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Sample records for adolescent risk behavior

  1. Risk Behavior and Personal Resiliency in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince-Embury, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between self-reported risk behaviors and personal resiliency in adolescents; specifically whether youth with higher personal resiliency report less frequent risk behaviors than those with lower personal resiliency. Self-reported risk behavior is surveyed by the "Adolescent Risk Behavior Inventory"…

  2. Risk Behavior and Personal Resiliency in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince-Embury, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between self-reported risk behaviors and personal resiliency in adolescents; specifically whether youth with higher personal resiliency report less frequent risk behaviors than those with lower personal resiliency. Self-reported risk behavior is surveyed by the "Adolescent Risk Behavior Inventory"…

  3. Behavioral Risk Factors for AIDS among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millstein, Susan G.

    This document examines the incidence of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) among adolescents in the United States and identifies several risk factors for AIDS among this population. It classifies adolescents' risk for contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection by the degree to which adolescents engage in behaviors that are…

  4. [Risk behaviors among adolescents with complex diseases].

    PubMed

    Funes Díaz, Francisco; Gaete Pinto, Verónica

    2016-06-01

    Adolescents with complex diseases may have a higher frequency of risk behaviors than their healthy peers. To characterize risk behaviors in adolescents with complex chronic diseases. Risk behaviors were assessed by means of a self-administered questionnaire designed for this purpose, in adolescents aged 10 to 19 years, who attended a pediatrics specialties clinic due to cystic fibrosis, congenital craniofacial anomalies, liver transplantation, kidney transplantation and spinal dysraphism. We assessed 98 patients with a mean age of 14.1 years (59% women). The most common behaviors were those related to accidents and violence, physical inactivity and unhealthy eating. Tobacco, alcohol and drug use, and sexual risk behaviors were observed in patients older than 15 years. Adolescents with congenital craniofacial anomaly followed by those with cystic fibrosis, showed a greater tendency towards some risk behaviors. Less physical activity and early onset of tobacco use predominated in women. Males had more physical violence. Eighteen percent of patients had more than 3 risk behaviors; 52% had two or three and 30% had one risk behavior. Risk behaviors in these adolescents with complex diseases varied according to the type of disease, gender and age.

  5. Health-risk behaviors in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Rew, Lynn; Horner, Sharon D; Brown, Adama

    2011-01-01

    The major morbidities and mortalities of adolescents are related to preventable risky behaviors, but how, when, and in whom these behaviors develop in early adolescence is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine which set of risk factors and protective resources of school-age children were best predictors of health-risk behaviors in early adolescence. A longitudinal, cohort sequential design was used with a diverse sample of 1,934 children in grades 4 through 8. Parents provided demographic and neighborhood data for children through a mailed survey. Children completed valid scales annually at schools, using audio-computer-assisted self-interviewing (A-CASI) technology. Significant gender and racial/ethnic differences were found in carrying a weapon and using alcohol. Higher perceived levels of stress increased the risk for alcohol use as did riding in a car with a driver who was drinking. Health behaviors exhibited while in 4th through 6th grades protected early adolescents from alcohol use and riding in a car with a driver who was drinking. A parent's education and perceived safety in neighborhood protected against carrying a weapon and smoking. Many findings are similar to those of national samples, but others show positive differences in this localized sample, over 50% of whom were Latino. Protective resources suggest numerous nursing interventions to promote healthy adolescent development.

  6. Parental knowledge and adolescents' risk behaviors.

    PubMed

    Albertos, Aranzazu; Osorio, Alfonso; Lopez-Del Burgo, Cristina; Carlos, Silvia; Beltramo, Carlos; Trullols, Fernando

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we study whether parental knowledge of adolescents' activities varies according to socio-demographic variables, and we analyze the possible association between parental knowledge patterns and certain risk behaviors among adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed with representative samples of high-school students in Peru and El Salvador. A questionnaire assessed risk behaviors, as well as possible determinants, including parental knowledge. The questionnaire was answered by 6208 adolescents. We observed that the greater the degree of knowledge, the lower the frequency of risk behaviors among youth. The degree of knowledge was inversely associated with children's age, and we observed that being female was associated with a greater degree of parental knowledge. The study shows that parents' supervision criteria might be influenced by gender stereotypes, which would have a harmful effect on young males, as the lower degree of knowledge puts them at higher odds of risk behaviors. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Risk factors for suicidal behavior in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kirkcaldy, B D; Siefen, G R; Urkin, J; Merrick, J

    2006-10-01

    Adolescent suicide is today a public health problem among the leading cause of mortality among adolescents and young adults. There seems to be many reasons for this increase (which has different trends in different populations), but associations have been found with increased substance abuse, television and video violence, socio-economic status and easy access to firearms. Gender differences have also been observed with crime, suicide and substance abuse higher among males, while eating disorder, depression and suicidal behavior more prevalent among females. This paper will review prevalence and incidence of adolescent suicidal behavior, socio-demographic and psychological risk factors, associated cognitive factors and socio-economic factors. Risk factors include previous suicide attempts, a history of others in the family who have been suicidal, mental illness, alcohol and drug use, and other self-destructive behaviors as well as consideration being given to hopelessness, hostility, negative self-concept and isolation. At the individual difference level, factors such as trait depression, anger and hostility, perfectionism and social sensitivity would seem critical variables, as would age, gender and intellectual functioning. Sociological and family-related factors may also be implicated including dysfunctional family organizations, a history of physical or psychological abuse (sexual abuse) and limited extent of social support networks. A frequently reported precipitating event of suicidal behavior is family adversity including rejection, separation and interpersonal conflict. At a socio-economic level it would seem essential to provide comprehensive document about the social and economic conditions from which the adolescent comes.

  8. Health Promotion and Risk Behaviors among Adolescents in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortabag, Tulay; Ozdemir, Serpil; Bakir, Bilal; Tosun, Nuran

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents experience the onset and development of several health-related behaviors. The purpose of this study is to determine health risk and promotion behaviors of adolescents between the ages of 11 and 19 who were attending and to test the reliability and validity analysis of the Turkish version of Adolescent Health Promotion Scale (AHPS). The…

  9. Health Promotion and Risk Behaviors among Adolescents in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortabag, Tulay; Ozdemir, Serpil; Bakir, Bilal; Tosun, Nuran

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents experience the onset and development of several health-related behaviors. The purpose of this study is to determine health risk and promotion behaviors of adolescents between the ages of 11 and 19 who were attending and to test the reliability and validity analysis of the Turkish version of Adolescent Health Promotion Scale (AHPS). The…

  10. Risky Business: Exploring Adolescent Risk-Taking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Tammy Jordan; Peterson, Fred L.

    2005-01-01

    Ongoing behavioral research has documented the growing prevalence of adolescent health risk behaviors, such as tobacco use, sexual activity, alcohol and other substance use, nutritional behavior, physical inactivity, and intentional injury. Newer youth risk behaviors, such as pathological gambling, are emerging as threats to public health. Risk,…

  11. Rural Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors: Age, Gender, and Ethnic Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salzman, Stephanie A.; Girvan, James T.

    A survey of health risk behaviors was administered to a representative sample of 7,776 Idaho students in grades 8-12. Respondents were 86% White, 6% Hispanic, 4% American Indian, 3% Asian, and 2% Black. These rural adolescents reported that they had engaged in some health risk behaviors at rates comparable to those of other U.S. adolescents: 57%…

  12. Risky Business: Risk Behaviors in Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Jaser, Sarah S.; Yates, Heather; Dumser, Susan; Whittemore, Robin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this article is to review risk behaviors and their health consequences in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. The existing literature on common risk behaviors in adolescents is examined, with a focus on illicit drug use, alcohol use, smoking, unprotected sexual activity, and disordered eating behaviors. Conclusions A review of the literature highlights the lack of studies of risk behaviors in this population. Much of what is known comes from studies with adolescents in the general population or from studies of adults with type 1 diabetes. Known risk and protective factors for risk behaviors and health outcomes are noted. Based on these findings, suggestions are provided for diabetes educators and health care providers to assess for and prevent risk behaviors in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Directions for future research in this population are indicated, including the need to develop and test standardized prevention programs. PMID:22002971

  13. Outcome Expectancies and Risk Behaviors in Maltreated Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickoletti, Patrick; Taussig, Heather N.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined positive and negative outcome expectancies for risk behaviors, and their association with engagement in risk behaviors, in a sample of 149 maltreated adolescents. "Outcome Expectancies" are evaluative social cognitions about what will occur as a consequence of one's actions. Risk behaviors and outcome expectancies for substance…

  14. Pathological Internet Use and Risk-Behaviors among European Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Durkee, Tony; Carli, Vladimir; Floderus, Birgitta; Wasserman, Camilla; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit A; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Hoven, Christina W; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Nemes, Bogdan; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar A; Värnik, Peeter; Wasserman, Danuta

    2016-03-08

    Risk-behaviors are a major contributor to the leading causes of morbidity among adolescents and young people; however, their association with pathological Internet use (PIU) is relatively unexplored, particularly within the European context. The main objective of this study is to investigate the association between risk-behaviors and PIU in European adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted within the framework of the FP7 European Union project: Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE). Data on adolescents were collected from randomized schools within study sites across eleven European countries. PIU was measured using Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ). Risk-behaviors were assessed using questions procured from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS). A total of 11,931 adolescents were included in the analyses: 43.4% male and 56.6% female (M/F: 5179/6752), with a mean age of 14.89 ± 0.87 years. Adolescents reporting poor sleeping habits and risk-taking actions showed the strongest associations with PIU, followed by tobacco use, poor nutrition and physical inactivity. Among adolescents in the PIU group, 89.9% were characterized as having multiple risk-behaviors. The significant association observed between PIU and risk-behaviors, combined with a high rate of co-occurrence, underlines the importance of considering PIU when screening, treating or preventing high-risk behaviors among adolescents.

  15. Pathological Internet Use and Risk-Behaviors among European Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Durkee, Tony; Carli, Vladimir; Floderus, Birgitta; Wasserman, Camilla; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit A.; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Hoven, Christina W.; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Nemes, Bogdan; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar A.; Värnik, Peeter; Wasserman, Danuta

    2016-01-01

    Risk-behaviors are a major contributor to the leading causes of morbidity among adolescents and young people; however, their association with pathological Internet use (PIU) is relatively unexplored, particularly within the European context. The main objective of this study is to investigate the association between risk-behaviors and PIU in European adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted within the framework of the FP7 European Union project: Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE). Data on adolescents were collected from randomized schools within study sites across eleven European countries. PIU was measured using Young’s Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ). Risk-behaviors were assessed using questions procured from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS). A total of 11,931 adolescents were included in the analyses: 43.4% male and 56.6% female (M/F: 5179/6752), with a mean age of 14.89 ± 0.87 years. Adolescents reporting poor sleeping habits and risk-taking actions showed the strongest associations with PIU, followed by tobacco use, poor nutrition and physical inactivity. Among adolescents in the PIU group, 89.9% were characterized as having multiple risk-behaviors. The significant association observed between PIU and risk-behaviors, combined with a high rate of co-occurrence, underlines the importance of considering PIU when screening, treating or preventing high-risk behaviors among adolescents. PMID:27005644

  16. Adolescent risk behavior and the influence of parents and education.

    PubMed

    Nelson, B V; Patience, T H; MacDonald, D C

    1999-01-01

    Adolescent involvement with alcohol, drugs, tobacco, sexual relationships, and gang violence begins at increasingly younger ages. Awareness of the dangers and consequences of risk-taking behavior has not had a profound or lasting impact on adolescent behavior, and there appears to be no relation between risk behavior and general knowledge concerning these topics. Using paired anonymous questionnaires, we surveyed 215 seventh-grade students and their parents about their experience with and attitudes toward adolescent risk-taking behaviors. The results of each student questionnaire were compared with results of his or her own parents. The survey instrument contained questions concerning tobacco, alcohol, and drug use, sexual activity, gang membership, general knowledge concerning these topics, and parental guidance given. Data were analyzed using the chi2 test of significance. Parent and student recollection of issues discussed and guidance given differed widely, as did the students' understanding of their parents' guidance. Factors found to have a meaningful impact on the reduction of risk behavior in the adolescent population were (1) students perceiving a satisfactory relationship with their parents, and (2) parents successfully communicating their expectations regarding these behaviors to their children. Parental direction has a powerful effect on the reduction of risk behavior in young adolescents. A limited ability for abstract reasoning during early adolescence requires clear anticipatory guidance by parents and an active effort to maintain communication in the child-parent relationship.

  17. Risk Factors for Smoking Behaviors among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Many students in Korea begin to use tobacco and develop a regular smoking habit before they reach adulthood. Yet, little is known about various signs contributing to the transition of the student smoking behaviors. This study used a national sample to explore and compare risk factors for smoking behaviors. Three types of smoking behaviors were…

  18. Risk Factors for Smoking Behaviors among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Many students in Korea begin to use tobacco and develop a regular smoking habit before they reach adulthood. Yet, little is known about various signs contributing to the transition of the student smoking behaviors. This study used a national sample to explore and compare risk factors for smoking behaviors. Three types of smoking behaviors were…

  19. Developmental trajectories of acculturation in Hispanic adolescents: associations with family functioning and adolescent risk behavior.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Seth J; Des Rosiers, Sabrina; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L; Unger, Jennifer B; Knight, George P; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, José

    2013-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal acculturation patterns, and their associations with family functioning and adolescent risk behaviors, in Hispanic immigrant families. A sample of 266 Hispanic adolescents (Mage  = 13.4) and their primary parents completed measures of acculturation, family functioning, and adolescent conduct problems, substance use, and sexual behavior at five timepoints. Mixture models yielded three trajectory classes apiece for adolescent and parent acculturation. Assimilated adolescents reported the poorest family functioning, but adolescent assimilation negatively predicted adolescent cigarette smoking, sexual activity, and unprotected sex indirectly through family functioning. Follow-up analyses indicated that discrepancies between adolescent and parent family functioning reports predicted these adolescent outcomes. Results are discussed regarding acculturation trajectories, adolescent risk behavior, and the mediating role of family functioning.

  20. Developmental Trajectories of Acculturation in Hispanic Adolescents: Associations With Family Functioning and Adolescent Risk Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Rosiers, Sabrina Des; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Knight, George P.; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, José

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined longitudinal acculturation patterns, and their associations with family functioning and adolescent risk behaviors, in Hispanic immigrant families. A sample of 266 Hispanic adolescents (mean age 13.4) and their primary parents completed measures of acculturation, family functioning, and adolescent conduct problems, substance use, and sexual behavior at five timepoints. Mixture models yielded three trajectory classes apiece for adolescent and parent acculturation. Assimilated adolescents reported the poorest family functioning, but adolescent assimilation negatively predicted adolescent cigarette smoking, sexual activity, and unprotected sex indirectly through family functioning. Follow-up analyses indicated that discrepancies between adolescent and parent family functioning reports predicted these adolescent outcomes. Results are discussed regarding acculturation trajectories, adolescent risk behavior, and the mediating role of family functioning. PMID:23848416

  1. Developmental Trajectories of Childhood Obesity and Risk Behaviors in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, David Y. C.; Lanza, H. Isabella; Wright-Volel, Kynna; Anglin, M. Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Using group-based trajectory modeling, this study examined 5156 adolescents from the child sample of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to identify developmental trajectories of obesity from ages 6-18 and evaluate associations of such trajectories with risk behaviors and psychosocial health in adolescence. Four distinctive obesity…

  2. Developmental Trajectories of Childhood Obesity and Risk Behaviors in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, David Y. C.; Lanza, H. Isabella; Wright-Volel, Kynna; Anglin, M. Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Using group-based trajectory modeling, this study examined 5156 adolescents from the child sample of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to identify developmental trajectories of obesity from ages 6-18 and evaluate associations of such trajectories with risk behaviors and psychosocial health in adolescence. Four distinctive obesity…

  3. High Risk Behavior among Adolescent Mothers: The Problem in Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissman, Kris

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the particular consequences of high-risk behavior for adolescent women, including unintended pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases, school dropout and poverty, developmental disabilities, and poor school performance. Considers the role of male partners in teenage women's high risk behavior. Describes prevention efforts such as…

  4. Friends: The Role of Peer Influence across Adolescent Risk Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Kimberly A.

    2002-01-01

    Examined peer influence for 1,969 adolescents across 5 risk behaviors: smoking, alcohol consumption, marijuana use, tobacco chewing, and sexual debut. Results show that a random same-sex peer predicts a teen's risk behavior initiation through influence to initiate cigarette and marijuana use, and influence to initiate and stop alcohol and chewing…

  5. Friends: The Role of Peer Influence across Adolescent Risk Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Kimberly A.

    2002-01-01

    Examined peer influence for 1,969 adolescents across 5 risk behaviors: smoking, alcohol consumption, marijuana use, tobacco chewing, and sexual debut. Results show that a random same-sex peer predicts a teen's risk behavior initiation through influence to initiate cigarette and marijuana use, and influence to initiate and stop alcohol and chewing…

  6. An Adolescent Age Group Approach to Examining Youth Risk Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oman, Roy F.; McLeroy, Kenneth R.; Vesely, Sara; Aspy, Cheryl B.; Smith, David W.; Penn, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated relationships among youth risk behaviors and demographic factors. Data on risk behaviors (delinquency, truancy, weapon carrying, fighting, sexuality, substance use, demographics, and family structure) were compared within specific demographic factors and by age group for diverse inner-city adolescents. Survey and interview data…

  7. Risk Behaviors Associated with Cigarette Use among Asian American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Harry T.; Wang, Min Qi; Valmidiano, Lillian L.

    2005-01-01

    Asian Americans are one of the fastest growing minority groups in the United States. This study examined the association between several common youth risk behaviors, including cigarette use among Asian American adolescents, using data (N=408) from the 2001 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). The weighted univariate and multivariate logistic…

  8. Coexistence of risk behaviors for being overweight among Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Nathália Luíza; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Mingoti, Sueli Aparecida; Lopes, Aline Cristine Souza

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the magnitude of and the factors associated with the coexistence of risk behaviors for being overweight among Brazilian adolescents. This is a cross-sectional study with a representative sample of adolescents (mostly aged 13-15years) enrolled from public and private schools of Brazil in 2012. The co-occurring sedentary behavior and inadequate food consumption (regular intake of sugary and fried foods, and irregular consumption of fruits and vegetables-FV) was estimated using a Venn diagram. Sociodemographic, familial, and behavioral factors associated with the number of risk behaviors for being overweight were identified using an ordinal logistic regression analysis. Sedentary behavior was observed in 62.0% of adolescents. Regular intake of sugary or fried food was observed in 55.3% and 23.5% of adolescents, respectively, with 51.9% having an inadequate intake of FV. At least one risk behavior was reported in >90.0% of adolescents; 6.1% reported all 4. Being female, having a higher maternal education level, attending private school, not having breakfast or meals with parents regularly, eat watching television, and not practicing weekly leisure time physical activity were associated with an increased chance of having multiple risk behaviors. This study observed a high prevalence of coexisting of risk behaviors, which was associated with sociodemographic, familial, and behavioral factors. These findings may contribute to a clearer understanding of the associations between different behaviors among adolescents, and may be used to improve public health surveillance and to develop strategies that address multiple behaviors, in order to prevent overweight among adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Planned versus Unplanned Risks: Neurocognitive Predictors of Subtypes of Adolescents' Risk Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslowsky, Julie; Keating, Daniel P.; Monk, Christopher S.; Schulenberg, John

    2011-01-01

    Risk behavior contributes to substantial morbidity and mortality during adolescence. This study examined neurocognitive predictors of proposed subtypes of adolescent risk behavior: planned (premeditated) versus unplanned (spontaneous). Adolescents (N = 69, 49% male, M = 15.1 [1.0] years) completed neurocognitive tasks (Iowa Gambling Task [IGT],…

  10. Sleep and risk-taking behavior in adolescents.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Erin M; Mindell, Jodi A

    2005-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between adolescents' sleep-wake patterns and risk-taking behavior. A second goal was to replicate the results obtained by Wolfson and Carskadon (1998) regarding adolescents' sleep habits. Three hundred eighty-eight adolescents (217 males, 171 females) completed the Sleep Habits Survey and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. The results indicated that adolescents who reported longer weekend delay and higher levels of sleep problems also reported significantly higher levels of risk-taking behaviors, and students' weekend delay was also related to their academic performance in this sample. As in the sample studied by Wolfson and Carskadon (1998), the adolescents in this study exhibited changes in both weekday and weekend sleep habits across grade/age. However in the present study, only school-night total sleep time and weekend delay were related to adolescents' daytime functioning, with no significant relationships being found between weekend oversleep and daytime functioning. This provides partial support for the findings of Wolfson and Carskadon (1998). Overall, sleep-wake patterns were found to relate to risk-taking behavior during adolescence in this study.

  11. Predicting adolescent's cyberbullying behavior: A longitudinal risk analysis.

    PubMed

    Barlett, Christopher P

    2015-06-01

    The current study used the risk factor approach to test the unique and combined influence of several possible risk factors for cyberbullying attitudes and behavior using a four-wave longitudinal design with an adolescent US sample. Participants (N = 96; average age = 15.50 years) completed measures of cyberbullying attitudes, perceptions of anonymity, cyberbullying behavior, and demographics four times throughout the academic school year. Several logistic regression equations were used to test the contribution of these possible risk factors. Results showed that (a) cyberbullying attitudes and previous cyberbullying behavior were important unique risk factors for later cyberbullying behavior, (b) anonymity and previous cyberbullying behavior were valid risk factors for later cyberbullying attitudes, and (c) the likelihood of engaging in later cyberbullying behavior increased with the addition of risk factors. Overall, results show the unique and combined influence of such risk factors for predicting later cyberbullying behavior. Results are discussed in terms of theory.

  12. [Adolescence, sexual behavior and risk factors to health].

    PubMed

    Assis, Simone Gonçalves de; Gomes, Romeu; Pires, Thiago de Oliveira

    2014-02-01

    To analyze the relationships between sexual behavior and risk factors to physical and mental health in adolescents. Study of 3,195 pupils aged 15 to 19 in secondary education, in public and private schools in 10 state capitals in Brazil between 2007 and 2008. Multi-stage (schools and pupils) cluster sampling was used in each city and public and private educational network. All of the students selected completed a questionnaire on the following items: socioeconomic and demographic data; sexual behavior; having sex with those of the same sex, the opposite sex, or both; alcohol and cannabis use; using condoms; traumatic sexual experiences as a child or adolescent; suicidal thoughts. The analysis included describing frequencies, Chi-square test, analysis of multiple and cluster correspondence. Responses to an open ended question in which the adolescent expressed general comments about themselves and their lives were qualitatively analyzed using content analysis. Around 3.0% of adolescents reported homosexual or bisexual behavior, with no difference according to sex, age, skin color, social status family structure or educational network. Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior, compared to their heterosexual peers, reported: (p < 0.05): getting drunk (18.7% and 10.5%, respectively), frequent cannabis use (6.1% and 2.1%, respectively), suicidal thoughts (42.5% and 18.7%, respectively), and having been the victim of sexual violence (11.7% and 1.5%; respectively). Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior reported that they used condoms less frequently (74.2%) than their heterosexual peers (48.6%, p < 0.001). In the correspondence analysis, three groups were found, one composed of adolescents with homosexual/bisexual behavior and experiencing risk factors; suffering sexual violence, never using a condom, suicidal thoughts, frequent cannabis use; another composed of occasional cannabis and condom users, who got drunk frequently, and adolescents with

  13. Adolescence, sexual behavior and risk factors to health

    PubMed Central

    de Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Gomes, Romeu; Pires, Thiago de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the relationships between sexual behavior and risk factors to physical and mental health in adolescents. METHODS Study of 3,195 pupils aged 15 to 19 in secondary education, in public and private schools in 10 state capitals in Brazil between 2007 and 2008. Multi-stage (schools and pupils) cluster sampling was used in each city and public and private educational network. All of the students selected completed a questionnaire on the following items: socioeconomic and demographic data; sexual behavior; having sex with those of the same sex, the opposite sex, or both; alcohol and cannabis use; using condoms; traumatic sexual experiences as a child or adolescent; suicidal thoughts. The analysis included describing frequencies, Chi-square test, analysis of multiple and cluster correspondence. Responses to an open ended question in which the adolescent expressed general comments about themselves and their lives were qualitatively analyzed using content analysis. RESULTS Around 3.0% of adolescents reported homosexual or bisexual behavior, with no difference according to sex, age, skin color, social status family structure or educational network. Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior, compared to their heterosexual peers, reported: (p < 0.05): getting drunk (18.7% and 10.5%, respectively), frequent cannabis use (6.1% and 2.1%, respectively), suicidal thoughts (42.5% and 18.7%, respectively), and having been the victim of sexual violence (11.7% and 1.5%; respectively). Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior reported that they used condoms less frequently (74.2%) than their heterosexual peers (48.6%, p < 0.001). In the correspondence analysis, three groups were found, one composed of adolescents with homosexual/bisexual behavior and experiencing risk factors; suffering sexual violence, never using a condom, suicidal thoughts, frequent cannabis use; another composed of occasional cannabis and condom users, who got drunk

  14. Developmental Trajectories of Acculturation in Hispanic Adolescents: Associations with Family Functioning and Adolescent Risk Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Knight, George P.; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, Jose

    2013-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal acculturation patterns, and their associations with family functioning and adolescent risk behaviors, in Hispanic immigrant families. A sample of 266 Hispanic adolescents (M[subscript age] = 13.4) and their primary parents completed measures of acculturation, family functioning, and adolescent conduct problems,…

  15. Developmental Trajectories of Acculturation in Hispanic Adolescents: Associations with Family Functioning and Adolescent Risk Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Knight, George P.; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, Jose

    2013-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal acculturation patterns, and their associations with family functioning and adolescent risk behaviors, in Hispanic immigrant families. A sample of 266 Hispanic adolescents (M[subscript age] = 13.4) and their primary parents completed measures of acculturation, family functioning, and adolescent conduct problems,…

  16. Heterosexual Risk Behaviors Among Urban Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Lydia; Stueve, Ann; Wilson-Simmons, Renee; Dash, Kim; Agronick, Gail; JeanBaptiste, Varzi

    2006-01-01

    Urban 6th graders (n = 294) participate in a survey assessing early heterosexual risk behaviors as part of the Reach for Health Middle Childhood Study. About half the boys (47%) and 20% of girls report having a girlfriend or boyfriend; 42% of boys and 10% of girls report kissing and hugging for a long time. Stepwise regressions model the…

  17. Heterosexual Risk Behaviors Among Urban Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Lydia; Stueve, Ann; Wilson-Simmons, Renee; Dash, Kim; Agronick, Gail; JeanBaptiste, Varzi

    2006-01-01

    Urban 6th graders (n = 294) participate in a survey assessing early heterosexual risk behaviors as part of the Reach for Health Middle Childhood Study. About half the boys (47%) and 20% of girls report having a girlfriend or boyfriend; 42% of boys and 10% of girls report kissing and hugging for a long time. Stepwise regressions model the…

  18. Sexting and Sexual Behavior in At-Risk Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Barker, David; Rizzo, Christie; Hancock, Evan; Norton, Alicia; Brown, Larry K.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the prevalence of sexting behaviors (sexually explicit messages and/or pictures) among an at-risk sample of early adolescents as well as the associations between sexting behaviors and sexual behaviors, risk-related cognitions, and emotional regulation skills. It also aimed to determine whether differences in risk were associated with text-based versus photo-based sexts. METHODS: Seventh-grade adolescents participating in a sexual risk prevention trial for at-risk early adolescents completed a computer-based survey at baseline regarding sexting behavior (having sent sexually explicit messages and/or pictures), sexual activities, intentions to have sex, perceived approval of sexual activity, and emotional regulation skills. RESULTS: Twenty-two percent of the sample reported having sexted in the past 6 months; sexual messages were endorsed by 17% (n = 71), sexual messages and photos by 5% (n = 21). Pictures were endorsed significantly more often by females (χ2[2] = 7.33, P = .03) and Latinos (χ2[2] = 7.27, P = .03). Sexting of any kind was associated with higher rates of engaging in a variety of sexual behaviors, and sending photos was associated with higher rates of sexual activity than sending text messages only. This was true for a range of behaviors from touching genitals over clothes (odds ratio [OR] = 1.98, P = .03) to oral sex (OR = 2.66, P < .01) to vaginal sex (OR = 2.23, P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Sexting behavior (both photo and text messages) was not uncommon among middle school youth and co-occurred with sexual behavior. These data suggest that phone behaviors, even flirtatious messages, may be an indicator of risk. Clinicians, parents, and health programs should discuss sexting with early adolescents. PMID:24394678

  19. Sexting and sexual behavior in at-risk adolescents.

    PubMed

    Houck, Christopher D; Barker, David; Rizzo, Christie; Hancock, Evan; Norton, Alicia; Brown, Larry K

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to examine the prevalence of sexting behaviors (sexually explicit messages and/or pictures) among an at-risk sample of early adolescents as well as the associations between sexting behaviors and sexual behaviors, risk-related cognitions, and emotional regulation skills. It also aimed to determine whether differences in risk were associated with text-based versus photo-based sexts. Seventh-grade adolescents participating in a sexual risk prevention trial for at-risk early adolescents completed a computer-based survey at baseline regarding sexting behavior (having sent sexually explicit messages and/or pictures), sexual activities, intentions to have sex, perceived approval of sexual activity, and emotional regulation skills. Twenty-two percent of the sample reported having sexted in the past 6 months; sexual messages were endorsed by 17% (n = 71), sexual messages and photos by 5% (n = 21). Pictures were endorsed significantly more often by females (χ(2)[2] = 7.33, P = .03) and Latinos (χ(2)[2] = 7.27, P = .03). Sexting of any kind was associated with higher rates of engaging in a variety of sexual behaviors, and sending photos was associated with higher rates of sexual activity than sending text messages only. This was true for a range of behaviors from touching genitals over clothes (odds ratio [OR] = 1.98, P = .03) to oral sex (OR = 2.66, P < .01) to vaginal sex (OR = 2.23, P < .01). Sexting behavior (both photo and text messages) was not uncommon among middle school youth and co-occurred with sexual behavior. These data suggest that phone behaviors, even flirtatious messages, may be an indicator of risk. Clinicians, parents, and health programs should discuss sexting with early adolescents.

  20. Developmental pathways to sexual risk behavior in high-risk adolescent boys.

    PubMed

    Sitnick, Stephanie L; Brennan, Lauretta M; Forbes, Erika; Shaw, Daniel S

    2014-06-01

    Adolescent boys' involvement in pregnancy and sexual risk behavior is a public health concern. Although research has identified predictors of sexual risk behavior during adolescence, few studies have investigated precursors to boys' sexual risk behavior beginning in early childhood, the identification of which could serve to inform interventions and help reduce involvement in pregnancy. Our goal was to identify early developmental pathways associated with sexual risk behavior in a sample of low-income adolescent boys. Data from a prospective longitudinal study in 310 at-risk boys were used to examine externalizing problems, mothers' depressive symptoms, and low-nurturant parenting in early childhood (1.5, 2, and 3.5 years old) and daring, externalizing, parental monitoring, and deviant peer affiliation during emerging adolescence (11 and 12 years old) as precursors of sexual risk behavior between the ages 15 and 20 years. Structural equation modeling was used to explore pathways associated with later high-risk sexual behavior (HRSB). In multivariate analyses, adolescent daring and deviant peer affiliation at age 12 were associated with later HRSB. Furthermore, deviant peer affiliation during emerging adolescence mediated the relationship between mothers' depressive symptoms and nurturant parenting during early childhood and later adolescent HRSB. Family-based risk factors in early childhood are predictive of HRSB in adolescence but are also influenced, and in some cases mediated, by relationships with peers and child characteristics during emerging adolescence. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. The impact of adolescent risk behavior on partner relationships.

