Pamela J.; Southers, Chris L.
Adolescents are working more and longer, and more advantaged parents want their children to work. However, jobs available to youth are age segregated and declining in quality. Although student employment can develop self-discipline, responsibility, motivation, and other lifelong skills, its consequences include competing school, work, and family…
Impett, Emily A.; Henson, James M.; Breines, Juliana G.; Schooler, Deborah; Tolman, Deborah L.
In a five-year longitudinal study, we investigated the role of body objectification in shaping girls' self-esteem and depressive symptoms over the course of adolescence. Multivariate Latent Growth Curve Modeling (MLGM) was used to test the association between body objectification and both self-esteem and depressive symptoms with data from 587…
van den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.; Meerkerk, Gert-Jan; Vermulst, Ad A.; Spijkerman, Renske; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.
The present study investigated the relationships between adolescents' online communication and compulsive Internet use, depression, and loneliness. The study had a 2-wave longitudinal design with an interval of 6 months. The sample consisted of 663 students, 318 male and 345 female, ages 12 to 15 years. Questionnaires were administered in a…
Larsson, Margaretha; Sundler, Annelie Johansson; Ekebergh, Margaretha; Björk, Maria
Background: In research the relationships between parents and their adolescent daughters have been viewed from problem oriented perspectives, usually exploring negative effects and health-related problems. Health and well-being are complex phenomena and knowledge is needed on how parents can support the health and well-being of their daughter.…
Brothers, Allyson; Gabrian, Martina; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Diehl, Manfred
This study examined how 2 distinct facets of perceived personal lifetime-future time perspective (FTP) and awareness of age-related change (AARC)-are associated with another, and how they may interact to predict psychological well-being. To better understand associations among subjective perceptions of lifetime, aging, and well-being, we tested a series of models to investigate questions of directionality, indirect effects, and conditional processes among FTP, AARC-Gains, AARC-Losses, and psychological well-being. In all models, we tested for differences between middle-aged and older adults, and between adults from the United States and Germany. Analyses were conducted within a structural equation modeling framework on a cross-national, 2.5-year longitudinal sample of 537 community-residing adults (age 40-98 years). Awareness of age-related losses (AARC-Losses) at Time 1 predicted FTP at Time 2, but FTP did not predict AARC-Gains or AARC-Losses. Furthermore, future time perspective mediated the association between AARC-Losses and well-being. Moderation analyses revealed a buffering effect of awareness of age-related gains (AARC-Gains) in which perceptions of more age-related gains diminished the negative effect of a limited future time perspective on well-being. Effects were robust across age groups and countries. Taken together, these findings suggest that perceived age-related loss experiences may sensitize individuals to perceive a more limited future lifetime which may then lead to lower psychological well-being. In contrast, perceived age-related gains may function as a resource to preserve psychological well-being, in particular when time is perceived as running out. (PsycINFO Database Record
Seaton, Eleanor K.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Sellers, Robert M.; Jackson, James S.
The present study examined whether combinations of ethnicity, gender, and age moderated the association between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being indicators (depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and life satisfaction) in a nationally representative sample of Black youth. The data were from the National Survey of American Life,…
Bray, Steven R.; Kwan, Matthew Y. W.
The authors investigated vigorous physical activity, psychological well-being, and self-reported illness during transition to first-year university life in a sample of 175 Canadian under-graduates. At the completion of their first year of university study, participants completed retrospective measures assessing vigorous physical activity, upper…
Seaton, Eleanor K.; Neblett, Enrique W.; Upton, Rachel D.; Hammond, Wizdom Powell; Sellers, Robert M.
This study examined the influence of racial identity in the longitudinal relation between perceptions of racial discrimination and psychological well-being for approximately 560 African American youth. Latent curve modeling (LCM) and parallel process multiple-indicator LCMs with latent moderators were used to assess whether perceptions of racial…
Ingram, Kathleen M.; And Others
The effects of stressful experiences on the psychological well-being of 113 homeless women and 116 low-income housed women were investigated. Measures of victimization assessed multiple dimensions of this construct, including criminal victimization, sexual harassment, and sexual abuse. Measures of daily environmental hassles and quality of family…
Shapiro, Adam; Lambert, James David
States that the effect of divorce on the quality of the father-child relationship and fathers' psychological well being is moderated by the residence of children. Divorce is associated with lower relationship quality only for nonresident fathers and is associated with a decline in happiness for nonresident fathers. Divorced fathers are more…
Greenfield, Emily A.; Vaillant, George E.; Marks, Nadine F.
Recognizing religiosity and spirituality as related-yet-distinct phenomena, and conceptualizing psychological well-being as a multi-dimensional construct, this study examines whether individuals’ frequency of formal religious participation and spiritual perceptions are independently associated with diverse dimensions of psychological well-being (negative affect, positive affect, purpose in life, positive relations with others, personal growth, self-acceptance, environmental mastery, and autonomy). Data came from 1,564 respondents in the 2005 National Survey of Midlife in the U.S. (MIDUS). Higher levels of spiritual perceptions were independently associated with better psychological well-being across all dimensions, and three of these salutary associations were stronger among women than men. Greater formal religious participation was independently associated only with more purpose in life and (among older adults) personal growth; greater formal religious participation was also associated with less autonomy. Overall, results suggest a different pattern of independent linkages between formal religious participation and spiritual perceptions across diverse dimensions of psychological well-being. PMID:19537460
Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming
This review examines the global literature regarding the impact of parental HIV/AIDS on children's psychological well-being. Fifty one articles reporting quantitative data from a total of 30 studies were retrieved and reviewed. Findings were mixed but tended to show that AIDS orphans and vulnerable children had poorer psychological well-being in comparison with children from HIV-free families or children orphaned by other causes. Limited longitudinal studies suggested a negative effect of parental HIV on children's psychological well-being in an early stage of parental HIV-related illness and such effects persisted through the course of parental illness and after parental death. HIV-related stressful life events, stigma, and poverty were risk factors that might aggravate the negative impact of parental HIV/AIDS on children. Individual coping skills, trusting relationship with caregivers and social support were suggested to protect children against the negative effects of parental HIV/AIDS. This review underlines the vulnerability of children affected by HIV/AIDS. Culturally and developmentally appropriate evidence-based interventions are urgently needed to promote the psychological well-being of children affected by HIV/AIDS.
Marks, Nadine F.; Jun, Heyjung; Song, Jieun
Guided by a life course perspective, attachment theory, and gender theory, this study aims to examine the impact of death of a father, a mother, or both parents, as well as continuously living with one or both parents dead (in contrast to having two parents alive) on multiple dimensions of psychological well-being (depressive symptoms, happiness,…
Baams, Laura; Beek, Titia; Hille, Helene; Zevenbergen, Felice C; Bos, Henny M W
Dutch sexual minority youth and young adults (106 females and 86 males, 16-24 years old) were assessed to establish whether there was a relation between gender nonconformity and psychological well-being and whether this relation was mediated by perceived experiences of stigmatization due to perceived or actual sexual orientation and moderated by biological sex. The participants were recruited via announcements on Dutch LGBTQ-oriented community websites and then linked to a protected online questionnaire. The questionnaire was used to measure gender nonconformity, perceived experiences of stigmatization, and psychological well-being. Gender nonconformity was found to predict lower levels of psychological well-being and the mediation analysis confirmed that lower levels of psychological well-being were related to the perceived experiences of stigmatization. This mediation was not moderated by biological sex. These findings show that both research and interventions should pay more attention to gender nonconformity among young people in order to create a more positive climate for young sexual minority members.
Banks, Pauline; Jahoda, Andrew; Dagnan, Dave; Kemp, John; Williams, Victoria
Background: This paper focuses on the transition to supported employment for people with intellectual disabilities paying particular attention to the impact of job breakdown on psychological well-being; an issue often omitted from studies. Materials and Methods: Forty-nine people with intellectual disabilities were interviewed within 3 months of…
It is difficult to challenge a strong consensus that governments must intervene in a worsening crisis of emotional and psychological well-being. The article relates rising estimates of problems and corresponding calls for intervention in educational settings to the increasingly blurred boundaries between a cultural therapeutic ethos, academic…
Abbott, Rosemary A.; Ploubidis, George B.; Huppert, Felicia A.; Kuh, Diana; Croudace, Tim J.
The aim of this study is to assess the effective measurement range of Ryff's Psychological Well-being scales (PWB). It applies normal ogive item response theory (IRT) methodology using factor analysis procedures for ordinal data based on a limited information estimation approach. The data come from a sample of 1,179 women participating in a…
Sisask, Merike; Värnik, Peeter; Värnik, Airi; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Balint, Maria; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Feldman, Dana; Haring, Christian; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Poštuvan, Vita; Tubiana, Alexandra; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Camilla; Carli, Vladimir; Hoven, Christina W.; Wasserman, Danuta
Objective: In support of a whole-school approach to mental health promotion, this study was conducted to find out whether and how significantly teachers' satisfaction with school and their subjective psychological well-being are related to the belief that they can help pupils with mental health problems. Design: Cross-sectional data were collected…
Holahan, Carole K.; Holahan, Charles J.
Examines the relation of being labeled as intellectually gifted to a mid-life appraisal of having lived up to one's abilities and to psychological well-being at age 80. Learning at a younger age of membership in a study of intellectual giftedness was related to less likelihood of believing that one has lived up to one's intellectual abilities at…
Bore, Miles; Kelly, Brian; Nair, Balakrishnan
Purpose Research has consistently found that the proportion of medical students who experience high levels of psychological distress is significantly greater than that found in the general population. The aim of our research was to assess the levels of psychological distress more extensively than has been done before, and to determine likely predictors of distress and well-being. Subjects and methods In 2013, students from an Australian undergraduate medical school (n=127) completed a questionnaire that recorded general demographics, hours per week spent studying, in paid work, volunteer work, and physical exercise; past and current physical and mental health, social support, substance use, measures of psychological distress (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, depression, anxiety, stress, burnout); and personality traits. Results Females were found to have higher levels of psychological distress than males. However, in regression analysis, the effect of sex was reduced to nonsignificance when other variables were included as predictors of psychological distress. The most consistent significant predictors of our 20 indicators of psychological distress were social support and the personality traits of emotional resilience and self-control. Conclusion The findings suggest that emotional resilience skills training embedded into the medical school curriculum could reduce psychological distress among medical students. PMID:27042156
Cyberbullying, a growing phenomenon, has been defined as "willful and repeated harm" through electronic mediums (Patchin & Hinduja, 2006, p.152). Technology has spawned a new arena for children to be bullied. Research has demonstrated the psychological impact of traditional bullying (Baldry, 2004; Kumpulainen et al., 2008; Paul & Cillessen, 2003),…
Backström-Eriksson, Lena; Bergsten-Brucefors, Agneta; Hjelte, Lena; Melin, Bo; Sorjonen, Kimmo
Background Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common autosomal recessive, life-shortening disease among people of European origin. Type of genetic mutation and regular physical exercise has an impact on clinical outcome. This cross-sectional study explores the associations between genetics, medical status, physical exercise and psychological well-being in adult patients with CF. Methods Adult patients with CF (N=68; mean age: 32.2; range 18–67 years; 46% women) completed the Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire-Revised and Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale. Measures about lung function/forced expiratory volume in 1 s per cent predicted, body mass index, physical working capacity, immunoglobulin G, CF Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) mutations, and physical exercise were obtained. structural equation modelling was used to fit models to data. Results A cftr gene mutation×age interaction effect indicates a psychological disadvantage increasing with age of having more severe CFTR mutations; >65% of the effect is mediated by medical status. Physical exercise has a positive effect on psychological well-being, but >75% of the effect is mediated by medical status. Conclusions Psychological well-being decreases with age in patients with more severe cftr mutations, to a large extent due to a parallel deterioration of medical status. Physical exercise has a positive effect on psychological well-being if resulting in better health only. To manage the complexity of these patients' needs, the CF-care should emphasise a holistic approach and offer individualised exercise/treatment programmes and psychological competence. PMID:27933179
The Over-Adaptation Tendency Scale is designed to assess internal (self-inhibitive personality traits) and external (other-directed behavioral adaptation strategies) characteristics of over adaptation. The relationships among over-adaptation, subjective well-being, and family relationships were investigated using this scale. The scale was administered to undergraduate and graduate students (N = 408). The results indicated that for both men and women, all internal aspects of over-adaptation were significantly and negatively associated with the participant's cognition of past, present, and future subjective well-being. Furthermore, for women, all external aspects of over-adaptation were significantly and positively associated with future subjective well-being and family cohesion was associated with both internal and external aspects. These results are discussed in relation to the characteristics of over-adaptation.
