Science.gov

Sample records for adolescent psychosocial outcomes

  1. Psychosocial Adjustment, School Outcomes, and Romantic Relationships of Adolescents With Same-Sex Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainright, Jennifer L.; Russell, Stephen T.; Patterson, Charlotte J.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined associations among family type (same-sex vs. opposite-sex parents); family and relationship variables; and the psychosocial adjustment, school outcomes, and romantic attractions and behaviors of adolescents. Participants included 44 12- to 18-year-old adolescents parented by same-sex couples and 44 same-aged adolescents…

  2. Ethnic and racial identity in adolescence: implications for psychosocial, academic, and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Seaton, Eleanor K; Markstrom, Carol; Quintana, Stephen; Syed, Moin; Lee, Richard M; Schwartz, Seth J; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; French, Sabine; Yip, Tiffany

    2014-01-01

    The construction of an ethnic or racial identity is considered an important developmental milestone for youth of color. This review summarizes research on links between ethnic and racial identity (ERI) with psychosocial, academic, and health risk outcomes among ethnic minority adolescents. With notable exceptions, aspects of ERI are generally associated with adaptive outcomes. ERI are generally beneficial for African American adolescents' adjustment across all three domains, whereas the evidence is somewhat mixed for Latino and American Indian youth. There is a dearth of research for academic and health risk outcomes among Asian American and Pacific Islander adolescents. The review concludes with suggestions for future research on ERI among minority youth. PMID:24490891

  3. Role Models and Psychosocial Outcomes among African American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Alison L.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2003-01-01

    Examined relationship of role models among African American ninth-graders to substance use, delinquency, academic engagement, and psychological well-being. Found that males without male role models and females identifying brothers as role models reported the most problem behavior. Adolescents with paternal role models had most positive school…

  4. The effects of physical activity interventions on psychosocial outcomes in adolescents: A meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Spruit, Anouk; Assink, Mark; van Vugt, Eveline; van der Put, Claudia; Stams, Geert Jan

    2016-04-01

    Physical activity interventions are often implemented in the adolescent mental health care practice to prevent or treat psychosocial problems. To date, no systematic review of the effect of these physical activity interventions in adolescents has been conducted. In the current study, four multilevel meta-analyses were performed to assess the overall effect of physical activity interventions on externalizing problems, internalizing problems, self-concept, and academic achievement in adolescents. In addition, possible moderating factors were examined. In total, 57 studies reporting on 216 effect sizes were included, and the results showed significant small-to-moderate effects of physical activity interventions on externalizing problems (d=0.320), internalizing problems (d=0.316), self-concept (d=0.297), and academic achievement (d=0.367). Further, moderator analyses showed that outcome, study, sample, and intervention characteristics influenced the effects of physical activity interventions on psychosocial outcomes. Implications for theory and practice concerning the use of physical activity interventions in adolescent mental health care practice are discussed. PMID:27064552

  5. Psychosocial Outcomes of Sexual Risk Reduction in a Brief Intervention for Urban African American Female Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bangi, Audrey; Dolcini, M. Margaret; Harper, Gary W.; Boyer, Cherrie B.; Pollack, Lance M.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes psychosocial outcomes of a group randomized controlled trial of a friendship-based HIV/STI prevention intervention grounded in the AIDS Risk Reduction Model (ARRM). A total of 264 African American adolescent females were randomized to a single-session Project ÒRÉ HIV/STI prevention intervention or a nutrition/exercise health promotion intervention with their friendship group. At posttest, Project ÒRÉ participants scored higher on knowledge of HIV/STI prevention and protection (p < .01), knowledge of living with HIV/STI (p < .01), perceived HIV risk (p < .05), perceived STI risk (p < .01), and intentions to use condoms for vaginal sex (p < .05). Findings suggest that a brief friendship-based HIV/STI prevention intervention for youth can impact ARRM factors that increase the ability to recognize and label risky sexual behaviors as problematic and promote commitment to changing high-risk behaviors. PMID:24039550

  6. Intergenerational Transmission of Familial Boundary Dissolution: Observations and Psychosocial Outcomes in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Anne; Egeland, Byron

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the transmission of boundary dissolution (BD) in parent-child relationships from parental behaviors observed in early childhood to adolescent behaviors observed at age 13 and relations to adolescent psychosocial adaptation. The goals of the study are (a) to examine the developmental relation of early childhood BD to several…

  7. Adolescent Employment and Psychosocial Outcomes: A Comparison of Two Employment Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, David M.; Jarvis, Patricia A.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated psychosocial variables among adolescents who worked in family-owned businesses and in nonfamilial contexts, focusing on work stressors, parental support, academic achievement, work-school connections, substance use, and coping. Survey data indicated that working in a family business related to students' reporting greater perceived…

  8. [Adolescent psychosocial development].

    PubMed

    Gaete, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    It is increasingly necessary that pediatricians have greater knowledge of adolescent health. To begin with they should be familiar with the psychosocial development of this period, an issue which is imperative for the health care of the age group. With that purpose, this article reviews the normal adolescent psychosocial development. Adolescence is a stage that has been progressively prolonged, during which fast and big changes occur, that lead human beings to become biologically, psychologically and socially mature, and potentially able to live independently. Developmental tasks of this period are the establishment of identity and the achievement of autonomy. Although it is a process of high individual variability in terms of its beginning and end, the progression through stages, the synchrony of development between the various areas, and in other aspects, the psychosocial development of this period usually have common characteristics and a progressive pattern of 3 phases: early, middle and late adolescence. Psychological, cognitive, social, sexual and moral development of young people in each of them are described in this article. PMID:26342392

  9. Psychosocial development among adolescents with visual impairment.

    PubMed

    Huurre, T M; Aro, H M

    1998-06-01

    The psychosocial development of adolescents with visual impairment was studied in a group of 54 adolescents (40 boys, 14 girls) attending Finnish regular schools. Mean age was 14.0 (SD 0.87). The control group consisted of normally sighted adolescents of the same age level (N=385, 172 boys, 213 girls). Data were collected with self-report questionnaires. Results indicated that the adolescent group with visual impairment did not differ from the control group in the frequency of depression, distress symptoms or in their relations with parents and siblings. Adolescents with visual impairment less often had many friends and dates with other young people than those without visual impairment. They also reported more often feelings of loneliness and difficulties in making friends. Self-esteem, school achievement and social skills were lower in girls with visual impairment than in the control girls. In summary, our results showed that the psychosocial developmental outcomes of many adolescents with visual impairment were similar to their peers without visual impairment. However, some adolescents with visual impairment, especially girls, need more support in their psychosocial development. PMID:9712373

  10. Family Relationships and Adolescent Psychosocial Outcomes: Converging Findings from Eastern and Western Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dmitrieva, Julia; Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen; Gil-Rivas, Virginia

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the role of parent-adolescent relationships in mediating the association between family-related negative life events and adolescent depressive symptoms and problem behaviors among 1,696 eleventh graders from the United States (n=201), China (n=502), Korea (n=497), and Czech Republic (n=496). Results indicated that perceived…

  11. Psychosocial aspects of child and adolescent obesity.

    PubMed

    Nieman, Peter; Leblanc, Claire Ma

    2012-04-01

    In addition to counselling families about regular physical activity and healthy nutrition, clinicians need to identify and help them to address the psychosocial factors that may be contributing to their child's or adolescent's obesity. Affected individuals may suffer from depression, low self-esteem, bullying, and weight bias, experiences that can make achieving desired health outcomes more difficult. Clinicians should try to identify these underlying stressors and ensure that appropriate counselling is implemented. PMID:23543619

  12. Mother-Adolescent Relationship Quality and Autonomy as Predictors of Psychosocial Adjustment among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bynum, Mia Smith; Kotchick, Beth A.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the role of mother-adolescent relationship quality and autonomy in the psychosocial outcomes in a sample of African American adolescents drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The results indicated that positive mother-adolescent relationship quality and greater autonomy were associated with higher…

  13. Problem coping skills, psychosocial adversities and mental health problems in children and adolescents as predictors of criminal outcomes in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Aebi, Marcel; Giger, Joël; Plattner, Belinda; Metzke, Christa Winkler; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to test child and adolescent psychosocial and psychopathological risk factors as predictors of adult criminal outcomes in a Swiss community sample. In particular, the role of active and avoidant problem coping in youths was analysed. Prevalence rates of young adult crime convictions based on register data were calculated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to analyse the prediction of adult criminal convictions 15 years after assessment in a large Swiss community sample of children and adolescents (n = 1,086). Risk factors assessed in childhood and adolescence included socio-economic status (SES), migration background, perceived parental behaviour, familial and other social stressors, coping styles, externalizing and internalizing problems and drug abuse including problematic alcohol consumption. The rate of any young adult conviction was 10.1 %. Besides externalizing problems and problematic alcohol consumption, the presence of any criminal conviction in young adulthood was predicted by low SES and avoidant coping even after controlling for the effects of externalizing problems and problematic alcohol use. The other predictors were significant only when externalizing behaviours and problematic alcohol use were not controlled. In addition to child and adolescent externalizing behaviour problems and substance use, low SES and inadequate problem-solving skills, in terms of avoidant coping, are major risk factors of young adult criminal outcomes and need to be considered in forensic research and criminal prevention programs. PMID:23949100

  14. Family Violence and Aggression and Their Associations with Psychosocial Functioning in Jamaican Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Delores E.; Moore, Todd M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationships among selected family interaction variables and psychosocial outcomes in a sample of Jamaican adolescents. The authors hypothesized that adolescent psychosocial outcomes would be negatively associated with physical violence, verbal aggression would be more potent than physical…

  15. Prognosis and psychosocial outcomes of attempted suicide by early adolescence: a 6-year follow-up of school students into early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Nrugham, Latha; Holen, Are; Sund, Anne Mari

    2015-04-01

    Adulthood psychiatric and psychosocial outcomes of early adolescence suicidal acts were studied. A representative sample of school adolescents (T1, mean age, 13.7 years; n = 2464; 50.8% female; 88.3% participation) was followed up a year later with the same questionnaire (T2). High scorers of depression were matched with low or moderate scorers and interviewed using the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime version (mean age, 14.9 years; n = 345; 94% participation). They were reassessed after 5 years (T3, mean age, 20.0 years; n = 242; 73% participation). Those who attempted suicide before the age of 14 years and repeated suicidal acts between ages 14 and 15 years had worser prognostic profiles than incident cases between ages 14 and 15 years. Male attempters had better psychiatric prognosis than female attempters. Attempters were more likely to have contacted child protection services but not mental health services. Clinicians need to be aware of long-term pervasive outcomes of adolescent suicidality. PMID:25768349

  16. Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity/Expression Related Peer Victimization in Adolescence: A Systematic Review of Associated Psychosocial and Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Kate L.; van Beusekom, Gabriël; Bos, Henny M. W.; Sandfort, Theo G. M.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews research on psychosocial and health outcomes associated with peer victimization related to adolescent sexual orientation and gender identity or expression. Using four electronic databases and supplementary methods, we identified 39 relevant studies. These studies were published between 1995 and 2012 and conducted in 12 different countries. The studies were diverse in terms of their approaches to sampling participants, assessing participants’ sexual orientation, operationalizing peer victimization, and with regard to the psychosocial and health outcomes studied in relation to peer victimization. Despite the methodological diversity across studies, there is fairly strong evidence that peer victimization related to sexual orientation and gender identity or expression is associated with a diminished sense of school belonging and higher levels of depressive symptoms; findings regarding the relationship between peer victimization and suicidality have been more mixed. Peer victimization related to sexual orientation and gender identity or expression is also associated with disruptions in educational trajectories, traumatic stress, and alcohol and substance use. Recommendations for future research and interventions are discussed. PMID:23480074

  17. Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Child and Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David-Ferdon, Corinne; Kaslow, Nadine J.

    2008-01-01

    The evidence-base of psychosocial treatment outcome studies for depressed youth conducted since 1998 is examined. All studies for depressed children meet Nathan and Gorman's (2002) criteria for Type 2 studies whereas the adolescent protocols meet criteria for both Type 1 and Type 2 studies. Based on the Task Force on the Promotion and…

  18. Adolescent Suicide Risk: Four Psychosocial Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Philip A.; Behrendt, Andrew E.

    2004-01-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death among adolescents. This study examined the suicidal ideation, behavior, and attempt history of 100 adolescents ages seventeen to nineteen. Four psychosocial factors were found to be important for overall suicide risk: hopelessness, hostility, negative self-concept, and isolation. It is suggested that focusing on…

  19. Psychosocial Implications During Adolescence for Infant Heart Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Vidhya; Freier Randall, Catherin; Chinnock, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Background & Objectives: As more heart transplant recipients survive into late adolescence, research addressing long-term psychosocial and neurodevelopmental outcomes is imperative. The limited literature available suggests risk for psychosocial difficulties and lower cognitive, academic, and neuropsychological functioning. This paper reviews topic-related literature and provides preliminary data examining psychosocial and neuropsychological functioning of adolescents who received their heart transplant during infancy. Method: This paper offers a literature review AND presents preliminary data from studies conducted through Loma Linda University Children’s Hospital (LLUCH). Study one examined psychosocial functioning and quality of life of adolescent infant heart transplant recipients. In study two, cognitive, academic, and neuropsychological data were analyzed. Results: Study 1: Overall psychosocial functioning fell in the Average range, however, a significant percentage of participants presented with difficulties on one or more of the psychosocial domains. Quality of life was also within normal limits, though concerns with general health and bodily discomfort were noted. Study 2: Cognitive functioning was assessed to be Below Average, with 43-62% of the participants demonstrating significant impairments. Neuropsychological functioning yielded significant weakness on language functioning, and mild weakness on visual-motor integration and executive functioning. Conclusion: While the majority of the participants demonstrate psychosocial resiliency, a subgroup present with difficulties suggesting the need for intervention. Cognitive/neuropsychological functioning suggests poorer functioning with patterns similar to other high-risk pediatric populations. These results are preliminary and further research on long-term psychosocial and neuropsychological development of pediatric heart transplant recipients is needed to better understand and ameliorate developmental

  20. Relations among Ethnic Identity, Parenting Style, and Adolescent Psychosocial Outcomes in European American and East Indian Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhadha, Bakhtawar

    The challenges of identity formation are particularly difficult for minority youth because of the clash of traditional culture and the host culture. This study examined the effects of parenting style, acculturation, and parent and adolescent ethnic identity on the self-esteem and school performance of East Indian and European American adolescents.…

  1. The association between exposure to violence, alcohol, and drugs and psychosocial and behavioral outcomes among Mexican-American adolescents of low socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Peinado, Jesus; Theresa Villanos, Maria; Singh, Namrata; Leiner, Marie

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association exposure to violence, drugs and alcohol has in shaping the psychosocial and behavioral profiles of Mexican American adolescents of low socioeconomic status. A cross-sectional study was conducted in which 881 Mexican-American adolescents described their exposure to violence, drugs, and alcohol, while their parents responded to a questionnaire about their children’'s behavioral, emotional, and social problems. Participant information was extracted from electronic record databases maintained in six university-based clinics in El Paso, Texas on the U.S. side of the border with Mexico. A total of 463 (52.6%) adolescents reported they had not been exposed to violence, alcohol, or drugs. The remaining 418 (47.4%) adolescents indicated only a single category of exposure: violence (25.1%), alcohol (24.9%), or drugs (8.6%). In addition, some adolescents reported combined exposure to violence and alcohol (13.4%), alcohol and drugs (14.6%), or violence, alcohol, and drugs (13.4%). The association between combined exposure to violence, drugs, and/or alcohol and the psychosocial and behavioral profiles of these Mexican-American adolescents showed an increased risk of emotional and behavioral problems. Little is known about the mental health of Mexican Americans who are exposed to alcohol, violence, and drugs, especially adolescents living in poverty in neighborhoods along the U.S.-Mexico border, who are at a high risk for these exposures. These findings highlight the risks associated with adolescent exposure to violence, drugs, and alcohol and the need for effective interventions within this subgroup of Mexican-American youth and their families. PMID:24652396

  2. Psychosocial and Neurocognitive Outcomes in Adult Survivors of Adolescent and Early Young Adult Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Pinki K.; Hardy, Kristina K.; Zhang, Nan; Edelstein, Kim; Srivastava, Deokumar; Zeltzer, Lonnie; Stovall, Marilyn; Seibel, Nita L.; Leisenring, Wendy; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Robison, Leslie L.; Krull, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To characterize psychological and neurocognitive function in long-term cancer survivors diagnosed during adolescence and early young adulthood (AeYA). Methods Six thousand one hundred ninety-two survivors and 390 siblings in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study completed the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 and a Neurocognitive Questionnaire. Treatment and demographic predictors were examined, and associations with social attainment (employment, education, and living independently) were evaluated. Logistic regression models were used to compute odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% CIs. Results Among survivors, 2,589 were diagnosed when AeYA (11 to 21 years old). Adjusted for current age and sex, these survivors, compared with siblings, self-reported higher rates of depression (11.7% v 8.0%, respectively; OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.04 to 2.30) and anxiety (7.4% v 4.4%, respectively; OR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.17 to 3.43) and more problems with task efficiency (17.2% v 10.8%, respectively; OR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.21 to 2.43), emotional regulation (19.1% v 14.1%, respectively; OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.26 to 2.40), and memory (25.9% v 19.0%, respectively; OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.89). Few differences were noted between survivors diagnosed with leukemia or CNS tumor before 11 years old versus during later adolescence, although those diagnosed with lymphoma or sarcoma during AeYA were at reduced risk for self-reported psychosocial and neurocognitive problems. Unemployment was associated with self-reports of impaired task efficiency (OR, 2.93; 95% CI, 2.28 to 3.77), somatization (OR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.77 to 2.98), and depression (OR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.43 to 2.63). Conclusion We demonstrated that risk for poor functional outcome is not limited to survivors' diagnoses in early childhood. AeYA is a critical period of development, and cancer during this period can impact neurocognitive and emotional function and disrupt vocational attainment. PMID:26150441

  3. Family Structure and Children's Psychosocial Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Zheng; Hou, Feng; Schimmele, Christoph M.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the influence of family structure on children's short-term psychosocial behavioral outcomes, including emotional disorder, conduct disorder, and prosocial behavior. The analysis uses five waves of data (1994-2003) from Canada's National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth to model how living in a cohabitational…

  4. Exploring mediating factors in the association between parental psychological distress and psychosocial maladjustment in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Campoy, Eric; Chaix, Basile; Chauvin, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Parental psychopathology is associated with increased psychosocial maladjustment in adolescents. We examined, from a psychosocial perspective, the association between parental psychological distress and psychosocial maladjustment in adolescents and assessed the mediating role of psychosocial covariates. This is a cross-sectional survey and the setting include representative sample of Quebec adolescents in 1999. The participants of the study include 13- and 16-year-old children (N = 2,346) in the Social and Health Survey of Quebec Children and Adolescents. The main outcome measures are internalizing disorders, externalizing disorders, substance use, and alcohol consumption. For statistical analysis, we used structural equation modeling to test for mediation. Internalizing and externalizing disorders were significantly associated with parental psychological distress, but not substance use or alcohol consumption. The higher the parental distress, the higher the risk of adolescent mental health disorders. The association between parental psychological distress and internalizing disorders was mediated by adolescent self-esteem, parental emotional support and extrafamilial social support. As for externalizing disorders, these variables only had an independent effect. In conclusion, A family’s well being is a necessary condition for psychosocial adjustment in adolescence. Beyond the psychiatric approach, psychosocial considerations need to be taken into consideration to prevent negative mental health outcomes in children living in homes with distressed parents. PMID:20127380

  5. Psychosocial Outcomes after Bilateral Hand Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mansher; Oser, Megan; Zinser, Jennifer; Sisk, Geoffroy; Carty, Matthew J; Sampson, Christian; Pribaz, Julian J; Pomahac, Bohdan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since the first successful hand transplantation in 1998, there have been multiple reports about surgical technique, transplant survival, and immunosuppression. However, very limited published data exist on psychosocial outcomes following hand transplantation. Methods: We report psychosocial outcomes in a patient with bilateral hand transplants at the midforearm level with serial follow-ups over 3.5 years. Different metrics used to study psychosocial outcomes included the following: SF-12, CES-D, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, Rosenberg SE, and EQ-5D. Result: Preoperatively, our patient did not have any evidence of depression (CES-D = 3), had a nonstressful relationship with his spouse (Dyadic Adjustment Scale = 100), and self-esteem was in the normal range (Rosenberg SE = 21). These metrics and his additional scales (SF-12 MCS, EQ-5D, and EQ-VAS) did not change appreciably and were within the normal range for the entire duration of 3.5-year follow-up at all different time points. Conclusion: With the increasing popularity of hand transplantation and the increasing awareness of the importance of psychosocial parameters in overall success, appropriate, comprehensive, and standardized measurements are important. These should be an integral part of patients’ screening and follow-up. PMID:26579339

  6. Transgender and Gender Nonconforming Adolescent Care: Psychosocial and Medical Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Guss, Carly; Shumer, Daniel; Katz-Wise, Sabra L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Transgender individuals display incongruence between their assigned birth sex and their current gender identity, and may identify as male, female or elsewhere on the gender spectrum. Gender nonconformity describes an individual whose gender identity, role, or expression are not typical for individuals in a given assigned sex category. This update highlights recent literature pertaining to the psychosocial and medical care of transgender and gender nonconforming (TGN) adolescents with applications for the general practitioner. Recent findings The psychological risks and outcomes of TGN adolescents are being more widely recognized. Moreover, there is increasing evidence that social and medical gender transition reduces gender dysphoria, defined as distress that accompanies the incongruence between one’s birth sex and identified gender. Unfortunately, lack of education about TGN adolescents in medical training persists. Summary Recent literature highlights increased health risks in TGN adolescents and improved outcomes following gender dysphoria treatment. It is important for clinicians to become familiar with the range of treatment options and referral resources available to TGN adolescents in order to provide optimal and welcoming care to all adolescents. PMID:26087416

  7. Adolescent obesity and future substance use: Incorporating the psychosocial context.

    PubMed

    Lanza, H Isabella; Grella, Christine E; Chung, Paul J

    2015-12-01

    A growing body of work has shown that obese adolescents are at risk of engaging in problematic substance use, but mixed findings highlight the complexity of the relationship. Incorporating the psychosocial context into this research may inform past discrepancies. The current study assessed whether obese adolescents had a higher likelihood of experiencing a psychosocial context that predicted problematic substance use in young adulthood. Latent class analysis on 10,637 adolescents from The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) identified four psychosocial classes in adolescence: Adjusted, Deviant Peer/Victimization, Moderate Depression, and Maladjusted. Obese adolescents were more likely to belong to the Maladjusted class, characterized by higher levels of depression and deviant peer affiliation. Those in the Maladjusted class had the second highest levels of cigarette smoking and marijuana use in young adulthood. Obese adolescents' psychosocial context should be considered in future research linking obesity and substance use. PMID:26349450

  8. Psychosocial treatment of depression and suicidality in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Brunstein Klomek, Anat; Stanley, Barbara

    2007-02-01

    Depression is a common disorder among adolescents and is associated with a high risk of suicide. Suicide is the third leading cause of death among adolescents in the United States. Currently, there are only two evidence-based psychotherapies for adolescence depression: cognitive-behavioral therapy and interpersonal psychotherapy. Furthermore, psychosocial interventions that specifically target suicidal behavior in adolescents are even fewer in number than treatments for depression. This article will review the psychosocial interventions for depression and suicidality in adolescents and will describe a recently developed treatment that is under study for depressed suicidal adolescents. PMID:17277714

  9. Conduct Disorder and Psychosocial Outcomes at Age 30: Early Adult Psychopathology as a Potential Mediator

    PubMed Central

    Seeley, John R.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2010-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is associated with a number of adverse psychosocial outcomes in adulthood. There is consistent evidence that CD is predictive of antisocial behavior, but mixed evidence that CD is predictive of other externalizing and internalizing disorders. Further, externalizing and internalizing disorders are often associated with similar psychosocial outcomes as CD. However, relatively little work has examined whether forms of psychopathology (e.g., externalizing and/or internalizing disorders) mediates the relationship between youth CD and adult psychosocial outcomes. The present study examined associations between youth CD and adult psychosocial outcomes and sought to identify forms of psychopathology that may potentially mediate this relationship. Participants completed self-report measures of psychosocial functioning and semi-structured diagnostic interviews during adolescence and young adulthood. Analyses found that most domains of adult psychosocial functioning were associated with youth CD. Adult antisocial behavior was the only form of psychopathology predicted by CD. Adult antisocial behavior appeared to mediate the relationship between CD and marital status, life satisfaction, and being in jail and partially mediated the relationship between CD and family support and global functioning. These data suggest that reducing the progression to adult antisocial behavior may improve multiple psychosocial outcomes among those with a history of CD. PMID:20521096

  10. Differential Outcomes of Adolescents with Chronically Ill and Healthy Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieh, Dominik Sebastian; Visser-Meily, Johanna Maria Augusta; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 10% of children grow up with a parent who has been diagnosed with a chronic medical condition (CMC) and seem to be at risk for adjustment difficulties. We examined differences in behavioral, psychosocial and academic outcomes between 161 adolescents from 101 families with a chronically ill parent and 112 adolescents from 68 families…

  11. Psychosocial Research and the Hospitalized Adolescent: Approaches and Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denholm, Carey J.; Joschko, Michael

    1988-01-01

    Notes that hospitalized adolescents are often participants in psychosocial research. Presents examples of studies within four approaches (instructional, theoretical, informational, experimental) to describe behaviors of hospitalized adolescents. Discusses impact of various illness states (acute, chronic, terminal) and readiness of adolescent to be…

  12. [Child and adolescent obesity, psychosocial consequences and treatment strategies].

    PubMed

    Hartmann, A S; Hilbert, A

    2013-04-01

    Being overweight and obese in childhood and adolescence is associated with various somatic and psychosocial sequelae. Psychosocial problems can negatively influence the future weight trajectory. Therefore, weight reduction or stabilization should be complemented by the treatment of significant psychosocial problems. This review provides an overview of the psychosocial problems associated with being overweight and obese in childhood and adolescence. Evidence on weight-related stigmatization and discrimination, eating disorder symptoms, general psychopathology, impaired quality of life, lowered self-esteem, social skill deficits, as well as academic problems is summarized. Furthermore, state-of-the-art diagnostic and therapeutic procedures for the psychosocial problems are summarized. Future research should focus on the development of interventions targeting the destigmatization of obesity, as experiences of stigmatization and discrimination likely aggravate the psychosocial sequelae of overweight and obesity. PMID:23529599

  13. Frequent dieting among adolescents: psychosocial and health behavior correlates.

    PubMed Central

    French, S A; Story, M; Downes, B; Resnick, M D; Blum, R W

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The present study examined correlates of frequent dieting in 33,393 adolescents. It was hypothesized that frequent dieting would be correlated with negative psychosocial and health behavior outcomes. METHODS. A comprehensive, school-based health behavior survey was administered in 1987 to public school students in grades 7 through 12 in Minnesota. Students self-reported dieting behavior; substance use; suicidal, sexual, and delinquent behavior; family and peer concerns; sick days; and abuse history. Differences on psychosocial and health behavior risk factors by dieting frequency and by purging status were assessed with multivariate logistic regression, with body mass index and demographic variables controlled. RESULTS. Dieting frequency was associated with history of binge eating (females: odds ratio [OR] = 1.46, males: OR = 1.53); poor body image (females: OR = 0.56, males: OR = 0.63); lower connectedness to others (females: OR = 0.79); greater alcohol use (females: OR = 1.17); and greater tobacco use (females: OR = 1.08). Purging status was independently associated with negative risk factors in both males and females. CONCLUSIONS. These findings suggest that frequent dieting efforts in adolescents should not be viewed in isolation, but rather in the broader context of health and risk-taking behaviors. PMID:7733431

  14. Psychosocial and Health-Related Characteristics of Adolescent Television Viewers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined relationship between television viewing frequency and adolescents' health-related and psychosocial characteristics. Found that shyness and exercise frequency predicted television viewing frequency. Among females, exercise frequency, shyness, loneliness, and perceived attractiveness predicted viewing frequency. Light viewers exercised more…

  15. Romantic Experience and Psychosocial Adjustment in Middle Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furman, Wyndol; Low, Sabina; Ho, Martin J.

    2009-01-01

    Concurrent and longitudinal relations between the amount of romantic experience and psychosocial adjustment were examined in a 1-year study of a community based sample of 200 tenth graders. Adolescents, parents, and friends completed measures of psychosocial adjustment. The amount of romantic experience was associated with higher reports of social…

  16. Friendships Moderate Psychosocial Maladjustment in Socially Anxious Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erath, Stephen A.; Flanagan, Kelly S.; Bierman, Karen L.; Tu, Kelly M.

    2010-01-01

    Close mutual friendships may help protect socially anxious early adolescents against concurrent psychosocial risks. This study investigated whether close mutual friendships moderated associations among social anxiety and several indices of psychosocial maladjustment (loneliness, peer victimization, and low social self-efficacy) in early…

  17. Ethnic Identity and Psychosocial Functioning in Navajo Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Matthew D.; Galliher, Renee V.

    2007-01-01

    The current study assessed associations among theoretically driven measures of ethnic identity and psychosocial adjustment among 137 Navajo adolescents. For both sexes, measures of students' sense of affirmation and belonging to their ethnic heritage emerged as a strong predictor of positive psychosocial functioning. Less-consistent patterns of…

  18. Surviving cancer: The psychosocial outcomes of childhood cancer survivors and its correlates.

    PubMed

    Castellano-Tejedor, Carmina; Pérez-Campdepadrós, Marta; Capdevila, Lluís; Blasco-Blasco, Tomás

    2016-07-01

    This study assessed the psychosocial outcomes of adolescent cancer survivors and their relationship with personal and socio-familiar factors. Using a cross-sectional design, 41 survivors answered the four psychosocial dimensions of the KIDSCREEN-52 questionnaire and measures for social support and coping. Similarly, 41 parents answered coping and cancer-related distress measures. All psychosocial scores were within normative values (50 ± 10). Multiple linear regression analyses revealed four models with a range of explained variance between 9.4 percent and 31.9 percent that include the informative and emotional support, parental distress, and coping. This study contributes to the understanding of psychosocial outcomes of childhood cancer survivors and its correlates. PMID:25411198

  19. Sleep impairment, mood symptoms, and psychosocial functioning in adolescent bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lunsford-Avery, Jessica R.; Judd, Charles M.; Axelson, David A.; Miklowitz, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Few empirical studies have investigated the role of sleep impairment in the course of adolescent bipolar spectrum disorders (BSD). The present study examined the longitudinal associations between sleep disruption, mood symptom severity, and psychosocial functioning in a 2-year follow-up of patients with adolescent BSD. Fifty-three adolescents with BSD (mean [SD] age: 14.6 [1.6]) participated in a two-site randomized trial of family focused treatment for adolescents (FFT-A) or enhanced care, a briefer psychoeducational treatment; both treatments were administered with pharmacotherapy. Sleep disturbance was assessed with the Adolescent Sleep Habits Questionnaire (ASHQ) filled out by patients every 6 weeks in the first study year and every 3 months in the second year. Main outcomes included clinician-rated measures of mania, depression and psychosocial impairment over 2 years. Sleep impairment was significantly associated with mania and depression severity scores and psychosocial impairment ratings across the 2-year follow-up. Despite its efficaciousness in reducing mood symptoms, FFT-A was not more effective than enhanced care in improving sleep habits. Sleep impairment may play a substantial role in the course of adolescent BSD. Youth with BSDs may benefit from targeted psychosocial interventions that emphasize sleep regularity. PMID:22884306

  20. Psychosocial issues and outcomes in maternal PKU.

    PubMed

    Koch, Richard; Trefz, Friedrich; Waisbren, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Elevated phenylalanine (Phe) levels in pregnant women with PKU are teratogenic. Fetal damage due to elevated maternal Phe levels during pregnancy is known as maternal phenylketonuria (MPKU). The risk of birth defects in MPKU, including global developmental delays, microcephaly, congenital heart disease, and low birth weight, can be dramatically reduced by controlling Phe levels during pregnancy (metabolic control). Phe levels should be maintained in the range of 120-360 micromol/L, ideally starting before pregnancy begins (i.e., when planning a pregnancy). If control is not achieved before pregnancy (e.g., if the pregnancy was unplanned), good outcomes are still possible if metabolic control is established by 8 weeks of pregnancy. Unfortunately, metabolic control before and during pregnancy can be poor. As well, many mothers stop treatment after pregnancy, which can decrease the mother's ability to focus on her child and increase her risk of behavioral and psychological problems. This can have a negative effect on the home environment. Many factors affect adherence to the strict diet used to control Phe levels, including poor access to medical care, lack of reimbursement for medical foods (in some regions, such as parts of the United States), practical difficulties with implementing the diet, financial constraints, demographics, and psychosocial issues. A comprehensive treatment approach that begins prior to pregnancy and continues after the infant is born may help to improve the management of MPKU. This approach should include education of girls about MPKU at an early age, interventions to prevent unplanned pregnancies, psychosocial support, improved treatment access and reimbursement for medical foods, and treatment guidelines. Treatments such as sapropterin may also have a role in improving metabolic control during pregnancy. PMID:20123474

  1. Concurrent and Longitudinal Effects of Ethnic Identity and Experiences of Discrimination on Psychosocial Adjustment of Navajo Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galliher, Renee V.; Jones, Matthew D.; Dahl, Angie

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined concurrent and longitudinal relations among Navajo adolescents' ethnic identity, experiences of discrimination, and psychosocial outcomes (i.e., self-esteem, substance use, and social functioning). At Time 1, 137 Navajo adolescents (67 male, 70 female), primarily in Grades 9 and 10, completed a written survey assessing…

  2. Psychosocial Intimacy and Identity: From Early Adolescence to Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Marilyn J.

    2005-01-01

    Age and gender differences in patterns of behavior and experience, cognitive beliefs, affective involvement, and psychosocial functioning in romantic relationships were observed in 473 adolescents and emerging adults (ages 12-24). Older adolescents indicated more dating experiences, times in love, passion, identity, and intimacy. They also…

  3. Adolescent Leisure Dimensions, Psychosocial Adjustment, and Gender Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Graham L.; Inglis, Brad C.

    2012-01-01

    Leisure provides the context for much of adolescent behaviour and development. While both theory and research point to the benefits of participation in leisure activities that are highly structured, the association between structured leisure and psychosocial adjustment is not uniformly high. This paper presents a model of adolescent leisure…

  4. Psychosocial Aspects of Adolescent Dysphonia: An Approach to Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beery, Quinter C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to voice therapy with adolescents, emphasizing the importance of psychosocial and family influences as they relate to vocal behavior. The goals of therapy for the adolescent with dysphonia usually follow an orderly sequence, first dealing with individual behavior and later with family and peer group influences. (JDD)

  5. Psychosocial Discomfort and Exercise Frequency: An Epidemiological Study of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; Tucker, Larry A.

    1994-01-01

    Examined extent to which adolescents (n=1,297) who reported different levels of physical exercise varied with respect to psychosocial discomfort. Results indicated that those who exercised infrequently suffered more from loneliness, shyness, and hopelessness than did adolescents who exercised more frequently. Controlled potential confounding…

  6. Psychosocial Correlates of Insomnia in an Adolescent Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siomos, Konstantinos E.; Avagianou, Penelope-Alexia; Floros, Georgios D.; Skenteris, Nikolaos; Mouzas, Odysseas D.; Theodorou, Kyriaki; Angelopoulos, Nikiforos V.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the nature of the relationship between psychosocial factors and insomnia complaints in an adolescent non-clinical population. It is a cross-sectional study of a stratified sample of 2,195 Greek adolescent high-school students. Subjects were given the Athens insomnia scale, the Symptom Checklist scale (SCL-90-R) and a…

  7. Who's That Adolescent in Your Class?: Understanding the Psychosocial World of the Adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, M. I.

    1982-01-01

    The psychosocial characteristics of adolescents are described in order to assist teachers in interacting more effectively with their students. Examination of students about the presence of pathology in adolescence reveals that the typical adolescent is not a stereotypically impulse-ridden, uncontrollable person. Many of an adolescent's…

  8. Predicting Adolescent Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome with the Personal Experience Inventory (PEI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinchfield, Randy; Winters, Ken C.

    2004-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the clinical utility of the Personal Experience Inventory (PEI) Psychosocial scales to predict adolescent drug abuse treatment outcome. The role of psychosocial risk factors in predicting treatment outcome also has theoretical interest given that such factors have been associated with the development of…

  9. Adolescent body image and psychosocial functioning.

    PubMed

    Davison, Tanya E; McCabe, Marita P

    2006-02-01

    Researchers have highlighted the significance of a poor body image in the development of dysfunctional eating but have systematically investigated few other outcomes. The authors examined the relationships between different aspects of body image and psychosocial functioning. Participants were 245 boys and 173 girls from Grades 8 and 9 (M age = 13.92 years, SD = 0.69 years). Respondents completed measures of physical attractiveness, body satisfaction, body image importance, body image behaviors, appearance comparison, social physique anxiety, self-esteem, depression, anxiety, and same-sex and opposite-sex relations. Whereas girls tended to report a more negative body image than did boys, the relevance of body image to self-esteem was similar for boys and girls. Concern about others' evaluation of their bodies was especially important in understanding low female self-esteem, whereas for boys, ratings of general attractiveness most strongly predicted self-esteem. The authors found a negative body image to be unrelated to symptoms of negative affect but to be strongly associated with poor opposite-sex peer relationships, especially among boys. A negative body image also affected same-sex relations among girls. PMID:16480119

  10. Parental Problem Drinking and Adolescent Psychosocial Adjustment: The Mediating Role of Adolescent-Parent Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the relations between parental problem drinking, adolescent-parent communication, and adolescent psychosocial adjustment. Surveys were administered to a diverse sample of 683 15-17-years-old adolescents in the spring of 2007 and again in the spring of 2008. Results indicated that paternal problem drinking directly predicted…

  11. Prevalence and Correlates for Psychosocial Distress Among In-School Adolescents in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Siziya, Seter; Mazaba, Mazyanga Lucy

    2015-01-01

    There is scanty information on correlates for psychosocial distress in Zambia. Secondary analysis was conducted using the data collected in 2004 in Zambia during the global school-based health survey to determine the prevalence and correlates for psychosocial distress. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate magnitudes of associations between exposure factors and the outcome, while the Yates’ corrected Chi-squared test was used to compare proportions at the 5% significance level. A total of 2257 students participated in the survey of which 54.2% were males. Males were generally older than females (p < 0.001). Significantly, more females than males were bullied (p = 0.036), involved in a fight (p = 0.019), and consumed alcohol (p = 0.012). Psychosocial distress was detected in 15.7% of the participants (14.4% of males and 16.8% of females). Age <14 years, male gender, parental support for males, and having close friends were protective factors against psychosocial distress. Risk factors for psychosocial distress were being bullied, involvement in a fight, alcohol consumption, being physically active, and parental support. The prevalence of psychosocial distress among adolescents in Zambia appears to be common. There is a need to validate the psychosocial distress indicators that were used in the current study. PMID:26236704

  12. Prevalence and Correlates for Psychosocial Distress Among In-School Adolescents in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Siziya, Seter; Mazaba, Mazyanga Lucy

    2015-01-01

    There is scanty information on correlates for psychosocial distress in Zambia. Secondary analysis was conducted using the data collected in 2004 in Zambia during the global school-based health survey to determine the prevalence and correlates for psychosocial distress. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate magnitudes of associations between exposure factors and the outcome, while the Yates' corrected Chi-squared test was used to compare proportions at the 5% significance level. A total of 2257 students participated in the survey of which 54.2% were males. Males were generally older than females (p < 0.001). Significantly, more females than males were bullied (p = 0.036), involved in a fight (p = 0.019), and consumed alcohol (p = 0.012). Psychosocial distress was detected in 15.7% of the participants (14.4% of males and 16.8% of females). Age <14 years, male gender, parental support for males, and having close friends were protective factors against psychosocial distress. Risk factors for psychosocial distress were being bullied, involvement in a fight, alcohol consumption, being physically active, and parental support. The prevalence of psychosocial distress among adolescents in Zambia appears to be common. There is a need to validate the psychosocial distress indicators that were used in the current study. PMID:26236704

  13. Which Psychosocial Factors Are Related to Drinking among Rural Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Jennifer A.; Botvin, Gilbert J.; Spoth, Richard

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of psychosocial factors with alcohol use for adolescents residing in rural Iowa. This association was also tested separately for boys and girls. Seventh graders (N = 1673) self-reported alcohol use, peer drinking norms, adult drinking norms, drug refusal assertiveness, drug refusal techniques, life skills,…

  14. Psychosocial Stressors of Drug-Abusing Disadvantaged Adolescent Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scafidi, Frank A.; Field, Tiffany; Prodromidis, Margarita; Rahdert, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    Explores psychosocial stressors associated with adolescent pregnancy and drug abuse among 104 mothers between 13 and 21 years of age. Results suggest that drug-abusing mothers were depressed, whereas the nondrug-abusing mothers were not depressed. Drug-abusing mothers reported more mental and physical health problems, more problematic…

  15. Systematic review of the effects of family meal frequency on psychosocial outcomes in youth

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Megan E.; Norris, Mark L.; Obeid, Nicole; Fu, Maeghan; Weinstangel, Hannah; Sampson, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Objective To conduct a systematic review of the effects of frequent family meals on psychosocial outcomes in children and adolescents, and to examine whether there are differences in outcomes between males and females. Data sources Studies were identified through a search of MEDLINE (1948 to fifth week of June 2011) and PsycINFO (1806 to first week of July 2011) using the Ovid interface. The MeSH terms and key words used both alone and in combination were family, meal, food intake, nutrition, diets, body weight, adolescent attitudes, eating behaviour, feeding behaviour, and eating disorders. Bibliographies of papers deemed relevant were also reviewed. Study selection The original search yielded 1783 articles. To be included in the analysis, studies had to meet the following criteria: have been published in a peer-reviewed journal in English; involve children or adolescents; discuss the role of family meals on the psychosocial outcomes (eg, substance use, disordered eating, depression) of children or adolescents; and have an adequate study design, including appropriate statistical methods for analyzing outcome data. Fourteen papers met inclusion criteria. Two independent reviewers studied and analyzed the papers. Synthesis Overall, results show that frequent family meals are inversely associated with disordered eating, alcohol and substance use, violent behaviour, and feelings of depression or thoughts of suicide in adolescents. There is a positive relationship between frequent family meals and increased self-esteem and school success. Studies show substantial differences in outcomes for male and female children and adolescents, with females having more positive results. Conclusion This systematic review provides further support that frequent family meals should be endorsed. All health care practitioners should educate families on the benefits of having regular meals together as a family. PMID:25676655

  16. A Review of Psychosocial Outcomes for Patients Seeking Cosmetic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Honigman, Roberta J.; Phillips, Katharine A.; Castle, David J.

    2006-01-01

    The authors reviewed the literature on psychological and psychosocial outcomes for individuals undergoing cosmetic surgery, to address whether elective cosmetic procedures improve psychological well-being and psychosocial functioning and whether there are identifiable predictors of an unsatisfactory psychological outcome. They conducted a search of appropriate computerized databases for studies that evaluated psychological and psychosocial status both before and after elective cosmetic surgery. They identified 37 relevant studies of varying cosmetic procedures that utilized disparate methodologies. Overall, patients appeared generally satisfied with the outcome of their procedures, although some exhibited transient and some exhibited longer-lasting psychological disturbance. Factors associated with poor psychosocial outcome included being young, being male, having unrealistic expectations of the procedure, previous unsatisfactory cosmetic surgery, minimal deformity, motivation based on relationship issues, and a history of depression, anxiety, or personality disorder. Body dysmorphic disorder was also recognized by some studies as a predictor of poor outcome, a finding reinforced by reference to the psychiatric literature. The authors conclude that although most people appear satisfied with the outcome of cosmetic surgical procedures, some are not, and attempts should be made to screen for such individuals in cosmetic surgery settings. PMID:15083026

  17. Effects of summer school participation and psychosocial outcomes on changes in body composition and physical fitness during summer break

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyung-Shin; Lee, Man-Gyoon

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Evidence suggests that adolescents gain more weight during the summer break than they do during the school year, and that participation in the summer school program is beneficial in maintaining their healthy lifestyle. It is known that obesity and physical fitness in adolescents can be affected by their socio-economic and psychological status, especially during a long school break. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of summer school participation and psychosocial outcomes on changes in body composition and physical fitness in underprivileged adolescents during the summer break. [Methods] Body composition and physical fitness in 138 underprivileged adolescents were measured at the beginning and end of the summer break. A survey on socio-economic and psychological status was conducted at the beginning of the summer break. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests were used for data analysis. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to establish a relation between psychological outcomes and changes in body composition and physical fitness during the summer break. [Results] Significant increases in body weight (p = .003) and % body fat (p = .014) as well as a decrease in VO2max (p = .018) were found in summer school non-attendants during the summer whereas no significant changes were found in summer school attendants. Summer school non-attendants with lower psychosocial outcomes had a greater decline in physical fitness and weight gain; however, summer school attendants were not affected by psychosocial outcomes. The summer school program effectively prevented summer weight gain among underprivileged adolescents due to the structured environment, restricted food access, and scheduled time for exercise in addition to minimizing the effects of their psychosocial outcomes. [Conclusion] Results indicated that summer school non-attendants may require comprehensive intervention for psychosocial outcomes and nutritional education

  18. Developmental Trajectories of Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms and Psychosocial Functioning in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Aidan G.C.; Zalewski, Maureen; Hallquist, Michael N.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Stepp, Stephanie D.

    2015-01-01

    Major gains toward understanding the emergence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) pathology, which is typically first noted during adolescence, have been made. The present study addresses a gap in our understanding of within-person change in BPD symptoms across adolescence and contributes to the limited literature on outcomes associated with adolescent BPD. Using an at-risk community sample of girls (N=2,450), bivariate latent growth curve models were used to analyze the co-development of BPD symptoms with eight domains of psychosocial functioning (e.g., social skills, sexual behavior) across ages 14–17. Findings revealed moderate to strong effect sizes for the associations between BPD symptoms and every domain of psychosocial functioning, suggesting that the development of BPD was coupled with poorer outcomes across development. These results highlight the increased need for extending advancements in the adult PD literature to research on PDs in adolescence, and for greater recognition of adolescent BPD in clinical settings. PMID:26067158

  19. Developmental Trajectories of Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms and Psychosocial Functioning in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Wright, Aidan G C; Zalewski, Maureen; Hallquist, Michael N; Hipwell, Alison E; Stepp, Stephanie D

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, major gains toward understanding the emergence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) pathology, which is typically first noted during adolescence, have been made. Simultaneously, a profound shift has occurred in the adult personality pathology literature, in which empirical evidence rebuts the idea that personality disorders (PDs) are intractable disorders that do not develop or otherwise change over time, and therefore cannot be treated. The present study addresses a gap in our understanding of within-person change in BPD symptoms across adolescence and contributes to the limited literature on outcomes associated with adolescent BPD. Using an at-risk community sample of girls (N = 2,450), the authors used bivariate latent growth curve models to analyze the codevelopment of BPD symptoms with eight domains of psychosocial functioning (e.g., academic achievement, social skills, sexual behavior) across ages 14-17. Findings revealed moderate to strong effect sizes for the associations between BPD symptoms and every domain of psychosocial functioning, suggesting that the development of BPD was coupled with poorer outcomes across development. Controlling for depression and conduct disorder features revealed unique associations between BPD and self-perception, social skills, and sexual behavior. These results highlight the increased need for extending advancements in the adult PD literature to research on PDs in adolescence, and for greater recognition of adolescent BPD in clinical settings. PMID:26067158

  20. Erikson's Psychosocial Theories Help Explain Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, M. Lee

    1988-01-01

    Middle school educators can design a learning environment for early adolescents based on Erik Erikson's social development theories, which divide human life into eight psychological stages. The identity versus role confusion stage characterizing adolescence will significantly determine the developing person's future. Schools can help learners…

  1. Psychosocial Factors Contributing to Adolescent Suicidal Ideation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Rachel C. F.; Hui, Eadaoin K. P.

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the family, school, peer and psychological factors that contribute to adolescent suicidal ideation. The participants were 1,358 (680 boys and 678 girls) Hong Kong Chinese adolescents who were divided into younger (12.3 years, n = 694) and older (15.4 years, n = 664) age groups. By using structural equation modeling,…

  2. What psychosocial factors influence adolescents' oral health?

    PubMed

    Baker, S R; Mat, A; Robinson, P G

    2010-11-01

    Few studies have examined, comprehensively and prospectively, determinants of oral-health-related quality of life. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between psychosocial factors and oral health status, health perceptions, and quality of life. Measures of symptom and functional status, health perceptions, quality of life, oral health beliefs, and psychological (sense of coherence, self-esteem, health locus of control) and social factors (parents' income and education) were collected from 439 12- and 13-year-olds at baseline and six-month follow-up, together with a clinical examination at baseline. Structural equation modeling indicated that increased levels of caries and more symptoms predicted more functional limitations, and, cross-sectionally, greater functional impact was associated with worse health perceptions, which were linked to lower quality of life. Sense of coherence was the most important psychosocial predictor. These factors are important in understanding how oral health affects young people's daily lives. PMID:20739689

  3. Psychosocial and Health Behavior Outcomes of Young Adults with Asthma or Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Jerica M.; Bauer, Katherine W.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Denny, Kara; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Previous research has shown a relationship between childhood/adolescent chronic conditions and negative health behaviors, psychological outcomes, and social outcomes. Less is known about whether these negative outcomes are experienced by young adults with chronic health conditions. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how young adults’ BMI, health behaviors, and psychological and social outcomes differ depending on whether they have diabetes, asthma, or neither of these chronic conditions. Methods Data were drawn from the third wave of Project EAT-III: Eating and Activity in Young Adults, a population-based study of 2287 young adults (mean age = 25.3; range 19.8 – 31.2). General linear models were used to test differences in BMI, health behaviors (e.g., fast food intake) and psychosocial outcomes (e.g. depressive symptoms) by young adults’ chronic disease status. Results Young adults with diabetes had higher BMIs, engaged in less physical activity and more unhealthy weight control behaviors and binge eating, had lower self-esteem and lower body satisfaction, and experienced more depressive symptoms and appearance-based teasing compared to young adults with asthma or no chronic conditions, after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, socio-economic status (SES) and, when relevant, for BMI. There were no significant differences between young adults with asthma and young adults with no chronic condition on all of the psychosocial and health behavior outcomes. Conclusions Young adults with diabetes reported higher prevalence of negative health behaviors and psychosocial outcomes. Providers may find it useful to assess for negative health behaviors and psychosocial variables with young adults with diabetes in order to improve treatment and quality of life for these individuals. PMID:24298429

  4. Parent-Adolescent Discrepancies in Perceived Parenting Characteristics and Adolescent Developmental Outcomes in Poor Chinese Families.

    PubMed

    Leung, Janet T Y; Shek, Daniel T L

    2014-01-01

    We examined the relationships between parent-adolescent discrepancies in perceived parenting characteristics (indexed by parental responsiveness, parental demandingness, and parental control) and adolescent developmental outcomes (indexed by achievement motivation and psychological competence) in poor families in Hong Kong. A sample of 275 intact families having at least one child aged 11-16 experiencing economic disadvantage were invited to participate in the study. Fathers and mothers completed the Parenting Style Scale and Chinese Parental Control Scale, and adolescents completed the Social-Oriented Achievement Motivation Scale and Chinese Positive Youth Development Scale in addition to paternal and maternal Parenting Style Scale and Chinese Parental Control Scale. Results indicated that parents and adolescents had different perceptions of parental responsiveness, parental demandingness, and paternal control, with adolescents generally perceived lower levels of parenting behaviors than did their parents. While father-adolescent discrepancy in perceived paternal responsiveness and mother-adolescent discrepancy in perceived maternal control negatively predicted adolescent achievement motivation, mother-adolescent discrepancy in perceptions of maternal responsiveness negatively predicted psychological competence in adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage. The present findings provided support that parent-child discrepancies in perceived parenting characteristics have negative impacts on the developmental outcomes of adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage. The present study addresses parent-child discrepancies in perceived parental behaviors as "legitimate" constructs, and explores their links with adolescent psychosocial development, which sheds light for researchers and clinical practitioners in helping the Chinese families experiencing economic disadvantage. PMID:24482569

  5. Medical and psychosocial associates of nonadherence in adolescents with cancer.

    PubMed

    Hullmann, Stephanie E; Brumley, Lauren D; Schwartz, Lisa A

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined adherence to medication regimens among adolescents with cancer by applying the Pediatric Self-Management Model. Adolescents and their parents reported on adherence to medication, reasons for nonadherence, and patient-, family-, and community-level psychosocial variables. Adolescent- and parent-reported adherence were significantly correlated, with about half of the sample reporting perfect adherence. The majority reported "just forgot" as the most common reason for missed medication. Patient-, family-, and community-level variables were examined as predictors of adherence. With regard to individual factors, adolescents who endorsed perfect adherence reported a greater proportion of future-orientated goals and spent fewer days in outpatient clinic visits. For family factors, adolescents who endorsed perfect adherence reported greater social support from their family and were more likely to have a second caregiver who they perceived as overprotective. The community-level variable (social support from friends) tested did not emerge as a predictor of adherence. The results of this study provide direction for intervention efforts to target adolescent goals and family support in order to increase adolescent adherence to cancer treatment regimens. PMID:25366574

  6. Medical and Psychosocial Associates of Nonadherence in Adolescents With Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hullmann, Stephanie E.; Brumley, Lauren D.; Schwartz, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined adherence to medication regimens among adolescents with cancer by applying the Pediatric Self-Management Model. Adolescents and their parents reported on adherence to medication, reasons for nonadherence, and patient-, family-, and community-level psychosocial variables. Adolescent- and parent-reported adherence were significantly correlated, with about half of the sample reporting perfect adherence. The majority reported “just forgot” as the most common reason for missed medication. Patient-, family-, and community-level variables were examined as predictors of adherence. With regard to individual factors, adolescents who endorsed perfect adherence reported a greater proportion of future-orientated goals and spent fewer days in outpatient clinic visits. For family factors, adolescents who endorsed perfect adherence reported greater social support from their family and were more likely to have a second caregiver who they perceived as overprotective. The community-level variable (social support from friends) tested did not emerge as a predictor of adherence. The results of this study provide direction for intervention efforts to target adolescent goals and family support in order to increase adolescent adherence to cancer treatment regimens. PMID:25366574

  7. Psychosocial Factors Associated With Adolescent Electronic Cigarette and Cigarette Use

    PubMed Central

    Berhane, Kiros; Unger, Jennifer B.; Cruz, Tess Boley; Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam M.; Urman, Robert; Wang, Kejia; Howland, Steve; Gilreath, Tamika D.; Chou, Chih-Ping; Pentz, Mary Ann; McConnell, Rob

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) among adolescents has increased since their introduction into the US market in 2007. Little is known about the role of e-cigarette psychosocial factors on risk of e-cigarette or cigarette use in adolescence. METHODS: Information on e-cigarette and cigarette psychosocial factors (use and attitudes about use in the home and among friends) was collected from 11th- and 12th-grade participants in the Southern California Children’s Health Study during the spring of 2014. RESULTS: Of 2084 participants, 499 (24.0%) had used an e-cigarette, including 200 (9.6%) current users (past 30 days); 390 participants (18.7%) had smoked a combustible cigarette, and 119 (5.7%) were current cigarette smokers. Cigarette and e-cigarette use were correlated. Nevertheless, 40.5% (n = 81) of current e-cigarette users had never smoked a cigarette. Psychosocial factors (home use of each product, friends’ use of and positive attitudes toward e-cigarettes and cigarettes) and participant perception of the harm of e-cigarettes were strongly positively associated both with e-cigarette and cigarette use. Most youth who reported e-cigarette use had friends who used e-cigarettes, and almost half of current users reported that they did not believe there were health risks associated with e-cigarette use. CONCLUSIONS: Longitudinal studies of adolescents are needed to determine whether the strong association of e-cigarette psychosocial factors with both e-cigarette and cigarette use will lead to increased cigarette use or dual use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes, or whether e-cigarettes will serve as a gateway to cigarette use. PMID:26216326

  8. Comparison of Long-Term Outcomes in Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa Treated with Family Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lock, James; Couturier, Jennifer; Agras, W. Stewart

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To describe the relative effectiveness of a short versus long course of family-based therapy (FBT) for adolescent anorexia nervosa at long-term follow-up. Method: This study used clinical and structured interviews to assess psychological and psychosocial outcomes of adolescents (ages 12-18 years at baseline) who were previously treated…

  9. Anxiety, stress, depression, and psychosocial functioning of Indian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kamlesh; Junnarkar, Mohita; Sharma, Soumya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lifetime prevalence of depression and anxiety increases from 1% of the population under age 12 years to ~17%-25% of the population by the end of adolescence. The greatest increase in new cases occurs between 15-18 years. Indian empirical studies have reported a prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in the range between 14.4% and 31.7%; thus, affecting psychosocial functioning. Aims: The objectives of the current study were to (i) examine the psychometric properties of the DASS and SDQ on Indian adolescents, (ii) explore the role of socio- demographic variablesand (iii) examine if there was any difference between school going and school dropouts. Methodology: Data from 1812 students, aged 12-19 years was collected with mean age = 15.67 years (SD =1.41 years). The participants were administered a booklet containing demographic questionnaire and psychometric scales such as DASS-21 (Henry & Crawford, 2005; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1999) and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (Goodman, 1997). Statistical Analysis: Structure validation, correlational analysis and multivariate analysis. Results and Conclusions: The results of validation indicated that English and Hindi version of 3 factor model of DASS and 2 factor model of SDQ was an acceptable model fit. It was noted that early adolescents were high on prosocial behaviour whereas late adolescents were high on difficulties score. Females were higher than males on prosocial behaviour. Adolescents residing in rural areas differed from their urban counterparts on prosocial behaviour and anxiety. Government school going adolescents differed from private school going adolescents on prosocial behaviour, stress and anxiety. Negative perception of relationship with family affected adolescents difficulties score, depression and stress. Similarly, negative perception of self-concept leads to higher difficulties score and lower prosocial behaviour score. The school going adolescents differed from non-school going

  10. Early Parenting Practices and Outcomes for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Amy; Dunham, Mardis

    2011-01-01

    This study compared early parenting practices and adolescent behavior to determine whether parental attachment-promoting behaviors in the first year of life were associated with psychosocial adjustment in teenagers. The mothers of 22 adolescents completed a behavioral assessment of their teenager and an inventory of their recollected parenting…

  11. A Systematic Review of Animal-Assisted Therapy on Psychosocial Outcomes in People with Intellectual Disability.

    PubMed

    Maber-Aleksandrowicz, Sarah; Avent, Cerian; Hassiotis, Angela

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to review the literature on animal assisted therapy (AAT) in people with intellectual disabilities (ID) measuring psychosocial outcomes (behavioural, social, cognitive and emotional). Quantitative studies were found through a systematic search that identified studies using AAT in people with ID and measuring psychosocial outcomes (behavioural, cognitive, emotional and social). The quality of studies was assessed using a standardised tool and rated as strong, moderate or weak. Only published articles from peer-reviewed journals were included. No language or age restrictions were applied. Over half of the included studies were identified outside standard database searches (e.g. hand searching reference lists from included articles, references from AAT websites and using Google Scholar and a Grey Literature Database). Ten studies were included in the final review; two were rated as moderate quality and eight were rated as weak quality. Overall there was a positive improvement reported from studies for all psychosocial outcomes (with some cognitive, behavioural, social, emotional components reaching statistical significance p ≤ 0.01). Despite having no age restrictions, the included studies had participants that were mainly children and adolescents, in particular favouring male participants, which may limit generalisation. More rigorous methodology is required to improve the quality of future studies including in the main multicentre randomised designs and improved reporting according to CONSORT criteria. Further research should expand to include adults with ID and specific disorders such as challenging behaviour or mental illness. PMID:26773215

  12. Longitudinal Associations Between Humor Styles and Psychosocial Adjustment in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Fox, Claire Louise; Hunter, Simon Christopher; Jones, Siân Emily

    2016-08-01

    This study assessed the concurrent and prospective associations between psychosocial adjustment and four humor styles, two of which are adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing) and two maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating). Participants were 1,234 adolescents (52% female) aged 11-13 years, drawn from six secondary schools in England. Self-reports of psychosocial adjustment (loneliness, depressive symptomatology, and self-esteem) and humor styles were collected at two time points (fall and summer). In cross-lagged panel analyses, self-defeating humor was associated with an increase in both depressive symptoms and loneliness, and with a decrease in self-esteem. In addition, depressive symptoms predicted an increase in the use of self-defeating humor over time, indicating that these may represent a problematic spiral of thoughts and behaviors. Self-esteem was associated with an increase in the use of affiliative humor over the school year but not vice-versa. These results inform our understanding of the ways in which humor is associated with psychosocial adjustment in adolescence. PMID:27547255

  13. Longitudinal Associations Between Humor Styles and Psychosocial Adjustment in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Claire Louise; Hunter, Simon Christopher; Jones, Siân Emily

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the concurrent and prospective associations between psychosocial adjustment and four humor styles, two of which are adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing) and two maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating). Participants were 1,234 adolescents (52% female) aged 11-13 years, drawn from six secondary schools in England. Self-reports of psychosocial adjustment (loneliness, depressive symptomatology, and self-esteem) and humor styles were collected at two time points (fall and summer). In cross-lagged panel analyses, self-defeating humor was associated with an increase in both depressive symptoms and loneliness, and with a decrease in self-esteem. In addition, depressive symptoms predicted an increase in the use of self-defeating humor over time, indicating that these may represent a problematic spiral of thoughts and behaviors. Self-esteem was associated with an increase in the use of affiliative humor over the school year but not vice-versa. These results inform our understanding of the ways in which humor is associated with psychosocial adjustment in adolescence. PMID:27547255

  14. Growing up wired: social networking sites and adolescent psychosocial development.

    PubMed

    Spies Shapiro, Lauren A; Margolin, Gayla

    2014-03-01

    Since the advent of social networking site (SNS) technologies, adolescents' use of these technologies has expanded and is now a primary way of communicating with and acquiring information about others in their social network. Overall, adolescents and young adults' stated motivations for using SNSs are quite similar to more traditional forms of communication-to stay in touch with friends, make plans, get to know people better, and present oneself to others. We begin with a summary of theories that describe the role of SNSs in adolescents' interpersonal relationships, as well as common methodologies used in this field of research thus far. Then, with the social changes that occur throughout adolescence as a backdrop, we address the ways in which SNSs intersect with key tasks of adolescent psychosocial development, specifically peer affiliation and friendship quality, as well as identity development. Evidence suggests that SNSs differentially relate to adolescents' social connectivity and identity development, with sociability, self-esteem, and nature of SNS feedback as important potential moderators. We synthesize current findings, highlight unanswered questions, and recommend both methodological and theoretical directions for future research. PMID:23645343

  15. Correlates of Psychosocial Adjustment in Deaf Adolescents with and without Cochlear Implants: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leigh, Irene W.; Maxwell-McCaw, Deborah; Bat-Chava, Yael; Christiansen, John B.