    PubMed

    Thornberry, Terence P; Krohn, Marvin D; Augustyn, Megan Bears; Buchanan, Molly; Greenman, Sarah J

    2016-06-01

    Prior literature suggests that involvement in adolescent risk behaviors will have short- and long-term consequences that disrupt the orderly flow of later development, including impacts on patterns of partner relationships. In this study, we explore how adolescent involvement in delinquency, drug use, and sexual behavior at an early age affects the likelihood and timing of both marriage and cohabitation using a sample from the Rochester Youth Development Study. We also examine the direct effects of dropping out of high school, teenage parenthood, and financial stress during emerging adulthood as well as their potential role as mediators of the relationships between adolescent risk behaviors and partnering for both males and females. Overall, there is not very strong support for a direct relationship between adolescent delinquency, drug use, or early sexual behavior and patterns of partner formation. In contrast, the more proximal relationships, indicated by precocious transitions to adulthood and financial instability, are more consistently related to partner formation. These findings support models of cumulative disadvantage: early adolescent problem behaviors are weakly related to partner formation, but appear to set in motion cascading consequences that influence the transition to adulthood and, in turn, these more proximal variables are more consistently related to partner formation.

  2. The impact of adolescent risk behavior on partner relationships

    PubMed Central

    Thornberry, Terence P.; Krohn, Marvin D.; Augustyn, Megan Bears; Buchanan, Molly; Greenman, Sarah J.

    2015-01-01

    Prior literature suggests that involvement in adolescent risk behaviors will have short- and long-term consequences that disrupt the orderly flow of later development, including impacts on patterns of partner relationships. In this study, we explore how adolescent involvement in delinquency, drug use, and sexual behavior at an early age affects the likelihood and timing of both marriage and cohabitation using a sample from the Rochester Youth Development Study. We also examine the direct effects of dropping out of high school, teenage parenthood, and financial stress during emerging adulthood as well as their potential role as mediators of the relationships between adolescent risk behaviors and partnering for both males and females. Overall, there is not very strong support for a direct relationship between adolescent delinquency, drug use, or early sexual behavior and patterns of partner formation. In contrast, the more proximal relationships, indicated by precocious transitions to adulthood and financial instability, are more consistently related to partner formation. These findings support models of cumulative disadvantage: early adolescent problem behaviors are weakly related to partner formation, but appear to set in motion cascading consequences that influence the transition to adulthood and, in turn, these more proximal variables are more consistently related to partner formation. PMID:27429604

  3. Multiple Health Risk Behaviors in Adolescents: An Examination of Youth Risk Behavior Survey Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Casey; Wileyto, E. Paul; Lenhart, Clare M.; Patterson, Freda

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic disease risk factors tend to cooccur. Purpose: This study examined the cooccurrence of 8 negative health behaviors in a representative sample of urban adolescents to inform educational interventions. Methods: The prevalence, cooccurrence, and clustering of suicide attempt, lifetime history of sexual activity, tobacco use, cell…

  4. Multiple Health Risk Behaviors in Adolescents: An Examination of Youth Risk Behavior Survey Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Casey; Wileyto, E. Paul; Lenhart, Clare M.; Patterson, Freda

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic disease risk factors tend to cooccur. Purpose: This study examined the cooccurrence of 8 negative health behaviors in a representative sample of urban adolescents to inform educational interventions. Methods: The prevalence, cooccurrence, and clustering of suicide attempt, lifetime history of sexual activity, tobacco use, cell…

  5. Positive and negative reinforcement underlying risk behavior in early adolescents.

    PubMed

    MacPherson, Laura; Reynolds, Elizabeth K; Daughters, Stacey B; Wang, Frances; Cassidy, Jude; Mayes, Linda C; Lejuez, C W

    2010-09-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine the combined influence of positive reinforcement processes using a behavioral task measuring risk taking propensity (RTP) and negative reinforcement processes using a behavioral task measuring deficits in distress tolerance (DT) on a range of risk taking behaviors among early adolescents. Participants included a community sample of 230 early adolescents (aged 9-13) who completed two behavioral tasks assessing reinforcement processes as well as reported on past year risk behavior involvement as assessed by items from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System at a baseline and a 1-year follow-up assessment. Data indicated that at the Wave 2 assessment, RTP was positively related to number of risk-taking behaviors in the past year but only for those with low DT, with this finding persisting after controlling for the significant influence of male gender and higher sensation seeking. Results of the present study highlight the importance of considering both positive and negative reinforcement processes in combination when investigating vulnerability factors for early risk behavior engagement in youth.

  6. Sexual Behavior, Risk Beliefs, and Assertiveness among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Michelle A.

    HIV risk behaviors were examined with 457 adolescents, ages 12 to 19, from four environments (community, high school, and two youth conferences). Over half reported being sexually experienced, with an average age of 13.6 for willingly engaging in first sexual intercourse. Boys reported engaging in intercourse at a significantly younger age than…

  7. Contextual Stress and Health Risk Behaviors among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress…

  8. Behavioral Control and Reward Sensitivity in Adolescents' Risk Taking Behavior: A Longitudinal TRAILS Study.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Margot; Oldehinkel, Tineke; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2017-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental theories of risk behavior hypothesize that low behavioral control in combination with high reward sensitivity explains adolescents' risk behavior. However, empirical studies examining this hypothesis while including actual risk taking behavior in adolescence are lacking. In this study we tested whether the imbalance between behavioral control and reward sensitivity underlies risk taking behavior in adolescence, using a nationally representative longitudinal sample of 715 adolescents, of which 66% revealed an increased risk for mental health problems. To assess behavioral control at age 11 we used both self-report (effortful control) as well as behavioral measures of cognitive control (i.e., working memory and response inhibition). Reward sensitivity was assessed with the Bangor Gambling Task. The main finding of this study was that effortful control at age 11 was the best predictor of risk taking behavior (alcohol and cannabis use) at age 16, particularly among adolescents who were more reward sensitive. Risk taking behavior in adolescents might be explained by relatively weak behavioral control functioning combined with high sensitivity for reward.

  9. Contextual stress and health risk behaviors among African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F; Chen, Yi-Fu; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2011-02-01

    This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress (community violence, neighborhood disorder, and experiences with racial discrimination). Contextual stress in 8th grade was associated with aggressive behavior and substance use 2 years later for boys. For girls, contextual stress predicted later substance use, but not aggressive behavior. High academic competence and self-worth reduced the impact of contextual stress on substance use for boys. Implications for intervention and directions for future research on health risk behaviors among African American adolescents are discussed.

  10. A Longitudinal Study of Risk-Taking Behavior in Adolescents with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, John K.; Willoughby, Teena

    2010-01-01

    Risk taking may be regarded as a normative behavior in adolescence. Risk-taking behaviors may include alcohol, smoking, drug use, delinquency, and acts of aggression. Many studies have explored the relationship between adolescents and risk-taking behavior; however, only a few studies have examined this link in adolescents with learning…

  11. Risk Taking in Late Adolescence: Relations between Sociomoral Reasoning, Risk Stance, and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Leigh A.; Amsel, Eric; Schillo, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    This study explored relations among late adolescents' sociomoral reasoning about risk taking, risk stance, and behavior. One-hundred and thirty-two participants (18-20-year-olds) were surveyed about their own risk stance (Avoidant, Opportunistic, Curious, Risk Seeking) and behavior in three realms (Alcohol Use, Drug Use, Reckless Driving), and…

  12. Behavioral and psychosocial influences of risk perception among Hungarian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Piko, Bettina F; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of the present study was to assess adolescents' risk perception, namely, their estimates of the likelihood of smoking and alcohol-related illnesses and accidents. The survey was conducted among high school students in Szeged (N = 560, aged between 14-19 years; mean: 16.7; S.D.: 1.4 years). The self-administered questionnaire contained items on sociodemographics, risk perception, health risk behaviors, and certain psychosocial variables. Being a male was associated with risk perception only in terms of alcohol-related illnesses. Smokers, alcohol users, and those who engaged in reckless transportation, evaluated themselves as being at higher risk for substance related illnesses and accidents compared to those who did not report such behaviors. Those who tended to use a seat belt, however, estimated the same amount of risk for an accident as did those who tended not to use them. Social attitudes tended to positively, whereas personal attitudes tended to negatively influence perceptions of health risks. The role of social comparison and self-efficacy, however, depends on the nature of behavior. Besides behavioral influences, psychosocial variables also play a role in adolescents' risk perception.

  13. High-Risk Driving Behaviors among Adolescent Binge-Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Marcotte, Thomas D.; Bekman, Nicole M.; Meyer, Rachel A.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Binge drinking is common among adolescents. Alcohol use, and binge-drinking in particular, has been associated with neurocognitive deficits as well as risk-taking behaviors, which may contribute to negative driving outcomes among adolescents even while sober. Objectives To examine differences in self-reported driving behaviors between adolescent binge-drinkers and a matched sample of controls, including (a) compliance with graduated licensing laws, (b) high risk driving behaviors, and (c) driving outcomes (crashes, traffic tickets). Methods The present study examined driving behaviors and outcomes in adolescent recent binge drinkers (n=21) and demographically and driving history matched controls (n=17), ages 16-18. Results Binge drinkers more frequently violated graduated licensing laws (e.g., driving late at night), and engaged in more “high risk” driving behaviors, such as speeding and using a cell-phone while driving. Binge drinkers had more traffic tickets, crashes and “near crashes” than the control group. In a multivariate analysis, binge drinker status and speeding were the most robust predictors of a crash. Conclusion Binge drinking teens consistently engage in more dangerous driving behaviors and experience more frequent crashes and traffic tickets. They are also less compliant with preventative restrictions placed on youth while they are learning critical safe driving skills. Scientific Significance These findings highlight a need to examine the contribution of underlying traits (such as sensation seeking) and binge-related cognitive changes to these high-risk driving behaviors, which may assist researchers in establishing alternative prevention and policy efforts targeting this population. PMID:22324748

  14. The impact of future expectations on adolescent sexual risk behavior.

    PubMed

    Sipsma, Heather L; Ickovics, Jeannette R; Lin, Haiqun; Kershaw, Trace S

    2015-01-01

    Rates of STIs, HIV, and pregnancy remain high among adolescents in the US, and recent approaches to reducing sexual risk have shown limited success. Future expectations, or the extent to which one expects an event to actually occur, may influence sexual risk behavior. This prospective study uses longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (n = 3,205 adolescents; 49.8% female) to examine the impact of previously derived latent classes of future expectations on sexual risk behavior. Cox regression and latent growth models were used to determine the effect of future expectations on age at first biological child, number of sexual partners, and inconsistent contraception use. The results indicate that classes of future expectations were uniquely associated with each outcome. The latent class reporting expectations of drinking and being arrested was consistently associated with the greatest risks of engaging in sexual risk behavior compared with the referent class, which reported expectations of attending school and little engagement in delinquent behaviors. The class reporting expectations of attending school and drinking was associated with having greater numbers of sexual partners and inconsistent contraception use but not with age at first biological child. The third class, defined by expectations of victimization, was not associated with any outcome in adjusted models, despite being associated with being younger at the birth of their first child in the unadjusted analysis. Gender moderated specific associations between latent classes and sexual risk outcomes. Future expectations, conceptualized as a multidimensional construct, may have a unique ability to explain sexual risk behaviors over time. Future strategies should target multiple expectations and use multiple levels of influence to improve individual future expectations prior to high school and throughout the adolescent period.

  15. The Impact of Future Expectations on Adolescent Sexual Risk Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Sipsma, Heather L.; Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Lin, Haiqun; Kershaw, Trace S.

    2014-01-01

    Rates of STIs, HIV, and pregnancy remain high among adolescents in the US, and recent approaches to reducing sexual risk have shown limited success. Future expectations, or the extent to which one expects an event to actually occur, may influence sexual risk behavior. This prospective study uses longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (n = 3,205 adolescents; 49.8 % female) to examine the impact of previously derived latent classes of future expectations on sexual risk behavior. Cox regression and latent growth models were used to determine the effect of future expectations on age at first biological child, number of sexual partners, and inconsistent contraception use. The results indicate that classes of future expectations were uniquely associated with each outcome. The latent class reporting expectations of drinking and being arrested was consistently associated with the greatest risks of engaging in sexual risk behavior compared with the referent class, which reported expectations of attending school and little engagement in delinquent behaviors. The class reporting expectations of attending school and drinking was associated with having greater numbers of sexual partners and inconsistent contraception use but not with age at first biological child. The third class, defined by expectations of victimization, was not associated with any outcome in adjusted models, despite being associated with being younger at the birth of their first child in the unadjusted analysis. Gender moderated specific associations between latent classes and sexual risk outcomes. Future expectations, conceptualized as a multidimensional construct, may have a unique ability to explain sexual risk behaviors over time. Future strategies should target multiple expectations and use multiple levels of influence to improve individual future expectations prior to high school and throughout the adolescent period. PMID:24357042

  16. Urban American Indian Adolescent Girls: Framing Sexual Risk Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Martyn, Kristy K.; Momper, Sandra L.; Loveland-Cherry, Carol J.; Low, Lisa Kane

    2014-01-01

    Purpose American Indian (AI) adolescent girls have higher rates of sexual activity, births and STIs compared to the national average. The purpose of this study was to explore factors that influence urban adolescent AI girls' sexual risk behavior (SRB). Design A qualitative study was conducted using grounded theory methodology to reveal factors and processes that influence SRB. Methods Talking circles, individual interviews, and event history calendars were used with 20 urban AI 15-19 year old girls to explore influences on their sexual behavior. Findings The generated theory, Framing Sexual Risk Behavior, describes both social and structural factors and processes that influenced the girls' sexual behaviors. The theory extends Bronfenbrenner's ecological model by identifying microsystem, mesosystem, and macrosystem influences on sexual behavior, including: Microsystem: Being “Normal,” Native, and Having Goals; Mesosystem: Networks of Family and Friends, Environmental Influences, and Sex Education; and Macrosystem: Tribal Traditions/History and Federal Policy. Discussion Urban AI girls reported similar social and structural influences on SRB as urban adolescents from other racial and ethnic groups. However, differences were noted in the family structure, cultural heritage, and unique history of AIs. Implications for Practice This theory can be used in culturally responsive practice with urban AI girls. PMID:24803532

  17. Parallel Development of Risk Behaviors in Adolescence: Potential Pathways to Co-occurrence.

    PubMed

    Huang, David Y C; Lanza, H Isabella; Murphy, Debra A; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2012-07-01

    This study used data from 5,382 adolescents from the 1997 U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97) to investigate developmental pathways of alcohol use, marijuana use, sexual risk behaviors, and delinquency across ages 14 to 20, examine interrelationships among these risk behaviors across adolescence, and evaluate association between risk behavior trajectories and depressive symptoms in adolescence. Group-based dual trajectory modeling, examining trajectories of two outcomes over time, revealed strong interrelationships among developmental trajectories of the four risk behaviors, and indicated potential pathways to co-occurring risk behaviors. Adolescents with higher levels of alcohol use or marijuana use were more likely to engage in higher levels of early sexual risk-taking and delinquency. Moreover, adolescents involved in higher levels of delinquency were at higher risk for engaging in early sexual risk-taking. Also belonging to the highest risk trajectory of any of the four risk behaviors was positively associated with depressive symptoms in adolescence.

  18. Multiple risk behaviors and suicidal ideation and behavior among Israeli and Palestinian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Abdeen, Ziad; Walsh, Sophie D; Radwan, Qasrowi; Fogel-Grinvald, Haya

    2012-07-01

    Based conceptually on Problem Behavior Theory, Normalization Theory and theories of adolescent ethnic identity formation this study explores relationships between individual and cumulative multiple risk behaviors and suicidal ideation and behavior among mid-adolescents in three different populations in the Middle East. Data from the 2004 Health Behavior in School-Aged Children in the Middle-East (HBSC-ME) study included 8345 10th-grade pupils in three populations: Jewish Israelis (1770), Arab Israelis (2185), and Palestinians in Gaza and the West Bank (4390). We considered risk behaviors and factors including tobacco use, bullying, medically-attended injuries, excessive time with friends, parental disconnectedness, negative school experience, truancy and poor academic performance. Substantial population differences for suicidal tendency and risk behaviors were observed, with notably high levels of suicidal ideation and behavior among Arab-Israeli youth and higher levels of risk behaviors among the Jewish and Arab-Israeli youth. For all populations suicidal tendency was at least 4 times higher among adolescents reporting 4+ risk behaviors, suggesting that similar psychosocial determinants affect patterns of risk behaviors and suicidal tendency. Results highlight the importance of understanding cultural contexts of risk behaviors and suicidal ideation and behavior.

  19. Do Parent–Adolescent Discrepancies in Family Functioning Increase the Risk of Hispanic Adolescent HIV Risk Behaviors?

    PubMed Central

    CORDOVA, DAVID; HUANG, SHI; LALLY, MEGHAN; ESTRADA, YANNINE; PRADO, GUILLERMO

    2014-01-01

    In the family-based prevention science literature, family functioning, defined as positive parenting, parental involvement, family cohesion, family communication, parental monitoring of peers, and parent–adolescent communication, has been shown to ameliorate HIV risk behaviors in Hispanic youth. However, the majority of studies have relied solely on parent or adolescent reports and we know very little about parent–adolescent family functioning discrepancies. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine whether and to what extent parent–adolescent discrepancies in family functioning increased the risk of HIV risk behaviors, including substance use and sexual risk behaviors, and whether these associations vary as a function of acculturation and youth gender. A total of 746 Hispanic 8th grade youth and their primary caregivers were included in the study. Structural equation modeling findings indicate that parent–adolescent family functioning discrepancies are associated with an increased risk of Hispanic adolescent HIV risk behaviors, including lifetime and past 90-day alcohol and illicit drug use, and early sex initiation. In addition, study findings indicate that results vary by acculturation and youth gender. Findings are discussed in the context of existing family-based research and practice in preventing and reducing HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic youth and their families. PMID:24617745

  20. [Association between tattoos, piercings and risk behaviors in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Cossio, María Laura T; Giesen, Laura F; Araya, Gabriela; Pérez-Cotapos, María Luisa S

    2012-02-01

    The use of tattoos and piercings has increased, especially among adolescents in the last decades. To evaluate the prevalence of these behaviors in adolescents and their association with risk behaviors such as alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use and sexual promiscuity. An anonymous and confidential survey about tattooing and piercings was applied to randomly selected high school teenagers, attending municipal, private-subsidized and private schools, in four sectors of Santiago (north-east, south-east, north-west, south-west). The surveys were answered by 1329 participants with a mean age of 15 years (62% women) from 9 schools in Santiago. The prevalence of tattoos was 1.7% (confidence intervals (CI) 1.1% to 2.5%). The figure for piercings was 30.6% (CI 28.2 to 33.1%). A higher prevalence of tattooing and piercings was observed in groups with a history of psychiatric disorders, criminal records, alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug consumption and initiation of sexual activity (p < 0,001). This study confirms that tattoos and piercings are indicators of adolescent risk behaviors.

  1. Mania Symptoms and HIV-Risk Behavior among Adolescents in Mental Health Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Angela J.; Theodore-Oklota, Christina; Hadley, Wendy; Brown, Larry K.; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    This study explored whether adolescents with elevated symptoms of mania (ESM+) engage in more HIV risk behaviors than those with other psychiatric disorders and examined factors associated with HIV risk behavior among ESM+ adolescents. Eight hundred forty adolescents (56% female, 58% African American, "M" age = 14.9 years) who received mental…

  2. Mania Symptoms and HIV-Risk Behavior among Adolescents in Mental Health Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Angela J.; Theodore-Oklota, Christina; Hadley, Wendy; Brown, Larry K.; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    This study explored whether adolescents with elevated symptoms of mania (ESM+) engage in more HIV risk behaviors than those with other psychiatric disorders and examined factors associated with HIV risk behavior among ESM+ adolescents. Eight hundred forty adolescents (56% female, 58% African American, "M" age = 14.9 years) who received mental…

  3. Health risk behaviors of adolescent participants in organized sports.

    PubMed

    Baumert, P W; Henderson, J M; Thompson, N J

    1998-06-01

    To assess differences in health-related behaviors between athletes and nonathletes. In Grades 9-12 in seven high schools during the 1991-1992 academic year, 7179 (82%) students were asked to complete a survey with six categories of health-related behaviors associated with adolescent morbidity and mortality. Of the 6849 students who completed the survey, 4036 (56%) were classified as athletes. Analyses of differences were controlled for age, race, and gender. Athletes and nonathletes differed in specific health-risk behaviors. Nonathletes were more likely than athletes ever to have smoked cigarettes (15% vs. 10%) or used marijuana (24% vs. 23%), and fewer ate breakfast daily (34% vs. 45%), never added salt to food (18% vs. 22%), consumed calcium (56% vs. 64%), or consumed fruit or vegetables (40% vs. 47%) daily. More nonathletes reported frequent feelings of hopelessness (15% vs. 10%) and rarely or never using seatbelts (24% vs. 20%), but more athletes reported exceeding the speed limit by 10 mph (39% vs. 35%) and riding bicycles (40% vs. 28%) and/or motorcycles (13% vs. 8%) without helmets. These differences were statistically significant. Because of their behaviors, adolescent athletes put themselves at significant risk for accidental injuries. However, athletes appear less likely to smoke cigarettes or marijuana, more likely to engage in healthy dietary behaviors, and less likely to feel bored or hopeless.

  4. Covariations of Adolescent Weight-Control, Health-Risk and Health-Promoting Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafiroiu, Anca Codruta; Sargent, Roger G.; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Drane, Wanzer J.; Valois, Robert F.

    2003-01-01

    Assessed the prevalence of dieting, investigating clusters of risk behaviors among adolescents. Data from the 1999 South Carolina Youth Risk Behavior Survey indicated that weight control behaviors related to several other important health behaviors. Differences existed between adolescents who used extreme weight loss measures and moderate dieters…

  5. Emotional Intelligence as a Predictor of Adolescent Risk Behavior Participation and Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaar, Nicole R.; Williams, John E.

    2012-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate emotional intelligence as a predictor of adolescent risk participation and risk perception. While research has suggested that certain personality traits relate to adolescent risk behavior and perception, the extent to which emotional intelligence relates to risk behavior participation and perception is…

  6. Adolescent expectations of early death predict adult risk behaviors.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Quynh C; Villaveces, Andres; Marshall, Stephen W; Hussey, Jon M; Halpern, Carolyn T; Poole, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Only a handful of public health studies have investigated expectations of early death among adolescents. Associations have been found between these expectations and risk behaviors in adolescence. However, these beliefs may not only predict worse adolescent outcomes, but worse trajectories in health with ties to negative outcomes that endure into young adulthood. The objectives of this study were to investigate perceived chances of living to age 35 (Perceived Survival Expectations, PSE) as a predictor of suicidal ideation, suicide attempt and substance use in young adulthood. We examined the predictive capacity of PSE on future suicidal ideation/attempt after accounting for sociodemographics, depressive symptoms, and history of suicide among family and friends to more fully assess its unique contribution to suicide risk. We investigated the influence of PSE on legal and illegal substance use and varying levels of substance use. We utilized the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) initiated in 1994-95 among 20,745 adolescents in grades 7-12 with follow-up interviews in 1996 (Wave II), 2001-02 (Wave III) and 2008 (Wave IV; ages 24-32). Compared to those who were almost certain of living to age 35, perceiving a 50-50 or less chance of living to age 35 at Waves I or III predicted suicide attempt and ideation as well as regular substance use (i.e., exceeding daily limits for moderate drinking; smoking ≥ a pack/day; and using illicit substances other than marijuana at least weekly) at Wave IV. Associations between PSE and detrimental adult outcomes were particularly strong for those reporting persistently low PSE at both Waves I and III. Low PSE at Wave I or Wave III was also related to a doubling and tripling, respectively, of death rates in young adulthood. Long-term and wide-ranging ties between PSE and detrimental outcomes suggest these expectations may contribute to identifying at-risk youth.

  7. Adolescent Expectations of Early Death Predict Adult Risk Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Quynh C.; Villaveces, Andres; Marshall, Stephen W.; Hussey, Jon M.; Halpern, Carolyn T.; Poole, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Only a handful of public health studies have investigated expectations of early death among adolescents. Associations have been found between these expectations and risk behaviors in adolescence. However, these beliefs may not only predict worse adolescent outcomes, but worse trajectories in health with ties to negative outcomes that endure into young adulthood. The objectives of this study were to investigate perceived chances of living to age 35 (Perceived Survival Expectations, PSE) as a predictor of suicidal ideation, suicide attempt and substance use in young adulthood. We examined the predictive capacity of PSE on future suicidal ideation/attempt after accounting for sociodemographics, depressive symptoms, and history of suicide among family and friends to more fully assess its unique contribution to suicide risk. We investigated the influence of PSE on legal and illegal substance use and varying levels of substance use. We utilized the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) initiated in 1994–95 among 20,745 adolescents in grades 7–12 with follow-up interviews in 1996 (Wave II), 2001–02 (Wave III) and 2008 (Wave IV; ages 24–32). Compared to those who were almost certain of living to age 35, perceiving a 50–50 or less chance of living to age 35 at Waves I or III predicted suicide attempt and ideation as well as regular substance use (i.e., exceeding daily limits for moderate drinking; smoking ≥ a pack/day; and using illicit substances other than marijuana at least weekly) at Wave IV. Associations between PSE and detrimental adult outcomes were particularly strong for those reporting persistently low PSE at both Waves I and III. Low PSE at Wave I or Wave III was also related to a doubling and tripling, respectively, of death rates in young adulthood. Long-term and wide-ranging ties between PSE and detrimental outcomes suggest these expectations may contribute to identifying at-risk youth. PMID:22870260

  8. Relationship between Adolescent Risk Preferences on a Laboratory Task and Behavioral Measures of Risk-taking

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Uma; Sidhartha, Tanuj; Harker, Karen R.; Bidesi, Anup S.; Chen, Li-Ann; Ernst, Monique

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The goal of the study was to assess individual differences in risk-taking behavior among adolescents in the laboratory. A second aim was to evaluate whether the laboratory-based risk-taking behavior is associated with other behavioral and psychological measures associated with risk-taking behavior. Methods Eighty-two adolescents with no personal history of psychiatric disorder completed a computerized decision-making task, the Wheel of Fortune (WOF). By offering choices between clearly defined probabilities and real monetary outcomes, this task assesses risk preferences when participants are confronted with potential rewards and losses. The participants also completed a variety of behavioral and psychological measures associated with risk-taking behavior. Results Performance on the task varied based on the probability and anticipated outcomes. In the winning sub-task, participants selected low probability-high magnitude reward (high-risk choice) less frequently than high probability-low magnitude reward (low-risk choice). In the losing sub-task, participants selected low probability-high magnitude loss more often than high probability-low magnitude loss. On average, the selection of probabilistic rewards was optimal and similar to performance in adults. There were, however, individual differences in performance, and one-third of the adolescents made high-risk choice more frequently than low-risk choice while selecting a reward. After controlling for sociodemographic and psychological variables, high-risk choice on the winning task predicted “real-world” risk-taking behavior and substance-related problems. Conclusions These findings highlight individual differences in risk-taking behavior. Preliminary data on face validity of the WOF task suggest that it might be a valuable laboratory tool for studying behavioral and neurobiological processes associated with risk-taking behavior in adolescents. PMID:21257113

  9. Preventing Adolescent Risk Behavior in the Rural Context: An Integrative Analysis of Adolescent, Parent, and Provider Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rishel, Carrie W.; Cottrell, Lesley; Kingery, Tricia

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent risk behavior remains prevalent and contributes to numerous social problems and growing health care costs. Contrary to popular perception, adolescents in rural areas engage in risky behaviors at least as much as youth from urban or suburban settings. Little research, however, focuses on risk behavior prevention in the rural context.…

  10. [Antisocial behavior in adolescence: risk factors and developmental types].

    PubMed

    Laucht, M

    2001-11-01

    Both the intensity and prevalence of violence and delinquency among children and adolescents have continued to rise during the past fifteen years. Efforts to counteract this development may benefit from recent evidence from developmental psychopathology and neurobiology. A model proposed by Moffitt describes two developmental pathways into antisocial problem behavior: one path characterized by an early onset and a stable course of symptoms ("life-course persistent") and the other by an episodic ("adolescence-limited") occurrence of anti-social behavior. While in the latter the specific developmental tasks and life circumstances of adolescence play a major role in the pathogenesis, persistent antisocial behavior is perceived to be a result of a transactional process between child and environment. Apart from psychosocial factors, biological predispositions (genetic susceptibility) and psychological dispositions (temperament and personality characteristics) are of primary interest. The recent progress in neurobiological and personality research promises significant insights into the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms. Integrating these approaches may help in targeting prevention and early intervention programs to high-risk groups and may thus contribute to improving their effectiveness.

  11. Adolescents Engaging in Risky Sexual Behavior: Sexual Activity and Associated Behavioral Risk Factors in Bolivian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novilla, M. Lelinneth B.; Dearden, Kirk A.; Crookston, Benjamin T.; De La Cruz, Natalie; Hill, Susan; Torres, Scott B.

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence of risky sexual activities among Bolivian adolescents within the context of other behavioral factors that contribute to compromised health outcomes, unintended pregnancies, and sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS. Data was collected from 576 adolescents, 13-18 years of age, from six schools in La…

  12. Longitudinal Prediction of Disruptive Behavior Disorders in Adolescent Males from Multiple Risk Domains

    PubMed Central

    Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Hyde, Luke W.; Goodlett, Benjamin D.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    The disruptive behavior disorders are among the most prevalent youth psychiatric disorders, and they predict numerous problematic outcomes in adulthood. This study examined multiple domains of risk during early childhood and early adolescence as longitudinal predictors of disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses among adolescent males. Early adolescent risks in the domains of sociodemographic factors, the caregiving context, and youth attributes were examined as mediators of associations between early childhood risks and disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses. Participants were 309 males from a longitudinal study of low-income mothers and their sons. Caregiving and youth risk during early adolescence each predicted the likelihood of receiving a disruptive behavior disorder diagnosis. Furthermore, sociodemographic and caregiving risk during early childhood were indirectly associated with disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses via their association with early adolescent risk. The findings suggest that preventive interventions targeting risk across domains may reduce the prevalence of disruptive behavior disorders. PMID:23239427

  13. Longitudinal prediction of disruptive behavior disorders in adolescent males from multiple risk domains.

    PubMed

    Trentacosta, Christopher J; Hyde, Luke W; Goodlett, Benjamin D; Shaw, Daniel S

    2013-08-01

    The disruptive behavior disorders are among the most prevalent youth psychiatric disorders, and they predict numerous problematic outcomes in adulthood. This study examined multiple domains of risk during early childhood and early adolescence as longitudinal predictors of disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses among adolescent males. Early adolescent risks in the domains of sociodemographic factors, the caregiving context, and youth attributes were examined as mediators of associations between early childhood risks and disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses. Participants were 309 males from a longitudinal study of low-income mothers and their sons. Caregiving and youth risk during early adolescence each predicted the likelihood of receiving a disruptive behavior disorder diagnosis. Furthermore, sociodemographic and caregiving risk during early childhood were indirectly associated with disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses via their association with early adolescent risk. The findings suggest that preventive interventions targeting risk across domains may reduce the prevalence of disruptive behavior disorders.