Tisdale, Sandee; Pitt-Catsuphes, Marcie
This investigation examined the relationships between middle school-aged children's perceptions of their social environments (home, school, neighborhood, and parental work) with self-reports of well-being. In the present study, well-being was defined by measures of physical health and psychological happiness. Data from the Nurturing Families Study…
Jimmefors, Alexander; Mousavi, Fariba; Adrianson, Lillemor; Rosenberg, Patricia; Archer, Trevor
Background. Self-regulation is the procedure implemented by an individual striving to reach a goal and consists of two inter-related strategies: assessment and locomotion. Moreover, both subjective and psychological well-being along exercise behaviour might also play a role on adolescents academic achievement. Method. Participants were 160 Swedish high school pupils (111 boys and 49 girls) with an age mean of 17.74 (sd = 1.29). We used the Regulatory Mode Questionnaire to measure self-regulation strategies (i.e., locomotion and assessment). Well-being was measured using Ryff’s Psychological Well-Being Scales short version, the Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule. Exercise behaviour was self-reported using questions pertaining to frequency and intensity of exercise compliance. Academic achievement was operationalized through the pupils’ mean value of final grades in Swedish, Mathematics, English, and Physical Education. Both correlation and regressions analyses were conducted. Results. Academic achievement was positively related to assessment, well-being, and frequent/intensive exercise behaviour. Assessment was, however, negatively related to well-being. Locomotion on the other hand was positively associated to well-being and also to exercise behaviour. Conclusions. The results suggest a dual (in)direct model to increase pupils’ academic achievement and well-being—assessment being directly related to higher academic achievement, while locomotion is related to frequently exercising and well-being, which in turn, increase academic achievement. PMID:25861553
García-Moya, Irene; Brooks, Fiona; Morgan, Antony; Moreno, Carmen
Objectives: Teacher connectedness is an important factor for young people's well-being. The aim of this paper was to examine teacher connectedness in detail and its potential association with emotional wellbeing. More specifically, we set out to analyse whether teacher connectedness acted as a universal asset for boys and girls of different ages…
Latty, Christopher; Carolan, Marsha T.; Jocks, Jodi E.; Weatherspoon, Lorraine J.
Background: The substantial increase in youth obesity during the last two decades may have serious biological as well as behavioral/mental health consequences. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess how ecological factors and hence overall well-being were related to body mass index (BMI) in youths. Methods: Three BMI categories (normal;…
Mota, Catarina Pinheiro; Matos, Paula Mena
Background: Attachment theory states the importance of secure relationships with significant figures for the development of resilience and well-being. The institutional care context represents a particular environment where relationships beyond the family should be attended for. Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyse the relationship…
Viholainen, Helena; Aro, Tuija; Purtsi, Jarno; Tolvanen, Asko; Cantell, Marja
Background: The health benefits of exercise participation and physical activity for mental health and psychosocial well-being (PSWB) have been shown in several studies. However, one important background factor, that is, motor skills (MSs), has largely been ignored. In addition, most of the existing research focuses on poor MSs, that is, poor MSs…
Lima, Julie; Caughy, Margaret O; Nettles, Saundra M; O'Campo, Patricia J
This study builds upon existing research by examining whether risk indices for child psychological well-being behave in the same way in different types of neighborhoods. Specifically, we sought to determine if neighborhood characteristics acted to exacerbate or, alternatively, to buffer risk factors at the family and/or child level. Families with a child entering first grade in Fall 2002 were recruited from Baltimore City neighborhoods, defined as census block groups. This study included 405 children, and data came from an interview with the primary caregiver and an assessment of the first grader. The dependent variables were externalizing behavior and internalizing problems. A family risk index consisting of 13 measures, and a child risk index consisting of three measures were the main independent variables of interest. We examined the effects of these indices on child psychological well-being and behavior across two neighborhood characteristics: neighborhood potential for community involvement with children and neighborhood negative social climate. Results of multivariate analyses indicated that cumulative family risk was associated with an increase in both internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Perceived negative social climate moderated the effect of family risks on behavior problems such that more risk was associated with a larger increment in both externalizing behavior problems and psychological problems for children living in high versus low risk neighborhoods. These findings further emphasize the importance of considering neighborhood context in the study of child psychological well-being. PMID:20732735
Sin, Nancy L; Lyubomirsky, Sonja
Do positive psychology interventions-that is, treatment methods or intentional activities aimed at cultivating positive feelings, positive behaviors, or positive cognitions-enhance well-being and ameliorate depressive symptoms? A meta-analysis of 51 such interventions with 4,266 individuals was conducted to address this question and to provide practical guidance to clinicians. The results revealed that positive psychology interventions do indeed significantly enhance well-being (mean r=.29) and decrease depressive symptoms (mean r=.31). In addition, several factors were found to impact the effectiveness of positive psychology interventions, including the depression status, self-selection, and age of participants, as well as the format and duration of the interventions. Accordingly, clinicians should be encouraged to incorporate positive psychology techniques into their clinical work, particularly for treating clients who are depressed, relatively older, or highly motivated to improve. Our findings also suggest that clinicians would do well to deliver positive psychology interventions as individual (versus group) therapy and for relatively longer periods of time.
Delva, Wim; Vercoutere, An; Loua, Catherine; Lamah, Jonas; Vansteelandt, Stijn; De Koker, Petra; Claeys, Patricia; Temmerman, Marleen; Annemans, Lieven
Over the past decade, the effects of AIDS-related parental death on children's socio-economic, educational and psychological well-being have become apparent. Most studies, however, have compared the plight of so-called AIDS orphans with non-orphaned children only. Consequently, such study designs are unable to establish if the AIDS-related cause of death of the parents confers effects additional to those of parent-bereavement. We therefore conducted a cross-sectional survey to assess the psychological well-being and socio-economic hardship among 140 non-orphaned children, 133 children orphaned by causes other than AIDS (O) and 124 children orphaned by AIDS (O-A) in Conakry, N'Zerekore and the villages around N'Zerekore, Guinea. Multi-way analysis of variance and multiple (ordinal) logistic regression models were applied to measure the association between the orphan status and psychological well-being, school attendance, economic activities, frequency of going to bed hungry and sleeping commodity. After adjustment for confounding factors, the psychological well-being score (PWS) was significantly lower among AIDS-orphaned children than among O (P<0.001). Additionally, AIDS-orphaned children were more likely to be engaged in economic activities (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.04; 95% CI: 1.45-6.36) and to go to bed hungry on a daily basis (AOR = 2.73; 95% CI: 1.24-6.02) than other orphans. The differences in school attendance and the proportion of children with a bed or couch to sleep between AIDS-orphaned children and O were not statistically significant. This situation calls for sustainable and holistic approaches to ensure the psychological and socio-economic stability of AIDS orphans and other vulnerable children.
Kef, Sabina; Dekovic, Maja
In the present study we examined the importance of parental and peer support for well-being of adolescents with and without a visual impairment. The sample included 178 adolescents who are blind or visually impaired and 338 adolescents without visual impairments. Peer and parental support proved to be important for well-being of both adolescents…
Sola-Carmona, Juan Jesús; López-Liria, Remedios; Padilla-Góngora, David; Daza, María Teresa; Aguilar-Parra, José Manuel; Salido-Campos, María Ángeles
The objective was to examine the connection of the personal, social and family context, educational variables with the levels of anxiety, subjective psychological well-being and self-esteem in a sample of 61 parents of blind children. Results suggest that parents present less anxiety when they have only one child, possess a technical degree, receive remuneration for their work, their child's visual impairment is not progressive, their knowledge about their child's disability is appropriate, and their leisure and labour possibilities have not been affected. Their psychological well-being is higher when they are married in first nuptials and perceive that their health is good. Their well-being is negatively related to reduced leisure, and self-esteem is lower when labour possibilities have been affected. In order for these families to achieve a more pleasant life, with greater psychological well-being, lower anxiety and higher self-esteem, professionals should be aware of the aspects with a negative impact.
Korja, Riikka; Piha, Jorma; Otava, Riia; Lavanchy Scaiola, Chloé; Ahlqvist-Björkroth, Sari; Junttila, Niina; Aromaa, Minna; Räihä, Hannele
The aim of the study was to assess whether a parent's psychological well-being and/or self-efficacy relate to interaction within the family. This study is part of a Finnish follow-up study called Steps to the Healthy Development and Well-Being of Children (STEPS;). The study group included 120 families. Mother's and father's social anxiety and depression were assessed during pregnancy and at 18 months of the child's age using self-report questionnaires; the mother's and father's self-efficacy were assessed at 18 months using a parental self-efficacy scale validated within the STEPS study. Mother-father-child triadic interaction was studied at 18 months within a Lausanne Triadic Play setting. Results showed that maternal symptoms of depression during pregnancy and maternal social anxiety at 18 months were related to triadic interaction within the family. There was no relation between father's psychological well-being and triadic interaction within the family. Father's self-efficacy in teaching tasks and the Mother's self-efficacy in emotional support were associated with family interaction. The findings suggest that maternal psychological well-being and self-efficacy in emotional support may be important components of family triadic interaction whereas paternal self-efficacy in teaching tasks seems to support family coordination in triadic interaction.
Ivtzan, Itai; Chan, Christine P L; Gardner, Hannah E; Prashar, Kiran
Research largely shows that religion and spirituality have a positive correlation to psychological well-being. However, there has been a great deal of confusion and debate over their operational definitions. This study attempted to delineate the two constructs and categorise participants into different groups based on measured levels of religious involvement and spirituality. The groups were then scored against specific measures of well-being. A total of 205 participants from a wide range of religious affiliations and faith groups were recruited from various religious institutions and spiritual meetings. They were assigned to one of four groups with the following characteristics: (1) a high level of religious involvement and spirituality, (2) a low level of religious involvement with a high level of spirituality, (3) a high level of religious involvement with a low level of spirituality, and (4) a low level of religious involvement and spirituality. Multiple comparisons were made between the groups on three measures of psychological well-being: levels of self-actualisation, meaning in life, and personal growth initiative. As predicted, it was discovered that, aside from a few exceptions, groups (1) and (2) obtained higher scores on all three measures. As such, these results confirm the importance of spirituality on psychological well-being, regardless of whether it is experienced through religious participation.
Sola-Carmona, Juan Jesús; Padilla-Góngora, David; Daza, María Teresa; Aguilar-Parra, José Manuel; Salido-Campos, María Ángeles
The objective was to examine the connection of the personal, social and family context, educational variables with the levels of anxiety, subjective psychological well-being and self-esteem in a sample of 61 parents of blind children. Results suggest that parents present less anxiety when they have only one child, possess a technical degree, receive remuneration for their work, their child’s visual impairment is not progressive, their knowledge about their child’s disability is appropriate, and their leisure and labour possibilities have not been affected. Their psychological well-being is higher when they are married in first nuptials and perceive that their health is good. Their well-being is negatively related to reduced leisure, and self-esteem is lower when labour possibilities have been affected. In order for these families to achieve a more pleasant life, with greater psychological well-being, lower anxiety and higher self-esteem, professionals should be aware of the aspects with a negative impact. PMID:27603670
Connolly, Mary Kate; Quin, Edel; Redding, Emma
The purpose of this study was to assess the physiological and psychological impact of contemporary dance classes on adolescent females. Fifty-five females, aged 14 were recruited from secondary schools in the UK. The intervention constituted a program of contemporary dance classes with an emphasis on building muscular strength. Full ethics…
Herrenkohl, Todd I; Klika, J Bart; Herrenkohl, Roy C; Russo, M Jean; Dee, Tamara
The study of psychological well-being will advance understanding of child maltreatment effects and resilience processes. In this study, the mean level of anger in adulthood was significantly higher for those identified three decades earlier as having been maltreated. Mean levels of self-esteem, autonomy, purpose in life, perceived (fewer) constraints, and happiness and satisfaction were lower for those who were maltreated according to child welfare reports. Officially recorded child maltreatment was moderately (r < .30) correlated with several psychological well-being indicators and predictive of adult anger, self-esteem, autonomy, and happiness/life satisfaction after accounting for childhood socioeconomic status (SES), gender, and other sources of data on child abuse and neglect. Parent-reported abusive disciplining also uniquely predicted several outcomes, as did a measure of observed child neglect to a lesser extent.