    2009-01-01

    The number of children who have received cochlear implants (CIs) has increased dramatically in the past two decades. In view of potential concerns about their psychosocial adjustment, our aim was to assess the effect of implants on the adolescents' psychosocial functioning among a group of 57 deaf adolescents with and without CIs, using published…

  16. Improving Outcome of Psychosocial Treatments by Enhancing Memory and Learning

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Allison G.; Lee, Jason; Williams, Joseph; Hollon, Steven D.; Walker, Matthew P.; Thompson, Monique A.; Smith, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Mental disorders are prevalent and lead to significant impairment. Progress toward establishing treatments has been good. However, effect sizes are small to moderate, gains may not persist, and many patients derive no benefit. Our goal is to highlight the potential for empirically-supported psychosocial treatments to be improved by incorporating insights from cognitive psychology and research on education. Our central question is: If it were possible to improve memory for content of sessions of psychosocial treatments, would outcome substantially improve? This question arises from five lines of evidence: (a) mental illness is often characterized by memory impairment, (b) memory impairment is modifiable, (c) psychosocial treatments often involve the activation of emotion, (d) emotion can bias memory and (e) memory for psychosocial treatment sessions is poor. Insights from scientific knowledge on learning and memory are leveraged to derive strategies for a transdiagnostic and transtreatment cognitive support intervention. These strategies can be applied within and between sessions and to interventions delivered via computer, the internet and text message. Additional novel pathways to improving memory include improving sleep, engaging in exercise and imagery. Given that memory processes change across the lifespan, services to children and older adults may benefit from cognitive support. PMID:25544856

  17. Family structure and psychosocial correlates among urban African-American adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, M A; Salem, D A; Maton, K I

    1995-12-01

    Substance use and delinquency, psychological well-being, and social support were compared across 5 family constellations among 254 urban African-American adolescent males. Single-mother, stepparent, both parents, mother with extended family, and extended family only households were studied. The only differences found were that youth living in single-mother households reported more parental support than other youth. Relationships with father and male role models were also studied and related to several psychosocial outcomes. The results challenge the assumptions that single African-American mothers are alone in providing support to their sons and that fathers' absence results in no significant relationship. PMID:8556888

  18. Personality and adolescent pregnancy outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Harville, Emily W.; Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong

    2014-01-01

    Aims To examine the relationship between personality, pregnancy and birth outcomes in adolescents Background Personality has been shown to be a strong predictor of many health outcomes. Adolescents who become pregnant have worse birth outcomes than adults. Design Cross-sectional study using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (baseline, 1994-1995; follow-up, 2007-2008). Methods The study sample was 6529 girls, 820 of whom reported on pregnancy outcomes for a teenage birth. Personality data was taken from the Mini International Personality Item Pool personality tool, which measures the five-factor personality traits of neuroticism, conscientiousness, intellect/imagination, extraversion and agreeableness. Logistic regression was used to predict teen pregnancy and linear regression was used to predict birth weight and gestational age with adjustment for confounders and stratification by race. Results Agreeableness and intellect/imagination were associated with a reduced likelihood of becoming pregnant as an adolescent, while neuroticism, conscientiousness and extraversion were all associated with an increased likelihood of becoming pregnant. Higher neuroticism was associated with lower birth weight and gestational age among Black girls, but not non-Black. Conscientiousness was associated with lower gestational age among non-Black girls. No relationships were found with extraversion or agreeableness and birth outcomes. Receiving late or no prenatal care was associated with higher intellect/imagination. Conclusions Personality is understudied with respect to pregnancy and birth outcomes compared with other health outcomes. Such research could help professionals and clinicians design and target programs that best fit the characteristics of the population most likely to need them, such as those with high neuroticism. PMID:25040691

  19. Concurrent and longitudinal effects of ethnic identity and experiences of discrimination on psychosocial adjustment of Navajo adolescents.

    PubMed

    Galliher, Renee V; Jones, Matthew D; Dahl, Angie

    2011-03-01

    In this study, we examined concurrent and longitudinal relations among Navajo adolescents' ethnic identity, experiences of discrimination, and psychosocial outcomes (i.e., self-esteem, substance use, and social functioning). At Time 1, 137 Navajo adolescents (67 male, 70 female), primarily in Grades 9 and 10, completed a written survey assessing ethnic identity, discrimination experiences, and a range of internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Two years later, 92 participants completed the same survey again. Ethnic and cultural identification was assessed via the Multiethnic Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM; Phinney, 1992) and the Orthogonal Cultural Identification Scale (OCIS; Oetting & Beauvais, 1990). At Time 1, MEIM Affirmation and Belonging, MEIM Exploration, and OCIS White American identification all demonstrated strong, positive associations with adaptive functioning for male and female adolescents, whereas discrimination experiences were linked to lower self-esteem and social functioning for male adolescents. By Time 2, fewer significant concurrent associations between ethnic identity and psychosocial functioning scores remained, and discrimination experiences emerged as the most consistent correlate of poorer psychosocial functioning for male adolescents. Controlling for Time 1 psychosocial functioning, relatively few direct effects of ethnic and cultural identification variables predicted psychosocial functioning longitudinally, but discrimination experiences demonstrated strong and consistent longitudinal links with boys' substance use. Finally, interaction effects assessing the moderating influence of ethnic and cultural identification on negative links between discrimination and psychosocial functioning suggested that embeddedness in and connection to Navajo culture and, in some cases, connection to White American culture, served as a buffer to the negative effects of discrimination experiences. PMID:21142373

  20. Expectations of barriers to psychosocial care: views of parents and adolescents in the community.

    PubMed

    Nanninga, Marieke; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Knorth, Erik J; Jansen, Danielle E M C

    2016-01-01

    Parents with a child suffering from psychosocial problems frequently experience barriers to psychosocial care, which may hinder access. Expectations of barriers may have the same effect, but evidence is lacking. The aim of this study is to examine parents' and adolescents' expectations of barriers regarding psychosocial care for the child, along with associated child and family characteristics. We obtained data on an age-stratified random sample of school children/pupils aged 4-18 via questionnaires (N = 666; response rate 70.3 %). Expectations of barriers to psychosocial care were measured with the "Barriers to Treatment Participation Scale-Expectancies" questionnaire (BTPS-exp). Results showed that 64 % of the parents of children below age 12, 59 % of the parents of adolescents (age 12-18), and 84 % of the adolescents expected one or more barriers. Parents and adolescents expected barriers most frequently with respect to irrelevance of treatment. Mainly parents with low educational level and their adolescents expected barriers regarding treatment, and quite a few characteristics of parents of adolescents were associated with expecting multiple barriers regarding treatment demands and issues, for example, single parents, parents of lower educational level and of adolescent boys, and parents of adolescents with psychosocial problems. We conclude that adolescents especially, but also their parents and parents of younger children, expect major barriers to psychosocial care, which may greatly hinder appropriate care seeking. This evidence may support professionals and policymakers in their attempts to improve access to psychosocial care. PMID:25969373

  1. Psychosocial Assessments for HIV+ African Adolescents: Establishing Construct Validity and Exploring Under-Appreciated Correlates of Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Lowenthal, Elizabeth D.; Marukutira, Tafireyi C.; Chapman, Jennifer; Mokete, Keboletse; Riva, Katherine; Tshume, Ontibile; Eby, Jessica; Matshaba, Mogomotsi; Anabwani, Gabriel M.; Gross, Robert; Glanz, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives Psychosocial factors such as outcome expectancy, perceived stigma, socio-emotional support, consideration of future consequences, and psychological reactance likely influence adolescent adherence to antiretroviral treatments. Culturally-adapted and validated tools for measuring these factors in African adolescents are lacking. We aimed to identify culturally-specific factors of importance to establishing local construct validity in Botswana. Methods Using in-depth interviews of 34 HIV+ adolescents, we explored how the psychosocial factors listed above are perceived in this cultural context. We evaluated six scales that have been validated in other contexts. We also probed for additional factors that the adolescents considered important to their HIV medication adherence. Analyses were conducted with an analytic framework approach using NVivo9 software. Results While the construct validity of some Western-derived assessment tools was confirmed, other tools were poorly representative of their constructs in this cultural context. Tools chosen to evaluate HIV-related outcome expectancy and perceived stigma were well-understood and relevant to the adolescents. Feedback from the adolescents suggested that tools to measure all other constructs need major modifications to obtain construct validity in Botswana. The scale regarding future consequences was poorly understood and contained several items that lacked relevance for the Batswana adolescents. They thought psychological reactance played an important role in adherence, but did not relate well to many components of the reactance scale. Measurement of socio-emotional support needs to focus on the adolescent-parent relationship, rather than peer-support in this cultural context. Denial of being HIV-infected was an unexpectedly common theme. Ambivalence about taking medicines was also expressed. Discussion In-depth interviews of Batswana adolescents confirmed the construct validity of some Western

  2. Resilience and psychosocial outcomes in parents of children with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Abby R.; Wolfe, Joanne; Bradford, Miranda C.; Shaffer, Michele L.; Yi-Frazier, Joyce P.; Curtis, J. Randall; Syrjala, Karen L.; Baker, K. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Background The psychosocial function of parents of children with cancer can impact the well-being of the entire family. Resilience resources are likely related to psychosocial outcomes and may be amenable to intervention. We hypothesized that parents with lower resources would report worse outcomes. Methods In the “Understanding Resilience in Parents of Children with Cancer” study, comprehensive surveys were mailed to consecutive, English-speaking parents of children with cancer who were treated at Seattle Children’s Hospital and completed therapy between 01/01/2009 and 12/31/2010. Resilience resources were measured by the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale; outcome measures included psychological distress, health-related behaviors, social and family function, and perceived communication with the medical team. Results 96 parents (86% of contactable) completed the survey. Compared to population norms, enrolled parents had lower resilience resources, higher psychological distress, and more commonly reported binge drinking. Conversely, they reported higher social support and family adaptability (p<0.001–0.006). Lower resilience resources were associated with higher distress, lower social support, and lower family function (p<0.001–0.007). Parents in the lowest quartile of resilience resources had higher odds of frequent sleep difficulties (OR 5.19, 95% CI 1.74,15.45), lower health satisfaction (OR 5.71, 95% CI 2.05,15.92), and decreased ability to express worries to the medical team (OR 4.00, 95% CI 1.43,11.18). Conclusions Parents of children with cancer are at risk for poor psychosocial outcomes and those with low resilience resources may be at greater risk. Interventions directed at promoting resilience resources may provide a novel and complimentary approach towards improving outcomes for families facing pediatric cancer. PMID:24249426

  3. Psychosocial Stressors and Patterns of Coping in Adolescent Suicide Attempters

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Anju; Nanoo, Subha

    2013-01-01

    Context: Different risk factors associated with adolescent suicide attempts have been identified including those of socio-demographic and clinical variables. Relatively, little research has been done in the area of their stressors and coping patterns. Aims: To study the recent psychosocial stressors and patterns of coping associated with adolescent suicide attempts. Settings and Design: Tertiary care hospital, case-control study. Materials and Methods: One hundred consecutive cases of adolescent attempted suicide admitted to the hospital and an equal number of controls, matched individually for age and sex, from the relatives and friends of other patients in the ward, were studied. Assessment included details regarding socio-demographic data, psychiatric and physical morbidity, their recent stressors, and patterns of coping. Stressors were assessed using Presumptive Stressful Life Event Scale and coping strategies by Ways of Coping Questionnaire (revised). Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: The number of stressful life events and mean stress scores in the preceding 1 month and certain coping strategies such as confronting, distancing, and escape-avoidance were found to be significant risk factors associated with adolescent suicide attempts. Strategies such as self-control, seeking social support, accepting responsibilities, problem solving, and positive appraisal act as protective factors. Conclusions: Recent stressors and strategies such as confronting, distancing, and escape-avoidance are significant risk factors associated with adolescent suicide attempts, whereas certain coping strategies act as protective factors. Teaching adolescents these protective coping patterns may be a promising strategy for prevention of adolescent suicide attempts. PMID:23833341

  4. Growing Up Wired: Social Networking Sites and Adolescent Psychosocial Development

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Lauren A. Spies; Margolin, Gayla

    2013-01-01

    Since the advent of SNS technologies, adolescents' use of these technologies has expanded and is now a primary way of communicating with and acquiring information about others in their social network. Overall, adolescents and young adults’ stated motivations for using SNSs are quite similar to more traditional forms of communication—to stay in touch with friends, make plans, get to know people better, and present oneself to others. We begin with a summary of theories that describe the role of SNSs in adolescents’ interpersonal relationships, as well as common methodologies used in this field of research thus far. Then, with the social changes that occur throughout adolescence as a backdrop, we address the ways in which SNSs intersect with key tasks of adolescent psychosocial development, specifically peer affiliation and friendship quality, as well as identity development. Evidence suggests that SNSs differentially relate to adolescents’ social connectivity and identity development, with sociability, self-esteem, and nature of SNS feedback as important potential moderators. We synthesize current findings, highlight unanswered questions, and recommend both methodological and theoretical directions for future research. PMID:23645343

  5. Psychosocial correlates of smokeless tobacco use among Indiana adolescents.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Colwell, Brian; Forté, Chanese A; Pulczinski, Jairus C; McKyer, E Lisako J

    2015-04-01

    Adolescent tobacco use is influenced by intrapersonal (e.g., impulse control) and external factors, such as behaviors of friends and peers. The relationships of these factors to smokeless tobacco (ST) use are not yet fully understood. This is especially true as it pertains to the simultaneous examination of psychological and normative perceptions. Using constructs of the Biopsychosocial Model, this study investigates factors associated with lifetime ST use among middle and high school students. Data were analyzed from 938 Indiana middle and high school students. Binary sequential logistic regression was performed to examine the relationship of personal characteristics and psychosocial measures to adolescent lifetime ST use. Approximately 9 % reported having ever used ST, among which 78.6 % were male. Females and younger students were less likely to have used ST in their lifetime, whereas participants with a sibling smoker and those who compared their life to the lives of others were more likely to report lifetime ST usage. In the presence of psychological and normative variables, sex, age, and comparing one's life to others remained significant. Additionally, participants who perceived higher friend approval of substance use were significantly more likely to report lifetime ST use. Understanding the normative perceptions of adolescents may lend insight into the drivers of ST use adolescent subgroups and, which may enable community and school officials to tailor interventions to prevent ST initiation and promote cessation. PMID:25077659

  6. Monitoring and Evaluating Psychosocial Intervention Outcomes in Humanitarian Aid

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Kaz; Ariti, Cono; van der Kam, Saskia; Mooren, Trudy; Shanks, Leslie; Pintaldi, Giovanni; Kleber, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Existing tools for evaluating psychosocial interventions (un-validated self-reporting questionnaires) are not ideal for use in non-Western conflict settings. We implement a generic method of treatment evaluation, using client and counsellor feedback, in 18 projects in non-Western humanitarian settings. We discuss our findings from the perspective of validity and suggestions for future research. A retrospective analysis is executed using data gathered from psychosocial projects. Clients (n = 7,058) complete two (complaints and functioning) rating scales each session and counsellors rate the client’s status at exit. The client-completed pre- and post-intervention rating scales show substantial changes. Counsellor evaluation of the clients’ status shows a similar trend in improvement. All three multivariable models for each separate scale have similar associations between the scales and the investigated variables despite different cultural settings. The validity is good. Limitations are: ratings give only a general impression and clinical risk factors are not measured. Potential ceiling effects may influence change of scales. The intra and inter-rater reliability of the counsellors’ rating is not assessed. The focus on client and counsellor perspectives to evaluate treatment outcome seems a strong alternative for evaluation instruments frequently used in psychosocial programming. The session client rated scales helps client and counsellor to set mutual treatment objectives and reduce drop-out risk. Further research should test the scales against a cross-cultural valid gold standard to obtain insight into their clinical relevance. PMID:27315263

  7. Monitoring and Evaluating Psychosocial Intervention Outcomes in Humanitarian Aid.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Kaz; Ariti, Cono; van der Kam, Saskia; Mooren, Trudy; Shanks, Leslie; Pintaldi, Giovanni; Kleber, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Existing tools for evaluating psychosocial interventions (un-validated self-reporting questionnaires) are not ideal for use in non-Western conflict settings. We implement a generic method of treatment evaluation, using client and counsellor feedback, in 18 projects in non-Western humanitarian settings. We discuss our findings from the perspective of validity and suggestions for future research. A retrospective analysis is executed using data gathered from psychosocial projects. Clients (n = 7,058) complete two (complaints and functioning) rating scales each session and counsellors rate the client's status at exit. The client-completed pre- and post-intervention rating scales show substantial changes. Counsellor evaluation of the clients' status shows a similar trend in improvement. All three multivariable models for each separate scale have similar associations between the scales and the investigated variables despite different cultural settings. The validity is good. Limitations are: ratings give only a general impression and clinical risk factors are not measured. Potential ceiling effects may influence change of scales. The intra and inter-rater reliability of the counsellors' rating is not assessed. The focus on client and counsellor perspectives to evaluate treatment outcome seems a strong alternative for evaluation instruments frequently used in psychosocial programming. The session client rated scales helps client and counsellor to set mutual treatment objectives and reduce drop-out risk. Further research should test the scales against a cross-cultural valid gold standard to obtain insight into their clinical relevance. PMID:27315263

  8. Interplay of Psychosocial Factors and the Long-Term Course of Adolescents with a Substance Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Winters, Ken C.; Stinchfield, Randy D.; Lee, Susanne; Latimer, William W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the association of psychosocial factors and long-term drug use behaviors (year-5.5) among adolescents with a substance dependence disorder. One group received treatment with a 12-Step approach (n = 159) and one group was on a waiting list (n = 62). Four psychosocial factors (deviant behavior, peer drug environment, psychological disturbance and family estrangement), as measured by a standardized self-report questionnaire, were examined as predictors across three time points (year-1, year-4 and year-5.5). Improved outcome across time was significantly associated with decreases in deviant behavior, peer drug environment and family estrangement. However, psychological disturbance was not associated with outcome. Also, we did not find an effect on outcome as a function of age, gender and race. Youth that received treatment, as opposed to the waiting list youth, generally revealed a more favorable outcome across time. Treatment implications of the study findings are discussed. PMID:19042330

  9. Antenatal psychosocial risk factors associated with adverse postpartum family outcomes.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, L M; Reid, A J; Midmer, D K; Biringer, A; Carroll, J C; Stewart, D E

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the strength of the association between antenatal psychosocial risk factors and adverse postpartum outcomes in the family, such as assault of women by their partner, child abuse, postpartum depression, marital dysfunction and physical illness. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Cinahl, Famli, Psych Abstracts and the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials were searched from relevant articles published from Jan. 1, 1980, to Dec. 31, 1993, with the use of MeSH terms "depression, involutional," "child abuse," "child neglect," "domestic violence," "family," "marital adjustment," "family health," "newborn health," "child health," "physical illness," "social support," "psychosocial risk," "prediction," "risk factors," "obstetrics" and "prenatal care." Further articles were identified from bibliographies. STUDY SELECTION: Of the 370 articles identified through the search, 118 were included for review. Studies were included if they examined the association between psychosocial risk factors and the outcomes of interest. Articles were excluded if they were reviews of poor quality or they had one or more of the following features: insufficient description of the sample, a high attrition rate, a lack of standardized outcome measures, outcomes other than the ones of interest or results that had already been reported in a previous study. DATA EXTRACTION: The strength of evidence of each study was evaluated. On the basis of the evidence, each risk factor was assigned a rating of the strength of its association with each of the postpartum outcomes. The ratings were class A (good evidence of association), class B (fair evidence) and class C (no clear evidence). Of the 129 antenatal psychosocial risk factors studied, 15 were found to have a class A association with at least one of the postpartum outcomes. DATA SYNTHESIS: Child abuse and abuse of the mother by her partner were most strongly correlated (class A evidence) with a history of lack of social support, recent life

  10. The Relationship of Psychosocial Maturity to Parenting Quality and Intellectual Ability for American and Korean Adolescents

    PubMed

    Mantzicopoulos; Oh-Hwang

    1998-04-01

    Psychosocial maturity, gender, intellectual ability, and parenting practices were examined with a group of 344 Korean and 214 American adolescents. American adolescents reported greater self-reliance, work-orientation, and self-identity than did Korean adolescents. In addition, American girls described themselves as more mature in work orientation than did American boys, a trend reversed in the Korean culture. Intellectual ability was associated with adolescents' psychosocial maturity. Differences in parenting style were predictive of psychosocial maturity regardless of ethnic group membership. Authoritative parenting, compared to all other styles, was related to significantly higher means in adolescent maturity. Authoritarian and neglectful styles were almost always associated with lower psychosocial maturity, whereas permissive and mixed parenting styles were more advantageous than either authoritarian or neglectful parenting. Copyright 1998 Academic Press. PMID:9576842

  11. Influence of psychosocial risk factors on the trajectory of mental health problems from childhood to adolescence: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Longitudinal epidemiological studies involving child/adolescent mental health problems are scarce in developing countries, particularly in regions characterized by adverse living conditions. We examined the influence of psychosocial factors on the trajectory of child/adolescent mental health problems (CAMHP) over time. Methods A population-based sample of 6- to 13-year-olds with CAMHP was followed-up from 2002–2003 (Time 1/T1) to 2007–2008 (Time 2/T2), with 86 out of 124 eligible children/adolescents at T1 being reassessed at T2 (sample loss: 30.6%). Outcome: CAMHP at T2 according to the Child Behavior Checklist/CBCL’s total problem scale. Psychosocial factors: T1 variables (child/adolescent’s age, family socioeconomic status); trajectory of variables from T1 to T2 (child/adolescent exposure to severe physical punishment, mother exposure to severe physical marital violence, maternal anxiety/depression); and T2 variables (maternal education, child/adolescent’s social support and pro-social activities). Results Multivariate analysis identified two risk factors for child/adolescent MHP at T2: aggravation of child/adolescent physical punishment and aggravation of maternal anxiety/depression. Conclusions The current study shows the importance of considering child/adolescent physical punishment and maternal anxiety/depression in intervention models and mental health care policies. PMID:23327711

  12. Online support for employed informal caregivers: psychosocial outcomes.

    PubMed

    Klemm, Paula R; Hayes, Evelyn R; Diefenbeck, Cynthia A; Milcarek, Barry

    2014-01-01

    The overall objectives of this project were to evaluate whether psychosocial outcomes in employed family caregivers of people with chronic disease, who participate in online support, differ from nonactive participants and whether psychosocial outcomes differ based on the format of online group support. A randomized longitudinal design comparing two types of online support groups and nonactive participants, on the basis of three principal measures, was utilized. Eighty-six self-reported family caregivers of people with chronic disease, who spoke English and had Internet access, took part in the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to professionally facilitated/psychoeducational or moderated/peer-directed online support groups for a period of 12 weeks. The setting was a password-protected Web page housed on a university server. Independent variables were type of online support groups and level of participation; the dependent variables were depressive symptoms, caregiver burden, and caregiver quality of life. There were significant differences in depressive symptoms and quality of life among nonactive participants and either of the two intervention groups, but not between the two intervention groups. Results suggest that professionally facilitated/psychoeducational and moderated/peer-directed online support groups help reduce depressive symptoms and improve quality of life for those who actively participate and that both types of online support groups provided similar benefits. Men and minorities should be targeted in future caregiver research. PMID:24284908

  13. Psychosocial antecedents of unwed motherhood among indigent adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, H B; Smith, P B; Pokorny, A D

    1979-06-01

    This study was undertaken to test theoretically based hypotheses regarding psychosocial antecedents of unwed motherhood among indigent adolescents. These hypotheses were derived from the theory that deviant social responses result from previously acquired negative self-attitudes. Data was obtained by survey of a 50% sample of female 7th graders from an urban school system. The experimental group was made up of 82 subjects who received perinatal care at a clinic for indigent adolescents and who gave birth out of wedlock at least 1 year after the survey and before reaching age 18. One control group consisted of 164 students matched 2:1 with each unwed mother according to race, mother's education and school. A 2nd control group included 164 randomly selected students. Analysis of the data obtained permitted identification of specific self-rejecting attitudes developed among the prospective unwed mothers in the course of normative group experiences. These attitudes, together with the social positions of these subjects and the erosion of controls exerted by family and school authorities emerged as significant factors contributing to the adoption of deviant behavior patterns. These deviant patterns, including those associated with unwed motherhood, appear to be congruent with subculturally influenced values and with adaptive/defensive patterns. On the whole, results indicate that the general theory of deviant behavior that has been applied to other behaviors can be used to explain the precursors of unwed motherhood among indigent adolescents. PMID:12335791

  14. The comparative effects of group prenatal care on psychosocial outcomes.

    PubMed

    Heberlein, Emily C; Picklesimer, Amy H; Billings, Deborah L; Covington-Kolb, Sarah; Farber, Naomi; Frongillo, Edward A

    2016-04-01

    To compare the psychosocial outcomes of the CenteringPregnancy (CP) model of group prenatal care to individual prenatal care, we conducted a prospective cohort study of women who chose CP group (N = 124) or individual prenatal care (N = 124). Study participants completed the first survey at study recruitment (mean gestational age 12.5 weeks), with 89% completing the second survey (mean gestational age 32.7 weeks) and 84% completing the third survey (6 weeks' postpartum). Multiple linear regression models compared changes by prenatal care model in pregnancy-specific distress, prenatal planning-preparation and avoidance coping, perceived stress, affect and depressive symptoms, pregnancy-related empowerment, and postpartum maternal-infant attachment and maternal functioning. Using intention-to-treat models, group prenatal care participants demonstrated a 3.2 point greater increase (p < 0.05) in their use of prenatal planning-preparation coping strategies. While group participants did not demonstrate significantly greater positive outcomes in other measures, women who were at greater psychosocial risk benefitted from participation in group prenatal care. Among women reporting inadequate social support in early pregnancy, group participants demonstrated a 2.9 point greater decrease (p = 0.03) in pregnancy-specific distress in late pregnancy and 5.6 point higher mean maternal functioning scores postpartum (p = 0.03). Among women with high pregnancy-specific distress in early pregnancy, group participants had an 8.3 point greater increase (p < 0.01) in prenatal planning-preparation coping strategies in late pregnancy and a 4.9 point greater decrease (p = 0.02) in postpartum depressive symptom scores. This study provides further evidence that group prenatal care positively impacts the psychosocial well-being of women with greater stress or lower personal coping resources. Large randomized studies are needed to establish conclusively the

  15. Psychosocial risk and protective influences in Hawaiian adolescent psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Nahulu, L B; Andrade, N N; Makini, G K; Yuen, N Y; McDermott, J F; Danko, G P; Johnson, R C; Waldron, J A

    1996-01-01

    A large community sample of adolescents of a Native Hawaiian (Asian/ Pacific Islander) minority group was studied along with a small comparison group of non-Hawaiians, for the relationship between psychopathology (as measured by standard symptom scales) and (a) perceived support from family and friends, and (b) discussing problems with others. Expected gender patterns for friend support but not for family support were found. The Hawaiian boys appeared atypical, reporting nearly equal family support as Hawaiian girls. Discussing problems with another person was correlated with lower anxiety and depression scores but not aggression and substance abuse scores. It is concluded that gender and cultural factors influence symptom prevalence and severity as well as the impact of psychosocial risk factors. PMID:9225566

  16. Autonomy, Attachment and Psychosocial Adjustment during Adolescence: A Double-Edged Sword.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noom, Marc J.; Dekovic, Maja; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the assumption that a high level of autonomy within a context of attachment provides the best constellation for psychosocial adjustments with adolescents (N=400). Results show that attitudinal, emotional, and functional autonomy were connected with attachment to father, mother, and peers to predict indices of psychosocial adjustment:…

  17. Psychosocial Influences on Physical, Verbal, and Indirect Bullying Among Japanese Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ando, Mikayo; Asakura, Takashi; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    Although bullying among Japanese youth is a current major concern, psychosocial influences on bullying are not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to identify the psychosocial factors associated with physical, verbal, and indirect bullying among Japanese adolescents. Junior high school students between seventh and ninth grade (N =…

  18. Psychosocial Determinants of Suicide Attempts among Black South African Adolescents: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shilubane, Hilda N.; Ruiter, Robert A. C.; Bos, Arjan E. R..; van den Borne, Bart; James, Shamagonam; Reddy, Priscilla S.

    2012-01-01

    In South Africa, one in five adolescents attempt suicide. Suicide attempts continue to rise. We aimed to identify psychosocial target points for future educational interventions. One-to-one semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore psychosocial factors associated with past suicide attempts among suicide survivors in Limpopo province,…

  19. Improving Outcome of Psychosocial Treatments by Enhancing Memory and Learning.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Allison G; Lee, Jason; Williams, Joseph; Hollon, Steven D; Walker, Matthew P; Thompson, Monique A; Smith, Rita

    2014-03-01

    Mental disorders are prevalent and can lead to significant impairment. Some progress has been made toward establishing treatments; however, effect sizes are small to moderate, gains may not persist, and many patients derive no benefit. Our goal is to highlight the potential for empirically supported psychosocial treatments to be improved by incorporating insights from cognitive psychology and research on education. Our central question is: If it were possible to improve memory for the content of sessions of psychosocial treatments, would outcome substantially improve? We leverage insights from scientific knowledge on learning and memory to derive strategies for transdiagnostic and transtreatment cognitive support interventions. These strategies can be applied within and between sessions and to interventions delivered via computer, the Internet, and text message. Additional novel pathways to improving memory include improving sleep, engaging in exercise, and using imagery. Given that memory processes change across the lifespan, services to children and older adults may benefit from different types and amounts of cognitive support. PMID:25544856

  20. Metacognitive Deficits in Schizophrenia: Presence and Associations With Psychosocial Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lysaker, Paul H; Vohs, Jenifer; Minor, Kyle S; Irarrázaval, Leonor; Leonhardt, Bethany; Hamm, Jay A; Kukla, Marina; Popolo, Raffaele; Luther, Lauren; Buck, Kelly D; Wasmuth, Sara; Dimaggio, Giancarlo

    2015-07-01

    Early formulations of schizophrenia suggested that the disorder involves a loss of ability to form integrated ideas about oneself, others, and the world, resulting in reductions in complex goal-directed behaviors. Exploring this position, the current review describes evidence that persons with schizophrenia experience decrements in their ability to form complex ideas about themselves and to ultimately use that knowledge to respond to psychological and social challenges. Studies are detailed that find greater levels of these impairments, defined as metacognitive deficits, in persons with schizophrenia in both early and later phases of illness as compared with other clinical and community groups. Furthermore, studies linking metacognitive deficits with poorer psychosocial functioning and other variables closely linked to outcomes are summarized. Clinical implications are also discussed. PMID:26121151

  1. Exposure to parental violence and outcomes of child psychosocial adjustment.

    PubMed

    Ellonen, Noora; Piispa, Minna; Peltonen, Kirsi; Oranen, Mikko

    2013-01-01

    Prior research suggests that exposure to violence at home increases the likelihood of mental health problems in children. Studies have also shown that children exposed to violence are more prone to delinquent behavior and regular alcohol use. This study examines the effects of witnessing and experiencing physical violence at home on the psychosocial adjustment of children. Children who both witnessed and personally experienced physical violence exhibited the highest levels of adjustment problems. However, having either one of these risk factors was also associated with negative outcomes. The data are based on the Finnish Child Victim Survey 2008 with a sample of 13,459 students aged 12-13 years and 15-16 years. PMID:23520829

  2. Cumulative Neighborhood Risk of Psychosocial Stress and Allostatic Load in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Theall, Katherine P.; Drury, Stacy S.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the impact of cumulative neighborhood risk of psychosocial stress on allostatic load (AL) among adolescents as a mechanism through which life stress, including neighborhood conditions, may affect health and health inequities. They conducted multilevel analyses, weighted for sampling and propensity score-matched, among adolescents aged 12–20 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2006). Individuals (first level, n = 11,886) were nested within families/households (second level, n = 6,696) and then census tracts (third level, n = 2,191) for examination of the contextual effect of cumulative neighborhood risk environment on AL. Approximately 35% of adolescents had 2 or more biomarkers of AL. A significant amount of variance in AL was explained at the neighborhood level. The likelihood of having a high AL was approximately 10% higher for adolescents living in medium-cumulative-risk neighborhoods (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08, 1.09), 28% higher for those living in high-risk neighborhoods (adjusted OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.27, 1.30), and 69% higher for those living in very-high-risk neighborhoods (adjusted OR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.68, 1.70) as compared with adolescents living in low-risk areas. Effect modification was observed by both individual- and neighborhood-level sociodemographic factors. These findings offer support for the hypothesis that neighborhood risks may culminate in a range of biologically mediated negative health outcomes detectable in adolescents. PMID:23035140

  3. Cross-lagged relations among parenting, children's emotion regulation, and psychosocial adjustment in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Otterpohl, Nantje; Wild, Elke

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported substantive correlations between indicators of parenting, children's emotion regulation (ER), and children's psychosocial adjustment. However, studies on underlying mechanisms are scarce. Particularly in early adolescence, it is still unclear whether relations between parenting and ER are caused by adolescent behavior, by parent behavior, or by reciprocal processes. Moreover, it is unclear whether ER can be seen as an antecedent or a consequence of psychosocial adjustment. The aim of this study was to examine predictive relations among parenting and adolescents' ER, and adolescents' ER and psychosocial adjustment, respectively. We collected longitudinal, multiple informant data at two measurement occasions (Grade 6, Grade 7). All told, 1,100 adolescents (10-14 years) and their parents filled out questionnaires assessing responsiveness and psychological control, adolescents' anger regulation, and adolescents' problem and prosocial behavior. Cross-lagged analyses revealed reciprocal effects between parenting, ER, and adjustment for the parent and boys', but not for the girls', report. Moreover, relations were different for adolescents with versus without clinically elevated symptoms of psychopathology. Our findings support the assumption that reciprocal relations between parenting, ER, and psychosocial adjustment are likely to persist until early adolescence. Nevertheless, the moderating role of gender and psychopathology should be taken into account. Possible reasons for the different findings, and practical implications, are discussed. PMID:24320075

  4. Psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees

    PubMed Central

    Sonne, Charlotte; Carlsson, Jessica; Bech, Per; Vindbjerg, Erik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Elklit, Ask

    2016-01-01

    Background The effects of treatment in trials with trauma-affected refugees vary considerably not only between studies but also between patients within a single study. However, we know little about why some patients benefit more from treatment, as few studies have analysed predictors of treatment outcome. Objective The objective of the study was to examine possible psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees. Method The participants were 195 adult refugees with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who were enrolled in a 6- to 7-month treatment programme at the Competence Centre for Transcultural Psychiatry (CTP), Denmark. The CTP Predictor Index used in the study included 15 different possible outcome predictors concerning the patients’ past, chronicity of mental health problems, pain, treatment motivation, prerequisites for engaging in psychotherapy, and social situation. The primary outcome measure was PTSD symptoms measured on the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). Other outcome measures included the Hopkins Symptom Check List-25, the WHO-5 Well-being Index, Sheehan Disability Scale, Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Scales, the somatisation scale of the Symptoms Checklist-90, Global Assessment of Functioning scales, and pain rated on visual analogue scales. The relations between treatment outcomes and the total score as well as subscores of the CTP Predictor Index were analysed. Results Overall, the total score of the CTP Predictor Index was significantly correlated to pre- to post treatment score changes on the majority of the ratings mentioned above. While employment status was the only single item significantly correlated to HTQ-score changes, a number of single items from the CTP Predictor Index correlated significantly with changes in depression and anxiety symptoms, but the size of the correlation coefficients were modest. Conclusions The total score of the CTP Predictor Index correlated significantly with outcomes on most

  5. Childhood Symptoms of ADHD Overrule Comorbidity in Relation to Psychosocial Outcome at Age 15: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Norén Selinus, Eva; Molero, Yasmina; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larson, Tomas; Lundström, Sebastian; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Gumpert, Clara Hellner

    2015-01-01

    Objective Neurodevelopmental problems (NDPs) may influence the transition from childhood to adolescence. Our aim was to study long-term psychosocial outcomes of NDPs, focusing on ADHD. Method Data was collected through a telephone interview with parents of twins at ages 9 or 12 years. NDP screen-positive children were clinically assessed at age 15; N = 450. Psychosocial outcome concerning peers, school, internalizing problems, antisocial behavior, alcohol misuse, drug misuse, and impaired daily functioning was examined. Results Even after controlling for other NDP comorbidity, screen-positivity for ADHD doubled or tripled the odds of later psychosocial problems. When controlling for parental education level, the significant effect of ADHD remained only for antisocial behavior and impaired daily functioning. Conclusions Signs of NDPs as well as other psychiatric diagnoses at ages 9 or 12 years are associated with a more problematic adolescence. However, despite the presence of comorbidity, early ADHD symptoms stand out as the most important risk factor for later antisocial development and impaired daily functioning. PMID:26360378

  6. Psychosocial Distress and Alcohol Use as Factors in Adolescent Sexual Behavior among Sub-Saharan African Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; Hall, Cougar P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study examines the relationship between sexual behavior, alcohol use, and indicators of psychosocial distress (mental health) of adolescents in 6 sub-Saharan African countries using the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS). Methods: The sample consisted of 22,949 adolescents from Botswana, Kenya, Namibia, Uganda,…

  7. Psychosocial factors in adolescent nicotine dependence symptoms: A sample of high school juniors who smoke daily

    PubMed Central

    Bricker, Jonathan B.; Liu, Jingmin; Ramey, Madelaine; Peterson, Arthur V.

    2012-01-01

    Cross-sectionally examined seven theory-guided psychosocial factors associated with nicotine dependence symptoms in a representative self-report survey of 794 Washington State high school junior daily smokers (93% participation). Outcomes were four nicotine dependence symptoms. Results showed that low self-efficacy for quitting smoking and being around adults who smoke were associated with a 3.48 to 10.35 and a 1.47 to 1.77 times higher odds, respectively, of each of the four nicotine dependence symptoms. These results, needing replication in a longitudinal study, suggest that interventions to enhance self-efficacy to quit smoking and counter adult smoking influences might reduce adolescent nicotine dependence. PMID:22409635

  8. Fostering Resilience: Protective Agents, Resources, and Mechanisms for Adolescent Refugees’ Psychosocial Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Weine, Stevan Merrill; Ware, Norma; Hakizimana, Leonce; Tugenberg, Toni; Currie, Madeleine; Dahnweih, Gonwo; Wagner, Maureen; Polutnik, Chloe; Wulu, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescent refugees face many challenges but also have the potential to become resilient. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize the protective agents, resources, and mechanisms that promote their psychosocial well-being. Methods Participants included a purposively sampled group of 73 Burundian and Liberian refugee adolescents and their families who had recently resettled in Boston and Chicago. The adolescents, families, and their service providers participated in a two-year longitudinal study using ethnographic methods and grounded theory analysis with Atlas/ti software. A grounded theory model was developed which describes those persons or entities who act to protect adolescents (Protective Agents), their capacities for doing so (Protective Resources), and how they do it (Protective Mechanisms). Protective agents are the individuals, groups, organizations, and systems that can contribute either directly or indirectly to promoting adolescent refugees’ psychosocial well-being. Protective resources are the family and community capacities that can promote psychosocial well-being in adolescent refugees. Protective mechanisms are the processes fostering adolescent refugees’ competencies and behaviors that can promote their psychosocial well-being. Results Eight family and community capacities were identified that appeared to promote psychosocial well-being in the adolescent refugees. These included 1) finances for necessities; 2) English proficiency; 3) social support networks; 4) engaged parenting; 5) family cohesion; 6) cultural adherence and guidance; 7) educational support; and 8) faith and religious involvement. Nine protective mechanisms identified were identified and grouped into three categories: 1) Relational (supporting, connecting, belonging); 2) Informational (informing, preparing), and; 3) Developmental (defending, promoting, adapting). Conclusions To further promote the psychosocial well-being of adolescent refugees

  9. Psychosocial Distress and Substance Use among Adolescents in Four Countries: Philippines, China, Chile, and Namibia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; Dennis, Megan; Lindsay, Gordon B.; Merrill, Ray M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between adolescent substance use and psychosocial distress indicators among 30,851 adolescents aged 11 to 16 in four countries (Philippines, China, Chile, and Namibia). Global School-Based Student Health Survey data from these countries provided information about frequency and…

  10. Individual Differences in Adolescents' Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Functioning Moderate Associations between Family Environment and Psychosocial Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Lisa M.; Fagundes, Christopher P.; Cribbet, Matthew R.

    2012-01-01

    The present study tested whether individual differences in autonomic nervous system functioning interact with environmental risk factors to predict adolescents' psychosocial functioning. The authors assessed skin conductance and respiratory sinus arrhythmia at rest and during laboratory stressors in 110 14-year-olds. Subsequently, adolescents and…

  11. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Non-Smoking Adolescents' Intentions to Smoke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Brian N.; Bean, Melanie K.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Speizer, Ilene S.; Fries, Elizabeth A.

    2007-01-01

    Smoking is the most preventable cause of death in the United States. Most adult smokers began smoking during adolescence, making youth tobacco prevention an especially important public health goal. Guided by an extension of the theory of planned behavior (TPB), this study examined the role of psychosocial factors in accounting for adolescents'…

  12. Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Child and Adolescent Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Paula M.; Farrell, Lara; Pina, Armando A.; Peris, Tara S.; Piacentini, John

    2008-01-01

    Child and adolescent obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic and debilitating condition associated with a wide range of impairments. This article briefly discusses the phenomenology of OCD, the theory underlying current treatment approaches, and the extant psychosocial treatment literature for child and adolescent OCD relative to the…

  13. Psychosocial Correlates of Shape and Weight Concerns in Overweight Pre-Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinton, Meghan M.; Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Aspen, Vandana; Theim, Kelly R.; Stein, Richard I.; Saelens, Brian E.; Epstein, Leonard H.; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2012-01-01

    Shape and weight concerns among overweight pre-adolescents heighten risk for eating disorders and weight gain. Treatment and prevention efforts require consideration of psychosocial factors that co-occur with these concerns. This study involved 200 overweight pre-adolescents, aged 7-12 years (M age = 9.8; SD = 1.4), presenting for family-based…

  14. Androgyny and Its Relation to Adolescent Psychosocial Well-Being: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markstrom-Adams, Carol

    1989-01-01

    Reviews theoretical and empirical literature on androgyny in adolescence. Contrasts the traditional bipolar view of sex roles and more recent models of sex role development. Reviews the research literature on the relation between sex role orientation and psychosocial well-being in adolescence. (Author/JS)

  15. The Course and Psychosocial Correlates of Personality Disorder Symptoms in Adolescence: Erikson's Developmental Theory Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Thomas N.; Cohen, Patricia; Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Sneed, Joel R.; Brook, Judith S.

    2004-01-01

    Personality disorder symptoms were investigated in a community sample of young people (n = 714) to assess their relationship over time with well-being during adolescence and the emergence of intimacy in early adulthood. Drawing on Erikson's theory of psychosocial development, changes in adolescent well-being were conceptualized as indirect…

  16. The mediating effect of psychosocial factors on suicidal probability among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hur, Ji-Won; Kim, Won-Joong; Kim, Yong-Ku

    2011-01-01

    Suicidal probability is an actual tendency including negative self-evaluation, hopelessness, suicidal ideation, and hostility. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of psychosocial variances in the suicidal probability of adolescents, especially the role of mediating variance. This study investigated the mediating effects of psychosocial factors such as depression, anxiety, self-esteem, stress, and social support on the suicidal probability among 1,586 adolescents attending middle and high schools in the Kyunggi Province area of South Korea. The relationship between depression and anxiety/suicidal probability was mediated by both social resources and self-esteem. Furthermore, the influence of social resources was mediated by interpersonal and achievement stress as well as self-esteem. This study suggests that suicidal probability in adolescents has various relationships, including mediating relations, with several psychosocial factors. The interventions on suicidal probability in adolescents should focus on social factors as well as clinical symptoms. PMID:22023641

  17. Recidivism, Costs, and Psychosocial Outcomes for a Post-Arrest Juvenile Diversion Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Kay; Martin, Lisa A.; Smith, Cynthia; Cooper, Shaun

    2011-01-01

    Recidivism, costs, and psychosocial outcomes are reported for a post-arrest diversion program in Wayne County (Detroit), MI. Program features included: rapid, standardized assessment of psychosocial functioning with the Juvenile Inventory For Functioning[R], an individualized plan for addressing needs, engagement of caregivers, service provision…

  18. An Update on Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Eating Disorders in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lock, James

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders are relatively common and serious disorders in adolescents. However, there are few controlled psychosocial intervention studies with this younger population. This review updates a previous Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology review published in 2008. The recommendations in this review were developed after searching the literature including PubMed/Medline and employing the relevant medical subject headings. In addition, the bibliographies of book chapters and treatment guideline articles were reviewed; last, colleagues were asked for suggested additional source materials. Psychosocial treatments examined include family therapy, individual therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy, cognitive training, and dialectical behavior therapy. Using the most recent Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology methodological review criteria, family treatment-behavior (FT-B) is the only well-established treatment for adolescents with anorexia nervosa. Family treatment-systemic and insight oriented individual psychotherapy are probably efficacious treatments for adolescents with anorexia nervosa. There are no well-established treatments for adolescents with bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, or avoidant restrictive food intake disorder. Possibly efficacious psychosocial treatments for adolescent bulimia nervosa include FT-B and supportive individual therapy. Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy is a possibly efficacious treatment for binge eating disorder. Experimental treatments for adolescent eating disorders include enhanced cognitive behavioral therapy, dialectical behavioral therapy, cognitive training, and interpersonal psychotherapy. FT-B is the only well-established treatment for adolescent eating disorders. Additional research examining treatment for eating disorders in youth is warranted. PMID:25580937

  19. Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for child and adolescent bipolar spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Fristad, Mary A; MacPherson, Heather A

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric bipolar spectrum disorders (BPSDs) are serious conditions associated with morbidity and mortality. Although most treatment research has examined pharmacotherapy for pediatric BPSDs, growing literature suggests that psychosocial interventions are also important to provide families with an understanding of symptoms, course, and treatment of BPSDs; teach youth and parents methods for coping with symptoms (e.g., problem solving, communication, emotion regulation, cognitive-behavioral skills); and prevent relapse. Thirteen psychosocial intervention trials for pediatric BPSDs were identified via a comprehensive literature search and evaluated according to the Task Force on the Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures guidelines. All interventions were examined adjunctive to pharmacotherapy and/or treatment as usual (TAU). No well-established or questionably efficacious treatments were identified. Family psychoeducation plus skill building was probably efficacious (i.e., Multi-Family Psychoeducational Psychotherapy, Family-Focused Treatment); cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) was possibly efficacious. Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) and interpersonal and social rhythm therapy (IPSRT) were experimental. Limited research precluded subdivision of treatments by format and age. Only single- and multiple-family psychoeducation plus skill building and CBT were evaluated with children. Only single-family psychoeducation plus skill building and DBT, and individual (commonly with limited familial involvement) CBT and IPSRT were evaluated with adolescents. In conclusion, psychosocial interventions that involve families, psychoeducation, and skill building may offer added benefit to pharmacotherapy and/or other TAU. Limitations of current research include few outcome studies, small samples, and failure to use stringent control conditions or randomization. The review concludes with a discussion of mediators and moderators, recommendations for best practice

  20. Psychosocial Treatment of Bipolar Disorders in Adolescents: A Proposed Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Carla Kmett; Feeny, Norah C.; Findling, Robert L.; Youngstrom, Eric A.

    2004-01-01

    Despite the severity of bipolar disorder (BP) and the amount of attention the psychosocial treatment of BP among adults has been given (e.g., Basco & Rush, 1996; Miklowitz, Frank, & George, 1996), no published outcome study or psychosocial treatment manual to date exists for children with this disorder. Based upon what is known about the…

  1. Patient or treatment centre? Where are efforts invested to improve cancer patients' psychosocial outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Carey, ML; Clinton-McHarg, T; Sanson-Fisher, RW; Campbell, S; Douglas, HE

    2011-01-01

    The psychosocial outcomes of cancer patients may be influenced by individual-level, social and treatment centre predictors. This paper aimed to examine the extent to which individual, social and treatment centre variables have been examined as predictors or targets of intervention for psychosocial outcomes of cancer patients. Medline was searched to find studies in which the psychological outcomes of cancer patient were primary variables. Papers published in English between 1999 and 2009 that reported primary data relevant to psychosocial outcomes for cancer patients were included, with 20% randomly selected for further coding. Descriptive studies were coded for inclusion of individual, social or treatment centre variables. Intervention studies were coded to determine if the unit of intervention was the individual patient, social unit or treatment centre. After random sampling, 412 publications meeting the inclusion criteria were identified, 169 were descriptive and 243 interventions. Of the descriptive papers 95.0% included individual predictors, and 5.0% social predictors. None of the descriptive papers examined treatment centre variables as predictors of psychosocial outcomes. Similarly, none of the interventions evaluated the effectiveness of treatment centre interventions for improving psychosocial outcomes. Potential reasons for the overwhelming dominance of individual predictors and individual-focused interventions in psychosocial literature are discussed. PMID:20646035

  2. Adolescent-Onset Depression: Are Obesity and Inflammation Developmental Mechanisms or Outcomes?

    PubMed

    Byrne, Michelle L; O'Brien-Simpson, Neil M; Mitchell, Sarah A; Allen, Nicholas B

    2015-12-01

    Depression often has its first onset during adolescence and is associated with obesity. Furthermore, inflammatory processes have been implicated in both depression and obesity, although research amongst adolescents is limited. This review explores associations between depression and obesity, depression and inflammation, and obesity and inflammation from a developmental perspective. The temporal relations between these factors are examined to explore whether obesity and elevated inflammation act as either risk factors for, or outcomes of, adolescent-onset depression. Sex differences in these processes are also summarized. We propose a model whereby increases in sex hormones during puberty increase risk for depression for females, which can lead to obesity, which in turn increases levels of inflammation. Importantly, this model suggests that inflammation and obesity are outcomes of adolescent depression, rather than initial contributing causes. Further research on biological and psychosocial effects of sex hormones is needed, as is longitudinal research with children and adolescents. PMID:25666100

  3. Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Evans, Steven W; Owens, Julie Sarno; Bunford, Nora

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to update the Pelham and Fabiano ( 2008 ) review of evidence-based practices for children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. We completed a systematic review of the literature published between 2007 and 2013 to establish levels of evidence for psychosocial treatments for these youth. Our review included the identification of relevant articles using criteria established by the Society of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology (see Southam-Gerow & Prinstein, in press ) using keyword searches and a review of tables of contents. We extend the conceptualization of treatment research by differentiating training interventions from behavior management and by reviewing the growing literature on training interventions. Consistent with the results of the previous review we conclude that behavioral parent training, behavioral classroom management, and behavioral peer interventions are well-established treatments. In addition, organization training met the criteria for a well-established treatment. Combined training programs met criteria for Level 2 (Probably Efficacious), neurofeedback training met criteria for Level 3 (Possibly Efficacious), and cognitive training met criteria for Level 4 (Experimental Treatments). The distinction between behavior management and training interventions provides a method for considering meaningful differences in the methods and possible mechanisms of action for treatments for these youth. Characteristics of treatments, participants, and measures, as well as the variability in methods for classifying levels of evidence for treatments, are reviewed in relation to their potential effect on outcomes and conclusions about treatments. Implications of these findings for future science and practice are discussed. PMID:24245813

  4. Direct and indirect effects of caregiver social support on adolescent psychological outcomes in two South African AIDS-affected communities

    PubMed Central

    Casale, Marisa; Cluver, Lucie; Crankshaw, Tamaryn; Kuo, Caroline; Lachman, Jamie M.; Wild, Lauren G.

    2015-01-01

    Caregiver social support has been shown to be protective for caregiver mental health, parenting and child psychosocial outcomes. This is the first known analysis to quantitatively investigate the relationship between caregiver social support and adolescent psychosocial outcomes in HIV-endemic, resource-scarce Southern African communities. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted over 2009-2010 with 2477 South African adolescents aged 10-17 and their adult caregivers (18 years or older) in one urban and one rural community in South Africa’s KwaZulu-Natal province. Adolescent adjustment was assessed using adult caregiver reports of the Strengths and Difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), which measures peer problems, hyperactivity, conduct problems, emotional symptoms and child prosocial behavior. Hierarchical linear regressions and multiple mediation analyses, using bootstrapping procedures, were conducted to assess for: a) direct effects of more caregiver social support on better adolescent psychosocial wellbeing; and b) indirect effects mediated by better parenting and caregiver mental health. Direct associations (p<.001), and indirect associations mediated through better parenting, were found for all adolescent outcomes. Findings reinforce the importance of social support components within parenting interventions but also point to scope for positive intervention on adolescent psychosocial wellbeing through the broader family social network. PMID:25623784

  5. Direct and Indirect Effects of Caregiver Social Support on Adolescent Psychological Outcomes in Two South African AIDS-Affected Communities.