  14. Adolescents' Perceptions of Their Risk-Taking Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Jeanette; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Assessed 440 high and low sports and danger risk-taking adolescents. Sports risk takers reported more danger-related risk taking, more drug use, and higher self-esteem than non-risk takers. Danger risk takers reported greater sports-related risk taking, more drug use, less intimacy with their mothers, less family responsibility taking, and less…

  15. Co-Occurring Sexual Risk and Substance Use Behaviors Among Incarcerated Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Rosengard, Cynthia; Stein, L. A. R.; Barnett, Nancy P.; Monti, Peter M.; Golembeske, Charles; Lebeau-Craven, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Incarcerated adolescents report greater sexual risk than do nonincarcerated peers. High-risk sexual behavior is associated with substance use. To determine how much sexual risk is combined with substance use, 167 incarcerated adolescents reported on their sexual risk behavior in the year before incarceration that involved alcohol or marijuana. For each risk behavior, marijuana use was more likely than was alcohol use. Marijuana use was more common for higher risk behaviors than for lower risk behaviors. Periods of incarceration provide opportunities for intervening on HIV-relevant risk behaviors among adolescents. The context of substance use within high-risk sexual situations ought to be a focus of interventions for incarcerated adolescents. PMID:19756249

  16. Adolescent Suicidal Behavior: Associations with Preadolescent Physical Abuse and Selected Risk and Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salzinger, Suzanne; Rosario, Margaret; Feldman, Richard S.; Ng-Mak, Daisy S.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether preadolescent physical abuse raises the risk of adolescent suicidal behavior, to examine potential mediators and moderators of the relationship between preadolescent abuse and adolescent suicidality, and to examine whether distal (preadolescent) risk factors add to proximal (adolescent) factors in predicting…

  17. HIV risk behaviors: risky sexual activities and needle use among adolescents in substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ya-Fen; Passetti, Lora L; Garner, Bryan R; Lloyd, Jacqueline J; Dennis, Michael L

    2011-01-01

    This study estimated prevalence of HIV risk behaviors and its association with substance use and mental health problems among adolescents in treatment. A pooled dataset of 9,519 adolescents admitted to substance abuse treatment programs between 2002 and 2006 was analyzed. HIV risk behaviors, substance use, and mental health problems were assessed at treatment intake. Sixty percent of adolescents were engaged in at least one sexual or needle use risk behavior in the year prior to entering treatment. Sex with multiple partners, sex under the influence of alcohol or drugs, and unprotected sex were the most prevalent HIV risk behaviors. Several gender differences were found for specific types of sexual and needle use behaviors. Adolescents with substance dependence or other comorbid mental health problems were at increased odds for HIV risk. Findings suggest treatment programs may benefit adolescents better by screening them consistently for HIV risk behaviors and incorporating tailored interventions.

  18. The Impact of School Connectedness on Violent Behavior, Transport Risk-Taking Behavior, and Associated Injuries in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Rebekah L.; Buckley, Lisa; Sheehan, Mary C.; Shochet, Ian M.; Romaniuk, Madeline

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents engage in many risk-taking behaviors that have the potential to lead to injury. The school environment has a significant role in shaping adolescent behavior, and this study aimed to provide additional information about the benefits associated with connectedness to school. Early adolescents aged 13 to 15 years (N=509, 49% boys) were…

  19. Relationships between parenting styles and risk behaviors in adolescent health: an integrative literature review.

    PubMed

    Newman, Kathy; Harrison, Lynda; Dashiff, Carol; Davies, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Research over the past 20 years suggests that the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship significantly affects the development of risk behaviors in adolescent health. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of studies published between 1996-2007 that address specific relationships between parenting styles and six priority adolescent risk behaviors. The review supports the substantial influence of parenting style on adolescent development. Adolescents raised in authoritative households consistently demonstrate higher protective and fewer risk behaviors than adolescents from non-authoritative families. There is also considerable evidence to show that parenting styles and behaviors related to warmth, communication and disciplinary practices predict important mediators, including academic achievement and psychosocial adjustment. Careful examination of parenting style patterns in diverse populations, particularly with respect to physical activity and unintentional injury, will be a critical next step in the development of efficacious, culturally tailored adolescent health promotion interventions.

  20. Associations between Adolescent Risk Behaviors and Injury: The Modifying Role of Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raman, Sudha R.; Boyce, William F.; Pickett, William

    2009-01-01

    Background: Adolescents with disabilities are at risk for poor health outcomes including injury. The objective of this study was to examine if disability status modifies the association between risk behavior and injury among adolescents. Methods: The cross-sectional Health Behavior in School-Aged Children Survey was administered to a…

  1. Parallel Development of Risk Behaviors in Adolescence: Potential Pathways to Co-Occurrence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, David Y. C.; Lanza, H. Isabella; Murphy, Debra A.; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2012-01-01

    This study used data from 5,382 adolescents from the 1997 United States (US) National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97) to investigate developmental pathways of alcohol use, marijuana use, sexual risk behaviors, and delinquency across ages 14 to 20; examine interrelationships among these risk behaviors across adolescence; and evaluate…

  2. Associations between Adolescent Risk Behaviors and Injury: The Modifying Role of Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raman, Sudha R.; Boyce, William F.; Pickett, William

    2009-01-01

    Background: Adolescents with disabilities are at risk for poor health outcomes including injury. The objective of this study was to examine if disability status modifies the association between risk behavior and injury among adolescents. Methods: The cross-sectional Health Behavior in School-Aged Children Survey was administered to a…

  3. Parallel Development of Risk Behaviors in Adolescence: Potential Pathways to Co-Occurrence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, David Y. C.; Lanza, H. Isabella; Murphy, Debra A.; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2012-01-01

    This study used data from 5,382 adolescents from the 1997 United States (US) National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97) to investigate developmental pathways of alcohol use, marijuana use, sexual risk behaviors, and delinquency across ages 14 to 20; examine interrelationships among these risk behaviors across adolescence; and evaluate…

  4. Latino Adolescents Perception of Parenting Behaviors and Self-Esteem: Examining the Role of Neighborhood Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamaca, Mayra Y.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Shin, Nana; Alfaro, Edna C.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the relations among parenting behaviors, adolescents' self-esteem, and neighborhood risk with a Midwestern sample of 324 Latino adolescents. The findings suggest that boys' self-esteem is influenced by both mothers' and fathers' parenting behaviors, whereas girls' self-esteem is influenced by mothers' behaviors only. In addition, the…

  5. Fathers' and Mothers' Parenting Predicting and Responding to Adolescent Sexual Risk Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Schindler, Holly S.

    2009-01-01

    Transactional models of problem behavior argue that less effective parenting and adolescent problem behaviors coevolve, exerting bidirectional influences. This article extends such models by analyzing growth trajectories of sexual risk behaviors and parenting processes among 3,206 adolescents (aged 13-18) and their residential parents. Within…

  6. Latino Adolescents Perception of Parenting Behaviors and Self-Esteem: Examining the Role of Neighborhood Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamaca, Mayra Y.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Shin, Nana; Alfaro, Edna C.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the relations among parenting behaviors, adolescents' self-esteem, and neighborhood risk with a Midwestern sample of 324 Latino adolescents. The findings suggest that boys' self-esteem is influenced by both mothers' and fathers' parenting behaviors, whereas girls' self-esteem is influenced by mothers' behaviors only. In addition, the…

  7. Associations between multiple pregnancies and health risk behaviors among U.S. adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Krauss, Melissa J; Spitznagel, Edward L; Schootman, Mario; Cottler, Linda B; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the associations between health risk behaviors (i.e., substance use behaviors, physical violence, or carried a weapon) and multiple adolescent pregnancies (i.e., experiencing or causing more than one pregnancy). We analyzed 1999-2003 data (3 years: 1999, 2001, and 2003) from the National Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationally representative survey of high school students (N = 14,211 participants). Multinomial logistic regression was used to compare one and multiple pregnancies versus no pregnancies. Logistic regression was used to compare multiple pregnancies versus one pregnancy. A dose-response relationship was observed between multiple adolescent pregnancies and health risk behaviors; the more risk behaviors endorsed, the greater likelihood of experiencing or causing multiple adolescent pregnancies. Participants who engaged in a "high" degree of risk behaviors were significantly more likely to have experienced or caused multiple adolescent pregnancies than no pregnancies (or only one pregnancy) versus youth who endorsed no risk behaviors. Earlier sexual debut and more lifetime sexual partners were also associated with increased risk of endorsing multiple adolescent pregnancies. The health risk behaviors examined in our study can provide warning signs to influential persons who can potentially deliver important prevention messages to at-risk adolescents. Copyright © 2010 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Immigrant Paradox in Sexual Risk Behavior among Latino Adolescents: Impact of Immigrant Generation and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarini, Tristan E.; Marks, Amy K.; Patton, Flannery; Coll, Cynthia Garcia

    2011-01-01

    This article contributes new evidence on the associations among immigrant generation, gender, and sexual risk behavior among Latino adolescents in the United States. Longitudinal data from 3,272 Latino adolescents (grades 7-12) who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) were examined for evidence of the…

  9. Adolescents engaging in unhealthy weight control behaviors: are they at risk for other health-compromising behaviors?

    PubMed Central

    Neumark-Sztainer, D; Story, M; Dixon, L B; Murray, D M

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine whether adolescents engaging in weight control behaviors are at increased risk for tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use; suicide ideation and attempts; and unprotected sexual activity. METHODS: Data were collected on a nationally representative sample of 16,296 adolescents taking part in the 1993 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. RESULTS: Adolescents using extreme weight control behaviors were at increased risk for health-compromising behaviors, while associations with other weight control behaviors were weak and inconsistent. CONCLUSIONS: The findings have relevance to clinical work with youth, provide a better understanding of disordered eating, and open up a number of opportunities for future research. PMID:9618628

  10. The Influence of Race in the Association between Weight Status and Risk Behaviors among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Jennifer M.; Desai, Mayur M.; White, Marney A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Overweight adolescents engage in risk behaviors at different rates than healthy-weight peers. Most extant research has focused on white or regional samples. Purpose: This article examined associations between weight and risk behaviors and determined whether associations differ by race/ethnicity. Methods: Youth Risk Behavior Survey data…

  11. The Influence of Race in the Association between Weight Status and Risk Behaviors among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Jennifer M.; Desai, Mayur M.; White, Marney A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Overweight adolescents engage in risk behaviors at different rates than healthy-weight peers. Most extant research has focused on white or regional samples. Purpose: This article examined associations between weight and risk behaviors and determined whether associations differ by race/ethnicity. Methods: Youth Risk Behavior Survey data…

  12. An emotion regulation intervention to reduce risk behaviors among at-risk early adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Houck, Christopher D.; Hadley, Wendy; Barker, David; Brown, Larry K.; Hancock, Evan; Almy, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate an intervention designed to enhance early adolescents’ emotion regulation skill use and to decrease risk behaviors. Adolescents 12 to 14 years old (N = 420; 53% male) with mental health symptoms were referred for participation in either an Emotion Regulation (ER) or Health Promotion (HP) intervention consisting of twelve after-school sessions. Participants completed baseline and follow-up questionnaires on laptop computers. Using a generalized analysis of covariance controlling for baseline scores, participants in the ER intervention were less likely to be sexually active and engage in other risk behaviors, such as fighting, at the conclusion of the program. Additionally, participants in the ER intervention reported greater use of emotion regulation strategies and more favorable attitudes toward abstinence. Interventions directly targeting emotion regulation may be useful in addressing health risk behaviors of adolescents with mental health symptoms. PMID:26297499

  13. Obesity Risk in Urban Adolescent Girls: Nutritional Intentions and Health Behavior Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Groth, Susan W.; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is an expanding epidemic and minority adolescent girls are at high risk. One way to tailor interventions for obesity prevention is to target intention to engage in particular behaviors. Data collected from adolescent girls’ intentions and behaviors regarding nutrition, physical activity, and sleep patterns were used to examine nutritional intentions in relation to healthy behaviors. Adolescent girls reported behaviors that increased their risks for obesity. Nutritional intentions were significantly associated with physical activity and sleep. These results suggest that healthy behaviors tend to occur in clusters, possibly extending the theory of planned behavior beyond individual behaviors to groups of related behaviors. Nurses can intervene with high-risk adolescent girls by promoting healthy diets, recommended levels of physical activity, and adequate sleep. PMID:22187861

  14. Factors influencing adolescent girls' sexual behavior: a secondary analysis of the 2011 youth risk behavior survey.

    PubMed

    Anatale, Katharine; Kelly, Sarah

    2015-03-01

    Adolescence is a tumultuous and challenging time period in life. Sexual risk behavior among adolescents is a widespread topic of interest in the current literature. Two common factors that influence increased sexual risk behavior are symptoms of depression and negative body image. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of body image and symptoms of depression upon sexual risk-taking in an adolescent female population. A secondary data analysis of the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) was used to explore girls' sexual activity, body image, and mental health. There were 7,708 high-school girls who participated in this study. Three questions were used to represent the constructs under investigation. There were significant correlations between sexual activity, body image, and symptoms of depression; only symptoms of depression were significant predictors of both sexual activity and condom usage. Body image was a predictor of sexual activity, but not condom use. Our findings support previous studies that suggested that people with depressive symptoms were more likely to engage in risky sexual behaviors. Our study also supports the idea that a negative body image decreases sexual activity; however, other researchers have reported that negative body image leads to an increase in sexual activity.

  15. Relationships of Pubertal Development among Early Adolescents to Sexual and Nonsexual Risk Behaviors and Caregivers' Parenting Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koo, Helen P.; Rose, Allison; Bhaskar, Brinda; Walker, Leslie R.

    2012-01-01

    Using a school-based sample of fifth graders (mean age = 10.38, SD = 0.66) and their parents (N = 408) from Washington, D.C., the authors examine associations of pubertal development with early adolescents' sexual and nonsexual risk behaviors and their caregivers' parenting behaviors and of these risk behaviors with parenting behaviors. Results…

  16. Social norms and risk perception: predictors of distracted driving behavior among novice adolescent drivers.

    PubMed

    Carter, Patrick M; Bingham, C Raymond; Zakrajsek, Jennifer S; Shope, Jean T; Sayer, Tina B

    2014-05-01

    Adolescent drivers are at elevated crash risk due to distracted driving behavior (DDB). Understanding parental and peer influences on adolescent DDB may aid future efforts to decrease crash risk. We examined the influence of risk perception, sensation seeking, as well as descriptive and injunctive social norms on adolescent DDB using the theory of normative social behavior. 403 adolescents (aged 16-18 years) and their parents were surveyed by telephone. Survey instruments measured self-reported sociodemographics, DDB, sensation seeking, risk perception, descriptive norms (perceived parent DDB, parent self-reported DDB, and perceived peer DDB), and injunctive norms (parent approval of DDB and peer approval of DDB). Hierarchical multiple linear regression was used to predict the influence of descriptive and injunctive social norms, risk perception, and sensation seeking on adolescent DDB. 92% of adolescents reported regularly engaging in DDB. Adolescents perceived that their parents and peers participated in DDB more frequently than themselves. Adolescent risk perception, parent DDB, perceived parent DDB, and perceived peer DDB were predictive of adolescent DDB in the regression model, but parent approval and peer approval of DDB were not predictive. Risk perception and parental DDB were stronger predictors among males, whereas perceived parental DDB was stronger for female adolescents. Adolescent risk perception and descriptive norms are important predictors of adolescent distracted driving. More study is needed to understand the role of injunctive normative influences on adolescent DDB. Effective public health interventions should address parental role modeling, parental monitoring of adolescent driving, and social marketing techniques that correct misconceptions of norms related to around driver distraction and crash risk. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Reconceptualizing adolescent sexual risk in a parent-based expansion of the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, M Katherine; Wood, Elyssa B

    2007-01-01

    To expand the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to explicate the influence of parents on adolescent behaviors and describe its application to adolescent sexual risk behaviors. Parents have repeatedly been shown to be among the most significant influences on adolescents' sexual risk-related attitudes, intentions, and behaviors. However, many of the leading theoretical frameworks for understanding HIV-related sexual risk behavior are individual-level models that do not include important influences outside the individual, such as parents and families. The proposed expansion of the TPB indicates the conceptual underpinnings for the design of family-based prevention programs to reduce HIV-related risk behaviors among adolescents. Additional research is needed to examine the predictive validity of the expanded model, and instrument development is needed for many of the expanded model constructs, most notably the parent constructs.

  18. [Family influence as a protective factor against risk behaviors in Chilean adolescents].

    PubMed

    Santander R, Sylvia; Zubarew G, Tamara; Santelices C, Lucía; Argollo M, Pamela; Cerda L, Jaime; Bórquez P, Mariana

    2008-03-01

    Family is an important protective factor in the prevention of risk behaviors in Chilean adolescents. To determine the prevalence of risk and protective factors and behaviors in Chilean students, and to study the association between family functioning and adolescent risk behaviors. Descriptive cross sectional study of 815 adolescents aged 15 +/- 2 years (51% male), studying 7th to 12th grade in three educational facilities in Santiago, Chile. They answered the Adolescent Risk Behavior Score, adapted from the Adolescent Health Survey and the "How is your family" survey of the Pan American Health Organization. Tobacco, alcohol and marihuana consumption was reported by 31%, 27% and 24% of students, respectively. Twelve percent reported being sad all the time, 23% being desperate and 13% being anxious. Forty four percent have had a sexual intercourse. The risk to have these behaviors was greater in adolescents who perceive their families as dysfunctional. In this sample, there was a high prevalence of risk behaviors, emotional symptoms and premature sexual intercourse. The risk of having these behaviors is higher among students who perceive their families as dysfunctional. The study emphasizes the protective function of family in the prevention of risk behaviors in Chilean students.

  19. Dynamic Relationships Between Parental Monitoring, Peer Risk Involvement and Sexual Risk Behavior Among Bahamian Mid-Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo; Stanton, Bonita; Deveaux, Lynette; Li, Xiaoming; Lunn, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT Considerable research has examined reciprocal relationships between parenting, peers and adolescent problem behavior; however, such studies have largely considered the influence of peers and parents separately. It is important to examine simultaneously the relationships between parental monitoring, peer risk involvement and adolescent sexual risk behavior, and whether increases in peer risk involvement and changes in parental monitoring longitudinally predict adolescent sexual risk behavior. METHODS Four waves of sexual behavior data were collected between 2008/2009 and 2011 from high school students aged 13–17 in the Bahamas. Structural equation and latent growth curve modeling were used to examine reciprocal relationships between parental monitoring, perceived peer risk involvement and adolescent sexual risk behavior. RESULTS For both male and female youth, greater perceived peer risk involvement predicted higher sexual risk behavior index scores, and greater parental monitoring predicted lower scores. Reciprocal relationships were found between parental monitoring and sexual risk behavior for males and between perceived peer risk involvement and sexual risk behavior for females. For males, greater sexual risk behavior predicted lower parental monitoring; for females, greater sexual risk behavior predicted higher perceived peer risk involvement. According to latent growth curve models, a higher initial level of parental monitoring predicted decreases in sexual risk behavior, whereas both a higher initial level and a higher growth rate of peer risk involvement predicted increases in sexual risk behavior. CONCLUSION Results highlight the important influence of peer risk involvement on youths’ sexual behavior and gender differences in reciprocal relationships between parental monitoring, peer influence and adolescent sexual risk behavior. PMID:26308261

  20. A Longitudinal Analysis of Cumulative Risks, Cumulative Promotive Factors, and Adolescent Violent Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Sarah A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Bauermeister, Jose A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of cumulative risk and promotive factors on violent behavior across the high school years of adolescence in a sample of predominately African American urban adolescents (N = 750). Cumulative risk and promotive factor indices represented individual characteristics, and peer, parental, and familial influences. Using…

  1. The Role of Deliberative Decision Making, Parenting, and Friends in Adolescent Risk Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Jennifer M.; Crockett, Lisa J.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents may engage in risk behaviors that jeopardize their futures. Although adolescent risk-taking has long been attributed to faulty decision making, surprisingly little research has directly examined this link. This study examined the role of deliberative decision making (the tendency to consider options and consequences before making a…

  2. Longitudinal patterns and predictors of multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents: The TRAILS study.

    PubMed

    de Winter, Andrea F; Visser, Leenke; Verhulst, Frank C; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2016-03-01

    Most studies on multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents have cross-sectionally studied a limited number of health behaviors or determinants. To examine the prevalence, longitudinal patterns and predictors of individual and multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents. Eight health risk behaviors (no regular consumption of fruit, vegetables or breakfast, overweight or obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, alcohol use and cannabis use) were assessed in a prospective population study (second and third wave). Participants were assessed in three waves between ages 10 and 17 (2001-2008; n=2230). Multiple linear regression was used to assess the influence of gender, self-control, parental health risk behaviors, parental monitoring and socioeconomic factors on the number of health risk behaviors adjusted for preceding multiple health risk behaviors (analysis: 2013-2014). Rates of >5 health risk behaviors were high: 3.6% at age 13.5 and 10.2% at age 16. Smoking at age 13.5 was frequently associated with health risk behaviors at age 16. No regular consumption of fruit, vegetables and breakfast, overweight or obesity, physical inactivity and smoking predicted the co-occurrence of health risk behaviors at follow-up. Significant predictors of the development of multiple health risk behaviors were adolescents' levels of self-control, socioeconomic status and maternal smoking. Multiple health risk behaviors are common among adolescents. Individual and social factors predict changes in multiple health risk behaviors, showing that prevention targeting multiple risk behaviors is needed. Special attention should be paid to adolescents with low self-control and families with low socioeconomic status or a mother who smokes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Risk Behaviors and Resiliency within Physically Abused Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Daniel F.; Jones, Kenneth R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the relationship between physical abuse and several risk behaviors, and thriving behaviors, and the relationship between potential protective factors and engagement in risk and thriving behaviors among victims of physical abuse. Three categories of potential protective factors were examined: (1) individual…

  4. Acculturation and Sexual Risk Behaviors among Latina Adolescents Transitioning to Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jieha; Hahm, Hyeouk Chris

    2010-01-01

    Latinas in the United States are at a disproportionate risk for STDs and sexual risk behaviors. Among Latinas, acculturation has been found to be one of the most important predictors of these behaviors. Therefore, this study examined the longitudinal association between Latina adolescents' level of acculturation and multiple sexual risk outcomes,…

  5. A Rationale and Method for Examining Reasons for Linkages among Adolescent Risk Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busseri, Michael A.; Willoughby, Teena; Chalmers, Heather

    2007-01-01

    A large volume of research has investigated interrelations among adolescent risk behaviors. Although several theoretical accounts have been proposed, researchers have not directly examined hypotheses for "why" risk behaviors are linked. In the present paper, a distinction is drawn between predictive factors that explain variance in risk behaviors…

  6. Acculturation and Sexual Risk Behaviors among Latina Adolescents Transitioning to Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jieha; Hahm, Hyeouk Chris

    2010-01-01

    Latinas in the United States are at a disproportionate risk for STDs and sexual risk behaviors. Among Latinas, acculturation has been found to be one of the most important predictors of these behaviors. Therefore, this study examined the longitudinal association between Latina adolescents' level of acculturation and multiple sexual risk outcomes,…

  7. Relationships Between Future Orientation, Impulsive Sensation Seeking, and Risk Behavior Among Adjudicated Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Reuben N.; Bryan, Angela

    2004-01-01

    Because of high levels of risk behavior, adjudicated adolescents are at high risk for negative health outcomes such as nicotine and drug addiction and sexually transmitted diseases. The goal of this article is to examine relationships between future orientation and impulsive-sensation-seeking personality constructs to risk behaviors among 300…

  8. Relationships Between Future Orientation, Impulsive Sensation Seeking, and Risk Behavior Among Adjudicated Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Reuben N.; Bryan, Angela

    2004-01-01

    Because of high levels of risk behavior, adjudicated adolescents are at high risk for negative health outcomes such as nicotine and drug addiction and sexually transmitted diseases. The goal of this article is to examine relationships between future orientation and impulsive-sensation-seeking personality constructs to risk behaviors among 300…

  9. Contributing Factors to High-Risk Sexual Behaviors among Iranian Adolescent Girls: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Alimoradi, Zainab; Kariman, Nourossadat; Simbar, Masoumeh; Ahmadi, Fazlollah

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Adolescence is a period of overwhelming changes and challenges, which expose the adolescents to high-risk behaviors. Risky sexual relationship is one of these behaviors that entails physical risks and psychosocial harms. Various factors have been recognized to shape sexual behaviors in adolescents. This paper is an attempt to investigate the factors contributing to high-risk sexual behaviors in Iranian adolescent girls. Methods: A literature review of the research published by Iranian authors, in Farsi or English language in local and foreign journals, was conducted using PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Scientific Information Database (SID), IranMedex, IranDoc, and Google Scholar. The search in each database included all the years covered at that time using keywords such as “sexual, adolescents, and Iran”, and continued using other keywords such as “sexual behavior, high-risk behavior, sexual risk and reproductive behavior” individually and in combination Results: Sixteen published articles were identified. Factors contributing to high-risk sexual behaviors in girls can be divided into four general groups including personal, family, peer, school and community. Conclusion: Regarding the identified risk and protective factors, appropriate individual, family and school-based interventions can be designed and implemented to strengthen protective factors. While individual and family factors are considered more in research, factors related to peers, school and community have received less attention. Since social values, beliefs and norms are important factors in formation of sexual behaviors, further research regarding these factors is suggested. PMID:28097173

  10. Parsing protection and risk for problem behavior versus pro-social behavior among US and Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jessor, Richard; Turbin, Mark S

    2014-07-01

    This study investigates the different roles played by protective factors and risk factors-and by particular protective and risk factors-when the concern is with accounting for adolescent problem behavior than when the concern is with accounting for adolescent pro-social behavior. The protective and risk factor literature on adolescent problem behavior reveals considerable conceptual and operational ambiguity; an aim of the present study was to advance understanding in this domain of inquiry by providing a systematic conceptualization of protection and risk and of their measurement. Within the systematic framework of Problem Behavior Theory, four protective and four risk factors are assessed in a cross-national study of both problem behavior and pro-social behavior involving large adolescent samples in China (N = 1,368) and the US (N = 1,087), in grades 9, 10, and 11; females 56 %, US; 50 %, China. The findings reveal quite different roles for protection and risk, and for particular protective and risk factors, when the outcome criterion is problem behavior than when it is pro-social behavior. The protective factor, Controls Protection, which engages rule and regulations and sanctions in the adolescent's ecology, emerges as most important in influencing problem behavior, but it plays a relatively minor role in relationship to pro-social behavior. By contrast, Models Protection, the presence of pro-social models in the adolescent's ecology, and Support Protection, the presence of interest and care in that same ecology, have no significant relationship to problem behavior variation, but they are both the major predictors of variation in pro-social behavior. The findings are robust across the samples from the two very diverse societies. These results suggest that greater attention be given to protection in problem behavior research and that a more nuanced perspective is needed about the roles that particular protective and risk factors play in reducing problem

  11. Adolescent health-risk sexual behaviors: effects of a drug abuse intervention.

    PubMed

    Hops, Hyman; Ozechowski, Timothy J; Waldron, Holly B; Davis, Betsy; Turner, Charles W; Brody, Janet L; Barrera, Manuel

    2011-11-01

    Adolescents who abuse substances are more likely to engage in health-risking sexual behavior (HRSB) and are at particularly high risk for HIV/AIDS. Thus, substance abuse treatment presents a prime opportunity to target HIV-risk behaviors. The present study evaluated a one-session HIV-risk intervention embedded in a controlled clinical trial for drug-abusing adolescents. The trial was conducted in New Mexico and Oregon with Hispanic and Anglo adolescents. Youths were randomly assigned to individual cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) or to an integrated behavioral and family therapy (IBFT) condition, involving individual and family sessions. The HIV-specific intervention was not associated with change. IBFT and CBT were both efficacious in reducing HIV-risk behaviors from intake to the 18-month follow-up for high-risk adolescents. For low-risk adolescents, CBT (versus IBFT) was more efficacious in suppressing HRSB. These data suggest that drug abuse treatments can have both preventative and intervention effects for adolescents, depending on their relative HIV-risk.

  12. “It’s a Touchy Subject”: Latino Adolescent Sexual Risk Behaviors in the School Context

    PubMed Central

    Sandelowski, Margarete; McQuiston, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Adverse sexual health outcomes remain disproportionately high for Latino adolescents. To examine sexual risk behaviors in Latino adolescents, we conducted in-depth interviews with 18 Latino parents and 13 school staff members and carried out one year of fieldwork in the school and community. “It’s a touchy subject [sex] here” exemplified the reluctance of addressing sexual risk behaviors. Community and systems-level strategies are recommended. PMID:21741798

  13. Adolescents Misperceive and Are Influenced By High Status Peers' Health Risk, Deviant, and Adaptive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Helms, Sarah W.; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Widman, Laura; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2015-01-01

    Most peer influence research examines socialization between adolescents and their best friends. Yet, adolescents also are influenced by popular peers, perhaps due to misperceptions of social norms. This research examined the extent to which out-group and in-group adolescents misperceive the frequencies of peers' deviant, health risk, and adaptive behaviors in different reputation-based peer crowds (Study 1) and the prospective associations between perceptions of high status peers' and adolescents' own substance use over 2.5 years (Study 2). Study 1 examined 235 adolescents' reported deviant (vandalism, theft), health risk (substance use, sexual risk), and adaptive (exercise, studying) behavior, and their perceptions of Jocks', Populars', Burnouts', and Brains' engagement in the same behaviors. Peer nominations identified adolescents in each peer crowd. Jocks and Populars were rated as higher status than Brains and Burnouts. Results indicated that peer crowd stereotypes are caricatures. Misperceptions of high status crowds were dramatic, but for many behaviors, no differences between Populars'/Jocks' and others' actual reported behaviors were revealed. Study 2 assessed 166 adolescents' substance use and their perceptions of popular peers' (i.e., peers high in peer perceived popularity) substance use. Parallel process latent growth analyses revealed that higher perceptions of popular peers' substance use in Grade 9 (intercept) significantly predicted steeper increases in adolescents' own substance use from Grade 9 to 11 (slope). Results from both studies, utilizing different methods, offer evidence to suggest that adolescents misperceive high status peers' risk behaviors, and these misperceptions may predict adolescents' own risk behavior engagement. PMID:25365121

  14. Adolescents misperceive and are influenced by high-status peers' health risk, deviant, and adaptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Helms, Sarah W; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Widman, Laura; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2014-12-01

    Most peer influence research examines socialization between adolescents and their best friends. Yet, adolescents also are influenced by popular peers, perhaps due to misperceptions of social norms. This research examined the extent to which out-group and in-group adolescents misperceive the frequencies of peers' deviant, health risk, and adaptive behaviors in different reputation-based peer crowds (Study 1) and the prospective associations between perceptions of high-status peers' and adolescents' own substance use over 2.5 years (Study 2). Study 1 examined 235 adolescents' reported deviant (vandalism, theft), health risk (substance use, sexual risk), and adaptive (exercise, studying) behavior, and their perceptions of jocks', populars', burnouts', and brains' engagement in the same behaviors. Peer nominations identified adolescents in each peer crowd. Jocks and populars were rated as higher status than brains and burnouts. Results indicated that peer crowd stereotypes are caricatures. Misperceptions of high-status crowds were dramatic, but for many behaviors, no differences between populars'/jocks' and others' actual reported behaviors were revealed. Study 2 assessed 166 adolescents' substance use and their perceptions of popular peers' (i.e., peers high in peer perceived popularity) substance use. Parallel process latent growth analyses revealed that higher perceptions of popular peers' substance use in Grade 9 (intercept) significantly predicted steeper increases in adolescents' own substance use from Grade 9 to 11 (slope). Results from both studies, utilizing different methods, offer evidence to suggest that adolescents misperceive high-status peers' risk behaviors, and these misperceptions may predict adolescents' own risk behavior engagement. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Adolescent Risk Behaviors and Religion: Findings from a National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinha, Jill W.; Cnaan, Ram A.; Gelles, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    Too few studies have assessed the relationship between youth risk behaviors and religiosity using measures which captured the varied extent to which youth are engaged in religion. This study applied three measures of religiosity and risk behaviors. In addition, this study ascertained information about youths' participation in religious activities…

  16. Adolescent Risk Behaviors and Religion: Findings from a National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinha, Jill W.; Cnaan, Ram A.; Gelles, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    Too few studies have assessed the relationship between youth risk behaviors and religiosity using measures which captured the varied extent to which youth are engaged in religion. This study applied three measures of religiosity and risk behaviors. In addition, this study ascertained information about youths' participation in religious activities…

  17. Evaluation of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) as a Predictor of Adolescent Real-World Risk-Taking Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lejuez, C. W.; Aklin, Will M.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Pedulla, Christina M.