Nurius, Paula S; Green, Sara; Logan-Greene, Patricia; Borja, Sharon
Growing evidence suggests that toxic stressors early in life not only convey developmental impacts but also augment risk of proliferating chains of additional stressors that can overwhelm individual coping and undermine recovery and health. Examining trauma within a life course stress process perspective, we posit that early childhood adversity carries a unique capacity to impair adult psychological well-being both independent of and cumulative with other contributors, including social disadvantage and stressful adult experiences. This study uses data from a representative population-based health survey (N=13,593) to provide one of the first multivariate assessments of unique, cumulative, and moderated effects of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) toward explaining 3 related yet distinct measures of adult mental health: perceived well-being, psychological distress, and impaired daily activities. Results demonstrate support for each set of hypothesized associations, including exacerbation and amelioration of ACEs effects by adult stress and resilience resources, respectively. Implications for services and future research are discussed.
Di Fabio, Annamaria; Bucci, Ornella
The affective profiles model distinguishes between individuals who are self-fulfilling (high positive affect, low negative affect), high affective (high positive affect, high negative affect), low affective (low positive affect, low negative affect), and self-destructive (low positive affect, high negative affect). The literature shows that the affective profiles model has been used with Swedish people in particular in order to determine differences among profiles in relation to life satisfaction, psychological well-being, self-esteem, and optimism. The present research investigated these differences in Italian high school students. Two studies were conducted: the first with 156 Italian high school students and the second with 148 Italian high school students. The first study analyzed differences among affective profiles with regard to life satisfaction and psychological well-being while the second study analyzed differences among affective profiles with regard to self-esteem and optimism. In the first study, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Meaningful Life Measure were administered to the participants. In the second study, the PANAS, the Self-Esteem Scale, the Life Orientation Test-revised were administered to the participants. The results of the first study showed that, with respect to the other profiles, the self-fulfilling participants had greater life satisfaction and psychological well-being. The results of the second study showed that, with respect to the other profiles, the self-fulfilling participants had higher self-esteem and optimism. These results revealed differences among affective profiles regarding life satisfaction, psychological well-being, self-esteem, and optimism in the Italian context as well thereby offering new possibilities for cross-cultural research and for enhancing self-fulfilling profiles. PMID:26388814
Di Fabio, Annamaria; Bucci, Ornella
The affective profiles model distinguishes between individuals who are self-fulfilling (high positive affect, low negative affect), high affective (high positive affect, high negative affect), low affective (low positive affect, low negative affect), and self-destructive (low positive affect, high negative affect). The literature shows that the affective profiles model has been used with Swedish people in particular in order to determine differences among profiles in relation to life satisfaction, psychological well-being, self-esteem, and optimism. The present research investigated these differences in Italian high school students. Two studies were conducted: the first with 156 Italian high school students and the second with 148 Italian high school students. The first study analyzed differences among affective profiles with regard to life satisfaction and psychological well-being while the second study analyzed differences among affective profiles with regard to self-esteem and optimism. In the first study, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Meaningful Life Measure were administered to the participants. In the second study, the PANAS, the Self-Esteem Scale, the Life Orientation Test-revised were administered to the participants. The results of the first study showed that, with respect to the other profiles, the self-fulfilling participants had greater life satisfaction and psychological well-being. The results of the second study showed that, with respect to the other profiles, the self-fulfilling participants had higher self-esteem and optimism. These results revealed differences among affective profiles regarding life satisfaction, psychological well-being, self-esteem, and optimism in the Italian context as well thereby offering new possibilities for cross-cultural research and for enhancing self-fulfilling profiles.
Waite, Linda J.
Objectives. To examine the relationships between psychosocial resources and deficits, elder mistreatment, and psychological well-being. Methods. We used a representative sample of 2,744 older adults aged 57–85 years in the United States from the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project. We examined reports of any mistreatment (verbal, financial, or physical) and multiple types of mistreatment. Results. Lower levels of positive support, higher levels of criticism from close relationships, and feelings of social isolation are positively associated with self-reported mistreatment experience. As suggested by the stress process theory, those who reported mistreatment experience also reported lower levels of global happiness and higher levels of psychological distress. There is also some evidence for the buffering hypothesis—levels of global happiness are higher and levels of psychological distress are lower for older adults who reported any mistreatment if they also reported more positive social support, social participation, and feelings of social connection. Discussion. Older adults with fewer psychosocial resources or more psychosocial deficits seem to be more vulnerable to mistreatment, and mistreatment seems particularly detrimental to psychological well-being for these people. PMID:21239415
Wolkin, Jennifer R
In the last few decades, mindfulness meditation has gained prominence as an adjunctive psychotherapeutic technique. In fact, a vast literature of controlled studies has found that mindfulness meditation is related to improved mental health across a variety of disorders. Elucidating the components involved in mindfulness meditation’s positive impact on psychological well-being is an important step in more precisely identifying the populations that would most benefit from its therapeutic utilization. Yet, a consensus regarding the particular underlying mechanisms that contribute to these outcomes is very much limited. There are many reasons for this, including the inconsistent operationalization and use of mindfulness meditation across research investigations. Despite the elusive mechanisms, many studies seem to indicate that cultivating different aspects of attention is a feasible, consistent, and parsimonious starting point bridging mindfulness practice and psychological well-being. Attention in itself is a complex construct. It comprises different networks, including alerting, orienting, and executive attention, and is also explained in terms of the way it is regulated. This paper supports a previously suggested idea that cultivating all aspects of attention through mindfulness meditation leads to greater psychological well-being through decreased ruminative processes. Ruminative processes are decreased by engaging in both focused and receptive attention, which foster the ability to distract and decenter. PMID:26170728
Garcia, Danilo; Nima, Ali A; Archer, Trevor
The present study investigated the relationship between personality and Subjective Well-Being in a sample of 135 Salvadorian adolescents and young adults (age mean = 21.88 sd. = 4.70). Personality was assessed through self-reports using the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised. Subjective Well-Being was also self-reported using the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule and the Satisfaction With Life Scale. Structural equation modeling was used to determine relationships between personality and Subjective Well-Being. Regarding temperament dimensions, Harm Avoidance was positively associated to negative affect and negatively associated to positive affect, while Persistence was positively associated to positive affect. Regarding character dimensions, only Self-directedness was related to Subjective Well-Being: positively related to life satisfaction and positive affect. The results presented here mirror findings using the temperament and character model of personality among European and North American adolescents.
Lau, Esther Yuet Ying; Wong, Mark Lawrence; Ng, Eddie Chi Wai; Hui, Chi-chiu Harry; Cheung, Shu Fai; Mok, Doris Shui Ying
Although on-campus residence allows easier access to campus facilities, existing studies showed mixed results regarding the relationship between college residence and students' well-being indicators, such as sleep behaviors and mood. There was also a lack of studies investigating the role of chronotype in the relationship between on-campus residence and well-being. In particular, the temporal relationships among these factors were unclear. Hence, this longitudinal study aims to fill in these gaps by first reporting the well-being (measured in terms of mood, sleep, and quality of life) among students living on and off campus across two academic semesters. We explored factors predicting students' dropout in university residences. Although students living on campus differ in their chronotypes, activities in campus residence (if any) are mostly scheduled in the nighttime. We therefore tested if individual differences in chronotype interact with campus residence in affecting well-being. Our final sample consisted of 215 campus residents and 924 off-campus-living students from 10 different universities or colleges in Hong Kong or Macau. Their mean age was 20.2 years (SD=2.3); 6.5% of the participants are female. Participants completed self-reported questionnaires online on their sleep duration, sleep quality, chronotype, mood, and physical and psychological quality of life. Across two academic semesters, we assessed if students living on and off campus differed in our well-being measures after we partialed out the effects of demographic information (including age, sex, family income, and parents' education) and the well-being measures at baseline (T1). The results showed that, campus residents exhibited longer sleep duration, greater sleep efficiency, better sleep quality, and less feeling of stress than off-campus-living students. From one semester to the next, around 10% of campus residents did not continue to live on campus. Logistic regression showed that a morning
Ungar, Michael; Theron, Linda; Didkowsky, Nora
An exploratory qualitative study of 16 disadvantaged youth in 5 countries suggests that making both precocious and developmentally appropriate contributions to their families' well-being is advantageous to adolescents coping with chronic adversity. All youth were known to be doing well (as identified by community advisors) and showed patterns of…
Larsson, Margaretha; Björk, Maria; Ekebergh, Margaretha; Sundler, Annelie Johansson
In Sweden, school nurses are part of the School Health Service with the main objective of health promotion to support students' health and attainment of educational goals. The aim in this phenomenological study was to illuminate the experiences of school nurses in promoting the health and well-being of adolescent girls. Seventeen school nurses…
Bridges, Lisa J.; Margie, Nancy Geyelin; Zaff, Jonathan F.
This paper reviews the research literature on factors contributing to adolescent emotional well-being, focusing on generalized mood/affective states, emotion regulation and coping, and feelings about self, including self-esteem, self-efficacy, and locus of control. Each construct is defined and evidence from research is presented to indicate the…
US Department of Health and Human Services, 2005
The Children's Bureau of the Administration on Children, Youth and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, has undertaken the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW) to learn about the experiences of children and families who come in contact with the child welfare system. NSCAW is gathering information associated…
Mason, W. Alex; Spoth, Richard L.
Adolescent alcohol involvement is associated with numerous negative outcomes, but also appears to have positive correlates, including subjective well-being. Additional research is needed to understand these paradoxical findings. The current study examines alcohol use, adverse alcohol-related (and other substance-related) consequences, and…
Levin, Kate; Inchley, Jo; Currie, Dorothy; Currie, Candace
Purpose: The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of the health promoting school (HPS) on adolescent well-being. Design/methodology/approach: Data from the 2006 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children: WHO-collaborative Study in Scotland were analysed using multilevel linear regression analyses for outcome measures: happiness, confidence,…
McLean, Kate C.; Breen, Andrea V.; Fournier, Marc A.
The present study examined aspects of identity development in a sample of adolescent boys from two approaches: individuation and narrative. To extend the more recent research on narrative identity development, we also examined relations between narrative identity, well-being, and age. Narrative meaning making was predicted by themes of…
Milot, Alyssa S.; Ludden, Alison Bryant
The effects of religious attendance, religious importance, and gender on well-being, substance use, and academic engagement were examined among early adolescents (N = 683) from rural schools. Results indicated that females viewed religion as more important than males, although the frequency of religious attendance did not differ for males and…
Greenfield, Emily A.; Marks, Nadine F.
Guided by social identity theory, this study investigated having a closer identification as a member of one’s religious group as an explanatory mechanism for linkages between more frequent formal religious participation and better subjective psychological well-being (more positive affect, less negative affect, and more life satisfaction). Multivariate regression models were estimated based on data from 3,032 participants, ages 25 to 74, in the 1995 National Survey of Midlife in the U.S. (MIDUS). Results provided support for the mediating effect of religious social identity on the associations between more frequent religious service attendance and all three dimensions of psychological well-being examined. Given the lack of previous empirical attention to social identity within the literature on religiosity and mental health, these findings contribute to our understanding of self, religion, and health, while also pointing to the importance of continuing to draw on well developed social psychological theory in investigations of linkages between religion and health. PMID:18698380
Pomaki, Georgia; Maes, Stan; Ter Doest, Laura
Although previous theory and research suggest that employee well-being should be predicted by work conditions (viz., Karasek and colleagues' job demands-control-social support [J-DCS] model), other factors are also likely to be important. In this study, the authors consider correlates of employee psychological distress and well-being using a goal-focused approach grounded in Ford's (1992) motivational systems theory. Specifically, work conditions and midlevel work goal processes (WGP) were examined in a questionnaire study of health care employees. Regarding predictions derived from the J-DCS model, the authors found full support for the iso-strain, partial support for the nonlinearity, and no support for the buffer hypothesis. Of importance, however, WGP (i.e., cognitions and emotions involved in the pursuit of self-set work goals) explained variance in job satisfaction, burnout, depression, and somatic complaints, over and above that of the J-DCS model. This suggests that investigation of WGP can enhance our understanding of employee psychological distress and well-being.
Breitbart, William; Rosenfeld, Barry; Pessin, Hayley; Applebaum, Allison; Kulikowski, Julia; Lichtenthal, Wendy G.