    PubMed

    Casale, Marisa; Cluver, Lucie; Crankshaw, Tamaryn; Kuo, Caroline; Lachman, Jamie M; Wild, Lauren G

    2015-06-01

    Caregiver social support has been shown to be protective for caregiver mental health, parenting and child psychosocial outcomes. This is the first known analysis to quantitatively investigate the relationship between caregiver social support and adolescent psychosocial outcomes in HIV-endemic, resource-scarce Southern African communities. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted over 2009-2010 with 2,477 South African adolescents aged 10-17 and their adult caregivers (18 years or older) in one urban and one rural community in South Africa's KwaZulu-Natal province. Adolescent adjustment was assessed using adult caregiver reports of the Strengths and Difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), which measures peer problems, hyperactivity, conduct problems, emotional symptoms and child prosocial behavior. Hierarchical linear regressions and multiple mediation analyses, using bootstrapping procedures, were conducted to assess for: (a) direct effects of more caregiver social support on better adolescent psychosocial wellbeing; and (b) indirect effects mediated by better parenting and caregiver mental health. Direct associations (p < .001), and indirect associations mediated through better parenting, were found for all adolescent outcomes. Findings reinforce the importance of social support components within parenting interventions but also point to scope for positive intervention on adolescent psychosocial wellbeing through the broader family social network. PMID:25623784

  6. The psychopathological and psychosocial outcome of early-onset schizophrenia: Preliminary data of a 13-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, Andreas; Kreiker, Susanne; Mehler-Wex, Claudia; Warnke, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Background Relatively little is known about the long-term psychopathological and psychosocial outcome of early-onset schizophrenia. The existing literature describes more severe courses of illness in these patients compared with adult-onset schizophrenia. This article reports preliminary data of a study exploring the outcome of early-onset schizophrenia 13.4 years (mean) after first admission. Predictors for interindividual outcomes were investigated. Methods We retrospectively assessed 27 former patients (mean age at first admission 15.5 years, SD = 2.0) that were consecutively admitted to the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry at the University of Wuerzburg between 1990 and 2000. A multidimensional approach was chosen to assess the outcome consisting of a mail survey including different questions about psychopathological symptoms, psychosocial parameters, and standardized self-reports (ESI and ADS). Results Concerning the psychopathological outcome, 22.2% reported having acute schizophrenic symptoms. Almost one third (30.8%) described symptoms of depression and 37.0% reported having tried to commit suicide or seriously thought about it. 77.8% of the former patients were still in outpatient treatment. Compared to the general population, the number of patients without a school graduation was relatively high (18.5%). Almost half of participants still live with their parents (48.1%) or in assisted or semi-assisted living conditions (33.3%). Only 18.5% were working in the open market. Conclusion Schizophrenia with an early onset has an unfavourable prognosis. Our retrospective study of the psychopathological and psychosocial outcome concludes with a generally poor rating. PMID:18304312

  7. Psychosocial Factors in Children and Adolescents with Conversion Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, I.; Giri, D.; Dutta, Anna; Mazumder, P.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: In view of the limited studies on the psychosocial environment of children presenting with conversion disorders, the present study was carried out to study the psychosocial factors in children with conversion disorders. Method: 40 patients of Conversion Disorder, who presented with "pseudo seizures" and were diagnosed according to…

  8. Phenomenological Aspects of Psychosocial Maturity in Adolescence. Report No. 198.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josselson, Ruthellen; And Others

    Forty-one subjects who score at the high and low extremes of the Psychosocial Maturity (PSM) Inventory were intensively interviewed. These interview data were analyzed to contrast the phenomenological and psychodynamic forces in the lives of these subjects that influence their current state of psychosocial maturity. Case material is presented.…

  9. Adolescent Survivors of Sexual Abuse: Developmental Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banyard, Victoria L.; Williams, Linda M.

    2007-01-01

    Using an ecological model as a guiding framework, this article reviews key factors which put adolescent survivors of sexual abuse at risk for negative outcomes, as well as resources which might enhance positive outcomes and recovery. Throughout the article, quotes from women who experienced sexual abuse during their youth highlight opportunities…

  10. Psychosocial Problems Syndemically Increase Adolescent Substance Use: Findings From a Cross-sectional Survey of 82,812 Chinese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jie; Wu, Hong; Wang, Juan; Deng, Jianxiong; Gao, Xue; Xu, Yan; Huang, Guoliang; Huang, Jinghui; Guo, Lan; Lu, Ciyong

    2015-12-01

    A growing body of studies have indicated the associations between substance use and psychosocial problems in adolescents. However, few of them have examined whether these psychosocial problems form a syndemic, which means the co-occurrence of psychosocial problems accompanied by additional effects on substance use.We conducted a cross-sectional survey with 82,812 Chinese adolescents who were selected using a multistage random procedure. Bivariate associations were estimated between selected syndemic indicators and adolescent substance use. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the association between the syndemic indicator count score (the count of syndemic indicators) and adolescent substance use. In addition, cluster analysis was used to partition participants reporting at least one of syndemic indicators to assess associations between resolved cluster memberships and adolescent substance use.All selected syndemic indicators were associated with each other and with adolescent substance use. As the number of syndemic indicators increases, stronger associations with substance use were found in our analysis: the range of adjusted OR was from 1.57 (95% CI: 1.38-1.79) for 1 syndemic indicator to 9.45 (95% CI: 7.60-11.76) for 5 or 6 syndemic indicators. There was no effect modification of gender on these additive associations. The multivariate logistic regression indicated that the cluster membership of nonlow SES academic failures has the highest odds of using substance (OR = 2.26, 95% CI: 2.12-2.41), compared to students reporting none syndemic indicators.Our findings support the syndemic hypothesis that adolescents bearing multiple psychosocial problems experience additive risks of using substance. Our findings support that a comprehensive approach to substance use prevention in adolescents would necessitate the involvement of a variety of providers. PMID:26717391

  11. Does adolescent alcohol and marijuana use predict suppressed growth in psychosocial maturity among male juvenile offenders?

    PubMed

    Chassin, Laurie; Dmitrieva, Julia; Modecki, Kathryn; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Piquero, Alex R; Knight, George P; Losoya, Sandra H

    2010-03-01

    Multiple theories suggest mechanisms by which the use of alcohol and drugs during adolescence could dampen growth in psychosocial maturity. However, scant empirical evidence exists to support this proposition. The current study tested whether alcohol and marijuana use predicted suppressed growth in psychosocial maturity among a sample of male serious juvenile offenders (n = 1,170) who were followed from ages 15 to 21 years. Alcohol and marijuana use prospectively predicted lower maturity 6 months later. Moreover, boys with the greatest increases in marijuana use showed the smallest increases in psychosocial maturity. Finally, heterogeneity in the form of age-related alcohol and marijuana trajectories was related to growth in maturity, such that only boys who decreased their alcohol and marijuana use significantly increased in psychosocial maturity. Taken together, these findings suggest that patterns of elevated alcohol and marijuana use in adolescence may suppress age-typical growth in psychosocial maturity from adolescence to young adulthood, but that effects are not necessarily permanent, because decreasing use is associated with increases in maturity. PMID:20307112

  12. Does adolescent alcohol and marijuana use predict suppressed growth in psychosocial maturity among male juvenile offenders?

    PubMed Central

    Chassin, Laurie; Dmitrieva, Julia; Modecki, Kathryn; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Piquero, Alex R.; Knight, George P.; Losoya, Sandra H.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple theories suggest mechanisms by which the use of alcohol and drugs during adolescence could dampen growth in psychosocial maturity. However, scant empirical evidence exists to support this proposition. The current study tested whether alcohol and marijuana use predicted suppressed growth in psychosocial maturity among a sample of male serious juvenile offenders (n = 1,170) who were followed from ages 15 to 21. Alcohol and marijuana use prospectively predicted lower maturity six months later. Moreover, boys with the greatest increases in marijuana use showed the smallest increases in psychosocial maturity. Finally, heterogeneity in the form of age-related alcohol and marijuana trajectories was related to growth in maturity, such that only boys who decreased their alcohol and marijuana use significantly increased in psychosocial maturity. Taken together, these findings suggest that patterns of elevated alcohol and marijuana use in adolescence may suppress age-typical growth in psychosocial maturity from adolescence to young adulthood, but that effects are not necessarily permanent, because decreasing use is associated with increases in maturity. PMID:20307112

  13. [Psychosocial Characteristics of Adolescents Treated for Alcohol Intoxication in Emergency Departments].

    PubMed

    Wartberg, Lutz; Diestelkamp, Silke; Arnaud, Nicolas; Thomasius, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    Psychosocial Characteristics of Adolescents Treated for Alcohol Intoxication in Emergency Departments In Germany, every year a substantial number of adolescents is treated in emergency departments for acute alcohol intoxication. Until now, only few studies have been published investigating psychosocial aspects in this group of adolescents. In the present study 316 adolescents were surveyed in the emergency department regarding their problematic use of alcohol and illicit drugs, their patterns of alcohol consumption, their alcohol-related and mental problems. We reported results for the whole sample. Additionally, the sample was divided in two groups based on the result in an established screening instrument for problematic alcohol use (CRAFFT-d). To compare the two groups we conducted unpaired t tests, chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses. Compared to the other group the adolescents exceeding the cut-off value of the CRAFFT-d reported a statistically significant higher past 30-day binge drinking frequency and number of standard-drinks consumed on a typical drinking occasion, more alcohol-related problems, more frequently a problematic use of illicit drugs and more mental problems (regarding antisocial behavior, anger control problems and self-esteem). Antisocial behavior was the most important factor for the affiliation to one of the two groups. The application of the screening instrument for problematic alcohol use (CRAFFT-d) in the emergency department seems to be a promising approach to identify adolescents with a general higher psychosocial burden. PMID:27595810

  14. Duration of Internet use and adverse psychosocial effects among European adolescents.

    PubMed

    Secades-Villa, Roberto; Calafat, Amador; Fernández-Hermida, José Ramón; Juan, Montse; Duch, Mariangels; Skärstrand, Eva; Becoña, Elisardo; Talic, Sanela

    2014-01-01

    Despite the significant contributions from previous studies about the prevalence of problematic Internet use (PIU) among adolescents in Europe, important questions remain regarding adverse consequences of PIU. This study aims to assess the relation between duration of Internet use and adverse psychosocial effects among adolescents from six European countries. The final sample included 7,351 adolescents (50.8% male and 49.2% female; mean age: 14.6±1.90) recruited from randomly selected schools within the six study sites. Results showed that 12.9% of adolescents used Internet more than 20 hours per week. There was a significant relationship between duration of Internet use and frequency of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and other illegal drug use. Duration of Internet use is also significantly associated with school problems, with use of slot machines and with other psychosocial problems. These findings highlight the need to strengthen preventive efforts for reducing PIU and related consequences among adolescents. Key Words: Internet, adolescents, psychosocial problems. PMID:25314040

  15. IQ scores among homeless older adolescents: characteristics of intellectual performance and associations with psychosocial functioning.

    PubMed

    Rohde, P; Noell, J; Ochs, L

    1999-06-01

    Intellectual performance and the associations of IQ with the quality of psychosocial functioning were studied in a sample of homeless older adolescents. Fifty homeless older adolescents (ages 16-21) completed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) and a questionnaire assessing psychosocial functioning and sexual risk factors. The WAIS-R scores were comparable to population means, with performance IQ scores tending to be higher than verbal IQ scores. The IQ was unrelated to the duration of homelessness. Higher IQ scores were significantly correlated with only a minority of the measures of psychosocial functioning, including less self-reported depression and lower reported delinquency, but also less self-control in high-risk sexual situations, less perceived peer support for safer sex, and a higher perceived likelihood of acquiring HIV. PMID:10462423

  16. Parents' Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Their Children's Psychosocial Adaptation during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steca, Patrizia; Bassi, Marta; Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Fave, Antonella Delle

    2011-01-01

    Research has shown that parents' perceived parental self-efficacy (PSE) plays a pivotal role in promoting their children's successful adjustment. In this study, we further explored this issue by comparing psychosocial adaptation in children of parents with high and low PSE during adolescence. One hundred and thirty Italian teenagers (55 males and…

  17. Relationships between Psychosocial Development and Personality Disorder Symptomatology in Late Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jeffrey G.

    1993-01-01

    Studied the extent to which psychosocial development thorough the first 5 stages of E. H. Erikson's theory of personality development is associated with personality disorder symptoms, using 106 undergraduates. Negative resolutions of stages one through five may predict the presence of personality disorder symptomatology during late adolescence.…

  18. The Learning Disabled Adolescent: Eriksonian Psychosocial Development, Self-Concept, and Delinquent Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickar, Daniel B.; Tori, Christopher D.

    1986-01-01

    Using a developmental perspective, this study contrasted learning and nonlearning disabled adolescents on three variables: Erikson's stages of psychosocial development; self-concept; and delinquent behavior. The results indicated that the learning disabled subjects, due to years of failing, were unable to develop a sense of industry and…

  19. Predicting Time to Recovery Among Depressed Adolescents Treated in Two Psychosocial Group Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Kaufman, Noah K.; Clarke, Gregory N.; Stice, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Aims were to identify the demographic, psychopathology, and psychosocial factors predicting time to major depressive disorder (MDD) recovery and moderators of treatment among 114 depressed adolescents recruited from a juvenile justice center and randomized to a cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) condition or a life skills-tutoring control…

  20. Psychosocial Interventions for Children and Adolescents with Sickle Cell Disease (SCD).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Marietta; Kaslow, Nadine; Doepke, Karla; Eckman, James; Johnson, Marjorie

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the existing literature on psychosocial interventions for children and adolescents with sickle cell disease and suggests some developmentally appropriate modifications for approaches designed for adults. Particular attention is paid to nonpharmacological pain management strategies that include coping skill training, educational programs,…

  1. Acculturation and Social Support in Relation to Psychosocial Adjustment of Adolescent Refugees Resettled in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacev, Lydia; Shute, Rosalyn

    2004-01-01

    This study examined how different modes of acculturation and perceived social support are related to adolescent refugee psychosocial adjustment, as measured by global self-worth and peer social acceptance. The 83 participants, aged between 12 and 19 and now resident in Australia, were from the former Republic of Yugoslavia. Those who had the most…

  2. Same-Sex Attraction, Social Relationships, Psychosocial Functioning, and School Performance in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bos, Henny M. W.; Sandfort, Theo G. M.; de Bruyn, Eddy H.; Hakvoort, Esther M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined whether 13- to 15-year-old adolescents who experience feelings of same-sex attraction (SSA) differ from those without such feelings in the quality of relationships with parents, peers, and class mentors and in psychosocial functioning (health status and school performance). The authors also assessed whether differences in …

  3. Childhood Experiences and Psychosocial Influences on HIV Risk among Adolescent Latinas in Southern California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcomb, Michael D.; Locke, Thomas F.; Goodyear, Rodney K.

    2003-01-01

    This study determined how adverse childhood experiences influenced risky sexual behavior in a community sample of Latina adolescents in Los Angeles. Psychosocial, sociocultural, and environmental mediators of the relations between childhood experiences and risky sexual behavior were tested. Childhood maltreatment was associated with risky sexual…

  4. Cigarette Smoking and Indicators of Psychosocial Distress in Southeast Asian and Central-Eastern European Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; Zarco, Emilia Patricia T.; Ihasz, Ferenc; Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn; Uvacsek, Martina; Mei-Lee, Ching; Miao, Nae-Fang; Simonek, Jaromir; Klarova, Renata; Hantiu, Iacob; Kalabiska, Iren

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of cigarette smoking and 2 indicators of psychosocial distress (hopelessness and loneliness) among adolescents from 2 distinctly different regions of the world: Central-Eastern Europe (Hungary, Ukraine, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Romania, Poland) and Southeast Asia (Thailand, Taiwan, and the…

  5. Psychosocial Correlates of Physical Dating Violence Victimization among Latino Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Fang A.; Howard, Donna E.; Beck, Kenneth H.; Shattuck, Teresa; Hallmark-Kerr, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the association between dating violence victimization and psychosocial risk and protective factors among Latino early adolescents. An anonymous, cross-sectional, self-reported survey was administered to a convenience sample of Latino youth (n = 322) aged 11 to 13 residing in suburban Washington, D.C. The dependent variable was…

  6. Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Children and Adolescents Exposed to Traumatic Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Wendy K.; Ortiz, Claudio D.; Viswesvaran, Chockalingham; Burns, Barbara J.; Kolko, David J.; Putnam, Frank W.; Amaya-Jackson, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    The article reviews the current status (1993-2007) of psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents who have been exposed to traumatic events. Twenty-one treatment studies are evaluated using criteria from Nathan and Gorman (2002) along a continuum of methodological rigor ranging from Type 1 to Type 6. All studies were, at a minimum, robust…

  7. Specificity of Putative Psychosocial Risk Factors for Psychiatric Disorders in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Lilly; Copeland, William; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    Background: Most psychosocial risk factors appear to have general rather than specific patterns of association with common childhood and adolescence disorders. However, previous research has typically failed to 1) control for comorbidity among disorders, 2) include a wide range of risk factors, and 3) examine sex by developmental stage effects on…

  8. Adolescent Problem Behavior in Navi Mumbai: An Exploratory Study of Psychosocial Risk and Protection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, R. J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: A conceptual framework about protective factors (models protection, controls protection, support protection) and risk factors (models risk, opportunity risk, vulnerability risk) was employed to articulate the content of five psychosocial contexts of adolescent life--individual, family, peers, school, and neighborhood--in a study of…

  9. IQ Scores among Homeless Older Adolescents: Characteristics of Intellectual Performance and Associations with Psychosocial Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohde, Paul; Noell, John; Ochs, Linda

    1999-01-01

    Study showed IQ scores of homeless adolescents (N=50) were comparable to population means, and unrelated to the duration of homelessness. Higher scores were significantly correlated with only a minority of the measures of psychosocial functioning, including less self-reported depression, lower reported delinquency, and less self-control in…

  10. Prevalence and Psychosocial Correlates of Current Smoking among Adolescent Students in Thailand, 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKnight-Eily, Lela; Arrazola, Rene; Merritt, Robert; Malarcher, Ann; Sirichotiratana, Nithat

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the prevalence of current smoking and associated psychosocial correlates and whether these correlates differ by sex among adolescent students in Thailand. Data were analyzed from the Thailand Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), a school-based, cross-sectional survey conducted in 2005 and completed by Mathayom 1, 2, and 3…

  11. Psychosocial Aspects of Body Mass and Body Image among Rural American Indian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Denise L.; Sontag, Lisa M.; Salvato, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the psychosocial risks associated with body weight (BMI) and body image in a southeastern, rural Lumbee American Indian community. A total of 134 adolescents (57% female) were surveyed over 2 years at ages of 13 and 15 years. On average, boys (55%) were more likely to be overweight or obese than were girls (31%). BMI was…

  12. The Potential Role of Conflict Resolution Schemas in Adolescent Psychosocial Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jutengren, Goran; Palmerus, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    Four specific schemas of cognitive structures that adolescents may hold concerning interpersonal disagreements with their parents were identified, each reflecting an authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or a neglecting parenting style. To examine the occurrence of such schemas across high and low levels of psychosocial adjustment, 120 Swedish…

  13. After-School Supervision, Psychosocial Impact, and Adolescent Smoking and Alcohol Use in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Jie Wu; Liu, Ipei; Sussman, Steve; Palmer, Paula; Unger, Jennifer B.; Cen, Steven; Chou, Chih-Ping; Johnson, Anderson

    2006-01-01

    We examined effects of self-care after school hours and psychosocial factors on cigarette smoking and alcohol use among adolescents in China. Survey data were obtained from 4734 7th and 11th grade students from seven cities across China. Students were queried about the frequency and quantity of unsupervised self-care after school in an average…

  14. Psychosocial adjustment of adolescent siblings of hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Packman, Wendy; Gong, Kimberly; VanZutphen, Kelly; Shaffer, Tani; Crittenden, Mary

    2004-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a widely practiced therapy for many life-threatening childhood disorders. The authors investigated the psychosocial effects of HSCT on siblings of pediatric HSCT patients (n = 44; 21 donors, 23 nondonors, ages 6 to 18 years). Donor siblings reported significantly more anxiety and lower self-esteem than did nondonors. Nondonors showed significantly more school problems. Approximately one third of all siblings reported moderate to severe posttraumatic stress. The study drew on the developmental theory of Erik Erikson and the psychosocial model of posttraumatic stress. As part of the study, the authors used the Measures of Psychosocial Development (MPD), a self-report measure based on Eriksonian constructs. The MPD was used to assess the psychosocial adjustment of 12 siblings who were adolescents (> or =13 years) at the time the study was conducted. In this article, findings are presented from the MPD as well as salient findings from the larger study. PMID:15490868

  15. Achievement for All: Improving Psychosocial Outcomes for Students with Special Educational Needs and Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, Neil; Lendrum, Ann; Barlow, Alexandra; Wigelsworth, Michael; Squires, Garry

    2013-01-01

    Students with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND) are at a greatly increased risk of experiencing poor psychosocial outcomes. Developing effective interventions that address the cause of these outcomes has therefore become a major policy priority in recent years. We report on a national evaluation of the Achievement for All (AfA)…

  16. Age of Menarche and Psychosocial Outcomes in a New Zealand Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boden, Joseph M.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined associations between age of menarche and psychosocial outcomes in early adulthood, including sexual behavior, mental health, criminal behavior, and education/employment, to identify the possible causal role of earlier age of menarche in increasing risks of adverse outcomes. Method: Data were gathered from 497 female…

  17. Psychosocial outcomes following spinal cord injury in Iran.

    PubMed

    Khazaeipour, Zahra; Norouzi-Javidan, Abbas; Kaveh, Mahboobeh; Khanzadeh Mehrabani, Fatemeh; Kazazi, Elham; Emami-Razavi, Seyed-Hasan

    2014-05-01

    Objective/background In patients with spinal cord injury (SCI), SCI causes psychosocial complications that vary based on culture, conditions, and the amenities of each community. Health planners and social services should have full knowledge of these issues in order to plan schedules that address them. In this study, we aimed to understand the psychosocial problems of persons with SCI in Iran and to explore the requirements for minimizing these difficulties. Design This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Setting Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Research (BASIR) Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Participants One hundred nineteen persons with SCI referred to BASIR clinic to receive outpatient rehabilitation. Methods In this study, trained interviewers administered a questionnaire to the participants. The questionnaire consisted of socio-demographic variables and psychosocial questions about finances, employment, housing, education, and social communication problems. Results Psychosocial problems for persons with SCI are mainly associated with financial hardship due to unemployment and the high cost of living, followed by difficulties with transportation, house modification, education, marriage, social communication, sports, and entertainment. Psychological problems include sadness, depression, irritability/anger, suicidal thoughts, and a lack of self-confidence. The levels of the aforementioned problems differ with respect to sex. Conclusion Persons suffering from SCI can face some serious psychosocial problems that may vary according to sex. For example, transportation difficulties can lead to problems such as unsociability. After recognizing these problems, the next step would be providing services to facilitate a productive lifestyle, enhancing social communication and psychological health, and ultimately creating a higher quality of life. PMID:24621045

  18. Psychosocial outcomes following spinal cord injury in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Khazaeipour, Zahra; Norouzi-Javidan, Abbas; Kaveh, Mahboobeh; Khanzadeh Mehrabani, Fatemeh; Kazazi, Elham; Emami-Razavi, Seyed-Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Objective/background In patients with spinal cord injury (SCI), SCI causes psychosocial complications that vary based on culture, conditions, and the amenities of each community. Health planners and social services should have full knowledge of these issues in order to plan schedules that address them. In this study, we aimed to understand the psychosocial problems of persons with SCI in Iran and to explore the requirements for minimizing these difficulties. Design This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Setting Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Research (BASIR) Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Participants One hundred nineteen persons with SCI referred to BASIR clinic to receive outpatient rehabilitation. Methods In this study, trained interviewers administered a questionnaire to the participants. The questionnaire consisted of socio-demographic variables and psychosocial questions about finances, employment, housing, education, and social communication problems. Results Psychosocial problems for persons with SCI are mainly associated with financial hardship due to unemployment and the high cost of living, followed by difficulties with transportation, house modification, education, marriage, social communication, sports, and entertainment. Psychological problems include sadness, depression, irritability/anger, suicidal thoughts, and a lack of self-confidence. The levels of the aforementioned problems differ with respect to sex. Conclusion Persons suffering from SCI can face some serious psychosocial problems that may vary according to sex. For example, transportation difficulties can lead to problems such as unsociability. After recognizing these problems, the next step would be providing services to facilitate a productive lifestyle, enhancing social communication and psychological health, and ultimately creating a higher quality of life. PMID:24621045

  19. Trajectories of Psychosocial Adjustment in Adolescents with Spina Bifida: A 6-Year, Four-Wave Longitudinal Follow-up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmbeck, Grayson N.; DeLucia, Christian; Essner, Bonnie; Kelly, Lauren; Zebracki, Kathy; Friedman, Deborah; Jandasek, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Objective: As a follow-up to an earlier cross-sectional study (Holmbeck et al., 2003), the current multimethod, multi-informant investigation examined individual growth in psychosocial adjustment across the adolescent transition in 2 samples: young adolescents with spina bifida (SB) and typically developing adolescents (N = 68 in both groups at…

  20. The Effects of Low-Carbohydrate Diets on Psychosocial Outcomes in Obesity/Overweight: A Systematic Review of Randomized, Controlled Studies

    PubMed Central

    El Ghoch, Marwan; Calugi, Simona; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the relative psychosocial effects of carbohydrate reduction in comparison to other weight-loss diets in subjects receiving treatment for obesity/overweight. We, therefore, set out to conduct a systematic review of the psychosocial outcomes of such patients, treated by means of either a low-carbohydrate diet or an isocaloric diet of other macronutrient composition. Methods: Literature searches, study selection, method development, and quality appraisal were performed independently by two authors, and data were synthesized using a narrative approach, in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Results: Eight randomized controlled studies met the inclusion criteria, and their subsequent analysis revealed that improvements in psychological and social outcomes do occur during short- and long-term weight loss programmes, but that low-carbohydrate diets have no greater effect on psychosocial outcomes when compared to diets of different macronutrient composition at either short- or long-term follow-up (one-year). However, the lack of studies with longer duration follow-up, and the absence of data in the adolescent population limit the generalizability of our findings. Conclusion: The short- and long-term improvements in psychosocial outcomes seen in patients undergoing weight-loss treatment appear to be independent of the macronutrient composition of their diet. PMID:27367726

  1. Predicting time to recovery among depressed adolescents treated in two psychosocial group interventions.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R; Kaufman, Noah K; Clarke, Gregory N; Stice, Eric

    2006-02-01

    Aims were to identify the demographic, psychopathology, and psychosocial factors predicting time to major depressive disorder (MDD) recovery and moderators of treatment among 114 depressed adolescents recruited from a juvenile justice center and randomized to a cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) condition or a life skills-tutoring control condition. Nine variables predicted time to recovery over 1-year follow-up (e.g., earlier MDD onset, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, functional impairment, hopelessness, negative thoughts, low family cohesion, coping skills); suicidal ideation and parental report of problem behaviors were the best predictors. CBT resulted in faster recovery time relative to control treatment, specifically among adolescents of White ethnicity, with recurrent MDD, and with good coping skills. Results suggest that psychopathology plays a more prominent role in maintaining adolescent depression than demographic or psychosocial factors. PMID:16551145

  2. Trajectories of Antisocial Behavior and Psychosocial Maturity From Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Monahan, Kathryn C.; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Mulvey, Edward P.

    2010-01-01

    Most theorizing about desistance from antisocial behavior in late adolescence has emphasized the importance of individuals’ transition into adult roles. In contrast, little research has examined how psychological development in late adolescence and early adulthood contributes desistance. The present study examined trajectories of antisocial behavior among serious juvenile offenders from 14 through 22 years of age and tested how impulse control, suppression of aggression, future orientation, consideration of others, personal responsibility, and resistance to peer influence distinguished between youths who persisted in antisocial behavior and youths who desisted. Different patterns of development in psychosocial maturity from adolescence to early adulthood, especially with respect to impulse control and suppression of aggression, distinguished among individuals who followed different trajectories of antisocial behavior. Compared with individuals who desisted from antisocial behavior, youths who persisted in antisocial behavior exhibited deficits in elements of psychosocial maturity, particularly in impulse control, suppression of aggression, and future orientation. PMID:19899922

  3. Childhood maltreatment, pubertal development, HPA axis functioning, and psychosocial outcomes: An integrative biopsychosocial model.

    PubMed

    Negriff, Sonya; Saxbe, Darby E; Trickett, Penelope K

    2015-12-01

    The timing and pace of pubertal development has been associated with psychosocial functioning, with pubertal variables represented both as predictors (e.g., earlier puberty linked with poor outcomes) and as sequelae (e.g., early stress linked with earlier puberty). However, the literature has largely not tested mediational models or prospective mechanisms of associations between puberty and psychosocial variables. In a longitudinal study including 454 youth followed over four timepoints (mean ages 10-18), structural equation modeling tested a hypothesized path from childhood maltreatment to cortisol (Time 1) to pubertal stage (Time 2), and psychosocial outcomes (Times 3 and 4). There was not support for the full hypothesized pathway in either gender. However, for boys, maltreatment was associated with attenuated cortisol, and more pubertal change predicted subsequent delinquency. For girls, cortisol predicted more pubertal change which then predicted substance use. This study demonstrates links between HPA axis function, pubertal development, and risky outcomes. PMID:26358357

  4. Psychosocial (im)maturity from adolescence to early adulthood: distinguishing between adolescence-limited and persisting antisocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Monahan, Kathryn C; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Mulvey, Edward P

    2013-11-01

    In the psychological tradition, desistance from antisocial behavior is viewed as the product of psychosocial maturation, including increases in the ability to control impulses, consider the implications of one's actions on others, delay gratification in the service of longer term goals, and resist the influences of peers. The present study investigates how individual variability in the development of psychosocial maturity is associated with desistance from antisocial behavior in a sample of 1,088 serious juvenile offenders followed from adolescence to early adulthood (ages 14-25). We find that psychosocial maturity continues to develop to the midtwenties and that different developmental patterns of maturation are found among those who desist and those who persist in antisocial behavior. Compared to individuals who desisted from antisocial behavior, youths who persisted exhibited diminished development of psychosocial maturity. Moreover, earlier desistance compared to later desistance is linked to greater psychosocial maturity, suggesting that there is an association between desistance from antisocial behavior and normative increases in psychosocial maturity. PMID:24229551

  5. The effect of psychosocial factors on breast cancer outcome: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Falagas, Matthew E; Zarkadoulia, Effie A; Ioannidou, Eleni N; Peppas, George; Christodoulou, Christos; Rafailidis, Petros I

    2007-01-01

    Introduction We sought to review the available evidence regarding the effect of psychosocial factors on the survival of breast cancer patients. Methods We systematically searched the PubMed and PsycINFO databases to identify relevant studies. Results We identified 31 studies examining the association of various psychosocial parameters with overall breast cancer survival/disease free survival and 6 studies examining whether psychological intervention influences the disease outcome. Of the 31 studies summarized in this overview, 25 (80.6%) showed a statistically significant association between at least one psychosocial variable and disease outcome. Parameters associated with better breast cancer prognosis are social support, marriage, and minimizing and denial, while depression and constraint of emotions are associated with decreased breast cancer survival; however, the role of these factors has not been verified in all studies. Conclusion Most of the studies show a significant relationship between psychosocial factors and survival, but the actual psychosocial variables related to survival are not consistently measured across studies and the findings for many of the psychosocial variables with survival/recurrence are not consistent across studies. Thus, more research is warranted regarding the role of social support, marriage, minimizing and denial, depression and constraint of emotions on breast cancer survival. PMID:17640330

  6. Mediating pathways explaining psychosocial functioning and revictimization as sequelae of parental violence among adolescent mothers

    PubMed Central

    Lindhorst, Taryn; Beadnell, Blair; Jackson, Lovie J.; Fieland, Karen; Lee, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent mothers are at high risk for negative life events such as previous childhood physical abuse, impaired psychosocial functioning, and young adulthood revictimization. Yet, little is known about the potential pathways, and hence opportunities for intervention, in these events. This study used structural equation modeling to investigate mediators of the effects of parental child abuse on later psychosocial functioning and revictimization (in the form of intimate partner violence and sexual violence) among adolescent mothers using longitudinal data spanning 2.4 years. On psychological distress in the final time period, parental physical child abuse had an early and then maintained effect, but also effects mediated by earlier psychological distress and revictimization. Psychological distress rather than substance use appeared as the primary psychosocial factor mediating the effects of parental violence both on future distress and on revictimization. To prevent further psychosocial impairment and revictimization, these findings indicate the need for early intervention with adolescent mothers who come from abusive families and who display higher levels of psychological distress. PMID:19485635

  7. Thriving, Managing, and Struggling: A Mixed Methods Study of Adolescent African Refugees’ Psychosocial Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Weine, Stevan Merrill; Ware, Norma; Tugenberg, Toni; Hakizimana, Leonce; Dahnweih, Gonwo; Currie, Madeleine; Wagner, Maureen; Levin, Elise

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this mixed method study was to characterize the patterns of psychosocial adjustment among adolescent African refugees in U.S. resettlement. Methods A purposive sample of 73 recently resettled refugee adolescents from Burundi and Liberia were followed for two years and qualitative and quantitative data was analyzed using a mixed methods exploratory design. Results Protective resources identified were the family and community capacities that can promote youth psychosocial adjustment through: 1) Finances for necessities; 2) English proficiency; 3) Social support networks; 4) Engaged parenting; 5) Family cohesion; 6) Cultural adherence and guidance; 7) Educational support; and, 8) Faith and religious involvement. The researchers first inductively identified 19 thriving, 29 managing, and 25 struggling youths based on review of cases. Univariate analyses then indicated significant associations with country of origin, parental education, and parental employment. Multiple regressions indicated that better psychosocial adjustment was associated with Liberians and living with both parents. Logistic regressions showed that thriving was associated with Liberians and higher parental education, managing with more parental education, and struggling with Burundians and living parents. Qualitative analysis identified how these factors were proxy indicators for protective resources in families and communities. Conclusion These three trajectories of psychosocial adjustment and six domains of protective resources could assist in developing targeted prevention programs and policies for refugee youth. Further rigorous longitudinal mixed-methods study of adolescent refugees in U.S. resettlement are needed. PMID:24205467

  8. Complementary Psychosocial Interventions in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: Pet Assisted Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chandramouleeswaran, Susmita; Russell, Paul Swamidhas Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    Pet assisted therapy (PAT) is a form of complementary psychosocial intervention used in the field of mental health and disability. The form of therapy has the potential to augment the other forms of psychotherapies and pharmacotherapy. This article is an overview of history and clinical origins of PAT, classification and therapy models, scientific basis, the current use in specific disorders, preventive and diagnostic role as well as the potential risks among children and adolescents with mental health needs with a special focus on the Indian needs. A systematic electronic search strategy was undertaken to identify the intervention effectiveness of PAT in MedLine (PubMed), cochrane database of systematic reviews, high-wire press and Google Scholar. We augmented our electronic search with a search of additional articles in reference lists of retrieved articles, as well as a hand search available journals that were not indexed in any electronic database in consultation with colleagues and experts. To qualify for inclusion, studies were required to meet predetermined criteria regarding study design, study population, interventions evaluated and outcome measured to reduce the publication bias. PMID:24701004

  9. Psychosocial Risk Factors for Future Adolescent Suicide Attempts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewinsohn, Peter M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined psychosocial risk factors for attempting suicide in 1,508 high school students, 26 of whom attempted suicide during year following entry into study. Strongest predictors of future suicide attempt were history of past attempt, current suicidal ideation and depression, recent attempt by friend, low self-esteem, and having been born to…

  10. Attachment, Friendship, and Psychosocial Functioning in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Kenneth H.; Dwyer, Kathleen M.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Kim, Angel H.; Burgess, Kim B.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda

    2004-01-01

    Fifth-graders' (N = 162; 93 girls) relationships with parents and friends were examined with respect to their main and interactive effects on psychosocial functioning. Participants reported on parental support, the quality of their best friendships, self-worth, and perceptions of social competence. Peers reported on aggression, shyness and…

  11. The Role of Psychosocial School Conditions in Adolescent Prosocial Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plenty, Stephanie; Östberg, Viveca; Modin, Bitte

    2015-01-01

    This study examined how psychosocial conditions at school are associated with prosocial behaviour, a key indicator of positive mental health. Participants were 3,652 Swedish Grade 9 students from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. Structural equation modelling demonstrated that students who experience more manageable school…

  12. Frequency, Comorbidity, and Psychosocial Impairment of Depressive Disorders in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essau, Cecilia A.; Conradt, Judith; Petermann, Franz

    2000-01-01

    Estimated the frequency, comorbidity, and psychosocial impairment of depressive disorders from survey of 1,035 German 12- to 17-year-olds. Found that 17.9 percent met the lifetime criteria for depressive disorders, according to DSM-IV criteria; criteria were higher in females than in males. Rates for all disorders increased with age, with…

  13. Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Steven W; Owens, Julie; Bunford, Miss Nora

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this research was to update the Pelham and Fabiano (2008) review of evidence-based practices for children and adolescents with Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder. Method We completed a systematic review of the literature published between 2008 and 2013 to establish levels of evidence for psychosocial treatments for these youth. The review included the identification of relevant articles using criteria established by the Society of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology (see Southam-Gerow & Prinstein, in press) using keyword searches and a review of tables of contents. Results We extend the conceptualization of treatment research by differentiating training interventions from behavior management and by reviewing the growing literature on training interventions. Consistent with the results of the previous review we concluded that behavioral parent training, behavioral classroom management and behavioral peer interventions were well-established treatments. In addition, organization training met the criteria for a well-established treatment. Combined training programs met criteria for Level 2 (Probably Efficacious), neurofeedback training met criteria for Level 3 (Possibly Efficacious), and cognitive training met criteria for Level 4 (Experimental Treatments). Conclusions The distinction between behavior management and training interventions provides a method for considering meaningful differences in the methods and possible mechanisms of action for treatments for these youth. Characteristics of treatments, participants, and measures, as well as the variability in methods for classifying levels of evidence for treatments, are reviewed in relation to their potential effect on outcomes and conclusions about treatments. Implications of these findings for future science and practice are discussed. PMID:24245813

  14. Self-control forecasts better psychosocial outcomes but faster epigenetic aging in low-SES youth.

    PubMed

    Miller, Gregory E; Yu, Tianyi; Chen, Edith; Brody, Gene H

    2015-08-18

    There are persistent socioeconomic disparities in many aspects of child development in America. Relative to their affluent peers, children of low socioeconomic status (SES) complete fewer years of education, have a higher prevalence of health problems, and are convicted of more criminal offenses. Based on research indicating that low self-control underlies some of these disparities, policymakers have begun incorporating character-skills training into school curricula and social services. However, emerging data suggest that for low-SES youth, self-control may act as a "double-edged sword," facilitating academic success and psychosocial adjustment, while at the same time undermining physical health. Here, we examine this hypothesis in a five-wave study of 292 African American teenagers from rural Georgia. From ages 17 to 20 y, we assessed SES and self-control annually, along with depressive symptoms, substance use, aggressive behavior, and internalizing problems. At age 22 y, we obtained DNA methylation profiles of subjects' peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These data were used to measure epigenetic aging, a methylation-derived biomarker reflecting the disparity between biological and chronological aging. Among high-SES youth, better mid-adolescent self-control presaged favorable psychological and methylation outcomes. However, among low-SES youth, self-control had divergent associations with these outcomes. Self-control forecasted lower rates of depressive symptoms, substance use, aggressive behavior, and internalizing problems but faster epigenetic aging. These patterns suggest that for low-SES youth, resilience is a "skin-deep" phenomenon, wherein outward indicators of success can mask emerging problems with health. These findings have conceptual implications for models of resilience, and practical implications for interventions aimed at ameliorating social and racial disparities. PMID:26170291

  15. Self-control forecasts better psychosocial outcomes but faster epigenetic aging in low-SES youth

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Gregory E.; Yu, Tianyi; Chen, Edith; Brody, Gene H.

    2015-01-01

    There are persistent socioeconomic disparities in many aspects of child development in America. Relative to their affluent peers, children of low socioeconomic status (SES) complete fewer years of education, have a higher prevalence of health problems, and are convicted of more criminal offenses. Based on research indicating that low self-control underlies some of these disparities, policymakers have begun incorporating character-skills training into school curricula and social services. However, emerging data suggest that for low-SES youth, self-control may act as a “double-edged sword,” facilitating academic success and psychosocial adjustment, while at the same time undermining physical health. Here, we examine this hypothesis in a five-wave study of 292 African American teenagers from rural Georgia. From ages 17 to 20 y, we assessed SES and self-control annually, along with depressive symptoms, substance use, aggressive behavior, and internalizing problems. At age 22 y, we obtained DNA methylation profiles of subjects’ peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These data were used to measure epigenetic aging, a methylation-derived biomarker reflecting the disparity between biological and chronological aging. Among high-SES youth, better mid-adolescent self-control presaged favorable psychological and methylation outcomes. However, among low-SES youth, self-control had divergent associations with these outcomes. Self-control forecasted lower rates of depressive symptoms, substance use, aggressive behavior, and internalizing problems but faster epigenetic aging. These patterns suggest that for low-SES youth, resilience is a “skin-deep” phenomenon, wherein outward indicators of success can mask emerging problems with health. These findings have conceptual implications for models of resilience, and practical implications for interventions aimed at ameliorating social and racial disparities. PMID:26170291

  16. Psychosocial Stress Predicts Future Symptom Severities in Children and Adolescents with Tourette Syndrome and/or Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Haiqun; Katsovich, Liliya; Ghebremichael, Musie; Findley, Diane B.; Grantz, Heidi; Lombroso, Paul J.; King, Robert A.; Zhang, Heping; Leckman, James F.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The goals of this prospective longitudinal study were to monitor levels of psychosocial stress in children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome (TS) and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) compared to healthy control subjects and to examine the relationship between measures of psychosocial stress and fluctuations in tic,…

  17. Interplay of Psychosocial Factors and the Long-Term Course of Adolescents with a Substance Use Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Ken C.; Stinchfield, Randy D.; Lee, Susanne; Latimer, William W.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the association of psychosocial factors and long-term drug use behaviors (year-5.5) among adolescents with a substance dependence disorder. One group received treatment with a 12-Step approach (n = 159) and one group was on a waiting list (n = 62). Four psychosocial factors (deviant behavior, peer drug environment,…

  18. The Influence of Generational Status and Psychosocial Variables on Marijuana Use among Black and Puerto Rican Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappin, Sean R.; Brook, Judith S.

    2001-01-01

    A longitudinal study assessed the relationship between Black and Puerto Rican adolescent generational status (since immigration) and psychosocial factors predicting later marijuana use. Interviews with 108 Blacks and 392 Puerto Ricans at ages 14 and 19 indicate that the impact of generational status was mediated by psychosocial variables such as…

  19. Psychosocial Correlates of Suicidal Ideation in Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Geetha; Steer, Robert A.

    1995-01-01

    Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSI) was administered to 121 adolescent inpatients. Twelve characteristics found to be associated with adolescent suicide ideation were entered into multiple regression to estimate BSI scores, along with Beck inventories for anxiety, depression (BDI), and hopelessness (BHS), and Youth Self Report. BHS and BDI were…

  20. The Psychosocial Meaning of Pregnancy among Adolescents in Mexico City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkin, Lucille C.; Alatorre-Rico, Javier

    Adolescent childbearing has historically been a relatively frequent phenomenon in Mexico and has only recently begun to decline. This study was designed to identify to what extent urban Mexican adolescents, who became pregnant out-of-wedlock and who carried their pregnancy to term, received social support during pregnancy and their emotional…

  1. Authoritative Parenting, Psychosocial Maturity, and Academic Success among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Laurence; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined the relation between authoritative parenting and school achievement in 120 adolescents of 10-16 years. Adolescents who described their parents as treating them warmly, democratically, and firmly were more likely than their peers to develop positive attitudes toward their achievement and do well in school. (RJC)

  2. Longitudinal Course of Adolescent Depression: Neuroendocrine and Psychosocial Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Uma; Hammen, Constance L.; Poland, Russell E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The study examined whether cortisol measures are associated with the clinical course of depression in adolescents. Furthermore, the study evaluated whether the relationship between cortisol and clinical course is moderated by environmental stress and/or social support. Method: Fifty-five adolescents with depression (age range 13-18…

  3. Obesity among Black Adolescent Girls: Genetic, Psychosocial, and Cultural Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alleyne, Sylvan I.; LaPoint, Velma

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the causes, consequences, and prevention of obesity among a subgroup of the American population, Black adolescent girls. Using an ecological perspective on obesity among Black adolescent girls, including feminist-womanist perspectives and historical and medical sociological perspectives, the authors discuss genetic,…

  4. Psychosocial Factors of Different Health Behaviour Patterns in Adolescents: Association with Overweight and Weight Control Behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Veloso, Susana M.; Matos, Margarida G.; Carvalho, Marina; Diniz, José A.

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity, nutrition, and sedentary behaviour combine to influence the risk of overweight among adolescents. This paper aims to identify psychosocial factors of different health behaviour patterns in adolescents and its association with overweight and weight control behaviours. The 3069 adolescents of both genders (average of 14.8 years old) from the 2010 Portuguese survey of Health Behaviour School-Aged Children (HBSC) answered the 2010 HBSC self-reported questionnaire. It used the cluster k-means (nonhierarchy method), qui-square, one-way ANOVA, and logistic regression. Three clusters with different behavioural patterns (physical activity, sedentary, and eating) composed the results obtained. The sedentary group (34%) had lower self-regulation, body satisfaction, health and wellness, family and classmates relationships, communication with the father than the other two groups. The active gamers (25%) had a smaller BMI but used more unhealthy weight control strategies than the other two groups. The healthy group (41%) was more motivated and more satisfied with school but was not different than the active gamers in most psychosocial variables. Differences were found between clusters for weight control behaviours and psychosocial variables. Different strategies for different patterns were necessary in order to promote obesity prevention and, simultaneously, target healthy lifestyle and wellbeing in adolescents. PMID:22811890

  5. The relationship between psychosocial care and attitudes toward illness in adolescents with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Valizadeh, Leila; Barzegar, Mohammad; Akbarbegloo, Masumeh; Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Rahiminia, Elahe; Ferguson, Caleb

    2013-04-01

    Epilepsy is a significant health problem in Iran and other countries. Previous epilepsy studies conducted in Iran have often focused on physiological aspects and pharmacological therapy, and little attention has been paid to the psychological and social aspects of care, particularly in adolescence. This paper aims to fill this gap by assessing the relationship between psychosocial care and attitudes toward illness in adolescents with epilepsy. A descriptive correlational design was adopted, and 74 adolescents who experienced generalized seizures and were treated at the neurology clinic affiliated with the Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in 2010 were examined. The data were collected using instruments including (1) the patient demographic characteristics, (2) the Child Report of Psychosocial Care Scale, and (3) the Child's Attitude Toward Illness Scale. There was a significant positive correlation between psychosocial care and attitudes toward illness (p<.05). There is no evidence for routine psychological consultation for our sample; it would be helpful if psychological consultation with and without parents made available to adolescents with epilepsy. PMID:23453530

  6. Predicting the psychosocial outcome of epilepsy surgery: A longitudinal perspective on the 'burden of normality'.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Steven; Garlovsky, Jack; Reynders, Hazel; Caswell, Helen; Baker, Gus; Shah, Emily

    2016-07-01

    Good seizure outcomes and good psychosocial outcomes following epilepsy surgery do not necessarily follow one from the other. This study explored the relationship between several presurgical psychosocial characteristics and postsurgical quality-of-life outcomes. The study aimed to develop the concept of 'the burden of normality' and identify risk factors for a poor psychosocial outcome that could be targeted with ameliorative presurgery cognitive behavioral techniques. Data were collected from 77 epilepsy surgery patients from three UK epilepsy centers and presurgery and postsurgery follow-up data were obtained from 30-34 patients, depending on the measure. Measures were self-report. Postsurgery intervals were determined by the epilepsy surgery care pathway at individual centers. Presurgery poor levels of mental health, poor social functioning, increased belief in illness chronicity, and associating epilepsy with social role limitations were all associated with poor postsurgical quality of life. Adopting an accepting coping strategy presurgery was associated with good postoperative quality of life. Regression analysis showed that a good postsurgical quality of life was positively predicted by a presurgical coping style of being able to make the best of a situation and see challenges in a positive light (i.e., positive reinterpretation and growth from the COPE scale) and negatively predicted by presurgical levels of anxiety. These data are presented as an important step in identifying psychological red flags for an adverse psychosocial outcome to epilepsy surgery, as exemplified by the concept of the 'burden of normality' and specifying targets for preoperative ameliorative psychological advice. PMID:27206234

  7. Low Vagal Tone Magnifies the Association Between Psychosocial Stress Exposure and Internalizing Psychopathology in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Rith-Najarian, Leslie; Dirks, Melanie A.; Sheridan, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    Vagal tone is a measure of cardiovascular function that facilitates adaptive responses to environmental challenge. Low vagal tone is associated with poor emotional and attentional regulation in children and has been conceptualized as a marker of sensitivity to stress. We investigated whether the associations of a wide range of psychosocial stressors with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology were magnified in adolescents with low vagal tone. Resting heart period data were collected from a diverse community sample of adolescents (ages 13–17; N =168). Adolescents completed measures assessing internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and exposure to stressors occurring in family, peer, and community contexts. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was calculated from the interbeat interval time series. We estimated interactions between RSA and stress exposure in predicting internalizing and externalizing symptoms and evaluated whether interactions differed by gender. Exposure to psychosocial stressors was associated strongly with psychopathology. RSA was unrelated to internalizing or externalizing problems. Significant interactions were observed between RSA and child abuse, community violence, peer victimization, and traumatic events in predicting internalizing but not externalizing symptoms. Stressors were positively associated with internalizing symptoms in adolescents with low RSA but not in those with high RSA. Similar patterns were observed for anxiety and depression. These interactions were more consistently observed for male than female individuals. Low vagal tone is associated with internalizing psychopathology in adolescents exposed to high levels of stressors. Measurement of vagal tone in clinical settings might provide useful information about sensitivity to stress in child and adolescent clients. PMID:24156380

  8. The association of psychosocial and familial factors with adolescent suicidal ideation: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    An, Hoyoung; Ahn, Joon-ho; Bhang, Soo-young

    2010-05-30

    We aimed to compare the influence of various parental factors on adolescent suicidal ideas from a population-based sample of 2965 adolescents between 15 to 18 years-old, and their parents. Among the subject variables, gender, satisfaction with one's health, having an illness, and satisfaction with family; and among parental variables, fathers' satisfaction with health; mothers' insufficient sleep; parents' history of suicidal ideation, and satisfaction with family were significantly different in adolescents who reported suicidal ideation compared to those who reported none. Odds ratios indicated increased risk of adolescent suicidal ideation was associated with the subject factors female gender, insufficient sleep, dissatisfaction with one's health, dissatisfaction with family, and with maternal data showing insufficient sleep and a positive history of suicidal impulse. A path analysis model (comparative fit index (CFI)=0.907; root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA)=0.047), indicated psychosocial factors (beta=0.232) had a greater influence on adolescent suicidal ideation than did genetic factors (beta=0.120). These results show psychosocial factors have an almost two-fold greater influence on adolescent suicidal ideation than genetic factors. Assessment and modification of these factors would greatly assist future interventions. PMID:20381165

  9. Correlates of functional status, self-management, and developmental competence outcomes in adolescents with spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Sawin, Kathleen J; Buran, Constance F; Brei, Timothy J; Fastenau, Philip S

    2003-01-01

    Adolescents with spina bifida (SB), a congenital spinal cord impairment, are at high risk for negative outcomes. Even those with favorable cognitive status often fail to achieve independence, exhibiting poor functional and psychosocial outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between adaptation outcomes (functional status, self-management, and developmental competence) and SB condition-specific, adolescent protective factors, and family protective factors in a sample of adolescents with SB. Individual, interpersonal, and social developmental competence were explored. Sixty-six adolescent/parent pairs were interviewed. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, Cronbach alpha coefficients, and partial correlations controlling for age. All instruments had acceptable reliabilities. Factors associated with outcomes generally fell into two patterns. SB condition-specific variables and adolescent activities (e.g., decision-making, household responsibilities) were related to functional status, self-management, and social competence. In contrast, adolescent beliefs (hope, attitude, and communication efficacy) were predominantly related to individual, interpersonal, and overall developmental competence. PMID:14626030

  10. Do Psychosocial and Study Skill Factors Predict College Outcomes? A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Steven B.; Lauver, Kristy; Le, Huy; Davis, Daniel; Langley, Ronelle; Carlstrom, Aaron

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between psychosocial and study skill factors (PSFs) and college outcomes by meta-analyzing 109 studies. On the basis of educational persistence and motivational theory models, the PSFs were categorized into 9 broad constructs: achievement motivation, academic goals, institutional commitment, perceived social…

  11. Sequelae of Cesarean and Vaginal Deliveries: Psychosocial Outcomes for Mothers and Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durik, Amanda M.; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Clark, Roseanne

    2000-01-01

    Compared psychosocial outcomes for mothers and their infants who had been delivered vaginally or by planned or unplanned cesarean deliveries. Found that women low in neuroticism who delivered by unplanned cesarean showed less positive affect toward infants at 4 months than did women in other groups. Found some evidence that maternal appraisal of…

  12. Attitudinal and Psychosocial Outcomes of a Fitness and Health Education Program on Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Tamar; Hsieh, Kelly; Rimmer, James H.

    2004-01-01

    Attitudinal and psychosocial outcomes of a fitness and health education program for adults with Down syndrome were examined. Participants were 53 adults with Down syndrome ages 30 years and older (29 females, 24 males, M age = 39.72 years) who were randomized into a training (n = 32) or control group (n = 21). The training group participated in a…

  13. Community Violence, School-Related Protective Factors, and Psychosocial Outcomes in Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, Kristy A.; Warren, Jared S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of two putative school-based protective factors--student identification with school and perceived teacher support--to psychosocial outcomes in a sample of urban youth exposed to community violence. Participants were 175 high school students ages 14-19 in grades 9-12 from a large urban school district. Results…

  14. Psychosocial Outcomes of Adult Children of Mothers with Depression and Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowbray, Carol T.; Mowbray, Orion P.