    2003-01-01

    A sample of 26 adolescents tested the utility of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) as a behavioral measure of risk-taking propensity. Data indicate that riskyness on the BART was related to self-reported engagement in real-world risk-taking behaviors. These data suggest that the BART may be a useful addition to self-report batteries for the…

  18. Effects of voluntary alcohol intake on risk preference and behavioral flexibility during rat adolescence.

    PubMed

    McMurray, Matthew S; Amodeo, Leslie R; Roitman, Jamie D

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use is common in adolescence, with a large portion of intake occurring during episodes of binging. This pattern of alcohol consumption coincides with a critical period for neurocognitive development and may impact decision-making and reward processing. Prior studies have demonstrated alterations in adult decision-making following adolescent usage, but it remains to be seen if these alterations exist in adolescence, or are latent until adulthood. Here, using a translational model of voluntary binge alcohol consumption in adolescents, we assess the impact of alcohol intake on risk preference and behavioral flexibility during adolescence. During adolescence (postnatal day 30-50), rats were given 1-hour access to either a 10% alcohol gelatin mixture (EtOH) or a calorie equivalent gelatin (Control) at the onset of the dark cycle. EtOH consuming rats were classified as either High or Low consumers based on intake levels. Adolescent rats underwent behavioral testing once a day, with one group performing a risk preference task, and a second group performing a reversal-learning task during the 20-day period of gelatin access. EtOH-High rats showed increases in risk preference compared to Control rats, but not EtOH-Low animals. However, adolescent rats did a poor job of matching their behavior to optimize outcomes, suggesting that adolescents may adopt a response bias. In addition, adolescent ethanol exposure did not affect the animals' ability to flexibly adapt behavior to changing reward contingencies during reversal learning. These data support the view that adolescent alcohol consumption can have short-term detrimental effects on risk-taking when examined during adolescence, which does not seem to be attributable to an inability to flexibly encode reward contingencies on behavioral responses.

  19. Behavioral Risk Elicits Selective Activation of the Executive System in Adolescents: Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Yaxley, Richard H.; Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E.; Bergman, Sara; Hooper, Stephen R.; Huettel, Scott A.; De Bellis, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated adolescent brain processing of decisions under conditions of varying risk, reward, and uncertainty. Adolescents (n = 31) preformed a Decision–Reward Uncertainty task that separates decision uncertainty into behavioral and reward risk, while they were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Behavioral risk trials involved uncertainty about which action to perform to earn a fixed monetary reward. In contrast, during reward risk the decision that might lead to a reward was known, but the likelihood of earning a reward was probabilistically determined. Behavioral risk trials evoked greater activation than the reward risk and no risk conditions in the anterior cingulate, medial frontal gyrus, bilateral frontal poles, bilateral inferior parietal lobe, precuneus, bilateral superior-middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, and insula. Our results were similar to those of young adults using the same task (Huettel, 2006) except that adolescents did not show significant activation in the posterior supramarginal gyrus during behavioral risk. During the behavioral risk condition regardless of reward outcome, overall mean frontal pole activity showed a positive correlation with age during the behavioral and reward risk conditions suggesting a developmental difference of this region of interest. Additionally, reward response to the Decision–Reward Uncertainty task in adolescents was similar to that seen in young adults (Huettel, 2006). Our data did not show a correlation between age and mean ventral striatum activity during the three conditions. While our results came from a healthy high functioning non-maltreated sample of adolescents, this method can be used to address types of risks and reward processing in children and adolescents with predisposing vulnerabilities and add to the paucity of imaging studies of risk and reward processing during adolescence. PMID:22194728

  20. Adolescent risk behaviors and religion: findings from a national study.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Jill W; Cnaan, Ram A; Gelles, Richard J

    2007-04-01

    Too few studies have assessed the relationship between youth risk behaviors and religiosity using measures which captured the varied extent to which youth are engaged in religion. This study applied three measures of religiosity and risk behaviors. In addition, this study ascertained information about youths' participation in religious activities from a parent or caretaker. Based on a national random sample of 2004 teens (ages 11-18), this study indicates that youth perceive religion as important, are active in religious worship and activities, and further shows that perceived importance of religion as well as participation in religious activities are associated with decreased risk behaviors. Looking at ten risk behaviors, religiosity variables were consistently associated with reduced risk behaviors in the areas of: smoking, alcohol use, truancy, sexual activity, marijuana use, and depression. In the case of these six risk variables, religiosity variables were significantly associated with reduced risk behaviors when controlling for family background variables and self-esteem. The study highlights the importance of further understanding the relationship between religious variables, background variables, self-esteem, and youth risk behaviors.

  1. Adolescent Sexual Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sharon D.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews past five years of professional literature on adolescent sexuality to determine factors that influence adolescent sexuality. Discusses importance of family and religion on sexual attitudes and behaviors, how sexual activity is related to other age-related behaviors and delinquency, relationship between early coital behaviors and risk of…

  2. Race/Ethnic Differences in Effects of Family Instability on Adolescents' Risk Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fomby, Paula; Mollborn, Stefanie; Sennott, Christie A.

    2010-01-01

    We used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 7,686) to determine whether racial and ethnic differences in socioeconomic stress and social protection explained group differences in the association between family structure instability and three risk behaviors for White, Black, and Mexican American adolescents:…

  3. Race/Ethnic Differences in Effects of Family Instability on Adolescents' Risk Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fomby, Paula; Mollborn, Stefanie; Sennott, Christie A.

    2010-01-01

    We used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 7,686) to determine whether racial and ethnic differences in socioeconomic stress and social protection explained group differences in the association between family structure instability and three risk behaviors for White, Black, and Mexican American adolescents:…

  4. Developmental Trajectory of Sexual Risk Behaviors from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, David Y. C.; Murphy, Debra A.; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the trajectories of sexual risk behaviors among adolescents from ages 15 to 23 and factors associated with those trajectories. The sample was 5,419 adolescents from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Using group-based trajectory modeling, five distinctive trajectory groups were identified. The High group had a high…

  5. Biological Risk for the Development of Problem Behavior in Adolescence: Integrating Insights from Behavioral Genetics and Neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Harden, K Paige; Mann, Frank D

    2015-12-01

    Adolescence is a time of increasing engagement in a variety of problem behaviors, including substance use and delinquency. Genetic risk for problem behavior increases over adolescence, is mediated partially by individual differences in sensation seeking, and is exacerbated by involvement with deviant peers. In this article, we describe how findings from behavioral genetic research on problem behavior intersect with research from developmental neuroscience. In particular, the incentive-processing system, including the ventral striatum, responds increasingly to rewards in adolescence, particularly in peer contexts. This developmental shift may be influenced by hormonal changes at puberty. Individual differences in the structure and function of reward-responsive brain regions may be intermediary phenotypes that mediate adolescents' genetic risk for problem behavior. The study of problem behavior can be enriched by interdisciplinary research that integrates measures of brain structure and function into genetically informed studies.

  6. Examining Factors Influencing Internet Addiction and Adolescent Risk Behaviors Among Excessive Internet Users.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qiaolei; Huang, Xiuqin; Tao, Ran

    2017-08-29

    In China, public concern continues to mount regarding the risks of excessive Internet use among adolescents. This study investigated the factors influencing Internet addiction and adolescent risk behaviors among excessive Internet users. Proposing a conceptual model with a theoretical origin in risk behavior theory and media dependency theory, this study examined the influence of personality traits, online gaming, Internet connectedness (both the overall index and various scopes), and demographics on Internet addiction and risk behaviors (smoking, drinking, gambling, and risky sexual behaviors). Clinical data (N = 467) were retrieved from one of the earliest and largest Internet addiction clinics in China. The findings reveal that certain personality traits are significantly associated with Internet addiction and risk behaviors. Online gaming had a strong impact on both Internet addiction and risk behaviors among excessive Internet users. The study also reveals that various scopes of Internet connectedness, such as site scope, facilitate addictive Internet use, and risk behaviors among adolescents. The findings can contribute to the prevention of and intervention into Internet addiction and adolescent risk behaviors.

  7. Health Risk Behaviors of African American Adolescents with Mild Mental Retardation: Prevalence Depends on Measurement Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pack, Robert P.; Browne, Dorothy; Wallander, Jan L.

    1998-01-01

    Health risk behaviors (substance use, violence, suicide, and car safety) of 194 African American urban adolescents with mild mental retardation were measured using either a confidential individual interview or an anonymous group survey. The survey methodology resulted in disclosure of more risk behaviors than the interview methodology. Elevated…

  8. Association of "Macho Man" Sexual Attitudes and Behavioral Risks in Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Ellen Johnson; Bauman, Laurie J.

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether sexual attitudes of adolescents were related to their self-reported sexual risk behavior by analyzing survey data from 1,052 boys and girls aged 14 to 17 years from a low income, urban community. Sexual behavior norms that may increase sexually transmitted infection/HIV risks in youth were sanctioned more by males and by…

  9. Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention to Reduce African American Adolescents' Risk for HIV Infection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Lawrence, Janet S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Randomly assigned 246 African American adolescents either to an educational program or to an 8-week intervention that combined education with behavior skills training. Results indicate that, compared with the education program, youth in behavioral skills training lowered their infection risk to a greater degree, maintained risk reduction changes…

  10. Association of "Macho Man" Sexual Attitudes and Behavioral Risks in Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Ellen Johnson; Bauman, Laurie J.

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether sexual attitudes of adolescents were related to their self-reported sexual risk behavior by analyzing survey data from 1,052 boys and girls aged 14 to 17 years from a low income, urban community. Sexual behavior norms that may increase sexually transmitted infection/HIV risks in youth were sanctioned more by males and by…

  11. Risk-Taking Behavior among Adolescents with Prenatal Drug Exposure and Extrauterine Environmental Adversity

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Brittany L.; Bann, Carla M.; Bauer, Charles R.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S.; Lester, Barry M.; Whitaker, Toni M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Hammond, Jane; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective High-risk environments characterized by familial substance use, poverty, inadequate parental monitoring, and violence exposure are associated with an increased propensity for adolescents to engage in risk-taking behaviors (e.g., substance use, sexual behavior, and delinquency). However, additional factors such as drug exposure in utero and deficits in inhibitory control among drug-exposed youth may further influence the likelihood that adolescents in high-risk environments will engage in risk-taking behavior. This study examined the influence of prenatal substance exposure, inhibitory control, and sociodemographic/environmental risk factors on risk-taking behaviors in a large cohort of adolescents with and without prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE). Method Risk-taking behavior (delinquency, substance use, and sexual activity) was assessed in 963 adolescents (433 cocaine-exposed, 530 nonexposed) at 15 years of age. Results PCE predicted later arrests and early onset of sexual behavior in controlled analyses. Associations were partially mediated, however, by adolescent inhibitory control problems. PCE was not associated with substance use at this age. In addition, male gender, low parental involvement, and violence exposure were associated with greater odds of engaging in risk-taking behavior across the observed domains. Conclusions Study findings substantiate concern regarding the association between prenatal substance exposure and related risk factors and the long-term outcomes of exposed youth. Access to the appropriate social, educational, and medical services are essential in preventing and intervening with risk-taking behaviors and the potential consequences (e.g., adverse health outcomes, incarceration), especially among high-risk adolescent youth and their families. PMID:24220515

  12. Attention regulates anger and fear to predict changes in adolescent risk-taking behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Holmes, Christopher; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2014-01-01

    Background Regulation of negative affect is critical to healthy development in childhood and adolescence. We conducted a longitudinal study examining the moderating role of attention control in the effects of anger and fear on changes in risk-taking behaviors from early to middle adolescence. Method The sample involved participants from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD), assessed at 9, 11, and 15 years of age. Composite scores for anger, fear, and attention control were computed using indicators from multiple informants, and risk-taking behaviors were assessed based on adolescents’ self-reports. Results Latent difference score analysis indicated significant moderating effects of attention control showing that increased anger between 9 and 11 years was related to increases in risk-taking behaviors between 11 and 15 years only for adolescents with low attention control but not for adolescents with high attention control. In contrast, significant moderating effects of attention control for the link between fear and risk-taking behaviors suggested increased fear between 9 and 11 years tended to be associated with decreases in risk-taking behaviors between 11 and 15 years only for adolescents with high attention control but not for adolescents with low attention control. Conclusions Attention control regulates the connections between negative affect such as anger and fear with changes in adolescent risk-taking behaviors. Our data suggest the protective role of strong attention control against the development of risk-taking behaviors in adolescence as it demotes the effects of anger and promotes the effects of fear. PMID:25280179

  13. Associations between the Risk of Internet Addiction and Problem Behaviors among Korean Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sung, Jisun; Lee, Jungkwon; Noh, Hye-Mi; Park, Yong Soon; Ahn, Eun Ju

    2013-03-01

    The number of internet users is increasing rapidly and internet addiction among adolescents has become a serious public health problem in Korea. In the light of behavioral addiction, this study was aimed to identify the associations between the risk of internet addiction and other problem behaviors which can lead to addiction, such as cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, drug abuse, and sexual intercourse among a nationally representative sample of Korean adolescents. Data from the 2010 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (respondents, 73,238) were analyzed. Risk of internet addiction was assessed by the 'Korean Internet Addiction Proneness Scale for Youth-Short Form: Self Report' which was developed by the Korean National Information Society Agency in 2008. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the odds ratios of problem behaviors among adolescents at high risk for internet addiction and adolescents at low risk for internet addiction. The odds of smoking experience, drug abuse experience, and sexual intercourse experience were significantly higher among boys at high risk for internet addiction compared to boys at low risk for internet addiction. Among girls at high risk of internet addiction, the odds of smoking experience, drinking experience, and drug abuse experience were significantly higher compared with girls at low risk of internet addiction. The risk of internet addiction was associated with cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, drug abuse, and sexual intercourse experience among Korean adolescents.

  14. Combined Patterns of Risk for Problem and Obesogenic Behaviors in Adolescents: A Latent Class Analysis Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleary, Sasha A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Several studies have used latent class analyses to explore obesogenic behaviors and substance use in adolescents independently. We explored a variety of health risks jointly to identify distinct patterns of risk behaviors among adolescents. Methods: Latent class models were estimated using Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System…

  15. Combined Patterns of Risk for Problem and Obesogenic Behaviors in Adolescents: A Latent Class Analysis Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleary, Sasha A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Several studies have used latent class analyses to explore obesogenic behaviors and substance use in adolescents independently. We explored a variety of health risks jointly to identify distinct patterns of risk behaviors among adolescents. Methods: Latent class models were estimated using Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System…

  16. Preventing Sexual Risk Behaviors among Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Adolescents: The Benefits of Gay-Sensitive HIV Instruction in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Susan M.; Ledsky, Rebecca; Lehman, Thomas; Goodenow, Carol; Sawyer, Richard; Hack, Tim

    2001-01-01

    Compared the sexual risk taking behaviors of gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) and heterosexual adolescents, evaluating associations between gay-sensitive school HIV instruction and GLB adolescents' risk behaviors. Surveys indicated that GLB students had more high risk behaviors than heterosexual students, and those in schools with gay-sensitive…

  17. Preventing Sexual Risk Behaviors among Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Adolescents: The Benefits of Gay-Sensitive HIV Instruction in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Susan M.; Ledsky, Rebecca; Lehman, Thomas; Goodenow, Carol; Sawyer, Richard; Hack, Tim

    2001-01-01

    Compared the sexual risk taking behaviors of gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) and heterosexual adolescents, evaluating associations between gay-sensitive school HIV instruction and GLB adolescents' risk behaviors. Surveys indicated that GLB students had more high risk behaviors than heterosexual students, and those in schools with gay-sensitive…

  18. Adolescent Risk Behaviors: Studying Typical and Atypical Individuals via Multidimensional Scaling Profile Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Yang; Ding, Cody

    2012-01-01

    Within the framework of problem behavior theory, the purpose of this study was to examine risk behavior profiles of typical and atypical adolescents and the differential outcomes of well-beings for these individuals in the United States. Based on the data from the survey of Health Behavior of School-Aged Children by World Health Organization,…

  19. The Relationship among Attitudes, Behaviors, and Biomedical Measures of Adolescents "At Risk" for Cardiovascular Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeyanju, Matthew; Creswell, William H.

    1987-01-01

    A study monitoring health behaviors and attitudes of 93 adolescents considered at risk for cardiovascular disease revealed a greater than normal proportion of negative behaviors involving smoking, diet, alcohol abuse, and stress among subjects and a positive relationship among health status, health attitudes, and health behavior. (Author/CB)

  20. Adolescent Risk Behaviors: Studying Typical and Atypical Individuals via Multidimensional Scaling Profile Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Yang; Ding, Cody

    2012-01-01

    Within the framework of problem behavior theory, the purpose of this study was to examine risk behavior profiles of typical and atypical adolescents and the differential outcomes of well-beings for these individuals in the United States. Based on the data from the survey of Health Behavior of School-Aged Children by World Health Organization,…

  1. Health-risk behaviors among a sample of US pre- adolescents: Types, frequency, and predictive factors

    PubMed Central

    Riesch, Susan K.; Kedrowski, Karen; Brown, Roger L.; Temkin, Barbara Myers; Wang, Kevin; Henriques, Jeffrey; Jacobson, Gloria; Giustino-Kluba, Nina

    2012-01-01

    Background Children as young as 10 years old report curiosity and participation in health-risk behaviors, yet most studies focus upon adolescent samples. Objective To document the types and frequencies of health risk behavior among pre-adolescents and to examine the child, family, and environment factors that predict them. Method A sample of 297 pre-adolescents (mean age = 10.5, SD = 0.6) from two Midwestern US cities and their parents (child-parent dyads) provided data about demographic characteristics, health risk behavior participation, child self-esteem, child pubertal development, child and adult perception of their neighborhood, and parent monitoring. Their participation was at intake to a 5-year clustered randomized controlled trial. Results Pre-adolescents participated in an average of 3.7 health-risk behaviors (SD = 2.0), primarily those that lead to unintentional (helmet and seatbelt use) and intentional (feeling unsafe, having something stolen, and physical fighting) injury. Factors predictive of unintentional injury risk behavior were self-esteem, pubertal development, parent monitoring, and parent perception of the neighborhood environment. Boys were 1.8 times less likely than girls to use helmets and seatbelts. Pre-adolescents whose parents were not partnered were 2.8 times more likely than pre-adolescents whose parents were partnered to report intentional risk behavior. Recommendations These data demonstrate trends that cannot be ignored. We recommend, focused specifically upon boys and non-partnered families, that (a) developmentally-appropriate, appealing prevention messages be developed and delivered for parents and pre-adolescents and community interventions targeting both parent and pre-adolescent together be provided to help them establish and monitor behavioral expectations and (b) organized nursing endorse policy in the US and globally that assures adequate family environments for children. PMID:23177901

  2. Fathers' and mothers' parenting predicting and responding to adolescent sexual risk behaviors.

    PubMed

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Schindler, Holly S

    2009-01-01

    Transactional models of problem behavior argue that less effective parenting and adolescent problem behaviors coevolve, exerting bidirectional influences. This article extends such models by analyzing growth trajectories of sexual risk behaviors and parenting processes among 3,206 adolescents (aged 13-18) and their residential parents. Within individuals, increases in regular family activities prospectively predicted declines in adolescents' risky sexual activities. In contrast, increases in risky sexual activities predicted heightened father knowledge. Between-individual comparisons revealed bidirectional links between more involved parenting, particularly family activities and father knowledge, and lower adolescent risky sexual activity. Results highlight the importance of family activities as a protective force for adolescents and suggest that fathers may react differently than mothers in the face of youth problem behaviors.

  3. Behavioral disinhibition and sexual risk behavior among adolescents and young adults in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Muchimba, Maureen; Burton, Megan; Yeatman, Sara; Chilungo, Abdallah; Haberstick, Brett C; Young, Susan E; Corley, Robin P; McQueen, Matthew B

    2013-01-01

    While behavioral factors such as early age of sexual debut, inconsistent use of condoms and multiple sexual partners have been studied in Africa, less is known about how characteristics such as impulsivity and externalizing behaviors relate to HIV-related sexual risk-taking in that region. The purpose of this study was to develop a culturally adapted behavioral disinhibition index in a sample of adolescents and young adults in Malawi. We then sought to examine the relationship between the index and sexual risk behavior as measured by multiple sexual partners and number of lifetime sexual partners. Cross-sectional data were collected from 2342 participants in rural Malawi aged 15 to 29 years. We constructed a disinhibitory behavior score (DBS) using questions assessing disinhibitory behaviors. Bivariate analyses were conducted to assess the relationships among the individual DBS component behaviors. We utilized multivariable logistic regression to determine the association of the DBS with multiple sexual partners, and negative binomial regression to model the relationship between the DBS and number of lifetime sexual partners. Nearly all the DBS component behaviors were significantly associated in the bivariate analyses. The DBS was associated with having multiple sexual partners (OR 1.97; 95% CI 1.57-2.48) in the multivariable logistic regression analysis. Further, negative binomial regression results demonstrated that the DBS was associated with an increased number of lifetime sexual partners (OR 1.11; 95% CI 1.07-1.16). HIV preventive programs in Africa should take into consideration disinhibitory behaviors that may be associated with sexual risk-taking. The DBS can be used as a simple tool to identify those who may be more likely to engage in these behaviors and provide useful information regarding which groups of individuals particularly need to be targeted for behavior change interventions.

  4. Behavioral Disinhibition and Sexual Risk Behavior among Adolescents and Young Adults in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Muchimba, Maureen; Burton, Megan; Yeatman, Sara; Chilungo, Abdallah; Haberstick, Brett C.; Young, Susan E.; Corley, Robin P.; McQueen, Matthew B.

    2013-01-01

    Background While behavioral factors such as early age of sexual debut, inconsistent use of condoms and multiple sexual partners have been studied in Africa, less is known about how characteristics such as impulsivity and externalizing behaviors relate to HIV-related sexual risk-taking in that region. The purpose of this study was to develop a culturally adapted behavioral disinhibition index in a sample of adolescents and young adults in Malawi. We then sought to examine the relationship between the index and sexual risk behavior as measured by multiple sexual partners and number of lifetime sexual partners. Methods Cross-sectional data were collected from 2342 participants in rural Malawi aged 15 to 29 years. We constructed a disinhibitory behavior score (DBS) using questions assessing disinhibitory behaviors. Bivariate analyses were conducted to assess the relationships among the individual DBS component behaviors. We utilized multivariable logistic regression to determine the association of the DBS with multiple sexual partners, and negative binomial regression to model the relationship between the DBS and number of lifetime sexual partners. Findings Nearly all the DBS component behaviors were significantly associated in the bivariate analyses. The DBS was associated with having multiple sexual partners (OR 1.97; 95% CI 1.57–2.48) in the multivariable logistic regression analysis. Further, negative binomial regression results demonstrated that the DBS was associated with an increased number of lifetime sexual partners (OR 1.11; 95% CI 1.07–1.16). Conclusions HIV preventive programs in Africa should take into consideration disinhibitory behaviors that may be associated with sexual risk-taking. The DBS can be used as a simple tool to identify those who may be more likely to engage in these behaviors and provide useful information regarding which groups of individuals particularly need to be targeted for behavior change interventions. PMID:24039987

  5. Family structure and risk behaviors: the role of the family meal in assessing likelihood of adolescent risk behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Goldfarb, Samantha; Tarver, Will L; Sen, Bisakha

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous literature has asserted that family meals are a key protective factor for certain adolescent risk behaviors. It is suggested that the frequency of eating with the family is associated with better psychological well-being and a lower risk of substance use and delinquency. However, it is unclear whether there is evidence of causal links between family meals and adolescent health-risk behaviors. Purpose The purpose of this article is to review the empirical literature on family meals and adolescent health behaviors and outcomes in the US. Data sources A search was conducted in four academic databases: Social Sciences Full Text, Sociological Abstracts, PsycINFO®, and PubMed/MEDLINE. Study selection We included studies that quantitatively estimated the relationship between family meals and health-risk behaviors. Data extraction Data were extracted on study sample, study design, family meal measurement, outcomes, empirical methods, findings, and major issues. Data synthesis Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria for the review that measured the relationship between frequent family meals and various risk-behavior outcomes. The outcomes considered by most studies were alcohol use (n=10), tobacco use (n=9), and marijuana use (n=6). Other outcomes included sexual activity (n=2); depression, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts (n=4); violence and delinquency (n=4); school-related issues (n=2); and well-being (n=5). The associations between family meals and the outcomes of interest were most likely to be statistically significant in unadjusted models or models controlling for basic family characteristics. Associations were less likely to be statistically significant when other measures of family connectedness were included. Relatively few analyses used sophisticated empirical techniques available to control for confounders in secondary data. Conclusion More research is required to establish whether or not the relationship between family dinners

  6. Age of Partner at First Adolescent Intercourse and Adult Sexual Risk Behavior Among Women

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Adolescent females who have early sexual experiences with older male partners report high rates of sexual risk behavior during adolescence, but little is known about whether these early sexual experiences are associated with adult sexual risk behavior. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether having first consensual sex with an older partner was associated with sexual risk behavior in adulthood. Methods Participants were 292 women (66% African American, mean age = 26 years) attending a public sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic who reported having voluntary vaginal sex before age 18. Participants completed a computerized survey assessing child/adolescent sexual experiences and current adult sexual risk behavior. Results Participants were, on average, 14.6 years at first vaginal intercourse; their partners were, on average, 17.5 years. After controlling for covariates, a greater partner age difference at first intercourse was associated with more episodes of unprotected sex with a steady partner and a greater proportion of episodes of unprotected sex with a steady partner in the past 3 months. Conclusions Having an older first sex partner during adolescence was associated with sexual risk behavior in adulthood. Early sexual experiences may be important life events that influence subsequent sexual behavior. Sexual health interventions need to target female adolescents before they initiate sexual intercourse to reduce risk for STDs and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. PMID:21128817

  7. The role of contextual risk, impulsivity, and parental knowledge in the development of adolescent antisocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Anna; Barker, Edward D; Koot, Hans M; Maughan, Barbara

    2010-08-01

    The present study (a) tests main and moderational effects of neighborhood and family risk, and adolescent impulsivity on the development of male and female antisocial behavior (ASB) and (b) examines the extent to which these effects work indirectly through parental knowledge. Adolescents (N = 4,597; 51% male) reported on informal social control in their neighborhoods, their family types, and impulsivity at age 12, and on parental monitoring and ASB at ages 13 and 15 years. Neighborhoods were further defined as risk and nonrisk in economic deprivation by census-level data. Main effects of neighborhood risk, single parenthood, and impulsivity on ASB were found for male and female adolescents. For female adolescents, impulsivity interacted with neighborhood economic deprivation and with family type in the prediction of parental knowledge. Impulsivity and contextual risk factors in part increased adolescent ASB through decreasing parental knowledge. Theoretical and policy implications are discussed. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  8. Developmental trajectory of sexual risk behaviors from adolescence to young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Huang, David Y C; Murphy, Debra A; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2012-12-01

    This study examined the trajectories of sexual risk behaviors among adolescents from ages 15 to 23, and factors associated with those trajectories. The sample was 5,419 adolescents from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Using group-based trajectory modeling, five distinctive trajectory groups were identified. The High group had a high and increased risk trajectory over the observed ages. The Decreased group had a risk trajectory that accelerated before age 19, but decreased afterwards. The risk trajectories of the Increased-Early and Increased-Late groups were low at age 15, but increased significantly starting at ages 16 and 18 for the groups, respectively. Participants in the Low group remained at low risk over time. Sexual risk behaviors were also positively associated with alcohol use, marijuana use, and delinquency. Results highlight the need for intervention efforts to consider developmental timing of sexual risk behaviors and their associations with other problem behaviors.

  9. The association between adolescent sexting, psychosocial difficulties, and risk behavior: integrative review.

    PubMed

    Van Ouytsel, Joris; Walrave, Michel; Ponnet, Koen; Heirman, Wannes

    2015-02-01

    When a sexting message spreads to an unintended audience, it can adversely affect the victim's reputation. Sexting incidents constitute a potential school safety risk. Just as with other types of adolescent risk behavior, school nurses might have to initiate the first response when a sexting episode arises, but a school nurse's role goes beyond intervention. They can also play an important role in the prevention of sexting and its related risks. This article reviews the links between adolescent sexting, other types of risk behavior, and its emotional and psychosocial conditions. Seven databases were examined and nine studies remained for further review. The review of the literature shows that adolescent sexting is cross sectionally associated with a range of health-risk behaviors. Youth who engage in sexting are also found to experience peer pressure and a range of emotional difficulties. The results can guide school nurse education and practice. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Bidirectional Associations Between Alcohol Use and Sexual Risk-taking Behavior from Adolescence into Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    O’Hara, Ross E.; Cooper, M. Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Overwhelming evidence indicates that sexual risk-taking behavior and alcohol use are linked, but the nature, strength, and timing of these relations may differ between gender and racial subgroups. These issues were addressed by examining the course and interrelations of both behaviors from adolescence into young adulthood, as well as how these patterns differed between both men and women and between Blacks and Whites. Data came from a representative, community-based sample of 1867 urban participants surveyed up to 5 times over a 15-year period. Although both prospective and trajectory analyses showed that adolescent involvement in one behavior predicted later involvement in the other, most patterns were moderated by gender, race, or both. In general, positive, bidirectional associations were discovered among men and Whites. Among women, adolescent sexual risk-taking behavior positively predicted later drinking, but not vice versa. For Blacks, adolescent alcohol use was inconsistently related to later sexual risk-taking behavior, and adolescent sexual risk-taking negatively predicted later alcohol use. Results suggest that associations between sexual risk-taking behavior and alcohol use are more complex than previously thought and that an adequate understanding of these links must account for both gender and racial differences. PMID:25808720

  11. Personality patterns predict the risk of antisocial behavior in Spanish-speaking adolescents.

    PubMed

    Alcázar-Córcoles, Miguel A; Verdejo-García, Antonio; Bouso-Sáiz, José C; Revuelta-Menéndez, Javier; Ramírez-Lira, Ezequiel

    2017-05-01

    There is a renewed interest in incorporating personality variables in criminology theories in order to build models able to integrate personality variables and biological factors with psychosocial and sociocultural factors. The aim of this article is the assessment of personality dimensions that contribute to the prediction of antisocial behavior in adolescents. For this purpose, a sample of adolescents from El Salvador, Mexico, and Spain was obtained. The sample consisted of 1035 participants with a mean age of 16.2. There were 450 adolescents from a forensic population (those who committed a crime) and 585 adolescents from the normal population (no crime committed). All of participants answered personality tests about neuroticism, extraversion, psychoticism, sensation seeking, impulsivity, and violence risk. Principal component analysis of the data identified two independent factors: (i) the disinhibited behavior pattern (PDC), formed by the dimensions of neuroticism, psychoticism, impulsivity and risk of violence; and (ii) the extrovert behavior pattern (PEC), formed by the dimensions of sensation risk and extraversion. Both patterns significantly contributed to the prediction of adolescent antisocial behavior in a logistic regression model which properly classifies a global percentage of 81.9%, 86.8% for non-offense and 72.5% for offense behavior. The classification power of regression equations allows making very satisfactory predictions about adolescent offense commission. Educational level has been classified as a protective factor, while age and gender (male) have been classified as risk factors.