Purpose To test the efficacy of meaning-centered group psychotherapy (MCGP) to reduce psychological distress and improve spiritual well-being in patients with advanced or terminal cancer. Patients and Methods Patients with advanced cancer (N = 253) were randomly assigned to manualized eight-session interventions of either MCGP or supportive group psychotherapy (SGP). Patients were assessed before and after completing the treatment and 2 months after treatment. The primary outcome measures were spiritual well-being and overall quality of life, with secondary outcome measures assessing depression, hopelessness, desire for hastened death, anxiety, and physical symptom distress. Results Hierarchical linear models that included a priori covariates and only participants who attended ≥ three sessions indicated a significant group × time interaction for most outcome variables. Specifically, patients receiving MCGP showed significantly greater improvement in spiritual well-being and quality of life and significantly greater reductions in depression, hopelessness, desire for hastened death, and physical symptom distress compared with those receiving SGP. No group differences were observed for changes in anxiety. Analyses that included all patients, regardless of whether they attended any treatment sessions (ie, intent-to-treat analyses), and no covariates still showed significant treatment effects (ie, greater benefit for patients receiving MCGP v SGP) for quality of life, depression, and hopelessness but not for other outcome variables. Conclusion This large randomized controlled study provides strong support for the efficacy of MCGP as a treatment for psychological and existential or spiritual distress in patients with advanced cancer. PMID:25646186
Butner, Jonathan; Berg, Cynthia A.; Osborn, Peter; Butler, Jorie M.; Godri, Carine; Fortenberry, Katie T.; Barach, Ilana; Le, Hai; Wiebe, Deborah J.
We examined whether intra-family discrepancies in perceptions of the adolescent’s competence and independence were associated with autonomy and also well-being for adolescents and parents. The latent discrepancy model was used to examine the ways that mothers and fathers consistently differed from their adolescent across measures of independence and competence regarding type 1 diabetes, a stressful context for families. One-hundred and eighty-five mothers, fathers, and adolescents (M age= 12.5 SD= 1.3) completed measures of the adolescent’s independence in completing diabetes tasks, problems with diabetes management, adherence to the medical regimen, measures of well-being, and metabolic control. The latent discrepancy model was conducted via structural equation modeling that generated latent discrepancies from the adolescent for mothers and fathers. Both mothers and fathers viewed the adolescent’s competence more negatively than did the adolescent. These discrepancies related to more parental encouragement of independence and adolescent autonomy, but also poorer metabolic control, and poorer parental psychosocial well-being. The results are interpreted within a developmental perspective that views discrepancies as reflecting normative developmental processes of autonomy, but associated with disruptions in well-being in the short term. PMID:19413435
Hall, Ronald E; Breland-Noble, Alfiee
Due to the historical preponderance of racial and/or intellectual homogeneity in the field of psychology, Eurocentrism set the "gold standard" for its method of intervention. As such, it might be argued that psychology remains a bastion of Eurocentric thought despite the globalization of knowledge and the influx of racially and ethnically diverse scientists into the research endeavor. At the same time and the significant increase in the immigrant Arab population, Arab Americans remain a less familiar component of society. Among the various Arab populations, spirituality through Islam is fundamental. Thus, psychologists would be remiss to exclude a critical aspect of Arab American life from intervention when it is essential to well-being.
Glüer, Michael; Lohaus, Arnold
Victimization is associated with negative developmental outcomes in childhood and adolescence. However, previous studies have provided mixed results regarding the association between offline and online victimization and indicators of social, psychological, and somatic well-being. In this study, we investigated 1,890 German children and adolescents (grades 5–10, mean age = 13.9; SD = 2.1) with and without offline or online victimization experiences who participated in a social online network (SNS). Online questionnaires were used to assess previous victimization (offline, online, combined, and without), somatic and psychological symptoms, self-esteem, and social self-concept (social competence, resistance to peer influence, esteem by others). In total, 1,362 (72.1%) children and adolescents reported being a member of at least one SNS, and 377 students (28.8%) reported previous victimization. Most children and adolescents had offline victimization experiences (17.5%), whereas 2.7% reported online victimization, and 8.6% reported combined experiences. Girls reported more online and combined victimization, and boys reported more offline victimization. The type of victimization (offline, online, combined) was associated with increased reports of psychological and somatic symptoms, lower self-esteem and esteem by others, and lower resistance to peer influences. The effects were comparable for the groups with offline and online victimization. They were, however, increased in the combined group in comparison to victims with offline experiences alone. PMID:26734598
The aim of the study was to predict both adaptive psychological functioning (well-being) and adaptive social functioning (career stability) in middle adulthood based on behaviors observed in toddlerhood and personality traits measured in adolescence. 83 people participated in an ongoing longitudinal study started in 1961 (58% women). Based on children’s behavior in toddlerhood, three temperamental dimensions were identified – positive affectivity, negative affectivity and disinhibition. In adolescence, extraversion and neuroticism were measured at the age of 16 years. Various aspects of well-being were used as indicators of adaptive psychological functioning in adulthood: life satisfaction, self-esteem and self-efficacy. Career stability was used as an indicator of adaptive social functioning. Job careers of respondents were characterized as stable, unstable or changeable. Extraversion measured at the age of 16 proved to be the best predictor of well-being indicators; in case of self-efficacy it was also childhood disinhibition. Extraversion in adolescence, childhood disinhibition and negative affectivity predicted career stability. Findings are discussed in the context of a theoretical framework of higher order factors of the Big Five personality constructs, stability and plasticity. PMID:25919394
Blatný, Marek; Millová, Katarína; Jelínek, Martin; Osecká, Terezie
The aim of the study was to predict both adaptive psychological functioning (well-being) and adaptive social functioning (career stability) in middle adulthood based on behaviors observed in toddlerhood and personality traits measured in adolescence. 83 people participated in an ongoing longitudinal study started in 1961 (58% women). Based on children's behavior in toddlerhood, three temperamental dimensions were identified - positive affectivity, negative affectivity and disinhibition. In adolescence, extraversion and neuroticism were measured at the age of 16 years. Various aspects of well-being were used as indicators of adaptive psychological functioning in adulthood: life satisfaction, self-esteem and self-efficacy. Career stability was used as an indicator of adaptive social functioning. Job careers of respondents were characterized as stable, unstable or changeable. Extraversion measured at the age of 16 proved to be the best predictor of well-being indicators; in case of self-efficacy it was also childhood disinhibition. Extraversion in adolescence, childhood disinhibition and negative affectivity predicted career stability. Findings are discussed in the context of a theoretical framework of higher order factors of the Big Five personality constructs, stability and plasticity.
Cavers, Debbie; Hacking, Belinda; Erridge, Sara E.; Kendall, Marilyn; Morris, Paul G.; Murray, Scott A.
Background: Cerebral glioma has a devastating impact on cognitive, physical, social, psychological and spiritual well-being. We sought to understand the multidimensional experience of patients with this form of cancer as they progressed from receiving a diagnosis to the terminal phase of the disease. Methods: We recruited patients with a suspected brain tumour from a tertiary referral centre in the United Kingdom. We interviewed patients and their caregivers at key stages of the illness: before receiving a formal diagnosis, at the start of initial treatment, after initial treatment was completed and at six months’ follow-up; caregivers were also interviewed postbereavement. We interviewed the patients’ general practitioners once, after treatment had been completed. We transcribed the interviews and analyzed them thematically using the constant comparative method of a grounded theory approach. Results: We conducted in-depth interviews with 26 patients, 23 of their relatives and 19 general practitioners. We saw evidence of physical, social, psychological and existential distress even before a diagnosis was confirmed. Social decline followed a similar trajectory to that of physical decline, whereas psychological and existential distress were typically acute around diagnosis and again after initial treatment. Each patient’s individual course varied according to other factors including the availability of support and individual and family resources (e.g., personal resilience and emotional support). Interpretation: There are practical ways that clinicians can care for patients with glioma and their caregivers, starting from before a diagnosis is confirmed. Understanding the trajectories of physical, social, psychological and existential well-being for these patients allows health care professionals to predict their patients’ likely needs so they can provide appropriate support and sensitive and effective communication. PMID:22431898
Yeung, Dannii Y; Ho, Samuel M Y; Mak, Christine W Y
This study tested the mediating roles of cognitive reappraisal and attentional preferences in the relationship between hope and psychosocial well-being among 712 adolescents. Results of the structural equation modeling revealed that the beneficial relation of hope to subjective happiness, anxiety, depressive symptoms, and interpersonal difficulties was partially mediated by attention to positive information but not cognitive reappraisal. Findings of this study may inform the design of intervention research by highlighting the importance of hopeful thinking style and attention to positive information in mental health of adolescents.
Dimitrova, Radosveta; van de Vijver, Fons J R; Taušová, Jitka; Chasiotis, Athanasios; Bender, Michael; Buzea, Carmen; Uka, Fitim; Tair, Ergyul
This study examines ethnic, national, familial, and religious identity and well-being of 632 Roma minority and 589 majority adolescents (age: M = 15.98 years, SD = 1.34) in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Kosovo, and Romania. Results indicated that Roma showed lower endorsement of national identity but stronger religious identity than their majority counterparts. Path models showed positive associations of familial and religious identities with well-being, whereas Roma identity was negatively associated with well-being, particularly for Roma in Bulgaria and Kosovo (countries with a less active policy toward improving conditions of Roma). In the latter countries, Roma ethnic identity is less relevant and weakly associated with psychological well-being of youth.
Nurius, Paula S.; Green, Sara; Logan-Greene, Patricia; Borja, Sharon
Growing evidence suggests that toxic stressors early in life not only convey developmental impacts but also augment risk of proliferating chains of additional stressors that can overwhelm individual coping and undermine recovery and health. Examining trauma within a life course stress process perspective, we posit that early childhood adversity carries a unique capacity to impair adult psychological well-being both independent of and cumulative with other contributors, including social disadvantage and stressful adult experiences. This study uses data from a representative population-based health survey (N = 13,593) to provide one of the first multivariate assessments of unique, cumulative, and moderated effects of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) toward explaining 3 related yet distinct measures of adult mental health: perceived well-being, psychological distress, and impaired daily activities. Results demonstrate support for each set of hypothesized associations, including exacerbation and amelioration of ACEs effects by adult stress and resilience resources, respectively. Implications for services and future research are discussed. PMID:25846195
Marks, Nadine F.; Jun, Heyjung; Song, Jieun
Guided by a life course perspective, attachment theory, and gender theory, this study aims to examine the impact of death of a father, a mother, or both parents, as well as continuously living with one or both parents dead (in contrast to having two parents alive) on multiple dimensions of psychological well-being (depressive symptoms, happiness, self-esteem, mastery, and psychological wellness), alcohol abuse (binge drinking), and physical health (self-assessed health). Analyses of longitudinal data from. 8,865 adults in the National Survey of Families and Households 1987–1993 reveal that a father’s death leads to more negative effects for sons than daughters and a mother’s death leads to more negative effects for daughters than sons. Problematic effects of parent loss are reflected more in men’s physical health reports than women’s. This study’s results suggest that family researchers and practitioners working with aging families should not underestimate the impact of filial bereavement on adult well-being. PMID:19212446
Wagner, Glenn J.; Aunon, Frances M.; Kaplan, Rachel L.; Karam, Rita; Khouri, Danielle; Tohme, Johnny; Mokhbat, Jacques
This qualitative study sought to explore the sexual identity development of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Beirut, the stigma experienced by these men, and how their psychological well-being and social engagement are shaped by how they cope with this stigma. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 31 MSM, and content analysis was used to identify emergent themes. While many men reported feeling very comfortable with their sexual orientation and had disclosed their sexual orientation to family, most men struggled at least somewhat with their sexuality, often because of perceived stigma from others and internal religious conflict about the immorality of homosexuality. Most participants described experiencing verbal harassment or ridicule, or being treated as different or lesser than in social relationships with friends or family. Mechanisms for coping with stigma included social avoidance (trying to pass as heterosexual; limiting interaction with MSM to the internet) or withdrawal from relationships in an attempt to limit exposure to stigma. Our findings suggest that effective coping with both internal and external sexual stigma is central to the psychological well-being and social engagement of MSM in Beirut, much like what has been found in Western gay communities. PMID:23730919
Ferguson, Yuna L; Ferguson, Kim T; Ferguson, Gail M
One impact of globalisation is that adolescents today are frequently exposed to the values, attitudes and norms of other nations without leaving their own backyards. This may lead to remote acculturation-cultural and psychological changes experienced by non-migrant individuals having indirect and/or intermittent contact with a geographically separate culture. Using quantitative and qualitative data, we examined multidimensional remote acculturation among 83 urban Zambian adolescents who are routinely exposed to U.S., U.K. and South African cultures through traditional and social media and materials/goods. Cluster analyses showed 2 distinct groups of adolescents. "Traditional Zambians, TZs" (55.4%) were significantly more oriented towards Zambian culture and reported a higher level of obligation to their families and greater interdependent self-construal compared with "Westernised Multicultural Zambians, WMZs" (44.6%), who were more oriented towards U.S., U.K. and South African cultures. Furthermore, remote acculturation predicted somewhat lower life satisfaction among WMZs. These results demonstrate that individuals' behaviours, values and identity may be influenced by multiple geographically distant cultures simultaneously and may be associated with psychological costs.