    2006-01-01

    Research has established that children of parents with mental illness, compared with normative samples, are more likely to have emotional/behavioral problems or psychiatric diagnoses themselves. Few studies have examined these children at adulthood, however, to document their diverse psychosocial outcomes and the parenting and contextual variables…

  15. Exploring the Psychosocial and Behavioral Adjustment Outcomes of Multi-Type Abuse among Homeless Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Kristin M.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the psychosocial and behavioral adjustment outcomes associated with verbal, emotional, physical, and sexual abuse among homeless young adults as well as the associations among abuse types. Convenience sampling was used to select 28 homeless young adults (ages 18 to 24) from one drop-in center. Overall, subjects experienced…

  16. Goal Attainment Scaling as an Outcome Measure in Randomized Controlled Trials of Psychosocial Interventions in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruble, Lisa; McGrew, John H.; Toland, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Goal attainment scaling (GAS) holds promise as an idiographic approach for measuring outcomes of psychosocial interventions in community settings. GAS has been criticized for untested assumptions of scaling level (i.e., interval or ordinal), inter-individual equivalence and comparability, and reliability of coding across different behavioral…

  17. Psychosocial co-morbidity affects treatment outcome in children with fecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    van Everdingen-Faasen, Els Q; Gerritsen, Bert J; Mulder, Paul G H; Fliers, Ellen A; Groeneweg, Michael

    2008-09-01

    Fecal incontinence is a common disorder in children. Many children with fecal incontinence have psychosocial co-morbidity. In this study, the effect of psychosocial co-morbidity on the treatment outcome of children with fecal incontinence was evaluated. One hundred and fifty children with fecal incontinence were treated in a multidisciplinary program. All children had been treated unsuccessfully for at least one year before entering the program. The treatment consisted of laxative treatment, psychosocial interventions, and biofeedback training. Psychosocial co-morbidity was classified according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV). One hundred and forty-one children were completely analyzed (102 boys, mean age 9.6 (range 6.5-16.5) years). Of these, 31 (22%) children had fecal incontinence without constipation and 110 (78%) children had fecal incontinence associated with constipation. In 95% of children, at least one psychosocial co-morbidity was present. Treatment was successful at 12 months in 69% of patients. Treatment was less successful in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in children with parent-child relational problems, and in mentally retarded children. The results indicate that the early assessment and treatment of psychosocial co-morbidity might improve treatment response in children with fecal incontinence. Children with fecal incontinence are treated less successfully in the first year if they have ADHD, parent-child relational problems, or mental retardation. Psychosocial evaluation and the early assessment and treatment of psychosocial co-morbidity is indicated in order to improve response rate. Family counseling--aimed at improving parent-child relations--should be an integral part of a multidisciplinary treatment program for fecal incontinence. PMID:17952465

  18. Psychosocial and developmental characteristics of female adolescents who have committed sexual offenses.

    PubMed

    van der Put, Claudia; van Vugt, Eveline S; Stams, Geert Jan J M; Hendriks, Jan

    2014-08-01

    The present study aimed to examine differences in psychosocial and developmental characteristics between Adolescent Females who have committed Sexual Offenses (AFSOs; n = 40), Adolescent Females who have committed nonsexual Violent Offenses (AFVOs; n = 533), and Adolescent Males who have committed Sexual Offenses (AMSO, n = 743). Results showed that AFSOs and AMSOs were remarkably similar, whereas AFSOs and AFVOs were remarkably different on the measured variables. Compared to AFVOs, AFSOs less often had antisocial friends and problems in the domains of school (truancy, behavior problems, dropping out of school) and family (e.g., parental problems, poor authority and control, and run away from home). Victimization of sexual abuse outside the family and social isolation were found to be more common in AFSOs than in AFVOs. Victimization of sexual abuse outside the family was the only specific characteristic of female adolescent sexual offending, as this was more common in AFSOs than in both AMSOs and AFVOs. PMID:23823249

  19. Mexican-origin Early Adolescents' Ethnic Socialization, Ethnic Identity, and Psychosocial Functioning.

    PubMed

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; O'Donnell, Megan; Knight, George P; Roosa, Mark W; Berkel, Cady; Nair, Rajni

    2014-02-01

    The current study examined how parental ethnic socialization informed adolescents' ethnic identity development and, in turn, youths' psychosocial functioning (i.e., mental health, social competence, academic efficacy, externalizing behaviors) among 749 Mexican-origin families. In addition, school ethnic composition was examined as a moderator of these associations. Findings indicated that mothers' and fathers' ethnic socialization were significant longitudinal predictors of adolescents' ethnic identity, although fathers' ethnic socialization interacted significantly with youths' school ethnic composition in 5(th) grade to influence ethnic identity in 7(th) grade. Furthermore, adolescents' ethnic identity was significantly associated with increased academic self-efficacy and social competence, and decreased depressive symptoms and externalizing behaviors. Findings support theoretical predictions regarding the central role parents play in Mexican-origin adolescents' normative developmental processes and adjustment and, importantly, underscore the need to consider variability that is introduced into these processes by features of the social context such as school ethnic composition. PMID:24465033

  20. Mental health and psychosocial functioning in adolescence: an investigation among Indian students from Delhi.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kamlesh; Bassi, Marta; Junnarkar, Mohita; Negri, Luca

    2015-02-01

    While developmental studies predominantly investigated adolescents' mental illness and psychosocial maladjustment, the present research focused on positive mental health of Indian adolescents within the Mental Health Continuum model. Aims were to estimate their prevalence of mental health and to examine its associations with mental distress and psychosocial functioning, taking into account age and gender. A group of 539 students (age 13-18; 43.2% girls) in the National Capital Territory of Delhi completed Mental Health Continuum Short Form, Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales-21, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Findings showed that 46.4% participants were flourishing, 51.2% were moderately mentally healthy, and only 2.4% were languishing. A higher number of girls and younger adolescents were flourishing compared to boys and older adolescents. Moreover, flourishing youths reported lower prevalence of depression and adjustment difficulties, and more prosocial behavior. Findings support the need to expand current knowledge on positive mental health for well-being promotion in adolescence. PMID:25588610

  1. Childhood- versus Adolescent-Onset Antisocial Youth with Conduct Disorder: Psychiatric Illness, Neuropsychological and Psychosocial Function

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Vicki A.; Kemp, Andrew H.; Heard, Robert; Lennings, Christopher J.; Hickie, Ian B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study investigates whether youths with childhood-onset antisocial behavior have higher rates of psychiatric illness, neuropsychological and psychosocial dysfunction than youths who engage in antisocial behavior for the first time in adolescence. Prior studies have generally focused on single domains of function in heterogeneous samples. The present study also examined the extent to which adolescent-onset antisocial behavior can be considered normative, an assumption of Moffitt’s dual taxonomy model. Method Forty-three subjects (34 males, 9 females, mean age = 15.31, age range 12–21) with a diagnosis of conduct disorder (CD) were recruited through Headspace Services and the Juvenile Justice Community Centre. We compared childhood-onset antisocial youths (n = 23) with adolescent-onset antisocial youths (n = 20) with a conduct disorder, across a battery of psychiatric, neuropsychological and psychosocial measures. Neuropsychological function of both groups was also compared with normative scores from control samples. Results The childhood-onset group displayed deficits in verbal learning and memory, higher rates of psychosis, childhood maltreatment and more serious violent behavior, all effects associated with a large effect size. Both groups had impaired executive function, falling within the extremely low range (severely impaired). Conclusions Childhood-onset CD displayed greater cognitive impairment, more psychiatric symptoms and committed more serious violent offences. The finding of severe executive impairment in both childhood- and adolescent-onset groupings challenges the assumption that adolescent-onset antisocial behavior is a normative process. PMID:25835393

  2. Psychosocial outcomes in a weight loss camp for overweight youth

    PubMed Central

    QUINLAN, NICOLE P.; KOLOTKIN, RONETTE L.; FUEMMELER, BERNARD F.; COSTANZO, PHILIP R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective There is good evidence that youth attending weight loss camps in the UK and US are successful at achieving weight loss. Limited research suggests improvement in body image and self-esteem as well. This study evaluated changes in eight psychosocial variables following participation in a weight loss camp and examined the role of gender, age, length of stay, and body mass index (BMI) in these changes. Methods This was an observational and self-report study of 130 participants (mean age=12.8; mean BMI=33.5; 70% female; 77% Caucasian). The program consisted of an 1 800 kcal/day diet, daily supervised physical activities, cooking/nutrition classes, and weekly psycho-educational/support groups led by psychology staff. Participants completed measures of anti-fat attitudes, values (e.g., value placed on appearance, athletic ability, popularity), body- and self-esteem, weight- and health-related quality of life, self-efficacy, and depressive symptoms. Results Participants experienced significant BMI reduction (average decrease of 7.5 kg [standard deviation, SD=4.2] and 2.9 BMI points [SD=1.4]). Participants also exhibited significant improvements in body esteem, self-esteem, self-efficacy, generic and weight-related quality of life, anti-fat attitudes, and the importance placed on appearance. Changes in self-efficacy, physical functioning and social functioning remained significant even after adjusting for initial zBMI, BMI change, and length of stay. Gender differences were found on changes in self-efficacy, depressive symptoms, and social functioning. Conclusion Participation in weight loss programs in a group setting, such as a camp, may have added benefit beyond BMI reduction. Greater attention to changes in psychosocial variables may be warranted when designing such programs for youth. PMID:19107660

  3. Pharmacological and psychosocial treatments for adolescents with ADHD: an updated systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Margaret H; Kuriyan, Aparajita B; Evans, Steven W; Waxmonsky, James G; Smith, Bradley H

    2014-04-01

    Smith, Waschbusch, Willoughby, and Evans (2000) reviewed a small treatment literature on ADHD in adolescents and concluded that methylphenidate stimulant medication was a well-established treatment and behavior therapy (BT) demonstrated preliminary efficacy. This review extends and updates the findings of the prior one based on the previous 15years of research. Studies published since 1999 were identified and coded using standard criteria and effect sizes were calculated where appropriate. Highlights of the last 15years of research include an expansion of pharmacological treatment options and developmentally appropriate psychosocial treatment packages for adolescents with ADHD. Additionally, nonstimulant medications (e.g., atomoxetine) are now approved for the treatment of ADHD in adolescence. The review concludes that medication and BT produce a similar range of therapeutic effects on the symptoms of adolescents with ADHD. However, results suggest that BT may produce greater overall benefits on measures of impairment. There was no evidence that cognitive enhancement trainings, such as working memory training or neurofeedback improved the functioning of adolescents with ADHD. Whether to use medication, BT, or their combination to treat an adolescent with ADHD is complicated and we provide evidence-informed guidelines for treatment selection. The reviewed evidence does not support current American Academy of Pediatrics and American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry professional guidelines, which state that stimulant medication is the preferred treatment for adolescents with ADHD. Recommendations for assessment, practice guidelines, and future research are discussed. PMID:24632046

  4. Psychosocial Determinants of Tobacco Use among School Going Adolescents in Delhi, India

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Varun; Talwar, Richa; Roy, Neelam; Raut, Deepak; Singh, Saudan

    2014-01-01

    Background. Tobacco use is one of the major preventable causes of premature death and disease in the world. Many psychosocial factors were found to influence tobacco use. Therefore the present study was designed to determine the role of psychosocial factors associated with tobacco use among school going adolescents in Delhi, India. Methods. Cross-sectional study was conducted from February 2013 to September 2013 in four government schools in South district of Delhi, India. The questionnaire contains questions adapted from GYTS (Global Youth Tobacco Survey) to find the prevalence and pattern of tobacco use among adolescents. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21. Results. The prevalence of ever and current tobacco use was found in 16.4% and 13.1%. Current smoking and current tobacco chewing were found in 10.2% and 9.4% students, respectively. The risk of current tobacco use was found to be higher among males (P value = 0.000) and in those who got higher pocket money (P value = 0.000). Psychosocial factors like lower general self-efficacy and maladjustments with peers, teachers, and schools were also found to be significant predictors of current tobacco use. Conclusion. The study has revealed higher prevalence of ever and current tobacco use among adolescent students in Delhi, India. PMID:25431738

  5. Psychosocial Aspects of Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury With Onset During Adolescence: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Augutis, Marika; Levi, Richard; Asplund, Kenneth; Berg-Kelly, Kristina

    2007-01-01

    Background/Objective: Spinal cord injury (SCI) occurring during adolescence poses additional challenges because of the concurrent age-specific bio-psychosocial development. Full understanding of the psychosocial dimensions of rehabilitation requires exploration of the patient perspective. The objective of this study was to focus on psychosocial factors from the patient perspective in persons who had previously sustained a SCI during early and mid-adolescence (11–15 years of age). Methods: Twenty-four of the 28 persons who had sustained a SCI in Sweden from 1985 to 1996 participated in the study. Semistructured interviews were made an average of 10 years after injury. Narratives were analyzed qualitatively according to content analysis. Results: Parents and peers were found to have formed a crucial network. Parents frequently acted as advocates in interactions with health care providers, as supporters, and as containers of sorrow, frustration, and anger. Peers acted as promoters of activity and identity development. However, health care providers were perceived as not making sufficient use of this network. Conclusions: Rehabilitation professionals might be encouraged to increase their knowledge of adolescence medicine to better meet the specific needs and demands of persons in this age group. It is further suggested that parents and peers be considered important partners in the joint rehabilitation effort. PMID:17874688

  6. [A psychosocial perspective of depressive symptoms in adolescence].

    PubMed

    Aragão, Thais Araújo; Coutinho, Maria da Penha de Lima; de Araújo, Ludgleydson Fernandes; Castanha, Alessandra Ramos

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at understanding the social representations (SR) of depression among adolescents on high school level. Two hundred and twenty-two (222) adolescents of both sexes (53% male and 47% female), aged between 14 and 19 years and attending the first, second and third grades of high school participated in the study. The instruments used were: the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) for selecting the sample, using 17 as a cut point. The adolescents who achieved this score were invited to participate in the second part of this study consisting of semi-structured interviews and application of Free Association Tests with the stimulus words: depression, depressed person and me. It was verified that the adolescents anchored their SR of depression as synonym for pain, grief, misfortune, hatred, death, discouragement, anxiety, solitude and tears. The SR elaborated by the social actors of this study revealed a similarity with the conception/description, as described in psychiatry. The purpose of this study besides helping to understand the suffering provoked by depressive symptoms is to contribute to a better quality of life of these adolescents. PMID:19197415

  7. Detrimental Psychological Outcomes Associated with Early Pubertal Timing in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Mendle, Jane; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    Though often discussed as though it were a discrete event, puberty comprises one segment of a larger developmental continuum and is notable for rapid transformation across a multitude of domains. Research suggests that an earlier rate of pubertal maturation in girls correlates with a number of detrimental outcomes compared with on-time or later maturation. The present review synthesizes the research on negative psychological sequelae of early pubertal timing in adolescent girls. Emphasis is on three theoretical perspectives by which precocious development is believed to affect the emergence of adverse outcomes: biological, psychosocial, and selection effects. PMID:20740062

  8. An Exploratory Study of Psychosocial Risk Behaviors of Adolescents Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: Comparisons and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll, Kenneth M.; Cutler, Martin M.; Thobro, Patti; Haas, Robin; Powell, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    The study compared psychosocial risk behaviors of adolescents who were deaf or hard of hearing with those of their hearing peers in a residential treatment facility. Statistically significant differences emerged between groups. The adolescents who were deaf or hard of hearing demonstrated clinically higher scores than those of their hearing peers…

  9. Psychosocial Correlates of Adolescent Drug Dealing in the Inner City: Potential Roles of Opportunity, Conventional Commitments, and Maturity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Michelle; Steinberg, Laurence

    2006-01-01

    This study examined a model of the simultaneous and interactive influence of social context, psychosocial attitudes, and individual maturity on the prediction of urban adolescent drug dealing. Five factors were found to significantly increase adolescents' opportunity for drug selling: low parental monitoring, poor neighborhood conditions, low…

  10. Does Mental Illness Stigma Contribute to Adolescent Standardized Patients' Discomfort With Simulations of Mental Illness and Adverse Psychosocial Experiences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Mark D.; Johnson, Samantha; Niec, Anne; Pietrantonio, Anna Marie; High, Bradley; MacMillan, Harriet; Eva, Kevin W.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Adolescent mental illness stigma-related factors may contribute to adolescent standardized patients' (ASP) discomfort with simulations of psychiatric conditions/adverse psychosocial experiences. Paradoxically, however, ASP involvement may provide a stigma-reduction strategy. This article reports an investigation of this hypothetical…

  11. Computeen: A Randomized Trial of a Preventive Computer and Psychosocial Skills Curriculum for At-Risk Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Jason M.; Waterman, Jill; Baker, Bruce L.

    2009-01-01

    Computeen, a preventive technology and psychosocial skills development program for at-risk adolescents, was designed to improve computer skills, self-esteem, and school attitudes, and reduce behavior problems, by combining elements of community-based and empirically supported prevention programs. Fifty-five mostly Latino adolescents from 12 to 16…

  12. The Broader Context of Relational Aggression in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Predictions from Peer Pressure and Links to Psychosocial Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schad, Megan M.; Szwedo, David E.; Antonishak, Jill; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P.

    2008-01-01

    The broader context of relational aggression in adolescent romantic relationships was assessed by considering the ways such aggression emerged from prior experiences of peer pressure and was linked to concurrent difficulties in psychosocial functioning. Longitudinal, multi-reporter data were obtained from 97 adolescents and their best friends at…

  13. Adolescents Risky MP3-Player Listening and Its Psychosocial Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Ineke; Brug, Johannes; Van Der Ploeg, Catharina P. B.; Raat, Hein

    2011-01-01

    Analogue to occupational noise-induced hearing loss, MP3-induced hearing loss may be evolving into a significant social and public health problem. To inform prevention strategies and interventions, this study investigated correlates of adolescents' risky MP3-player listening behavior primarily informed by protection motivation theory. We invited…

  14. Psychosocial Correlates of Smoking Trajectories Among Urban African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergus, Stevenson; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

    2005-01-01

    Little is known of smoking trajectories or of the correlates of smoking trajectories among African American youth. Ninth-grade African American adolescents (n = 566) were interviewed in Year 1 and then were subsequently interviewed annually for 3 additional years. Five trajectories of cigarette smokers were identified: abstainers,…

  15. Psychosocial Aspects of Chronic Illness in Adolescents with Thalassaemia Major.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zani, B.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Evaluated the impact of chronic illness on the psychological functioning and social behavior of adolescent patients. A questionnaire was given to thalassaemics (n=90) and a control group (n=100) investigating coping strategies in stressful situations. Study supports hypothesis that chronic illness does not necessarily imply psychopathologies, but…

  16. Long-term seizure and psychosocial outcomes after resective surgery for intractable epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Wasade, Vibhangini S; Elisevich, Kost; Tahir, Rizwan; Smith, Brien; Schultz, Lonni; Schwalb, Jason; Spanaki-Varelas, Marianna

    2015-02-01

    Resective surgery is considered an effective treatment for refractory localization-related epilepsy. Most studies have reported seizure and psychosocial outcomes of 2-5 years postsurgery and a few up to 10 years. Our study aimed to assess long-term (up to 15 years) postsurgical seizure and psychosocial outcomes at our epilepsy center. The Henry Ford Health System Corporate Data Store was accessed to identify patients who had undergone surgical resection for localization-related epilepsy from 1993 to 2011. Demographics including age at epilepsy onset and surgery, seizure frequency before surgery, and pathology were gathered from electronic medical records. Phone surveys were conducted from May 2012 to January 2013 to determine patients' current seizure frequency and psychosocial metrics including driving and employment status and use of antidepressants. Surgical outcomes were based on Engel's classification (classes I and II=favorable outcomes). McNemar's tests, chi-square tests, two sample t-tests, and Wilcoxon two sample tests were used to analyze the relationships of psychosocial and surgical outcomes with demographic and surgical characteristics. A total of 470 patients had resective epilepsy surgery, and of those, 50 (11%) had died since surgery. Of the remaining, 253 (60%) were contacted with mean follow-up of 10.6±5.0years (27% of patients had follow-up of 15 years or longer). Of the patients surveyed, 32% were seizure-free and 75% had a favorable outcome (classes I and II). Favorable outcomes had significant associations with temporal resection (78% temporal vs 58% extratemporal, p=0.01) and when surgery was performed after scalp EEG only (85% vs 65%, p<0.001). Most importantly, favorable and seizure-free outcome rates remained stable after surgery over long-term follow-up [i.e., <5 years (77%, 41%), 5-10 years (67%, 29%), 10-15 years (78%, 38%), and >15 years (78%, 26%)]. Compared to before surgery, patients at the time of the survey were more likely to be

  17. Gender Differences Among Helpline Callers: Prospective Study of Gambling and Psychosocial Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoun S; Hodgins, David C; Bellringer, Maria; Abbott, Max

    2016-06-01

    Despite the increasing amount of empirical research on gambling helplines (e.g., characteristics, effectiveness), little is known about gender differences on treatment outcomes following contact. The present research addresses this gap in the literature via secondary analysis of an uncontrolled outcome study of New Zealand's gambling helpline (N = 150). To this end, the present research had three aims; (a) explore gender differences (e.g., demographics, co-morbidities, gambling variables) among helpline callers using psychometrically robust measures, (b) assess whether gender predicts treatment utilization following contact and (c) assess whether systematic gender differences exist on gambling and psychosocial outcomes at 3-, 6- and 12-month follow-ups. The results revealed that at baseline, women compared to men, described greater problem severity and shorter problem duration, and were more likely to report electronic gaming machines as their most problematic form of gambling. Women also reported greater distress and lower quality of life. Men, despite less problem severity and distress, were more likely to access treatment following helpline contact. Importantly, both men and women reported significant and equivalent improvements in both gambling and psychosocial outcomes following helpline contact. The improved outcomes remained significant after controlling for treatment attendance. Although different approaches for women may be required by helplines if the goal is to refer callers to treatment, the results suggest that after calling the helpline, women reduced their problematic gambling and improved psychosocial functioning without further treatment. PMID:26341730

  18. Motor Outcomes in Children Exposed to Early Psychosocial Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Levin, April R.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Fox, Nathan A.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine the effect of psychosocial deprivation early in life on motor development and assess the impact of a foster care intervention on improving motor development. Study design In a randomized controlled trial, children living in Romanian institutions were randomly assigned to care as usual in the institution, or placed in family centered foster care as part of the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP). The average age of placement into foster care was 23 months. At 8 years of age, the Bruininks-Oseretsky 2nd edition, short form (BOT2-SF) assessed the motor proficiency of children in both groups, as well as a never-institutionalized group from the Romanian community. Results Children in the never-institutionalized group did significantly better on the BOT2-SF than children who had ever been institutionalized. (p < .001). There was no significant difference in performance between children in the care as usual group and foster care group. This finding also held true for all individual items on the BOT2-SF, except sit-ups. Regression analyses revealed that the between-group and within-group differences in BOT2-SF scores were largely mediated by IQ. Conclusions Early deprivation had a negative effect on motor development which was not resolved by placement in foster care. This effect was predominantly mediated by IQ. This study highlights the importance of monitoring for and addressing motor delays in children with a history of institutionalization, particularly those children with low IQ. PMID:24161221

  19. SMOKING CESSATION FOR ADOLESCENTS: A REVIEW OF PHARMACOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOSOCIAL TREATMENTS

    PubMed Central

    Schepis, TS; Rao, U

    2016-01-01

    Unlike the vast literature on smoking cessation in adults, research in adolescents has gained significant attention only within the last decade. Even with this increase in focus, research into pharmacological aids for smoking cessation in adolescents (e.g., nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion) is a more recent phenomenon and has produced only modest results. While more extensive, much of the research on behaviorally- or psychosocially-based adolescent smoking cessation interventions has been limited by a lack of control for contact time, biochemical verification of self-reported abstinence, and/or a theoretical focus for the interventions. The MEDLINE, PubMed, PSYCInfo CINHAL and Cochrane Systematic Review databases were searched for articles relevant to adolescent smoking cessation treatment. After briefly examining the adolescent smoking cessation research prior to 2000, more recent developments in pharmacological aids and psychological treatment will be reviewed. Investigations have made progress in elucidating efficacious treatments for adolescent smokers, but much work remains to be done in both pharmacological and non-pharmacological areas of treatment. With the current state of the literature as a guide, future directions for research into smoking cessation for adolescents will be proposed. PMID:19630713

  20. Psychosocial problems and recruitment of incentive neurocircuitry: Exploring individual differences in healthy adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bjork, James M.; Smith, Ashley R.; Chen, Gang; Hommer, Daniel W.

    2011-01-01

    Maturational differences in brain responsiveness to rewards have been implicated in the increased rates of injury and death in adolescents from behavior-related causes. However, much of this morbidity is related to drug intoxication or other externalizing behaviors, and may be concentrated in a subset of adolescents who are at psychosocial or neurobiological risk. To examine whether individual differences in psychosocial and behavioral symptomatology relate to activation of motivational neurocircuitry, we scanned 26 psychiatrically-healthy adolescents using fMRI as they performed a monetary incentive delay task. Overall Problem Density on the Drug Use Screening Inventory (DUSI-OPD) correlated positively with activation of ventral mesofrontal cortex (mFC) during anticipation of responding for rewards (versus responding for no incentive). In addition, DUSI-OPD also correlated positively with right ventral striatum recruitment during anticipation of responding to win rewards (versus responding for no incentive or to avoid losses of identical magnitudes). Finally, a psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis indicated that increased connectivity between nucleus accumbens and portions of anterior cingulate and mFC as a function of reward prospects also correlated with DUSI-OPD. These findings extend previous reports demonstrating that in adolescents, individual differences in reactivity of motivational neurocircuitry relate to different facets of impulsivity or externalizing behaviors. PMID:21927631

  1. Attachment, Friendship, and Psychosocial Functioning in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Kenneth H.; Dwyer, Kathleen M.; Kim, Angel H.; Burgess, Kim B.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Rose-Krasnor, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Fifth-graders' (N = 162; 93 girls) relationships with parents and friends were examined with respect to their main and interactive effects on psychosocial functioning. Participants reported on parental support, the quality of their best friendships, self-worth, and perceptions of social competence. Peers reported on aggression, shyness and withdrawal, and rejection and victimization. Mothers reported on psychological adjustment. Perceived parental support and friendship quality predicted higher global self-worth and social competence and less internalizing problems. Perceived parental support predicted fewer externalizing problems, and paternal (not maternal) support predicted lower rejection and victimization. Friendship quality predicted lower rejection and victimization for only girls. Having a supportive mother protected boys from the effects of low-quality friendships on their perceived social competence. High friendship quality buffered the effects of low maternal support on girls' internalizing difficulties. PMID:16703116

  2. [The contagion of adolescent suicide: cultural, ethical and psychosocial aspects].

    PubMed

    Gérard, N; Delvenne, V; Nicolis, H

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death among adolescents. The risk factors are many and varied. The contagion of suicide was raised as a potential cause of youth suicide. In support of this argument, we did a review of the literature on the possible contagion of adolescent suicide. Several types of situations can support this hypothesis : when a youth is faced with the suicide of a relative or close friend, when he lived in a community, through the media or via the Internet. The way suicide is reported in the press shows a correlation with increased incidence of suicide among adolescents. In summary, there is evidence increasingly obvious that the contagion is the source of some youth suicides. For this reason, it seems important that preventive measures are in place. However, although this mechanism has been instrumental in initiating the act, it is important to note that suicide is always the result of several factors including the personal history of the subject. PMID:22891588

  3. Variation in Functioning, Psychosocial Characteristics, and Six-Month Outcomes among Suicidal Youth in Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandell, David S.; Walrath, Christine M.; Goldston, David B.

    2006-01-01

    In this study we compared the psychosocial (n = 7,896) and clinical (n = 4,664) characteristics and 6-month functional outcomes (n = 2,594) of suicidal and nonsuicidal youth. Repeat and previous attempters were more likely than first-time and never attempters to experience psychosocial problems and to be functionally impaired in a variety of…

  4. [An analysis of psychosocial care for adolescents in crisis based on their therapeutic itineraries].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Melissa de Oliveira; Sá, Marilene de Castilho; Miranda, Lilian

    2014-10-01

    This study analyzes the care provided to adolescents in crisis in a municipality in Greater Metropolitan Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The article reports on a qualitative health study that used Therapeutic Itinerary and Life Narratives as the methodological resources. The principal theoretical reference was psychoanalyst René Kaës. Based on the adolescents' own verbal accounts, the study aimed to grasp the collective realities that could potentially shed light on the different types of logic and professional practices applied to care for adolescents in psychosocial crisis situations. The underlying assumption was that an approach to the dialectical nature of the crisis required maintaining a framework that would allow establishing a space for transition within which to develop the necessary conditions for disruptive and paradoxical elements to be elaborated. However, crisis care in the context studied here proved to be hampered by infrastructure issues, institutional rigidity, and fragmentation of activities, with little orientation towards inter-sector work. PMID:25388317

  5. The association between adolescent sexting, psychosocial difficulties, and risk behavior: integrative review.

    PubMed

    Van Ouytsel, Joris; Walrave, Michel; Ponnet, Koen; Heirman, Wannes

    2015-02-01

    When a sexting message spreads to an unintended audience, it can adversely affect the victim's reputation. Sexting incidents constitute a potential school safety risk. Just as with other types of adolescent risk behavior, school nurses might have to initiate the first response when a sexting episode arises, but a school nurse's role goes beyond intervention. They can also play an important role in the prevention of sexting and its related risks. This article reviews the links between adolescent sexting, other types of risk behavior, and its emotional and psychosocial conditions. Seven databases were examined and nine studies remained for further review. The review of the literature shows that adolescent sexting is cross sectionally associated with a range of health-risk behaviors. Youth who engage in sexting are also found to experience peer pressure and a range of emotional difficulties. The results can guide school nurse education and practice. PMID:25027261

  6. Self-Harm and Suicidal Behaviors in Hong Kong Adolescents: Prevalence and Psychosocial Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Yu, Lu

    2012-01-01

    The present paper examined the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of adolescent deliberate self-harm (DSH) and suicidal behavior in a representative sample of 3,328 secondary school students in Hong Kong. With reference to the previous year, 32.7% of the students reported at least one form of DSH, 13.7% of the respondents had suicide thoughts, 4.9% devised specific suicidal plans, and 4.7% had actually attempted suicide. Adolescent girls had significantly higher rates of DSH and suicidal behavior than did adolescent boys. Having remarried parents was related to an increased likelihood of DSH and suicide. While high levels of family functioning, overall positive youth development, and academic and school performance predicted low rates of DSH and suicidal behavior, cognitive and behavioral competencies were unexpectedly found to be positively associated with DSH and suicidal behavior. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:22566783

  7. Body image, psychosocial functioning, and personality: how different are adolescents and young adults applying for plastic surgery?

    PubMed

    Simis, K J; Verhulst, F C; Koot, H M

    2001-07-01

    This study addressed three questions: (1) Do adolescents undergoing plastic surgery have a realistic view of their body? (2) How urgent is the psychosocial need of adolescents to undergo plastic surgery? (3) Which relations exist between bodily attitudes and psychosocial functioning and personality? From 1995 to 1997, 184 plastic surgical patients aged 12 to 22, and a comparison group of 684 adolescents and young adults from the general population aged 12 to 22 years, and their parents, were interviewed and completed questionnaires and standardised rating scales. Adolescents accepted for plastic surgery had realistic appearance attitudes and were psychologically healthy overall. Patients were equally satisfied with their overall appearance as the comparison group, but more dissatisfied with the specific body parts concerned for operation, especially when undergoing corrective operations. Patients had measurable appearance-related psychosocial problems. Patient boys reported less self-confidence on social areas than all other groups. There were very few patient-comparison group differences in correlations between bodily and psychosocial variables, indicating that bodily attitudes and satisfaction are not differentially related to psychosocial functioning and self-perception in patients than in peers. We concluded that adolescents accepted for plastic surgery have considerable appearance-related psychosocial problems, patients in the corrective group reporting more so than in the reconstructive group. Plastic surgeons may assume that these adolescents in general have a realistic attitude towards their appearance. are psychologically healthy, and are mainly dissatisfied about the body parts concerned for operation. corrective patients more so than reconstructive patients. Introverted patients may need more attention from plastic surgeons during the psychosocial assessment. PMID:11464971

  8. Evaluating a theory of stress and adjustment when predicting long-term psychosocial outcome after brain injury.

    PubMed

    Rutterford, Neil A; Wood, Rodger L

    2006-05-01

    Kendall and Terry (1996) include many psychosocial predictors in their theoretical model that explains individual differences in psychosocial adjustment (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). The model depicts appraisal and coping variables as mediating relationships between situation factors, environmental and personal resources, and multidimensional outcome. The aim of this study was to explore these theoretical relationships at very late stages of recovery from traumatic brain injury. A total of 131 participants who were more than 10 years post-injury (mean = 15.31 years) completed several psychosocial measures relating to outcome dimensions comprising employment, community integration, life satisfaction, quality of life (QoL), and emotion. There was no evidence that appraisal and coping variables mediated relationships between psychosocial and any of the outcome variables. However, when appraisal and coping variables were combined with psychosocial variables as direct predictors of outcome, every outcome except employment status was reliably predicted, accounting for between 31 and 46% of the variance. Personality significantly influenced all predicted outcomes. Self-efficacy contributed to the prediction of all outcomes except QoL. Data did not support for the theory of stress and adjustment as a framework for explaining the nature of predictive relationships between psychosocial variables and very long-term, multidimensional outcome after brain injury. PMID:16903128

  9. Childhood Obesity: Psychosocial Outcomes and the Role of Weight Bias and Stigma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromfield, Pauline V.

    2009-01-01

    Research, policy and media discourses highlight negative physical and non-physical outcomes for overweight/obese children and adolescents compared with their non-overweight/obese peers. The research findings that have positioned this "vulnerable" group are reviewed with particular reference to the desired outcomes of the "Every Child Matters"…

  10. Cognitive, psychosocial, and reported sexual behavior differences between pregnant and nonpregnant adolescents.

    PubMed

    Holden, G W; Nelson, P B; Velasquez, J; Ritchie, K L

    1993-01-01

    A wide variety of variables have been related to the occurrence of adolescent pregnancy. However, many previous studies have produced conflicting results and are univariate in nature. The purpose of this study was to assess differences in pregnant and nonpregnant adolescents on variables from three domains: cognitive, psychosocial, and reported sexual behavior. Sixty-nine pregnant adolescents and 58 comparison adolescents filled out nine questionnaires presented on microcomputers. Significant differences were found on 10 of 24 univariate tests. The strongest differences concerned areas of scholastic functioning and reported sexual behavior; pregnant teenagers were more likely than nonpregnant peers to be doing poorly in school and less likely to use contraceptives. In addition, pregnant teenagers were more likely to have a relative or friend who was an adolescent mother and to expect child rearing to be easier than did the nonpregnant adolescents. A discriminant analysis was computed which correctly classified 83% of the sample, based on variables from each of the three domains. This study has served to replicate, refute, and expand on previous findings concerning the antecedents of teenage pregnancy. More importantly, this study has empirically demonstrated the multivariate and interrelated nature of variables associated with teenage pregnancy. PMID:8237543

  11. Perceptions of Social Mobility: Development of a New Psychosocial Indicator Associated with Adolescent Risk Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Ritterman Weintraub, Miranda Lucia; Fernald, Lia C. H.; Adler, Nancy; Bertozzi, Stefano; Syme, S. Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Social class gradients have been explored in adults and children, but not extensively during adolescence. The first objective of this study was to examine the association between adolescent risk behaviors and a new indicator of adolescent relative social position, adolescent “perceived social mobility.” Second, it investigated potential underlying demographic, socioeconomic, and psychosocial determinants of this indicator. Data were taken from the 2004 urban adolescent module of Oportunidades, a cross-sectional study of Mexican adolescents living in poverty. Perceived social mobility was calculated for each subject by taking the difference between their rankings on two 10-rung ladder scales that measured (1) projected future social status and (2) current subjective social status within Mexican society. Adolescents with higher perceived social mobility were significantly less likely to report alcohol consumption, drinking with repercussions, compensated sex, police detainment, physical fighting, consumption of junk food or soda, or watching ≥4 h of television during the last viewing. They were significantly more likely to report exercising during the past week and using a condom during last sexual intercourse. These associations remained significant with the inclusion of covariates, including parental education and household expenditures. Multiple logistic regression analyses show higher perceived social mobility to be associated with staying in school longer and having higher perceived control. The present study provides evidence for the usefulness of perceived social mobility as an indicator for understanding the social gradient in health during adolescence. This research suggests the possibility of implementing policies and interventions that provide adolescents with real reasons to be hopeful about their trajectories. PMID:25932460

  12. Obesity Has Few Effects on Future Psychosocial Functioning of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Robert E.; Hao, Duong T.

    2013-01-01

    We reexamine the effects of obesity on a wide range (n=17) of indicators of functioning drawn from five broad domains: interpersonal problems, psychological problems, suicidal behaviors, academic performance, and psychiatric disorders. Evidence on this question is mixed. Data are analyzed from a large community sample of adolescents 11 – 17 at baseline (n=4175) who were followed up a year later (n=3,134). Using measured height and weight, overweight was defined as 95th > BMI ≤ 85th percentile and obese as BMI > 95th percentile. At baseline, obesity was associated with increased odds only for any mood disorder and poor perceived mental health. For boys, there were no significant associations, but girls had higher odds of problems at school, poor perceived mental health, and mood disorders. Results from the two-wave cohort reveal obesity increased future risk only for poor perceived mental health. For boys, the same pattern was observed, but for girls there were no significant associations. Overall, we found that weight status had few deleterious effects on adolescent social functioning, in multivariate, prospective analyses. If there is an effect of obesity on functioning, it may operate through mediators such as body image. PMID:23557808

  13. The Family Environment as a Moderator of Psychosocial Outcomes Following Traumatic Brain Injury in Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Yeates, Keith Owen; Taylor, H. Gerry; Walz, Nicolay Chertkoff; Stancin, Terry; Wade, Shari L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study sought to determine whether the family environment moderates psychosocial outcomes after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in young children. Method Participants were recruited prospectively from consecutive hospital admissions of 3-6 year old children, and included 19 with severe TBI, 56 with complicated mild/moderate TBI, and 99 with orthopedic injuries (OI). They completed four assessments across the first 18 months post-injury. The initial assessment included measures of parenting style, family functioning, and the quality of the home. Children’s behavioral adjustment, adaptive functioning, and social competence were assessed at each occasion. Mixed model analyses examined the relationship of the family environment to psychosocial outcomes across time. Results The OI and TBI groups differed significantly in social competence, but the family environment did not moderate the group difference, which was of medium magnitude. In contrast, group differences in behavioral adjustment became more pronounced across time at high levels of authoritarian and permissive parenting; among children with severe TBI, however, even those with low levels of permissive parenting showed increases in behavioral problems. For adaptive functioning, better home environments provided some protection following TBI, but not over time for the severe TBI group. These three-way interactions of group, family environment, and time post injury were all of medium magnitude. Conclusions The findings indicate that the family environment moderates the psychosocial outcomes of TBI in young children, but the moderating influence may wane with time among children with severe TBI. PMID:20438212

  14. Executive function and psychosocial adjustment in healthy children and adolescents: A latent variable modelling investigation.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Adam R

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish latent executive function (EF) and psychosocial adjustment factor structure, to examine associations between EF and psychosocial adjustment, and to explore potential development differences in EF-psychosocial adjustment associations in healthy children and adolescents. Using data from the multisite National Institutes of Health (NIH) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Study of Normal Brain Development, the current investigation examined latent associations between theoretically and empirically derived EF factors and emotional and behavioral adjustment measures in a large, nationally representative sample of children and adolescents (7-18 years old; N = 352). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was the primary method of data analysis. CFA results revealed that, in the whole sample, the proposed five-factor model (Working Memory, Shifting, Verbal Fluency, Externalizing, and Internalizing) provided a close fit to the data, χ(2)(66) = 114.48, p < .001; RMSEA = .046; NNFI = .973; CFI = .980. Significant negative associations were demonstrated between Externalizing and both Working Memory and Verbal Fluency (p < .01) factors. A series of increasingly restrictive tests led to the rejection of the hypothesis of invariance, thereby precluding formal statistical examination of age-related differences in latent EF-psychosocial adjustment associations. Findings indicate that childhood EF skills are best conceptualized as a constellation of interconnected yet distinguishable cognitive self-regulatory skills. Individual differences in certain domains of EF track meaningfully and in expected directions with emotional and behavioral adjustment indices. Externalizing behaviors, in particular, are associated with latent Working Memory and Verbal Fluency factors. PMID:25569593

  15. Psychosocial correlates of cigarette smoking among Asian American and Pacific Islander adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fang; Cheng, Wendy J Y; Ho, Moon-Ho R; Pooh, Karen

    2013-04-01

    Despite the growing body of research in adolescent cigarette smoking, there is a lack of research on Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) adolescents. This study examined the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of the past 30-day cigarette smoking in Asian American (AA) and Pacific Islander (PI) adolescents by utilizing a multi-systemic theory-the problem behavior theory. Using the 2006-07 High School Questionnaire of California Healthy Kids Survey, variables such as cigarette smoking, individual characteristics and external influences were assessed. Chi-square tests and generalized estimating equations were used in the analyses. PIs had higher past 30-day cigarette smoking rates than AAs. In the whole AAPI population, significant correlates of cigarette smoking included: positive and negative attitudes toward cigarettes, perceived harm of cigarettes, perceived prevalence of peer cigarette smoking, friend disapproval of cigarette use, previous drug use, truancy, and academic performance. Interaction results showed that truancy increased the odds of cigarette use for AAs only. The study found differential prevalence and correlate of cigarette smoking in addition to common psychosocial correlates in AAs and PIs. It sheds light on the importance of studying AAs and PIs separately and further exploring other potential variables that contribute to the prevalence discrepancy. PMID:23380485

  16. Emotional and psychosocial aspects of menstrual poverty in resource-poor settings: a qualitative study of the experiences of adolescent girls in an informal settlement in Nairobi.

    PubMed

    Crichton, Joanna; Okal, Jerry; Kabiru, Caroline W; Zulu, Eliya Msiyaphazi

    2013-10-01

    We introduce the concept of "menstrual poverty" to categorize the multiple deprivations relating to menstruation in resource-poor settings across the Global South, and we examine how this affects the psychological well-being of adolescent girls in an urban informal settlement in Kenya. We use qualitative data collected through 34 in-depth interviews and 18 focus group discussions with girls, women, and key informants. Menstrual poverty involved practical and psychosocial challenges affecting girls at home and at school. Its emotional impacts included anxiety, embarrassment, fear of stigma, and low mood. Further research is needed on how menstrual poverty affects girls' psychological and educational outcomes. PMID:23570366

  17. Neurological, neuropsychological, and psychosocial outcome following treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms: a review and commentary.

    PubMed

    Towgood, Karren; Ogden, Jenni A; Mee, Edward

    2004-01-01

    Thirty studies published between 1977 and 2001 that focus on outcome following unruptured intracranial aneurysm (UIA) treatment are reviewed. Although findings from these studies suggest outcome from UIA treatment is reasonably good (between 5% and 25% morbidity and between 0-7% mortality), many of the complex issues associated with the treatment of UIAs remain controversial. Most of the studies reviewed address outcome in terms of mortality and neurological morbidity. Very few studies exist which include measures of outcome such as cognitive status, psychosocial functioning and quality of life. Given that patients facing treatment tend to be healthy middle-aged adults with many years of active working and social life ahead of them, it is important to take into account the long-term consequences of either harboring an UIA, or having it treated. The small number of studies that include cognitive, psychosocial and quality of life outcomes are reviewed in some detail and suggestions made for improving future UIA outcome research. PMID:14751014

  18. Psychosocial Profile of Gifted Adolescents Attending a Public High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordaz-Villegas, Gabriela; Acle-Tomasini, Guadalupe

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The current models in the study of giftedness such as the Triadic Interdependence define it as a favorable outcome of the interaction between intrinsic (intellectual capacity, creativity and motivation) and extrinsic (family, peers, and school) factors. Based on this, the purpose of this study was to identify and establish a profile…

  19. Cultural Considerations in Adolescent Suicide Prevention and Psychosocial Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Goldston, David B.; Molock, Sherry Davis; Whitbeck, Leslie B.; Murakami, Jessica L.; Zayas, Luis H.; Nagayama Hall, Gordon C.

    2009-01-01

    Ethnic groups differ in rates of suicidal behaviors among youths, the context within which suicidal behavior occurs (e.g., different precipitants, vulnerability and protective factors, and reactions to suicidal behaviors), and patterns of help-seeking. In this article, the authors discuss the cultural context of suicidal behavior among African American, American Indian and Alaska Native, Asian American and Pacific Islander, and Latino adolescents, and the implications of these contexts for suicide prevention and treatment. Several cross-cutting issues are discussed, including acculturative stress and protective factors within cultures; the roles of religion and spirituality and the family in culturally sensitive interventions; different manifestations and interpretations of distress in different cultures; and the impact of stigma and cultural distrust on help-seeking. The needs for culturally sensitive and community-based interventions are discussed, along with future opportunities for research in intervention development and evaluation. PMID:18193978

  20. Predictors of Parenting and Infant Outcomes for Impoverished Adolescent Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitson, Melissa L.; Martinez, Andrew; Ayala, Carmen; Kaufman, Joy S.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent mothers and their children are at risk for a myriad of negative outcomes. This study examined risk and protective factors and their impact on a sample (N = 172) of impoverished adolescent mothers. Multiple regression analyses revealed that depressed adolescent mothers report higher levels of parenting stress and that their children are…

  1. Sexuality-Related Outcomes of Adolescent Children of Teen Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshbaugh, Elaine M.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between being an adolescent child of a teen mother and sexuality-related outcomes was investigated using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Adolescents whose mothers were teenagers at first birth were more likely to have had sex by age 16 than other adolescents. Gender moderated this effect, as this relationship…

  2. Role of CNR1 polymorphisms in moderating the effects of psychosocial adversity on impulsivity in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Buchmann, Arlette F; Hohm, Erika; Witt, Stephanie H; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Laucht, Manfred

    2015-03-01

    Enhanced endocannabinoid signaling has been implicated in typically adolescent behavioral features such as increased risk-taking, impulsivity and novelty seeking. Research investigating the impact of genetic variants in the cannabinoid receptor 1 gene (CNR1) and of early rearing conditions has demonstrated that both factors contribute to the prediction of impulsivity-related phenotypes. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis of an interaction of the two most studied CNR1 polymorphisms rs806379 and rs1049353 with early psychosocial adversity in terms of affecting impulsivity in 15-year-olds from an epidemiological cohort sample followed since birth. In 323 adolescents (170 girls, 153 boys), problems of impulse control and novelty seeking were assessed using parent-report and self-report, respectively. Exposure to early psychosocial adversity was determined in a parent interview conducted at the age of 3 months. The results indicated that impulsivity increased following exposure to early psychosocial adversity, with this increase being dependent on CNR1 genotype. In contrast, while individuals exposed to early adversity scored higher on novelty seeking, no significant impact of genotype or the interaction thereof was detected. This is the first evidence to suggest that the interaction of CNR1 gene variants with the experience of early life adversity may play a role in determining adolescent impulsive behavior. However, given that the reported findings are obtained in a high-risk community sample, results are restricted in terms of interpretation and generalization. Future research is needed to replicate these findings and to identify the mediating mechanisms underlying this effect. PMID:24980155

  3. Differences on psychosocial outcomes between male and female caregivers of children with life-limiting illnesses.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Monica; Steele, Rose; Cadell, Susan; Hemsworth, David

    2011-06-01

    This secondary analysis of data examined the psychosocial outcomes of meaning in caregiving, self-esteem, optimism, burden, depression, spirituality, and posttraumatic growth in 273 parents caring for children with life-limiting illnesses to (a) determine if there were gender differences and (b) identify gender-specific correlations among these outcomes. Findings suggest that significant gender differences exist. Women reported higher average scores compared with men for meaning in caregiving, depression, burden, and posttraumatic growth and lower average scores for optimism. Correlations also revealed some significant differences. Health care professionals need to be aware of gender differences and tailor their interventions appropriately. PMID:21601142

  4. Adolescent Bullying Involvement and Psychosocial Aspects of Family and School Life: A Cross-Sectional Study from Guangdong Province in China

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ciyong; Wu, Jie; Deng, Xueqing; Hong, Lingyao; Gao, Xue; He, Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Background School bullying is an emerging problem in China. The present study aimed to measure the prevalence of bullying behaviors among Chinese adolescents and to examine the association of bullying and being bullied with family factors, school factors and indicators of psychosocial adjustment. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 8,342 middle school students were surveyed in four cities in the Guangdong Province. Self-reports on bullying involvement and information regarding family factors, school factors and psychosocial adjustment were collected. Descriptive statistics and multi-level logistic regression analysis were used to evaluate the prevalence of school bullying and explore potentially influential factors. Results Of the total sample, 20.83% (1,738) reported being involved in bullying behaviors. Of the respondents, 18.99% were victims of bullying, 8.60% were bullies and 6.74% both bullied themselves and bullied others. Factors that were determined to be correlated with bullying behaviors included grade, parental caring, consideration of suicide, running away from home, time spent online per day and being in a physical fight. Conclusion Bullying was determined to be prevalent among Chinese adolescents. Given the concurrent psychosocial adjustment, family and school factors associated with bullying, as well as the potential long-term negative outcomes for these youth, this issue merits serious attention, both for future research and preventive intervention. PMID:22815693

  5. Early Adolescent Affect Predicts Later Life Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P.; Diener, Ed

    2016-01-01

    Background Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. Methods To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as a predictor of relationship, adjustment, self worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilized multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Results Early adolescent positive affect predicted less relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers), healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. Conclusions The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. PMID:27075545

  6. Validating an index of adolescent sexual behavior using psychosocial theory and social trait correlates.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Michael; Bleakley, Amy; Fishbein, Martin; Jordan, Amy

    2008-03-01

    Using a web-based survey of adolescents 14-16 years of age, a hierarchical index of heterosexual behavior was developed with excellent psychometric properties. The easiest sexual behavior to perform was "deep kissing" and the most difficult was "receiving anal sex" for females and "giving anal sex" for males. The index was validated with data that show increased sexual activity with being older and of minority status, with social traits such as physical development, having a romantic partner, and sensation seeking, and with psychosocial variables known to be associated with sexual behavior such as attitudes, norms, self-efficacy and intentions. PMID:17636374

  7. Psychosocial Outcomes of Sport Concussions in Youth Hockey Players.

    PubMed

    Mrazik, Martin; Brooks, Brian L; Jubinville, Andrea; Meeuwisse, Willem H; Emery, Carolyn A

    2016-06-01

    The objective is to evaluate the psychological outcomes arising from sport concussions. Participants included AA and AAA level Bantam and Midget hockey players (n = 672) between 12 and 17 years of age (mean = 15.0 years; SD = 1.2) enrolled in a large cohort study. All participants completed baseline tests including the Behavior Assessment System for Children, 2nd Edition (BASC2) and a pre-season medical questionnaire (PSQ) completed by parents that included a retrospective report of prior concussions and injuries. Players were assigned to 4 groups: no injury (NONE), concussion (CO) and musculoskeletal (MSK) injuries or both (COMB). Participants in the CO and COMB groups demonstrated significantly higher rates of psychological difficulties compared with other groups [F(63, 1800) = 1.43, p = .016, partial η(2) = 0.05) and on select clinical scales measuring atypicality, locus of control, anxiety, depression, sense of inadequacy, somatization, and attention. In addition, results from the composite clinical scales reached statistical significance for internalizing problems and emotional symptom index. Effect sizes were minimal with the exception of comparisons between the NONE and COMB groups where effect sizes were medium to large. Proportions above clinical cut-off scores set by the BASC2 were higher for the COMB group compared with CO, MSK, or NONE groups. Results suggest smaller percentage of youth may be more prone to psychological sequelae following concussion. PMID:27084731

  8. Psychosocial correlates of shape and weight concerns in overweight pre-adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sinton, Meghan M; Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Aspen, Vandana; Theim, Kelly R; Stein, Richard I; Saelens, Brian E; Epstein, Leonard H; Wilfley, Denise E

    2012-01-01

    Shape and weight concerns among overweight pre-adolescents heighten risk for eating disorders and weight gain. Treatment and prevention efforts require consideration of psychosocial factors that co-occur with these concerns. This study involved 200 overweight pre-adolescents, aged 7-12 years (M age = 9.8; SD = 1.4), presenting for family-based weight control treatment. Hierarchical regression was used to examine the influence of pre-adolescents' individual characteristics and social experiences, and their parents' psychological symptoms, on shape and weight concerns as assessed by the Child Eating Disorder Examination. Findings revealed that higher levels of dietary restraint, greater feelings of loneliness, elevated experiences with weight-related teasing, and higher levels of parents' eating disorder symptoms predicted higher shape and weight concerns among overweight pre-adolescents. Interventions addressing overweight pre-adolescents' disordered eating behaviors and social functioning, as well as their parents' disordered eating behaviors and attitudes, may be indicated for those endorsing shape and weight concerns. PMID:21695562

  9. Supportive Non-Parental Adults and Adolescent Psychosocial Functioning: Using Social Support as a Theoretical Framework

    PubMed Central

    Sterrett, E. M.; Jones, D. J.; McKee, L. G.; Kincaid, C.

    2014-01-01

    Supportive Non-Parental Adults (SNPAs), or non-parental adults who provide social support to youth, are present in the lives of many adolescents; yet to date, a guiding framework for organizing the existing literature on the provision of support provided by multiple types of SNPAS, such as teachers, natural mentors, and extended family members, as well as to inform future research efforts, is lacking. The aim of the current paper is to utilize the well-established lens of social support to integrate, across this broad range of literatures, recent findings regarding associations between SNPAs and four indices of adolescent psychosocial adjustment: academic functioning, self-esteem, and behavioral and emotional problems. Beyond offering an integrative framework for understanding the link between SNPAs and adolescent functioning, the issues reviewed here have potentially far-reaching consequences for adolescents and their families, as well as the professionals working with adolescents and their families in the health care, school, and community settings. PMID:21384233

  10. Psychosocial correlates of adolescent cannabis use: data from the Italian subsample of the second International Self-Reported Delinquency study.

    PubMed

    Maniglio, Roberto; Innamorati, Marco

    2014-01-01

    To provide a comprehensive picture of the whole spectrum of psychosocial factors potentially associated with adolescent cannabis use, bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess a variety of social, demographic, psychological, and behavioral correlates of last-month cannabis use and age of first use among 6,838 students. Results showed that only family problems, alcohol and/or other drug use/misuse, deviant behavior, and victimization were independently associated with either recent cannabis use or early onset of cannabis use when multiple, interacting factors were considered. Certain family and behavioral factors might be more important than other psychosocial correlates of adolescent cannabis use. PMID:25115199

  11. Identity-Processing Style, Psychosocial Resources, and Adolescents' Perceptions of Parent-Adolescent Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berzonsky, Michael D.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Meeus, Wim

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to generalize and extend research on identity styles among early adolescents in the Netherlands. The study investigated associations between perceived parent-adolescent relations and identity-processing styles among 13-year-old adolescents and the role identity styles played in mediating relationships between parent-adolescent…

  12. Building psychosocial assets and wellbeing among adolescent girls: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Leventhal, Katherine Sachs; Gillham, Jane; DeMaria, Lisa; Andrew, Gracy; Peabody, John; Leventhal, Steve

    2015-12-01

    We conducted a randomized controlled trial of a 5-month resilience-based program (Girls First Resilience Curriculum or RC) among 2308 rural adolescent girls at 57 government schools in Bihar, India. Local women with at least a 10th grade education served as group facilitators. Girls receiving RC improved more (vs. controls) on emotional resilience, self-efficacy, social-emotional assets, psychological wellbeing, and social wellbeing. Effects were not detected on depression. There was a small, statistically significant negative effect on anxiety (though not likely clinically significant). Results suggest psychosocial assets and wellbeing can be improved for girls in high-poverty, rural schools through a brief school-day program. To our knowledge, this is one of the largest developing country trials of a resilience-based school-day curriculum for adolescents. PMID:26547145

  13. Victimisation and psychosocial difficulties associated with sexual orientation concerns: a school-based study of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cotter, P; Corcoran, P; McCarthy, J; O'Suilleabháin, F; Carli, V; Hoven, C; Wasserman, C; Sarchiapone, M; Wasserman, D; Keeley, H

    2014-01-01

    This study examined victimisation, substance misuse, relationships, sexual activity, mental health difficulties and suicidal behaviour among adolescents with sexual orientation concerns in comparison to those without such concerns. 1112 Irish students (mean age 14 yrs) in 17 mixed-gender secondary schools completed a self-report questionnaire with standardised scales and measures of psychosocial difficulties. 58 students (5%) reported having concerns regarding their sexual orientation. Compared with their peers, they had higher levels of mental health difficulties and a markedly-increased prevalence of attempted suicide (29% vs. 2%), physical assault (40% vs. 8%), sexual assault (16%vs. 1%) and substance misuse. Almost all those (90%) with sexual orientation concerns reported having had sex compared to just 4% of their peers. These results highlight the significant difficulties associated with sexual orientation concerns in adolescents in Ireland. Early and targeted interventions are essential to address their needs. PMID:25551899

  14. Report of the Psychosocial Outcomes Workgroup of the Nursing and Social Sciences Council of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation: present status of research on psychosocial outcomes in cardiothoracic transplantation: review and recommendations for the field.

    PubMed

    Cupples, Sandra; Dew, Mary Amanda; Grady, Kathleen L; De Geest, Sabina; Dobbels, Fabienne; Lanuza, Dorothy; Paris, Wayne

    2006-06-01

    Cardiothoracic transplantation's success at prolonging life--and its economic costs--must be considered relative to its psychosocial benefits and costs. Moreover, psychosocial outcomes themselves influence long-term post-transplant morbidity and mortality rates. Although psychosocial outcomes--encompassing patients' physical, psychologic and social functioning, their management of their medical regimen and global quality of life--are the focus of many recent studies, these investigations have yet to yield many evidence-based interventions that are routinely applied to improve patient outcomes. Our goals were to summarize existing work on psychosocial outcomes, delineate areas requiring attention, offer recommendations for steps to advance the field, and thereby provide an impetus for the conduct of clinical trials of interventions to improve these outcomes. We concluded that research must generally shift away from descriptive studies and toward prospective and clinical trial designs to: (a) examine a full range of risk factors and clinical sequelae of patients' psychosocial status; and (b) evaluate the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions. In addition, these issues must be considered across all cardiothoracic recipients, including not only heart recipients but the less-studied populations of lung and heart-lung recipients, and must include longer-term (5+ years) outcomes than is typical in most work. The importance of adequately sized samples to ensure statistical power, and the need to construct study samples representative of the larger cardiothoracic transplant population, cannot be overestimated. Implementing these changes in research design and substantive focus will ensure that psychosocial outcomes research will have maximum impact on transplant recipients' clinical care. PMID:16730578

  15. Association between substance use and psychosocial characteristics among adolescents of the Seychelles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We examined the associations between substance use (cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and cannabis use) and psychosocial characteristics at the individual and family levels among adolescents of the Seychelles, a rapidly developing small island state in the African region. Methods A school survey was conducted in a representative sample of 1432 students aged 11-17 years from all secondary schools. Data came from a self-administered anonymous questionnaire conducted along a standard methodology (Global School-based Health Survey, GSHS). Risk behaviors and psychosocial characteristics were dichotomized. Association analyses were adjusted for a possible classroom effect. Results The prevalence of cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and cannabis use was higher in boys than in girls and increased with age. Age-adjusted and multivariate analyses showed that several individual level characteristics (e.g. suicidal ideation and truancy) and family level characteristics (e.g. poor parental monitoring) were associated with substance use among students. Conclusions Our results suggest that health promotion programs should simultaneously address multiple risk behaviors and take into account a wide range of psychosocial characteristics of the students at the individual and family levels. PMID:21985036

  16. [The NETWASS prevention model for early identification and assessment of adolescents in psychosocial crisis].

    PubMed

    Sommer, Friederike; Fiedler, Nora; Leuschner, Vincenz; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    The research-based NETWASS prevention model aims to enable school staff to identify students experiencing a psychosocial crisis that could lead to severe targeted school violence and to initiate appropriate support measures. A detailed analysis of the adolescent psychosocial crisis is conducted at an early stage by evaluating possible warning behaviors, crisis symptoms, a student’s individual and social background, and resources. The model was implemented in 98 schools. During the project duration of seven months staff from 59 schools reported 99 cases of a student’s psychosocial crisis. Three experts conducted a content analysis of the reported qualitative data focusing on crisis symptoms of the students as well as the initiated measures. Results show a broad spectrum of risk factors, whereas aggressive behavior of students was reported most frequently. On the basis of theoretical assumptions, the reported cases were divided into three distinct risk groups. A total of eight high-risk cases were observed and reported by the school staff. The school staff mostly reacted to the student crisis by initiating resource-orientated measures, the expertise of child and youth therapists was mostly requested for the high risk cases. By describing the impact of cases and choice of measures undertaken, the study aims to give an overview of incidents schools as well as clinical psychologists and therapists are confronted with. PMID:27216326

  17. Is involvement in school bullying associated with general health and psychosocial adjustment outcomes in adulthood?

    PubMed

    Sigurdson, J F; Wallander, J; Sund, A M

    2014-10-01

    The aim was to examine prospectively associations between bullying involvement at 14-15 years of age and self-reported general health and psychosocial adjustment in young adulthood, at 26-27 years of age. A large representative sample (N=2,464) was recruited and assessed in two counties in Mid-Norway in 1998 (T1) and 1999/2000 (T2) when the respondents had a mean age of 13.7 and 14.9, respectively, leading to classification as being bullied, bully-victim, being aggressive toward others or non-involved. Information about general health and psychosocial adjustment was gathered at a follow-up in 2012 (T4) (N=1,266) with a respondent mean age of 27.2. Logistic regression and ANOVA analyses showed that groups involved in bullying of any type in adolescence had increased risk for lower education as young adults compared to those non-involved. The group aggressive toward others also had a higher risk of being unemployed and receiving any kind of social help. Compared with the non-involved, those being bullied and bully-victims had increased risk of poor general health and high levels of pain. Bully-victims and those aggressive toward others during adolescence subsequently had increased risk of tobacco use and lower job functioning than non-involved. Further, those being bullied and aggressive toward others had increased risk of illegal drug use. Relations to live-in spouse/partner were poorer among those being bullied. Involvement in bullying, either as victim or perpetrator, has significant social costs even 12 years after the bullying experience. Accordingly, it will be important to provide early intervention for those involved in bullying in adolescence. PMID:24972719

  18. Institutional and personal spirituality/religiosity and psychosocial adjustment in adolescence: concurrent and longitudinal associations.