  12. The associations of adolescents' dating violence victimization, well-being and engagement in risk behaviors.

    PubMed

    Van Ouytsel, Joris; Ponnet, Koen; Walrave, Michel

    2017-02-01

    This brief report describes dating violence victimization among adolescents in Flanders, Belgium, and focuses on how dating violence is related to adolescents' well-being and engagement in risk behaviors, such as substance use, sexual behaviors, and engagement in vandalism or fighting. A survey was conducted in Flanders, Belgium among 1187 adolescents (61.3% female, n = 728). A total of 466 respondents between 16 and 22 years old (M = 17.82 years, SD = 0.92) were in a relationship (71.0% female, n = 331), and, therefore, formed the subsample of the present study. The results show that adolescents, who consume alcohol at a younger age, have ever used marihuana, or were involved in vandalism have a higher probability to become victim of dating violence than adolescents who are not involved in these behaviors. Dating violence victimization was also linked with symptoms of depression and a lower self-esteem.

  13. Prevalence and factors associated with the co-occurrence of health risk behaviors in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Anísio Luiz da Silva; Hardman, Carla Meneses; de Barros, Mauro Virgílio Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the prevalence and factors associated with the co-occurrence of health risk behaviors in adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed with a sample of high school students from state public schools in Pernambuco, Brazil (n=4207, 14-19 years old). Data were obtained using a questionnaire. The co-occurrence of health risk behaviors was established based on the sum of five behavioral risk factors (low physical activity, sedentary behavior, low consumption of fruits/vegetables, alcohol consumption and tobacco use). The independent variables were gender, age group, time of day attending school, school size, maternal education, occupational status, skin color, geographic region and place of residence. Data were analyzed by ordinal logistic regression with proportional odds model. Results: Approximately 10% of adolescents were not exposed to health risk behaviors, while 58.5% reported being exposed to at least two health risk behaviors simultaneously. There was a higher likelihood of co-occurrence of health risk behaviors among adolescents in the older age group, with intermediate maternal education (9-11 years of schooling), and who reported living in the driest (semi-arid) region of the state of Pernambuco. Adolescents who reported having a job and living in rural areas had a lower likelihood of co-occurrence of risk behaviors. Conclusions: The findings suggest a high prevalence of co-occurrence of health risk behaviors in this group of adolescents, with a higher chance in five subgroups (older age, intermediate maternal education, the ones that reported not working, those living in urban areas and in the driest region of the state). PMID:26298656

  14. Mothers know best: redirecting adolescent reward sensitivity toward safe behavior during risk taking

    PubMed Central

    Ichien, Nicholas T.; Qu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Despite being one of the healthiest developmental periods, morbidity and mortality rates increase dramatically during adolescence, largely due to preventable, risky behaviors. Heightened reward sensitivity, coupled with ineffective cognitive control, has been proposed to underlie adolescents’ risk taking. In this study, we test whether reward sensitivity can be redirected to promote safe behavior. Adolescents completed a risk-taking task in the presence of their mother and alone during fMRI. Adolescents demonstrated reduced risk-taking behavior when their mothers were present compared with alone, which was associated with greater recruitment of the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) when making safe decisions, decreased activation in the ventral striatum following risky decisions and greater functional coupling between the ventral striatum and VLPFC when making safe decisions. Importantly, the very same neural circuitry (i.e. ventral striatum) that has been linked to greater risk-taking can also be redirected toward thoughtful, more deliberative and safe decisions. PMID:25759470

  15. Biological Risk for the Development of Problem Behavior in Adolescence: Integrating Insights from Behavioral Genetics and Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Harden, K. Paige; Mann, Frank D.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of increasing engagement in a variety of problem behaviors, including substance use and delinquency. Genetic risk for problem behavior increases over adolescence, is mediated partially by individual differences in sensation seeking, and is exacerbated by involvement with deviant peers. In this article, we describe how findings from behavioral genetic research on problem behavior intersect with research from developmental neuroscience. In particular, the incentive-processing system, including the ventral striatum, responds increasingly to rewards in adolescence, particularly in peer contexts. This developmental shift may be influenced by hormonal changes at puberty. Individual differences in the structure and function of reward-responsive brain regions may be intermediary phenotypes that mediate adolescents’ genetic risk for problem behavior. The study of problem behavior can be enriched by interdisciplinary research that integrates measures of brain structure and function into genetically informed studies. PMID:26664416

  16. [Suicidal behaviors among young adults: risk factors during development from early childhood to adolescence].

    PubMed

    Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Laucht, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Suicidal behaviors are prevalent among young people. Numerous risk factors have been implicated in their development. In the framework of the longitudinal Mannheim Study of Children at Risk, 311 young adults (143 males, 168 females) aged 19-23 years were investigated in order 1) to determine the significance of different risk factors during development in predicting suicidal behaviors in young adulthood, 2) to identify potential risk factors discriminating between suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, and 3) to examine whether the effect of early risk factors was mediated by later occurring predictors. Young adults with suicidal behaviors displayed a number of abnormalities during development, including high load of early family adversity, suicidal ideation and psychiatric problems in childhood and adolescence, as well as low self esteem, poor school functioning, higher levels of novelty seeking, and enhanced affiliations with deviant peers in adolescence. Independent contributions to predicting suicidal behaviors in young adults were provided by early family adversity, suicidal ideation during childhood and adolescence, and low self esteem (with regard to suicidal ideation) and novelty seeking (with regard to suicide attempt), respectively. The impact of early adversity was mediated by child and adolescent externalizing disorders and low self esteem in adolescence. Possible implications of these findings for the prevention and treatment of suicidal behaviors are discussed.

  17. Changes in Developmental Factors and HIV Risk Behaviors among Early Adolescents in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Fernández Santos, Diana M.; Figueroa-Cosme, Wanda I.; María de los, A. Gómez; Maysonet-Cruz, Johanna; Miranda-Díaz, Christine; Sepúlveda-Santiago, Mario; Ríos-Olivares, Eddy; Hunter-Mellado, Robert F.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Teenagers are the fastest growing group of newly HIV-infected persons. Consequently, a support model for HIV risk reduction was designed and implemented for early adolescents in Puerto Rico. Objective The purpose of this article is to assess changes in developmental factors and HIV risk behaviors among early adolescents after three years of follow-up of an intervention and a non-intervention group. Methods This prospective cohort study followed 135 early adolescents who were enrolled in the ASUMA (A Supportive Model for HIV Risk Reduction in Early Adolescents) Project. The study was performed in two public and two private junior schools. Baseline and three follow-up self-administered questionnaires were given. We examined sociodemographic factors, HIV risk behavior and developmental factors. Results 48% were in the intervention group and 51.1% were controls. Most adolescents were aged 12 years; 47.4% were males; 75.6% reported not having risk behaviors and 24.4% reported having risk behaviors at anytime in their lifespan. A significant decrease in the HIV risk behaviors median was observed among the intervention group (P<.05), while a non-significant increase was found among adolescents in the control group. At the end of the implementation phase, positive improvement in the developmental factors were observed in the intervention group (P<.05). Conclusions Our study suggests that the ASUMA project curriculum had a positive effect on developmental factors and HIV risk behaviors, as proposed in our conceptual framework. Also, this study illustrates the importance of the creation of culturally appropriate instruments and interventions to reach the goal of HIV/AIDS reduction. PMID:20521399

  18. Adolescent Sexual Risk Behaviors and School-Based Sexually Transmitted Infection/HIV Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walcott, Christy M.; Meyers, Adena B.; Landau, Steven

    2007-01-01

    Many adolescents are susceptible to negative outcomes associated with sexual behavior. This is particularly true for those who initiate sexual intercourse at an early age, have many sex partners, or engage in unprotected sex because these behaviors put one at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. This article reviews the…

  19. Adolescent Sexual Risk Behaviors and School-Based Sexually Transmitted Infection/HIV Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walcott, Christy M.; Meyers, Adena B.; Landau, Steven

    2007-01-01

    Many adolescents are susceptible to negative outcomes associated with sexual behavior. This is particularly true for those who initiate sexual intercourse at an early age, have many sex partners, or engage in unprotected sex because these behaviors put one at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. This article reviews the…

  20. Sexual risk behavior and STI health literacy among ethnic minority adolescent women.

    PubMed

    Dimmitt Champion, Jane; Harlin, Badia; Collins, Jennifer L

    2013-11-01

    Although information is available for prevention of sexually transmitted infection (STI/HIV), adolescents continue to engage in high risk sexual behavior particularly ethnic minority adolescent women with histories of STI or abuse. A description therefore of STI/HIV knowledge and sexual risk behavior among these women is indicated for modification of prevention efforts for sexual health promotion. African-American (n=94) and Mexican-American (n=465) adolescent women 14-18 years of age were included in the study. Assessments of sexual risk behavior and STI/HIV knowledge among these adolescent women described Mexican-American women as at higher risk of STI, pregnancy, substance use and abuse with lower levels of STI/HIV knowledge, previous HIV testing and perceptions of risk than African-American women. A focus on Mexican-American adolescent women with histories of STI and abuse is indicated for translation of community-based health promotion interventions for amelioration of potential adverse sexual health outcomes among ethnic minority adolescent women.

  1. On the Association between Sexual Attraction and Adolescent Risk Behavior Involvement: Examining Mediation and Moderation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busseri, Michael A.; Willoughby, Teena; Chalmers, Heather; Bogaert, Anthony F.

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of a large-scale survey of high-school youth, the authors compared adolescents reporting exclusively heterosexual, mostly heterosexual, bisexual, and predominately same-sex attraction based on high-risk involvement across a range of risk behaviors. Bisexual and same-sex attracted groups were characterized by heightened high-risk…

  2. Attitudes, Knowledge, and Sexual Behavior of High-Risk Adolescents: Implications for Counseling and Sexuality Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melchert, Tim; Burnett, Kent F.

    1990-01-01

    Examined high-risk sexual behavior in adolescents (N=212) involved in juvenile justice system. Found that youth were at high risk for unintended pregnancy, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome and other sexually transmitted disease. Compared to national norms, sample reported very early mean age at first intercourse and high rate of pregnancy. Most…

  3. On the Association between Sexual Attraction and Adolescent Risk Behavior Involvement: Examining Mediation and Moderation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busseri, Michael A.; Willoughby, Teena; Chalmers, Heather; Bogaert, Anthony F.

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of a large-scale survey of high-school youth, the authors compared adolescents reporting exclusively heterosexual, mostly heterosexual, bisexual, and predominately same-sex attraction based on high-risk involvement across a range of risk behaviors. Bisexual and same-sex attracted groups were characterized by heightened high-risk…

  4. Interactions of School Bonding, Disturbed Family Relationships, and Risk Behaviors among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rovis, Darko; Bezinovic, Petar; Basic, Josipa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Substance use, gambling, and violence represent a great risk for adolescent health. Schools are often referred to as the "best" places for health promotion and prevention, where positive school bonding serves as a strong protective factor for the development of risk behaviors and poor school bonding is associated with various…

  5. The Association between Adolescent Sexting, Psychosocial Difficulties, and Risk Behavior: Integrative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Ouytsel, Joris; Walrave, Michel; Ponnet, Koen; Heirman, Wannes

    2015-01-01

    When a sexting message spreads to an unintended audience, it can adversely affect the victim's reputation. Sexting incidents constitute a potential school safety risk. Just as with other types of adolescent risk behavior, school nurses might have to initiate the first response when a sexting episode arises, but a school nurse's role goes…

  6. The Association between Adolescent Sexting, Psychosocial Difficulties, and Risk Behavior: Integrative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Ouytsel, Joris; Walrave, Michel; Ponnet, Koen; Heirman, Wannes

    2015-01-01

    When a sexting message spreads to an unintended audience, it can adversely affect the victim's reputation. Sexting incidents constitute a potential school safety risk. Just as with other types of adolescent risk behavior, school nurses might have to initiate the first response when a sexting episode arises, but a school nurse's role goes…

  7. Interactions of School Bonding, Disturbed Family Relationships, and Risk Behaviors among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rovis, Darko; Bezinovic, Petar; Basic, Josipa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Substance use, gambling, and violence represent a great risk for adolescent health. Schools are often referred to as the "best" places for health promotion and prevention, where positive school bonding serves as a strong protective factor for the development of risk behaviors and poor school bonding is associated with various…

  8. Family Sources of Sexual Health Information, Primary Messages, and Sexual Behavior of At-Risk, Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosengard, Cynthia; Tannis, Candace; Dove, David C.; van den Berg, Jacob J.; Lopez, Rosalie; Stein, L. A. R.; Morrow, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sources of sexual health information exert strong influence on adolescents' sexual behavior. Purpose: The current study was undertaken to understand how family serve as sexual information sources, the messages adolescents recall from family, and how family learning experiences affect sexual behavior among at-risk adolescents. Methods:…

  9. Family Sources of Sexual Health Information, Primary Messages, and Sexual Behavior of At-Risk, Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosengard, Cynthia; Tannis, Candace; Dove, David C.; van den Berg, Jacob J.; Lopez, Rosalie; Stein, L. A. R.; Morrow, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sources of sexual health information exert strong influence on adolescents' sexual behavior. Purpose: The current study was undertaken to understand how family serve as sexual information sources, the messages adolescents recall from family, and how family learning experiences affect sexual behavior among at-risk adolescents. Methods:…

  10. Relationships between childhood sexual abuse and substance use and sexual risk behaviors during adolescence: An integrative review.

    PubMed

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Mazurczyk, Jill

    2013-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is thought to be a precursor to substance use and sexual risk behaviors during adolescence. To inform adolescent prevention efforts, information is needed to explicate the nature of the relationships between CSA and these health risks. The aim of this study was to summarize the current literature on the associations between a history of CSA and substance use and sexual risk behaviors during adolescence. We conducted a systematic literature search and an integrative review. Current evidence implicates CSA as a robust precursor to the use of a wide variety of substances and multiple sexual risk behaviors during adolescence. Screening for CSA in adolescents at risk and incorporating strategies that enhance CSA recovery in adolescent prevention programs are warranted. Future research that includes longitudinal designs, uses multiple methods of assessment, and identifies pathways between CSA and adolescent health risks is recommended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Shyness as a moderator of the link between advanced maturity and early adolescent risk behavior.

    PubMed

    Zalk, Nejra Van; Kerr, Margaret; Tilton-Weaver, Lauree

    2011-08-01

    Advanced maturity in early adolescence has previously been linked with several risk behaviors. In this study, we examine whether shyness and gender might moderate this link. The participants were 750 early adolescents (M(age) = 13.73; 390 girls and 360 boys), followed for one year. We conducted analyses with shyness and gender as moderators of the links between advanced maturity and different types of risk behavior, and between one risk behavior and another. Despite differential patterns for boys and girls, the results suggest that being shy or not being shy modifies the links between advanced maturity and risk behavior primarily for boys. For boys, shyness reduces relationships between advanced maturity and risk behavior, whereas not being shy exacerbates the relationships between advanced maturity and high-risk behavior. Controlling for romantic involvement and peer victimization did not alter the moderating effects, thus failing to support the idea that the weaker links for shy youths were due to shy youths not being drawn into advanced peer groups by romantic partners or peers. Thus, shyness might serve as a buffer against risk behavior in early adolescence. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2011 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  12. School attendance, health-risk behaviors, and self-esteem in adolescents applying for working papers.

    PubMed Central

    Suss, A. L.; Tinkelman, B. K.; Freeman, K.; Friedman, S. B.

    1996-01-01

    Since health-risk behaviors are often encountered in clusters among adolescents, it was hypothesized that adolescents with poor school attendance would be associated with more health-risk behaviors (e.g., substance use, violence) than those who attend school regularly. This study assessed the relationship between poor school attendance and health-risk behaviors, and described health-risk behaviors and self-esteem among adolescents seeking employment. In this cross-sectional study, school attendance (poor vs. regular attendance) was related to health-risk behaviors by asking 122 subjects seen at a New York City Working Papers Clinic to complete both a 72-item questionnaire about their health-risk behaviors and the 58-item Coopersmith Self-Esteem School Form Inventory. Chi-square and Fisher's Exact Tests were performed. The poor and regular attenders of school differed significantly in only 5 out of 44 items pertaining to health-risk behaviors. Self-esteem measures for the two groups did not differ from one another or from national norms. In this sample, depression "in general" (global) and "at home," but not "at school," were associated significantly with suicidal thoughts/attempts and serious past life events (e.g. family conflict, sexual abuse). There were no significant associations between depression or self-esteem and illicit substance or alcohol use. We found few associations between poor school attendance and health-risk behaviors in this sample of employment-seeking adolescents. The poor and regular attenders of school were similar in most aspects of their health-risk behaviors and self-esteem. PMID:8982520

  13. The "immigrant paradox" phenomenon: assessing problem behaviors and risk factors among immigrant and native adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chun, Heejung; Mobley, Michael

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the "immigrant paradox" phenomenon by examining differences in problem behavior engagement and exposure to risk factors across four adolescent groups: 1,157 first-generation, 1,498 second-generation, and 3,316 White and minority third or higher generations. Latent mean differences in problem behavior engagement (i.e., academic failure, aggression, and substance use) and risk factors (i.e., low socioeconomic status, poor family relationship, and low sense of school belonging) were associated with significant differences across adolescent groups. Results supported the generational status effect by demonstrating sequentially greater adolescent problem behavior engagement. However, the difference in exposure to risk factors across adolescent groups only partially supported the immigrant paradox. Further, the multiple group analysis of the relationships between risk factors and engagement in problem behaviors showed increased susceptibility among second generation immigrants for substance use, White natives for academic failure and substance use, and minority natives for physical aggression. Study findings have implications for understanding how the immigrant paradox leads to different adjustment patterns and problem behavior manifestations among immigrant and native adolescents.

  14. Brain structural correlates of risk-taking behavior and effects of peer influence in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Myoung Soo; Vorobyev, Victor; Moe, Dagfinn; Parkkola, Riitta; Hämäläinen, Heikki

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents are characterized by impulsive risky behavior, particularly in the presence of peers. We discriminated high and low risk-taking male adolescents aged 18-19 years by assessing their propensity for risky behavior and vulnerability to peer influence with personality tests, and compared structural differences in gray and white matter of the brain with voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), respectively. We also compared the brain structures according to the participants' actual risk-taking behavior in a simulated driving task with two different social conditions making up a peer competition situation. There was a discrepancy between the self-reported personality test results and risky driving behavior (running through an intersection with traffic lights turning yellow, chancing a collision with another vehicle). Comparison between high and low risk-taking adolescents according to personality test results revealed no significant difference in gray matter volume and white matter integrity. However, comparison according to actual risk-taking behavior during task performance revealed significantly higher white matter integrity in the high risk-taking group, suggesting that increased risky behavior during adolescence is not necessarily attributed to the immature brain as conventional wisdom says.

  15. Brain Structural Correlates of Risk-Taking Behavior and Effects of Peer Influence in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Myoung Soo; Vorobyev, Victor; Moe, Dagfinn; Parkkola, Riitta; Hämäläinen, Heikki

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents are characterized by impulsive risky behavior, particularly in the presence of peers. We discriminated high and low risk-taking male adolescents aged 18–19 years by assessing their propensity for risky behavior and vulnerability to peer influence with personality tests, and compared structural differences in gray and white matter of the brain with voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), respectively. We also compared the brain structures according to the participants' actual risk-taking behavior in a simulated driving task with two different social conditions making up a peer competition situation. There was a discrepancy between the self-reported personality test results and risky driving behavior (running through an intersection with traffic lights turning yellow, chancing a collision with another vehicle). Comparison between high and low risk-taking adolescents according to personality test results revealed no significant difference in gray matter volume and white matter integrity. However, comparison according to actual risk-taking behavior during task performance revealed significantly higher white matter integrity in the high risk-taking group, suggesting that increased risky behavior during adolescence is not necessarily attributed to the immature brain as conventional wisdom says. PMID:25389976

  16. Health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms among Hispanic adolescents: Examining acculturation discrepancies and family functioning.

    PubMed

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Schwartz, Seth J; Castillo, Linda G; Unger, Jennifer B; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L; Romero, Andrea J; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Córdova, David; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Lizzi, Karina M; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Soto, Daniel W; Villamar, Juan Andres; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José

    2016-03-01

    Drawing from a theory of bicultural family functioning 2 models were tested to examine the longitudinal effects of acculturation-related variables on adolescent health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms (HRB/DS) mediated by caregiver and adolescent reports of family functioning. One model examined the effects of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A second model examined the individual effects of caregiver and adolescent acculturation components in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A sample of 302 recently immigrated Hispanic caregiver-child dyads completed measures of Hispanic and U.S. cultural practices, values, and identities at baseline (predictors); measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement 6 months postbaseline (mediators); and only adolescents completed measures of smoking, binge drinking, inconsistent condom use, and depressive symptoms 1 year postbaseline (outcomes). Measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement were used to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis to estimate the fit of a latent construct for family functioning. Key findings indicate that (a) adolescent acculturation components drove the effect of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning; (b) higher levels of adolescent family functioning were associated with less HRB/DS, whereas higher levels of caregiver family functioning were associated with more adolescent HRB/DS; (c) and only adolescent reports of family functioning mediated the effects of acculturation components and caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies on HRB/DS. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Health Risk Behaviors and Depressive Symptoms among Hispanic Adolescents: Examining Acculturation Discrepancies and Family Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Schwartz, Seth J.; Castillo, Linda G.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Romero, Andrea J.; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Córdova, David; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E.; Lizzi, Karina M.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Soto, Daniel W.; Villamar, Juan Andres; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José

    2015-01-01

    Drawing from a theory of bicultural family functioning two models were tested to examine the longitudinal effects of acculturation-related variables on adolescent health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms (HRB/DS) mediated by caregiver and adolescent reports of family functioning. One model examined the effects of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A second model examined the individual effects of caregiver and adolescent acculturation components in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A sample of 302 recently immigrated Hispanic caregiver-child dyads completed measures of Hispanic and U.S. cultural practices, values, and identities at baseline (predictors); measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement six months post-baseline (mediators); and only adolescents completed measures of smoking, binge drinking, inconsistent condom use, and depressive symptoms one year post-baseline (outcomes). Measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement were used to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis to estimate the fit of a latent construct for family functioning. Key findings indicate that (a) adolescent acculturation components drove the effect of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning, (b) higher levels of adolescent family functioning were associated with less HRB/DS, whereas higher levels of caregiver family functioning were associated with more adolescent HRB/DS, (c) and only adolescent reports of family functioning mediated the effects of acculturation components and caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies on HRB/DS. PMID:26301514

  18. Relationships Between Social-Emotional Intelligence and Sexual Risk Behaviors in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Lando-King, Elizabeth; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Gower, Amy L.; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; McMorris, Barbara J.; Pettingell, Sandra; Sieving, Renee E.

    2015-01-01

    Social-emotional intelligence (SEI) has been linked with a number of health behaviors in adolescent populations. However, little is known about the influence of SEI on sexual behavior. This study examined associations between three indicators of SEI (intrapersonal skills, interpersonal skills, stress management skills) and adolescent girls’ sexual risk behaviors. Data come from a cross-sectional sample of sexually active adolescent girls (ages 13 to 17 years) at high risk for pregnancy (N = 253), recruited from health care clinics in a Midwest metropolitan area during 2007 and 2008. Results of multivariable regression models controlling for participants’ age and race/ethnicity indicated that each aspect of SEI was related to distinct sexual risk behaviors. Specifically, girls with greater intrapersonal skills had significantly fewer male sex partners in the past six months (b = −0.16). Participants with greater interpersonal skills reported earlier communication with their sexual partner about sexual risk (b = 0.14), and those with a better ability to manage stress reported more consistent condom use (b = 0.31). Study findings suggest that SEI may provide a protective buffer against sexual risk behaviors. Building adolescent girls’ social and emotional skills may be an effective strategy for reducing their risk for early pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. PMID:25621508

  19. Risk factors for problem behavior in adolescents of parents with a chronic medical condition.

    PubMed

    Sieh, Dominik Sebastian; Visser-Meily, Johanna Maria Augusta; Oort, Frans Jeroen; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2012-08-01

    A wide array of risk factors for problem behavior in adolescents with chronically ill parents emerges from the literature. This study aims to identify those factors with the highest impact on internalizing problem behavior (anxious, depressed and withdrawn behavior, and somatic complaints) and externalizing problem behavior (aggressive and rule-breaking behavior) as measured by the Youth Self-Report (YSR). The YSR was filled in by 160 adolescents (mean age = 15.1 years) from 100 families (102 chronically ill parents and 83 healthy spouses). Linear mixed model analyses were used, enabling separation of variance attributable to individual factors and variance attributable to family membership (i.e., family cluster effect). Predictors were child, parent, illness-related and family characteristics. The results showed that almost half of the variance in internalizing problem scores was explained by family membership, while externalizing problems were mainly explained by individual factors. Roughly 60 % of the variance in internalizing problems was predicted by illness duration, adolescents' feeling of isolation, daily hassles affecting personal life and alienation from the mother. Approximately a third of the variance in externalizing problems was predicted by adolescents' male gender, daily hassles concerning ill parents and alienation from both parents. In conclusion, the variance in adolescent problem behavior is largely accounted for by family membership, children's daily hassles and parent-child attachment. To prevent marginalization of adolescents with a chronically ill parent, it is important to be alert for signs of problem behavior and foster the peer and family support system.

  20. Soda Consumption is Associated with Risk-Taking Behaviors in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Amanda M; Temple, Jennifer L

    2015-11-01

    Soda consumption is on the rise among children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that increased soda consumption predicts risk-taking behavior among high school students. To test this hypothesis, we used data from the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System to compare the odds of engaging in a series of risk-taking behaviors among students who reported no soda consumption, occasional soda consumption (1 - 6 times per week), and daily soda consumption (≥ 7 times per week). Daily soda consumption was associated with increased odds of engaging in 90% of the risk behaviors analyzed. In addition, there were sex differences in the magnitude of the relationships for many of these behaviors. These data suggest that in addition to increased risk of obesity, dental caries, and reduced sleep quality, soda consumption is associated with increased risk-taking behavior.

  1. Mindful Parenting and Parents’ Emotion Expression: Effects on Adolescent Risk Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Turpyn, Caitlin C.; Chaplin, Tara M.