Tian, Lili; Yu, Tingting; Huebner, E Scott
The purpose of this study was to examine the multiple mediational roles of academic social comparison directions (upward academic social comparison and downward academic social comparison) on the relationships between achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and subjective well-being (SWB) in school (school satisfaction, school affect) in adolescent students in China. A total of 883 Chinese adolescent students (430 males; Mean age = 12.99) completed a multi-measure questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the hypotheses. Results indicated that (1) mastery goal orientations and performance-approach goal orientations both showed a statistically significant, positive correlation with SWB in school whereas performance-avoidance goal orientations showed a statistically significant, negative correlation with SWB in school among adolescents; (2) upward academic social comparisons mediated the relation between the three types of achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and SWB in school; (3) downward academic social comparisons mediated the relation between mastery goal orientations and SWB in school as well as the relation between performance-avoidance goal orientations and SWB in school. The findings suggest possible important cultural differences in the antecedents of SWB in school in adolescent students in China compared to adolescent students in Western nations.
Williams, Paula G; Holmbeck, Grayson N; Greenley, Rachel Neff
In this article, a biopsychosocial model of adolescent development is used as an organizing framework for a review of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention research with adolescent populations. During adolescence many critical health behaviors emerge, affecting future disease outcomes in adulthood. In addition, most of the predominant causes of morbidity and mortality in adolescence are unique to this period of development, indicating that health-focused interventions must be tailored specifically to adolescents. Moreover, it is during adolescence that lifelong patterns of self-management of and adjustment to chronic health conditions are established. Thus, an increased focus on adolescence in health psychology research is important both to improve the health of adolescents per se and to optimize health trajectories into adulthood.
Pearson, Jennifer; Wilkinson, Lindsey
Existing research suggests that sexual minority youth experience lower levels of well-being, in part because they perceive less social support than heterosexual youth. Sexual minority youth with strong family relationships may demonstrate resilience and increased well-being; however, it is also possible that the experience of sexual stigma may make these relationships less protective for sexual minority youth. Using two waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we explore the links between same-sex attraction, family relationships, and adolescent well-being in a sample of over 13,000 7th-12th grade adolescents (51 % female, 52 % non-Latino/a white, 17 % Latino, 21 % African American, and 7 % Asian). Specifically, we examine whether lower levels of parental closeness, parental involvement, and family support among same-sex attracted youth explain in part why these youth experience increased depressive symptoms and risk behaviors, including binge drinking, illegal drug use, and running away from home, relative to other-sex attracted youth. Second, we ask whether family relationships are equally protective against depressive symptoms and risk behaviors for same-sex attracted and other-sex attracted youth. We find that same-sex attracted youth, particularly girls, report higher levels of depressive symptoms, binge drinking, and drug use in part because they perceive less closeness with parents and less support from their families. Results also suggest that parental closeness and parental involvement may be less protective against risk behaviors for same-sex attracted boys than for their other-sex attracted peers. Findings thus suggest that interventions targeting the families of sexual minority youth should educate parents about the potentially negative effects of heteronormative assumptions and attitudes on positive adolescent development.
Allen, Delenya; Belcher, Harolyn M.E.; Young, Allen; Gibson, Lillian Williams; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Trent, Maria
IMPORTANCE While urban African American adolescents face significant health disparities associated with overweight and obesity that follow them into adulthood; there is limited data on body image, emotional well-being, and weight control behaviors in this population to design effective public health interventions. OBJECTIVE This study was designed to understand the association of weight status to adolescent weight control, body image, and emotional well-being responses, in African American high school students. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS The study cohort consisted of 776 students, mean age 15.8 years (±1.2). Data from Guidelines for Adolescent Preventive Services (GAPS) student surveys and anthropometric studies were collected at School-Based Health Centers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Associations between adolescent responses on the GAPS and body mass index (BMI) status (healthy weight: 5th to less than 85th percentile, overweight: 85th to less than 95th percentile, obese: 95th percentile or greater) were estimated using logistic regression and dose- response plots. RESULTS There were statistically significant associations between BMI category and weight control (ranging from a mean 5.18 to 7.68 odds of obesity) and body image (3.40 to 13.26 odds of obesity) responses. Responses to weight control and body image questions exhibited a dose-response for odds of overweight and obesity. Feelings of depressed mood were associated with obesity (1.47 times the odds of obesity compared to students who did not endorse depressed mood; 95% CI, 1.01 to 2.13) but not overweight status. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE Overweight and obese urban African American adolescents are more likely to screen positively on weight control risk behaviors and negative body image questions than their normal weight peers. The weight control and body image measures on the GAPS may provide information to identify youth in need of services and those motivated for brief school-based weight control
Heylen, Elsa; Panicker, Siju Thomas; Chandy, Sara; Steward, Wayne T.; Ekstrand, Maria L.
Food insecurity (FI) and its link with depression and quality of life (QOL) among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in India are not well-documented. We analyzed cohort data from 243 male and 129 female PLHIV from Bengaluru, and found 19% of men and 26% of women reported moderate or severe FI over a six-month period. Women reported higher mean depression than men, and lower mean QOL. In multivariate analyses adjusting for HIV stigma and demographic covariates, both male and female PLHIV with moderate to severe FI showed lower mean QOL than those reporting mild to no FI. Male but not female food insecure participants also had higher depression scores in adjusted regression analyses. As ART has improved the physical health of PLHIV, more effort is being invested in improving their psychological well-being. Our results suggest such interventions could benefit from including nutritional support to reduce FI among PLHIV. PMID:25488171
Potocnik, Kristina; Tordera, Nuria; Peiró, José María
The present study explores the influence of the early retirement process on adjustment to early retirement, taking into account the roles of individual characteristics and social context in this process. We proposed a systematic model integrating perceived ability to continue working, organizational pressures toward early retirement and group norms about early retirement as antecedents of the early retirement process and subsequent satisfaction with early retirement and psychological well-being. In addition, we examined the moderating role of the voluntariness of the early retirement transition in the proposed model. Our hypotheses were tested using a sample of 213 early retirees. We found that while high organizational pressures were related to lower retirement age, low perceived ability to continue working and group norms favorable to early retirement were related to higher levels of early retirement intentions. Furthermore, group norms favorable to early retirement
Heylen, Elsa; Panicker, Siju Thomas; Chandy, Sara; Steward, Wayne T; Ekstrand, Maria L
Food insecurity (FI) and its link with depression and quality of life (QOL) among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in India are not well-documented. We analyzed cohort data from 243 male and 129 female PLHIV from Bengaluru, and found 19 % of men and 26 % of women reported moderate or severe FI over a 6-month period. Women reported higher mean depression than men, and lower mean QOL. In multivariate analyses adjusting for HIV stigma and demographic covariates, both male and female PLHIV with moderate to severe FI showed lower mean QOL than those reporting mild to no FI. Male but not female food insecure participants also had higher depression scores in adjusted regression analyses. As ART has improved the physical health of PLHIV, more effort is being invested in improving their psychological well-being. Our results suggest such interventions could benefit from including nutritional support to reduce FI among PLHIV.
Chung-Yan, Greg A
This study examines the interactive relationship between job complexity and job autonomy on job satisfaction, turnover intentions, and psychological well-being. It was hypothesized that the positive or motivating effects of job complexity are only realized when workers are given enough autonomy to effectively meet the challenges of complex jobs. Results show that not only do job complexity and job autonomy interact, but that the relationships to the outcome variables are curvilinear in form. Job complexity is shown to be both a motivator and a stressor when job autonomy is low. However, the most beneficial effects of job complexity occur when it is matched by a high level of job autonomy. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
As we approach the twenty-first century, sacred geography continues to have a profound impact on Navajo psychological well being. This article explores the extent of the Navajo's bond with their homeland through an emphasis on orderly conditions in their world view, myths, and ceremonies. When traditional Navajos leave their homeland to pursue educational and professional endeavors or to seek biomedical treatment, a sense of emotional dislocation can undermine their success. The emotional trauma goes far beyond mere homesickness because it is based on an often unconscious sense of having violated the moral order of the universe. It is essential that mental health professionals respond with sensitivity to this issue by understanding the extent to which the sacred mountains and other landforms serve as a vital source of spiritual strength.
Buchanan, NiCole T; Fitzgerald, Louise F
Research on workplace harassment has typically examined either racial or sexual harassment, without studying both simultaneously. As a result, it remains unknown whether the co-occurrence of racial and sexual harassment or their interactive effects account for unique variance in work and psychological well-being. In this study, hierarchical linear regression analyses were used to explore the influence of racial and sexual harassment on these outcomes among 91 African American women involved in a sexual harassment employment lawsuit. Results indicated that both sexual and racial harassment contributed significantly to the women's occupational and psychological outcomes. Moreover, their interaction was statistically significant when predicting supervisor satisfaction and perceived organizational tolerance of harassment. Using a sample of African American women employed in an organizational setting where harassment was known to have occurred and examining sexual and racial harassment concomitantly makes this study unique. As such, it provides novel insights and an important contribution to an emerging body of research and underscores the importance of assessing multiple forms of harassment when examining organizational stressors, particularly among women of color.
Cavar, Ivan; Lovrić, Sanjin; Vukojević, Mladenka; Sesar, Irena; Petric-Vicković, Ivanka; Sesar, Antonio
The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the risk factors (age, obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, consumption of alchohol and drugs, positive family history, and exposure to sunlight), coping with stress, psychological well-being and age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). Forty patients with ARMD (case group) and 63 presbyopes (control group) participated in the study. Patient data were collected through general information questionnaire including patient habits, the COPE questionnaire that showed the way the patients handling stress, and the GHQ that analyzed the psychological aspects of their quality of life. These questionnaires were administered to the patients during ophthalmologic examination. The study involved 46 (44.66%) men and 57 (55.33%) women. Statistical analysis showed that the major risks for the development of ARMD were elevated cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol in plasma. A significantly higher number ofARMD patients had a positive family history when compared with presbyopes. This study showed presbyopes to cope with emotional problems significantly better and to have a lower level of social dysfunction when compared with ARMD patients. However, it is necessary to conduct further studies in a large number of patients to determine more accurately the pathophysiological mechanisms of metabolic factors as well as the impact of the disease on the quality of life in patients with ARMD.
Cooper, Shauna M; McLoyd, Vonnie C
Racial socialization has been suggested as an important factor in helping African American adolescents cope effectively with racism and discrimination. Although multiple studies have reported a positive link between racial pride socialization and psychological adjustment among African American youth, assessments of the association between adolescent adjustment and another dimension of racial socialization-racial barrier socialization-have yielded inconsistent findings. Using a sample of 190 African American adolescents, the present study focuses attention on the quality of mother-adolescent relations as an indicator of affective context, and examines its moderating influence on the association between racial barrier socialization and adolescent adjustment. Regression analyses indicated that the link between racial barrier socialization and adolescent adjustment is moderated by mother-adolescent relationship quality. However, these associations varied by gender.
Lovell, Geoff P; Gordon, James A R; Mueller, Marcus B; Mulgrew, Kate; Sharman, Rachael
We compared mothers who exercised predominantly in group settings, those who exercised predominantly in individual settings, and those who exercised equally in group and individual contexts among the following: (a) satisfaction of basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness); (b) self-determined exercise motivation; and (c) psychological well-being. With clear implications for mothers' exercise interventions we found that exercising either predominantly in group contexts or in mixed group and individual settings was associated with mothers having significantly higher satisfaction of basic psychological needs and self-determined exercise motivation than those exercising predominantly alone.