    PubMed

    Good, Marie; Willoughby, Teena

    2014-05-01

    Spirituality/religiosity is hypothesized to promote positive adjustment among adolescents. The goals of this study were to assess the unique and joint associations between two dimensions of spirituality/religiosity--institutional and personal--and a range of domains of psychosocial adjustment (intrapersonal well-being, quality of parent-child relationship, substance use, and academic orientation) and to evaluate the direction of effects in these associations. Participants included 803 predominately Canadian-born adolescents (53 % female) from Ontario, Canada, who completed a survey in grade 11 and grade 12. At the concurrent level, higher personal spirituality/religiosity consistently and uniquely predicted more positive adjustment in terms of well-being, parental relationship, and academic orientation. Higher institutional spirituality/religiosity uniquely and consistently predicted lower substance use, particularly when personal spirituality/religiosity also was high. With regard to the direction of effects (i.e., longitudinal associations), institutional spirituality/religiosity predicted lower future substance use. The results imply that the personal and institutional dimensions of spirituality/religiosity may be associated differentially with psychosocial adjustment, and it may be only in the domain of substance use that spirituality/religiosity predicts change in behavior over time. PMID:23955323

  19. Chronicity of depressive problems and the cortisol response to psychosocial stress in adolescents: the TRAILS study.

    PubMed

    Booij, Sanne H; Bouma, Esther M C; de Jonge, Peter; Ormel, Johan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2013-05-01

    Clinical and epidemiological studies, further supported by meta-analytic studies, indicate a possible association between chronicity (i.e., persistence or recurrence) of depression and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responsiveness to psychosocial stress. In the present study, we examined whether and how chronicity of depressive problems predicts cortisol responses to a standardized social stress test in adolescents. Data were collected in a high-risk focus sample (n=351) of the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) cohort, a large prospective population study with bi- to triennial measurements. Depressive problems were assessed around age 11, 13.5, and 16. Cortisol levels were measured in saliva, sampled before, during, and after the Groningen Social Stress Test (GSST), to determine the cortisol response to psychosocial stress. The area under the curve with respect to the increase (AUCi) (i.e., change from baseline) of the cortisol response was used as a measure of HPA axis response. By means of linear regression analysis and repeated-measures analysis of variance, it was examined whether chronicity of depressive problems predicted the cortisol response to the GSST around the age of 16. Chronicity of depressive problems was significantly associated with cortisol stress responses. The relationship was curvilinear, with recent-onset depressive problems predicting an increased cortisol response, and more chronic depressive problems a blunted response. The results of this study suggest that depressive problems initially increase cortisol responses to stress, but that this pattern reverses when depressive problems persist over prolonged periods of time. PMID:22963816

  20. The (co-)occurrence of problematic video gaming, substance use, and psychosocial problems in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    VAN ROOIJ, ANTONIUS J.; KUSS, DARIA J.; GRIFFITHS, MARK D.; SHORTER, GILLIAN W.; SCHOENMAKERS, M. TIM; VAN DE MHEEN, DIKE

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: The current study explored the nature of problematic (addictive) video gaming (PVG) and the association with game type, psychosocial health, and substance use. Methods: Data were collected using a paper and pencil survey in the classroom setting. Three samples were aggregated to achieve a total sample of 8478 unique adolescents. Scales included measures of game use, game type, the Video game Addiction Test (VAT), depressive mood, negative self-esteem, loneliness, social anxiety, education performance, and use of cannabis, alcohol and nicotine (smoking). Results: Findings confirmed problematic gaming is most common amongst adolescent gamers who play multiplayer online games. Boys (60%) were more likely to play online games than girls (14%) and problematic gamers were more likely to be boys (5%) than girls (1%). High problematic gamers showed higher scores on depressive mood, loneliness, social anxiety, negative self-esteem, and self-reported lower school performance. Nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis using boys were almost twice more likely to report high PVG than non-users. Conclusions: It appears that online gaming in general is not necessarily associated with problems. However, problematic gamers do seem to play online games more often, and a small subgroup of gamers – specifically boys – showed lower psychosocial functioning and lower grades. Moreover, associations with alcohol, nicotine, and cannabis use are found. It would appear that problematic gaming is an undesirable problem for a small subgroup of gamers. The findings encourage further exploration of the role of psychoactive substance use in problematic gaming. PMID:25317339

  1. [Violence and psychosocial risks: narratives of adolescents living in shelters in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Botelho, Adriana Pedreira; Moraes, Mayara Cristina Muniz Bastos; Leite, Ligia Costa

    2015-01-01

    This article contains part of the results of the "Youth, Disaffiliation and Violence" extension project developed at the Institute of Psychiatry of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro in 2008. It seeks to present experiences of violence experienced in three different contexts, namely in the family home, on the streets and in shelter units (SU), from the standpoint of adolescents. Thirty adolescents in five SUs in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro were interviewed. A qualitative approach was used in order to examine a relatively unknown reality, seeking a contextual understanding from the perspective of the social actors. To achieve this goal, this study sought the contribution of oral reports as the methodology for data collection. The theory of communication was the method of analysis, through the objective/subjective narratives of experiences of adolescents, establishing categories and points of analysis that permeate these experiences. The results revealed that youths housed in shelters are exposed to various psychosocial risks related to violence experienced in the environments visited. Lastly, the need for setting up an intersectorial network aiming at providing effective and comprehensive care for adolescents was highlighted. PMID:25650593

  2. [Psychosocial Characteristics of Adolescent Girls with Posttraumatic Stress Disorders and Substance Use Disorders].

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Monika; Baldus, Christiane; Herschelmann, Susanne; Schäfer, Ingo; Thomasius, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    Psychosocial Characteristics of Adolescent Girls with Posttraumatic Stress Disorders and Substance Use Disorders Already in adolescence posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUD) often occur comorbid. SUD is usually in the focus of treatment and underlying PTSD is not always recognized. To date there is no explicit offer for the simultaneous treatment of both clinical pictures in adolescence. In the present study we tested whether the group intervention Seeking Safety, that is implemented successfully in adulthood, would also be interesting for the youth clientele. In addition we analyzed the characteristics of a target group of girls and young women between 14 and 21 years, that could be reached for such a program in a German city. In the present study we conducted 39 complete interviews that enable an estimation of the various strains and symptoms of those affected. The results clarify that female adolescents with a dual diagnosis PTSD and SUD are currently not sufficiently addressed by the supply system and could benefit from a specific treatment like Seeking Safety. PMID:27595808

  3. Quality of life, self-esteem and psychosocial factors in adolescents with acne vulgaris*

    PubMed Central

    Vilar, Gustavo Nunes; dos Santos, Laís Araújo; Sobral Filho, Jader Freire

    2015-01-01

    Background Dermatological diseases, among which acne vulgaris, have psychological impact on the affected generating feelings of guilt, shame and social isolation. Objectives To compare quality of life, self-esteem and other psychosocial variables amongst adolescents with and without acne vulgaris, and between levels of severity. Methods Cross-sectional observational study in a sample of 355 high school students from the city of João Pessoa. Data collection was performed with questionnaires and clinical-dermatological evaluation. The primary variables were the incidence of AV; quality of life, set by the Children's Dermatology Quality of Life Index and Dermatology Quality of Life Index; and self-esteem, measured by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. For calculation of statistical tests, we used the SPSS 20.0 software, considering p=0.05. Results The sample, with an average age of 16, showed 89.3% prevalence of acne vulgaris. The most prevalent psychosocial issue was "afraid that acne will never cease", present in 58% of affected youth. The median score of Quality of Life in Children's Dermatology Index was different amongst students with and without acne vulgaris (p=0.003), as well as the Quality of Life in Dermatology (p=0.038) scores, so that students with acne vulgaris have worse QoL. There was a correlation between the severity of acne vulgaris and worse quality of life. Self-esteem was not significantly associated with the occurrence or severity of acne vulgaris. Conclusions acne vulgaris assumes significance in view of its high prevalence and the effect on quality of life of adolescents, more severe at the more pronounced stages of disease (p<0.001). The psychosocial impact of acne vulgaris should be valued in the management of patients with this condition. PMID:26560206

  4. Adult psychosocial outcomes of children with specific language impairment, pragmatic language impairment and autism

    PubMed Central

    Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Watt, Helen J; Line, E A; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2009-01-01

    Background: The few studies that have tracked children with developmental language disorder to adulthood have found that these individuals experience considerable difficulties with psychosocial adjustment (for example, academic, vocational and social aptitude). Evidence that some children also develop autistic symptomatology over time has raised suggestions that developmental language disorder may be a high-functioning form of an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It is not yet clear whether these outcomes vary between individuals with different subtypes of language impairment. Aims: To compare the adult psychosocial outcomes of children with specific language impairment (SLI), pragmatic language impairment (PLI) and ASD. Methods & Procedures: All participants took part in research as children. In total, there were 19 young adults with a childhood history of Specific Language Impairment (M age = 24;8), seven with PLI (M age = 22;3), 11 with high functioning ASD (M age = 21;9) and 12 adults with no history of developmental disorder (Typical; n = 12; M age = 21;6). At follow-up, participants and their parents were interviewed to elicit information about psychosocial outcomes. Outcomes & Results: Participants in the SLI group were most likely to pursue vocational training and work in jobs not requiring a high level of language/literacy ability. The PLI group tended to obtain higher levels of education and work in ‘skilled’ professions. The ASD participants had lower levels of independence and more difficulty obtaining employment than the PLI and SLI participants. All groups had problems establishing social relationships, but these difficulties were most prominent in the PLI and ASD groups. A small number of participants in each group were found to experience affective disturbances. The PLI and SLI groups showed lower levels of autistic symptomatology than the ASD group. Conclusions & Implications: The between-group differences in autistic symptomatology provide

  5. Mexican-Origin Adolescent Mothers' Stressors and Psychosocial Functioning: Examining Ethnic Identity Affirmation and Familism as Moderators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda A.

    2011-01-01

    Mexican-origin adolescent mothers are at increased risk for poor psychosocial functioning as a result of various stressors with which they must contend; however, existing theory suggests that cultural strengths may help mitigate the negative effects of stress. As such, the current study examined the associations between cultural and economic…

  6. On the Association between Adolescent Autonomy and Psychosocial Functioning: Examining Decisional Independence from a Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Petegem, Stijn; Beyers, Wim; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Soenens, Bart

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we focus on the concept of adolescent autonomy and its relation with psychosocial functioning. Specifically, we aim to differentiate between 2 prevailing conceptualizations of autonomy, that is, (a) autonomy defined as independence versus dependence and (b) autonomy defined as self-endorsed versus controlled functioning. A…

  7. HIV Risk Behavior and Theory-Based Psychosocial Determinants in Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basen-Engquist, Karen; Tortolero, Susan; Parcel, Guy S.

    1997-01-01

    Assessed differences between Hispanic and non-Hispanic White adolescents' HIV risk behaviors and psychosocial determinants. Surveys indicated that attitude was the strongest predictor of intention and risky behavior for both sexes. There were ethnic differences in sexual experience and condom use for females but not for males. Other predictor…

  8. Friendship Quality and Psychosocial Outcomes among Children with Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Heverly-Fitt, Sara; Wimsatt, Maureen A.; Menzer, Melissa M.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Dennis, Maureen; Taylor, Gerry; Stancin, Terry; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Vannatta, Kathryn; Bigler, Erin D.; Yeates, Keith Owen

    2014-01-01

    This study examined differences in friendship quality between children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and orthopedic injury (OI) and behavioral outcomes for children from both groups. Participants were 41 children with TBI and 43 children with OI (M age = 10.4). Data were collected using peer- and teacher-reported measures of participants’ social adjustment and parent-reported measures of children’s post-injury behaviors. Participants and their mutually nominated best friends also completed a measure of the quality of their friendships. Children with TBI reported significantly more support and satisfaction in their friendships than children with OI. Children with TBI and their mutual best friend were more similar in their reports of friendship quality compared to children with OI and their mutual best friends. Additionally, for children with TBI who were rejected by peers, friendship support buffered against maladaptive psychosocial outcomes, and predicted skills related to social competence. Friendship satisfaction was related to higher teacher ratings of social skills for the TBI group only. Positive and supportive friendships play an important role for children with TBI, especially for those not accepted by peers. Such friendships may protect children with TBI who are rejected against maladaptive psychosocial outcomes, and promote skills related to social competence. PMID:24840021

  9. Mental Health and Functional Outcomes of Maternal and Adolescent Reports of Adolescent Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Frances; Lifford, Kate J.; Thomas, Hollie V.; Thapar, Anita

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the value of maternal and self-ratings of adolescent depression by investigating the extent to which these reports predicted a range of mental health and functional outcomes 4 years later. The potential influence of mother's own depressed mood on her ratings of adolescent depression and suicidal ideation on adolescent outcome…

  10. The Effects of Audiobooks on the Psychosocial Adjustment of Pre-Adolescents and Adolescents with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milani, Anna; Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Molteni, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present research study was to understand what benefits the use of audiobooks (both school-books and books of various genres, recorded on digital media) could bring to preadolescents and adolescents with developmental dyslexia. Two groups, each consisting of 20 adolescents, were compared. The experimental group used the…

  11. Evidence for the indirect effects of perceived public stigma on psychosocial outcomes: The mediating role of self-stigma.

    PubMed

    Kao, Yu-Chen; Lien, Yin-Ju; Chang, Hsin-An; Wang, Sheng-Chiang; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Loh, Ching-Hui

    2016-06-30

    This study examined the possible mediating role of self-stigma in the relationship between perceived public stigma and psychosocial outcomes and how this mechanism may be contingent on illness severity in a non-Western (Chinese) sample. A total of 251 participants, namely 151 psychiatric outpatients with psychotic disorders and 100 psychiatric outpatients without psychotic disorders, completed a questionnaire on stigma and psychosocial outcomes that covered topics such as self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and subjective quality of life (QoL). Using a cross-sectional design, ordinary least squares regression and bootstrapping mediation analyses were used to test whether self-stigma mediated the relationship between perceived public stigma and psychosocial outcomes and whether this mediating process was moderated by diagnostic status. The results indicated that self-stigma mediated the effect of perceived public stigma on psychosocial outcomes such as self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and subjective QoL among both patients with psychotic disorders and those without psychotic disorders after controlling for demographic and clinical characteristics. Further, moderated mediation analyses revealed that the indirect effect of perceived public stigma on psychosocial outcomes were not moderated by the status of psychotic diagnoses. Self-stigma might be an essential and tractable target for interventions aimed at breaking the vicious cycle of discrimination and stigmatization toward people with mental illness regardless of their diagnoses. PMID:27111212

  12. Fluid Intelligence and Psychosocial Outcome: From Logical Problem Solving to Social Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Huepe, David; Roca, María; Salas, Natalia; Canales-Johnson, Andrés; Rivera-Rei, Álvaro A.; Zamorano, Leandro; Concepción, Aimée; Manes, Facundo; Ibañez, Agustín

    2011-01-01

    Background While fluid intelligence has proved to be central to executive functioning, logical reasoning and other frontal functions, the role of this ability in psychosocial adaptation has not been well characterized. Methodology/Principal Findings A random-probabilistic sample of 2370 secondary school students completed measures of fluid intelligence (Raven's Progressive Matrices, RPM) and several measures of psychological adaptation: bullying (Delaware Bullying Questionnaire), domestic abuse of adolescents (Conflict Tactic Scale), drug intake (ONUDD), self-esteem (Rosenberg's Self Esteem Scale) and the Perceived Mental Health Scale (Spanish adaptation). Lower fluid intelligence scores were associated with physical violence, both in the role of victim and victimizer. Drug intake, especially cannabis, cocaine and inhalants and lower self-esteem were also associated with lower fluid intelligence. Finally, scores on the perceived mental health assessment were better when fluid intelligence scores were higher. Conclusions/Significance Our results show evidence of a strong association between psychosocial adaptation and fluid intelligence, suggesting that the latter is not only central to executive functioning but also forms part of a more general capacity for adaptation to social contexts. PMID:21957464

  13. Trajectories of family management practices and early adolescent behavioral outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Te; Dishion, Thomas J; Stormshak, Elizabeth A; Willett, John B

    2011-09-01

    Stage-environment fit theory was used to examine the reciprocal lagged relations between family management practices and early adolescent problem behavior during the middle school years. In addition, the potential moderating roles of family structure and of gender were explored. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to describe patterns of growth in family management practices and adolescents' behavioral outcomes and to detect predictors of interindividual differences in initial status and rate of change. The sample comprised approximately 1,000 adolescents between ages 11 years and 15 years. The results indicated that adolescents' antisocial behaviors and substance use increased and their positive behavioral engagement decreased over time. As adolescent age increased, parental knowledge of their adolescent's activities decreased, as did parental rule making and support. The level and rate of change in family management and adolescent behavioral outcomes varied by family structure and by gender. Reciprocal longitudinal associations between parenting practices and adolescent problem behavior were found. Specifically, parenting practices predicted subsequent adolescent behavior, and adolescent behavior predicted subsequent parenting practices. In addition, parental warmth moderated the effects of parental knowledge and rule making on adolescent antisocial behavior and substance use over time. PMID:21688899

  14. The effects of religious socialization and religious identity on psychosocial functioning in Korean American adolescents from immigrant families.

    PubMed

    Seol, Kyoung Ok; Lee, Richard M

    2012-06-01

    This study examined religious identity as a mediator and moderator between religious socialization by parents, peers, and religious mentors and psychosocial functioning (i.e., social competence, internalizing and externalizing behavior problems) among 155 Korean American adolescents. Religious socialization by parents and peers were positively associated with adolescents' religious identity and social competence. Religious identity fully mediated the relationship between religious socialization by parents and social competence, and partially mediated the relationship between religious socialization by peers and social competence. A competing model with religious identity as a moderator found adolescents with low religious identity showed significantly more externalizing behavior problems when they received more religious socialization from parents. PMID:22506544

  15. Outcome Expectancies and Risk Behaviors in Maltreated Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickoletti, Patrick; Taussig, Heather N.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined positive and negative outcome expectancies for risk behaviors, and their association with engagement in risk behaviors, in a sample of 149 maltreated adolescents. "Outcome Expectancies" are evaluative social cognitions about what will occur as a consequence of one's actions. Risk behaviors and outcome expectancies for substance…

  16. Conduct Problems in Childhood and Adolescence: Developmental Trajectories, Predictors and Outcomes in a Six-Year Follow Up.

    PubMed

    López-Romero, Laura; Romero, Estrella; Andershed, Henrik

    2015-10-01

    Understanding youth conduct problems requires examination from a developmental perspective, analyzing distinctive pathways across childhood and adolescence, and identifying early predictors which will lead to specific adolescent outcomes. Bearing this in mind, developmental trajectories of conduct problems were identified from a person-oriented perspective, and using data collected from three waves over a six-year period, in a sample of Spanish children aged 6-11 at the onset of the study. Conduct problems showed five distinctive trajectories which were grouped into three major pathways in further analyses: Stable low, Stable high, and Decreasing. Associations with early personality and psychopathic traits, as well as with a wide range of adolescent behavioral and psychosocial outcomes were examined, revealing the Stable high group as exhibiting the highest risk profile. These results contribute to improving our knowledge about one of the most relevant problems in youth populations, and will help in refining interventions strategies by recognizing the developmental heterogeneity of the construct. PMID:25354563

  17. Psychosocial Correlates of Shape and Weight Concerns in Overweight Pre-Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sinton, Meghan M.; Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Aspen, Vandana; Theim, Kelly R.; Stein, Richard I.; Saelens, Brian E.; Epstein, Leonard H.; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2013-01-01

    Shape and weight concerns among overweight pre-adolescents heighten risk for eating disorders and weight gain. Treatment and prevention efforts require consideration of psychosocial factors that co-occur with these concerns. This study involved 200 overweight pre-adolescents, aged 7–12 years (M age = 9.8; SD = 1.4), presenting for family-based weight control treatment. Hierarchical regression was used to examine the influence of pre-adolescents’ individual characteristics and social experiences, and their parents’ psychological symptoms, on shape and weight concerns as assessed by the Child Eating Disorder Examination. Findings revealed that higher levels of dietary restraint, greater feelings of loneliness, elevated experiences with weight-related teasing, and higher levels of parents’ eating disorder symptoms predicted higher shape and weight concerns among overweight pre-adolescents. Interventions addressing overweight pre-adolescents’ disordered eating behaviors and social functioning, as well as their parents’ disordered eating behaviors and attitudes, may be indicated for those endorsing shape and weight concerns. PMID:21695562

  18. African American Adolescents and New Media: Associations with HIV/STI risk behavior and psychosocial variables

    PubMed Central

    Whiteley, Laura B.; Brown, Larry K.; Swenson, Rebecca R.; Romer, Daniel; DiClemente, Ralph J.P.; Salazar, Laura F.; Vanable, Peter A.; Carey, Michael P.; Valois, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Cell phones and online media are used frequently but we know little about their use among African American adolescents. This study examines the frequency of such use and its relationship to psychosocial variables and STI/HIV risk behavior. Setting/Participants 1,518 African American, 13 to 18 years of age, from 2 Northeast U.S. cities (Providence, RI; Syracuse, NY) and 2 Southeast U.S. cities (Columbia, SC; Macon, GA) were assessed from 2008–2009. Design Participants were assessed on frequency of cell phone and Internet use, psychological constructs (depression, life satisfaction, impulsivity) and HIV/STI risk behaviors (history of intercourse, sexual sensation seeking attitudes, peer sexual risks norms) with reliable scales and measures using an audio computer-assisted self-interview. Results Over 90% of African American adolescents used cell phones everyday or most days and 60% used social networking sites everyday or most days (96% used Myspace). Greater requency of cell phone use was associated with sexual sensation seeking (p=.000), riskier peer sexual norms (p=.000), and impulsivity (p=.016). Greater frequency of Internet use was associated with a history of oral/vaginal/anal sex (OR= 1.03, CI=1.0–1.05) and sexual sensation seeking (p=.000). Conclusion These findings suggest that riskier youth are online and using cell phones frequently. The Internet and cell phones maybe useful platforms for targeted health promotion and prevention efforts with AA adolescents. PMID:21749027

  19. The Chauvet 2014 Meeting Report: Psychiatric and Psychosocial Evaluation and Outcomes of Upper Extremity Grafted Patients.

    PubMed

    Jowsey-Gregoire, Sheila G; Kumnig, Martin; Morelon, Emmanuel; Moreno, Elisa; Petruzzo, Palmina; Seulin, Christian

    2016-07-01

    Under the auspices for the International Society on Hand and Composite Tissue Allotransplantation, a section of The Transplantation Society (IHCTAS), a meeting was convened on March 21-22, 2014 in Paris to review the following areas that were deemed significant in the understanding of the psychosocial evaluation and outcomes of upper extremity transplant recipients: required domains of the evaluation, screening instruments, clinical monitoring pretransplant, clinical monitoring posttransplant, patient and team expectations, body image, psychiatric complications, functional goals and quality of life, ethics and media relations. Experts in the fields of psychiatry and psychology, transplantation, social work, ethics, and transplant administration met and reviewed center experiences and literature. The attendees highlighted the importance and the complexity of the psychiatric assessment in this field of transplantation. Moreover, the necessity to develop common instruments and evaluation protocols to predict psychosocial outcomes as well as to understand whether we are transplanting the right patients and how the transplantation is affecting the patients were pointed out. Psychiatric complications in upper extremity transplanted patients have been reported by the majority of teams. Preexisting psychiatric difficulties, the initial trauma of amputation, or adjusting to the transplantation process itself (especially the medical follow-up and rehabilitation process) appeared to be important factors. Monitoring during the whole follow-up was recommended to detect psychiatric issues and to facilitate and ensure long-term adherence. The participants proposed an annual meeting format to build upon the findings of this inaugural meeting to be called the Chauvet Workgroup meeting. PMID:26636738

  20. Biomedical risk, psychosocial influences, and developmental outcomes: lessons from the pediatric HIV population in Africa.

    PubMed

    Abubakar, Amina

    2014-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is home to millions of HIV-affected children. These children are likely to experience multiple developmental delays. In this chapter, I present data highlighting compromised neurobehavioral, mental health, and scholastic outcomes for children affected by HIV. Furthermore, I discuss biomedical factors (e.g., disease severity and nutritional status) that may exacerbate the adverse effects of HIV on childhood outcomes. I also present evidence on how psychosocial risk factors such as poor maternal mental health, orphanhood, and poverty may aggravate the effects of HIV. The concluding section of the chapter highlights conceptual and methodological refinements in research on the impact of HIV on child development in Sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:25512044

  1. Conflict Styles and Outcomes in Families with Adolescent Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicognani, Elvira; Zani, Bruna

    2010-01-01

    The role of conflict in parent-adolescent relationships is a topic of considerable theoretical debate and empirical investigation; however, limited attention has been devoted to the strategies used by family members to deal with disagreements and their outcomes and how they differ from early to late adolescence. This study explored conflict styles…

  2. Does Smoking Intervention Influence Adolescent Substance Use Disorder Treatment Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Mark G.; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2008-01-01

    Although tobacco use is reported by the majority of substance use disordered (SUD) youth, little work has examined tobacco focused interventions with this population. The present study is an initial investigation of the effect of a tobacco use intervention on adolescent SUD treatment outcomes. Participants were adolescents in SUD treatment taking…

  3. Early Adult Outcomes of Adolescents Who Deliberately Poisoned Themselves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Richard; Pickles, Andrew; Aglan, Azza; Harrington, Val; Burroughs, Heather; Kerfoot, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To describe the early adult psychopathological and social outcomes of adolescents who deliberately poisoned themselves. Method: Prospective cohort study with a 6-year follow-up of 132 of 158 (84%) adolescents who, between ages 11 and 16 years, had taken part in a randomized trial of a brief family intervention after deliberate…

  4. Childhood Victimization: Relationship to Adolescent Pregnancy Outcome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens-Simon, Catherine; McAnarney, Elizabeth R.

    1994-01-01

    This study, involving 127 poor black pregnant girls (12 to 18 years old) of whom 33% reported previous physical or sexual abuse, found that abused adolescents scored significantly higher on stress and depression scales and rated their families as less supportive than did nonabused adolescents. Abused adolescents were also more likely to report…

  5. Long-term psychosocial outcomes among bereaved siblings of children with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Abby R.; Postier, Andrea; Osenga, Kaci; Kreicbergs, Ulrika; Neville, Bridget; Dussel, Veronica; Wolfe, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Context The death of a child from cancer affects the entire family. Little is known about the long-term psychosocial outcomes of bereaved siblings. Objectives To describe: (1) the prevalence of risky health-behaviors, psychological distress, and social support among bereaved siblings; (2) potentially modifiable factors associated with poor outcomes. Methods Bereaved siblings were eligible for this dual-center, cross-sectional, survey-based study if they were ≥16 years-old and their parents had enrolled in one of three prior studies about caring for children with cancer at end of life. Linear regression models identified associations between personal perspectives before, during, and after the family's cancer experience and outcomes (health-behaviors, psychological distress, and social support). Results Fifty-eight siblings completed surveys (62% response rate). They were approximately 12 years bereaved, with a mean age of 26 years at the time of the survey (SD=7.8). Anxiety, depression, and illicit substance use increased during the year following their brother/sister's death, but then returned to baseline. Siblings who reported dissatisfaction with communication, poor preparation for death, missed opportunities to say “goodbye,” and/or a perceived negative impact of the cancer experience on relationships tended to have higher distress and lower social support scores (p<0.001-0.031). Almost all siblings reported their loss still affected them; half stated the experience impacted current educational and career goals. Conclusion How siblings experience the death of a child with cancer may impact their long-term psychosocial well-being. Sibling-directed communication and concurrent supportive care during the cancer experience and the year following sibling death may mitigate poor long-term outcomes. PMID:24880001

  6. The bidirectional relationships between online victimization and psychosocial problems in adolescents: a comparison with real-life victimization.

    PubMed

    van den Eijnden, Regina; Vermulst, Ad; van Rooij, Antonius J; Scholte, Ron; van de Mheen, Dike

    2014-05-01

    Although peer victimization is of major concern and adolescents spend increasing amounts of time on the Internet, relatively little is known about the psychosocial antecedents and consequences of online victimization. The main aim of this study was to compare the psychosocial antecedents and consequences of online versus real-life victimization. More specifically, the bidirectional relationship between online and real-life victimization on the one hand and psychosocial problems (i.e., loneliness and social anxiety) on the other was examined. In addition, the moderating role of online aggression in the relationship between online victimization and subsequent psychosocial problems was studied. This prospective study, consisting of three annual measurements, was conducted among a sample of 831 adolescents (50.3 % girls) aged 11-15, of which most (80.2 %) had a Dutch ethnic background. The results indicate a unidirectional relationship whereby loneliness and social anxiety predict an increase in latter online victimization rather than the reverse. A bidirectional relationship was found for real-life victimization: loneliness (but not social anxiety) predicted an increase in latter real-life victimization, which in turn predicted an increase in subsequent social anxiety (but not loneliness). No moderating effects of online aggression were found. The findings of the present study suggest that negative online and in real life peer interactions have a differential meaning for, and impact on adolescents' well-being. PMID:23979296

  7. Psychosocial working conditions: an analysis of emotional symptoms and conduct problems amongst adolescent students.

    PubMed

    Plenty, Stephanie; Ostberg, Viveca; Almquist, Ylva B; Augustine, Lilly; Modin, Bitte

    2014-06-01

    This study explored how psychosocial features of the schoolwork environment are associated with students' mental health. Data was drawn from 3699 ninth grade (15 year-old) Swedish students participating in the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey. Using Structural Equation Modelling, perceived school demands, decision control and social support from teachers, classmates and parents were examined in relation to students' emotional and conduct problems. Higher demands were associated with greater emotional symptoms and conduct problems. Although weaker social support predicted emotional symptoms and conduct problems, the relative influence of teachers, classmates and parents differed. Teacher support was more closely associated with conduct problems, particularly for girls, while classmate support was more strongly related to emotional symptoms. The findings indicate that while excessive school pressure is associated with poorer mental health, social support can assist in optimising adolescents' emotional health and adaptive behaviour, as well as shaping perceptions of demands. PMID:24793388

  8. Achievement for All: improving psychosocial outcomes for students with special educational needs and disabilities.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, Neil; Lendrum, Ann; Barlow, Alexandra; Wigelsworth, Michael; Squires, Garry

    2013-04-01

    Students with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND) are at a greatly increased risk of experiencing poor psychosocial outcomes. Developing effective interventions that address the cause of these outcomes has therefore become a major policy priority in recent years. We report on a national evaluation of the Achievement for All (AfA) programme that was designed to improve outcomes for students with SEND through: (1) academic assessment, tracking and intervention, (2) structured conversations with parents, and (3) developing provision to improve wider outcomes (e.g. positive relationships). Using a quasi-experimental, pre-test-post-test control group design, we assessed the impact of AfA on teacher ratings of the behaviour problems, positive relationships and bullying of students with SEND over an 18-month period. Participants were 4758 students with SEND drawn from 323 schools across England. Our main impact analysis demonstrated that AfA had a significant impact on all three response variables when compared to usual practice. Hierarchical linear modelling of data from the intervention group highlighted a range of school-level contextual factors and implementation activities and student-level individual differences that moderated the impact of AfA on our study outcomes. The implications of our findings are discussed, and study strengths and limitations are noted. PMID:23380579

  9. Clustering of health-related behaviors, health outcomes and demographics in Dutch adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies show several health-related behaviors to cluster in adolescents. This has important implications for public health. Interrelated behaviors have been shown to be most effectively targeted by multimodal interventions addressing wider-ranging improvements in lifestyle instead of via separate interventions targeting individual behaviors. However, few previous studies have taken into account a broad, multi-disciplinary range of health-related behaviors and connected these behavioral patterns to health-related outcomes. This paper presents an analysis of the clustering of a broad range of health-related behaviors with relevant demographic factors and several health-related outcomes in adolescents. Methods Self-report questionnaire data were collected from a sample of 2,690 Dutch high school adolescents. Behavioral patterns were deducted via Principal Components Analysis. Subsequently a Two-Step Cluster Analysis was used to identify groups of adolescents with similar behavioral patterns and health-related outcomes. Results Four distinct behavioral patterns describe the analyzed individual behaviors: 1- risk-prone behavior, 2- bully behavior, 3- problematic screen time use, and 4- sedentary behavior. Subsequent cluster analysis identified four clusters of adolescents. Multi-problem behavior was associated with problematic physical and psychosocial health outcomes, as opposed to those exerting relatively few unhealthy behaviors. These associations were relatively independent of demographics such as ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status. Conclusions The results show that health-related behaviors tend to cluster, indicating that specific behavioral patterns underlie individual health behaviors. In addition, specific patterns of health-related behaviors were associated with specific health outcomes and demographic factors. In general, unhealthy behavior on account of multiple health-related behaviors was associated with both poor psychosocial

  10. Seizure and Psychosocial Outcomes of Childhood and Juvenile Onset Generalized Epilepsies: Wolf in Sheep's Clothing, or Well-Dressed Wolf?

    PubMed

    Nickels, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Studies of generalized electroclinical syndromes can provide guidance regarding long-term seizure, cognitive, and psychosocial outcomes. Childhood absence epilepsy, juvenile absence epilepsy, juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, and idiopathic generalized epilepsy with generalized tonic-clonic seizures alone are electroclinical syndromes typically associated with normal intellect and good response to antiseizure medications. However, studies have demonstrated significantly poorer psychosocial outcomes than expected for these syndromes, regardless of seizure control. Potential causes for this include underlying abnormalities in social skills, social stigma, and underlying abnormalities in brain development and maturation. PMID:26316843

  11. Social desirability is associated with some physical activity, psychosocial variables and sedentary behavior but not self-reported physical activity among adolescent males

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined whether controlling for social desirability improved the association between self-reported and objectively measured physical activity among adolescent males and the extent that psychosocial variables predict physical activity after controlling for social desirability. Participant...

  12. LGBTQ adolescents and young adults raised within a Christian religious context: positive and negative outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Angie L; Galliher, Renee V

    2012-12-01

    Religious contexts have traditionally been understood as protective for a variety of psychosocial health outcomes. However, the generalizability of these findings to youth who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender or queer (LGBTQ) is questioned due to denominational teachings on same-sex attractions and sexual behavior. Eight adolescents (15-17 years) and 11 young adults (19-24 years) who identify as LGBTQ raised in Christian religious affiliations (16 participants raised in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, 2 participants raised Catholic and 1 participant raised Presbyterian) participated in individual in-depth interviews, journal writings, and focus groups to provide greater insight into the lived experiences of LGBTQ individuals raised within a Christian religious environment. Findings suggest the religious context is related to both positive and negative outcomes. Eight themes are explored using participant's own words and experiences. Directions for future research and implications are discussed. PMID:22910195

  13. Psychosocial and Cardiac Outcomes of Yoga for ICD Patients: A Randomized Clinical Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Toise, Stefanie C.F.; Sears, Samuel F.; Schoenfeld, Mark H.; Blitzer, Mark L.; Marieb, Mark A.; Drury, John H.; Slade, Martin D.; Donohue, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Because as many as 46% of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) patients experience clinical symptoms of shock anxiety, this randomized controlled study evaluated the efficacy of adapted yoga (vs. usual care) in reducing clinical psychosocial risks shown to impact morbidity and mortality in ICD recipients. Methods Forty-six participants were randomized to a control group or an 8-week adapted yoga group that followed a standardized protocol with weekly classes and home practice. Medical and psychosocial data were collected at baseline and follow-up, then compared and analyzed. Results Total shock anxiety decreased for the yoga group and increased for the control group, t(4.43, 36), p < 0.0001, with significant differences between these changes. Similarly, consequential anxiety decreased for the yoga group but increased for the control group t(2.86,36) p = 0.007. Compared to the control, the yoga group had greater overall self-compassion, t(–2.84,37), p = 0.007, and greater mindfulness, t(–2.10,37) p = 0.04, at the end of the study. Exploratory analyses utilizing a linear model (R2 = .98) ofobserved device-treated ventricular (DTV) events revealed that the expected number of DTV events in the yoga group was significantly lower than in the control group (p<.0001). Compared to the control, the yoga group had a 32% lower risk of experiencing device-related firings at end of follow-up. Conclusions Our study demonstrated psychosocial benefits from a program of adapted yoga (vs. usual care) for ICD recipients. This data supports continued research to better understand the role of complementary medicine to address ICD-specific stress in cardiac outcomes. PMID:23981048

  14. The effects of audiobooks on the psychosocial adjustment of pre-adolescents and adolescents with dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Milani, Anna; Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Molteni, Massimo

    2010-02-01

    The objective of the present research study was to understand what benefits the use of audiobooks (both school-books and books of various genres, recorded on digital media) could bring to preadolescents and adolescents with developmental dyslexia. Two groups, each consisting of 20 adolescents, were compared. The experimental group used the audiobooks, while the control group continued to use normal books. After 5 months of experimental training, the experimental group showed a significant improvement in reading accuracy, with reduced unease and emotional-behavioural disorders, as well as an improvement in school performance and a greater motivation and involvement in school activities. PMID:19725019

  15. 24- and 36-Week Outcomes for the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS)

    PubMed Central

    Piacentini, John; Bennett, Shannon; Compton, Scott; Kendall, Phillip; Birmaher, Boris; Albano, Anne Marie; March, John; Sherrill, Joel; Sakolsky, Dara; Ginsburg, Golda; Rynn, Moira; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Gosch, Elizabeth; Waslick, Bruce; Iyengar, Satish; McCracken, James; Walkup, John

    2014-01-01

    Objective We report active treatment group differences on response and remission rates and changes in anxiety severity at weeks 24 and 36 for the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS). Method CAMS youth (N=488; 74%≤12 years) with DSM-IV separation, generalized, or social anxiety disorder were randomized to 12 weeks of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), sertraline (SRT), CBT+SRT (COMB), or medication management/pill placebo (PBO). Responders attended 6 monthly booster sessions in their assigned treatment arm; youth in COMB and SRT continued on their medication throughout this period. Efficacy of COMB, SRT, and CBT (N=412) was assessed at 24 and 36 weeks postrandomization. Youth randomized to PBO (n=76) were offered active CAMS treatment if nonresponsive at week 12 or over follow-up and were not included here. Independent evaluators blind to study condition assessed anxiety severity, functioning, and treatment response. Concomitant treatments were allowed but monitored over follow-up. Results Most (>80%) acute responders maintained positive response at both weeks 24 and 36. Consistent with acute outcomes, COMB maintained advantage over CBT and SRT, which did not differ, on dimensional outcomes; the 3 treatments did not differ on most categorical outcomes over follow-up. Compared to COMB and CBT, youth in SRT obtained more concomitant psychosocial treatments, while those in SRT and CBT obtained more concomitant combined (medication plus psychosocial) treatment. Discussion COMB maintained advantage over CBT and SRT on some measures over follow-up, while the 2 monotherapies remained indistinguishable. The observed convergence of COMB and monotherapy may be related to greater use of concomitant treatment during follow-up among youth receiving the monotherapies, although other explanations are possible. While outcomes were variable, most CAMS-treated youth enjoyed sustained treatment benefit. Clinical trial registration information— Child and Adolescent

  16. Profiles of Resilience and Psychosocial Outcomes among Young Black Gay and Bisexual Men.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Patrick A; Meyer, Ilan H; Antebi-Gruszka, Nadav; Boone, Melissa R; Cook, Stephanie H; Cherenack, Emily M

    2016-03-01

    Young Black gay/bisexual men (YBGBM) are affected by contextual stressors-namely syndemic conditions and minority stress-that threaten their health and well-being. Resilience is a process through which YBGBM achieve positive psychosocial outcomes in the face of adverse conditions. Self-efficacy, hardiness and adaptive coping, and social support may be important resilience factors for YBGBM. This study explores different profiles of these resilience factors in 228 YBGBM in New York City and compares profiles on psychological distress, mental health, and other psychosocial factors. Four profiles of resilience were identified: (a) Low self-efficacy and hardiness/adaptive coping (23.5%); (b) Low peer and parental support (21.2%); (c) High peer support, low father support (34.5%); and (d) High father and mother support, self-efficacy, and hardiness/adaptive coping (20.8%). YBGBM in profile 1 scored markedly higher on distress (d = .74) and lower on mental health functioning (d = .93) compared to men in the other profiles. Results suggest that self-efficacy and hardiness/adaptive coping may play a more important role in protecting YBGBM from risks compared to social support and should be targeted in interventions. The findings show that resilience is a multidimensional construct and support the notion that there are different patterns of resilience among YBGBM. PMID:27217318

  17. Mechanisms underlying the effects of prenatal psychosocial stress on child outcomes: beyond the HPA axis.

    PubMed

    Beijers, Roseriet; Buitelaar, Jan K; de Weerth, Carolina

    2014-10-01

    Accumulating evidence from preclinical and clinical studies indicates that maternal psychosocial stress and anxiety during pregnancy adversely affect child outcomes. However, knowledge on the possible mechanisms underlying these relations is limited. In the present paper, we review the most often proposed mechanism, namely that involving the HPA axis and cortisol, as well as other less well-studied but possibly relevant and complementary mechanisms. We present evidence for a role of the following mechanisms: compromised placental functioning, including the 11β-HSD2 enzyme, increased catecholamines, compromised maternal immune system and intestinal microbiota, and altered health behaviors including eating, sleep, and exercise. The roles of (epi)genetics, the postnatal environment and the fetus are also discussed. We conclude that maternal prenatal psychosocial stress is a complex phenomenon that affects maternal emotions, behavior and physiology in many ways, and may influence the physiology and functioning of the fetus through a network of different pathways. The review concludes with recommendations for future research that helps our understanding of the mechanisms by which maternal prenatal stress exerts its effect on the fetus. PMID:24875898

  18. Psychosocial Strength Enhancing Resilience in Adolescents and Young Adults With Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Akiko; Okamura, Jun; Ueda, Reiko; Sunami, Shosuke; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Ogawa, Junko

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore ways of enhancing psychosocial strengths in newly diagnosed and relapsed adolescents and young adults (AYAs) to improve their resilience. A descriptive case study was used. The adolescent resilience model (ARM) and the self-sustaining process model were applied as theories. The data were analyzed using pattern-matching logic. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 18 patients aged 12 to 24 years and discharged within 10 years. We found that the newly diagnosed and the relapsing AYAs developed the 5 strength factors of the ARM during and after treatment. Whether the individuals cultivated a positive attitude and sense of purpose early or late, the AYAs developed resilience eventually. A positive attitude and sense of purpose during the early phase of care may be essential for improving resilience. The AYAs benefited from the support of their parents, friends, and previous experience. Individualized support and social resources may be important to develop these strengths. Further research is needed to develop strengths and improve resilience in newly diagnosed AYAs. PMID:25862715

  19. The psychosocial experience of adolescents with haematological malignancies in Jordan: an interpretive phenomenological analysis study.

    PubMed

    Al Omari, Omar; Wynaden, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    The qualitative research method of interpretive phenomenological analysis was used to explore the lived experience of 14 Jordanian adolescents with haematological malignancies. They were admitted to two hospitals in Jordan and were interviewed for this study twice during the first six months after receiving their diagnosis. The results of this study revealed three themes: (1) Being in hospital, (2) The changing self, and (3) Fearing the unknown. When the participants were hospitalised due to their illness they were removed from their families and friends and prevented from engaging in their normal daily routine. Participants also reported receiving limited emotional and psychological support from health team members during hospitalisation. From the onset of cancer treatments, the bio-psychosocial side effects of the chemotherapy became one of the most distressing factors for participants affecting all aspects of their life and generated uncertainty about their future. The findings add to existing understanding of the lived experiences of cancer patients and in particular Jordanian adolescents. They provide a valuable insight for clinicians into improvements in service delivery to this group of patients. PMID:24550700

  20. Validity of the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire for use on Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Paula Mendes; Gonçalves, Alcides Ricardo; Marega, Tatiane

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: The Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ) is a multi-item psychometric instrument used to assess patients' perspective of the impact specifically related to Orthodontics. The cross-culturally adapted Brazilian version of the PIDAQ has demonstrated good reliability, validity and acceptability. Objective: The aim of the present study was to test the validity and reliability of the Brazilian version of the PIDAQ for use among adolescents aged between 11 and 14 years old. Methods: Having established the possibility of maintaining the operational characteristics of the Brazilian version of PIDAQ for the target age group, 194 individuals in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, completed the questionnaire. The subjects were examined for the presence/absence of malocclusion based on the criteria of the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) to test discriminant validity. Internal consistency was measured by means of Cronbach's alpha coefficient which ranged from 0.59 to 0.86 for the subscales. Test-retest reliability was assessed by means of intraclass correlation coefficient which ranged from 0.54 to 0.89 for aesthetic concern and psychological impact. Results: Discriminant validity revealed that subjects without malocclusion had different PIDAQ scores in comparison to those with malocclusion. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the Brazilian version of PIDAQ for adolescents has satisfactory psychometric properties and is applicable to this age group in Brazil. PMID:27409655

  1. [Parental socialization styles and psychosocial development in 16 to 19 year old adolescents].

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, G; Almonte, C; Valenzuela, C; Avendaño, A

    1991-01-01

    To study relationships between perceptions that 16 to 19 year old adolescents have about socialization styles and disciplinary methods used by their parents, with their view of the world, interpersonal relations, moral development, use of psychotropic substances and maladjusted behaviours, 241 adolescents--123 males--which belong to a follow up study on growth and development from northern metropolitan Santiago, Chile, were asked to answer a questionary of psychosocial development, previously elaborated by two of the authors (GS and CA). The most used socialization styles by these fathers and mothers were the negative power one (39.2% and 38.5%) and the inductive one (23.8% and 30.0%), while permissive styles occurred at much lower frequency (1.5% and 1.1%). Coincidence among parents in socialization styles was found in 47.7% and disagreement in 19.2% of cases. The inductive style and coincidence in it's use by both parents, were frequently associated to idealistic world views, autonomous and conventional moral development, satisfactory interpersonal relationships and low frequency of psychotropic consumption, and maladjusted behaviours while negative power based styles by both parents and disagreement of styles among them were rather related to realistic or negative world view, preconventional moral development, higher frequency of relational problems, psychotropic consumption and maladjusted behaviours. PMID:1845649

  2. The Psychosocial Experience of Adolescents with Haematological Malignancies in Jordan: An Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The qualitative research method of interpretive phenomenological analysis was used to explore the lived experience of 14 Jordanian adolescents with haematological malignancies. They were admitted to two hospitals in Jordan and were interviewed for this study twice during the first six months after receiving their diagnosis. The results of this study revealed three themes: (1) Being in hospital, (2) The changing self, and (3) Fearing the unknown. When the participants were hospitalised due to their illness they were removed from their families and friends and prevented from engaging in their normal daily routine. Participants also reported receiving limited emotional and psychological support from health team members during hospitalisation. From the onset of cancer treatments, the bio-psychosocial side effects of the chemotherapy became one of the most distressing factors for participants affecting all aspects of their life and generated uncertainty about their future. The findings add to existing understanding of the lived experiences of cancer patients and in particular Jordanian adolescents. They provide a valuable insight for clinicians into improvements in service delivery to this group of patients. PMID:24550700

  3. Moral Identity as Moral Ideal Self: Links to Adolescent Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Sam A.; Walker, Lawrence J.; Olsen, Joseph A.; Woodbury, Ryan D.; Hickman, Jacob R.

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to conceptualize moral identity as moral ideal self, to develop a measure of this construct, to test for age and gender differences, to examine links between moral ideal self and adolescent outcomes, and to assess purpose and social responsibility as mediators of the relations between moral ideal self and outcomes.…

  4. Psychosocial constructs and postintervention changes in physical activity and dietary outcomes in a lifestyle intervention, HUB City Steps, 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To examine relationships among psychosocial constructs (PSC) of behavior change and post-intervention changes in physical activity (PA) and dietary outcomes. Design: Non-controlled, pre- post-experimental intervention. Setting: Midsized, southern United States city. Subjects: 269 prima...

  5. Eating Disorder Psychopathology as a Marker of Psychosocial Distress and Suicide Risk in Female and Male Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Zaitsoff, Shannon L.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine psychosocial correlates of specific aspects of eating disorder (ED) psychopathology (i.e., dietary restriction, body dissatisfaction, binge eating, and self-induced vomiting) in psychiatrically-hospitalized adolescent girls and boys. Method Four hundred and ninety-two psychiatric inpatients (286 girls and 206 boys), aged 12 to 19 years, completed self-report measures of psychosocial and behavioral functioning including measures of suicide risk and ED psychopathology. Associations between ED psychopathology and psychosocial functioning were examined separately by sex and after controlling for depressive/negative affect using Beck Depression Inventory scores. Results Among boys and girls, after controlling for depressive/negative affect, ED psychopathology was significantly associated with anxiety, low self-esteem, and current distress regarding childhood abuse. Among girls, after controlling for depressive/negative affect, ED psychopathology was significantly related to hopelessness and suicidality. Among boys, after controlling for depressive/negative affect, ED psychopathology was positively related to self-reported history of sexual abuse and various externalizing problems (drug abuse, violence, and impulsivity). Conclusion In psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents, ED psychopathology may be an important marker of broad psychosocial distress and behavioral problems among girls and boys although the nature of the specific associations differs by sex. PMID:20152294

  6. The prevalence and psychosocial correlates of suicide attempts among inpatient adolescent offspring of Croatian PTSD male war veterans.

    PubMed

    Boričević Maršanić, Vlatka; Margetić, Branka Aukst; Zečević, Iva; Herceg, Miroslav

    2014-10-01

    Despite evidence that children of male war veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at particularly high risk for behavior problems, very little is currently known about suicidal behaviors in this population of youth. This study aimed to examine the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of suicide attempts among psychiatrically hospitalized adolescent offspring of Croatian male PTSD veterans. Participants were psychiatric inpatients, ages 12-18 years. Self-report questionnaires assessed demographics, suicide attempts, psychopathology, parenting style, and family functioning. The prevalence of suicide attempts was 61.5% (65.2% for girls and 58.0% for boys). Internalizing symptoms, family dysfunction, lower levels of maternal and paternal care, and paternal overcontrol were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Our findings suggest that suicide attempts are common among inpatient adolescent offspring of male PTSD veterans and that interventions targeting both adolescent psychopathology and family relationships are needed for adolescents who have attempted suicide. PMID:24338268

  7. Brief report: Attention to positive information mediates the relationship between hope and psychosocial well-being of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Dannii Y; Ho, Samuel M Y; Mak, Christine W Y

    2015-07-01

    This study tested the mediating roles of cognitive reappraisal and attentional preferences in the relationship between hope and psychosocial well-being among 712 adolescents. Results of the structural equation modeling revealed that the beneficial relation of hope to subjective happiness, anxiety, depressive symptoms, and interpersonal difficulties was partially mediated by attention to positive information but not cognitive reappraisal. Findings of this study may inform the design of intervention research by highlighting the importance of hopeful thinking style and attention to positive information in mental health of adolescents. PMID:25968107

  8. Risk and protection factors in the peer context: how do other children contribute to the psychosocial adjustment of the adolescent?

    PubMed

    Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Trempe, Sophie-Caroline; Paiva, Alexandra Oliveira

    2014-03-01

    As children become adolescents, peers assume greater importance in their lives. Peer experiences can either help them thrive or negatively affect their psychosocial adjustment. In this review article definitions for the types of peer experiences are provided followed by an overview of common psychosocial issues encountered by adolescents. Past research that has pointed to risk and protection factors that emerge from peer experiences during adolescence and the role of peer influences in the context of current issues relevant to adolescent education are discussed. Research suggests that friendships with deviant peers, involvement in bullying and the experience of rejection from the overall peer group are related to adjustment problems, whereas friendships with prosocial and academically oriented peers and social acceptance in the peer group are related to healthy development. Friendship quality, popularity among peers, and involvement in friendship cliques cannot be clearly categorized as either positive or negative influences, because they interact with other factors in shaping the development of adolescents. The promotion of social skills and positive youth leadership as an integral part of the student's learning process in school is recommended. PMID:24714885

  9. Reducing HIV-related risk and mental health problems through a client-centred psychosocial intervention for vulnerable adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Jani, Nrupa; Vu, Lung; Kay, Lynnette; Habtamu, Kassahun; Kalibala, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Ethiopia is experiencing an increasingly urban HIV epidemic, alongside a rise in urban adolescent migration. Adolescent migrants are often confronted by unique social challenges, including living in a difficult environment, abuse and mental health problems. These issues can increase adolescents’ vulnerability to HIV and compromise their capacity to protect themselves and others from HIV. We piloted and assessed the effects of a targeted psychosocial intervention to reduce mental health problems and improve HIV-related outcomes among migrant adolescents in Addis Ababa. Methods A pre- and post-comparison design was used in a cohort of 576 female and 154 male migrant adolescents aged 15 to 18 years in Addis Ababa receiving services from two service delivery organizations, Biruh Tesfa and Retrak. We implemented a three-month client-centred, counsellor-delivered psychosocial intervention, based on findings from formative research among the same target population, to address participants’ increased vulnerability to HIV. The intervention package comprised individual, group and creative arts therapy counselling sessions. Key outcome indicators included anxiety, depression, aggressive behaviour, attention problems, social problems, knowledge of HIV, safer sex practices and use of sexual health services. Longitudinal data analysis (McNemar test and random effects regression) was used to assess changes over time in key indicators by gender. Results For females, aggressive behaviour decreased by 60% (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 0.4 (0.25 to 0.65)) and any mental health problem decreased by 50% (AOR: 0.5 (0.36 to 0.81)) from baseline to end line. In addition, knowledge of HIV increased by 60% (AOR: 1.6 (1.08 to 2.47)), knowledge of a place to test for HIV increased by 70% (AOR: 1.7 (1.12 to 2.51)) and HIV testing increased by 80% (AOR: 1.8 (1.13 to 2.97)). For males, HIV knowledge increased by 110% (AOR: 2.1 (1.1 to 3.94)), knowledge of a place to test for HIV

  10. Adolescent Hope as a Mediator between Parent-Child Connectedness and Adolescent Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Hardy, Sam A.; Christensen, Katherine J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines adolescent hope as a mediator between connectedness to mother and father, and positive and negative child outcomes. Participants included 489 adolescents aged 9 to 14 years (M = 11.29; SD = 1.01) and their parents from the "Flourishing Families Project", and data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results…

  11. Does Smoking Intervention Influence Adolescent Substance Use Disorder Treatment Outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Mark G.; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2009-01-01

    Although tobacco use is reported by the majority of substance use disordered (SUD) youth, little work has examined tobacco focused interventions with this population. The present study is an initial investigation of the effect of a tobacco use intervention on adolescent SUD treatment outcomes. Participants were adolescents in SUD treatment taking part in a cigarette smoking intervention efficacy study, assessed at baseline and followed up at 3- and 6-months post-intervention. Analyses compared treatment and control groups on days using alcohol and drugs and proportion abstinent from substance use at follow up assessments. Adolescents in the treatment condition reported significantly fewer days of substance use and were somewhat more likely to be abstinent at 3-month follow up. These findings suggest that tobacco focused intervention may enhance SUD treatment outcome. The present study provides further evidence for the value of addressing tobacco use in the context of treatment for adolescent SUD’s. PMID:19042327

  12. Moral identity as moral ideal self: links to adolescent outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Sam A; Walker, Lawrence J; Olsen, Joseph A; Woodbury, Ryan D; Hickman, Jacob R

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to conceptualize moral identity as moral ideal self, to develop a measure of this construct, to test for age and gender differences, to examine links between moral ideal self and adolescent outcomes, and to assess purpose and social responsibility as mediators of the relations between moral ideal self and outcomes. Data came from a local school sample (Data Set 1: N = 510 adolescents; 10-18 years of age) and a national online sample (Data Set 2: N = 383 adolescents; 15-18 years of age) of adolescents and their parents. All outcome measures were parent-report (Data Set 1: altruism, moral personality, aggression, and cheating; Data Set 2: environmentalism, school engagement, internalizing, and externalizing), whereas other variables were adolescent-report. The 20-item Moral Ideal Self Scale showed good reliability, factor structure, and validity. Structural equation models demonstrated that, even after accounting for moral identity internalization, in Data Set 1 moral ideal self positively predicted altruism and moral personality and negatively predicted aggression, whereas in Data Set 2 moral ideal self positively predicted environmentalism and negatively predicted internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Further, purpose and social responsibility mediated most relations between moral ideal self and the outcomes in Data Set 2. Moral ideal self was unrelated to age but differentially predicted some outcomes across age. Girls had higher levels of moral ideal self than boys, although moral identity did not differentially predict outcomes between genders. Thus, moral ideal self is a salient element of moral identity and may play a role in morally relevant adolescent outcomes. PMID:23895167

  13. Social and Physical Aggression Trajectories from Childhood through Late Adolescence: Predictors of Psychosocial Maladjustment at Age 18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenreich, Samuel E.; Beron, Kurt J.; Underwood, Marion K.

    2016-01-01

    This research examined whether following social and physical aggression trajectories across Grades 3-12 predicted psychological maladjustment. Teachers rated participants' (n = 287, 138 boys) aggressive behavior at the end of each school year. Following the 12th grade, psychosocial outcomes were measured: rule-breaking behaviors, internalizing…

  14. Risk factors and psychosocial characteristics of potential problematic and problematic internet use among adolescents: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Problematic internet use (PIU) is associated with a plethora of psychosocial adversities. The study objectives were to assess the determinants and psychosocial implications associated with potential PIU and PIU among adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional study design was applied among a random sample (n = 866) of Greek adolescents (mean age: 14.7 years). Self-completed questionnaires, including internet use characteristics, Young Internet Addiction Test, and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, were utilized to examine the study objectives. Results Among the study population, the prevalence rates of potential PIU and PIU were 19.4% and 1.5%, respectively. Multinomial logistic regression indicated that male gender (Odds Ratio, OR: 2.01; 95% Confidence Interval, 95% CI: 1.35-3.00), as well as utilizing the internet for retrieving sexual information (OR: 2.52; 95% CI: 1.53-4.12), interactive game playing (OR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.21-2.82), and socialization, including chat-room use (OR: 1.97; 95% CI: 1.36-2.86) and email (OR: 1.53; 95% CI: 1.05-2.24), were independently associated with potential PIU and PIU. Adolescents with potential PIU had an increased likelihood of concomitantly presenting with hyperactivity (OR: 4.39; 95% CI: 2.03-9.52) and conduct (OR: 2.56; 95% CI: 1.46-4.50) problems. Moreover, adolescent PIU was significantly associated with hyperactivity (OR: 9.96; 95% CI: 1.76-56.20) and conduct (OR: 8.39; 95% CI: 2.04-34.56) problems, as well as comprehensive psychosocial maladjustment (OR: 8.08; 95% CI: 1.44-45.34). Conclusions The determinants of potential PIU and PIU include accessing the internet for the purposes of retrieving sexual information, game playing, and socialization. Furthermore, both potential PIU and PIU are adversely associated with notable behavioral and social maladjustment among adolescents. PMID:21794167

  15. [Transition from adolescence to young adulthood. Empirical comparative studies of the psychosocial development and problems of psychiatric patients and healthy control probands].