    2015-01-01

    Mindful parenting is associated with greater adjustment and fewer behavior problems in children and adolescents. However, the mechanisms by which mindful parenting functions to mitigate risk in adolescence is not well understood. This study investigated parent emotional expression as a potential mechanism in the relationship between low mindful parenting and adolescent risk behaviors. A sample of 157 12-14 year old adolescents (49% female) and their primary caregivers (99% female) participated in an emotionally-arousing conflict interaction. Parents reported on their mindful parenting practices, and parents’ emotion expressions during the conflict interaction were coded including negative emotion, positive emotion, and shared parent-youth positive emotion. Adolescent substance use and sex behaviors were assessed through self-report, interview, and physical toxicology screens. Results indicated that mindful parenting was associated with less parental negative emotion and greater shared positive emotion during the parent-adolescent conflict. Further, results revealed a significant indirect effect of mindful parenting on youth's substance use through shared parent-adolescent positive emotion. Findings highlight the relevance of emotional functioning in the context of stressful parenting situations in mindful parenting. PMID:27087861

  2. Risk Factors of Acute Behavioral Regression in Psychiatrically Hospitalized Adolescents with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Périsse, Didier; Amiet, Claire; Consoli, Angèle; Thorel, Marie-Vincente; Gourfinkel-An, Isabelle; Bodeau, Nicolas; Guinchat, Vincent; Barthélémy, Catherine; Cohen, David

    2010-01-01

    Aim: During adolescence, some individuals with autism engage in severe disruptive behaviors, such as violence, agitation, tantrums, or self-injurious behaviors. We aimed to assess risk factors associated with very acute states and regression in adolescents with autism in an inpatient population. Method: Between 2001 and 2005, we reviewed the charts of all adolescents with autism (N=29, mean age=14.8 years, 79% male) hospitalized for severe disruptive behaviors in a psychiatric intensive care unit. We systematically collected data describing socio-demographic characteristics, clinical variables (severity, presence of language, cognitive level), associated organic conditions, etiologic diagnosis of the episode, and treatments. Results: All patients exhibited severe autistic symptoms and intellectual disability, and two-thirds had no functional verbal language. Fifteen subjects exhibited epilepsy, including three cases in which epilepsy was unknown before the acute episode. For six (21%) of the subjects, uncontrolled seizures were considered the main cause of the disruptive behaviors. Other suspected risk factors associated with disruptive behavior disorders included adjustment disorder (N=7), lack of adequate therapeutic or educational management (N=6), depression (N=2), catatonia (N=2), and painful comorbid organic conditions (N=3). Conclusion: Disruptive behaviors among adolescents with autism may stem from diverse risk factors, including environmental problems, comorbid acute psychiatric conditions, or somatic diseases such as epilepsy. The management of these behavioral changes requires a multidisciplinary functional approach. PMID:20467546

  3. Concurrent multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents in Luangnamtha province, Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Multiple health risk behaviors (HRBs) among adolescents pose a threat to their health, including HIV/AIDS. Health risk behaviors such as alcohol use, smoking, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors among youth have been shown to co-occur with each others. The objectives of this study was to estimate the prevalence of single and concurrent health risk behaviors and to explore how health risk behavior is associated with socio-demographic factors and peers' behaviors. Methods A cross sectional design was used to examine health risk behaviors of adolescents between the age 14 and 19 years living in the Luangnamtha province, Lao PDR. The study was conducted between June and August, 2008. An ordinal logistic regression model that simultaneously explored demographic factors and the influence of the behavior of peers on three categories of multiple HRBs (no risk, one risk, and two or more health risk behaviors) was performed. Results A total of 1360 respondents, 669 (49.1%) boys with mean age 16.7 ± 1.6 and 699 (50.9%) girls aged 16.1 ± 1.5 were recruited into the study. The majority reported two or fewer risk behaviors. However, multiple risk behaviors increased with age for both sexes. About 46.8% (n = 637) reported no risk, 39.3 percent (n = 535) reported one risk, 8.1 percent (n = 110) reported two risks, and 5.8 percent reported more than two health risk behaviors. The protective factors among boys were school attendance (OR = .53, CI = .33-.86), being Hmong and Yao ethnicity (OR = .48, CI-.26-.90), while being above the age of 15 (OR = 2.20, 95% CI = 1.33-3.60), Akha ethnicity (OR = 2.20, 95% CI = 1.04-4.61), peer's smoking (OR = 3.11, 95% CI = 2.1-4.6), and peer's drinking alcohol (OR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.1-3.21) were significantly associated with the presence of multiple risk behaviors among boys. Having some education (OR = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.06-0.45), and being of Hmong and Yao ethnicity (OR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.18-0.80) were factors that protected girls

  4. Early Risk Behaviors and Adolescent Injury in 25 European and North American Countries: A Cross-National Consistent Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Looze, Margaretha; Pickett, William; Raaijmakers, Quinten; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Hublet, Anne; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Molcho, Michal; Vollebergh, Wilma; ter Bogt, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Injury is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among adolescents in developed countries. Jessor and Jessor's Problem Behavior Theory suggests an association between risk behaviors (e.g., smoking, drunkenness, cannabis use, and sexual intercourse) and adolescent injury. The present study examined whether early engagement in risk behaviors…

  5. Early Risk Behaviors and Adolescent Injury in 25 European and North American Countries: A Cross-National Consistent Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Looze, Margaretha; Pickett, William; Raaijmakers, Quinten; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Hublet, Anne; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Molcho, Michal; Vollebergh, Wilma; ter Bogt, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Injury is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among adolescents in developed countries. Jessor and Jessor's Problem Behavior Theory suggests an association between risk behaviors (e.g., smoking, drunkenness, cannabis use, and sexual intercourse) and adolescent injury. The present study examined whether early engagement in risk behaviors…

  6. Frequency of alcohol use in adolescence as a marker for subsequent sexual risk behavior in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Muchimba, Maureen; Haberstick, Brett C; Corley, Robin P; McQueen, Matthew B

    2013-08-01

    Although a number of studies have demonstrated an association between alcohol use frequency and sexual risk behavior, few have used longitudinal data. This study examined alcohol use frequency in adolescence as a predictor of HIV sexual risk behavior in adulthood. We collected data among 1,368 participants in Colorado. During adolescence (time 1), respondents were asked about the frequency of using alcohol during the previous 12 months. In adulthood (time 2), the same respondents were asked about their sexual risk behavior during the previous 12 months. Sexual risk behavior items were used to construct an index, which was categorized to indicate low-, medium-, and high-risk study participants. The relationship between alcohol use patterns and risky sexual behavior was modeled using ordinal regression. Compared with individuals who drank no alcohol in the past 12 months at time 1, the odds of being in a higher risk group of sexual behavior as opposed to a lower one at time 2 were 1.56 (95% CI, 1.04-2.35) among those who drank 6-19 times. Similarly, the odds of being in a higher risk group relative to a lower one among those who drank ≥20 times or were 1.78 (95% CI, 1.05-3.02). Alcohol use patterns in adolescence may be useful markers for programs that aim to prevent risky sexual behavior. Based on alcohol intake patterns, it may be possible to identify frequent alcohol users that need to be targeted with appropriate alcohol use and HIV risk reduction messages. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of ASUMA Intervention on HIV Risk Behaviors among Puerto Rican Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Santos, Diana M.; Miranda-Diaz, Christine; Figueroa-Cosme, Wanda I.; Ramon, Raul O.; Mayor, Angel M.; Rios-Olivares, Eddy; Hunter-Mellado, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to assess and compare HIV risk behaviors among early adolescents after a three-year pilot study. A total of 135 public and private junior high schools students completed the intervention protocol. A self-administered questionnaire was given at baseline and at the end of the third year (fourth measure). Descriptive and inferential analyses were performed using SPSS 20.0. About 60% of the students were 14 years old at the fourth measure. The proportion of students that did not report at least one HIV risk behavior at baseline and those that reported any risk behavior at the fourth measure was lower in the intervention group (45.0%) than in the control group (54.5%). The proportion of students that reported at least one HIV risk behavior at baseline and those that did not report any HIV risk behavior at the fourth measure was higher in the intervention group than in the control group (33.3% vs. 8.3%). The proportion of students engaging in HIV risk behaviors was higher in the control group than in the intervention group at the fourth measure, suggesting that A Supportive Model for HIV Risk Reduction in Early Adolescence (ASUMA) intervention might be a promising initiative to reduce adolescents’ engagement in HIV risk behaviors. PMID:26703684

  8. Associations of Health-Risk Behaviors and Health Cognition With Sexual Orientation Among Adolescents in School

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Yun; Kim, Seo-Hee; Woo, Sook Young; Yoon, Byung-Koo; Choi, DooSeok

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Homosexual adolescents may face significant health disparities. We examined health-risk behaviors and health cognition related to homosexual behavior in a representative sample of adolescents. Data were obtained from 129,900 adolescents between 2008 and 2012 over 5 cycles of the Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a national survey of students in grades 7 to 12. Various health-risk behaviors and aspects of health cognition were compared between homosexual and heterosexual adolescents and analyzed with multiple logistic regression models. Compared with heterosexual adolescents (n = 127,594), homosexual adolescents (n = 2306) were more likely to engage in various health-risk behaviors and to have poor health cognition. In multiple logistic regression analysis, not living with parents, alcohol experience (adjusted odds ratio, 1.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.26–1.78 for males and 1.66; 1.33–2.07 for females), smoking experience (1.80; 1.54–2.10 for males and 3.15; 2.61–3.79 for females), and drug experience (3.65; 2.81–4.80 for males and 3.23; 2.35–4.46 for females) were associated with homosexual behavior. Homosexual adolescents were more likely to use adult internet content (2.82; 2.27–3.50 for males and 7.42; 4.19–13.15 for females), and to be depressed (1.21; 1.03–1.43 for males and 1.32; 1.06–1.64 for females). In addition, suicide ideation (1.51; 1.26–1.81 for males and 1.47; 1.16–1.86 for females) and attempts (1.67; 1.37–2.05 for males and 1.65; 1.34–2.03 for females) were significantly more prevalent among homosexual adolescents. Homosexual adolescents report disparities in various aspects of health-risk behavior and health cognition, including use of multiple substances, adult internet content and inappropriate weight loss methods, suicide ideation and attempts, and depressive mood. These factors should be addressed relevantly to develop specific interventions regarding sexual minorities. PMID:27227939

  9. [Intervention to reduce adolescents sexual risk behaviors: a randomized controlled trial].

    PubMed

    Gallegos, Esther C; Villarruel, Antonia M; Loveland-Cherry, Carol; Ronis, David L; Yan Zhou, Ms

    2008-01-01

    To test the efficacy of a behavioral intervention designed to decrease risk sexual behaviors for HIV/AIDS and unplanned pregnancies in Mexican adolescents. Randomized controlled trial with four follow ups; 832 adolescents recruited from high schools, age 14-17, were randomly assigned to the experimental or control group. The six hour intervention used active learning strategies, and was delivered in two sessions on two consecutive Saturdays. The study was carried out in Monterrey, Mexico, 2002-2005. GEE analysis indicated no differences in sexual relationships intentions between the two conditions, however, the experimental group had higher intentions to use condoms and contraceptives (mean differences 0.15 and 0.16, CI 95%) in the next three months, as compared with the control group. Theoretical variables, such as control beliefs, were significant mediators of the intervention. The behavioral intervention represents an important effort in promoting safe sexual behaviors among Mexican adolescents.

  10. Protective effects of self-esteem and family support on suicide risk behaviors among at-risk adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sharaf, Amira Y; Thompson, Elaine A; Walsh, Elaine

    2009-08-01

    If and how family support and self-esteem might interact to protect against adolescent suicide risk is not well understood. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to examine the moderating effect of family support on the relationship between self-esteem and suicide risk behaviors among potential high school dropouts (N = 849), using questionnaires and in-depth assessment interviews. Family support moderated the impact of self-esteem on suicide risk; the ameliorating effect of self-esteem was stronger among adolescents with low versus high family support. Self-esteem influences adolescent suicide risk behaviors for youth with low as well as high family support. Interventions designed to strengthen both self-esteem and support resources are appropriate.

  11. Risk of Suicidal Ideation in Adolescents with Both Self-Asphyxial Risk-Taking Behavior and Non-Suicidal Self-Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brausch, Amy M.; Decker, Kristina M.; Hadley, Andrea G.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined adolescent participation in self-asphyxial risk-taking behaviors (SAB), sometimes known as the "choking game," and its relationship with other adolescent risk behaviors, including non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). Researchers proposed that participation in SAB and NSSI would be associated with suicidal behavior, disordered…

  12. Perceived racial/ethnic discrimination, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and health risk behaviors among Mexican American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Flores, Elena; Tschann, Jeanne M; Dimas, Juanita M; Pasch, Lauri A; de Groat, Cynthia L

    2010-07-01

    Utilizing the concept of race-based traumatic stress, this study tested whether posttraumatic stress symptoms explain the process by which perceived discrimination is related to health risk behaviors among Mexican American adolescents. One hundred ten participants were recruited from a large health maintenance organization in Northern California. Mediational analyses indicated that adolescents who perceived more discrimination reported worse posttraumatic stress symptoms, controlling for covariates. In turn, adolescents who experienced heightened posttraumatic stress symptoms reported more alcohol use, more other drug use, involvement in more fights, and more sexual partners. Perceived discrimination was also directly related to involvement in more fights. Results provide support for the notion of race-based traumatic stress, specifically, that perceived discrimination may be traumatizing for Mexican American adolescents. Counseling psychologists and counselors in schools and community settings should assess Mexican American adolescents for the effects of discrimination and provide appropriate interventions to reduce its negative emotional impact.

  13. Temperament and Externalizing Behavior as Mediators of Genetic Risk on Adolescent Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Trucco, Elisa M.; Hicks, Brian M.; Villafuerte, Sandra; Nigg, Joel; Burmeister, Margit; Zucker, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how specific genes contribute to risk for addiction remains challenging. This study tests whether childhood temperament and externalizing behavior in early adolescence account for a portion of the association between specific genetic variants and substance use problems in late adolescence. The sample consisted of 487 adolescents from the Michigan Longitudinal Study, a high-risk sample (70.2% male, 81.7% European American ancestry). Polymorphisms across serotonergic (SLC6A4, 5-HTTLPR), dopaminergic (DRD4, u-VNTR), noradrenergic (SLC6A2, rs36021), and GABAergic (GABRA2, rs279858; GABRA6, rs3811995) genes were examined given prior support for associations with temperament, externalizing behavior, and substance use problems. The temperament traits behavioral control and resiliency were assessed using interviewer ratings (ages 9-11), and externalizing behavior (ages 12-14) was assessed using teacher ratings. Self-reported substance use outcomes (ages 15-17) included maximum alcoholic beverages consumed in 24 hours, and frequency of past year cigarette and marijuana use. Behavioral control, resiliency, and externalizing behavior accounted for the associations between polymorphisms in noradrenergic and GABAergic genes and substance use in late adolescence. Individual differences in emotional coping and behavioral regulation represent non-specific neurobiological underpinnings for an externalizing pathway to addiction. PMID:26845260

  14. Relationships of Social Context and Identity to Problem Behavior among High-Risk Hispanic Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Mason, Craig A.; Pantin, Hilda; Wang, Wei; Brown, C. Hendricks; Campo, Ana; Szapocznik, José

    2008-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the extent to which (a) family and school functioning and (b) personal and ethnic identity is associated with conduct problems, drug use, and sexual risk taking in a sample of 227 high-risk Hispanic adolescents. Adolescents participated in the study with their primary parents, who were mostly mothers. Adolescents completed measures of family and school functioning, personal and ethnic identity, conduct problems, and drug use. Parents completed measures of family functioning and adolescent conduct problems. Results indicated that school functioning and personal identity confusion were related to alcohol use, illicit drug use, and sexual risk taking indirectly through adolescent reports of conduct problems. Adolescent reports of family functioning were related to alcohol use, illicit drug use, and sexual risk taking through school functioning and conduct problems. Results are discussed in terms of the problem behavior syndrome and in terms of the finding of relative independence of contextual and identity variables vis-à-vis conduct problems, substance use, and sexual risk taking. PMID:19412356

  15. Father Involvement, Dating Violence, and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among a National Sample of Adolescent Females.

    PubMed

    Alleyne-Green, Binta; Grinnell-Davis, Claudette; Clark, Trenette T; Quinn, Camille R; Cryer-Coupet, Qiana R

    2016-03-01

    This study explored the relationship between the involvement of biological fathers and the sexual risk behaviors and dating violence/victimization and/or perpetration of adolescent girls. The data used in this cross-sectional analysis were drawn from the second wave of the public release of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Only adolescents who reported their biological sex as female, reported a history of being sexually active, and reported having a romantic partner in the previous 18 months were selected (N = 879). This study focused on overall positive sexual behaviors and use of contraception. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to best utilize capacity for dealing with latent variables and to test for possible mediation effects. The analysis demonstrated main effects of dating violence and father involvement on sexual behaviors. The more dating violence an adolescent girl experiences, the less likely she is to engage in healthy sexual behaviors. Likewise, the more involvement the biological father has in a woman's life, the more likely she is to engage in positive sexual behaviors. Perceived father involvement was associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls. Dating violence was directly associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls, particularly non-White girls. Future studies should use longitudinal models and test theoretically and empirically guided potential mediators. Future studies should also consider father figures such as step-fathers and grandfathers in addition to biological fathers, as having a father figure may be a stronger predictor of adolescent sexual behaviors than having a biological connection. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Father Involvement, Dating Violence, and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among a National Sample of Adolescent Females

    PubMed Central

    Alleyne-Green, Binta; Grinnell-Davis, Claudette; Clark, Trenette T.; Quinn, Camille R.; Cryer, Qiana R.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between the involvement of biological fathers and the sexual risk behaviors and dating violence/victimization and/ or perpetration of adolescent girls. The data used in this cross-sectional analysis were drawn from the second wave of the public release of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Only adolescents who reported their biological sex as female, reported a history of being sexually active, and reported having a romantic partner in the previous 18 months were selected (N = 879). This study focused on overall positive sexual behaviors and use of contraception. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to best utilize capacity for dealing with latent variables and to test for possible mediation effects. The analysis demonstrated main effects of dating violence and father involvement on sexual behaviors. The more dating violence an adolescent girl experiences, the less likely she is to engage in healthy sexual behaviors. Likewise, the more involvement the biological father has in a woman’s life, the more likely she is to engage in positive sexual behaviors. Perceived father involvement was associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls. Dating violence was directly associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls, particularly non-White girls. Future studies should use longitudinal models and test theoretically and empirically guided potential mediators. Future studies should also consider father figures such as step-fathers and grandfathers in addition to biological fathers, as having a father figure may be a stronger predictor of adolescent sexual behaviors than having a biological connection. PMID:25475102

  17. Interactions of School Bonding, Disturbed Family Relationships, and Risk Behaviors Among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rovis, Darko; Bezinovic, Petar; Basic, Josipa

    2015-10-01

    Substance use, gambling, and violence represent a great risk for adolescent health. Schools are often referred to as the "best" places for health promotion and prevention, where positive school bonding serves as a strong protective factor for the development of risk behaviors and poor school bonding is associated with various risk behaviors. The purpose of this study was to examine the risk effect of disturbed family relations, the protective effect of school bonding, and the extent to which school can compensate for the negative effect of an adverse family environment related to the risk behaviors of the adolescents. A self-reported questionnaire was administered to a random sample of students in grades 9-11 from 30 high schools. A total of 1519 respondents were included in the analysis. Covariance analysis was used to test the impact of sex, school year, school bonding, and family relationships on risk behaviors and the interaction effect of school bonding and family relationships. Both dimensions of school bonding, attachment to school, and commitment to schooling, were found to be significant predictors of risk behavior, with a commitment to schooling being an even more significant predictor than disturbed family relations. Students with greater school bonding and unfavorable family circumstances reported fewer risk behaviors than students of equal family circumstances but weak school bonding. These findings emphasize the role of the school as a social compensator for the adverse effects of a disturbed family environment. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  18. HIV risk behavior and psychopathology among adolescents in court ordered treatment

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Robert C.; Stanforth, Evan T.; Dévieux, Jessy G.; Jean-Gilles, Michèle

    2016-01-01

    Background The confluence of drug use behaviors, sexual risk, and psychopathology may complicate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention intervention for adolescents engaging in substance use and criminal behavior. However, few studies have examined these risk associations. Objective This study identified HIV risk behavior subgroups among adolescents in court ordered substance abuse treatment and examined linkages with dimensions of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. Methods Latent class analysis was used to identify subgroups on the basis of involvement in substance use proximal to sex, number of partners, and consistency of condom use. Results Participants (n = 301) were identified as demonstrating high, medium, or low levels of sexual risk behavior. Greater externalizing psychopathology distinguished the high risk class from the medium risk class and from the low risk class. Conclusion Detained youth with particularly serious oppositional-defiant behavioral characteristics, substance use, and sex risk behavior likely require intensive interventions that address the multiple systemic factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of this pattern. PMID:26864053

  19. Urban Lit and Sexual Risk Behavior: A Survey of African-American Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Harris, Allyssa L

    2015-07-01

    Adolescents spend an inordinate amount of time engaged with media, which is highly sexualized. Sexualized material can be found in music, on television and the Internet, as well as in magazines and books. Adolescents engaged with media are often influenced by this sexualized content, leading them to engage in risky sexual behavior. Urban literature (urban lit) is extremely popular among African-American female adolescents due to its portrayal of urban life and hip-hop culture. The purpose of this survey was to ascertain the extent to which African-American adolescent females are reading urban literature and to document whether this genre of literature had an effect on their sexual risk behaviors.

  20. The Moderating Effect of Marijuana Use on the Relationship between Delinquent Behavior and HIV Risk among Adolescents in Foster Care

    PubMed Central

    Auslander, Wendy F.; Thompson, Ronald G.; Gerke, Donald R.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents in foster care experience mental health and substance use problems that place them at risk for HIV, yet the exact nature of the relationship remains unclear. This study examined the co-occurring influences of mental health problems and substance use on HIV risk and determined whether substance use moderated the effect of mental health problems on HIV risk behaviors among adolescents in foster care. Regression analyses of cross-sectional data collected through structured interviews with 334 adolescents, aged 15–18 years, determined which mental health problems and substances increased HIV risk behaviors. Adolescents with delinquency and anxiety/depression engaged in significantly more HIV risk behaviors than their counterparts, controlling for race, gender, and type of childhood abuse. Further, any marijuana use significantly moderated the effects of delinquent behaviors on HIV risk, differentially increasing HIV risk among those who engaged in delinquent behaviors. PMID:25214818

  1. Mania Symptoms and HIV-Risk Behavior Among Adolescents in Mental Health Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Angela J.; Theodore-Oklota, Christina; Hadley, Wendy; Brown, Larry K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study explored whether adolescents with elevated symptoms of mania (ESM+) engage in more HIV risk behaviors than those with other psychiatric disorders and examined factors associated with HIV risk behavior among ESM+ adolescents. Method Eight hundred and forty adolescents (56% female, 58% African American, mean age 14.9 years) who received mental health treatment completed private, computer-based assessments of psychiatric disorders, sexual and substance use behaviors, and provided urine to screen for sexually transmitted infections (STI). Results Eighty-seven percent met criteria for a psychiatric disorder and among these youth 21% were considered ESM+. Compared to those with other psychiatric disorders, ESM+ were more likely to be sexually active (61.6% vs. 53.6%), have multiple sexual partners (58.6% vs. 37.5%), have unprotected sex (38.4% vs. 28.0%), exchange sex for money (4.7% vs. 1.2%) and to test positive for an STI (14.0% vs. 6.3%). Among ESM+ youth, sexual risk behaviors were primarily associated with individual factors (e.g., self-efficacy, impulsivity, and substance use) and varied depending on the type of sexual behavior (e.g., onset of sex, number of partners, and condom use). Conclusions Adolescents with ESM should be regularly screened for sexual risk behaviors and receive HIV prevention skills. Efforts to increase self-efficacy for safer sex, reduce impulsivity, and decrease substance use may be effective targets for sexual risk reduction among adolescents with ESM. PMID:22540428

  2. School Health Promotion Policies and Adolescent Risk Behaviors in Israel: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesler, Riki; Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Baron-Epel, Orna

    2016-01-01

    Background: Health promotion policies targeting risk-taking behaviors are being implemented across schools in Israel. This study identified the most effective components of these policies influencing cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among adolescents. Methods: Logistic hierarchical linear model (HLM) analysis of data for 5279 students in…

  3. Early Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors, Conflict Resolution Strategies, and School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRusso, Maria; Selman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Drawing upon an ethnically and socio-economically diverse sample of 323 7th grade students from twelve urban schools within one school district, this mixed method study examined early adolescents' self-reported health risk behaviors as related to their conflict resolution strategies and their school's conflict resolution climate. Survey data…

  4. Perceived Racial/Ethnic Discrimination, Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms, and Health Risk Behaviors among Mexican American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Elena; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Dimas, Juanita M.; Pasch, Lauri A.; de Groat, Cynthia L.

    2010-01-01

    Utilizing the concept of race-based traumatic stress, this study tested whether posttraumatic stress symptoms explain the process by which perceived discrimination is related to health risk behaviors among Mexican American adolescents. One hundred ten participants were recruited from a large health maintenance organization in Northern California.…

  5. Adolescent Non-Involvement in Multiple Risk Behaviors: An Indicator of Successful Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Teena; Chalmers, Heather; Busseri, Michael A.; Bosacki, Sandra; Dupont, Diane; Marini, Zopito; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Sadava, Stan; Ward, Anthony; Woloshyn, Vera

    2007-01-01

    Based on the conceptualization of successful development as the joint maximization of desirable outcomes and minimization of undesirable outcomes (Baltes, 1997), the present study examined connections between adolescent non-involvement in multiple risk behaviors and positive developmental status. Results from a survey of 7290 high school students…

  6. Psychological and Behavioral Risk Factors for Obesity Onset in Adolescent Girls: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Shaw, Heather; Rohde, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Because little is known about risk factors for obesity, the authors tested whether certain psychological and behavioral variables predicted future onset of obesity. The authors used data from a prospective study of 496 adolescent girls who completed a baseline assessment at age 11-15 years and 4 annual follow-ups. Self-reported dietary restraint,…

  7. Ecological Factors Associated with STD Risk Behaviors among Detained Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voisin, Dexter R.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Salazar, Laura F.; Crosby, Richard A.; Yarber, William L.

    2006-01-01

    The authors used Bronfenbrenner's conceptual framework of an ecological systems model to examine factors that are independently associated with sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk behaviors among 280 sexually active detained female adolescents. Using computer-assisted self-interviewing procedures, the authors assessed individual…

  8. Impact of Religious Education and Religiosity on Adolescent Alcohol Use and Risk-Taking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use and risk-taking behavior among 345 male adolescents from three Israeli secular (n = 168) and three religious (n = 177) high schools were studied from 2009 to 2013. Findings show the positive impact religious education and religiosity have on minimizing alcohol use, binge drinking, school underachievement, violence, weapons possession,…

  9. Impact of Religious Education and Religiosity on Adolescent Alcohol Use and Risk-Taking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use and risk-taking behavior among 345 male adolescents from three Israeli secular (n = 168) and three religious (n = 177) high schools were studied from 2009 to 2013. Findings show the positive impact religious education and religiosity have on minimizing alcohol use, binge drinking, school underachievement, violence, weapons possession,…

  10. School Health Promotion Policies and Adolescent Risk Behaviors in Israel: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesler, Riki; Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Baron-Epel, Orna

    2016-01-01

    Background: Health promotion policies targeting risk-taking behaviors are being implemented across schools in Israel. This study identified the most effective components of these policies influencing cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among adolescents. Methods: Logistic hierarchical linear model (HLM) analysis of data for 5279 students in…

  11. Adolescent Non-Involvement in Multiple Risk Behaviors: An Indicator of Successful Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Teena; Chalmers, Heather; Busseri, Michael A.; Bosacki, Sandra; Dupont, Diane; Marini, Zopito; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Sadava, Stan; Ward, Anthony; Woloshyn, Vera

    2007-01-01

    Based on the conceptualization of successful development as the joint maximization of desirable outcomes and minimization of undesirable outcomes (Baltes, 1997), the present study examined connections between adolescent non-involvement in multiple risk behaviors and positive developmental status. Results from a survey of 7290 high school students…

  12. Perceived Racial/Ethnic Discrimination, Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms, and Health Risk Behaviors among Mexican American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Elena; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Dimas, Juanita M.; Pasch, Lauri A.; de Groat, Cynthia L.

    2010-01-01

    Utilizing the concept of race-based traumatic stress, this study tested whether posttraumatic stress symptoms explain the process by which perceived discrimination is related to health risk behaviors among Mexican American adolescents. One hundred ten participants were recruited from a large health maintenance organization in Northern California.…

  13. Psychological and Behavioral Risk Factors for Obesity Onset in Adolescent Girls: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Shaw, Heather; Rohde, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Because little is known about risk factors for obesity, the authors tested whether certain psychological and behavioral variables predicted future onset of obesity. The authors used data from a prospective study of 496 adolescent girls who completed a baseline assessment at age 11-15 years and 4 annual follow-ups. Self-reported dietary restraint,…

  14. Early Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors, Conflict Resolution Strategies, and School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRusso, Maria; Selman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Drawing upon an ethnically and socio-economically diverse sample of 323 7th grade students from twelve urban schools within one school district, this mixed method study examined early adolescents' self-reported health risk behaviors as related to their conflict resolution strategies and their school's conflict resolution climate. Survey data…

  15. [Health inequalities on adolescents' risk behavior indicators in Mexico: analysis of two national health surveys].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Juan Pablo; García-Saisó, Sebastián; Espinosa-de la Peña, Rodrigo; Balandrán, Dulce Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    To document socioeconomic health inequalities on adolescents' risk behaviors in Mexico using gap and gradient measures. Analysis of the national health surveys 2000 and 2012 measuring absolute and relative gaps as well as the slope index of inequality for risk behavior indicators on adolescents using socioeconomic indicators and also measuring gaps for sex, urban/rural residency, and indigenous/non-indigenous population. For sexual risk behaviors, inequalities are reflected in a lower probability of using protection at the first sexual intercourse among those living in households with lower income for women and men as well as higher probability of ever being pregnant for adolescents of lower income. For tobacco and alcohol consumption and for violence related health problems, inequalities imply higher probability of consumption among those in household with larger incomes. Socioeconomic health inequalities are a relevant challenge for adolescents' wellbeing in Mexico, with a complex scenario where resource scarcity is related to increasing risk behaviors that may compromise their future. A better understanding of health inequalities is needed to design effective interventions.

  16. Ecological Factors Associated with STD Risk Behaviors among Detained Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voisin, Dexter R.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Salazar, Laura F.; Crosby, Richard A.; Yarber, William L.

    2006-01-01

    The authors used Bronfenbrenner's conceptual framework of an ecological systems model to examine factors that are independently associated with sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk behaviors among 280 sexually active detained female adolescents. Using computer-assisted self-interviewing procedures, the authors assessed individual…

  17. Protective and Risk Factors Associated with Adolescent Boys' Early Sexual Debut and Risky Sexual Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohman, Brenda J.; Billings, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    Protective and risk factors associated with rates of early sexual debut and risky sexual behaviors for a sample of low-income adolescent boys were examined using bioecological theory framed by a resiliency perspective. Protective processes examined include a close mother-son and father-son relationship, parental monitoring and family routines, as…

  18. Psychosocial factors and high-risk sexual behavior: race differences among urban adolescents.

    PubMed

    Doljanac, R F; Zimmerman, M A

    1998-10-01

    Adolescence is a period of sexual experimentation. We examined psychosocial predictors of high-risk sexual behavior and condom use. The sample included 824 ninth-graders, most of whom are African American. We conducted separate analyses for whites and African Americans. Predictors included alcohol and substance use, delinquency, prosocial behaviors, and family and peer influences. We found that problem behaviors predicted high-risk sexual behavior, but the effects were stronger for white youth. We also found that friends' behaviors were more predictive than family influences, except for family conflict. In general, the models explained more variance for white youths than for African-American youths. The results suggest that problem behavior theory and social interactions theory may be most relevant for white youth and that other models may be necessary to explain high-risk sexual behavior among African-American youths.

  19. Social Orientation: Problem Behavior and Motivations Toward Interpersonal Problem Solving Among High Risk Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kuperminc, Gabriel P.; Allen, Joseph P.

    2006-01-01

    A model of problematic adolescent behavior that expands current theories of social skill deficits in delinquent behavior to consider both social skills and orientation toward the use of adaptive skills was examined in an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of 113 male and female adolescents. Adolescents were selected on the basis of moderate to serious risk for difficulties in social adaptation in order to focus on the population of youth most likely to be targeted by prevention efforts. Structural equation modeling was used to examine cross-sectional data using multiple informants (adolescents, peers, and parents) and multiple methods (performance test and self-report). Adolescent social orientation, as reflected in perceived problem solving effectiveness, identification with adult prosocial values, and self-efficacy expectations, exhibited a direct association to delinquent behavior and an indirect association to drug involvement mediated by demonstrated success in using problem solving skills. Results suggest that the utility of social skill theories of adolescent problem behaviors for informing preventive and remedial interventions can be enhanced by expanding them to consider adolescents’ orientation toward using the skills they may already possess. PMID:16929380

  20. Mexican-origin youth's risk behavior from adolescence to young adulthood: The role of familism values.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Lorey A; Zeiders, Katharine H; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Rodríguez de Jesús, Sue A; Perez-Brena, Norma J

    2017-01-01

    Engagement in risk behavior has implications for individuals' academic achievement, health, and well-being, yet there is a paucity of developmental research on the role of culturally relevant strengths in individual and family differences in risk behavior involvement among ethnic minority youth. In this study, we used a longitudinal cohort-sequential design to chart intraindividual trajectories of risk behavior and test variation by gender and familism values in 492 youth from 12 to 22 years of age. Participants were older and younger siblings from 246 Mexican-origin families who reported on their risk behaviors in interviews spaced over 8 years. Multilevel cohort-sequential growth models revealed that youth reported an increase in risk behavior from 12 to 18 years of age, and then a decline to age 22. Male youth reported greater overall levels and a steeper increase in risk behavior from ages 12 to 18, compared to female youth. For familism values, on occasions when youth reported higher levels, they also reported lower levels of risk behavior (i.e., within-person effect). For sibling dyads characterized by higher average levels of familism values, youth reported lower average levels of risk behavior (i.e., between-family effect). Findings provide unique insights into risk behavior from adolescence to young adulthood among Mexican-origin youth. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. Adolescent maltreatment in the child welfare system and developmental patterns of sexual risk behaviors.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Patrick J; Motley, Darnell; Zhang, Jinjin; Rolls-Reutz, Jennifer; Landsverk, John

    2015-02-01

    In this longitudinal study, we tested whether adolescent maltreatment and out-of-home placement as a response to maltreatment altered developmental patterns of sexual risk behaviors in a nationally representative sample of youth involved in the child welfare system. Participants included adolescents aged 13 to 17 (M = 15.5, SD = 1.49) at baseline (n = 714), followed over 18 months. Computer-assisted interviews were used to collect self-reported sexual practices and experiences of physical and psychological abuse at both time points. Latent transition analyses were used to identify three patterns of sexual risk behaviors: abstainers, safe sex with multiple partners, and unsafe sex with multiple partners. Most adolescents transitioned to safer sexual behavior patterns over time. Adolescents exhibiting the riskiest sexual practices at baseline were most likely to report subsequent abuse and less likely to be placed into out-of-home care. Findings provide a more nuanced understanding of sexual risk among child welfare-involved adolescents and inform practices to promote positive transitions within the system.