Góngora, Vanesa C; Castro Solano, Alejandro
The Authentic Happiness Theory considers that well-being can be reached by three main pathways: a pleasant life, an engaged life, or a meaningful life. This study investigates the psychometric properties of the Three Pathways to Well-being scale in Argentinean adolescents and compares that to prior results for Argentinean adults. A sample of 255 Argentinean adolescent students (110 boys, 145 girls) aged between 13 and 18 years (M age = 15.5, SD = 1.6) was used in this study. The participants completed the Spanish versions of the Three Pathways to Well-being scale, the Meaning in Life Questionnaire, the Satisfaction With Life Scale, and the Personal Wellbeing Index. Confirmatory factor analyses verified the three-factor structure of the test, accounting for 46% of the variance. The internal consistencies were α = .76 for the pleasant life, α = .80 for the engaged life, and α = .70 for the meaningful life. Concurrent validity was examined with the Satisfaction With Life Scale, the Personal Wellbeing Index, and the Meaning in Life Questionnaire, and the engaged life was the pathway most strongly associated with the positive related measures.
Baños, Rosa M; Etchemendy, Ernestina; Mira, Adriana; Riva, Giuseppe; Gaggioli, Andrea; Botella, Cristina
Numerous studies have shown an alarming prevalence of depression, anxiety, and behavior disorders in youth. Thus, prevention of psychological problems in this population becomes crucial. According to the World Health Organization (1), prevention should also include the promotion and development of the individual's strengths in order to reduce vulnerability to suffering from mental disorders. In addition, other key elements of prevention are the reach, adoption, implementation, and maintenance of interventions. The information and communication technologies, especially the Internet, have much to offer in terms of the prevention and promotion of positive mental health in adolescents. This paper reviews these fields of research-prevention, positive psychology, Internet, and adolescents-and discusses the potential of positive interventions delivered over the Internet as effective and sustainable health promotion tools. The paper provides a brief description of the systems developed so far and a summary of selected features of the studies detected in the literature review. The overall conclusions are that there is a need for more controlled studies with long-term follow-ups, the interventions should be designed considering the specific features of the target users and the specific contexts where the interventions will be delivered, and they could be enhanced by the use of other technologies, such as smartphones, sensors, or social networks.
Blustein, David L
The primary theme of this article, which serves as the introductory contribution of a special section of the American Psychologist, is that work plays a central role in the development, expression, and maintenance of psychological health. The argument underlying this assumption is articulated at the outset of the article in conjunction with a historical review of vocational psychology and industrial/organizational psychology. The article follows with an overview of contemporary vocational psychology and a presentation of the psychology-of-working perspective, which has emerged from critiques of vocational psychology and from multicultural, feminist, and expanded epistemological analyses of psychological explorations of working. Three illustrative lines of inquiry in which research has affected the potential for informing public policy are presented. These three lines of scholarship (role of work in recovery from mental illness; occupational health psychology; and working, racism, and psychological health) are reviewed briefly to furnish exemplars of how the psychological study of working can inform public policy.
Ataie Moghanloo, Vahid; Ataie Moghanloo, Roghayyeh; Moazezi, Mousa
Background: Diabetes imposes restrictions on physical, emotional, and social functioning of children and adolescents. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for depression, psychological well-being and feeling of guilt in 7 - 15 years old diabetic children. Patients and Methods: This was a clinical trial with pre-test and post-test design with control group. The study population consisted of 34 participants selected using convenient sampling out of all 7 - 15 years old patients that referred to the Diabetes Association of Tabriz. They were randomly allocated into two equal groups (experimental and control). The experimental group participated in therapy sessions and the control group did not receive any intervention. The research instruments were reynolds child depression scale (RCDS), eysenck feelings of guilt scale and satisfaction with life scale (SWLS). Results: Multivariate covariance analysis (MANCOVA) showed that the treatment was effective on variables of depression, psychological well-being and feeling guilty in 7 - 15 years old diabetic children (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The aforementioned treatment is effective and suggested to be used in other psychosomatic diseases of children. PMID:26396702
Gluck, John P
Since 1985, the US Animal Welfare Act and Public Health Service policy have required that researchers using nonhuman primates in biomedical and behavioral research develop a plan "for a physical environment adequate to promote the psychological well-being of primates." In pursuing this charge, housing attributes such as social companionship, opportunities to express species-typical behavior, suitable space for expanded locomotor activity, and nonstressful relationships with laboratory personnel are dimensions that have dominated the discussion. Regulators were careful not to direct a specific set of prescriptions (i.e., engineering standards) for the attainment of these goals, but to leave the design of the programs substantially up to "professional judgment" at the local level. Recently, however, the Institute of Medicine, in its path-finding 2011 report on the necessity of chimpanzee use in research, bypassed this flexible and contingent concept, and instead, required as a central precondition that chimpanzees be housed in "ethologically appropriate" environments. In so doing, obligations of ethical treatment of one great ape species were elevated above the needs of some research. The evolution and significance of this change are discussed.
Kim, Paul Youngbin; Kendall, Dana L; Webb, Marcia
The authors examined the moderating role of positive and negative religious coping in the relation between racism and psychological well-being in a sample of Catholic and Protestant Asian American college students (N = 107). On the basis of prior theorizing on the 2 types of religious coping, combined with some limited empirical evidence, they predicted that positive religious coping would have a buffering effect (Hypothesis 1) on the racism-mental health relation and that negative religious coping would have an exacerbating effect (Hypothesis 2). Participants completed an online survey containing measures corresponding to the study variables. Results indicated that the interaction between positive religious coping and racism was nonsignificant, so Hypothesis 1 was not supported. For Hypothesis 2, the negative religious coping and racism interaction term was statistically significant, but the moderating effect was in an unexpected direction, such that negative religious coping actually protected against the deleterious impact of racism on mental health. The findings suggest that the theorized deleterious influence of negative religious coping may need to be reconsidered in an Asian American setting. The findings have the potential to inform practitioners who work with Asian American college students to better cope with the detrimental consequences of racism.
Abu-Raiya, Hisham; Pargament, Kenneth I; Krause, Neal; Ironson, Gail
This study is one of the first attempts to examine the relationships between religious and spiritual struggles (r/s struggles) measured comprehensively and indicators of psychological distress (i.e., depressive symptoms, generalized anxiety) and well-being (i.e., satisfaction with life, happiness) using a nationally representative sample of American adults (N = 2,208) dealing with a wide range of major life stressors. In addition, it examines the key question of whether these relationships persist after controlling for potentially confounding psychosocial/religious influences. Correlational analyses revealed that all 5 types of the r/s struggles assessed (i.e., divine, demonic, interpersonal, moral, ultimate-meaning) correlated significantly positively with both depressive symptoms and generalized anxiety, and significantly negatively with both satisfaction with life and happiness. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that even after controlling for the effects of demographics and other potentially confounding variables (i.e., neuroticism, social isolation, religious commitment) the r/s struggle subscales added unique variance to the prediction of all 4 criterion measures. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are offered, and the limitations of the study are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record
Fisk, Glenda M; Neville, Lukas B
This exploratory study examines the nature of customer entitlement and its impact on front-line service employees. In an open-ended qualitative inquiry, 56 individuals with waitstaff experience described the types of behaviors entitled customers engage in and the kinds of service-related "perks" these individuals feel deserving of. Participants explained how they responded to entitled customers, how and when managers became involved, and how their dealings with these patrons influenced their subjective physical and psychological well-being. We found that the behaviors of entitled customers negatively impacted waitstaff employees. Participants reported physiological arousal, negative affect, burnout, and feelings of dehumanization as a result of dealing with these patrons. While respondents drew on a variety of strategies to manage their encounters with entitled customers, they indicated workplace support was often informal and described feeling abandoned by management in dealing with this workplace stressor. Approaching customer entitlement as a form of microaggression, we offer recommendations for practice and suggest new directions for future research.
Palmeira, António L; Branco, Teresa L; Martins, Sandra C; Minderico, Cláudia S; Silva, Marlene N; Vieira, Paulo N; Barata, José T; Serpa, Sidónio O; Sardinha, Luís B; Teixeira, Pedro J
This study reports on outcomes from a behavioral obesity treatment program, evaluating if treatment-related changes in body image and psychological well-being are predictors of weight change during treatment and after follow-up. Participants were 142 overweight/obese women (BMI=30.2+/-3.7kg/m(2); age=38.3+/-5.8 years) participants in a behavioral treatment program consisting of a 4-month treatment period and a 12-month follow-up. Psychosocial variables improved during treatment and these changes were correlated with 4-month weight reduction. Short-term changes in body size dissatisfaction (p=.002) and mood (p=.003) predicted long-term weight loss. Additional results suggest that there might be a predictive role of short-term changes in body size dissatisfaction and self-esteem on long-term weight loss after accounting for initial weight change (p<.028). We conclude that, along with weight changes, cognitive and affect-related processes influenced during obesity treatment may be related long-term success, in some cases independently of initial weight loss.
Verkuil, Bart; Spinhoven, Philip; van der Ploeg, Melanie M; Brosschot, Jos F
, 13 studies were included, and a small to medium effect was found (g=0.40, 95% CI: 0.22-0.57). Yet, these between-subject analyses were at risk for publication bias and were not suited for moderator analyses. Furthermore, the overall quality of the studies was relatively low. Conclusions Results showed that there was a small to medium effect of EMIs on mental health and positive psychological well-being and that the effect was not different between outcome types. Moreover, the effect was larger with additional support by an MHP. Future randomized controlled trials are needed to further strengthen the results and to determine potential moderator variables. Overall, EMIs offer great potential for providing easy and cost-effective interventions to improve mental health and increase positive psychological well-being. PMID:27349305
Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Werder, Jessica L; Trost, Stewart G; Baker, Birgitta L; Birch, Leann L
Previous research has shown that early maturing girls at age 11 have lower subsequent physical activity at age 13 in comparison to later maturing girls. Possible reasons for this association have not been assessed. This study examines girls’ psychological response to puberty and their enjoyment of physical activity as intermediary factors linking pubertal maturation and physical activity. Participants included 178 girls who were assessed at age 11, of whom 168 were reassessed at age 13. All participants were non-Hispanic white and resided in the U.S. Three measures of pubertal development were obtained at age 11 including Tanner breast stage, estradiol levels, and mothers’ reports of girls’ development on the Pubertal Development Scale (PDS). Measures of psychological well-being at ages 11 and 13 included depression, global self worth, perceived athletic competence, maturation fears, and body esteem. At age 13, girls’ enjoyment of physical activity was assessed using the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale and their daily minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed using objective monitoring. Structural Equation Modeling was used to assess direct and indirect pathways between pubertal development at age 11 and MVPA at age 13. In addition to a direct effect of pubertal development on MVPA, indirect effects were found for depression, global self worth and maturity fears controlling for covariates. In each instance, more advanced pubertal development at age 11 was associated with lower psychological well-being at age 13, which predicted lower enjoyment of physical activity at age 13 and in turn lower MVPA. Results from this study suggest that programs designed to increase physical activity among adolescent girls should address the self-consciousness and discontent that girls’ experience with their bodies during puberty, particularly if they mature earlier than their peers, and identify activities or settings that make differences in
Baños, Rosa M.; Etchemendy, Ernestina; Mira, Adriana; Riva, Giuseppe; Gaggioli, Andrea; Botella, Cristina
Numerous studies have shown an alarming prevalence of depression, anxiety, and behavior disorders in youth. Thus, prevention of psychological problems in this population becomes crucial. According to the World Health Organization (1), prevention should also include the promotion and development of the individual’s strengths in order to reduce vulnerability to suffering from mental disorders. In addition, other key elements of prevention are the reach, adoption, implementation, and maintenance of interventions. The information and communication technologies, especially the Internet, have much to offer in terms of the prevention and promotion of positive mental health in adolescents. This paper reviews these fields of research—prevention, positive psychology, Internet, and adolescents—and discusses the potential of positive interventions delivered over the Internet as effective and sustainable health promotion tools. The paper provides a brief description of the systems developed so far and a summary of selected features of the studies detected in the literature review. The overall conclusions are that there is a need for more controlled studies with long-term follow-ups, the interventions should be designed considering the specific features of the target users and the specific contexts where the interventions will be delivered, and they could be enhanced by the use of other technologies, such as smartphones, sensors, or social networks. PMID:28194117
Saricaoglu, Halim; Arslan, Coskun
The purpose of this study is to investigate the correlation between psychological well-being, personal traits and self-compassion levels, and to find out whether personal traits and self-compassion level significantly predict psychological well-being. The study sample is composed of 232 (36.5%) students from Education Faculty of Selçuk University,…
In this research, university students' psychological well being and self-esteem levels are investigated in terms of a number of variables. The sample in this study is composed of 382 university students. To gather the data for this study, the Subjective Information Form, Psychological Well-Being Scale and Self-Esteem Scale are used. T tests and…
Seltzer, Marsha Mailick
The purpose of this study was to test a diathesis-stress model of well-being for siblings who have a brother or sister with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Data were collected from 57 adolescents and their mothers. Sisters reported higher levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms than brothers. Having a family history of ASDs was associated with depressive, but not anxiety, symptoms. A high level of maternal depression was also associated with more depressive and anxiety symptoms. A diathesis-stress model was partially supported, primarily through the findings that sibling sub-threshold autism characteristics were associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms in siblings, but only in the presence of a high number of stressful life events. PMID:19291379
Cooper, Shauna M.; McLoyd, Vonnie C.