    PubMed

    Kapfhammer, H P; Mayer, C; Neumeier, R; Scherer, J

    1994-01-01

    The passage from adolescence to young adulthood is characterized by a series of decisive developmental tasks. The significance of the adaptational patterns established in these years derives from their long-lasting influences on the psychosocial development during adult life. The psychosocial development of psychiatrically ill and healthy young adults was compared in respect to self image (Offer), identity status (Adams) and level of ego functionality (Loevinger). Patients showed serious deficits in general psychosocial adaptation (self image) especially pronounced in the areas of private personality development and family life. They were significantly less able to respect a developmental logic of exploration and commitment in the formation of identity. And their level of ego functions was primarily unmature, preconformist. There were important differences in the adaptational patterns of patient subgroups indicating a remarkably unfavourable psychosocial development of the nonpsychotic patients. Subjective (self image) and objective criteria (premorbid adaptation, actual psychosocial competence) of psychosocial development corresponded well. PMID:8146268

  16. Developmental Outcomes of Extremely Preterm Infants Born to Adolescent Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Bann, Carla; Higgins, Rosemary; Vohr, Betty

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Extremely preterm infants and infants born to adolescent mothers are at risk for adverse developmental. The objectives were to evaluate development and behavior outcomes of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants born to adolescent mothers <20 compared with adult mothers ≥20 years and to identify socioeconomic risk factors that affect outcomes. METHODS: Retrospective cohort analysis of 211 infants >27 weeks of adolescent mothers and 1723 infants of adult mothers at Neonatal Research Network centers from 2008 to 2011. Groups were compared and regression models were run to predict 18- to 22-month adverse outcomes. Primary outcomes were Bayley-III scores, neurodevelopmental impairment, and Brief Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment problem scores (BITSEA/P) ≥75th percentile. RESULTS: Adolescent mothers were more often single, Hispanic, less educated, and had public insurance. By 18 to 22 months, their children had significantly increased rates of having lived ≥3 places (21% vs 9%), state supervision (7% vs 3%), rehospitalization (56% vs 46%), and BITSEA/P ≥75th percentile (50% vs 32%) and nonsignificant Bayley-III language scores <85 (56% vs 49%, P = .07). In regression analysis, children of adolescent mothers were more likely to have BITSEA/P ≥75th percentile (relative risk 1.50, 95% confidence interval 1.08–2.07). Living ≥3 places and nonwhite race were predictors of adverse behavior. State supervision was an independent predictor of each Bayley-III composite <70 and neurodevelopmental impairment. CONCLUSIONS: ELBW infants of adolescent mothers experience high social and environmental risks that are associated with adverse behavior outcomes. These findings inform the need for comprehensive follow-up, coordinated care services, and behavior interventions for ELBW infants of adolescent mothers. PMID:25963007

  17. Effect of HIV diagnosis disclosure on psychosocial outcomes in Thai children with perinatal HIV-Infection

    PubMed Central

    Boon-yasidhi, V; Naiwatanakul, T; Chokephaibulkit, K; Lolekha, R; Leowsrisook, P; Chotpitayasunond, T; Wolfe, M

    2015-01-01

    Summary A provider-assisted, counseling-based, pediatric HIV disclosure model was developed and implemented at two tertiary-care hospitals in Bangkok, Thailand. All undisclosed perinatally acquired HIV-infected children, ages 7–18 years, and their caretakers were offered the four-step disclosure service, including: screening, readiness assessments and preparation, disclosure sessions, and follow-up evaluations. To assess psychosocial outcomes of disclosure, we compared the scores of the Children Depression Inventory and the PedsQL 4.0™ at baseline and at 2-month and 6-month follow-up visits, and compared the scores of the Child Behavioral Checklist at baseline and at 6-month follow-up. Disclosure was made to 186 children, 160 of whom completed post-disclosure assessments. The median Children’s Depression Inventory score in 135 children decreased significantly from 11 at baseline to 8 at 2-month and 6-month follow-up (p < 0.01). The median PedsQL 4.0™ scores in 126 children increased significantly from 78 at baseline to 80 at 2-month and 84 at 6-month follow-up (p = 0.04). The median Child Behavioral Checklist scores were not significantly changed. In conclusion, pediatric HIV diagnosis disclosure using this model was found to have positive effect on the children’s mood and quality of life, and no negative effect on children’s behaviours. This disclosure program should be expanded to improve psychosocial health of HIV-infected children. PMID:25829519

  18. Psychosocial and Quality of Life Outcomes of Prosthetic Auricular Rehabilitation with CAD/CAM Technology

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Chi Keung; McGrath, Colman Patrick; Ho, Samuel Mun Yin; Pow, Edmond Ho Nang; Luk, Henry Wai Kuen; Cheung, Lim Kwong

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The psychosocial and quality of life (QoL) of patients with deformed or missing ears are frequently compromised. The aim of this study is to develop innovative techniques using CAD/CAM technology in prosthetic auricular rehabilitation and provide improvement in the treatment outcomes, including their psychology and QoL. Methods. This is a preliminary clinical cohort study. Six patients requesting for auricular reconstruction were recruited and rehabilitated with implant-supported prosthesis using CAD/CAM technology. Different treatment outcomes including QoL and psychological changes were assessed at different time points. Results. A significant reduction in severity of depressive symptoms (P = 0.038) and an improving trend of satisfaction with life were found at 1 year postoperatively when compared with the preoperative findings. The domain scores in ‘‘Body image”, ‘‘Family/friends/strangers”, and ‘‘Mood” were also significantly higher (P < 0.05) at 1 year postoperatively than 1 week postoperatively. However, only 50% of the patients wear their auricular prosthesis regularly. Conclusion. This preliminary study has confirmed that implant-supported auricular prosthesis could induce improvement in the psychology and QoL with statistically significant differences in the domains of the body image, social interaction, and mood. Our present findings can inform research design and hypotheses generation of future studies. PMID:24799904

  19. Psychosocial outcomes of a summer overnight recreational experience for children with heart disease.

    PubMed

    Bultas, Margaret W; Steurer, Lisa M; Balakas, Karen; Brooks, Charlotte; Fields, Heidi

    2015-12-01

    Children with chronic heart disease (CHD) are often turned away from recreational summer overnight experiences because of complicated medical histories and medication regimens. The purpose of this qualitative study was to evaluate the psychosocial impact of a five-day overnight recreational experience for children with CHD and their parents. Thirty-six children with CHD between the age of 8 and 15 years and their parents participated in the study. Data were collected from the children using photovoice interviews. Parent data were collected using a post camp survey. Results included the following external outcome themes: inclusion in a peer group and the importance of friendship, fun, and safety. Internal or personal outcome themes included counselor as a role model, increased self-confidence, and the realization of life's possibilities. Parent themes included increased child independence, increased child confidence, and child feelings of normalcy related to belonging to a peer group. Findings from this study can be used to encourage families of children with CHD to allow participation in a well-supervised overnight recreational experience. Such an experience can foster the child's overall development, provide peer group support, and reduce parent anxiety about overnight separation from the child. PMID:24951544

  20. Psychosocial and Environmental Correlates of Walking, Cycling, Public Transport and Passive Transport to Various Destinations in Flemish Older Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Verhoeven, Hannah; Simons, Dorien; Van Dyck, Delfien; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; Clarys, Peter; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; de Geus, Bas; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Deforche, Benedicte

    2016-01-01

    Background Active transport is a convenient way to incorporate physical activity in adolescents’ daily life. The present study aimed to investigate which psychosocial and environmental factors are associated with walking, cycling, public transport (train, tram, bus, metro) and passive transport (car, motorcycle, moped) over short distances (maximum eight kilometres) among older adolescents (17–18 years), to school and to other destinations. Methods 562 older adolescents completed an online questionnaire assessing socio-demographic variables, psychosocial variables, environmental variables and transport to school/other destinations. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models were performed. Results More social modelling and a higher residential density were positively associated with walking to school and walking to other destinations, respectively. Regarding cycling, higher self-efficacy and a higher social norm were positively associated with cycling to school and to other destinations. Regarding public transport, a higher social norm, more social modelling of siblings and/or friends, more social support and a higher land use mix access were positively related to public transport to school and to other destinations, whereas a greater distance to school only related positively to public transport to school. Regarding passive transport, more social support and more perceived benefits were positively associated with passive transport to school and to other destinations. Perceiving less walking and cycling facilities at school was positively related to passive transport to school only, and more social modelling was positively related to passive transport to other destinations. Conclusions Overall, psychosocial variables seemed to be more important than environmental variables across the four transport modes. Social norm, social modelling and social support were the most consistent psychosocial factors which indicates that it is important to target both

  1. Medical and psychosocial implications of adolescent extreme obesity – acceptance and effects of structured care, short: Youth with Extreme Obesity Study (YES)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    elucidate medical and psychosocial outcomes. Our aim is to evaluate realistic treatment options. Therefore inclusion and exclusion criteria are minimized. We will recruit adolescents (age range 14–21 years) with extreme obesity (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2) (extreme group) within 24 months (120 per centre, 5 centres) as well as obese adolescents being at risk for developing extreme obesity (BMI ≥ 30 – 34.9 kg/m2) (at risk group). Follow-up evalutations will be performed biannually after inclusion for several years depending on additional funding. In sum, we aim at establishing evaluated health care structures for extremely obese adolescents. Discussion The results of YES will be of importance for a frequently neglected group of individuals, for whom current medicine has little to offer in terms of structured access to empirically evaluated therapeutic programs. Thus, the results will be both a help for the adolescents within the study and for others in the future given that the trial will lead to a positive finding. Moreover, it will help practitioners and therapists to deal with this neglected group of individuals. Trial registration Project registration numbers for each subproject: 1.) ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01625325, NCT01703273, NCT01662271, NCT01632098; 2.) Germanctr.de: DRKS00004172, DRKS00004195, DRKS00004198, DRKS00004197. PMID:23987123

  2. Unintentional Injuries and Psychosocial Correlates among in-School Adolescents in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to provide estimates of the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of unintentional injury among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. Cross-sectional data from the Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS) included 21,699 students (predominantly ≤13 to ≥17 years) that were selected by a two-stage cluster sample design to represent all secondary school students in Forms 1 to 5. The percentage of school children reporting one or more serious injuries in the past year was 34.9%, 42.1% of boys and 27.8% of girls. The two major causes of the most serious injury were “fall” (9.9%) and motor vehicle accident or being hit by a motor vehicle (5.4%), and the most frequent type of injury sustained was cut, puncture, or stab wound (6.2%) and a broken bone or dislocated joint (4.2%). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, sociodemographic factors (being male and low socioeconomic status), substance use (tobacco and cannabis use), frequent soft drink consumption, attending physical education classes three or more times a week, other risky behavior (truancy, ever having had sex, being bullied), psychological distress, and lack of parental or guardian bonding were associated with annual injury prevalence. Several factors were identified, which could be included in injury prevention promotion programs among secondary school children. PMID:26610542

  3. Unintentional Injuries and Psychosocial Correlates among in-School Adolescents in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2015-11-01

    The study aimed to provide estimates of the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of unintentional injury among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. Cross-sectional data from the Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS) included 21,699 students (predominantly ≤13 to ≥17 years) that were selected by a two-stage cluster sample design to represent all secondary school students in Forms 1 to 5. The percentage of school children reporting one or more serious injuries in the past year was 34.9%, 42.1% of boys and 27.8% of girls. The two major causes of the most serious injury were "fall" (9.9%) and motor vehicle accident or being hit by a motor vehicle (5.4%), and the most frequent type of injury sustained was cut, puncture, or stab wound (6.2%) and a broken bone or dislocated joint (4.2%). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, sociodemographic factors (being male and low socioeconomic status), substance use (tobacco and cannabis use), frequent soft drink consumption, attending physical education classes three or more times a week, other risky behavior (truancy, ever having had sex, being bullied), psychological distress, and lack of parental or guardian bonding were associated with annual injury prevalence. Several factors were identified, which could be included in injury prevention promotion programs among secondary school children. PMID:26610542

  4. Tackling psychosocial risk factors for adolescent cyberbullying: Evidence from a school-based intervention.

    PubMed

    Barkoukis, Vassilis; Lazuras, Lambros; Ourda, Despoina; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos

    2016-01-01

    Cyberbullying is an emerging form of bullying that takes place through contemporary information and communication technologies. Building on past research on the psychosocial risk factors for cyberbullying in this age group, the present study assessed a theory-driven, school-based preventive intervention that targeted moral disengagement, empathy and social cognitive predictors of cyberbullying. Adolescents (N = 355) aged between 16 and 18 years were randomly assigned into the intervention and the control group. Both groups completed anonymous structured questionnaires about demographics, empathy, moral disengagement and cyberbullying-related social cognitive variables (attitudes, actor prototypes, social norms, and behavioral expectations) before the intervention, post-intervention and 6 months after the intervention. The intervention included awareness-raising and interactive discussions about cyberbullying with intervention group students. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) showed that, after controlling for baseline measurements, there were significant differences at post-intervention measures in moral disengagement scores, and in favorability of actor prototypes. Further analysis on the specific mechanisms of moral disengagement showed that significant differences were observed in distortion of consequences and attribution of blame. The implications of the intervention are discussed, and guidelines for future school-based interventions against cyberbullying are provided. PMID:26350445

  5. Psychosocial Care for Adolescent and Young Adult Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Liz; Chung, Carol; Grant, Marcia

    2011-01-01

    Psychological issues following Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation (HCT) are unfortunately common. Literature specific to the transplant experience for the needs of adolescents and young adults (AYA) is lacking. The purpose of this article is to 1) describe the allogeneic transplant experience for AYA transplant patients during the first year following transplantation including demographic and treatment characteristics, 2) present AYA data obtained during and following a six-part post transplant discharge study, 3) illustrate typical AYA experiences using case studies and 4) propose AYA intervention strategies within Erickson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development. A Quality of Life (QOL) model provided both the research conceptual framework, and the content analysis framework for the qualitative research. Themes that emerged within each domain were the following: sexuality/fertility, fatigue, depression/poor coping/habits, adherence issues, use of technology, dependency issues, changes in roles/relationships, issues with school/education, financial issues, family problems/issues, miscellaneous, religion/spirituality, fear of future, uncertainty, life, death, more life appreciation. These data guide us for providing targeted interventions for the needs of this AYA population. This paper has presented literature and developmental theory, qualitative and qualitative data from an intervention study, and clinical cases in order to propose a developmental treatment model for AYA transplant patients. A coordinated and multidisciplinary approach is needed for the HCT patient who is an AYA. PMID:21966725

  6. Predictors of Psychosocial Outcomes in Hard-of-Hearing Preschool Children.

    PubMed

    Laugen, Nina J; Jacobsen, Karl H; Rieffe, Carolien; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2016-07-01

    Children with hearing loss are at risk for developing psychosocial problems. Children with mild to severe hearing loss are less frequently subject to research, in particular in preschool, and we therefore know less about the risk in this particular group. To address this, we compared psychosocial functioning in thirty-five 4-5-year olds with hearing aids to that of 180 typically hearing children. Parent ratings of psychosocial functioning and social skills, as well as scores of receptive vocabulary, were obtained. Children with hearing loss evidenced more psychosocial problems than hearing agemates. Female gender and early detection of hearing loss predicted better psychosocial functioning among children with hearing loss, whereas vocabulary and degree of hearing loss did not. Early intervention addressing psychosocial functioning is warranted for children with all degrees of hearing loss, including mild and moderate. Gender differences should be investigated in future research. PMID:26921612

  7. Individual and group based parenting programmes for improving psychosocial outcomes for teenage parents and their children

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Jane; Smailagic, Nadja; Bennett, Cathy; Huband, Nick; Jones, Hannah; Coren, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Background Parenting programmes are a potentially important means of supporting teenage parents and improving outcomes for their children, and parenting support is a priority across most Western countries. This review updates the previous version published in 2001. Objectives To examine the effectiveness of parenting programmes in improving psychosocial outcomes for teenage parents and developmental outcomes in their children. Search methods We searched to find new studies for this updated review in January 2008 and May 2010 in CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, ASSIA, CINAHL, DARE, ERIC, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts and Social Science Citation Index. The National Research Register (NRR) was last searched in May 2005 and UK Clinical Research Network Portfolio Database in May 2010. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials assessing short-term parenting interventions aimed specifically at teenage parents and a control group (no-treatment, waiting list or treatment-as-usual). Data collection and analysis We assessed the risk of bias in each study. We standardised the treatment effect for each outcome in each study by dividing the mean difference in post-intervention scores between the intervention and control groups by the pooled standard deviation. Main results We included eight studies with 513 participants, providing a total of 47 comparisons of outcome between intervention and control conditions. Nineteen comparisons were statistically significant, all favouring the intervention group. We conducted nine meta-analyses using data from four studies in total (each meta-analysis included data from two studies). Four meta-analyses showed statistically significant findings favouring the intervention group for the following outcomes: parent responsiveness to the child post-intervention (SMD −0.91, 95% CI −1.52 to −0.30, P = 0.04); infant responsiveness to mother at follow-up (SMD −0.65, 95% CI −1.25 to −0.06, P = 0.03); and an overall measure of parent

  8. A Critical Review of Psychotherapy Outcome Studies with Adolescents: 1978-1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Barton J.; Borduin, Charles M.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews methods and findings of adolescent psychotherapy outcome studies published from 1978 to 1988. Concludes that evaluations of individual psychotherapy with adolescents generally reveal positive short-term outcomes, but long-term outcomes are still to be determined; evaluations of systemic therapies with adolescents often reveal positive…

  9. Use of harsh physical discipline and developmental outcomes in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Bender, Heather L; Allen, Joseph P; McElhaney, Kathleen Boykin; Antonishak, Jill; Moore, Cynthia M; Kelly, Heather O'Beirne; Davis, Steven M

    2007-01-01

    A history of exposure to harsh physical discipline has been linked to negative outcomes for children, ranging from conduct disorder to depression and low self-esteem. The present study extends this work into adolescence, and examines the relationship of lifetime histories of harsh discipline to adolescents' internalizing and externalizing symptoms and to their developing capacities for establishing autonomy and relatedness in family interactions. Adolescent and parent reports of harsh discipline, independently coded observations of conflictual interactions, and adolescent reports of symptoms were obtained for 141 adolescents at age 16. Both parents' use of harsh discipline was related to greater adolescent depression and externalizing behavior, even when these effects were examined over and above the effects of other parenting measures known to account for these symptoms. Adolescents exposed to harsh discipline from mothers were also less likely to appear warm and engaged during an interaction task with their mothers. It is suggested that a history of harsh discipline is associated not only with social and emotional functioning, but also with the developmental task of autonomy and relatedness. PMID:17241492

  10. An Outcome Study of Anorexia Nervosa in an Adolescent Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, M. E.

    1987-01-01

    Adolescent girls (N=21) treated for anorexia nervosa in a hospital operating a strict refeeding program were examined 3 years after treatment. Outcome was considered good for 10 girls, intermediate for 4 girls, and poor for 5 girls. Found lack of separation from parents at follow-up. Discusses relevance of findings to treatment approach and to…

  11. Psychosocial outcomes of three triage methods for the management of borderline abnormal cervical smears: an open randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Irwig, Les; Turner, Robin; Chan, Siew Foong; Macaskill, Petra; Lewicka, Mary; Clarke, Judith; Weisberg, Edith; Barratt, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess which of three triage strategies for women with borderline abnormal cervical smear results in the best psychosocial outcomes. Design Pragmatic, non-blinded, multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Setting 18 family planning clinics across Australia, covering both urban and rural areas, between January 2004 and October 2006. Participants Women aged 16-70 years (n=314) who attended routine cervical screening and received a borderline cervical smear. Interventions Patients were randomly assigned to human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing (n=104), a repeat smear test at six months (n=106), or the patient’s informed choice of either test supported by a decision aid (n=104). Psychosocial outcomes were assessed at multiple time points over 12 months by postal questionnaire. Main outcome measures We assessed health related quality of life (SF36 mental health subscale), cognitive effects (such as perceived risk of cervical cancer, intrusive thoughts), affective outcomes (general anxiety [state-trait anxiety inventory]), specific anxiety about an abnormal smear (cervical screening questionnaire), and behavioural outcomes (sexual health behaviour and visits to the doctor) over 12 months of follow-up. Results At two weeks, some psychosocial outcomes were worse for women allocated to HPV testing compared with those in the smear testing group (SF36 vitality subscale: t=−1.63, df=131, P=0.10; intrusive thoughts χ2=8.14, df=1, P<0.01). Over 12 months, distress about the abnormal smear was lowest in women allocated to HPV testing and highest in the repeat smear testing group (t=−2.89, df=135, P<0.01). Intrusive thoughts were highest in patients allocated to HPV testing (25%, compared with 13% in the informed choice group; difference=12%, 95% CI −1.1% to 25.1%). Women in the HPV DNA group and the informed choice group were more satisfied with their care than women allocated to repeat smear testing. Conclusions Although the psychosocial effect was

  12. Effects of a Workplace Intervention Targeting Psychosocial Risk Factors on Safety and Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Leslie B.; Truxillo, Donald M.; Bodner, Todd; Rineer, Jennifer; Pytlovany, Amy C.; Richman, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of a workplace intervention targeting work-life stress and safety-related psychosocial risk factors on health and safety outcomes. Data were collected over time using a randomized control trial design with 264 construction workers employed in an urban municipal department. The intervention involved family- and safety-supportive supervisor behavior training (computer-based), followed by two weeks of behavior tracking and a four-hour, facilitated team effectiveness session including supervisors and employees. A significant positive intervention effect was found for an objective measure of blood pressure at the 12-month follow-up. However, no significant intervention results were found for self-reported general health, safety participation, or safety compliance. These findings suggest that an intervention focused on supervisor support training and a team effectiveness process for planning and problem solving should be further refined and utilized in order to improve employee health with additional research on the beneficial effects on worker safety. PMID:26557703

  13. Psychosocial outcomes for preschool children and families after surgery for complex congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Brosig, C L; Mussatto, K A; Kuhn, E M; Tweddell, J S

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to assess the psychosocial outcomes of preschool-aged survivors (ages 3-6 years) of hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS; n=13) and transposition of the great arteries (TGA; n=13). Parents completed the following measures: Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, Impact on the Family Scale, Parenting Stress Index, Parent Behavior Checklist, and Child Behavior Checklist. Quality of life scores did not differ from those of healthy controls. Parents of children with HLHS reported more negative impact of the child's illness on the family and more parenting stress than parents of children with TGA. Parents of both groups of children were more permissive in their parenting style than parents of healthy controls. Children with HLHS had higher rates of attention and externalizing behavior problems than children with TGA. The results highlight the need for practitioners working with these children and families to ask about parental stress, family functioning, and behavioral expectations for the child in the context of routine medical/cardiac follow-up. PMID:17486393

  14. Predictors of Psychosocial Outcomes in Hard-of-Hearing Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laugen, Nina J.; Jacobsen, Karl H.; Rieffe, Carolien; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Children with hearing loss are at risk for developing psychosocial problems. Children with mild to severe hearing loss are less frequently subject to research, in particular in preschool, and we therefore know less about the risk in this particular group. To address this, we compared psychosocial functioning in thirty-five 4-5-year olds with…

  15. Psychosocial outcomes among youth with spinal cord injury by neurological impairment

    PubMed Central

    Riordan, Anne; Kelly, Erin H.; Klaas, Sara J.; Vogel, Lawrence C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Examine psychosocial outcomes of youth with spinal cord injury (SCI) as a function of neurological level (paraplegia/tetraplegia) and severity (American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale (AIS)). Design Survey research. Setting Three pediatric SCI specialty centers in the USA. Participants Youth with SCI ages 5–18 with neurological impairment classifications of: tetraplegia AIS ABC (tetraplegia ABC), paraplegia AIS ABC (paraplegia ABC), or AIS D. Outcome Measures Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment, Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale, and Children's Depression Inventory. Results Three hundred and forty youth participated; 57% were male; 60% were Caucasian, 21% Hispanic, 7% African-American, 2% Native American, and 3% reported “other”. Their mean age was 8.15 years (standard deviation (SD) = 5.84) at injury and 13.18 years (SD = 3.87) at interview. Ninety-six youth (28%) had tetraplegia ABC injuries, 191 (56%) paraplegia ABC injuries, and 53 (16%) AIS D injuries. Neurological impairment was significantly related to participation and quality of life (QOL). Specifically, youth with paraplegia ABC and AIS D injuries participated in more activities than youth with tetraplegia ABC (P = 0.002; P = 0.018, respectively) and youth with paraplegia ABC participated more often than youth with tetraplegia ABC (P = 0.006). Youth with paraplegia ABC reported higher social QOL than youth with tetraplegia ABC (P = 0.001) and AIS D injuries (P = 0.002). Groups did not differ regarding mental health. Conclusion Interventions should target youth with tetraplegia ABC, as they may need support in terms of participation, and both youth with tetraplegia ABC and AIS D injuries in terms of social integration. PMID:24621027

  16. Effects of psychosocial variables in the similarity and interdependence of physical activity levels among adolescent best friend dyads.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Vítor P; Gabbard, Carl; Rodrigues, Luis P

    2016-01-01

    Given that physical activity (PA) tends to decrease with age during adolescence, addressing factors that affect change is important. This study examined the similarity and interdependence of PA as influenced by psychosocial factors among adolescent best friend dyads. A total of 660 adolescents, representing 330 best friend dyads, completed questionnaires with regard to PA, sitting time, perceived exercise benefits and barriers, physical self-perception and social support for PA. Dyads were also identified as reciprocal and non-reciprocal best friends; reciprocal means that both considered each other best friends and non-reciprocal were those in which only one considered the other a best friend. Data were analysed using a hierarchical linear model framework. Results indicated significant similarities between reciprocal best friend dyads for PA and sitting time, and for sitting time in non-reciprocal best friends (P values <.01). Psychosocial variables were associated with PA in reciprocal best friend dyads and with sitting time in reciprocal and non-reciprocal best friend dyads. Best friend gender, regular sports practice of the person, perceived exercise barriers of the best friend and best friend social support were the best predictors for PA. PMID:26238302

  17. Patient's perceptions of chronic kidney disease and their association with psychosocial and clinical outcomes: a narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Amy L.; Yates, Thomas; Smith, Alice C.; Chilcot, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) form organized beliefs regarding their illness and treatment. These perceptions influence the coping strategies employed by an individual to manage his/her illness and may act as a predictor for his/her willingness to engage in self-management behaviours. While illness perceptions have been identified as predictors of non-adherence, depression and mortality in dialysis patients, there is a paucity of research in CKD patients not requiring renal replacement therapy. This narrative review synthesizes the existing literature regarding the role of illness perceptions and associated clinical and psychosocial outcomes in non-dialysis CKD patients. Studies were identified following database searches of AMED, BNI, CINAHL, EMBASE, Health Business Elite, HMIC, Medline, PsycINFO and Google Scholar in January 2016. Despite the small evidence base, existing studies indicate that negative illness perceptions are associated with disease progression and a number of psychosocial outcomes in non-dialysis CKD patients. Evidence from other clinical populations suggests that illness perceptions are modifiable through psychological intervention, which may be most effective if delivered early before beliefs have the chance to become more established. Therefore, targeting illness perceptions in the earlier stages of CKD may be optimal. Further studies are now required to ascertain the mechanisms through which illness perceptions predict psychosocial and clinical outcomes in CKD patients and to ultimately test the efficacy of illness perception–based interventions. PMID:27274839

  18. Patient's perceptions of chronic kidney disease and their association with psychosocial and clinical outcomes: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Amy L; Yates, Thomas; Smith, Alice C; Chilcot, Joseph

    2016-06-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) form organized beliefs regarding their illness and treatment. These perceptions influence the coping strategies employed by an individual to manage his/her illness and may act as a predictor for his/her willingness to engage in self-management behaviours. While illness perceptions have been identified as predictors of non-adherence, depression and mortality in dialysis patients, there is a paucity of research in CKD patients not requiring renal replacement therapy. This narrative review synthesizes the existing literature regarding the role of illness perceptions and associated clinical and psychosocial outcomes in non-dialysis CKD patients. Studies were identified following database searches of AMED, BNI, CINAHL, EMBASE, Health Business Elite, HMIC, Medline, PsycINFO and Google Scholar in January 2016. Despite the small evidence base, existing studies indicate that negative illness perceptions are associated with disease progression and a number of psychosocial outcomes in non-dialysis CKD patients. Evidence from other clinical populations suggests that illness perceptions are modifiable through psychological intervention, which may be most effective if delivered early before beliefs have the chance to become more established. Therefore, targeting illness perceptions in the earlier stages of CKD may be optimal. Further studies are now required to ascertain the mechanisms through which illness perceptions predict psychosocial and clinical outcomes in CKD patients and to ultimately test the efficacy of illness perception-based interventions. PMID:27274839

  19. Clinical implications of the Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation: inter-relationships between symptoms, psychosocial factors and cardiovascular outcomes.

    PubMed

    Handberg, Eileen M; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Eteiba, Wafia; Johnson, B Delia; Krantz, David S; Thompson, Diane V; Vaccarino, Viola; Bittner, Vera; Sopko, George; Pepine, Carl J; Merz, Noel Bairey; Rutledge, Thomas R

    2013-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death in the USA and is associated with several modifiable (hypertension, diabetes, high cholesterol, tobacco use, physical inactivity, obesity and unhealthy diet) and nonmodifiable (age, gender and family history) risk factors. The role of psychosocial risk factors in the development of cardiovascular disease has a growing body of literature, and differences in men and women have been identified. The Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation provides insight into psychosocial risk factors in a cohort of women presenting with chest pain who had a comprehensive battery of psychosocial assessments and long-term follow-up. This review focuses on symptom presentation for chest pain and its relationship to cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality, quality of life, healthcare costs and psychosocial predictor variables, including anxiety, depression, hostility and social networks. In the Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation, persistent chest pain was associated with an increased rate of adverse events and relatively high rates of depression and anxiety, with reduced functional capacity and impaired quality of life, over a median of 6 years of follow-up. More research is needed to better understand the relationships between symptoms and negative emotions and to determine whether psychological (pharmacologic and/or cognitive) interventions might impact both psychological and cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:24007253

  20. Peer Influences on Adolescent Alcohol and Other Drug Use Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Rhonda; Hinman, Agatha; Sterling, Stacy; Weisner, Constance; Campbell, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine the role of family environment and peer networks in abstinence outcomes for adolescents 1 year after intake to alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment. Design Survey of 419 adolescents 13 to 18 years of age at consecutive intakes to AOD treatment programs at four sites of a large health system, with telephone follow-up survey 1 year after intake. Methods Examined association of 1-year abstinence with baseline characteristics. Using logistic regression, we examined characteristics predicting 1-year abstinence and predicting having fewer than four substance-using friends at 1 year. Results We found that family environment scores related to family conflict, limit setting, and positive family experiences, were not related to abstinence outcomes, but peer networks were related. Adolescents with fewer (less than four) AOD-using friends were more likely to be abstinent than those with four or more AOD-using friends (65% vs. 41%, p = .0002). Having fewer than four AOD-using friends at intake predicted abstinence at 1 year (odds ratio [OR] = 2.904, p = .0002) and also predicted having fewer than four AOD-using friends at 1 year (OR = 2.557, p = 0.0007). Conclusions Although family environment is an important factor in the development of AOD problems in adolescents, it did not play a significant role in treatment success. The quality of adolescent peer networks did independently predict positive outcomes. Clinical Relevance For physicians, advanced practice registered nurses, and other primary and behavioral care providers who screen and care for adolescents with AOD and other behavioral problems, our finding suggest the importance of focusing on improving the quality of their peer networks. PMID:22339982

  1. Use of harsh physical discipline and developmental outcomes in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    BENDER, HEATHER L.; ALLEN, JOSEPH P.; McELHANEY, KATHLEEN BOYKIN; ANTONISHAK, JILL; MOORE, CYNTHIA M.; KELLY, HEATHER O’BEIRNE; DAVIS, STEVEN M.

    2012-01-01

    A history of exposure to harsh physical discipline has been linked to negative outcomes for children, ranging from conduct disorder to depression and low self-esteem. The present study extends this work into adolescence, and examines the relationship of lifetime histories of harsh discipline to adolescents’ internalizing and externalizing symptoms and to their developing capacities for establishing autonomy and relatedness in family interactions. Adolescent and parent reports of harsh discipline, independently coded observations of conflictual interactions, and adolescent reports of symptoms were obtained for 141 adolescents at age 16. Both parents’ use of harsh discipline was related to greater adolescent depression and externalizing behavior, even when these effects were examined over and above the effects of other parenting measures known to account for these symptoms. Adolescents exposed to harsh discipline from mothers were also less likely to appear warm and engaged during an interaction task with their mothers. It is suggested that a history of harsh discipline is associated not only with social and emotional functioning, but also with the developmental task of autonomy and relatedness. PMID:17241492

  2. Psychosocial predictors of changes in adolescent girls' physical activity and dietary behaviors over the course of the Go Girls! group-based mentoring program.

    PubMed

    Dowd, A Justine; Chen, Michelle Y; Schmader, Toni; Jung, Mary E; Zumbo, Bruno D; Beauchamp, Mark R

    2016-08-01

    Changes in social cognitions targeted within a group-based mentoring program for adolescent girls were examined as predictors of changes in physical activity (PA) and dietary behavior (in two separate models) over the course of the 7-week program. Data were collected from 310 participants who participated in the program. Multilevel path models were used to assess changes in psychosocial variables predicting changes in behavioral outcomes from pre- to post-program. Analyses revealed that 24.4 and 12.3% of the variance in increases in PA and dietary behavior, respectively, was explained by increases in affective and instrumental attitudes, self-regulatory efficacy (SRE), and intentions. Increases in intentions partially mediated the effects of increases in SRE and affective attitudes on increases in PA behavior. In relation to improvements in dietary behavior, increases in intentions and SRE directly predicted improvements in dietary behavior. These findings suggest potential psychological mechanisms through which a group-based mentoring program may lead to changes in adolescent girls' health-enhancing PA and dietary behaviors. PMID:27325620

  3. Predicting functional remission in patients with schizophrenia: a cross-sectional study of symptomatic remission, psychosocial remission, functioning, and clinical outcome

    PubMed Central

    Valencia, Marcelo; Fresán, Ana; Barak, Yoram; Juárez, Francisco; Escamilla, Raul; Saracco, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Background New approaches to assess outcome in schizophrenia include multidimensional measures such as remission, cognition, psychosocial functioning, and quality of life. Clinical and psychosocial measures have been recently introduced to assess functional outcome. Objective The study presented here was designed to examine the rates of symptomatic remission, psychosocial remission, global functioning, and clinical global impressions in a sample of schizophrenia outpatients in order to assess functional remission and to identify predictive factors for functional remission. Methods A total of 168 consecutive Mexican outpatients receiving pharmacological treatment at the National Institute of Psychiatry in Mexico City were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Symptomatic remission was assessed according to the definition and criteria proposed by the Remission in Schizophrenia Working Group using the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale. Psychosocial remission was assessed according to Barak criteria using the Psychosocial Remission in Schizophrenia scale. Functioning was measured with the Global Assessment of Functioning, and clinical outcome with the Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) Scale. Results Findings showed that 45.2% of patients fulfilled the symptomatic remission criteria, 32.1% achieved psychosocial remission, and 53% reported adequate functioning. However, the combination of these three outcome criteria – symptomatic, psychosocial remission, and functioning – indicated that 14.9% of the patients achieved our predefined functional remission outcome. The logistic regression model included five predictive variables for functional remission: (1) being employed, (2) use of atypical antipsychotics, (3) lower number of medications, (4) lower negative symptom severity, and (5) lower excitement symptom severity. Conclusion The study demonstrated that symptomatic remission, psychosocial remission, and functioning could be achievable goals for a considerable

  4. Adverse psychosocial outcomes associated with drug use among US high school seniors: a comparison of alcohol and marijuana

    PubMed Central

    Palamar, Joseph J.; Fenstermaker, Michael; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Ompad, Danielle C.; Cleland, Charles M.; Weitzman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objectives There is debate about whether marijuana (cannabis) use is more dangerous than alcohol use. Although difficult to make objective comparisons, research is needed to compare relative dangers in order to help inform preventive efforts and policy. Methods Data were analyzed from a nationally representative sample of high school seniors in the Monitoring the Future study (2007–2011; Weighted n = 7437; modal age: 18) who reported lifetime use of alcohol or marijuana. Students were asked to indicate whether they experienced various adverse psychosocial outcomes resulting from use of each substance. We examined which outcomes were more prevalent for each substance. Results Compared to alcohol use, marijuana use was more commonly reported to compromise relationships with teachers or supervisors, result in less energy or interest, and result in lower school or job performance. Compared to marijuana use, alcohol was more commonly reported to compromise relationships with friends and significant others; it was also reported to lead to more regret (particularly among females), and driving unsafely. Marijuana users were more likely to report no adverse outcomes. Females and white students were more likely to report various adverse outcomes and higher frequency use of each substance also increased occurrences of reported adverse outcomes. Conclusions Marijuana and alcohol are associated with unique adverse psychosocial outcomes. Outcomes differ by sex and race/ethnicity, and perception or experience of outcomes may also be related to legal status and associated stigma. Public health interventions may be more effective by focusing on harm reduction strategies for these drug-specific outcomes. PMID:25169838

  5. Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA): Week 24 Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Emslie, Graham J.; Mayes, Taryn; Porta, Giovanna; Vitiello, Benedetto; Clarke, Greg; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Spirito, Anthony; Birmaher, Boris; Ryan, Neal; Kennard, Betsy; DeBar, Lynn; McCracken, James; Strober, Michael; Onorato, Matthew; Zelazny, Jamie; Keller, Marty; Iyengar, Satish; Brent, David

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to report on the outcome of participants in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA) trial after 24 weeks of treatment, including remission and relapse rates and predictors of treatment outcome. Method Adolescents (ages 12–18 years) with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)-resistant depression were randomly assigned to either a medication switch alone (alternate SSRI or venlafaxine) or a medication switch plus cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). At week 12, responders could continue in their assigned treatment arm and nonresponders received open treatment (medication and/or CBT) for 12 more weeks (24 weeks total). The primary outcomes were remission and relapse, defined by the Adolescent Longitudinal Interval Follow-Up Evaluation as rated by an independent evaluator. Results Of 334 adolescents enrolled in the study, 38.9% achieved remission by 24 weeks, and initial treatment assignment did not affect rates of remission. Likelihood of remission was much higher (61.6% versus 18.3% ) and time to remission was much faster among those who had already demonstrated clinical response by week 12. Remission was also higher among those with lower baseline depression, hopelessness, and self-reported anxiety. At week 12, lower depression, hopelessness, anxiety, suicidal ideation, family conflict, and absence of comorbid dysthymia, anxiety, and drug/alcohol use and impairment also predicted remission. Of those who responded by week 12, 19.6% had a relapse of depression by week 24. Conclusions Continued treatment for depression among treatment-resistant adolescents results in remission in approximately one-third of patients, similar to adults. Eventual remission is evident within the first 6 weeks in many, suggesting that earlier intervention among non-responders could be important. PMID:20478877

  6. Delay Discounting Predicts Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Stanger, Catherine; Ryan, Stacy R.; Fu, Hongyun; Landes, Reid D.; Jones, Bryan A.; Bickel, Warren K.; Budney, Alan J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to identify predictors of delay discounting among adolescents receiving treatment for marijuana abuse or dependence, and to test delay discounting as a predictor of treatment outcome. Participants for this study were 165 adolescents (88% male) between the ages of 12 and 18 (M =15.8; SD = 1.3) who enrolled in a clinical trial comparing three behavioral treatments for adolescent marijuana abuse or dependence. Participants completed a delay discounting task at treatment onset for $100 and $1,000 of hypothetical money and marijuana. Overall, smaller magnitude rewards were discounted more than larger magnitude rewards. Delay discounting rates were concurrently related to demographic variables (SES, race). Delay discounting of $1,000 of money predicted during treatment abstinence outcomes among adolescent marijuana abusers, over and above the effects of type of treatment received. Teens who show higher levels of discounting of the future may be an important subgroup to identify at treatment onset. Youth with a greater tendency to discount the future may require different intervention strategies that address their impulsivity (e.g., targeting executive function or inhibitory control) and/or different schedules of reinforcement to address their degree of preference for immediate rewards. PMID:22182419

  7. Delay discounting predicts adolescent substance abuse treatment outcome.

    PubMed

    Stanger, Catherine; Ryan, Stacy R; Fu, Hongyun; Landes, Reid D; Jones, Bryan A; Bickel, Warren K; Budney, Alan J

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of the current study was to identify predictors of delay discounting among adolescents receiving treatment for marijuana abuse or dependence, and to test delay discounting as a predictor of treatment outcome. Participants for this study were 165 adolescents (88% male) between the ages of 12 and 18 (mean age = 15.8 years; standard deviation = 1.3 years) who enrolled in a clinical trial comparing three behavioral treatments for adolescent marijuana abuse or dependence. Participants completed a delay discounting task at treatment onset for $100 and $1,000 of hypothetical money and marijuana. Overall, smaller magnitude rewards were discounted more than larger magnitude rewards. Delay discounting rates were concurrently related to demographic variables (socioeconomic status, race). Delay discounting of $1,000 of money predicted during treatment abstinence outcomes among adolescent marijuana abusers, over and above the effects of type of treatment received. Teens who show higher levels of discounting of the future may be an important subgroup to identify at treatment onset. Youth with a greater tendency to discount the future may require different intervention strategies that address their impulsivity (e.g., targeting executive function or inhibitory control) and/or different schedules of reinforcement to address their degree of preference for immediate rewards. PMID:22182419

  8. Short Stature in Childhood and Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Bannard, James R.; Schnell, Frank N.

    1991-01-01

    The literature on the psychosocial impact of short stature in childhood and adolescence is reviewed, with particular reference to IQ and educational attainment, personality and psychopathology, and the concept of infantilization. Adult outcome studies are also reviewed with comments on inherent methodological problems. Suggestions are offered for the psychosocial management of short stature. PMID:21229094

  9. HEALTH RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE AND PSYCHOSOCIAL CORRELATES AMONG HIV-INFECTED ADOLESCENT AND YOUNG ADULT WOMEN IN THE US

    PubMed Central

    Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Clum, Gretchen; Murphy, Debra A.; Harper, Gary; Perez, Lori; Xu, Jiahong; Cunningham, Shayna; Ellen, Jonathan M.

    2012-01-01

    In this study HIV health-related quality of life (HIV-HRQOL) is examined among 179 behaviorally infected adolescent and young adult women. Modifiable psychosocial variables including depression, stigma, social support, and illness acceptance, and the biological end-points of CD4 cell count and viral load were explored in relation to HIV-HRQOL. The three factors of the HIV-HRQOL measure include current life satisfaction, illness related anxiety and illness burden. Bivariate linear regression analysis demonstrated statistically significant associations for all psychosocial variables and HIV-HRQOL factors (p < .01), but not for biological end-points. In multivariate linear regression analysis significant associations remained between: depression (p = .006), illness acceptance (p < .001), social support (p = .001), and current life satisfaction, and depression (p = .012), illness acceptance (p = .015), and illness burden. A trend in association was noted for HIV stigma, with current life satisfaction and illness related anxiety but did not reach statistical significance (p = .097 and p = .109 respectively). Interventions that effectively decrease stigma and depression and increase social support and illness acceptance will likely improve the well-being and quality of life of HIV-infected adolescent women. PMID:21966746

  10. Psychosocial Intervention Is Associated with Altered Emotion Processing: An Event-Related Potential Study in At-Risk Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pincham, Hannah L.; Bryce, Donna; Kokorikou, Danae; Fonagy, Peter; Fearon, R. M. Pasco

    2016-01-01

    Emotion processing is vital for healthy adolescent development, and impaired emotional responses are associated with a number of psychiatric disorders. However, it is unclear whether observed differences between psychiatric populations and healthy controls reflect modifiable variations in functioning (and thus could be sensitive to changes resulting from intervention) or stable, non-modifiable, individual differences. The current study therefore investigated whether the Late Positive Potential (LPP; a neural index of emotion processing) can be used as a marker of therapeutic change following psycho-social intervention. At-risk male adolescents who had received less than four months intervention (minimal-intervention, N = 32) or more than nine months intervention (extended-intervention, N = 32) passively viewed emotional images whilst neural activity was recorded using electroencephalography. Significant differences in emotion processing, indicated by the LPP, were found between the two groups: the LPP did not differ according to valence in the minimal-intervention group, whereas the extended-intervention participants showed emotion processing in line with low risk populations (enhanced LPP for unpleasant images versus other images). Further, an inverse relationship between emotional reactivity (measured via the LPP) and antisocial behaviour was observed in minimal-intervention participants only. The data therefore provide preliminary cross-sectional evidence that abnormal neural responses to emotional information may be normalised following psychosocial intervention. Importantly, this study uniquely suggests that, in future randomised control trials, the LPP may be a useful biomarker to measure development and therapeutic change. PMID:26808519

  11. Familism as a Predictor of Parent-Adolescent Relationships and Developmental Outcomes for Adolescents in Armenian American Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghazarian, Sharon R.; Supple, Andrew J.; Plunkett, Scott W.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated associations between familism, parent-adolescent relationships, and developmental outcomes for a sample of 97 Armenian adolescents in immigrant families. Our results suggested that adolescents emphasizing family needs over their own were more likely to report conformity to parents' wishes, respect for parental authority, and…

  12. Does Chinese culture influence psychosocial factors for heroin use among young adolescents in China? A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Little empirical research has examined how cultural factors influence psychosocial factors for heroin drug use. The objectives of the study were to investigate the levels of individualism and collectivism among young adolescents and how cultural differences were associated with the constructs of the Theory of Planned Behavior and other psychosocial factors for heroin drug use. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among young adolescents in an HIV and heroin-stricken area in China. The Individualism-Collectivism Interpersonal Assessment Inventory (ICIAI) was used to measure cultural norms and values in the context of three social groups: family members, close friends, and classmates. Results A total of 220 boys and 241 girls were recruited and participated in an interview. Compared to boys, girls reported higher levels of the three specific-relationship ICIAIs, as well as higher levels of perceived behavioral control for heroin use, perceived peer control, and communication with parent about heroin use, but a lower level of favorable attitude towards heroin use. The levels of descriptive and subjective norms of heroin use were low in both girls and boys. Among boys, family ICIAI was positively associated with perceived behavioral control, and friend ICIAI was positively associated with perceived peer control and communication with parent. Among girls, family ICIAI was positively associated with perceived behavioral control and communication with parents about heroin use, but negatively with favorable attitudes to heroin use; friend ICIAI was positively associated with perceived peer control, and classmate ICIAI was negatively associated with favorable attitudes toward heroin use. Conclusions This study documents that collectivistic aspects of Chinese culture may influence psychosocial factors for heroin use, although the patterns are varied by gender. Findings provide an empirical basis for the development of culturally competent intervention

  13. Long-term outcome and prognosis of dissociative disorder with onset in childhood or adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Jans, Thomas; Schneck-Seif, Stefanie; Weigand, Tobias; Schneider, Wolfgang; Ellgring, Heiner; Wewetzer, Christoph; Warnke, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Background In the majority of cases short-term treatment outcome of juvenile dissociative disorder is rather favourable. In contrast, the long-term course seems to be less positive, but meaningful results are still fragmentary. The aim of this follow-up study is to bridge this gap to some extent describing the long-term outcome of juvenile dissociative disorder in a clinical sample. To our knowledge there is no comparable other long-term follow-up study which is based on a case definition according to actual classification systems using standardized interviews for individual assessment of the patients at the time of follow-up. Methods The total study group was made up of all patients treated for dissociative disorder at our department for child and adolescent psychiatry between 1983 and 1992 (N = 62). Two of these former patients committed suicide during the follow-up period (3%). We got information on the clinical course of 27 former patients (44%). 17 out of these 27 former patients were female (63%). The mean age of onset of dissociative disorder was11.7 years and the mean follow-up time was 12.4 years. Most of the patients were reassessed personally (n = 23) at a mean age of 24.8 years using structured interviews covering dissociative disorders, other Axis I disorders and personality disorders (Heidelberg Dissociation Inventory HDI; Expert System for Diagnosing Mental Disorders, DIA-X; Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, SCID-II). Social adjustment was assessed by a semi-structured interview and by patient self report (Social Adjustment Scale – Self Report, SAS-SR). Psychosocial outcome variables were additionally assessed in 36 healthy controls (67% female, mean age = 22.9 years). Results At the time of follow-up investigation 82.6% of the patients met the criteria for some form of psychiatric disorder, while 26.1% were still suffering from dissociative disorder. A total of 56.5% presented with an Axis I disorder (especially anxiety, dissociative and

  14. Psychosocial functioning in children and adolescents with gastrointestinal complaints and disorders.

    PubMed

    Hommel, Kevin A; McGraw, Kelly L; Ammerman, Robert T; Heubi, James E; Hansen, Molly; Dunlap, Ellen; Beidel, Deborah C

    2010-06-01

    The current study examined the prevalence and presentation of psychosocial symptoms in pediatric patients and their parents presenting for first time appointments at a gastroenterology (GI) clinic compared to healthy controls (HC). One hundred GI patients, aged 8-17 years, and their mothers were compared to 100 age- and gender-matched HC on measures of child and parental behavioral/psychosocial functioning, depression, and anxiety. Results revealed significant correlations between mother- and child-reported internalizing behaviors and psychological symptoms. Significant group differences were observed in internalizing problems, adaptive and social skills, and leadership competency, as well as parental interpersonal sensitivity, depression, phobic anxiety, and number of psychological symptoms. GI patients are at increased risk for psychosocial and social dysfunction compared to healthy peers. Psychosocial factors should be considered when assessing patients in GI clinics. Patients might benefit from treatment plans that involve adjunctive behavioral intervention to assist patients in managing their conditions. PMID:20372996

  15. Children and mothers in war: an outcome study of a psychosocial intervention program.

    PubMed

    Dybdahl, R

    2001-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effects on children (age: M = 5.5 years) in war-torn Bosnia and Herzegovina of a psychosocial intervention program consisting of weekly group meetings for mothers for 5 months. An additional aim was to investigate the children's psychosocial functioning and the mental health of their mothers. Internally displaced mother-child dyads were randomly assigned to an intervention group receiving psychosocial support and basic medical care (n = 42) or to a control group receiving medical care only (n = 45). Participants took part in interviews and tests to provide information about war exposure, mental health, psychosocial functioning, intellectual abilities, and physical health. Results showed that although all participants were exposed to severe trauma, their manifestations of distress varied considerably. The intervention program had a positive effect on mothers' mental health, children's weight gain, and several measures of children's psychosocial functioning and mental health, whereas there was no difference between the two groups on other measures. The findings have implications for policy. PMID:11480943

  16. Predicting Developmental Change in Healthy Eating and Regular Exercise among Adolescents in China and the United States: The Role of Psychosocial and Behavioral Protection and Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessor, Richard; Turbin, Mark S.; Costa, Frances M.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports a cross-national study of developmental change in health-enhancing behavior--healthy eating and regular exercise--among adolescents in China and the United States. The application of a conceptual framework comprising psychosocial and behavioral protective and risk factors--both proximal and distal and at both the individual…

  17. The effects of a school-based psychosocial intervention on resilience and health outcomes among vulnerable children.

    PubMed

    Olowokere, A E; Okanlawon, F A

    2014-06-01

    Responding to the psychosocial health needs of the vulnerable population has been considered as a significant public health issue that must be addressed through access to public health professionals. The study adopted a quasi-experimental design to evaluate the impact of a training program on nurses and teachers' knowledge of psychosocial health needs of vulnerable children and the impact this had on children's resilience and psychosocial health outcomes (self-esteem, social connection, anxiety, and depression). The result showed a significant increase in the knowledge mean scores of both nurses and teachers 6 weeks post intervention. Children's depression scores significantly reduced post intervention. Their resilience, self-esteem, and social connection were also significantly improved, while no significant reduction was found in their anxiety scores. The results of the pilot study suggest that a more rigorous study be conducted to further ascertain the effectiveness of the various interventions used in this study while taking into consideration the challenges raised by the authors. PMID:23962976

  18. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Depression in Urban Adolescent Females: Implications for Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Jewelle Taylor

    Despite an increased interest in adolescent depression from theoretical and clinical perspectives, there have been few attempts to investigate depression in non-clinical populations. To identify demographic, sociocultural, and behavioral factors related to adolescent depression in a non-clinical population of urban adolescent females, a racially…

  19. Psychosocial outcomes in patients with recurrent major depressive disorder during 2 years of maintenance treatment with venlafaxine extended release

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Dunner, David L.; Kornstein, Susan G.; Thase, Michael E.; Zajecka, John M.; Rothschild, Anthony J.; Friedman, Edward S.; Shelton, Richard C.; Keller, Martin B.; Kocsis, James H.; Gelenberg, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychosocial outcomes from the Prevention of Recurrent Episodes of Depression with Venlafaxine ER for Two Years (PREVENT) study were evaluated. Methods Adult outpatients with recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD) and response or remission following 6-month continuation treatment with venlafaxine extended release (ER) were randomized to receive venlafaxine ER or placebo for 1 year. Patients without recurrence on venlafaxine ER during year 1 were randomized to venlafaxine ER or placebo for year 2. Psychosocial functioning was assessed using the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire—Short Form (Q-LES-Q), Life EnjoymentScale—Short Version (LES-S), Social Adjustment Scale—Self-Report (SAS-SR) total and individual factors, Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) (vitality, social functioning, and role function-emotional items), and Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation (LIFE). Results At year 1 end, better overall psychosocial functioning was seen among patients randomly assigned to venlafaxine ER (n=129) vs placebo (n=129), with significant differences at end point on SF-36 role function-emotional, Q-LES-Q, and SAS-SR total, and work, house work, social/leisure, and extended-family factor scores (p≤0.05). At year 2 end, significant differences favored venlafaxine ER (n=43) vs placebo (n=40)on SF-36 vitality and rolefunction-emotional, Q-LES-Q, LES-S, LIFE, and SAS-SR total, social/leisure, and extended-family factor scores (p≤0.05). Limitations Patients with chronic MDD or treatment resistance were excluded and long-term specialist care was a financial incentive for treatment compliance. Discontinuation-related adverse events may have compromised the integrity of the treatment blind. Conclusions For patients with recurrent MDD, 2 years’ maintenance therapy with venlafaxine ER may improve psychosocial functioning vs placebo. PMID:20510459

  20. Newcomer Immigrant Adolescents: A Mixed-Methods Examination of Family Stressors and School Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Sita G.; Clarke, Annette V.; Eltareb, Fazia; Macciomei, Erynn E.; Wickham, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Family stressors predict negative psychological outcomes for immigrant adolescents, yet little is known about how such stressors interact to predict school outcomes. The purpose of this study was to explore the interactive role of family stressors on school outcomes for newcomer adolescent immigrants. Using a convergent parallel mixed-methods…

  1. Two-year outcomes of an adjunctive telephone coaching and electronic contact intervention for adolescent weight-loss maintenance: the Loozit randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, B; Shrewsbury, V A; O'Connor, J; Steinbeck, K S; Hill, A J; Shah, S; Kohn, M R; Torvaldsen, S; Baur, L A

    2013-03-01

    This paper reports the final 24-month outcomes of a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of additional therapeutic contact (ATC) as an adjunct to a community-based weight-management program for overweight and obese 13-16-year-olds. ATC involved telephone coaching or short-message-service and/or email communication once per fortnight. Adolescents were randomized to receive the Loozit group program-a two-phase behavioral lifestyle intervention with (n=73), or without (n=78), ATC in Phase 2. Adolescents/parents separately attended seven weekly group sessions (Phase 1), followed by quarterly adolescent sessions (Phase 2). Assessor-blinded, 24-month changes in anthropometry and metabolic health included primary outcomes body mass index (BMI) z-score and waist:height ratio (WHtR). Secondary outcomes were self-reported psychosocial and lifestyle changes. By 24 months, 17 adolescents had formally withdrawn. Relative to the Loozit program alone, ATC largely had no impact on outcomes. Secondary pre-post assessment of the Loozit group program showed mean (95% CI) reductions in BMI z-score (-0.13 (-0.20, -0.06)) and WHtR (-0.02 (-0.03, -0.01)) in both arms, with several metabolic and psychosocial improvements. Adjunctive ATC did not provide further benefits to the Loozit group program. We recommend that further work is needed to optimize technological support for adolescents in weight-loss maintenance. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry Number ACTRNO12606000175572. PMID:22584456

  2. Acculturation-Related Stress and Mental Health Outcomes among Three Generations of Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervantes, Richard C.; Padilla, Amado M.; Napper, Lucy E.; Goldbach, Jeremy T.

    2013-01-01

    Stress associated with acculturation and minority status among Hispanic youth is understudied. Using survey data from the Hispanic Stress Inventory-Adolescent Version (HSI-A), we examined psychosocial stress across eight domains including family economic stress and acculturation-gap stress in a national sample of three generations (first, second,…

  3. Children and Mothers in War: An Outcome Study of a Psychosocial Intervention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dybdahl, Ragnhild

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated effects on children in Bosnia and Herzegovina of a 5-month psychosocial intervention program of weekly group meetings for mothers. Found that although all participants were exposed to severe trauma, their distress varied considerably. The intervention program had a positive effect on mothers' mental health, children's weight gain, and…

  4. Psychosocial Outcomes at 15 Years of Children with a Preschool History of Speech-Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snowling, Margaret J.; Bishop, D. V. M.; Stothard, Susan E.; Chipchase, Barry; Kaplan, Carole

    2006-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests there is a heightened risk of psychiatric disorder in children with speech-language impairments. However, not all forms of language impairment are strongly associated with psychosocial difficulty, and some psychiatric disorders (e.g., attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)) are more prevalent than others in…

  5. Attention and Language as Mediators of Academic Outcomes Following Early Psychosocial Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merz, Emily C.; McCall, Robert B.; Wright, Amanda J.