  2. Ecodevelopmental Trajectories of Family Functioning: Links with HIV/STI Risk Behaviors and STI among Black Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Córdova, David; Heinze, Justin E.; Mistry, Ritesh; Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of family functioning trajectories on sexual risk behaviors and STI in adolescents. A sample of 850 predominantly (80%) Black adolescents from Michigan, United States, was assessed at baseline, 12, 24, and 36 months postbaseline. Adolescents were from working-class families with a mean age of 14.9 years (SD = 0.64, Range =…

  3. Exploring out-of-Home Placement as a Moderator of Help-Seeking Behavior among Adolescents Who Are High Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unrau, Yvonne A.; Grinnell, Richard M., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated foster or group care placement as a predictor of help-seeking behavior among adolescents who were at high risk for physical and mental health problems. Method: Data from the 1985 to 1986 wave of the Adolescent Health Care Evaluation Study were used to compare three groups of adolescents: (a) 136 that had…

  4. Ecodevelopmental Trajectories of Family Functioning: Links with HIV/STI Risk Behaviors and STI among Black Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Córdova, David; Heinze, Justin E.; Mistry, Ritesh; Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of family functioning trajectories on sexual risk behaviors and STI in adolescents. A sample of 850 predominantly (80%) Black adolescents from Michigan, United States, was assessed at baseline, 12, 24, and 36 months postbaseline. Adolescents were from working-class families with a mean age of 14.9 years (SD = 0.64, Range =…

  5. A Multimodal Behavioral Intervention to Impact Adherence and Risk Behavior among Perinatally and Behaviorally HIV-Infected Youth: Description, Delivery, and Receptivity of Adolescent Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandwani, Sulachni; Abramowitz, Susan; Koenig, Linda J.; Barnes, William; D'Angelo, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Secondary prevention programs are needed to help HIV-positive youth reduce risk behavior and improve adherence to HIV medications. This article provides an overview of Adolescent Impact, a secondary HIV prevention intervention, including its description, delivery, and receptivity among the two unique groups of participants. Adolescent Impact, a…

  6. Frequency of Alcohol Use in Adolescence as a Marker for Subsequent Sexual Risk Behavior in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Muchimba, Maureen; Haberstick, Brett C.; Corley, Robin P.; McQueen, Matthew B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Although a number of studies have demonstrated an association between alcohol use frequency and sexual risk behavior, few have used longitudinal data. This study examined alohol use frequency in adolescence as a predictor of HIV sexual risk behavior in adulthood. Methods We collected data among 1368 participants in Colorado. During adolescence (Time 1), respondents were asked about the frequency of using alcohol during the previous 12 months. In adulthood (Time 2), the same respondents were asked about their sexual risk behavior during the previous 12 months. Sexual risk behavior items were used to construct an index, which was categorized to indicate low, medium and high risk study participants. The relationship between alcohol use patterns and risky sexual behavior was modeled using ordinal regression. Results Compared to individuals who drank no alcohol in the past 12 months at Time 1, the odds of being in a higher risk group of sexual behavior as opposed to a lower one at Time 2 were 1.56 (95% CI, 1.04-2.35) among those who drank 6-19 times. Similarly, the odds of being in a higher risk group relative to a lower one among those who drank ≥20 times or were 1.78 (95% CI, 1.05-3.02). Conclusion Alcohol use patterns in adolescence may be useful markers for programs that aim to prevent risky sexual behavior. Based on alcohol intake patterns, it may be possible to identify frequent alcohol users that need to be targeted with appropriate alcohol use and HIV risk reduction messages. PMID:23587785

  7. Insomnia Phenotypes Based on Objective Sleep Duration in Adolescents: Depression Risk and Differential Behavioral Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Calhoun, Susan L.; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; Li, Yun; Gaines, Jordan; Liao, Duanping; Bixler, Edward O.

    2016-01-01

    Based on previous studies on the role of objective sleep duration in predicting morbidity in individuals with insomnia, we examined the role of objective sleep duration in differentiating behavioral profiles in adolescents with insomnia symptoms. Adolescents from the Penn State Child Cohort (n = 397, ages 12–23, 54.7% male) underwent a nine-hour polysomnography (PSG), clinical history, physical examination and psychometric testing, including the Child or Adult Behavior Checklist and Pediatric Behavior Scale. Insomnia symptoms were defined as a self-report of difficulty falling and/or staying asleep and objective “short” sleep duration as a PSG total sleep time ≤7 h. A significant interaction showed that objective short sleep duration modified the association of insomnia symptoms with internalizing problems. Consistently, adolescents with insomnia symptoms and short sleep duration were characterized by depression, rumination, mood dysregulation and social isolation, while adolescents with insomnia symptoms and normal sleep duration were characterized by rule-breaking and aggressive behaviors and, to a lesser extent, rumination. These findings indicate that objective sleep duration is useful in differentiating behavioral profiles among adolescents with insomnia symptoms. The insomnia with objective short sleep duration phenotype is associated with an increased risk of depression earlier in the lifespan than previously believed. PMID:27983580

  8. Linking family economic pressure and supportive parenting to adolescent health behaviors: two developmental pathways leading to health promoting and health risk behaviors.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Josephine A; Wickrama, K A S

    2014-07-01

    Adolescent health behaviors, especially health risk behaviors, have previously been linked to distal (i.e., family economic pressure) and proximal (i.e., parental support) contributors. However, few studies have examined both types of contributors along with considering health promoting and health risk behaviors separately. The present study investigated the influences of family economic hardship, supportive parenting as conceptualized by self-determination theory, and individual psychosocial and behavioral characteristics (i.e., mastery and delinquency, respectively) on adolescents' health promoting and health risk behaviors. We used structural equation modeling to analyze longitudinal data from a sample of Caucasian adolescent children and their mothers and fathers (N = 407, 54 % female) to examine direct and indirect effects, as well as gender symmetry and asymmetry. Findings suggest that family economic pressure contributed to adolescent mastery and delinquency through supportive parenting. Further, supportive parenting indirectly affected adolescent health risk behaviors only through delinquency, whereas supportive parenting indirectly influenced health promoting behaviors only through mastery, suggesting different developmental pathways for adolescent health risk and health promoting behaviors. Testing for gender symmetry of the full model showed that maternal and paternal parenting contributed to females' health risk behaviors directly, while maternal and paternal parenting contributed to males' health risk behaviors through delinquency. Gender symmetry was largely unsupported. The study highlights key direct and indirect pathways to adolescent health risk and health promoting behaviors within a family stress model and self-determination theory framework, and also highlights important gender differences in these developmental pathways.

  9. Mothers know best: redirecting adolescent reward sensitivity toward safe behavior during risk taking.

    PubMed

    Telzer, Eva H; Ichien, Nicholas T; Qu, Yang

    2015-10-01

    Despite being one of the healthiest developmental periods, morbidity and mortality rates increase dramatically during adolescence, largely due to preventable, risky behaviors. Heightened reward sensitivity, coupled with ineffective cognitive control, has been proposed to underlie adolescents' risk taking. In this study, we test whether reward sensitivity can be redirected to promote safe behavior. Adolescents completed a risk-taking task in the presence of their mother and alone during fMRI. Adolescents demonstrated reduced risk-taking behavior when their mothers were present compared with alone, which was associated with greater recruitment of the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) when making safe decisions, decreased activation in the ventral striatum following risky decisions and greater functional coupling between the ventral striatum and VLPFC when making safe decisions. Importantly, the very same neural circuitry (i.e. ventral striatum) that has been linked to greater risk-taking can also be redirected toward thoughtful, more deliberative and safe decisions. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The role of deliberative decision making, parenting, and friends in adolescent risk behaviors.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Jennifer M; Crockett, Lisa J

    2011-12-01

    Adolescents may engage in risk behaviors that jeopardize their futures. Although adolescent risk-taking has long been attributed to faulty decision making, surprisingly little research has directly examined this link. This study examined the role of deliberative decision making (the tendency to consider options and consequences before making a decision) and social contextual variables (parenting and friend influences) in alcohol and drug use, risky sex, and delinquency. Participants were 7,748 adolescents (50% female) in grades 7-11 from the Add Health dataset (M age = 14.87, SD = 1.54). Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that deliberative decision making and contextual variables were associated with risk behavior concurrently and 1 year later. Furthermore, deliberative decision making interacted with social contextual variables in some models, indicating that deliberative decision making may be especially important in certain contexts. These findings suggest that both cognitive and social factors need to be considered to explain adolescents' decisions to engage in risk behavior.

  11. Pathways to adolescent sexual risk behaviors: Effects of prenatal cocaine exposure.

    PubMed

    Min, Meeyoung O; Minnes, Sonia; Lang, Adelaide; Albert, Jeffrey M; Kim, June-Yung; Singer, Lynn T

    2016-04-01

    To assess the impact of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) on adolescent sexual risk behaviors. Externalizing behavior, teen substance use, and early sexual intercourse were examined as pathways mediating the effects of PCE on sexual risk behaviors. Adolescents (N=364; 185 PCE, 179 non-cocaine exposure (NCE); 205 girls, 159 boys), primarily African-American and of low socioeconomic status, were prospectively enrolled in a longitudinal study at birth. Risky sexual behaviors were assessed at ages 15 and 17. Externalizing behavior at 12 years was assessed with the Youth Self-Report. Substance use, via self-report and biologic assays, and early (before age 15) sexual intercourse were assessed at age 15. Path analyses with the weighted least squares estimator with mean and variance adjustments were performed. The final structural equation model-based path model, χ(2)=31.97 (df=27), p=.23, CFI=.99, TLI=.99, RMSEA=.021, WRMR=.695, indicated a direct effect of PCE on sexual risk behavior (β=.16, p=.02). Although PCE was related to greater externalizing behavior (β=.14, p=.009), which in turn, predicted early sexual intercourse (β=.16, p=.03), leading to sexual risk behavior (β=.44, p<.001), bootstrapping indicated a non-significant indirect effect (β=.01, p>.10). Substance use was correlated with early sexual intercourse (r=.60, p<.001) and predicted sexual risk behavior by age 17 (β=.31, p=.01). Prenatal cocaine exposure was related to more engagement in sexual risk behaviors, suggesting the importance of reducing substance use among pregnant women as a means of prevention of offspring substance use and sexual risk behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Grit: A potential protective factor against substance use and other risk behaviors among Latino adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Lourdes R.; Dudovitz, Rebecca; Chung, Paul J.; Dosanjh, Kulwant K.; Wong, Mitchell D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Grit, defined as “working strenuously toward challenges, maintaining effort and interest over years despite failure, adversity, and plateaus in progress,” is strongly associated with academic achievement and life success and may also be associated with health outcomes and behaviors. We examined predictors of grit, and the association between grit and health behaviors among at-risk Latino adolescents. Methods We analyzed baseline survey data collected in 2013-2014 from a sample of 1,270 9th graders in low-income neighborhoods of Los Angeles. We examined factors associated with grit and whether grit is associated with substance use and delinquent behaviors, controlling for adolescent and parent sociodemographic factors. Results In a sample of mostly Latino adolescents (89.5%), compared to those with low grit, those with high grit had significantly lower odds of alcohol use in the last 30 days (OR=0.30, p<0.001), marijuana use (OR=0.21, p<0.05), and fighting (OR=0.58, p<0.05). Involvement in delinquent behavior was also lower (β=-0.71, p<.001). Factors associated with more grit included authoritative parenting style, parental employment, and high self-efficacy scores. Conclusion Grit may be an important candidate protective factor against substance use and other risk behaviors among Latino adolescents. PMID:26796576

  13. The Effectiveness of an Intervention to Promote Awareness and Reduce Online Risk Behavior in Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Schilder, Janneke D; Brusselaers, Marjolein B J; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2016-02-01

    The current study explored the effect of a school-based intervention on online risk awareness and behavior in order to shed light on a relatively unexplored field with high practical relevance. More than 800 Belgium primary school children (grade 4 and 6) were assessed at two measurements (n T1 = 812, 51.2 % female; n T2 = 819, 51.3 % female) before and after the intervention. Half of them received a 10 min classroom intervention indicating online risks. Children in the control group received a 10 min presentation concerning online applications without any emphasis on risks. Children in the intervention group were more likely to be aware of online risks directly after the intervention; this effect was still noticeable 4 months after. Reporting of online risk behavior in the intervention group was also higher compared to the control group who did not receive the intervention. Overall online risk awareness and online risk behavior were negatively associated and the awareness did not modulate the association between the intervention and online risk behavior. Furthermore, individual differences were assessed. Girls were more likely to be aware of online risks and asserted less online risk behavior than boys were. In line with the imperative in adolescence to become more risk taking, children in a higher grade were more likely to behave in a risky manner when online. The current study provides a valuable starting point for further research on how to decrease online risk behavior in early adolescence.

  14. Risk and Protective Factors Affecting Sexual Risk Behavior Among School-Aged Adolescents in Fiji, Kiribati, Samoa, and Vanuatu.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2016-07-01

    There are limited studies on the prevalence and correlates of sexual risk behavior among adolescents in Pacific Island countries. In order to inform public sexual and reproductive health interventions, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of various sexual risk behaviors among in-school adolescents in 4 Pacific Island countries using data from the Global School-Based Health Survey. In a cross-sectional study, 6792 school-going adolescents (49.7% boys and 50.3% girls; 13-16 years old) from Fiji, Kiribati, Samoa, and Vanuatu were surveyed with a self-administered questionnaire. Overall, 18.9% of students reported to ever had sex (ranging from 12.9% in Vanuatu to 57.5% in Samoa), and of those sexually active, 38.0% had an early sexual debut (<14 years), 38.1% had 2 or more sexual partners during their lifetime, 39.5% had not used a condom at last sex, 50.9% had not used birth control at last sex, and 77.8% engaged in sexually risky behavior using a composite measure. Multivariate logistic regression found that male sex, older age, tobacco use, alcohol use, mental distress, having no close friends, and truancy were associated with several of 5 or all 5 sexual risk behaviors. Sexual and reproductive health promotion programs are indicated to address the high risk of sexually transmitted infection, HIV, and pregnancy in this adolescent population.

  15. Covariations of adolescent weight-control, health-risk and health-promoting behaviors.

    PubMed

    Rafiroiu, Codruta; Sargent, Roger G; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Drane, Wanzer J; Valois, Robert F

    2003-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of dieting and investigate clusters of risk behaviors among adolescents. Data were secured from a random sample of adolescents (4,636) and analyzed using bivariate methods and logistic regression. From the survey sample, 19.2% adolescents were classified as extreme, 43.2% as moderate dieters, 37.2% as nondieters. Extreme dieters were more likely to use alcohol, cigarettes, and/or marijuana and to attempt suicide and less likely to practice vigorous exercise. Moderate dieters were less likely to use cigarettes, marijuana and more likely to engage in vigorous exercise, with differences across gender-race categories. Results have relevance for developing multicomponent programs for adolescents.

  16. Ethnic Variations in Prevalence of High-Risk Sexual Behaviors Among Asian and Pacific Islander Adolescents in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Kameoka, Velma A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We examined ethnic variations in high-risk sexual behaviors among Asian and Pacific Islander (API) adolescents in comparison with White adolescents. Methods. We obtained data from the 2003 Hawaii Youth Risk Behavior Survey on 4953 students in grades 9 through 12. We conducted χ2 and logistic regression analyses on these data to examine the prevalence of high-risk sexual behaviors among Japanese, Filipino, Native Hawaiian, and White adolescents. Results. We found significant ethnic variation in prevalence of high-risk sexual behaviors among API adolescents. Relative to White adolescents, Native Hawaiian adolescents were most likely to engage in lifetime sexual intercourse, recent sexual intercourse, and sexual initiation before age 13 years; Japanese adolescents were least likely to engage in these behaviors. Filipino adolescents were least likely to use substances before last sexual intercourse and condoms during last sexual intercourse. Conclusions. Our findings suggest divergent patterns of risk among API ethnic groups, underscoring the heterogeneity of API subgroups and emphasizing the need for health disparities research on disaggregated API ethnic groups. The findings of such research should be used to design ethnically relevant interventions aimed at mitigating the negative health consequences of high-risk sexual behaviors. PMID:19106424

  17. Risk of suicidal ideation in adolescents with both self-asphyxial risk-taking behavior and non-suicidal self-injury.

    PubMed

    Brausch, Amy M; Decker, Kristina M; Hadley, Andrea G

    2011-08-01

    This study examined adolescent participation in self-asphyxial risk-taking behaviors (SAB), sometimes known as the "choking game," and its relationship with other adolescent risk behaviors, including non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). Researchers proposed that participation in SAB and NSSI would be associated with suicidal behavior, disordered eating, and substance use. Using a large community-based sample, results revealed preliminary associations between SAB and other risk-taking behaviors. Adolescents who had engaged in both SAB and NSSI reported more concurrent risk behaviors than adolescents who participated in only one of the behaviors or neither behavior. Results indicate that greater awareness of SAB is important, and continued research can evaluate the possible link between the behavior and risk for suicide.

  18. Violent video games and delinquent behavior in adolescents: A risk factor perspective.

    PubMed

    Exelmans, Liese; Custers, Kathleen; Van den Bulck, Jan

    2015-05-01

    Over the years, criminological research has identified a number of risk factors that contribute to the development of aggressive and delinquent behavior. Although studies have identified media violence in general and violent video gaming in particular as significant predictors of aggressive behavior, exposure to violent video games has been largely omitted from the risk factor literature on delinquent behavior. This cross-sectional study therefore investigates the relationship between violent video game play and adolescents' delinquent behavior using a risk factor approach. An online survey was completed by 3,372 Flemish adolescents, aged 12-18 years old. Data were analyzed by means of negative binomial regression modelling. Results indicated a significant contribution of violent video games in delinquent behavior over and beyond multiple known risk variables (peer delinquency, sensation seeking, prior victimization, and alienation). Moreover, the final model that incorporated the gaming genres proved to be significantly better than the model without the gaming genres. Results provided support for a cumulative and multiplicative risk model for delinquent behavior. Aggr. Behav. 41:267-279, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Operational Definitions of Sexual Orientation and Estimates of Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Derrick D; Blosnich, John R; Farmer, Grant W; Adams, Brian J

    2014-03-01

    Increasing attention to the health of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations comes with requisite circumspection about measuring sexual orientation in surveys. However, operationalizing these variables also requires considerable thought. This research sought to document the consequences of different operational definitions of sexual orientation by examining variation in health risk behaviors. Using Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey data, we examined how operational definitions of sexual behavior and sexual identity influenced differences among three health behaviors known to disparately affect LGB populations: smoking, suicide risk, and methamphetamine use. Sexual behavior and sexual identity were also examined together to explore if they captured unique sources of variability in behavior. Estimates of health disparities changed as a result of using either sexual behavior or sexual identity. Youth who reported their sexual identity as "not sure" also had increased odds of health risk behavior. Disaggregating bisexual identity and behavior from same-sex identity and behavior frequently resulted in the attenuation or elimination of health disparities that would have otherwise been attributable to exclusively same-sex sexual minorities. Finally, sexual behavior and sexual identity explained unique and significant sources of variability in all three health behaviors. Researchers using different operational definitions of sexual orientation could draw different conclusions, even when analyzing the same data, depending upon how they chose to represent sexual orientation in analyses. We discuss implications that these manipulations have on data interpretation and provide specific recommendations for best-practices when analyzing sexual orientation data collected from adolescent populations.

  20. Development and psychometric properties of the health-risk behavior inventory for Chinese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a growing body of research investigating adolescent risk behaviors in China, however, a comprehensive measure that evaluates the full spectrum of relevant risk behaviors is lacking. In order to address this important gap, the current study sought to develop and validate a comprehensive tool: the Health-Risk Behavior Inventory for Chinese Adolescents (HBICA). Methods Adolescents, ages 14–19 years (n = 6,633), were recruited from high schools across 10 cities in mainland China. In addition, a clinical sample, which included 326 adolescents meeting DSM-IV criteria for Conduct Disorder, was used to evaluate predictive validity of the HBICA. Psychometric properties including internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha), test-retest reliability, convergent validity, and predictive validity were analyzed. Results Based upon item analysis and exploratory factor analysis, we retained 33 items, and 5 factors explained 51.75% of the total variance: Suicide and Self-Injurious Behaviors (SS), Aggression and Violence (AV), Rule Breaking (RB), Substance Use (SU), and Unprotected Sex (US). Cronbach’s alphas were good, from 0.77 (RB) to 0.86 (US) for boys, and from 0.74 (SD) to 0.83(SS) for girls. The 8 weeks test–retest reliabilities were moderate, ranged from 0.66 (AV) to 0.76 (SD). External validities was strong, with Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 was 0.35 (p < 0.01), and with aggressive behavior and rule-breaking behavior subscales of the Youth Self Report were 0.54 (p < 0.01) and 0.68 (p < 0.01), respectively. Predictive validity analysis also provided enough discriminantity, which can distinguish high risky individual effectively (cohen’ d = 0.79 – 2.96). Conclusions These results provide initial support for the reliability and validity of the Health-Risk Behavior Inventory for Chinese Adolescents (HBICA) as a comprehensive and developmentally appropriate assessment instrument for risk behaviors in Chinese adolescents. PMID

  1. Is Accuracy of Weight Perception Associated with Health Risk Behaviors in a Diverse Sample of Obese Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenhart, Clare M.; Daly, Brian P.; Eichen, Dawn M.

    2011-01-01

    Current evidence is equivocal as to whether adolescent's perception of weight status is linked to both healthy and risky behaviors. This study examined the association between accurate and inaccurate perception of weight and self-reported health and risk behaviors among a diverse sample of obese, urban adolescents. Data were analyzed from 1,180…

  2. Is Accuracy of Weight Perception Associated with Health Risk Behaviors in a Diverse Sample of Obese Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenhart, Clare M.; Daly, Brian P.; Eichen, Dawn M.

    2011-01-01

    Current evidence is equivocal as to whether adolescent's perception of weight status is linked to both healthy and risky behaviors. This study examined the association between accurate and inaccurate perception of weight and self-reported health and risk behaviors among a diverse sample of obese, urban adolescents. Data were analyzed from 1,180…

  3. Health-risk behaviors in young adolescents in the child welfare system

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, Laurel K.; James, Sigrid; Monn, Amy; Kauten, Milena C.; Zhang, Jinjin; Aarons, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine rates and patterns of health-risk behavior (e.g. sexuality, depression/suicidality, substance use, delinquency) among a national probability sample of youth active to the child welfare/child protective services system. Recent federal legislation, P.L. 110–351, encourages child welfare systems, Medicaid, and pediatric experts to collaborate to assure youth entering foster care receive comprehensive health examinations. Methods Analysis of baseline caregiver, caseworker and child interviews, and assessment data for a subsample (n=993) of youth, ages 11–15 years, from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, a national probability sample of children and adolescents undergoing investigation for abuse or neglect. Results Almost half of the sample (46.3%) endorsed at least one health-risk behavior. On Poisson multivariate regression modeling, factors related to higher rates of health-risk behaviors included older age, female gender, abuse history, deviant peers, limited caregiver monitoring, and poor school engagement. Conclusion Given the heightened vulnerability of this population, early screening for health-risk behaviors must be prioritized. Further research should explore specific subpopulations at risk for health-risk behaviors and possible interventions to change these youths’ trajectories. PMID:20547289

  4. Spirituality within the Family and the Prevention of Health Risk Behavior among Adolescents in Bangkok, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Miller, Brenda A; Byrnes, Hilary F; Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Cupp, Pamela K; Rosati, Michael J; Fongkaew, Warunee; Atwood, Katharine A; Chookhare, Warunee

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the influences of a family's spiritual beliefs and practices on substance use and sexual risk behaviors among young adolescents 13 to 14 years old in Bangkok, Thailand. Independent predictor variables are the parents' and teens' spiritual beliefs and practices in Buddhism and parental monitoring behaviors. The study uses data from the 2007 Baseline Survey of the Thai Family Matters Project, which adapted a U.S. based family prevention program for Thai culture. A representative sample of 420 pairs of parents and teens from the Bangkok metropolitan area was recruited to participate in the study. Structural equation models indicate that positive direct and indirect associations of the spirituality of parents and teens within a family and the prevention of adolescent risk behaviors are significant and consistent. PMID:20926170

  5. Characteristics of Sexual Abuse in Childhood and Adolescence Influence Sexual Risk Behavior in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Senn, Theresa E.; Vanable, Peter A.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia; Urban, Marguerite

    2006-01-01

    Childhood and adolescent sexual abuse has been associated with subsequent (adult) sexual risk behavior, but the effects of force and type of sexual abuse on sexual behavior outcomes have been less well-studied. The present study investigated the associations between sexual abuse characteristics and later sexual risk behavior, and explored whether gender of the child/adolescent moderated these relations. Patients attending an STD clinic completed a computerized survey that assessed history of sexual abuse as well as lifetime and current sexual behavior. Participants were considered sexually abused if they reported a sexual experience (1) before age 13 with someone 5 or more years older, (2) between the ages of 13 and 16 with someone 10 or more years older, or (3) before the age of 17 involving force or coercion. Participants who were sexually abused were further categorized based on two abuse characteristics, namely, use of penetration and force. Analyses included 1177 participants (n=534 women; n=643 men). Those who reported sexual abuse involving penetration and/or force reported more adult sexual risk behavior, including the number of lifetime partners and number of previous STD diagnoses, than those who were not sexually abused and those who were abused without force or penetration. There were no significant differences in sexual risk behavior between nonabused participants and those who reported sexual abuse without force and without penetration. Gender of the child/adolescent moderated the association between sexual abuse characteristics and adult sexual risk behavior; for men, sexual abuse with force and penetration was associated with the greatest number of episodes of sex trading, whereas for women, those who were abused with penetration, regardless of whether the abuse involved force, reported the most episodes of sex trading. These findings indicate that more severe sexual abuse is associated with riskier adult sexual behavior. PMID:17192833

  6. [Sexual risk behavior: factors associated to the number of sexual partners and condom use in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Cruzeiro, Ana Laura Sica; Souza, Luciano Dias de Mattos; Silva, Ricardo Azevedo da; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares; Rocha, Clarissa Lisbôa Arla da; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this article is to evaluate the number of sexual partners in the last twelve months and the use of condom in the last three sexual relations of adolescents aged between 15 and 18 years old. It was a cross-sectional study with 960 adolescents. Two dichotomized variables were considered as risk sexual behaviors: two or more sexual partners in the last twelve months, and occasional use of condom in the last three sexual relations. We assessed whether these behaviors were associated with socioeconomic status, gender, adolescent and parental schooling, age, living with the parents, remunerated work, religiosity, drugs use, tobacco, alcohol consumption, alcoholic beverages consume before the last sexual relation. The Poisson regression was used for each outcome. The adolescent gender, schooling, the use of illicit drugs and tobacco in the last month as well as alcoholic beverages consume before the last sexual relation indicates greater risk of keeping sexual relations with two or more partners in the last 12 months. With regard to the occasional use of condom in the last three sexual relations, females and those whose mothers have low schooling presented increased risk. Our study suggests that there is a strong relation between risky behaviors.

  7. Violence Related Behaviors and Weapon Carrying Among Hispanic Adolescents: Results from the National Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2001-2015.

    PubMed

    Khubchandani, Jagdish; Price, James H

    2017-09-30

    Hispanic youths are disproportionately represented in gangs in the United States, are more likely to drink alcohol at younger ages, and to live in poverty; all are risks for violence and weapon carrying. No studies to date have assessed violence related behaviors and weapon carrying in Hispanic youth over an extended period. This study utilized the national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys from 2001 to 2015 to assess trends in violence related behaviors and weapon carrying of Hispanic adolescents. Our analyses found both physical fighting and fighting on school property had statistically significant reductions from 2001 to 2015 for Hispanic females and their suicide attempts increased from 2009 to 2015. Hispanic males had statistically significant decreasing trends for: being in a physical fight in the past year, being bullied on school property, being in a physical fight on school property within the past year; threatened or injured with a weapon on school property in the past year; and having attempted suicide in the past year. Hispanic females and males had two groups of items highly predictive of weapon carrying behaviors: alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use and violent risk behaviors. Both female and male students who made mostly A's or B's in school were significantly less likely (about half as likely) to carry weapons. This data could be used to identify Hispanic adolescents at higher risk for weapon carrying and used as a basis for enriching programs to improve academic success of Hispanic adolescents.

  8. Childhood maltreatment and adolescent sexual risk behaviors: Unique, cumulative and interactive effects.

    PubMed

    Thibodeau, Marie-Eve; Lavoie, Francine; Hébert, Martine; Blais, Martin

    2017-09-14

    Child maltreatment has been associated with sexual risk behaviors. Previous investigators have typically studied only one form of maltreatment, preventing them from exploring interrelations between forms of maltreatment and their impact on sexual risk behaviors. Thus, this study aims to examine the unique, cumulative, and interactive effects of four maltreatment forms (sexual abuse, physical abuse, neglect, and witnessing interparental violence) on sexual risk behaviors. The sample comprised 1940 sexually active adolescents (Mage=15.6; 60.8% girls) attending [Blinded=Quebec (Canada)] high schools. Regression results showed that all maltreatment forms were associated with having a higher number of sexual partners, casual sexual behavior, and a younger age at first consensual intercourse. Physical abuse and witnessing interparental violence were associated with inconsistent condom use, and physical abuse was associated with sexually transmitted infections. After controlling for all forms of maltreatment (unique effects), analyses showed that sexual abuse, physical abuse, neglect or witnessing interparental violence remained statistically associated depending on the sexual risk behavior. A greater number of forms of maltreatment was associated with more sexual risk behaviors (cumulative effect). When sexual abuse was not experienced, neglect was associated with a higher number of sexual partners (interactive effects). In general, associations between maltreatment and sexual risk behaviors were similar for both genders. The magnitude of the relationship between a specific form of child maltreatment and sexual risk behaviors may be inaccurately estimated when not controlling for other forms of maltreatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Adolescents' religious discordance with mothers: is there a connection to sexual risk behavior during emerging adulthood?

    PubMed

    Grossman, Jennifer M; Tracy, Allison J; Noonan, Anne E

    2013-10-01

    This study longitudinally investigates the relationship between adolescent/mother religious discordance and emerging adult sexual risk-taking 6-7 years later. We used Social Control Theory to examine the level and direction of concordance using data from Wave I and Wave III of the Add Health Study, focusing on constructs of religious importance, frequency of prayer, and attendance at religious services. We found that higher levels of adolescent/mother discordance in religious importance were related to increased emerging adult sexual risk-taking compared to those with similar levels adolescent/mother religiosity, but this occurred only when mothers reported higher levels of religious importance than their children. In contrast, adolescents reporting higher frequency of prayer than their mothers reported lower levels of sexual risk-taking than those with similar frequency of adolescent/mother prayer. These findings suggest that the protective effects of family religious socialization can be interrupted. However, this influence of religious difference on sexual risk-behavior operates differently depending on the direction and level of religious difference. Even in emerging adulthood, a period marked by distance from childhood values and institutions, religious difference with a parent remains a meaningful influence.