Racial socialization has been suggested as an important factor in helping African American adolescents cope effectively with racism and discrimination. Although multiple studies have reported a positive link between racial pride socialization and psychological adjustment among African American youth, assessments of the association between…
Murry, Velma McBride; Brody, Gene H.; Brown, Anita; Wisenbaker, Joseph; Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Simons, Ronald L.
Using an ecological risk-protection perspective, explores functional changes in single African American mothers (N=96) receiving government assistance. Examines links among maternal employment, mothers' physical and psychological health, and children's attributions about causes of poverty. Maternal psychological distress was linked with children's…
Field, Rachael; Duffy, James; Huggins, Anna
Empirical evidence in Australia and overseas has established that in many university disciplines, students begin to experience elevated levels of psychological distress in their first year of study. There is now a considerable body of empirical data that establishes that this is a significant problem for law students. Psychological distress may…
Euler, Bryan L.
Assessed degree of relationship between superficial and deep psychological adjustment among elderly individuals (n=86). Found only moderate correlation between shallow and deep psychological adjustment as measured by Cantril's Self-Anchoring Scale for life satisfaction (shallow) and Eriksonian-based Measures of Psychosocial Development (deep).…
Leerlooijer, Joanne N; Kok, Gerjo; Weyusya, Joseph; Bos, Arjan E R; Ruiter, Robert A C; Rijsdijk, Liesbeth E; Nshakira, Nathan; Bartholomew, Leona K
Out-of-wedlock pregnancy among adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa is a major concern, because of its association with health, social, psychological, economic and demographic factors. This article describes the development of the Teenage Mothers Project, a community-based intervention to improve psychological and social well-being of unmarried teenage mothers in rural Uganda. We used Intervention Mapping (IM) for systematically developing a theory and evidence-based comprehensive health promotion programme. A planning group consisting of community leaders, teenage mothers, staff of a community-based organization and a health promotion professional was involved in the six steps of IM: needs assessment, programme objectives, methods and applications, intervention design, planning for adoption and implementation and planning for evaluation. The programme includes five intervention components: community awareness raising, teenage mother support groups, formal education and income generation, counselling, and advocacy. The intervention components are based on a variety of theoretical methods, including entertainment education, persuasive communication, mobilization of social networks and social action. In conclusion, IM facilitated the planning group to structure the iterative, bottom-up, participatory design of the project in a real-life setting and to use evidence and theory. The article provides suggestions for the planning of support interventions for unmarried teenage mothers.
Olumide, Adesola O; Adebayo, Emmanuel S; Ojengbede, Oladosu A
Photovoice is a participatory action research method in which people are given cameras and asked to take pictures of specific issues within their community. It is often used among marginalised populations. This method helps people capture specific issues within their community using photographs, critically discuss these issues within a group and present their findings to inform policies within their community. Photovoice has been used in developed countries and among adult participants; however, the extent to which it has been used in developing countries and among adolescent participants is yet to be extensively reported. In this paper, we describe the use of photovoice among male and female adolescents aged 15-19 years who participated in the qualitative phase (phase I) of the Well-being of Adolescents in Vulnerable Environments (WAVE) study in Ibadan, Nigeria. The main study was conducted among adolescents residing in disadvantaged communities within five global cities (Baltimore, USA; Ibadan, Nigeria; Johannesburg, South Africa; New Delhi, India and Shanghai, China). Our findings revealed that adolescents in Ibadan were very eager to participate, remained fully engaged throughout the process and the data obtained were rich and detailed. Some challenges encountered with using this method were that younger adolescents had a tendency to attain saturation when taking pictures much earlier than older adolescents; however, they equally discussed the pictures taken enthusiastically. Overall, our findings affirm that photovoice as a data collection method can be successfully used in research among adolescents in developing countries like Nigeria.
Wadephul, Franziska; Jones, Catriona; Jomeen, Julie
Depression, anxiety and stress in the perinatal period can have serious, long-term consequences for women, their babies and their families. Over the last two decades, an increasing number of group interventions with a psychological approach have been developed to improve the psychological well-being of pregnant women. This systematic review examines interventions targeting women with elevated symptoms of, or at risk of developing, perinatal mental health problems, with the aim of understanding the successful and unsuccessful features of these interventions. We systematically searched online databases to retrieve qualitative and quantitative studies on psychological antenatal group interventions. A total number of 19 papers describing 15 studies were identified; these included interventions based on cognitive behavioural therapy, interpersonal therapy and mindfulness. Quantitative findings suggested beneficial effects in some studies, particularly for women with high baseline symptoms. However, overall there is insufficient quantitative evidence to make a general recommendation for antenatal group interventions. Qualitative findings suggest that women and their partners experience these interventions positively in terms of psychological wellbeing and providing reassurance of their ‘normality’. This review suggests that there are some benefits to attending group interventions, but further research is required to fully understand their successful and unsuccessful features. PMID:27417620
van der Aa, Niels; Overbeek, Geertjan; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Meerkerk, Gert-Jan; Van den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.
This study examined the associations between adolescents' daily Internet use and low well-being (i.e., loneliness, low self-esteem, and depressive moods). We hypothesized that (a) linkages between high levels of daily Internet use and low well-being would be mediated by compulsive Internet use (CIU), and (b) that adolescents with low levels of…
Hill, Erin M; Watkins, Kaitlin
The present study examined the role of social support and rumination (deliberate vs. intrusive) in posttraumatic growth (PTG), psychological distress (PD), and psychological well-being (PWB) among women with ovarian cancer. Sixty-seven women who had experienced ovarian cancer were recruited through social media and cancer-related websites, and completed an online survey. Contrary to hypotheses, results indicated that social support was not predictive of PTG, and the mediation of rumination was not significant in the regression of social support on PTG. Social support was, however, positively correlated with the Relating to Others domain of PTG. Deliberate rumination was positively predictive of PTG, and intrusive rumination was positively predictive of PD and negatively predictive of PWB. Social support was negatively predictive of PD, and positively predictive of PWB. Results are discussed with reference to clinical implications and future research needed in understanding the ovarian cancer experience.
Boyraz, Güler; Sayger, Thomas V
The purpose of this study was to examine the role of family cohesion, adaptability, and paternal self-efficacy in psychological well-being of fathers of children with and without disabilities and whether the effects of these variables on psychological well-being were the same for both groups of fathers. In addition, the potential differences in perceived well-being between the two groups of fathers were examined. Sixty-three fathers of children with disabilities and 217 fathers of typically developing children participated in this study. Fathers of children with disabilities scored significantly higher on the self-acceptance dimension of psychological well-being compared with fathers of children without disabilities. After controlling for the demographic factors, family cohesion and paternal self-efficacy significantly and positively predicted well-being of fathers; the effects of these variables on well-being were the same for both groups of fathers.
LEE, Bum-Joon; LAMICHHANE, Dirga Kumar; JUNG, Dal-Young; MOON, So-Hyun; KIM, Seong-Jin; KIM, Hwan-Cheol
This study was conducted to examine how each psychosocial factor on working conditions is related to a worker’s well-being. Data from the 2011 Korean Working Conditions Survey were analyzed for 33,569 employed workers aged ≥15 years. Well-being was evaluated through the WHO-5 questionnaire and variables about occupational psychosocial factors were classified into eight categories. The prevalence ratios were estimated using Poisson regression model. Overall, 44.3% of men and 57.4% of women were in a low well-being group. In a univariate analysis, most of the psychosocial factors on working conditions are significantly related with a worker’s low well-being, except for insufficient job autonomy in both genders and job insecurity for males only. After adjusting for sociodemographic and structural factors on working conditions, job dissatisfaction, lack of reward, lack of social support, violence and discrimination at work still showed a statistically significant association with a worker’s low well-being for both genders. We found that psychosocial working conditions were associated with the workers’ well-being. PMID:26726830
Bell, Patrick B.; Summerville, Meredith A.; Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Patterson, Julie; Earnshaw, Elizabeth
School psychology has recently reconceptualized its service provision model to include multitiered systems of academic and psychosocial promotion, prevention, and intervention. The availability of evidence-based programs and advances in school consultation theory accompany the paradigm shift of the field. Despite these advances, implementing…
Simsek, Omer Faruk; Koydemir, Selda
There is considerable evidence that two higher order factors underlie the Big-Five dimensions and that these two factors provide a parsimonious taxonomy. However, not much empirical evidence has been documented as to the extent to which these traits relate to certain psychological constructs. In this study, we tested a structural model to…
Shaunessy, Elizabeth; Suldo, Shannon M.; Hardesty, Robin B.; Shaffer, Emily J.
The current study compared the school and psychological functioning of 122 gifted and high-achieving students to that of 176 general education students educated in the same school. Relative to their peers in general education, gifted and high-achieving students served in the school's International Baccalaureate (IB) program reported more positive…
Blustein, David L.
The primary theme of this article, which serves as the introductory contribution of a special section of the "American Psychologist," is that work plays a central role in the development, expression, and maintenance of psychological health. The argument underlying this assumption is articulated at the outset of the article in conjunction with a…
Romano, John L.
This paper explores the science of prevention, with special attention to prevention research and applications in education and psychology, and the importance of prevention in Asian countries. One example that will be highlighted is the recently adopted Korean government policy on Internet addiction which addresses the problem from prevention to…
Detrie, Pamela M; Lease, Suzanne H
The present study extended the research on the mental health of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth by testing the relationship of social support, social connectedness, and collective self-esteem to psychological well-being in a sample of 218 LGB youth. Perceived social support significantly predicted psychological well-being subscales; social connectedness and collective self-esteem contributed significantly to the psychological well-being of the LGB participants when controlling for perceived social support. Age moderated the relations between several of the social and psychological well-being variables. Results of the study suggest that helping professionals working with LGB youth consider assessment of the youth's sense of connectedness to those around him/her and esteem related to LGB group membership in addition to assessing general social support.
Lanciano, Tiziana; Curci, Antonietta
The main aim of the current study was to provide evidence regarding the relationship between emotions communication ability--in terms of emotional intelligence (EI)--and psychological well-being. Additionally, the study explored the moderating effect of sex on this relationship. Participants filled in the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, General Health Questionnaire, Psychological General Well-Being Index, and Depression Questionnaire. Results showed the moderating role of sex in the relationship between EI ability and psychological well-being. Furthermore, the associations between EI and psychological well-being measures were generally higher for men than for women, supporting the idea that sex needs to be taken into account when considering EI measures. The potential helpfulness of EI and emotions communications ability in promoting mental health is discussed.
Espinosa-Hernández, Graciela; Vasilenko, Sara A
To broaden our understanding of romance and sexuality during adolescence in Latin American countries, we used a person-oriented approach (latent class analysis) to examine classes marked by different patterns of romantic and sexual behaviors in Mexican adolescents. We found 5 classes: Inactive (8.53%), Early stage (37.8%), Waiting class (27.5%), Physical (8.4%) and Committed (17.9%); but no group dating class. We also explored how these classes were associated with adolescents' mental health and school performance. Middle school adolescents in the Committed class (high in romantic and sexual behaviors) had the highest level of depressive symptoms. Girls in the Inactive class and boys in the Physical class had the lowest level of symptoms. Adolescents in the Committed class also reported less academic motivation and achievement, whereas adolescents in the Inactive class reported higher motivation. This study expands our knowledge of adolescent romantic and sexual development in Mexico.