    2013-01-01

    Children adopted from institutions at older ages are at increased risk of persistent attention problems, lower cognition, and academic difficulties. This study examined cognitive and behavior problems as mediators of the association between early psychosocial deprivation and academic functioning. Participants were 8-17-year-old children adopted…

  6. Adult Psychosocial Outcomes of Children with Specific Language Impairment, Pragmatic Language Impairment and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Watt, Helen J.; Line, E. A.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The few studies that have tracked children with developmental language disorder to adulthood have found that these individuals experience considerable difficulties with psychosocial adjustment (for example, academic, vocational and social aptitude). Evidence that some children also develop autistic symptomatology over time has raised…

  7. Do views on psychosocial needs of children and adolescents differ among professionals depending on their organisational affiliation? A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Widmark, Catharina; Sandahl, Christer; Piuva, Katarina; Bergman, David

    2016-09-01

    Unit managers and employees in schools, social services, and child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) were asked to describe their views on children's and adolescents' psychosocial needs when collaboration was required. A descriptive case study design was employed and data were gathered from 23 professionals in six focus groups. The data were analysed by the use of an inductive content approach. Disparities were identified that were interpreted as different approaches to children's needs, which we designated individual (CAMHS), contextual (social services), and educational (schools) approaches. These were perceived as emerging from the professional representations of children's needs that were created within each working group. The organisational affiliation seemed however to have a stronger influence than professional education, regarding the view of children's needs. We suggest that it would be an advantage for professionals to be able to participate in dialogue groups to discuss the meaning of their organisational and professional affiliations, and how this affects their views. Rather than formal knowledge, such dialogues should contain more essential knowledge related to the professionals' approaches to children's needs and to the diversities in the way they think and work in a "give-and-take" process. This might influence their way of thinking and working with children and adolescents, and strengthen their understanding of each other's work. PMID:27388237

  8. Poor Outcomes in a Cohort of HIV-Infected Adolescents Undergoing Treatment for Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Mumbai, India

    PubMed Central

    Isaakidis, Petros; Paryani, Roma; Khan, Samsuddin; Mansoor, Homa; Manglani, Mamta; Valiyakath, Asmaa; Saranchuk, Peter; Furin, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in HIV-co-infected adolescents. This study aimed to present the intermediate outcomes of HIV-infected adolescents aged 10–19 years receiving second-line anti-TB treatment in a Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) project in Mumbai, India. Methods A retrospective review of medical records of 11 adolescents enrolled between July 2007 and January 2013 was undertaken. Patients were initiated on either empirical or individualized second-line ambulatory anti-TB treatment under direct observation. Results The median age was 16 (IQR 14–18) years and 54% were female. Five (46%) adolescents had pulmonary TB (PTB), two (18%) extrapulmonary disease (EPTB) and four (36%) had both. Median CD4 count at the time of MDR-TB diagnosis was 162.7 cells/µl (IQR: 84.8–250.5). By January 2013, eight patients had final and 3 had interim outcomes. Favourable results were seen in four (36.5%) patients: one was cured and three were still on treatment with negative culture results. Seven patients (64%) had poor outcomes: four (36.5%) died and three (27%) defaulted. Three of the patients who died never started on antiretroviral and/or TB treatment and one died 16 days after treatment initiation. Two of the defaulted died soon after default. All patients (100%) on-treatment experienced adverse events (AEs): two required permanent discontinuation of the culprit drug and two were hospitalized due to AEs. No patient required permanent discontinuation of the entire second-line TB or antiretroviral regimens. Conclusions Early mortality and mortality after default were the most common reasons for poor outcomes in this study. Early mortality suggests the need for rapid diagnosis and prompt treatment initiation, and adolescents might benefit from active contact-tracing and immediate referral. Default occurred at different times, suggesting the need for continuous, intensified and individualized psychosocial

  9. Time to First Cigarette Predicts Cessation Outcomes in Adolescent Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Branstetter, Steven A.; Muscat, Joshua E.; Horn, Kimberly A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This study examined the relationship between the time to the first cigarette (TTFC) of the morning with quit status among adolescent smokers at the completion of a school-based smoking cessation program. Among those who did not quit, the relationship of TTFC with changes in cigarettes/day (CPD) was also examined. Methods: A total of 1,167 adolescent smokers (1,024 nonquitters and 143 quitters) from 4 states participating in efficacy and effectiveness studies of the Not-On-Tobacco (N-O-T) cessation program were assessed prior to entry into the program and again 3 months later at the end of treatment. Linear and logistic regression analyses determined the influence of treatment condition, age, gender, motivation to quit, confidence in quitting ability, baseline CPD, and TTFC on quit status and end-of-treatment CPD. Results: Adolescents with a TTFC of >30min of waking were twice as likely to quit at end of treatment. Additionally, among those who did not quit at end of treatment (n = 700 for TTFC ≤30min and n = 324 for TTFC for >30min), those with a TTFC within 30min of waking smoked a greater number of CPD. The relationships of TTFC with both of these outcomes remained when controlling for all other predictor variables. Conclusions: Identifying adolescent smokers who smoke their first cigarette of the day within the first 30min of waking prior to a quit attempt may help to classify those individuals as having a greater risk for cessation failure. Thus, TTFC may be a behavioral indicator of nicotine dependence in adolescents. PMID:23811009

  10. Psychosocial outcome following genetic risk counselling for familial colorectal cancer. A comparison of affected patients and family members.

    PubMed

    Keller, M; Jost, R; Haunstetter, C M; Sattel, H; Schroeter, C; Bertsch, U; Cremer, F; Kienle, P; Tariverdian, M; Kloor, M; Gebert, J; Brechtel, A

    2008-11-01

    Few studies have reported prospective data on psychosocial outcomes after genetic counselling in families with suspected hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). This prospective study examines the impact of multidisciplinary risk counselling on the psychosocial outcome of 139 affected cancer patients and 233 family members without cancer at risk for HNPCC. Participants completed questionnaires specific to HNPCC before and 8 weeks after attending the familial cancer clinic. Affected patients' levels of distress were closely related to their health status and exceeded that of unaffected individuals, as did worry regarding their relatives' risk. A significant reduction in general anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), distress specific to familial CRC (Impact of Events Scale) and general cancer worry (Distress Hereditary Disorder) was demonstrated after counselling in both affected patients and unaffected individuals. Reduction in distress was more pronounced in affected patients given a high risk of HNPCC compared with those at intermediate risk. Among unaffected individuals, distress declined regardless of what clinical risk they were assigned. Their perceptions of risk and cancer-related threat declined, while confidence in effective surveillance increased. These results suggest the beneficial effects of multidisciplinary counselling even when high-risk information is conveyed. A patient's previous cancer experience is likely to contribute to clinically relevant distress (15% of those patients), indicating the need for appropriate counselling. PMID:18954412

  11. Effects of Yoga on Symptoms, Physical Function, and Psychosocial Outcomes in Adults with Osteoarthritis: A Focused Review.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Corjena; Park, Juyoung; Wyman, Jean F

    2016-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a highly prevalent and disabling chronic condition. Because physical activity is a key component in OA management, effective exercise interventions are needed. Yoga is an increasingly popular multimodal mind-body exercise that aims to promote flexibility, strength, endurance, and balance. Its gentle approach is potentially a safe and effective exercise option for managing OA. The purpose of this focused review is to examine the effects of yoga on OA symptoms and physical and psychosocial outcomes. A comprehensive search was conducted using seven electronic databases. Twelve reports met inclusion criteria involving a total of 589 participants with OA-related symptoms. A variety of types, frequencies, and durations of yoga interventions were reported; Hatha and Iyengar yoga were the most commonly used types. Frequency of intervention ranged from once a week to 6 days a week. Duration of the interventions ranged from 45 to 90 mins per session for 6 to 12 wks. Yoga intervention resulted in reductions in pain, stiffness, and swelling, but results on physical function and psychosocial well-being were inconclusive because of a variety of outcome measures being used. PMID:26495816

  12. Parent, teacher, and self perceptions of psychosocial functioning in intellectually gifted children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Foley Nicpon, Megan; Doobay, Alissa F; Assouline, Susan G

    2010-08-01

    Parent, teacher, and self-perceptions of 54 high ability students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were assessed through administration of the Behavioral Assessment Scales for Children, Second Edition. Parent reports resulted in clinically elevated scores on the Atypicality, Attention Problems, Depression, Hyperactivity, Withdrawal, Activities of Daily Living, Adaptability, and Social Skills subscales, and teacher reports resulted in clinically elevated scores on the Atypicality, Depression, Withdrawal, and Adaptability subscales. Self-report scores were in the average range. Parents and teachers of adolescents reported greater adaptability and fewer symptoms of atypicality than parents and teachers of children. Psychosocial functioning appears impacted in high ability students with ASD and developmental differences in severity may exist. PMID:20143145

  13. Psychosocial oncofertility issues faced by adolescents and young adults over their lifetime: a review of the research.

    PubMed

    Crawshaw, Marilyn

    2013-03-01

    This review considers psychosocial oncofertility research relevant to adolescents and young adults over their lifetime. There is growing awareness of the fertility preservation needs of younger males including lowering practical barriers and attending to emotional impact. Despite decisional challenges facing females--the experimental nature of procedures, time involved and potential involvement of partners/donors (for embryo cryopreservation)--findings suggest they too benefit from fertility information at diagnosis and access to fertility specialists. Studies consistently report that fertility concerns affect well-being, relationships and life planning. Both genders thus want fertility issues to be raised proactively by professionals in the years following diagnosis: to help them make informed decisions at a time relevant to them, develop coping strategies for current and future related areas and to be referred to specialist and/or therapeutic help if needed. Little is known about why cancer survivors are less likely to marry or have children, or about their parenthood experiences. PMID:23009083

  14. Adolescent Psychosocial Risk Factors for Severe Intimate Partner Violence in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan-Miller, Danielle; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined prospective measures of psychosocial risk factors as predictors of severe intimate partner violence among a community sample of 610 young adults at risk for intergenerational transmission of depression. The hypothesized risk factors were youth history of depression by age 15 and maternal history of depression. Youth social…

  15. Growing up in Violent Communities: Do Family Conflict and Gender Moderate Impacts on Adolescents' Psychosocial Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKelvey, Lorraine M.; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Bradley, Robert H.; Casey, Patrick H.; Conners-Burrow, Nicola A.; Barrett, Kathleen W.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the moderating effects of family conflict and gender on the relationship between community violence and psychosocial development at age 18. The study sample consisted of 728 children and families who were part of the Infant Health and Development Program study of low-birth-weight, pre-term infants. In this sample, adolescent…

  16. Psycho-Social Characteristics of Children and Adolescents with Siblings on the Autistic Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stampoltzis, Aglaia; Defingou, Georgia; Antonopoulou, Katerina; Kouvava, Sofia; Polychronopoulou, Stavroula

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the psycho-social characteristics of typically developing children who have siblings with autism and their sibling relationship. Children's adjustment at school, their self-esteem and social relations, as well as their friends' attitudes towards their autistic siblings were examined. Participants were 22 siblings…

  17. Consequences of Part-Time Work on the Academic and Psychosocial Adaptation of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumont, Michelle; Leclerc, Danielle; McKinnon, Suzie

    2009-01-01

    Part-time work is becoming a common fact of life for high school students. Furthermore, its short and intermediate term impacts on the academic and psychosocial adaptation of students between the middle and end of high school are fairly unknown. To compensate for this lack of information, students in Grades 9 and 11 were consulted and asked to…

  18. Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Phobic and Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Wendy K.; Pina, Armando A.; Viswesvaran, Chockalingam

    2008-01-01

    The article reviews psychosocial treatments for phobic and anxiety disorders in youth. Using criteria from Nathan and Gorman (2002), 32 studies are evaluated along a continuum of methodological rigor. In addition, the treatments evaluated in each of the 32 studies are classified according to Chambless et al.'s (1996) and Chambless and Hollon's…

  19. Patient-centered medical home: how it affects psychosocial outcomes for diabetes.

    PubMed

    Jortberg, Bonnie T; Miller, Benjamin F; Gabbay, Robert A; Sparling, Kerri; Dickinson, W Perry

    2012-12-01

    Fragmentation of the current U.S. health care system and the increased prevalence of chronic diseases in the U.S. have led to the recognition that new models of care are needed. Chronic disease management, including diabetes, is often accompanied by a myriad of associated psychosocial issues that need to be addressed as part of a comprehensive treatment plan. Diabetes care should be aligned with comprehensive whole-person health care. The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) has emerged as a model for enhanced primary care that focuses on comprehensive integrated care. PCMH demonstration projects have shown improvements in quality of care, patient experience, care coordination, access to care, and quality measures for diabetes. Key PCMH transformative features associated with psychosocial issues related to diabetes reviewed in this article include integration of mental and behavioral health, care management/coordination, payment reform, advanced access, and putting the patient at the center of health care. This article also reviews the evidence supporting comprehensive and integrated care for addressing psychosocial issues associated with diabetes in the medical home. PMID:22961115

  20. Diversity of Outcomes Among Adolescent Children of Mothers With Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowbray, Carol T.; Bybee, Deborah; Oyserman, Daphna; Allen -Meares, Paula; MacFarlane, Peter; Hart-Johnson, Tamera

    2004-01-01

    Children of parents with mental illness are an at-risk population according to research on psychiatric outcomes using White, middle-class samples of depressed parents and infants and preschool children. The current study expands this evidence by exploring within-group heterogeneity across psychosocial outcomes, in a racially diverse, low-income…

  1. Dyadic Variability in Mother-Adolescent Interactions: Developmental Trajectories and Associations with Psychosocial Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Giessen, Danielle; Branje, Susan J. T.; Frijns, Tom; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2013-01-01

    Dyadic variability is considered to be a key mechanism in the development of mother-adolescent relationships, and low levels of dyadic flexibility are thought to be associated with behavior and relationship problems. The present observational study examined heterogeneity in the development of dyadic variability in mother-adolescent interactions…

  2. Trajectories of Antisocial Behavior and Psychosocial Maturity from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Kathryn C.; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Mulvey, Edward P.

    2009-01-01

    Most theorizing about desistance from antisocial behavior in late adolescence has emphasized the importance of individuals' transition into adult roles. In contrast, little research has examined how psychological development in late adolescence and early adulthood contributes desistance. The present study examined trajectories of antisocial…

  3. Prevalence and Psychosocial Correlates of Forced Sexual Intercourse among U.S. High School Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Donna E.; Wang, Min Qi; Yan, Fang

    2007-01-01

    Although a history of forced sexual intercourse affects a relatively small number of U.S. adolescents, it is a persistent and alarming public health problem. This study examined the robustness of the risk profile of adolescents who report a history of forced sexual intercourse using the most current and representative data from the national 2005…

  4. Psychosocial Factors in Adolescent and Young Adult Self-Reported Depressive Symptoms: Causal or Correlational Associations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Haslimeier, Claudia; Metzke, Christa Winkler

    2007-01-01

    Using a large longitudinal representative community sample, this study identified three groups of subjects who were depressed either in pre-adolescence, late adolescence or early adulthood, and matched by age and gender to controls without depression. The 90th percentile on one or two self-reported symptom scales [i. e. the Center for…

  5. Psychosocial Correlates of Physical and Sedentary Activities of Early Adolescent Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusby, Julie C.; Westling, Erika; Crowley, Ryann; Light, John M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines physical and sedentary activities of early adolescent boys and girls using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA), a method that can link mood and behaviors in specific social situations. Twenty-seven assessments were collected across 7 days from 82 participating adolescents, three times in seventh grade and one time in eighth…

  6. Daughter-Father Relationships and Adolescent Psychosocial Functioning in Low-Income African American Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coley, Rebekah Levine

    2003-01-01

    Examines the role of biological and social fathers in the lives of low-income African American adolescent girls. Analyses indicated that daughters' perceptions of anger and alienation from fathers was related to greater emotional and behavioral problems for adolescents, whereas perceptions of trust and communication with fathers were not…

  7. Deaf adolescents in a hearing world: a review of factors affecting psychosocial adaptation.

    PubMed

    Brice, Patrick J; Strauss, Gillie

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence has long been viewed as a time of rapid change in many domains including physical, cognitive, and social. Adolescents must adapt based on developing skills and needs and acclimate to growing environmental pressures. Deaf adolescents are often faced with the additional challenge of managing these adaptations in a hearing world, where communication and access to information, especially about their social world, are incomplete at best and nonexistent at worst. This article discusses the research on several factors that influence a deaf adolescent's adaptation, including quality of life, self-concept, and identity development. Gaps in our knowledge are pointed out with suggestions for future research programs that can facilitate optimal development in adolescents who are deaf. PMID:27186150

  8. Psychosocial Predictors and Outcomes of Delayed Breast Reconstruction in Mastectomized Women in Mainland China: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; He, Jinguang; Qiao, Yufei; Wei, Jiao; Dong, Jiasheng

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate potential psychosocial factors that impact Chinese female breast cancer patients to select breast reconstruction (BR), and potential connection of psychosocial outcomes with their satisfaction with BR. Methods A total of 264 female breast cancer patients with mastectomy were recruited from 2012 to 2014. All patients were informed with BR options at their first visit. Personal and medical profiles were collected. Body image, self-esteem, depression and anxiety were assessed using validated scales. Patients who were selected to undergo BR after the first visit were followed up for six months. The same assessment was performed at 6 months post BR, and their satisfaction with BR was evaluated using the Alderman scale. Multivariate linear and logistic regressions were performed. Results Forty-seven percent of the patients (126/264) opted to undergo BR within six months after the initial visit. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that self-esteem (P < 0.05), body image (P < 0.01), education level (P < 0.05), and their husband’s recommendation (P < 0.05) were highly related to the patients’ decision to undergo BR. In addition, multivariate linear regression analysis showed that patient satisfaction with BR was significantly associated with preoperative body image (P < 0.01), postoperative improvement in self-esteem (P < 0.01), improvement in body image (P < 0.01), reduction in depression (P < 0.05), pain (P < 0.05), and scarring (P < 0.01). Conclusions The psychosocial factors including self-esteem and body image are highly related to selecting the BR option and post-BR satisfaction in Chinese female breast cancer patients. PMID:26641252

  9. Social protection: potential for improving HIV outcomes among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Cluver, Lucie D; Hodes, Rebecca J; Sherr, Lorraine; Mark Orkin, F; Meinck, Franziska; Lim Ah Ken, Patricia; Winder-Rossi, Natalia E; Wolfe, Jason; Vicari, Marissa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Advances in biomedical technologies provide potential for adolescent HIV prevention and HIV-positive survival. The UNAIDS 90–90–90 treatment targets provide a new roadmap for ending the HIV epidemic, principally through antiretroviral treatment, HIV testing and viral suppression among people with HIV. However, while imperative, HIV treatment and testing will not be sufficient to address the epidemic among adolescents in Southern and Eastern Africa. In particular, use of condoms and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) remain haphazard, with evidence that social and structural deprivation is negatively impacting adolescents’ capacity to protect themselves and others. This paper examines the evidence for and potential of interventions addressing these structural deprivations. Discussion New evidence is emerging around social protection interventions, including cash transfers, parenting support and educational support (“cash, care and classroom”). These interventions have the potential to reduce the social and economic drivers of HIV risk, improve utilization of prevention technologies and improve adherence to ART for adolescent populations in the hyper-endemic settings of Southern and Eastern Africa. Studies show that the integration of social and economic interventions has high acceptability and reach and that it holds powerful potential for improved HIV, health and development outcomes. Conclusions Social protection is a largely untapped means of reducing HIV-risk behaviours and increasing uptake of and adherence to biomedical prevention and treatment technologies. There is now sufficient evidence to include social protection programming as a key strategy not only to mitigate the negative impacts of the HIV epidemic among families, but also to contribute to HIV prevention among adolescents and potentially to remove social and economic barriers to accessing treatment. We urge a further research and programming agenda: to actively combine

  10. Denoting treatment outcome in child and adolescent psychiatry: a comparison of continuous and categorical outcomes.

    PubMed

    de Beurs, Edwin; Barendregt, Marko; Rogmans, Bente; Robbers, Sylvana; van Geffen, Marieke; van Aggelen-Gerrits, Marleen; Houben, Huub

    2015-05-01

    Various approaches have been proposed to denote treatment outcome, such as the effect size of the pre-to-posttest change, percentage improvement, statistically reliable change, and clinical significant change. The aim of the study is to compare these approaches and evaluate their aptitude to differentiate among child and adolescent mental healthcare providers regarding their treatment outcome. Comparing outcomes according to continuous and categorical outcome indicators using real-life data of seven mental healthcare providers, three using the Child Behavior Checklist and four using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire as primary outcome measure. Within each dataset consistent differences were found between providers and the various methods led to comparable rankings of providers. Statistical considerations designate continuous outcomes as the optimal choice. Change scores have more statistical power and allow for a ranking of providers at first glance. Expressing providers' performance in proportions of recovered, changed, unchanged, or deteriorated patients has supplementary value, as it denotes outcome in a manner more easily interpreted and appreciated by clinicians, managerial staff, and, last but not least, by patients or their parents. PMID:25183369

  11. Parenting, Community, and Religious Predictors of Positive and Negative Developmental Outcomes among Muslim Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauss, Steven Eric; Hamzah, Azimi; Ismail, Ismi Arif; Suandi, Turiman; Hamzah, Siti Raba'ah; Dahalan, Dzuhailmi; Idris, Fazilah

    2014-01-01

    Despite existing research on the contribution of social context and religiosity to adolescent behavioral outcomes, few studies have attempted to explore this topic among Muslim adolescents in non-Western settings, looking at both positive and negative outcomes. In response to this gap, the current study explored the effects of three dimensions of…

  12. Availability of Reproductive Health Care Services at Schools and Subsequent Birth Outcomes among Adolescent Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madkour, Aubrey S.; Xie, Yiqiong; Harville, Emily W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adverse birth outcomes are more common among adolescent versus adult mothers, but little is known about school-based services that may improve birth outcomes in this group. Methods: Data from Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were analyzed. Girls and women who gave birth to singleton live infants…

  13. Daily School Peer Victimization Experiences Among Mexican-American Adolescents: Associations with Psychosocial, Physical and School Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Nancy A.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    School bullying incidents, particularly experiences with victimization, are a significant social and health concern among adolescents. The current study extended past research by examining the daily peer victimization experiences of Mexican-American adolescents and examining how chronic (mean-level) and episodic (daily-level) victimization incidents at school are associated with psychosocial, physical and school adjustment. Across a two-week span, 428 ninth and tenth grade Mexican-American students (51 % female) completed brief checklists every night before going to bed. Hierarchical linear model analyses revealed that, at the individual level, Mexican-American adolescents’ who reported more chronic peer victimization incidents across the two-weeks also reported heightened distress and academic problems. After accounting for adolescent’s mean levels of peer victimization, daily victimization incidents were associated with more school adjustment problems (i.e., academic problems, perceived role fulfillment as a good student). Additionally, support was found for the mediation model in which distress accounts for the mean-level association between peer victimization and academic problems. The results from the current study revealed that everyday peer victimization experiences among Mexican-American high school students have negative implications for adolescents’ adjustment, across multiple domains. PMID:23238764

  14. Psychosocial issues in the management and treatment of children and adolescents with asthma.

    PubMed

    Malhi, P

    2001-09-01

    Asthma is one of the most common chronic childhood illness. Studies have reported higher incidence of psychosocial adaptation problems in children with asthma, particularly severe asthma, than children in the general population. Increased psychosocial problems in children with asthma have been ascribed to adverse developmental impact of having a chronic health problems, increased demands on the family and dysfunctional familial interactional patterns. Treatment models include education and self management training programs, family therapy, relaxation therapy and biofeedback. These programs have been found to produce improved adjustment, increased medication compliance and greater perceived self competence in managing symptoms and decreased use of medical services. It is concluded that children with asthma require a comprehensive management strategy that pays attention not only to physiological control of asthma symptoms but also emotional and behavioural problems of children and their families. PMID:11980469

  15. Combining alcohol and energy drinks: An examination of psychosocial constructs and alcohol outcomes among college students using a longitudinal design

    PubMed Central

    Marzell, Miesha; Turrisi, Rob; Mallett, Kimberly; Ray, Anne E.; Scaglione, Nichole Marie

    2013-01-01

    Combining alcohol and energy drinks (e.g., Red Bull and vodka) is a significant problem on college campuses. To date, few studies have examined psychosocial constructs specific to alcohol-energy drink cocktail (AmED) consumption that could be amenable to change via prevention efforts targeting this population. The aim of the current study was to examine differences in AmED-specific attitudes, beliefs, normative perceptions among students who report AmED use compared to college student drinkers who consume alcohol only. In addition, these two groups were compared on their intentions to consume AmEDs, actual AmED use, and other drinking outcomes using a longitudinal design. Participants (N = 386, 59% female) completed a web-based survey in the spring of their first year of college and fall of their second year assessing alcohol-energy drink cocktail use, psychosocial decision-making constructs, heavy drinking, and alcohol-related consequences. Findings revealed that combiners of alcohol and energy drinks had more positive attitudes and beliefs about AmED use, higher perceived peer norms, and stronger intentions toward future use. Accordingly, at Time 2, this group reported significantly higher AmED use, along with high-risk drinking and related consequences. The findings reinforce that AmED use is associated with risky drinking practices, and suggest potential targets for change for future prevention efforts. PMID:25346654

  16. Combining alcohol and energy drinks: An examination of psychosocial constructs and alcohol outcomes among college students using a longitudinal design.

    PubMed

    Marzell, Miesha; Turrisi, Rob; Mallett, Kimberly; Ray, Anne E; Scaglione, Nichole Marie

    2014-04-01

    Combining alcohol and energy drinks (e.g., Red Bull and vodka) is a significant problem on college campuses. To date, few studies have examined psychosocial constructs specific to alcohol-energy drink cocktail (AmED) consumption that could be amenable to change via prevention efforts targeting this population. The aim of the current study was to examine differences in AmED-specific attitudes, beliefs, normative perceptions among students who report AmED use compared to college student drinkers who consume alcohol only. In addition, these two groups were compared on their intentions to consume AmEDs, actual AmED use, and other drinking outcomes using a longitudinal design. Participants (N = 386, 59% female) completed a web-based survey in the spring of their first year of college and fall of their second year assessing alcohol-energy drink cocktail use, psychosocial decision-making constructs, heavy drinking, and alcohol-related consequences. Findings revealed that combiners of alcohol and energy drinks had more positive attitudes and beliefs about AmED use, higher perceived peer norms, and stronger intentions toward future use. Accordingly, at Time 2, this group reported significantly higher AmED use, along with high-risk drinking and related consequences. The findings reinforce that AmED use is associated with risky drinking practices, and suggest potential targets for change for future prevention efforts. PMID:25346654

  17. Spiritual Coping and Psychosocial Adjustment of Adolescents with Chronic Illness: The Role of Cognitive Attributions, Age, and Disease Group

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Nina; Mrug, Sylvie; Guion, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Spiritual coping is an important determinant of adjustment in youth with chronic illness, but the mechanisms through which it affects outcomes have not been elucidated. It is also unknown whether the role of spiritual coping varies by age or disease group. This study evaluated whether general cognitive attributions explain the effects of spiritual coping on internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescents with cystic fibrosis and diabetes and whether these relationships vary by age or disease group. Methods In this cross-sectional study, adolescents (N=128; M=14.7 yrs) diagnosed with cystic fibrosis or diabetes completed measures of spiritual coping and attributional style. Adolescents and their caregivers reported on adolescents’ internalizing and externalizing problems. Results Overall, positive spiritual coping was associated with fewer internalizing and externalizing problems. Negative spiritual coping was related to more externalizing problems, and for adolescents with cystic fibrosis only, also internalizing problems. Optimistic attributions mediated the effects of positive spiritual coping among adolescents with diabetes. The results did not vary by age. Conclusions An optimistic attribution style may help explain the effects of positive, but not negative, spiritual coping on adjustment of youth with diabetes. Youth with progressive, life-threatening illnesses, such as cystic fibrosis, may be more vulnerable to the harmful effects of negative spiritual coping. Future research should examine if addressing spiritual concerns and promoting optimistic attributions improves adolescents’ emotional and behavioral functioning. PMID:23298988

  18. The Role of Pharmacotherapy in the Treatment of Adolescent Substance Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Christopher J

    2016-10-01

    Adolescent substance use disorders (SUDs) are a significant public health issue due to the associated morbidity, mortality, and societal cost. While effective for some adolescents, psychosocial interventions generally produce small-to-moderate reductions in substance use. Most youth relapse within 12 months of treatment. One approach to improve outcomes is through adjunctive pharmacotherapy. Medication assisted treatments have been shown to improve adult SUD treatment outcomes, and preliminary studies in adolescents suggest that combining medication with psychosocial interventions may also enhance SUD outcomes for youth. This article presents a comprehensive review and grading of the evidence from studies conducted in adolescents with SUDs. PMID:27613346

  19. Adolescent Spinal Cord Injury and Paralysis--Understanding the Psychosocial Aspects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Craig D.

    1985-01-01

    A model developed by S. Fink is presented for understanding and predicting the phases through which an adolescent passes when facing paralysis. Implications for treatment based on this model are suggested. (Author/CL)

  20. Deaf adolescents in a hearing world: a review of factors affecting psychosocial adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Brice, Patrick J; Strauss, Gillie

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence has long been viewed as a time of rapid change in many domains including physical, cognitive, and social. Adolescents must adapt based on developing skills and needs and acclimate to growing environmental pressures. Deaf adolescents are often faced with the additional challenge of managing these adaptations in a hearing world, where communication and access to information, especially about their social world, are incomplete at best and nonexistent at worst. This article discusses the research on several factors that influence a deaf adolescent’s adaptation, including quality of life, self-concept, and identity development. Gaps in our knowledge are pointed out with suggestions for future research programs that can facilitate optimal development in adolescents who are deaf. PMID:27186150

  1. The effect of maternal exposure to psychosocial job strain on pregnancy outcomes and child development.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Ann Dyreborg

    2015-02-01

    Psychological stress at work is a rising problem in Denmark. Nearly one third of the women reported in 2005 that they had difficulties completing their work tasks, and 17 % found that they had only limited or no influence on their work tasks. The corresponding numbers for 1987 were 18.3 % and 16 %, respectively. Work-related stress shortens the life expectancy and reduces the number of years without prolonged disease. For the society work-related stress amounts to more than 30,000 hospital admissions each year, half a million extra days on sick-leave for women, 500,000 contacts to general practitioners, 1600 early retirements for women, and an overuse of the health-care system. With the second highest employment rate in Europe for women - and many of them in the childbearing age - effects of psychological stress at work may extend beyond the exposed individual and affect pregnancy, birth and health of the child. Few studies on job stress relative to pregnancy have been carried out, but both animal and epidemiological studies have shown effect of exposure to stressful conditions during pregnancy and adverse effects on the offspring. The specific aims for the three studies included in this thesis were to investigate the association between maternal psychosocial job strain during pregnancy, measured as high demands and low control and the risk of: - Having a child born preterm or with low or high birth weight relative to gestational week (paper I + II) - Congenital malformations in offspring (paper III) - Asthma and atopic dermatitis in the children (paper IV). Furthermore, it was also the ambition to maximize and secure the quality of research and integrity of the data used by documenting the methods in a protocol that described the analyses before they were done and to keep transparency in the methods used following good epidemiological practices (GEP) for occupational and environmental epidemiological research. All analyses in this thesis are based on information

  2. 'He always thinks he is nothing': The psychosocial impact of discrimination on adolescent refugees in urban Uganda.

    PubMed

    Stark, Lindsay; DeCormier Plosky, Willyanne; Horn, Rebecca; Canavera, Mark

    2015-12-01

    Armed conflict causes massive displacement, erodes the social fabric of communities, and threatens the healthy development of a nation's future - its youth. Although more than half of the world's registered refugees under the age of eighteen currently reside in urban areas, research on the unique needs of and realities experienced by this population remain limited. In Uganda, as in many refugee-receiving countries, most regulated refugee protections and entitlements fail to extend beyond the confines of official settlements or camps. This dearth of support, in combination with few material resources, uncertain local connections, and little knowledge of the language, leaves refugee families vulnerable to the added burden of an unwelcome reception in cities. Drawing on qualitative data from a study conducted in March and April 2013 with Congolese and Somali adolescents, caregivers, and service providers in refugee settlements in Kampala, this manuscript explores the pervasive nature of discrimination against urban refugees and its effects upon adolescent well-being. Findings suggest that discrimination not only negatively impacts acculturation as youth pursue social recognition in the classroom and among neighborhood peers, but it also impedes help-seeking behavior by caregivers and restricts their ability to ameliorate protection concerns, thereby lowering adolescents' psychosocial well-being. Youth reported low self-worth, withdrawal from school, and an adverse turn toward street connections. Targeted and innovative strategies along with reformed policies that address the unique challenges facing urban refugees are paramount to ensuring that young people in this population experience greater protection, well-being, and future success. PMID:26517294

  3. Benefits of Career and Technical Student Organizations' on Female and Racial Minority Students' Psychosocial and Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aragon, Steven R.; Alfeld, Corinne; Hansen, David M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent do CTSOs affect student psychosocial and achievement outcomes (above and beyond stand-alone CTE programs) when controlling for gender and race. Using a cross-sectional descriptive research design, a total of 5,677 students from 10 states were surveyed regarding their high school…

  4. Predictors of Long-Term Enrollment and Degree Outcomes for Community College Students: Integrating Academic, Psychosocial, Socio-Demographic, and Situational Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porchea, Sameano F.; Allen, Jeff; Robbins, Steve; Phelps, Richard P.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the effects of student (academic preparation, psychosocial, socio-demographic, and situational) and institutional characteristics on long-term enrollment outcomes. We tracked enrollments and degrees awarded for students who originally enrolled at two-year institutions across five years. Our findings have implications for identifying…

  5. Adolescent prolapsed lumbar intervertebral disc: Management strategies and outcome

    PubMed Central

    Sarma, Pragyan; Thirupathi, Rajan Thanga; Srinivas, Dwarakanath; Somanna, Sampath

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Lumbar intervertebral disc herniation (LIVDH) is rare in children and adolescents when compared to adults. In literature, children generally constitute around 0.5–3% of surgically treated LIVDH. Though much rarer, they are less likely to respond to conservative treatment than adults. In this study, we analyze our experience in the management of adolescent LIVDH (ALIVDH) (age group 12–18 years) including the demographic, clinico-radiological features; surgical management strategies and outcome. Materials and Methods: This retrospective analysis constituted all patients between 12 and 18 years, who underwent surgery for LIVDH at our institute over a period of 15 years from January 1999 to June 2014. The records of these patients were retrieved, and demographic features, clinical picture, radiological features, operative findings, and postoperative events were evaluated. Follow-up data were obtained either through direct clinical evaluation or mailed self-report questionnaire and telephone conversations. The long-term outcome was analyzed by using standardized and condition specific outcome scales in addition to routine clinical follow-up evaluation. The long-term outcome was analyzed by using the short form-36 (SF-36). Results: There were a total of 32 patients (26 males, eight females) with an average age of 15.64 years. Trauma was a significant etiological factor 57.14% (n = 16/28). Vertebral anomalies were present in 35.7% (n = 10/28) cases. Majority had a neurological deficit at presentation (n = 20/28). The most commonly involved level was the L4–L5 level (n = 18/128) in this series. Multiple level disc degeneration was present in eight patients (28.6%). Immediate postoperative relief was achieved in all but one patient. At long-term follow-up twenty patients were pain-free (71.4%). At follow-up, the physical functioning scale of SF-36 was significantly lower in patients with gross motor deficit prior to surgery. Conclusions: Early diagnosis and

  6. Outcome in adolescence of brachial plexus birth palsy

    PubMed Central

    Hulleberg, Gunn; Elvrum, Ann-Kristin G; Brandal, Merethe; Vik, Torstein

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose — The frequency and severity of a permanent lesion after brachial plexus birth palsy (BPBP) and its impact on activities of daily living are not well documented. We therefore investigated the outcome of BPBP in adolescents, regarding arm function and consequences for activity and participation. Participants and methods — Of 30,574 babies born at St. Olavs University Hospital in 1991–2000, 91 had BPBP (prevalence 3 per 1,000), and 69 of these individuals were examined at a median age of 14 (10–20) years. The examination included the modified Mallet classification, range of motion, shoulder rotation and grip strength, Assisting Hand Assessment, and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. Of the 22 subjects who were not examined, 3 could not be traced and 19 reported having no problems in the affected arm. Results — At follow-up, 17 adolescents had a permanent lesion (i.e. individual Mallet subscore below 4) with a median Mallet total score of 15 (9–19), while 52 had good or normal shoulder function (median Mallet total score 25 (23–25)). All participants with a permanent lesion had reduced active shoulder rotation (≤ 15°), 16 had elbow extension deficit, and 10 had subnormal grip strength. External rotation was considerably weaker in the affected shoulder. In addition, they had ineffective use of the affected arm in bimanual activities. Even so, all except 1 were independent in activities of daily living, although 15 experienced minor difficulties. Interpretation — Every fourth to fifth child with BPBP had a permanent lesion as an adolescent. External rotation was the most impaired movement. Despite ineffective use of the affected arm in bimanual activities, all of the participants except one were independent in activities of daily living. PMID:25238434

  7. Psychosocial outcomes derived from an acid burned population in Bangladesh, and comparison with Western norms.

    PubMed

    Mannan, A; Ghani, S; Clarke, A; White, P; Salmanta, S; Butler, P E M

    2006-03-01

    Assault by acid burns typically results in severe disfigurement, yet the psychosocial impact of this injury is so far unreported. This study provides the first empirical data using standardised assessment scales, from 44 acid burns survivors in Bangladesh. Compared with published norms, individuals show high levels of psychological distress including social anxiety and avoidance, anxiety and depression. Consistent with the published literature, there is no relationship between severity of injury and level of psychological distress. One interesting feature of this population is the relative preservation of perceived self-concept, and this is discussed with relation to the supportive and therapeutic environment of the clinic where this group were studied. We also note an interesting sub-group who were attacked by members of their own family and for whom psychological morbidity seems particularly pronounced. PMID:16448773

  8. Homeschooled adolescents in the United States: developmental outcomes.

    PubMed

    Green-Hennessy, Sharon

    2014-06-01

    The mission of schools has broadened beyond academics to address risk behaviors such as substance use, delinquency, and socialization problems. With an estimated 3.4% of all U.S. youth being homeschooled, this study examines how U.S. homeschoolers fare on these outcomes given their lack of access to these school services. Adolescents (ages 12-17) from the 2002 through 2011 National Surveys of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) were divided based on school status (home vs. traditional schooling) and religious affiliation (stronger vs. weaker). Controlling for demographic differences, homeschoolers with weaker religious ties were three times more likely to report being behind their expected grade level and two and a half times more likely to report no extracurricular activities in the prior year than their traditionally schooled counterparts. This group was also more likely to report lax parental attitudes toward substance use. Findings suggest homeschoolers with weaker religious ties represent an at-risk group. PMID:24793392

  9. Psychosocial Environment and Affective Outcomes in Technology-Rich Classrooms: Testing a Causal Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, Jeffrey P.; Fraser, Barry J.

    2009-01-01

    Research investigated classroom environment antecedent variables and student affective outcomes in Australian high schools. The Technology-Rich Outcomes-Focused Learning Environment Inventory (TROFLEI) was used to assess 10 classroom environment dimensions: student cohesiveness, teacher support, involvement, investigation, task orientation,…

  10. Associations between Psychosocial Environment and Outcomes in Technology-Rich Classrooms in Australian Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, Jeffrey P.

    2009-01-01

    This research investigated associations between classroom environment and student affective outcomes in Australian secondary schools. The Technology-Rich Outcomes-Focused Learning Environment Inventory (TROFLEI) was used to assess 10 classroom environment dimensions: student cohesiveness, teacher support, involvement, investigation, task…

  11. Physical, clinical, and psychosocial parameters of adolescents with different degrees of excess weight☆

    PubMed Central

    Antonini, Vanessa Drieli Seron; da Silva, Danilo Fernandes; Bianchini, Josiane Aparecida Alves; Lopera, Carlos Andres; Moreira, Amanda Caroline Teles; Locateli, João Carlos; Nardo, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare body composition, hemodynamic parameters, health-related physical fitness, and health-related quality of life of adolescents with anthropometric diagnosis of overweight, obesity, and severe obesity. METHODS: 220 adolescents with excess body weight were enrolled. They were beginners in a intervention program that included patients based on age, availability, presence of excess body weight, place of residence, and agreement to participate in the study . This study collected anthropometric and hemodynamic variables, health-related physical fitness, and health-related quality of life of the adolescents. To compare the three groups according to nutritional status, parametric and non-parametric tests were applied. Significance level was set at p<0.05. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in resting heart rate, health-related physical fitness, relative body fat, absolute and relative lean mass, and health-related quality of life between overweight, obese, and severely obese adolescents (p>0.05). Body weight, body mass index, waist and hip circumference, and systolic blood pressure increased as degree of excess weightincreased (p<0.05). Dyastolic blood pressure of the severe obesity group was higher than the other groups (p<0.05). There was an association between the degree of excess weight and the prevalence of altered blood pressure (overweight: 12.1%; obesity: 28.1%; severe obesity: 45.5%; p<0.001). The results were similar when genders were analyzed separately. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that overweight adolescents presented similar results compared to obese and severely obese adolescents in most of the parameters analyzed. PMID:25510998

  12. Correlates of psychosocial well-being among overweight adolescents: the role of the family.

    PubMed

    Fulkerson, Jayne A; Strauss, Jaine; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; Boutelle, Kerri

    2007-02-01

    An ethnically diverse sample of at-risk-for-overweight and overweight youths (body mass index greater than the 85th percentile for age and gender; n = 667 male participants, and n = 684 female participants) completed a school-based survey measuring family variables (connectedness, mealtime environment, and weight commentary), psychosocial well-being (depressed mood, body satisfaction, and self-esteem), and unhealthy weight-control behaviors; all measures were assessed concurrently. Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed that measures of general family connectedness, priority of family meals, and positive mealtime environment were significantly positively associated with psychological well-being and inversely associated with depressive symptoms and unhealthy weight-control behaviors. Familial weight commentary (i.e., weight-based teasing and parental encouragement to diet) was associated with many indicators of poor psychological health. The authors conclude that greater psychosocial well-being and fewer unhealthy weight-control behaviors are associated with making family time at meals a priority, creating a positive mealtime atmosphere, and refraining from weight commentary. PMID:17295578

  13. Impact of Mentors During Adolescence on Outcomes Among Gay Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Drevon, Daniel D; Almazan, Elbert P; Jacob, Susan; Rhymer, Katrina N

    2016-06-01

    Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement study datasets, this study examined whether natural mentoring relationships during adolescence were associated with young adult outcomes among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) persons. Outcomes in three domains were investigated: education and employment, psychological wellbeing, and substance use and abuse. Results indicated that LGB persons reporting natural mentors during adolescence were about three times as likely to graduate from high school as those without. Discussion surrounds strategies to foster mentoring relationships within the school environment or community. PMID:26566579

  14. Understanding the Association of Biomedical, Psychosocial and Behavioral Risks with Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kiely, Michele; El-Mohandes, Ayman A.E.; Gantz, Marie G.; Chowdhury, Dhuly; Thornberry, Jutta S.; El-Khorazaty, M. Nabil

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study investigates the relationship between diabetes, hypertension, preeclampsia, and Body Mass Index (BMI) -- the most common and interrelated medical conditions occurring during pregnancy; sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors; and adverse pregnancy outcomes in high-risk urban African American women in Washington, DC. Methods Data are from a randomized controlled trial conducted in 6 prenatal clinics. Women in their 1st or 2nd trimester were screened for behavioral risks (smoking, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, depression, and intimate partner violence) and demographic eligibility. 1,044 were eligible, interviewed and followed through their pregnancies. Classification and Regression Trees (CART) methodology was used to: 1) explore the relationship between medical and behavioral risks (reported at enrollment), sociodemographic factors and pregnancy outcomes, 2) identify the relative importance of various predictors of adverse pregnancy outcomes, and 3) characterize women at the highest risk of poor pregnancy outcomes. Results Overall, the strongest predictors of poor outcomes were prepregnancy BMI, preconceptional diabetes, employment status, intimate partner violence, and depression. In CART analysis, preeclampsia was the first splitter for low birthweight; preconceptional diabetes was the first splitter for preterm birth (PTB) and neonatal intensive care admission; BMI was the first splitter for very PTB, large for gestational age, Cesarean section and perinatal death; and employment was the first splitter for miscarriage. Conclusions Preconceptional factors play a very important role in pregnancy outcomes. For many of these women, the risks that they bring into the pregnancy were more likely to impact their pregnancy outcome than events during pregnancy. PMID:21785892

  15. Comparisons of Rejected, Neglected and Popular Adolescents on Psycho-Social and Cognitive Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clasen, Donna Rae

    To further particularize differences between rejected and neglected children, 196 adolescents enrolled in 7th, 8th, and 9th grades were identified by their peers as "populars," rejected "unpopulars," and neglected "unknowns." The students were also compared on (1) psychological assessments of self-esteem, loneliness, and sense of belonging, and…

  16. The Association between Adolescent Sexting, Psychosocial Difficulties, and Risk Behavior: Integrative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Ouytsel, Joris; Walrave, Michel; Ponnet, Koen; Heirman, Wannes

    2015-01-01

    When a sexting message spreads to an unintended audience, it can adversely affect the victim's reputation. Sexting incidents constitute a potential school safety risk. Just as with other types of adolescent risk behavior, school nurses might have to initiate the first response when a sexting episode arises, but a school nurse's role goes…

  17. Online Communication, Compulsive Internet Use, and Psychosocial Well-Being among Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.; Meerkerk, Gert-Jan; Vermulst, Ad A.; Spijkerman, Renske; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between adolescents' online communication and compulsive Internet use, depression, and loneliness. The study had a 2-wave longitudinal design with an interval of 6 months. The sample consisted of 663 students, 318 male and 345 female, ages 12 to 15 years. Questionnaires were administered in a…

  18. Family and Psychosocial Risk Factors in a Longitudinal Epidemiological Study of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuffe, Steven P.; McKeown, Robert E.; Addy, Cheryl L.; Garrison, Carol Z.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the association of family and social risk factors with psychopathology in a longitudinal study of adolescents. Method: From 1986 to 1988, 3,419 seventh through ninth graders were screened with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The top decile scorers and a random sample of the remainder were interviewed…

  19. Maternal and Paternal Parenting during Adolescence: Forecasting Early Adult Psychosocial Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Deborah J.; Forehand, Rex; Beach, Steven R. H.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the relationship of maternal and paternal parenting behavior during adolescence to four domains of early adult functioning. Higher levels of maternal firm control were associated with more secure early adult romantic attachment and lower levels of educational achievement. There were no main effects for fathers, but paternal parenting…

  20. Early Onset Recurrent Subtype of Adolescent Depression: Clinical and Psychosocial Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Keenan-Miller, Danielle; Herr, Nathaniel R.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Evaluated trajectories of adolescent depression and their correlates in a longitudinal study of a community sample: early onset (by age 15) with major depression (MDE) recurrence between 15 and 20; early onset with no recurrence; later onset of major depression after age 15 with and without recurrence by 20; and never-depressed.…

  1. Precocious Puberty in Adolescent Girls: A Biomarker of Later Psychosocial Adjustment Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Line; Frigon, Jean-Yves

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated the hypothesis that stress condition will accelerate pubertal maturation in adolescent girls and that faster maturing girls will display more behavioral problems than their on-time or late-maturing peers during pubertal development. Longitudinal data were collected yearly from 1986 to 1997. Parents of 1039 French-speaking…

  2. Stress Symptoms among Adolescents: The Role of Subjective Psychosocial Conditions, Lifestyle, and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schraml, Karin; Perski, Aleksander; Grossi, Giorgio; Simonsson-Sarnecki, Margareta

    2011-01-01

    Stress-related problems are increasing among Swedish adolescents, especially among females. The aims of this study were to survey the incidence of stress symptoms among 16-year-olds, to investigate the related gender differences, and to understand the factors that may contribute to stress symptoms. The study is questionnaire based, and the sample…

  3. Psychosocial Correlates of Intention to Receive an Influenza Vaccination among Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Painter, Julia E.; Sales, Jessica M.; Pazol, Karen; Wingood, Gina M.; Windle, Michael; Orenstein, Walter A.; Diclemente, Ralph J.

    2010-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recently expanded annual influenza vaccination recommendations to include all children 6 months through 18 years of age. Adolescent attitudes toward influenza vaccination may play a key role in reaching this newly added age group. This study examined the…

  4. Peer Victimization, Social Support, and Psychosocial Adjustment of Sexual Minority Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Trish; Connolly, Jennifer; Pepler, Debra; Craig, Wendy

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the link between sexual orientation and adjustment in a community sample of 97 sexual minority (gay male, lesbian, bisexual, and questioning) high school students, taking into account their experiences of peer victimization and social support within peer and family contexts. Adolescents were identified in a large-scale…

  5. The Quality of Parent/Child Relationships in Adolescence Is Associated with Poor Adult Psychosocial Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raudino, Alessandra; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2013-01-01

    This study used data gathered over the course of a New Zealand longitudinal study (N = 924) to examine the relationships between measures of parental bonding and attachment in adolescence (age 15-16) and later personal adjustment (major depression; anxiety disorder; suicidal behaviour; illicit drug abuse/dependence; crime) assessed up to the age…

  6. Family Time and the Psycho-Social Adjustment of Adolescent Siblings and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crouter, Ann C.; Head, Melissa R.; Mchale, Susan M.; Tucker, Corinna Jenkins

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the implications of family time for first-born and second-born adolescent offspring, mothers, and fathers in 192 dual-earner families, defining family time as time shared by the foursome in activities across 7 days. Data were gathered in daily telephone interviews. For first-borns, higher levels of family time at Time 1…

  7. Family Structure and Psychosocial Correlates among Urban African-American Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Marc A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Substance use and delinquency, well-being, and social support were compared across 5 family constellations among 254 adolescent black males. The only difference found was that subjects living in single-mother households reported more parental support than those from other family structures. Data on father/male role model relationships challenged…

  8. Gender Differences and Psychosocial Factors Associated with Alcohol Involvement and Dysphoria in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Thomas F.; Newcomb, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    Examines correlations between Alcohol Involvement, Dysphoria, and their combined effects, with Social Conformity, Perceived Opportunity, Relationship Satisfaction, Parental Divorce, and Family Support/Bonding in a sample of late adolescents. Results revealed gender differences between Alcohol Involvement and Dysphoria. (Contains 74 references, 2…

  9. Childhood Sexual Abuse Patterns, Psychosocial Correlates, and Treatment Outcomes among Adults in Drug Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boles, Sharon M.; Joshi, Vandana; Grella, Christine; Wellisch, Jean

    2005-01-01

    This study reports on the effects of having a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on treatment outcomes among substance abusing men and women (N = 2,434) in a national, multisite study of drug treatment outcomes. A history of CSA was reported by 27.2% of the women and 9.2% of the men. Controlling for gender, compared to patients without CSA,…

  10. Association between psychosocial distress with cardio metabolic risk factors and liver enzymes in a nationally-representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents: the CASPIAN-III study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study was designed to evaluate association of psychosocial distress with cardio metabolic risk factors and liver enzymes in Iranian children and adolescents. Method This nationwide study was conducted as the third survey of the school-based surveillance system that was conducted among 5593 school students, 10–18 years in Iran. High triglyceride (TG), high fasting blood sugar (FBS), high total cholesterol (TC), high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), hypertension (HTN), generalized obesity and abdominal obesity were considered as cardio metabolic risk factors and alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were considered as liver enzymes. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression (MLR) analysis. Result Psychosocial distress was detected in2027 (71.2%) of boys and 1759 (63.3%) of girls. Among boys, the mean of LDL, AST and DBP were higher and the mean FBS and HDL were lowering those with psychiatric distress than their other counterparts. Girls with psychosocial distress had significantly higher mean of HDL and FBS than those without psychiatric distress. Psychosocial distress significantly increased the odds of high LDL (OR = 2.36, 95%CI 1.53, 3.64), high FBS (OR = 1.23, 95%CI 1.02, 1.49) and low HDL (OR = 1.65, 95%CI 1.41, 1.95). Conclusion Psychosocial distress in adolescents is associated with increased risk of some cardio metabolic risk factors. PMID:24602504

  11. Psychosocial Outcomes in StrokE: the POISE observational stroke study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Hackett, Maree L; Glozier, Nick; Jan, Stephen; Lindley, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Background Each year, approximately 12,000 Australians of working age survive a stroke. As a group, younger stroke survivors have less physical impairment and lower mortality after stroke compared with older survivors; however, the psychosocial and economic consequences are potentially substantial. Most of these younger stroke survivors have responsibility for generating an income or providing family care and indicate that their primary objective is to return to work. However, effective vocational rehabilitation strategies to increase the proportion of younger stroke survivors able to return to work, and information on the key target areas for those strategies, are currently lacking. Methods/Design This multi-centre, three year cohort study will recruit a representative sample of younger (< 65 years) stroke survivors to determine the modifiable predictors of subsequent return to work. Participants will be recruited from the New South Wales Stroke Services (SSNSW) network, the only well established and cohesively operating and managed, network of acute stroke units in Australia. It is based within the Greater Metropolitan area of Sydney including Wollongong and Newcastle, and extends to rural areas including Wagga Wagga. The study registration number is ACTRN12608000459325. Discussion The study is designed to identify targets for rehabilitation-, social- and medical-intervention strategies that promote and maintain healthy ageing in people with cardiovascular and mental health conditions, two of the seven Australian national health priority areas. This will rectify the paucity of information internationally around optimal clinical practice and social policy in this area. PMID:19519918

  12. Stressors, supports and the social ecology of displacement: psychosocial dimensions of an emergency education program for Chechen adolescents displaced in Ingushetia, Russia.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick

    2005-09-01

    This study explored the psychosocial benefits of an emergency education intervention serving adolescents displaced by the war in Chechnya. It set out to describe key stressors and sources of social support available to youth served by the International Rescue Committee's (IRC) emergency education program. Interviews were conducted with 57 Chechen adolescents living in spontaneous settlements in Ingushetia, Russia in the fall of 2000. Of particular interest was the degree to which the education program addressed specified psychosocial goals. Findings indicated that young people and their families faced a number of physical and emotional stressors. The data indicated that the emergency education program provided benefits by enriching sources of social support, providing meaningful activity and a sense of hope for the future, and creating a space for young people to spend time and connect to others. However, the contrast between the desire of adolescents "to live like other kids" and the options available to them presented a dilemma for the emergency education program: adolescents craved normalcy, but for any intervention to be delivered, it had to first begin with creative and adaptive strategies that were by no means a complete replacement for formal, mainstream education. The programmatic and policy implications of these findings are presented here. PMID:16404689

  13. LGBTQ Adolescents and Young Adults Raised within a Christian Religious Context: Positive and Negative Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Angie L.; Galliher, Renee V.

    2012-01-01

    Religious contexts have traditionally been understood as protective for a variety of psychosocial health outcomes. However, the generalizability of these findings to youth who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender or queer (LGBTQ) is questioned due to denominational teachings on same-sex attractions and sexual behavior. Eight adolescents…

  14. Introducing an Outcome Expectation Questionnaire and Its Psychometric Properties Regarding Leisure Time Physical Activity for Iranian Male Adolescent

    PubMed Central

    Abasi, Mohammad Hadi; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Rakhshani, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Outcome expectation (OE) is known as a psychosocial determinant of leisure time physical activity (LTPA). Despite importance of this construct evaluation, there is no evidence of special questionnaire for measuring OE in Persian speaking Iranian male adolescents. Objectives: This article reports development and psychometric evaluation process of a specific questionnaire that evaluates OE about LTPA among Iranian male adolescents. Materials and Methods: Literature review and group discussions were used to select 26 items of this questionnaire based on 3 dimensions of OE (self-evaluation, social expectancy, and physical expectancy). All Participants (n = 720) were divided into two groups randomly after evaluating comprehensibility, face and content validity, and items analysis. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were separately operated on one of these groups for evaluation of the construct validity of questionnaire. The reliability of the questionnaire was estimated by the Cronbach α. Results: EFA extracted 3 main factors explained 45.80%, 10.31%, and 7.51% of OE variance, respectively. Almost all fit indexes in CFA were acceptable (CMIN = 107.39, CMIN/DF = 2.619, CFI = 0.938, PCFI = 0.699, RMSEA = 0.067, PCLOSE = 0.034). Finally 11 items remained in the questionnaire, which showed excellent reliability on main study (α = 0.85). Conclusions: This study provided evidence regarding the reliability and validity of the Iranian male adolescent outcome expectation about leisure time physical activity (IMAO-PAC) and illustrated that this new questionnaire can be used to measure the perceived exercise benefits among target group in observational and interventional studies. PMID:26082851

  15. The Effects of General and Homophobic Victimization on Adolescents' Psychosocial and Educational Concerns: The Importance of Intersecting Identities and Parent Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poteat, V. Paul; Mereish, Ethan H.; DiGiovanni, Craig D.; Koenig, Brian W.

    2011-01-01

    Many adolescents experience peer victimization, which often can be homophobic. Applying the minority stress model with attention to intersecting social identities, this study tested the effects of general and homophobic victimization on several educational outcomes through suicidality and school belonging among 15,923 adolescents in Grades 7…

  16. Academic performance, educational aspiration and birth outcomes among adolescent mothers: a national longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal educational attainment has been associated with birth outcomes among adult mothers. However, limited research explores whether academic performance and educational aspiration influence birth outcomes among adolescent mothers. Methods Data from Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) were used. Adolescent girls whose first pregnancy occurred after Wave I, during their adolescence, and ended with a singleton live birth were included. Adolescents’ grade point average (GPA), experience of ever skipping a grade and ever repeating a grade, and their aspiration to attend college were examined as predictors of birth outcomes (birthweight and gestational age; n = 763). Univariate statistics, bivariate analyses and multivariable models were run stratified on race using survey procedures. Results Among Black adolescents, those who ever skipped a grade had higher offspring’s birthweight. Among non-Black adolescents, ever skipping a grade and higher educational aspiration were associated with higher offspring’s birthweight; ever skipping a grade was also associated with higher gestational age. GPA was not statistically significantly associated with either birth outcome. The addition of smoking during pregnancy and prenatal care visit into the multivariable models did not change these associations. Conclusions Some indicators of higher academic performance and aspiration are associated with better birth outcomes among adolescents. Investing in improving educational opportunities may improve birth outcomes among teenage mothers. PMID:24422664

  17. Points to Consider: Ethical, Legal, and Psychosocial Implications of Genetic Testing in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Botkin, Jeffrey R.; Belmont, John W.; Berg, Jonathan S.; Berkman, Benjamin E.; Bombard, Yvonne; Holm, Ingrid A.; Levy, Howard P.; Ormond, Kelly E.; Saal, Howard M.; Spinner, Nancy B.; Wilfond, Benjamin S.; McInerney, Joseph D.