Motti-Stefanidi, Frosso; Asendorpf, Jens B; Masten, Ann S
This study examined growth patterns in adaptation of immigrant youth from a risk and resilience perspective. Students from first- and second-generation immigrant families living in Greece and their nonimmigrant classmates (N = 1,057) were assessed over the first 3 years of secondary school (ages 13-15). Three-level hierarchical linear models were used to disentangle individual and classroom-level effects on initial level and change in academic achievement, conduct, peer popularity, and psychological well-being. At the individual level, adaptation was more related to self-efficacy and parental school involvement (resources) than immigrant status and social adversity (risks). Only for academic achievement did risks explain variance when resources were controlled. Parental school involvement moderated the effect of immigrant status for initial level and growth in achievement. For all students, achievement and conduct worsened over time. At the classroom level, socioeconomic and ethnic composition of the classroom moderated the effects of self-efficacy and immigrant status on academic achievement and peer popularity, respectively. Second-generation immigrants were more popular than first-generation immigrants, but showed a larger decrease over time in school achievement. Results support a developmental, differentiated, and contextualized approach to the study of immigrant youth adaptation.
Baiden, Philip; Tarshis, Sarah; Antwi-Boasiako, Kofi; den Dunnen, Wendy
The purpose of this study was to examine the independent protective effect of subjective well-being on severe psychological distress among adult Canadians with a history of child maltreatment. Data for this study were obtained from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health (CCHS-MH). A sample of 8126 respondents aged 20-69 years old who experienced at least one child maltreatment event was analyzed using binary logistic regression with severe psychological distress as the outcome variable. Of the 8126 respondents with a history of child maltreatment, 3.9% experienced severe psychological distress within the past month. Results from the multivariate logistic regression revealed that emotional and psychological well-being each had a significant effect on severe psychological distress. For each unit increase in emotional well-being, the odds of a respondent having severe psychological distress were predicted to decrease by a factor of 28% and for each unit increase in psychological well-being, the odds of a respondent having severe psychological distress were predicted to decrease by a factor of 10%, net the effect of demographic, socioeconomic, and health factors. Other factors associated with psychological distress included: younger age, poor self-perceived physical health, and chronic condition. Having post-secondary education, having a higher income, and being non-White predicted lower odds of severe psychological distress. Although, child maltreatment is associated with stressful life events later in adulthood, subjective well-being could serve as a protective factor against severe psychological distress among adults who experienced maltreatment when they were children.
A dual-factor mental health model includes measures of positive psychological well-being in addition to traditional indicators of psychopathology to comprehensively determine mental health status. The current study examined the utility of this model in understanding the psychological adjustment and educational functioning of college students. A…
Bayer, Angela M; Alburqueque, Mónica
Peru's approach to its 5.7 million 10- to 19-year-olds has shifted toward positive youth development. Following that trend, our objective was to facilitate Peruvian adolescents' use of photovoice to better understand the factors affecting their health, well-being, and sexuality and to work with adolescents to present policy and programmatic recommendations. Photovoice sessions were carried out with low-income 12- to 16-year-olds (n = 13) from Lima. Sessions included basic photography and ethics, photo taking, and descriptions and discussions using the SHOWeD (What do you See here? What is really Happening? How does this relate to Our lives? Why does this problem or strength exist? What can we Do about it?) method. Participants grouped their photos into a "photo story." Each section of the story consisted of a message and 4 to 10 photos. Each photo had a caption that answered the SHOWeD questions. Messages were (a) "health and well-being in danger of extinction," (b) "with some signs of hope," (c) "innocence in spite of everything," (d) "what we as adolescents have," and (e) "but we lack opportunities to live a better life and a responsible sexuality." Participants presented the photo story to program planners, policy makers, and community members. Results underscore the value of including adolescents in program and policy planning and affirm that photovoice can achieve such inclusion. Photovoice provides a concrete method for adolescents to speak their mind through image and word.
Lewis, P.; Abbeduto, L.; Murphy, M.; Richmond, E.; Giles, N.; Bruno, L.; Schroeder, S.; Anderson, J.; Orsmond, G.
Background: Research on parental well-being has focused largely on Down syndrome and autism; however, fragile X syndrome is likely to pose different challenges for parents compared with these other diagnostic conditions. Moreover, there is considerable variability among youth with fragile X syndrome; for example, 25% to 33% of affected youth meet…
Suldo, Shannon M.; Hearon, Brittany V.; Bander, Bryan; McCullough, Mollie; Garofano, Jeffrey; Roth, Rachel A.; Tan, Sim Yin
There is growing interest in school-based programs to promote students' subjective well-being (SWB). Students with greater SWB tend to have stronger relationships with their teachers and classmates, as well as behave in more positive ways. Drawing from theory and research pertinent to promoting children's SWB, we developed an 11-session classwide…
Maton, K I
This study examined the relationship of three social support and three organizational variables to two well-being and two group appraisal variables among 144 members of Compassionate Friends, Multiple Sclerosis, and Overeaters Anonymous self-help groups. An anonymous questionnaire was the major research instrument. Receiving social support was not significantly related to depression or anxiety but was positively related to perceived group benefits and group satisfaction. Providing social support and friendship were each positively related to one well-being and one group appraisal variable. Bidirectional supporters (i.e., individuals high on both receiving and providing support) reported more favorable well-being and group appraisal than Receivers, Providers, and Low Supporters. At the group level of analysis (n = 15 groups), groups with higher levels of role differentiation, greater order and organization, and in which leaders were perceived as more capable contained members who reported more positive well-being and group appraisal. The implications for future research and professional consultation to self-help groups are discussed.
Neff, Kristin D.; Suizzo, Marie-Anne
This study investigated possible cultural differences in the association of power, authentic self-expression, and well-being within romantic relationships. Participants (N = 314) included European American students from a central Texas university and Mexican American students from a border university. Results indicated that power inequality was…
Gunnell, Katie E.; Mack, Diane E.; Wilson, Philip M.; Adachi, J. D.
Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease characterized by reduced bone mass and micro-architectural deterioration of bone tissue resulting in compromised bone strength, increased fracture risk, and reduced well being. With evidence attesting to the positive effects of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) on biomedical health in people with…
Walker, Ruth; Isherwood, Linda; Burton, Cassandra; Kitwe-Magambo, Katie; Luszcz, Mary
Marital satisfaction is important for health and well-being, although determinants of satisfaction among older couples are unclear. Much of the marital literature has focused on the role of the spouse, in isolation from satisfaction with broader social relationships. We conducted separate semi-structured interviews with both members of n = 40…
Vasilenko, Sara A.
To broaden our understanding of romance and sexuality during adolescence in Latin American countries, we used a person-oriented approach (latent class analysis) to examine classes marked by different patterns of romantic and sexual behaviors in Mexican adolescents. We found 5 classes: Inactive, (8.53%), Early stage (37.8%), Waiting class (27.5%), Physical (8.4%) and Committed (17.9%); but no group dating class. We also explored how these classes were associated with adolescents’ mental health and school performance. Middle school adolescents in the Committed class (high in romantic and sexual behaviors) had the highest level of depressive symptoms. Girls in the Inactive class and boys in the Physical class had the lowest level of symptoms. Adolescents in the Committed class also reported less academic motivation and achievement, whereas adolescents in the Inactive class reported higher motivation. This study expands our knowledge of adolescent romantic and sexual development in Mexico. PMID:26340166
van der Aa, Niels; Overbeek, Geertjan; Engels, Rutger C M E; Scholte, Ron H J; Meerkerk, Gert-Jan; Van den Eijnden, Regina J J M
This study examined the associations between adolescents' daily Internet use and low well-being (i.e., loneliness, low self-esteem, and depressive moods). We hypothesized that (a) linkages between high levels of daily Internet use and low well-being would be mediated by compulsive Internet use (CIU), and (b) that adolescents with low levels of agreeableness and emotional stability, and high levels of introversion would be more likely to develop CIU and lower well-being. Data were used from a sample of 7888 Dutch adolescents (11-21 years). Results from structural equation modeling analyses showed that daily Internet use was indirectly related to low well-being through CIU. In addition, daily Internet use was found to be more strongly related to CIU in introverted, low-agreeable, and emotionally less-stable adolescents. In turn, again, CIU was more strongly linked to loneliness in introverted, emotionally less-stable, and less agreeable adolescents.
Gonzalez, Carlos; Gomes, Elisabete; Kazachkova, Nadiya; Bettencourt, Conceição; Raposo, Mafalda; Kay, Teresa Taylor; MacLeod, Patrick; Vasconcelos, João
The present study on long-term outcome of presymptomatic testing for Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) aimed to evaluate the psychological well-being and the familial satisfaction of subjects that 5 years prior received an unfavorable result in the predictive testing (PT). The study included 47 testees of Azorean origin (23 from the island of Flores and 24 from S. Miguel) that completed the fourth evaluation session of the MJD protocol, and undertook a neurological examination at the moment of participation in the study. Nearly 50% of testees were symptomatic at the time of the study. Psychological well-being of the 47 participants was evaluated using the Psychological General Well-Being Index (PGWB). The family satisfaction scale by adjectives was applied to obtain information on family dynamics. The average PGWB score of the total participants was of 73.3, a value indicative of psychological well-being. Nearly half of the testees presented scores indicating psychological well-being, whereas scores indicating moderate (28.9%) or severe (23.7%) stress were found in the remaining. The average score in the PGWB scale was lower in symptomatic than in asymptomatic subjects; moreover, the distinct distribution of the well-being categories seen in the two groups shows an impact of the appearance of first symptoms on the psychological state. Motives for undertaking the test, provided 5 years prior, failed to show an impact in well-being. The average score for familial satisfaction was of 134, a value compatible with high familial satisfaction, which represented the most frequent category (59.6%). Results demonstrate that well-being and family satisfaction need to be monitored in confirmed carriers of the MJD mutation. The inclusion of acceptance studies, after PT, as well as the development of acceptance training actions, should be of major importance to anticipate the possibility of psychological damage. PMID:23153003
Wardley, Matt Nj; Flaxman, Paul E; Willig, Carla; Gillanders, David
This empirical study investigates psychological practitioners' experience of worksite training in acceptance and commitment therapy using an interpretative phenomenological analysis methodology. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight participants, and three themes emerged from the interpretative phenomenological analysis data analysis: influence of previous experiences, self and others and impact and application The significance of the experiential nature of the acceptance and commitment therapy training is explored as well as the dual aspects of developing participants' self-care while also considering their own clinical practice. Consistencies and inconsistencies across acceptance and commitment therapy processes are considered as well as clinical implications, study limitations and future research suggestions.
Magklara, Eleni; Morrison, Val
Patient well-being on referral to surgery likely affects their surgical experience yet few studies examine pre-surgical correlates of well-being. Guided by the Common Sense Model of Self-Regulation and Social Cognitive theory, this study examined whether illness and emotional representations, general and domain self-efficacy were associated with pre-surgical well-being. The pre-surgical assessment of a three-wave prospective study is reported. Fifty-four hip and knee replacements patients (mean age = 69.33; SD = 8.57) were recruited in the pre-surgery educational clinic at a UK general hospital. Patients completed a questionnaire-pack including the Revised Illness Perceptions Questionnaire, the General Self-Efficacy Scale, the Self-Efficacy for Rehabilitation Outcome Scale, the Falls-Efficacy Scale, and the Short Form of Psychological Well-Being Index. Multiple hierarchical regression analyses showed that above and beyond demographic and clinical characteristics, negative emotional representations were associated with lower psychological well-being while strong general self-efficacy beliefs were positively related to psychological well-being. Independent of demographic and clinical characteristics, joint replacement patients' psychological well-being was associated with their cognitions and emotional reactions to their condition before surgery. Early interventions could potentially target these modifiable factors to improve pre-surgical well-being in this group of patients, with potential for additional post-surgical benefit.
Koropeckyj-Cox, Tanya; Pienta, Amy Mehraban; Brown, Tyson H.
We explore women's psychological well-being in late midlife in relation to childlessness and timing of entry into motherhood. Using two U.S. surveys, Health and Retirement Study (HRS) (1992) and National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH) (Sweet, Bumpass, & Call, 1988), we assess the well-being of childless women in their 50s compared to…