    2015-01-01

    In 1995, the American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) and American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) jointly published a statement on genetic testing in children and adolescents. In the past 20 years, much has changed in the field of genetics, including the development of powerful new technologies, new data from genetic research on children and adolescents, and substantial clinical experience. This statement represents current opinion by the ASHG on the ethical, legal, and social issues concerning genetic testing in children. These recommendations are relevant to families, clinicians, and investigators. After a brief review of the 1995 statement and major changes in genetic technologies in recent years, this statement offers points to consider on a broad range of test technologies and their applications in clinical medicine and research. Recommendations are also made for record and communication issues in this domain and for professional education. PMID:26140447

  18. Points to Consider: Ethical, Legal, and Psychosocial Implications of Genetic Testing in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Botkin, Jeffrey R; Belmont, John W; Berg, Jonathan S; Berkman, Benjamin E; Bombard, Yvonne; Holm, Ingrid A; Levy, Howard P; Ormond, Kelly E; Saal, Howard M; Spinner, Nancy B; Wilfond, Benjamin S; McInerney, Joseph D

    2015-07-01

    In 1995, the American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) and American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) jointly published a statement on genetic testing in children and adolescents. In the past 20 years, much has changed in the field of genetics, including the development of powerful new technologies, new data from genetic research on children and adolescents, and substantial clinical experience. This statement represents current opinion by the ASHG on the ethical, legal, and social issues concerning genetic testing in children. These recommendations are relevant to families, clinicians, and investigators. After a brief review of the 1995 statement and major changes in genetic technologies in recent years, this statement offers points to consider on a broad range of test technologies and their applications in clinical medicine and research. Recommendations are also made for record and communication issues in this domain and for professional education. PMID:26140447

  19. Prevalence and Psychosocial Correlates of After-School Activities among Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Cecilia M. S.; Shek, Daniel Tan Lei

    2014-01-01

    Using a cross-sectional design, this study (a) explores the prevalence of after-school activities among Chinese early adolescents and (b) assesses the relationships between participation in after-school activities, personal well-being, and family functioning. A total of 3,328 Grade 7 students (mean age = 12.59 years, SD = 0.74) completed a self-administered questionnaire. Results showed that the majority of adolescents returned home under adult supervision. Further analyses showed the associations between after-school activities, positive youth development qualities, academic and school competence, family functioning, and risky behavior. Implications regarding efforts aimed at designing high quality and structured after-school youth programs are discussed. PMID:25309895

  20. The Relationship between Parent Expectations and Postschool Outcomes of Adolescents with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doren, Bonnie; Gau, Jeff M.; Lindstrom, Lauren E.

    2012-01-01

    A secondary analysis was conducted of the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 to examine (a) main effects of parents' school and postschool outcome expectations on the actual outcomes achieved, (b) demographic moderators, and (c) adolescent autonomy as a mediator of parent expectations and outcomes. Parent expectations were found to…

  1. Brief Motivational Interviewing and Normative Feedback for Adolescents: Change Language and Alcohol Use Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jordan P; Houck, Jon M; Rowell, Lauren N; Benson, Jennifer G; Smith, Douglas C

    2016-06-01

    Few studies have investigated the impact of adolescent change language on substance use treatment outcomes and even fewer have examined how adolescents respond to normative feedback. The purpose of this study was to understand the influence normative feedback has on adolescent change language and subsequent alcohol and cannabis use 3months later. We examined how percent change talk (PCT) was associated with subsequent alcohol and drug use outcomes. Adolescents (N=48) were randomly assigned to receive brief motivational interviewing (MI) or MI plus normative feedback (NF). Audio recordings were coded with high interrater reliability. Adolescents with high PCT who received MI+NF had significantly fewer days of alcohol and binge drinking at follow up. There were no differences between groups on cannabis use or treatment engagement. Findings indicate that NF may be useful for adolescents with higher amount of change talk during sessions and may be detrimental for individuals with higher sustain talk. PMID:26710670

  2. Associations between psychosocial factors and incidence of sexually transmitted disease among South African adolescents

    PubMed Central

    O’Leary, Ann; Jemmott, John B.; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Teitelman, Anne; Heeren, G. Anita; Ngwane, Zolani; Icard, Larry; Lewis, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescents living in South Africa are at high risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted disease (STD). The present study sought to identify correlates of curable STD incidence among a cohort of adolescents in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Methods Data were collected in conjunction with an HIV/STD prevention intervention randomized controlled trial1. At 54 months post-intervention, curable STD incidence (gonorrhea, chlamydial infection and trichomoniasis) was assayed and self-report measures of potential correlates of STD incidence were collected. Results Participants were adolescents reporting at least one sexual partner in the past 3 months (N = 659). As expected, univariate analyses revealed that girls were more likely than boys to have an STD. In addition, intimate partner violence, unprotected sex, and having older partners were associated with incident STD. In Poisson multiple regression analyses, gender (risk ratio [RR] = 4.00, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.51–6.39), intimate partner violence (RR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.12–1.35), unprotected sex (RR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.09–2.01), and multiple partners (RR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.11–2.61), but not partner’s age (RR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.94–1.07) were associated with incident STD, adjusting for 42-month STD prevalence. Binge drinking, forced sex, and age were unrelated to STD incidence in both analyses. Interactions between gender and the hypothesized correlates were non-significant, suggesting that gender did not modify these relationships. Conclusions Interventions to reduce HIV/STD incidence among adolescents in South Africa should address the risk associated with gender, unprotected sex, intimate partner violence, and multiple partnerships. PMID:25668645

  3. Gender-Specific Developmental Trajectories of Anxiety during Adolescence: Determinants and Outcomes. The TRAILS Study

    PubMed Central

    Legerstee, Jeroen S.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Robbers, Sylvana C. C.; Ormel, Johan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; van Oort, Floor V. A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify developmental trajectories of anxiety symptoms for adolescent girls and boys. Trajectories were compared with regard to early-adolescent risk factors and psychiatric outcomes during adolescence and in young adulthood. Method A community sample of 2,230 adolescents was assessed three times across a six-year interval (10–17 years). Symptom scores of anxiety were analyzed with growth mixture models, stratified by gender. Results Three gender-specific anxiety trajectories were identified for both girls (93.3% low, 4.1% mid-adolescence limited, 2.6% mid-adolescence increasing) and boys (84.4% low, 9.5% mid-adolescence limited, 6.1% early-adolescence decreasing). Child, family and peer factors at baseline predicted group membership of the mid-adolescence limited anxiety trajectory and the early-adolescence decreasing anxiety trajectory in boys. Parental emotional problems predicted the early-adolescence anxiety increase trajectory in girls. Prevalence of anxiety disorders and depression during adolescence and in early adulthood was higher in both the mid-adolescence limited and the mid-adolescence anxiety increase trajectory. Conclusions The longitudinal course of anxiety symptoms during adolescence was characterized by three distinct gender-specific developmental trajectories. The most at-risk trajectory in girls was the mid-adolescence anxiety increase trajectory, and in boys the mid-adolescence limited trajectory. None of the environmental (i.e., child, family and peer) factors distinguished the at-risk trajectories from the other trajectories. PMID:23390430

  4. Psychosocial Aspects of Acne Vulgaris: A Community-based Study with Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Do, Jeong Eun; Cho, Sun-Mi; In, Sung-Il; Lim, Ki-Young; Lee, Sungnack

    2009-01-01

    Background Acne vulgaris is a distressing condition that affects the majority of adolescents, but the impact of acne vulgaris on the psychological aspects in this age group is poorly understood. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of acne, and the level of emotional, social, and functional impairments among Korean adolescents with acne. Methods Five hundred four middle school students (13~16 years) participated. The severity of acne was graded by visual examination using the Korean Acne Grading System. Self-reported questionnaires, including subjective acne severity rating, the Self Image Questionnaire, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Questionnaire, the Index of Peer Relations, and the Beck Depression Inventory were used to assess psychologic status. Results There was a prevalence of acne in 78.9% of the study samples, with 10.2% of students having moderate-to-severe acne. Acne was more prevalent and severe in boys than girls. Participants with severe acne and girls had higher levels of emotional and social impairments. The longer the acne persisted, the more stress the students felt. The degree of stress and extent of self-image impairment were related to subjective severity more than objective grading. Conclusion Acne is a common disorder among Korean adolescents and appears to have a considerable impact on mental health. Dermatologists should be aware of the importance of basic psychosomatic treatment in conjunction with early medical, educational intervention in the management of acne. PMID:20523769

  5. Outcome Evaluation of a Community Center-Based Program for Mothers at High Psychosocial Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigo, Maria Jose; Maiquez, Maria Luisa; Correa, Ana Delia; Martin, Juan Carlos; Rodriguez, Guacimara

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study reported the outcome evaluation of the "Apoyo Personal y Familiar" (APF) program for poorly-educated mothers from multi-problem families, showing inadequate behavior with their children. APF is a community-based multi-site program delivered through weekly group meetings in municipal resource centers. Method: A total of 340…

  6. Biomedical Risk, Psychosocial Influences, and Developmental Outcomes: Lessons from the Pediatric HIV Population in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serpell, Robert; Marfo, Kofi; Abubakar, Amina

    2014-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is home to millions of HIV-affected children. These children are likely to experience multiple developmental delays. In this chapter, I present data highlighting compromised neurobehavioral, mental health, and scholastic outcomes for children affected by HIV. Furthermore, I discuss biomedical factors (e.g., disease severity and…

  7. 'Mum's the word': Predictors and outcomes of weight concerns in pre-adolescent and early adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Ng, Johan Yau Yin; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Chatzisarantis, Nikos; Vlachopoulos, Symeon; Katartzi, Ermioni S; Nikitaras, Nikitas

    2016-03-01

    Predictors and outcomes of weight concerns in pre-adolescent and adolescent girls are well known, but few models have incorporated concerns reported directly by mothers as a predictor, and both eating and exercise outcomes. Using questionnaires, a comprehensive model of 232 pre-adolescent and early adolescent girls' weight concerns, eating restraint, and exercise behavior was tested. Structural equation modeling showed that daughters' weight concerns were predicted primarily by their perceptions of their mothers' concerns about the daughters' weight, as well as by daughters' BMI, appearance conversations with friends, and perceived media pressure. Mothers' concerns with their daughters' weight were indirectly associated with daughters' own concerns, via the daughters' perceptions of their mothers' concerns. Daughters' concerns with their weight were a strong predictor of eating restraint, but not exercise behavior. PMID:26803392

  8. Family Context, Mexican-Origin Adolescent Mothers' Parenting Knowledge, and Children's Subsequent Developmental Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Jahromi, Laudan B.; Guimond, Amy B.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Toomey, Russell B.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined parenting knowledge among Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (N = 191; M age = 16.26 years), family contextual factors associated with adolescents' parenting knowledge, and toddlers' (M age = 2.01 years) subsequent developmental outcomes. Data came from home interviews and direct child assessments. Adolescents both under- and over-estimated children's developmental timing, and showed differences in their knowledge of specific developmental domains. Instrumental support from mother figures was positively linked to adolescents' knowledge accuracy, whereas emotional support was negatively related to adolescents' knowledge confidence. Furthermore, whereas mother figures' autonomy-granting was positively linked to knowledge confidence, psychological control was associated with less accurate adolescent parenting knowledge. Toddlers of adolescents with more accurate knowledge showed positive developmental functioning. Intervention implications are discussed. PMID:24004448

  9. Alliance and Outcome in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirk, Stephen R.; Gudmundsen, Gretchen; Kaplinski, Heather Crisp; McMakin, Dana L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined predictive relations between therapeutic alliance and treatment outcomes in manual-guided, cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescent depression. Fifty-four adolescents met criteria for a depressive disorder and were treated in school-based clinics. Alliance was measured after the third session from both therapist and…

  10. Examining Relationships between Ethnic Identity, Family Environment, and Psychological Outcomes for African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Street, Jalika; Harris-Britt, April; Walker-Barnes, Chanequa

    2009-01-01

    Ethnic identity has been linked to a number of healthy psychological outcomes for African American adolescents. The levels of conflict and cohesion in the family environment have also been found to be predictive of adolescent mental health. This study examined whether the ethnic identity and levels of conflict and cohesion in the family…

  11. The Effect of Early Noncognitive Skills on Social Outcomes in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coneus, Katja; Laucht, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of early noncognitive skills on social outcomes in adolescence. The child's attention span, approach, prevailing mood and distractibility in early childhood may be crucial predictors for school achievements, health risk behavior, delinquency and autonomy as adolescent. We investigate this issue using a…

  12. Functional Outcomes of Child and Adolescent Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms in Young Adult Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Jeffrey D.; Rowe, Richard; Boylan, Khrista

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is considered to be a disorder of childhood, yet evidence suggests that prevalence rates of the disorder are stable into late adolescence and trajectories of symptoms persist into young adulthood. Functional outcomes associated with ODD through childhood and adolescence include conflict within…

  13. Antisocial Propensity, Adolescent School Outcomes, and the Risk of Criminal Conviction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savolainen, Jukka; Hughes, Lorine A.; Mason, W. Alex; Hurtig, Tuula M.; Ebeling, Hanna; Moilanen, Irma K.; Kivivuori, Janne; Taanila, Anja M.

    2012-01-01

    Data from the 1986 Northern Finland Birth Cohort Study (n = 4,645) were used to examine the influence of mid-adolescent (age 15) school outcomes on late-adolescent (ages 17-19) risk of criminal conviction. Consistent with social-developmental theories of offending, we found that poor academic performance and reduced school attachment increase the…

  14. Treatment Adherence, Competence, and Outcome in Individual and Family Therapy for Adolescent Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogue, Aaron; Henderson, Craig E.; Dauber, Sarah; Barajas, Priscilla C.; Fried, Adam; Liddle, Howard A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the impact of treatment adherence and therapist competence on treatment outcome in a controlled trial of individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) for adolescent substance use and related behavior problems. Participants included 136 adolescents (62 CBT, 74 MDFT) assessed at intake,…

  15. Paternal Involvement in Multisystemic Therapy: Effects on Adolescent Outcomes and Maternal Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervan, Shannon; Granic, Isabela; Solomon, Tracy; Blokland, Kirsten; Ferguson, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The association between paternal involvement in therapy, adolescent outcomes and maternal depression was examined within the context of Multisystemic Therapy (MST), an empirically supported, family- and community-based treatment for antisocial adolescents. Ninety-nine families were recruited from five mental health agencies providing MST. We…

  16. The Longitudinal Impact of Adolescent Drug Use on Socioeconomic Outcomes in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broman, Clifford L.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates how drug use in adolescence contributes to socioeconomic outcomes in young adulthood. Several studies have investigated whether drug problems alter the life course in ways that are detrimental to young adult achievement, but findings are inconsistent. We use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to…

  17. Baseline Depressive Symptoms Predict Poor Substance Use Outcome Following Adolescent Residential Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramaniam, Geetha A.; Stitzer, Maxine A.; Clemmey, Philip; Kolodner, Ken; Fishman, Marc J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To characterize baseline depressive symptoms among substance-abusing adolescents and determine their association with post residential treatment substance use outcomes. Method: In total, 153 adolescents (mean age 6.6 years, plus or minus 0.11) entering residential treatment were assessed at intake and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Beck…

  18. Adolescents' Mental Health Outcomes According to Different Types of Exposure to Ongoing Terror Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun-Lewensohn, Orna; Celestin-Westreich, Smadar; Celestin, Leon-Patrice; Verte, Dominique; Ponjaert-Kristoffersen, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of several types of exposure to terror attacks on adolescents' psychological outcomes in the context of ongoing terror. A total of 913 adolescents (51 girls) aged 12 to 18 years (12-13.6 = 33%; 13.7-15.6 = 38%; 15.7-18 = 28%) took part in the study. Detailed data were collected concerning objective, subjective…

  19. Interpersonal Theory and Depressed Adolescents: An Overview of Method and Outcome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellin, Elizabeth Anne

    In an attempt of fill the gap in theoretical and empirical information available for treatment of adolescent depression, interpersonal therapy for adolescents (IPT-A) was developed. Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) is a brief, time-limited therapy originally developed for use with adults diagnosed with major depression. Several outcome studies…

  20. Parenting styles, adolescents' attributions, and educational outcomes in nine heterogeneous high schools.

    PubMed

    Glasgow, K L; Dornbusch, S M; Troyer, L; Steinberg, L; Ritter, P L

    1997-06-01

    This article examined the contemporaneous and predictive relations between parenting styles, adolescents' attributions, and 4 educational outcomes. Data were collected from adolescents attending 6 high schools in California and 3 high schools in Wisconsin during the 1987-1988 and 1988-1989 school years. The results of path analyses partially confirmed the central hypotheses. Adolescents who perceived their parents as being nonauthoritative were more likely than their peers to attribute achievement outcomes to external causes or to low ability. Furthermore, the higher the proportion of dysfunctional attributions made for academic successes and failures, the lower the levels of classroom engagement and homework 1 year later. Although adolescents' attributional style provided a bridge between parenting style and 2 educational outcomes, it did not fully explain the impact of parenting on those outcomes. Additional analyses within gender and ethnic subgroups reinforced the overall pattern of findings observed within the entire sample. PMID:9249963

  1. Rural Mexican-American Adolescent Sexual Risk Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Kelly, Pat; Shain, Rochelle N.; Piper, Jeanna M.

    2004-01-01

    There is a need for community-based, culturally sensitive, cognitive-behavioral interventions to reduce sexual risk behavior among minority adolescents. Studies of adolescent risk and protective behaviors have focused on identifying modifiable psychosocial variables that predict differential outcomes for subsequent intervention efforts. Research…

  2. General and specific effects of early-life psychosocial adversities on adolescent grey matter volume☆

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Nicholas D.; Dalgleish, Tim; Lombardo, Michael V.; Dunn, Valerie J.; Van Harmelen, Anne-Laura; Ban, Maria; Goodyer, Ian M.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to childhood adversities (CA) is associated with subsequent alterations in regional brain grey matter volume (GMV). Prior studies have focused mainly on severe neglect and maltreatment. The aim of this study was to determine in currently healthy adolescents if exposure to more common forms of CA results in reduced GMV. Effects on brain structure were investigated using voxel-based morphometry in a cross-sectional study of youth recruited from a population-based longitudinal cohort. 58 participants (mean age = 18.4) with (n = 27) or without (n = 31) CA exposure measured retrospectively from maternal interview were included in the study. Measures of recent negative life events (RNLE) recorded at 14 and 17 years, current depressive symptoms, gender, participant/parental psychiatric history, current family functioning perception and 5-HTTLPR genotype were covariates in analyses. A multivariate analysis of adversities demonstrated a general association with a widespread distributed neural network consisting of cortical midline, lateral frontal, temporal, limbic, and cerebellar regions. Univariate analyses showed more specific associations between adversity measures and regional GMV: CA specifically demonstrated reduced vermis GMV and past psychiatric history with reduced medial temporal lobe volume. In contrast RNLE aged 14 was associated with increased lateral cerebellar and anterior cingulate GMV. We conclude that exposure to moderate levels of childhood adversities occurring during childhood and early adolescence exerts effects on the developing adolescent brain. Reducing exposure to adverse social environments during early life may optimize typical brain development and reduce subsequent mental health risks in adult life. PMID:25061568

  3. Psychiatric diagnoses and psychosocial needs of outpatient deaf children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Landsberger, Sarah A; Diaz, David R; Spring, Noah Z; Sheward, Jerry; Sculley, Charleen

    2014-02-01

    Deaf youth may be more vulnerable to psychiatric disorders but very little research data is available. The current study identified prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders and examined the psychosocial needs and strengths of deaf youth aged 4-17 receiving specialized outpatient mental health services for the deaf. Compared to hearing peers, deaf youth had greater rates of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct, autism-spectrum and bipolar disorders and spent three times longer in treatment than their hearing peers. In the deaf subsample, moderate-severe risk was found in social functioning (33.3 %) and suicidal behavior (14 %). Deaf youth had moderate to severe impairment in social relationships (54.8 %), school functioning (42.9 %). Over one-third of deaf youth had impaired family relationships, living situation, communication, judgment and physical health. Deaf youth present with higher rates of certain clinical disorders and have deficits in multiple life domains that may impact functioning and create a longer treatment course. PMID:23504290

  4. Identifying Psychosocial Variables That Predict Safer Sex Intentions in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Brüll, Phil; Ruiter, Robert A C; Wiers, Reinout W; Kok, Gerjo

    2016-01-01

    Young people are especially vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The triad of deliberate and effective safer sex behavior encompasses condom use, combined with additional information about a partner's sexual health, and the kind of sex acts usually performed. To identify psychosocial predictors of young people's intentions to have safer sex, as related to this triad, we conducted an online study with 211 sexually active participants aged between 18 and 24 years. Predictors [i.e., perceived behavioral control (PBC), subjective norms, and intention] taken from Fishbein and Ajzen's Reasoned Action Approach (RAA), were combined with more distal variables (e.g., behavioral inhibition, sensation seeking, parental monitoring, and knowledge about STIs). Beyond the highly predictive power of RAA variables, additional variance was explained by the number of instances of unprotected sexual intercourse (SI) during the last 12 months and reasons for using barrier protection during first SI. In particular, past condom non-use behavior moderated PBC related to intended condom use. Further, various distal variables showed significant univariate associations with intentions related to the three behaviors of interest. It may, therefore, be helpful to include measures of past behavior as well as certain additional distal variables in future safer sex programs designed to promote health-sustaining sexual behavior. PMID:27148520

  5. Identifying Psychosocial Variables That Predict Safer Sex Intentions in Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Brüll, Phil; Ruiter, Robert A. C.; Wiers, Reinout W.; Kok, Gerjo

    2016-01-01

    Young people are especially vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The triad of deliberate and effective safer sex behavior encompasses condom use, combined with additional information about a partner’s sexual health, and the kind of sex acts usually performed. To identify psychosocial predictors of young people’s intentions to have safer sex, as related to this triad, we conducted an online study with 211 sexually active participants aged between 18 and 24 years. Predictors [i.e., perceived behavioral control (PBC), subjective norms, and intention] taken from Fishbein and Ajzen’s Reasoned Action Approach (RAA), were combined with more distal variables (e.g., behavioral inhibition, sensation seeking, parental monitoring, and knowledge about STIs). Beyond the highly predictive power of RAA variables, additional variance was explained by the number of instances of unprotected sexual intercourse (SI) during the last 12 months and reasons for using barrier protection during first SI. In particular, past condom non-use behavior moderated PBC related to intended condom use. Further, various distal variables showed significant univariate associations with intentions related to the three behaviors of interest. It may, therefore, be helpful to include measures of past behavior as well as certain additional distal variables in future safer sex programs designed to promote health-sustaining sexual behavior. PMID:27148520

  6. Adolescent smokeless tobacco incidence: relations with other drugs and psychosocial variables.

    PubMed

    Dent, C W; Sussman, S; Johnson, C A; Hansen, W B; Flay, B R

    1987-05-01

    This article presents data regarding the prevalence of trying smokeless tobacco in a longitudinal sample of 2,714 urban, ethnically diverse adolescent males and females. A predominance of trial use was found in white males in 8th and 9th grades. Also presented is the relation of smokeless tobacco onset to experimentation with other drugs (cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana), cigarette smoking in significant others, self-image as a smoker, risk taking, and smoking refusal self-efficacy. Smokeless tobacco onset was related to higher levels of cigarette smoking and lower quit rates, and was positively associated with use of cigarettes by significant others, one's self-image as a smoker, and with a disinclination to refuse cigarette offers. Finally, onset was more probable in individuals who had previously tried alcoholic beverages and marijuana, and who reported enjoying taking risks. A multivariate logistic regression analysis retained sex, smoking level, beer and wine use, and risk taking as predictors of smokeless tobacco onset. Apparently, smokeless tobacco is an additional activity in which drug-experimenting male adolescents are likely to participate. PMID:3588579

  7. Cancer in adolescents and young adults psychosocial aspects. Long-term survivors.

    PubMed

    Zeltzer, L K

    1993-05-15

    Survivors of cancer diagnosed during adolescence and young adulthood have had to muster the resources to cope with cancer treatment while accomplishing the tasks unique to this developmental period, tasks such as the accomplishment of economic and emotional independence, capacity for intimacy, solidification of career goals, and formation of a comfortable identity. Studies of survivors of childhood cancer have not found major psychiatric disorders but have pointed out some adjustment difficulties, such as increased health concerns, worries about the development of second neoplasms, increased somatic complaints, and academic problems. Marriage may be delayed, and women, unlike men, worry about their fertility and the health of their future offspring. Survivors of both genders do not appear to be troubled by obvious-to-the-observer physical sequelae. Future studies should examine the quality of life issues pertinent to the successful accomplishment of adult tasks and should include assessment of the facilitators and impediments to carrying out these tasks, particularly during the transition from adolescence into young adulthood. The ultimate goal of the above assessments is to permit not only survival but quality survival. PMID:8490896

  8. [Psychosocial risk factors in adolescent tobacco use: negative mood-states, peer group and parenting styles].

    PubMed

    Julià Cano, Albert; Escapa Solanas, Sandra; Marí-Klose, Marga; Marí-Klose, Pau

    2012-01-01

    There are multiple factors that can affect the risk of tobacco use in adolescence. By analyzing these factors together we can disentangle the specific relevance of each of them in shaping teenagers' individual behavior. The goal of this research study is to deepen our understanding of the relationship between tobacco use in adolescence and socio-demographic and socio-emotional variables. We worked with a representative sample of 2,289 Catalan teenagers (aged 15-18) who responded to a questionnaire drawn up by the Families and Children Panel. Regression models were developed to assess the statistical associations of different mood states (sadness, nervousness and loneliness), peer-group characteristics and parenting styles, with tobacco use. The results indicate that addictive behavior is more likely when teenagers show negative mood states, controlling for socio-demographic variables and other risk factors. Among these additional factors, authoritative parenting styles reduce the risk of tobacco use, compared to authoritarian, permissive and neglectful parenting. Extensive tobacco use within the peer group is the risk factor most strongly associated with teenagers' individual behavior. PMID:23241718

  9. Cleft Care UK study. Part 5: child psychosocial outcomes and satisfaction with cleft services

    PubMed Central

    Waylen, A; Ness, A R; Wills, A K; Persson, M; Rumsey, N; Sandy, J R

    2015-01-01

    Structured Abstract Objectives To describe the impact of cleft service centralization on parental perceptions of child outcomes and satisfaction with care from the Cleft Care UK (CCUK) study and compare them to the Clinical Standards Advisory Group (CSAG) study that took place 15 years earlier. Setting and Sample Population A subgroup of respondents from a UK multicentre cross-sectional study (CCUK) of 5-year-olds born with non-syndromic unilateral cleft lip and palate. Materials and Methods Data on parents’ perceptions of child self-confidence and their satisfaction with treatment outcomes and service provision were collected via self-report questionnaires. Data were compared with findings from the 1998 CSAG study. Results Fewer parents in the CCUK study perceived their children as having poor self-confidence than in the 1998 CSAG study (8 and 19%, respectively). At least 81% of parents report satisfaction with the child’s facial features after surgery and 98% report being satisfied with the care received. These results are similar to those reported in 1998. There is no evidence of an adverse impact on families’ ability to attend appointments at the cleft clinic following centralization. Levels of reported problems (around 30%) with attendance were similar to those reported by CSAG. Conclusion Centralization of cleft services appears to have improved parental perceptions of some child outcomes but has made little difference to already high levels of parental satisfaction with cleft care services. Centralization is not associated with an increase in the proportion of families who find it difficult to attend appointments. PMID:26567855

  10. Tailored and Integrated Web-Based Tools for Improving Psychosocial Outcomes of Cancer Patients: The DoTTI Development Framework

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Jamie; Sanson-Fisher, Rob; Tzelepis, Flora; Henskens, Frans; Paul, Christine; Stevenson, William

    2014-01-01

    Background Effective communication with cancer patients and their families about their disease, treatment options, and possible outcomes may improve psychosocial outcomes. However, traditional approaches to providing information to patients, including verbal information and written booklets, have a number of shortcomings centered on their limited ability to meet patient preferences and literacy levels. New-generation Web-based technologies offer an innovative and pragmatic solution for overcoming these limitations by providing a platform for interactive information seeking, information sharing, and user-centered tailoring. Objective The primary goal of this paper is to discuss the advantages of comprehensive and iterative Web-based technologies for health information provision and propose a four-phase framework for the development of Web-based information tools. Methods The proposed framework draws on our experience of constructing a Web-based information tool for hematological cancer patients and their families. The framework is based on principles for the development and evaluation of complex interventions and draws on the Agile methodology of software programming that emphasizes collaboration and iteration throughout the development process. Results The DoTTI framework provides a model for a comprehensive and iterative approach to the development of Web-based informational tools for patients. The process involves 4 phases of development: (1) Design and development, (2) Testing early iterations, (3) Testing for effectiveness, and (4) Integration and implementation. At each step, stakeholders (including researchers, clinicians, consumers, and programmers) are engaged in consultations to review progress, provide feedback on versions of the Web-based tool, and based on feedback, determine the appropriate next steps in development. Conclusions This 4-phase framework is evidence-informed and consumer-centered and could be applied widely to develop Web-based programs

  11. Evaluating mental health difficulties and associated outcomes among HIV-positive adolescents in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Dow, Dorothy E; Turner, Elizabeth L; Shayo, Aisa M; Mmbaga, Blandina; Cunningham, Coleen K; O'Donnell, Karen

    2016-07-01

    AIDS-related mortality among HIV-positive adolescents has risen by 50% despite the scale up of antiretroviral therapy (ART). ART maladherence likely plays a role in the increase of AIDS-related deaths among adolescents and has shown to be associated with psychosocial and mental health difficulties. Addressing the specific mental health needs of HIV-positive adolescents is critical to ending the HIV epidemic. This cross-sectional study prospectively enrolled HIV-positive adolescents (12-24 years) in Moshi, Tanzania. A structured questionnaire was administered that included questions about home, school, adherence, and measures of stigma (Berger Stigma Scale) and mental health. Mental health measures included depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), emotional/behavioral difficulties (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire), and traumatic experiences/post-traumatic stress symptoms (The University of California Los Angeles-post-traumatic stress disorder-Reaction Index). Mental health difficulties were prevalent among HIV-positive adolescents and were associated with incomplete adherence and stigma. Resources are needed to reduce HIV stigma and address mental health among HIV-positive adolescents in low-resource settings. This will improve not only mental health, but may also improve ART adherence and virologic suppression, improving overall health of the individual and reducing the risk of HIV transmission to others. PMID:26837437

  12. Effects of a psychosocial couple-based prevention program on adverse birth outcomes.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Mark E; Roettger, Michael E; Jones, Damon E; Paul, Ian M; Kan, Marni L

    2015-01-01

    Although maternal stress and depression have been linked to adverse birth outcomes (ABOs), few studies have investigated preventive interventions targeting maternal mental health as a means of reducing ABOs. This randomized controlled study examines the impact of Family Foundations (FF)-a transition to parenthood program for couples focused on promoting coparenting quality, with previously documented impact on maternal stress and depression-on ABOs. We also examine whether intervention buffers birth outcomes from the negative effect of elevated salivary cortisol levels. We use intent-to-treat analyses to assess the main effects of the FF intervention on ABOs (prematurity, birth weight, pregnancy complications, Cesarean section, and days in hospital for mothers and infants) among 148 expectant mothers. We also test the interaction of cortisol with intervention condition status in predicting ABOs. FF participation was associated with reduced risk of C-section (OR .357, p < 0.05, 95 % CI 0.149, 0.862), but did not have main effects on other ABOs. FF significantly buffered (p < 0.05) the negative impact of maternal cortisol on birth weight, gestational age, and days in hospital for infants; that is, among women with relatively higher levels of prenatal cortisol, the intervention reduced ABOs. These results demonstrate that a psycho-educational program for couples reduces incidence of ABOs among higher risk women. Future work should test whether reduced maternal stress and depression mediate these intervention effects. PMID:24969352

  13. Effects of a Psychosocial Couple-Based Prevention Program on Adverse Birth Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Roettger, Michael E.; Jones, Damon E.; Paul, Ian M.; Kan, Marni L.

    2015-01-01

    Although maternal stress and depression have been linked to adverse birth outcomes (ABOs), few studies have investigated preventive interventions targeting maternal mental health as a means of reducing ABOs. This randomized controlled study examines the impact of Family Foundations (FF)—a transition to parenthood program for couples focused on promoting coparenting quality, with previously documented impact on maternal stress and depression—on ABOs. We also examine whether intervention buffers birth outcomes from the negative effect of elevated salivary cortisol levels. We use intent-to-treat analyses to assess the main effects of the FF intervention on ABOs (prematurity, birth weight, pregnancy complications, Cesarean section, and days in hospital for mothers and infants) among 148 expectant mothers. We also test the interaction of cortisol with intervention condition status in predicting ABOs. FF participation was associated with reduced risk of C-section (OR .357, p < 0.05, 95 % CI 0.149, 0.862), but did not have main effects on other ABOs. FF significantly buffered (p < 0.05) the negative impact of maternal cortisol on birth weight, gestational age, and days in hospital for infants; that is, among women with relatively higher levels of prenatal cortisol, the intervention reduced ABOs. These results demonstrate that a psycho-educational program for couples reduces incidence of ABOs among higher risk women. Future work should test whether reduced maternal stress and depression mediate these intervention effects. PMID:24969352

  14. A study on smoking and associated psychosocial factors among adolescent students in Kolkata, India.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, Nilay Nilay; Ganguly, Samrat; Pal, Sumita; Chatterjee, Sukanta

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco use among school children and adolescents is an increasing problem world-wide, particularly in the developing countries. A cross-sectional observational study was carried out in six co-educational high schools in Kolkata, West Bengal among 526 students of 15-19 years to determine the prevalence of smoking and to find out any difference among the smokers and non-smokers regarding factors related to family relations, peer group and personal characteristics. The overall rate of smoking was found to be 29.6%, mean age of initiation of smoking was earlier in males. Among smokers 75% students started smoking by 15 years. Smoking of father and peer group, family conflict and pornography addiction were found to have significant association with smoking of students. Early school health based interventions addressing these factors might help in effectively tackling this problem. PMID:24748358

  15. The psychosocial outcomes of individuals with hematological cancers: Are we doing enough high quality research, and what is it telling us?

    PubMed

    Bryant, Jamie; Mansfield, Elise; Hall, Alix; Waller, Amy; Boyes, Allison; Jayakody, Amanda; Dodd, Natalie; Sanson-Fisher, Rob

    2016-05-01

    This systematic review assessed the quantity and quality of research examining the psychosocial outcomes among hematological cancer patients. Studies were categorised as either measurement, descriptive or intervention. Intervention studies were further assessed according to Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) methodological criteria. A total of 261 eligible papers were identified. The number of publications increased by 8.8% each year (95% CI=7.5-10.2%; p<0.0001). The majority of studies were descriptive (n=232; 89%), with few measurement (n=8; 3%) and intervention (n=21; 8%) studies identified. Ten intervention studies met EPOC design criteria, however only two interventions, one targeted at individuals with Hodgkin's or Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and one targeted at individuals with leukaemia, lymphoma or myelomatosis were successful in improving patients' psychosocial outcomes. Despite an increasing volume of research examining psychosocial outcomes of hematological cancer patients, there is a need for robust measurement and methodologically rigorous intervention research in this area. PMID:26951994

  16. Expressed Emotion, Family Functioning, and Treatment Outcome for Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa.

    PubMed

    Rienecke, Renee D; Accurso, Erin C; Lock, James; Le Grange, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the relation between parental expressed emotion (EE) and treatment outcome among adolescents participating in a treatment study for adolescent anorexia nervosa, as well as its impact on family functioning. One hundred and twenty-one families were assigned to family-based treatment or adolescent-focused therapy. Paternal criticism predicted lesser improvement in eating disorder psychopathology at end of treatment. There was also a significant interaction between maternal hostility and treatment, indicating that adolescents whose mothers displayed hostility had greater increases in percent of expected body weight in adolescent-focused therapy than family-based treatment. In addition, maternal hostility predicted less improvement in general family functioning and family communication at the end of treatment. Findings suggest that maternal and paternal EE may differentially impact treatment outcome and should be directly attended to in clinical settings. Future research is needed to further explore ways in which parental EE can be effectively modified in treatment. PMID:26201083

  17. Expressed Emotion, Family Functioning, and Treatment Outcome for Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Rienecke, Renee D.; Accurso, Erin C.; Lock, James; Le Grange, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the relation between parental expressed emotion (EE) and treatment outcome among adolescents participating in a treatment study for adolescent anorexia nervosa, as well as its impact on family functioning. One hundred and twenty-one families were assigned to family-based treatment or adolescent-focused therapy. Paternal criticism predicted lesser improvement in eating disorder psychopathology at end of treatment. There was also a significant interaction between maternal hostility and treatment, indicating that adolescents whose mothers displayed hostility had greater increases in percent of expected body weight in adolescent-focused therapy than family-based treatment. In addition, maternal hostility predicted less improvement in general family functioning and family communication at the end of treatment. Findings suggest that maternal and paternal EE may differentially impact treatment outcome and should be directly attended to in clinical settings. Future research is needed to further explore ways in which parental EE can be effectively modified in treatment. PMID:26201083

  18. Measurement of Religiosity/Spirituality in Adolescent Health Outcomes Research: Trends and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    McGrady, Meghan E.; Rosenthal, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between religious/spiritual (R/S) factors and adolescent health outcomes has been studied for decades; however, the R/S measurement tools used may not be developmentally relevant for adolescents. A systematic literature review was conducted to review and evaluate trends in measuring R/S in adolescent health outcomes research. In this review a total of 100 articles met criteria for inclusion. Relatively few (n = 15) included adolescent-specific R/S measures or items accounting for developmentally relevant issues such as parental religiosity or age-appropriate language. Future R/S and health research with adolescents would be strengthened by incorporating developmentally relevant R/S measurement tools, psychometrics, and multidimensional measures. PMID:20127172

  19. Adolescent Outcomes of Children With Early Speech Sound Disorders With and Without Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Freebairn, Lisa; Tag, Jessica; Ciesla, Allison A.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Stein, Catherine M.; Taylor, H. Gerry

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In this study, the authors determined adolescent speech, language, and literacy outcomes of individuals with histories of early childhood speech sound disorders (SSD) with and without comorbid language impairment (LI) and examined factors associated with these outcomes. Method This study used a prospective longitudinal design. Participants with SSD (n = 170), enrolled at early childhood (4–6 years) were followed at adolescence (11–18 years) and were compared to individuals with no histories of speech or language impairment (no SSD; n = 146) on measures of speech, language, and literacy. Comparisons were made between adolescents with early childhood histories of no SSD, SSD only, and SSD plus LI as well as between adolescents with no SSD, resolved SSD, and persistent SSD. Results Individuals with early childhood SSD with comorbid LI had poorer outcomes than those with histories of SSD only or no SSD. Poorer language and literacy outcomes in adolescence were associated with multiple factors, including persistent speech sound problems, lower nonverbal intelligence, and lower socioeconomic status. Adolescents with persistent SSD had higher rates of comorbid LI and reading disability than the no SSD and resolved SSD groups. Conclusion Risk factors for language and literacy problems in adolescence include an early history of LI, persistent SSD, lower nonverbal cognitive ability, and social disadvantage. PMID:25569242

  20. Dental behaviour management problems among children and adolescents--a matter of understanding? Studies on dental fear, personal characteristics and psychosocial concomitants.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Annika

    2010-01-01

    The primary aim of this thesis was to study dental fear, personal characteristics and psychosocial concomitants in relation to dental behaviour management problems (DBMP) and dental attendance. The study sample consisted of children (8-12 yrs) and adolescents (13-19 yrs) referred to the Specialized Paediatric Dental Clinic because of DBMP. They were compared to a reference group of same aged dental patients in ordinary dental care. A methodological study explored the Dental Subscale of the Children's Fear Survey Schedule (CFSS-DS) in terms of agreement between self and parental ratings and age- and gender-differentiated cut-off scores as compared to the commonly used. Baseline data on children's and adolescents' dental fear, psychosocial situation and everyday life, and personal characteristics were analysed according to a variable-based approach using logistic regression analyses and tree-based modelling of group differences. From the frequency of missed or/and cancelled appointments or interruption of dental treatment the group of referred children was separated into two groups (non-attendees vs. attendees). The differences between the groups were analysed using logistic regression analyses and tree-based modelling. It was found that children and adolescents referred because of DBMP differ in several ways from children and adolescents in ordinary dental care. These differences concerns dental fear, emotional and behavioural problems and temperamental aspects, as well as psychosocial concomitants. The results indicated an overall more negative and complex picture for the children and adolescents referred because of DBMP. The occurrence of single-parent families, child-parent separations, and professional support actions were clearly more frequent among patients referred because of DBMP. Dental fear was the only variable with consistent discriminatory capacity for DBMP through all age and gender subgroups. Aspects of anxiety, temperament, and behavioural symptoms

  1. Accumulation of lifestyle and psychosocial problems and persistence of adverse lifestyle over two-year follow-up among Finnish adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescent’psychosocial problems associate with unhealthy behaviors, but data on co-occurring patterns is sparse. We investigated 1) whether adolescents could be categorized into meaningful subgroups with respect to psychosocial and lifestyle factors, 2) whether the prevalence of physical inactivity, overweight and smoking vary within the subgroups and 3) whether these unhealthy behaviors persist in a two-year follow-up. Methods The study was based on a subgroup of the 1986 Northern Finland Birth Cohort, which consisted of adolescents who replied to a postal questionnaire at 16 years (n = 6792) and a subgroup of this sample at 18 years (n = 1552). Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed to establish clusters at 16 years. Results Smoking co-existed with emotional and behavioral problems in both genders. Boys with the most inactive lifestyle slept poorly, whereas multiple problems co-occurred among girls. Those with a high body mass index (BMI) separated as groups of their own. Different combinations of adverse lifestyle and emotional and behavioral problems were relatively common in both sexes as only 51% of boys and 67% of girls belonged to the reference cluster with low probability for these findings. Physical inactivity, high BMI and smoking tended to persist over the two-year follow-up. Conclusions It seems that lifestyle and psychosocial factors divide adolescents into distinct subgroups in which unhealthy lifestyle patterns remain between the ages of 16 and 18. This may indicate problems in other life areas and expose them to an increased risk of future health problems. PMID:24884444

  2. Psycho-social outcome of parents and young children after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Douglas, J E; Hulson, B; Trompeter, R S

    1998-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aims to assess whether renal transplantation in children under the age of 6 years has an effect on the child's later behaviour and eating and whether this outcome is related to differences in the levels of stress and coping skills shown by the parents. In this small sample of 14 children aged under 8 years, renal transplantation in the pre-school age range did not have any marked adverse effect on the children's emotional or behavioural state. The children's severe eating problems dramatically improved after transplant. Long-term, early tube-feeding does not impair the development of normal feeding patterns in these children. Parental stress levels were not elevated in the post-transplant period and parents tended to use passive coping strategies to manage the chronic illness in their child. PMID:9468781

  3. Traditional and cyberbullying victimization as correlates of psychosocial distress and barriers to a healthy lifestyle among severely obese adolescents – a matched case–control study on prevalence and results from a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Obese youth are at increased risk for peer victimization, which may heighten their risk of psychosocial problems and physical activity avoidance, and lower the effectiveness of professional and lifestyle weight-loss initiatives. Little is known about obese adolescents’ risk for victimization from cyber-bullying and how this relates to psychosocial functioning and healthy lifestyle barriers. The purpose of the study was to assess traditional and cyber-victimization among adolescents with severe obesity and its relation to psychosocial distress and barriers to healthy lifestyles. Methods A sample of 102 obese adolescents (mean age = 15.32 ±1.71) in residential treatment was matched with 102 normal-weight youngsters from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) study (mean age = 15.30 ±1.73). Results Adolescents with obesity were significantly more often cyber-victimized than normal-weight peers. Obese youth victimized by traditional bullying experienced lower quality of life, lower motivation for physical activity and higher avoidance and emotional coping towards healthy lifestyles than those non-victimized. Obese cyber-victims experienced significantly higher suicidal ideation. Conclusions Traditional and cyber-victimization may hinder treatment effectiveness and healthy lifestyle change in adolescents with obesity. Health professionals should pro-actively address peer victimization and psychosocial functioning during multidisciplinary obesity treatment. Schools could contribute to a better physical and psychosocial health of obese youth by implementing multi-behavioral health-promotion programs. PMID:24593118

  4. The VUKA Family Program: Piloting a family-based psychosocial intervention to promote health and mental health among HIV infected early adolescents in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bhana, Arvin; Mellins, Claude Ann; Petersen, Inge; Alicea, Stacey; Myeza, Nonhlahla; Holst, Helga; Abrams, Elaine; John, Sally; Chhagan, Meera; Nestadt, Danielle F; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; McKay, Mary

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of adolescents born with HIV in South Africa are on antiretroviral treatment and have to confront complex issues related to coping with a chronic, stigmatizing and transmittable illness. Very few evidence-based mental health and health promotion programs for this population exist in South Africa. This study builds on a previous collaboratively designed and developmentally-timed family-based intervention for early adolescents (CHAMP). The study uses community-based participatory approach as part of formative research to evaluate a pilot randomized control trial at two hospitals. The paper reports on the development, feasibility and acceptability of the VUKA family-based program and its short-term impact on a range of psychosocial variables for HIV+ pre-adolescents and their caregivers. A ten session intervention of approximately 3 months duration was delivered to 65 pre-adolescents aged 10-13 years and their families. VUKA participants were noted to improve on all dimensions, including mental health, youth behaviour, HIV treatment knowledge, stigma, communication and adherence to medication. VUKA shows promise as a family-based mental and HIV prevention program for HIV+ pre-adolescents and which could be delivered by trained lay staff. PMID:23767772

  5. Development of a psychosocial distress measure for Ugandan adolescents living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Mutumba, Massy; Resnicow, Ken; Bauermeister, José A; Harper, Gary W; Musiime, Victor; Snow, Rachel C; Lepkowski, James M

    2015-02-01

    Psychological distress among adolescents living with HIV (ALH) has been associated with risky behaviors including non-adherence to anti-retroviral therapy, leading to increased risk for AIDS morbidity and mortality. Efforts to establish the nature, prevalence, and impact of psychological distress among ALH in Uganda are hindered by the lack of culturally relevant assessment tools. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a measure for psychological distress for Ugandan ALH aged 12-19 years (N = 508; 53.1 % female). Using a mixed method approach, we developed and tested a 25-item checklist with six subscales-anhedonia, depressive-anxiety, isolation, suicidal ideation, sleep problems, and somatization. We found adequate reliability for the scale (α = 0.89), and a satisfactory measurement structure in our confirmatory factor analyses (RMSEA <1.0, and CFI and TLI >0.90). We discuss the potential use of this culturally sensitive scale to examine psychological distress among ALH in Uganda. PMID:25577026

  6. Prospective Risk Factors and Treatment Outcomes among Adolescents in DATOS-A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galaif, Elisha R.; Hser, Yih-Ing; Grella, Christine E.; Joshi, Vandana

    2001-01-01

    Relationships between risk factors and outcomes were examined for Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies for Adolescents participants. For outpatient drug-free participants, drug use severity predicted less treatment retention; family drug involvement predicted more alcohol use after treatment. For residential participants, family drug involvement…

  7. Do Alcohol Expectancy Outcomes and Valuations Mediate Peer Influences and Lifetime Alcohol Use among Early Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamboanga, Byron L.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Jarvis, Lorna Hernandez; Olthuis, Janine V.

    2009-01-01

    Building on the theory of reasoned action (I. Ajzen & M. Fishbein, 1973, 1980; M. Fishbein & I. Ajzen, 1975) and expectancy theory, the authors examined the mediating role of alcohol expectancies in adolescent drinking behaviors by testing whether alcohol expectancy outcomes and valuations (the extent to which these outcomes are perceived as good…

  8. Naturally Acquired Mentoring Relationships and Young Adult Outcomes among Adolescents with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahrens, Kym; DuBois, David Lane; Lozano, Paula; Richardson, Laura P.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated whether having a naturally acquired mentor during adolescence was associated with improved adult outcomes among youth with learning disabilities (YLD). Mentored youth were more likely to have graduated from high school, reported a higher level of self-esteem, and reported a higher overall number of positive outcomes than nonmentored…

  9. Evaluating Programs for At-Risk Adolescents: Toward an Outcome-Based Assessment Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloat, Elizabeth A.; Audas, Richard P.; Willms, J. Douglas

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an outcome-based model for evaluating school and community programs serving at-risk adolescents, and a cost-effective technique for comparing the progress of youth receiving an intervention with youth in a pseudocontrol group. The outcomes considered most important for success were derived from the literature pertaining to…

  10. A Multilevel Model to Examine Adolescent Outcomes in Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare: The Parent Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Katie Massey; Hoag, Matthew J.; Roberts, Sean D.; Javorski, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare (OBH) has arisen to fill a gap in mental health treatment. While research shows large positive changes in adolescent self-reports, little is known about predictors of change, longitudinal outcomes, and parent-reports of change. Objective This study sought to identify treatment outcomes up to 18 months…

  11. Stability, Correlates, and Outcome of Adolescent Suicidal Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Bosiger, Ruth; Metzke, Christa Winkler

    2006-01-01

    Background: The goal of this study was to investigate the stability and correlates of adolescent suicidal risk across adolescence. Methods: Suicidal risk was studied longitudinally in N = 593 subjects in 1994, 1997, and 2001 at mean ages of 13, 16, and 20 years. Three partly overlapping suicidal risk groups were compared to three control groups…

  12. Cerebellar Growth and Behavioural & Neuropsychological Outcome in Preterm Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jennifer; Mitchell, Ann; Kalpakidou, Anastasia; Walshe, Muriel; Jung, Hee-Yeon; Nosarti, Chiara; Santosh, Paramala; Rifkin, Larry; Wyatt, John; Murray, Robin M.; Allin, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of social and cognitive development associated with changes in brain structure and function. These developmental changes may show an altered path in individuals born before 33 weeks' gestation (very preterm; VPT). The cerebellum is affected by VPT birth, but no studies have yet assessed the adolescent development of this…

  13. Adolescent Friendship Relations and Developmental Outcomes: Ethnic and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wissink, Inge B.; Dekovic, Maja; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2009-01-01

    The first aim of the present study was to examine associations between different aspects of adolescent friendship relations (i.e., frequency of contact with friends, trust in friends, and perceived friends' deviance) on one hand, and adolescent problem behavior and self-esteem on the other hand. The second aim was to determine whether the findings…

  14. Returning to Paid Employment after Stroke: The Psychosocial Outcomes In StrokE (POISE) Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hackett, Maree L.; Glozier, Nick; Jan, Stephen; Lindley, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine which early modifiable factors are associated with younger stroke survivors' ability to return to paid work in a cohort study with 12-months of follow-up conducted in 20 stroke units in the Stroke Services NSW clinical network. Participants Were aged >17 and <65 years, recent (within 28 days) stroke, able to speak English sufficiently to respond to study questions, and able to provide written informed consent. Participants with language or cognitive impairment were eligible to participate if their proxy provided consent and completed assessments on the participants' behalf. The main outcome measure was return to paid work during the 12 months following stroke. Results Of 441 consented participants (average age 52 years, 68% male, 83% with ischemic stroke), 218 were in paid full-time and 53 in paid part-time work immediately before their stroke, of whom 202 (75%) returned to paid part- or full-time work within 12 months. Being male, female without a prior activity restricting illness, younger, independent in activities of daily living (ADL) at 28 days after stroke, and having private health insurance was associated with return to paid work, following adjustment for other illnesses and a history of depression before stroke (C statistic 0·81). Work stress and post stroke depression showed no such independent association. Conclusions Given that independence in ADL is the strongest predictor of return to paid work within 12 months of stroke, these data reinforce the importance of reducing stroke-related disability and increasing independence for younger stroke survivors. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ANZCTRN 12608000459325 PMID:22848610

  15. The co-occurrence of non-suicidal self-injury and attempted suicide among adolescents: distinguishing risk factors and psychosocial correlates

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Although attempted suicide and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) are distinct behaviors differing in intent, form, and function, the behaviors co-occur at a high rate in both adults and adolescents. Researchers have begun to investigate the association between attempted suicide and NSSI among adolescents. The purpose of this paper is to present current research on this association. First, we discuss definitional issues associated with self-injurious behaviors. Next, we present research on the co-occurrence of attempted suicide and NSSI, including prevalence and associations with self-injury characteristics. We then discuss psychosocial variables associated with engaging in both NSSI and attempted suicide or one type of self-injury alone. Finally, we present the research to date on risk factors uniquely associated with either attempted suicide or NSSI. Implications for mental health professionals and future avenues of research are discussed. PMID:22463065

  16. Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training: Anxiety Outcomes and Impact of Comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Young, Jami F.; Makover, Heather B.; Cohen, Joseph R.; Mufson, Laura; Gallop, Robert; Benas, Jessica S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Given the frequent comorbidity of anxiety and depression, it is important to study the effects of depression interventions on anxiety and the impact of comorbid anxiety on depression outcomes. Method This paper reports on pooled anxiety and depression data from two randomized trials of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a depression prevention program. Ninety-eight adolescents were randomized to receive IPT-AST or school counseling (SC). Outcome and predictor analyses were performed utilizing hierarchical linear models. Results IPT-AST adolescents had significantly greater reductions in anxiety and depressive symptoms than SC adolescents during the intervention. Baseline anxiety symptoms predicted change in depressive symptoms for adolescents in both intervention conditions, with adolescents low in baseline anxiety demonstrating more rapid change in depressive symptoms than adolescents high in baseline anxiety. Conclusions These findings indicate that IPT-AST is effective at decreasing both depressive and anxiety symptoms. For adolescents with comorbid symptoms of anxiety, there may be slower rates of change in depressive symptoms following prevention programs. PMID:22891881

  17. The Adolescent Outcome of Hyperactive Girls: Self-Report of Psychosocial Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Susan; Heptinstall, Ellen; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.; Chadwick, Oliver; Taylor, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to clarify the developmental risk associated with hyperactive behaviour in girls in a longitudinal epidemiological design. Methods: This was investigated in a follow-up study of girls who were identified by parent and teacher ratings in a large community survey of 6- and 7-year-olds as showing pervasive…

  18. Impact of Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games upon the Psychosocial Well-Being of Adolescents and Young Adults: Reviewing the Evidence.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jonathan; Porter-Armstrong, Alison P

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. For many people, the online environment has become a significant arena for everyday living, and researchers are beginning to explore the multifaceted nature of human interaction with the Internet. The burgeoning global popularity and distinct design features of massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) have received particular attention, and discourses about the phenomenon suggest both positive and negative impact upon gamer health. Aim. The purpose of this paper was to critically appraise the research literature to determine if playing MMORPGs impacts upon the psychosocial well-being of adolescents and young adults. Method. Initial searches were conducted on nine databases spanning the years 2002 to 2012 using key words, such as online gaming, internet gaming, psychosocial, and well-being, which, in addition to hand searching, identified six studies meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria for this review. Results. All six studies strongly associated MMORPG playing with helpful and harmful impact to the psychosocial well-being of the populations under study; however due to the methodologies employed, only tentative conclusions may be drawn. Conclusion. Since both helpful and harmful effects were reported, further multidisciplinary research is recommended to specifically explore the clinical implications and therapeutic potentialities of this modern, growing phenomenon. PMID:24236279

  19. Impact of Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games upon the Psychosocial Well-Being of Adolescents and Young Adults: Reviewing the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Porter-Armstrong, Alison P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. For many people, the online environment has become a significant arena for everyday living, and researchers are beginning to explore the multifaceted nature of human interaction with the Internet. The burgeoning global popularity and distinct design features of massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) have received particular attention, and discourses about the phenomenon suggest both positive and negative impact upon gamer health. Aim. The purpose of this paper was to critically appraise the research literature to determine if playing MMORPGs impacts upon the psychosocial well-being of adolescents and young adults. Method. Initial searches were conducted on nine databases spanning the years 2002 to 2012 using key words, such as online gaming, internet gaming, psychosocial, and well-being, which, in addition to hand searching, identified six studies meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria for this review. Results. All six studies strongly associated MMORPG playing with helpful and harmful impact to the psychosocial well-being of the populations under study; however due to the methodologies employed, only tentative conclusions may be drawn. Conclusion. Since both helpful and harmful effects were reported, further multidisciplinary research is recommended to specifically explore the clinical implications and therapeutic potentialities of this modern, growing phenomenon. PMID:24236279

  20. Risk Behaviors and Negative Health Outcomes for Adolescents With Late Bedtimes

    PubMed Central

    McGlinchey, Eleanor L.; Harvey, Allison G.

    2014-01-01

    Late bedtimes in adolescence may be a serious risk factor for later poor health and functional outcomes. The current study sought to extend existing cross sectional data by examining whether late bedtimes in adolescence predicts poor outcomes in young adulthood. Data from wave 2 (1996) and wave 3 (2001-2002) of the nationally representative sample of US youth (National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health) was used to examine the longitudinal relationship between late bedtime, and several risk behaviors and negative health outcomes following 3,843 adolescents into young adulthood. At Wave 2 the mean age was 16 with 52.1% female. At wave 3 the mean age was 21.8. In cross sectional analyses, late bedtime was associated with 1.5 to over 3 times greater odds of involvement in risk behaviors and negative health outcomes, including emotional distress, suicidality, criminal and violent activity, and use of cigarettes, alcohol and illicit drugs. In longitudinal analyses, late bedtime assessed at wave 2 predicted a number of serious health outcomes at wave 3, with late bedtime in adolescence associated with around 1.5 greater odds of involvement in health jeopardizing behaviors such as criminal activity, alcohol abuse, cigarette use, illicit drug use and emotional distress in young adulthood. There was also a dose effect, such that the later the bedtime in adolescence, the greater the risk of involvement in risk behaviors in young adulthood. This research suggests that late bedtime in adolescence predicts multiple serious risk behaviors and health outcomes in young adulthood. PMID:24599733