  10. Sexual risk behavior and pregnancy in detained adolescent females: a study in Dutch detention centers

    PubMed Central

    Hamerlynck, Sannie MJJ; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Vermeiren, Robert; Jansen, Lucres MC; Bezemer, Pieter D; Doreleijers, Theo AH

    2007-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the lifetime prevalence of teenage pregnancy in the histories of detained adolescent females and to examine the relationship between teenage pregnancy on the one hand and mental health and sexuality related characteristics on the other. Methods Of 256 admitted detained adolescent females aged 12–18 years, a representative sample (N = 212, 83%) was examined in the first month of detention. Instruments included a semi-structured interview, standardized questionnaires and file information on pregnancy, sexuality related characteristics (sexual risk behavior, multiple sex partners, sexual trauma, lack of assertiveness in sexual issues and early maturity) and mental health characteristics (conduct disorder, alcohol and drug use disorder and suicidality). Results Approximately 20% of the participants reported having been pregnant (before detention), although none had actually given birth. Sexuality related characteristics were more prevalent in the pregnancy group, while this was not so for the mental health characteristics. Age at assessment, early maturity, sexual risk behavior, and suicidality turned out to be the best predictors for pregnancy. Conclusion The lifetime prevalence of pregnancy in detained adolescent females is high and is associated with both sexuality related risk factors and mental health related risk factors. Therefore, prevention and intervention programs targeting sexual risk behavior and mental health are warranted during detention. PMID:17683633

  11. Family and Friend Influence on Urban-Dwelling American Indian Adolescent Girl's Sexual Risk Behavior.

    PubMed

    Saftner, Melissa A

    2016-09-01

    Previous research with American Indian (AI) adolescent sexual risk behavior primarily focused on reservation-dwelling youth despite 70% of AIs living off Native lands. Using grounded theory methodology, I sampled 20 adolescent AI girls via talking circles and interviews to explore the perceptions of AI adolescent girls living in an urban, Midwest area about the influence of family and friends on their sexual behavior. Similar to research with other racial groups, participants cited their family and friends as a major influence. Five unique themes emerged related to family and friend influence. Urban-dwelling AI girls rely on their female family members and peers for information related to sex and receive varying messages from their networks of family and friends, which often overlap. AI youth have unique family groups yet have some similarities to other ethnic groups with regard to family and friend relationships that may allow for enhanced intervention development. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Risk Behaviors for Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections Among Adults and Adolescents - United States, 2016.

    PubMed

    Cope, Jennifer R; Collier, Sarah A; Nethercut, Hannah; Jones, Jefferson M; Yates, Kirsten; Yoder, Jonathan S

    2017-08-18

    Contact lens-related eye infections, which can lead to serious outcomes, including blindness, are associated with several risk factors, including sleeping in lenses, exposing lenses to water, not adhering to replacement schedules, and reusing disinfecting solution (1). In some studies, adolescent and young adult contact lens wearers have been reported to be more likely than older adult contact lens wearers to develop eye infections (2,3) and more likely to have poor contact lens hygiene practices (2). In 2015, CDC reported the number and demographics of adult contact lens wearers in the United States to define the population at risk for contact lens-related eye infections (4); however, this estimate did not include adolescents. To better understand this group of younger contact lens wearers and guide prevention efforts, a population-based survey was used to assess contact lens wear, care behaviors, risk factors, and demographics among persons aged 12-17 years (referred to as adolescents in this report), young adults aged 18-24 years, and older adults aged ≥25 years in the United States. In 2016, an estimated 3.6 million adolescents (14.5%) wore contact lenses. Of the adolescents who wore contact lenses, 85% reported at least one behavior that put them at risk for a contact lens-related eye infection, compared with 81% of young adults, and 88% of older adults. These findings can inform the creation of age-specific targeted prevention messages aimed at contact lens wearers and establish a baseline for evaluating trends in contact lens wear, care habits, and contact lens-related risk behaviors.

  13. Reciprocal Effects of Positive Future Expectations, Threats to Safety, and Risk Behavior Across Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Prince, Dana M; Epstein, Marina; Nurius, Paula S; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Henry, David B

    2016-09-12

    We examined the reciprocal relationships among positive future expectations, expected threats to future safety, depression, and individual substance use and delinquency using 4 waves of data (N = 248-338) from African American and Latino adolescent male participants in the Chicago Youth Development Study. Individual positive future expectations and expected threats to safety were assessed at each wave and modeled as latent constructs. Individual substance use and delinquency were assessed at each wave and represented as ordinal variables ranging from low to high. Categorical autoregressive cross-lagged structural models were used to examine the hypothesized reciprocal relationships between both aspects of future expectations construct and risk behavior across adolescence. Analyses show that future expectations has important effects on youth substance use and involvement in delinquency, both of which in turn decrease positive expectations and increase expectation of threats to future safety across adolescence. Similarly, low positive expectations for the future continued to predict increased substance use and involvement in delinquency. The expected threats to safety construct was significantly correlated with delinquency within time. These effects are observed across adolescence after controlling for youth depression and race. Findings support the reciprocal effects hypothesis of a negative reinforcing cycle in the relationships between future expectations and both substance use and involvement in delinquent behavior across adolescence. The enduring nature of these relationships underscores the importance of future expectation as a potential change mechanism for intervention and prevention efforts to promote healthy development; vulnerable racial and ethnic minority male adolescents may especially benefit from such intervention.

  14. Obesity-Related Behaviors among Poor Adolescents and Young Adults: Is Social Position Associated with Risk Behaviors?

    PubMed Central

    Ritterman Weintraub, Miranda Lucia; Fernald, Lia C.; Goodman, Elizabeth; Guendelman, Sylvia; Adler, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights Different measures of social position capture unique dimensions of relative rank among youth. Youth-specific measures of social position may be important in identifying the most at-risk for obesity. Lower social status youth are more likely to be at-risk for obesity-related behaviors compared to those with a higher rank. This cross-sectional study examines multiple dimensions of social position in relation to obesity-related behaviors in an adolescent and young adult population. In addition to using conventional measures of social position, including parental education and household expenditures, we explore the usefulness of three youth-specific measures of social position – community and society subjective social status and school dropout status. Data are taken from a 2004 house-to-house survey of urban households within the bottom 20th percentile of income distribution within seven states in Mexico. A total of 5,321 Mexican adolescents, aged 12–22 years, provided information on obesity-related behaviors (e.g., diet, physical activity, sedentary behavior) and indicators of subjective and objective social position. A parent in each household provided information on socioeconomic status of the parent and household. Ordinal logistic regressions are used to estimate the associations of parental, household and adolescent indicators of social position and obesity-related risk behaviors. Those adolescents with the highest odds of adopting obesity risk behaviors were the ones who perceived themselves as lower in social status in reference to their peer community and those who had dropped out of school. We found no significant associations between parental education or household expenditures and obesity-related risk behaviors. Immediate social factors in adolescents’ lives may have a strong influence on their health-related behaviors. This study provides evidence for the usefulness of two particular measures, both of which are youth

  15. Macroeconomic environment during infancy as a possible risk factor for adolescent behavioral problems.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Seethalakshmi; Balasubramanian, Natarajan; Krishnadas, Rajeev

    2013-02-01

    CONTEXT Economic difficulties at the individual level can lead to a number of behavioral problems, including substance abuse and delinquent behaviors. OBJECTIVE To examine the influence of a nationwide adverse economic environment during infancy, specifically, the high unemployment rates during and after the 1980 and 1981-1982 recessions, on rates of subsequent adolescent substance use and delinquent behaviors. DESIGN We used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 and estimated logit regressions to examine the effect of changes in unemployment rates during infancy on the incidence of adolescent behavioral problems, controlling for known youth, family, and environmental risk factors. SETTING Adolescents living in the United States in 1997. PARTICIPANTS Nationally representative sample of 8984 adolescents born from January 1, 1980, through December 31, 1984. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Probability of engaging in substance use (marijuana, smoking, alcohol, and hard [ie, illegal] drugs) and delinquent behaviors (arrest, handgun use, gang affiliation, petty and major theft, property destruction, and assaultive behavior). RESULTS Exposure to a 1% deviation from mean regional unemployment rates at the age of 1 year was associated with an increase in the odds ratios of engaging in marijuana use (1.09 [95% CI, 1.04-1.14]), smoking (1.07 [1.03-1.11]), alcohol use (1.06 [1.02-1.10]), arrest (1.17 [1.09-1.25]), gang affiliation (1.09 [1.00-1.19]), and petty (1.06 [1.01-1.10]) and major theft (1.11 [1.05-1.18]). No significant associations were noted with use of hard drugs, property destruction, and assaultive behavior. CONCLUSIONS The macroeconomic environment during infancy can have serious long-term effects on substance use and delinquent behavior. These potential long-term effects can play an important role in policy making for adolescent mental health care.

  16. Truth or consequences: the intertemporal consistency of adolescent self-report on the Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Janet E

    2009-06-01

    Surveys are the primary information source about adolescents' health risk behaviors, but adolescents may not report their behaviors accurately. Survey data are used for formulating adolescent health policy, and inaccurate data can cause mistakes in policy creation and evaluation. The author used test-retest data from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (United States, 2000) to compare adolescents' responses to 72 questions about their risk behaviors at a 2-week interval. Each question was evaluated for prevalence change and 3 measures of unreliability: inconsistency (retraction and apparent initiation), agreement measured as tetrachoric correlation, and estimated error due to inconsistency assessed with a Bayesian method. Results showed that adolescents report their sex, drug, alcohol, and tobacco histories more consistently than other risk behaviors in a 2-week period, opposite their tendency over longer intervals. Compared with other Youth Risk Behavior Survey topics, most sex, drug, alcohol, and tobacco items had stable prevalence estimates, higher average agreement, and lower estimated measurement error. Adolescents reported their weight control behaviors more unreliably than other behaviors, particularly problematic because of the increased investment in adolescent obesity research and reliance on annual surveys for surveillance and policy evaluation. Most weight control items had unstable prevalence estimates, lower average agreement, and greater estimated measurement error than other topics.

  17. Comparing Growth Trajectories of Risk Behaviors From Late Adolescence Through Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Brodbeck, Jeannette; Bachmann, Monica S.; Croudace, Tim J.; Brown, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Risk behaviors such as substance use or deviance are often limited to the early stages of the life course. Whereas the onset of risk behavior is well studied, less is currently known about the decline and timing of cessation of risk behaviors of different domains during young adulthood. Prevalence and longitudinal developmental patterning of alcohol use, drinking to the point of drunkenness, smoking, cannabis use, deviance, and HIV-related sexual risk behavior were compared in a Swiss community sample (N = 2,843). Using a longitudinal cohort-sequential approach to link multiple assessments with 3 waves of data for each individual, the studied period spanned the ages of 16 to 29 years. Although smoking had a higher prevalence, both smoking and drinking up to the point of drunkenness followed an inverted U-shaped curve. Alcohol consumption was also best described by a quadratic model, though largely stable at a high level through the late 20s. Sexual risk behavior increased slowly from age 16 to age 22 and then remained largely stable. In contrast, cannabis use and deviance linearly declined from age 16 to age 29. Young men were at higher risk for all behaviors than were young women, but apart from deviance, patterning over time was similar for both sexes. Results about the timing of increase and decline as well as differences between risk behaviors may inform tailored prevention programs during the transition from late adolescence to adulthood. PMID:23231693

  18. Associations between Perceptions of School Connectedness and Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors in South African High School Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Govender, Kaymarlin; Naicker, Sara Naomi; Meyer-Weitz, Anna; Fanner, Joanne; Naidoo, Avanya; Penfold, Wendy Leigh

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the relationship between school connectedness and health risk behaviors, specifically, substance abuse, violence-related behaviors, sexual risk behaviors, and suicidal ideation among school-going adolescents. School connectedness was understood to encompass a range of aspects pertaining to a learner's sense of…

  19. Associations between Perceptions of School Connectedness and Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors in South African High School Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Govender, Kaymarlin; Naicker, Sara Naomi; Meyer-Weitz, Anna; Fanner, Joanne; Naidoo, Avanya; Penfold, Wendy Leigh

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the relationship between school connectedness and health risk behaviors, specifically, substance abuse, violence-related behaviors, sexual risk behaviors, and suicidal ideation among school-going adolescents. School connectedness was understood to encompass a range of aspects pertaining to a learner's sense of…

  20. What Are Adolescents Showing the World About Their Health Risk Behaviors on MySpace?

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Megan A.; Parks, Malcolm; Richardson, Laura P.

    2007-01-01

    Context MySpace is a popular social networking Web site where users create individual Web profiles. Little data are available about what types of health risk behaviors adolescents display on MySpace profiles. There are potential risks and intervention opportunities associated with posting such information on a public Web site. Objective To examine publicly available 16- and 17-year-old MySpace Web profiles and determine the prevalence of personal risk behavior descriptions and identifiable information. Design Cross-sectional observational study using content analysis of Web profiles. Setting www.MySpace.com Patients In order to target frequently visited adolescent Web profiles, we sequentially selected 142 publicly available Web profiles of 16 and 17 year olds from the class of 2008 MySpace group. Interventions None. Main outcome measures Prevalence of displayed health risk behaviors pertaining to substance use or sexual behavior, prevalence of personally identifying information, date of last log-in to Web profile. Results Of Web profiles, 47% contained risk behavior information: Twenty-one percent described sexual activity; 25% described alcohol use; 9% described cigarette use; and 6% described drug use. 97.2% Contained personally identifying information: Seventy-four percent included an identifiable picture; 75% included subjects' first names or surnames; and 78% included subjects' hometowns. Eighty-six percent of users had visited their own profiles within 24 hours. Conclusions Most 16- and 17-year-old MySpace profiles include identifiable information, are frequently accessed by owners, and half include personal risk behavior information. Further study is needed to assess the risks associated with displaying personal information and to evaluate the use of social networking sites for health behavior interventions targeting at-risk teens. PMID:18311359

  1. Behavioral risk factors and mental health: single and cluster associations in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Padrón, Alicia; Galán, Iñaki; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    The risk factors associated with mental health in adolescents are not well known in the general population of Mediterranean countries. Therefore, this study aimed to identify individual and clustered behavioral risk factors for psychological distress. Cross-sectional study conducted between 2008 and 2009 among 4054 students representative of those in the fourth year of secondary education in the region of Madrid (Spain). Mental health was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire, with psychological distress defined as a score ≥3. The analyses were performed with logistic regression and adjusted for the main confounders. Psychological distress was more frequent in those who did insufficient physical activity (odds ratio [OR], 1.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.47), smokers (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.07-1.59), and users of illegal drugs (OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.21-1.76). Psychological distress also showed a positive dose-response relationship with the number of risk behaviors for eating disorders (p for linear trend <0.001). Moreover, it was associated with both thin (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.16-1.62) or very thin body image (OR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.39-3.32) and perceived overweight (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.40-2.15) or obesity (OR, 3.12; 95% CI, 2.23-4.37). Compared with individuals without classic risk behaviors (low physical activity, low consumption of fruits/vegetables, smoking, high-risk alcohol consumption), frequency of psychological distress was higher in those with 2 risk behaviors (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.19-1.82) and was even greater in those with 3 or 4 risk behaviors (OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.21-2.01). During adolescence, psychological distress is associated with lifestyles, body image, and eating behaviors. Clustering of classic risk behaviors increases the likelihood of poor mental health.

  2. Neighborhoods and Race/Ethnic Disparities in Adolescent Sexual Risk Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Daniel L.; McNulty, Thomas L.; Bellair, Paul E.; Watts, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the determinants of racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent sexual risk behavior is important given its links to the differential risk of teen pregnancy, childbearing, and sexually transmitted infections. This article tests a contextual model that emphasizes the concentration of neighborhood disadvantage in shaping racial/ethnic disparities in sexual risk behavior. We focus on two risk behaviors that are prevalent among Black and Hispanic youth: the initiation of sexual activity in adolescence and the number of sex partners. Using data from the 1997 National Longitudinal Study of Youth (N = 6,985; 48% female; 57% non-Hispanic White) evidence indicates that neighborhood disadvantage – measured by concentrated poverty, unemployment rates, and the proportion of female-headed households – partially explains Black and Hispanic disparities from Whites in the odds of adolescent sexual debut, although the prevalence of female-headed households in neighborhoods appears to be the main driver in this domain. Likewise, accounting for neighborhood disadvantage reduces the Black-White and Hispanic-White disparity in the number of sexual partners, although less so relative to sexual debut. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these findings. PMID:24214727

  3. Television viewing, psychological positive health, health complaints and health risk behaviors in Spanish children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Moledo, C; Castro-Piñero, J; Ortega, F B; Pulido-Martos, M; Sjöström, M; Ruiz, J R

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to study the correlation of television viewing with positive and negative health in youth. The present cross-sectional study comprised a total of 680 children and adolescents aged 6-17.9 (46% girls) representative of the province of Cádiz (south Spain). We used the Health Behavior in School-aged Children questionnaire to assess television viewing, positive and negative health. It was found that correlations between television viewing >2 hours and several outcomes were inconsistent. No effects were found for quality of family relationships, quality of peer relationships, perceived academic performance and health risk behaviors in children, or with perceived excellent health status, excellent life satisfaction, quality of peer relationships, perceived academic performance and health risk behaviors in adolescents. However viewing >2 hours of television was correlated with lower quality family relations in adolescents, and lower perceived excellent health status, lower life satisfaction and higher health complaints index in children. Correction for multiple comparisons would render all television relationships as non-significant. Our results suggest that negative television influences on children and adolescents are minimal. However excessive television viewing may be symptomatic of other underlying mental health problems for some children.

  4. Influence of Social Stress on Risk-Taking Behavior in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; Schreiber, Whitney M.; Geisel, Kathy; MacPherson, Laura; Ernst, Monique; Lejuez, C. W.

    2013-01-01

    Risk-taking behavior involves making choices with uncertain positive or negative outcomes. Evidence suggests that risk-taking behavior is influenced by emotional state. One such emotional experience is social anxiety, which has been related to both risk-avoidant and risk-seeking decision making. The present study examined a community sample of 34 adolescents grouped into low (Low SA Group) and high (High SA Group) social anxiety (SA). Both groups were compared on changes in performance on a risk taking task (Balloon Analogue Risk Task) between a social threat condition (modified Trier Social Stress Test, High Stress) and a control condition (Low Stress). These conditions were administered on different days, and the order was counterbalanced across subjects. A group x condition interaction revealed that the High SA Group showed greater risk-taking behavior when exposed to the High Stress Condition compared to the Low Stress Condition, while the Low SA Group evidenced no difference between the two conditions. Conceivable interpretations for the increased risk behavior under the condition of social stress for those high in social anxiety are discussed as well as implications for understanding the complex relationship between social anxiety and risk behavior. PMID:23602940

  5. A Systematic Review of Effective Interventions for Reducing Multiple Health Risk Behaviors in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald-Yau, Natasha; Viner, Russell Mark

    2014-01-01

    We systematically searched 9 biomedical and social science databases (1980–2012) for primary and secondary interventions that prevented or reduced 2 or more adolescent health risk behaviors (tobacco use, alcohol use, illicit drug use, risky sexual behavior, aggressive acts). We identified 44 randomized controlled trials of universal or selective interventions and were effective for multiple health risk behaviors. Most were school based, conducted in the United States, and effective for multiple forms of substance use. Effects were small, in line with findings for other universal prevention programs. In some studies, effects for more than 1 health risk behavior only emerged at long-term follow-up. Integrated prevention programs are feasible and effective and may be more efficient than discrete prevention strategies. PMID:24625172

  6. HIV-related attitudes and risk behavior of young adolescent mothers.

    PubMed

    Brown, L K; Lourie, K J; Flanagan, P; High, P

    1998-12-01

    This article reports on the prevalence of HIV-related risk behaviors among young adolescent mothers. To determine the facilitators and barriers to condom use for young adolescent mothers, a survey of HIV-related knowledge, attitudes and behavior and focus groups was conducted. Young mothers (N = 58) have basic knowledge and some personal concern about HIV, but also hold common misconceptions about HIV and people with AIDS. Despite their anxiety about HIV, almost half rarely or never protect themselves against HIV by using a condom. Although 70% of the sample use hormonal contraceptives, more than one third of the sample have had a second child within an average of 18 months after the birth of their first baby. Personal concern about HIV was significantly associated with consistency of condom use. Because of low rates of condom use and substantial rates of multiple sex partners, STDs and second pregnancies, disadvantaged adolescent mothers are at risk of exposure to HIV. Increased personalized concern for HIV may lead to greater motivations for safer behavior for these mothers. In addition to protecting their own safety, the protection of their child may be an important motivator for safe behavior. Cultural taboos against safe sex and the perception of such behavior as "unfeminine" also need to be addressed for these women.

  7. Hunger and Behavioral Risk Factors for Noncommunicable Diseases in School-Going Adolescents in Bolivia, 2012

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Hunger may play a role in noncommunicable disease (NCD) risk. This study used the 2012 Global School-based Student Health Survey from Bolivia to determine the association between hunger and risk factors for NCDs among adolescents. Hunger was associated with increased odds of nondaily fruit and vegetable consumption (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.21; P < .001), inadequate physical activity (AOR = 1.21; P = .001), and current tobacco use (hunger sometimes [AOR = 1.83; P < .001] or most of the time/always [AOR = 2.12; P < .001]). Interventions to reduce the burden of NCDs in Bolivia should address hunger, in addition to traditional behavioral risk factors. PMID:27103264

  8. Hunger and Behavioral Risk Factors for Noncommunicable Diseases in School-Going Adolescents in Bolivia, 2012.

    PubMed

    Romo, Matthew L

    2016-04-21

    Hunger may play a role in noncommunicable disease (NCD) risk. This study used the 2012 Global School-based Student Health Survey from Bolivia to determine the association between hunger and risk factors for NCDs among adolescents. Hunger was associated with increased odds of nondaily fruit and vegetable consumption (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.21; P < .001), inadequate physical activity (AOR = 1.21; P = .001), and current tobacco use (hunger sometimes [AOR = 1.83; P < .001] or most of the time/always [AOR = 2.12; P < .001]). Interventions to reduce the burden of NCDs in Bolivia should address hunger, in addition to traditional behavioral risk factors.

  9. Perceptions of social mobility: development of a new psychosocial indicator associated with adolescent risk behaviors.

    PubMed

    Ritterman Weintraub, Miranda Lucia; Fernald, Lia C H; Adler, Nancy; Bertozzi, Stefano; Syme, S Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Social class gradients have been explored in adults and children, but not extensively during adolescence. The first objective of this study was to examine the association between adolescent risk behaviors and a new indicator of adolescent relative social position, adolescent "perceived social mobility." Second, it investigated potential underlying demographic, socioeconomic, and psychosocial determinants of this indicator. Data were taken from the 2004 urban adolescent module of Oportunidades, a cross-sectional study of Mexican adolescents living in poverty. Perceived social mobility was calculated for each subject by taking the difference between their rankings on two 10-rung ladder scales that measured (1) projected future social status and (2) current subjective social status within Mexican society. Adolescents with higher perceived social mobility were significantly less likely to report alcohol consumption, drinking with repercussions, compensated sex, police detainment, physical fighting, consumption of junk food or soda, or watching ≥4 h of television during the last viewing. They were significantly more likely to report exercising during the past week and using a condom during last sexual intercourse. These associations remained significant with the inclusion of covariates, including parental education and household expenditures. Multiple logistic regression analyses show higher perceived social mobility to be associated with staying in school longer and having higher perceived control. The present study provides evidence for the usefulness of perceived social mobility as an indicator for understanding the social gradient in health during adolescence. This research suggests the possibility of implementing policies and interventions that provide adolescents with real reasons to be hopeful about their trajectories.

  10. Perceptions of Social Mobility: Development of a New Psychosocial Indicator Associated with Adolescent Risk Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Ritterman Weintraub, Miranda Lucia; Fernald, Lia C. H.; Adler, Nancy; Bertozzi, Stefano; Syme, S. Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Social class gradients have been explored in adults and children, but not extensively during adolescence. The first objective of this study was to examine the association between adolescent risk behaviors and a new indicator of adolescent relative social position, adolescent “perceived social mobility.” Second, it investigated potential underlying demographic, socioeconomic, and psychosocial determinants of this indicator. Data were taken from the 2004 urban adolescent module of Oportunidades, a cross-sectional study of Mexican adolescents living in poverty. Perceived social mobility was calculated for each subject by taking the difference between their rankings on two 10-rung ladder scales that measured (1) projected future social status and (2) current subjective social status within Mexican society. Adolescents with higher perceived social mobility were significantly less likely to report alcohol consumption, drinking with repercussions, compensated sex, police detainment, physical fighting, consumption of junk food or soda, or watching ≥4 h of television during the last viewing. They were significantly more likely to report exercising during the past week and using a condom during last sexual intercourse. These associations remained significant with the inclusion of covariates, including parental education and household expenditures. Multiple logistic regression analyses show higher perceived social mobility to be associated with staying in school longer and having higher perceived control. The present study provides evidence for the usefulness of perceived social mobility as an indicator for understanding the social gradient in health during adolescence. This research suggests the possibility of implementing policies and interventions that provide adolescents with real reasons to be hopeful about their trajectories. PMID:25932460

  11. fMRI investigation of response inhibition, emotion, impulsivity, and clinical high-risk behavior in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Matthew R. G.; Benoit, James R. A.; Juhás, Michal; Dametto, Ericson; Tse, Tiffanie T.; MacKay, Marnie; Sen, Bhaskar; Carroll, Alan M.; Hodlevskyy, Oleksandr; Silverstone, Peter H.; Dolcos, Florin; Dursun, Serdar M.; Greenshaw, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    High-risk behavior in adolescents is associated with injury, mental health problems, and poor outcomes in later life. Improved understanding of the neurobiology of high-risk behavior and impulsivity shows promise for informing clinical treatment and prevention as well as policy to better address high-risk behavior. We recruited 21 adolescents (age 14–17) with a wide range of high-risk behavior tendencies, including medically high-risk participants recruited from psychiatric clinics. Risk tendencies were assessed using the Adolescent Risk Behavior Screen (ARBS). ARBS risk scores correlated highly (0.78) with impulsivity scores from the Barratt Impulsivity scale (BIS). Participants underwent 4.7 Tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing an emotional Go/NoGo task. This task presented an aversive or neutral distractor image simultaneously with each Go or NoGo stimulus. Risk behavior and impulsivity tendencies exhibited similar but not identical associations with fMRI activation patterns in prefrontal brain regions. We interpret these results as reflecting differences in response inhibition, emotional stimulus processing, and emotion regulation in relation to participant risk behavior tendencies and impulsivity levels. The results are consistent with high impulsivity playing an important role in determining high risk tendencies in this sample containing clinically high-risk adolescents. PMID:26483645

  12. Weight Misperception and Health Risk Behaviors among Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasch, Keryn E.; Klein, Elizabeth G.; Laska, Melissa N.; Velazquez, Cayley E.; Moe, Stacey G.; Lytle, Leslie A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine associations between weight misperception and youth health risk and protective factors. Methods: Three thousand ten US seventh-graders (72.1% white, mean age: 12.7 years) self-reported height, weight, risk, and protective factors. Analyses were conducted to determine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between…

  13. Weight Misperception and Health Risk Behaviors among Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasch, Keryn E.; Klein, Elizabeth G.; Laska, Melissa N.; Velazquez, Cayley E.; Moe, Stacey G.; Lytle, Leslie A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine associations between weight misperception and youth health risk and protective factors. Methods: Three thousand ten US seventh-graders (72.1% white, mean age: 12.7 years) self-reported height, weight, risk, and protective factors. Analyses were conducted to determine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between…

  14. HIV-related sexual risk behavior among African American adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Danielson, Carla Kmett; Walsh, Kate; McCauley, Jenna; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Brown, Jennifer L; Sales, Jessica M; Rose, Eve; Wingood, Gina M; Diclemente, Ralph J

    2014-05-01

    Latent class analysis (LCA) is a useful statistical tool that can be used to enhance understanding of how various patterns of combined sexual behavior risk factors may confer differential levels of HIV infection risk and to identify subtypes among African American adolescent girls. Data for this analysis is derived from baseline assessments completed prior to randomization in an HIV prevention trial. Participants were African American girls (n=701) aged 14-20 years presenting to sexual health clinics. Girls completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview, which assessed a range of variables regarding sexual history and current and past sexual behavior. Two latent classes were identified with the probability statistics for the two groups in this model being 0.89 and 0.88, respectively. In the final multivariate model, class 1 (the "higher risk" group; n=331) was distinguished by a higher likelihood of >5 lifetime sexual partners, having sex while high on alcohol/drugs, less frequent condom use, and history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), when compared with class 2 (the "lower risk" group; n=370). The derived model correctly classified 85.3% of participants into the two groups and accounted for 71% of the variance in the latent HIV-related sexual behavior risk variable. The higher risk class also had worse scores on all hypothesized correlates (e.g., self-esteem, history of sexual assault or physical abuse) relative to the lower risk class. Sexual health clinics represent a unique point of access for HIV-related sexual risk behavior intervention delivery by capitalizing on contact with adolescent girls when they present for services. Four empirically supported risk factors differentiated higher versus lower HIV risk. Replication of these findings is warranted and may offer an empirical basis for parsimonious screening recommendations for girls presenting for sexual healthcare services.

  15. Unplanned pregnancy in adolescents: association with family structure, employed mother, and female friends with health-risk habits and behaviors.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Nava, Francisco; Vázquez-Rodriguez, Carlos F; Saldívar-González, Atenógenes H; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Eliza M; Córdova-Fernández, José A; Felizardo-Ávalos, Jorge; Sánchez-Márquez, Wilberto

    2014-02-01

    Previous publications have suggested that living in a nonintact family household and socializing with girlfriends who smoke or who consume alcoholic beverages favor the development of health-risk habits and customs in adolescents. However, their relationship with unplanned pregnancy in adolescents has not been determined. We investigated the association between family structure, employed mother, and female friends with health-risk habits and behaviors with unplanned pregnancy in adolescents (n = 3,130). After adjusting for low maternal educational level and low family income, logistic regression analyses showed that having an employed mother and socializing with girlfriends who have health-risk habits or behaviors, rather than living in a nonintact family household, appear to be the most important health-risk factors for unplanned pregnancy in adolescents. It is important for health-care programs for adolescents to be revised and for their strategies be strengthened in order to reach the objectives for which they were created.

  16. What are we missing? Risk behaviors among Arab-American adolescents and emerging adults

    PubMed Central

    Munro-Kramer, Michelle L.; Fava, Nicole M.; Saftner, Melissa A.; Darling-Fisher, Cynthia S.; Tate, Nutrena H.; Stoddard, Sarah A.; Martyn, Kristy K.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Research on Arab-Americans as a distinct ethnic group is limited, especially when considering the health of Arab-American youth. This study describes health risk (substance use, violence); health promotive behaviors (hope, spirituality); and sexual activity (oral, vaginal, anal sex) of Arab-American adolescents and emerging adults (15-23 years old) within their life context, as well as the association between these behaviors. Methods A secondary analysis of data on a subset of Arab-American participants obtained from a randomized control trial were utilized to conduct mixed methods analyses. Qualitative analyses completed on the open-ended questions used the constant comparative method for a subsample (n=24) of participants. Descriptive quantitative analyses of survey data utilized bivariate analyses and stepwise logistic regression to explore the relation between risk behaviors and sexual activity among the full sample (n=57). Conclusions Qualitative analyses revealed two groups of participants: (a) multiple risk behaviors and negative life events, and (b) minimal risk behaviors and positive life events. Quantitative analyses indicated older youth, smokers, and those with higher hope pathways were more likely to report vaginal sex. Implications for Practice The unique cultural and social contexts of Arab-American youth provide a framework for recommendations for the prevention of risk behaviors. PMID:26990394

  17. What are we missing? Risk behaviors among Arab-American adolescents and emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Munro-Kramer, Michelle L; Fava, Nicole M; Saftner, Melissa A; Darling-Fisher, Cynthia S; Tate, Nutrena H; Stoddard, Sarah A; Martyn, Kristy K

    2016-09-01

    Research on Arab-Americans as a distinct ethnic group is limited, especially when considering the health of Arab-American youth. This study describes health risk (substance use, violence); health promotive behaviors (hope, spirituality); and sexual activity (oral, vaginal, anal sex) of Arab-American adolescents and emerging adults (aged 15-23) within their life context, as well as the association between these behaviors. A secondary analysis of data on a subset of Arab-American participants obtained from a randomized-control trial was utilized to conduct mixed methods analyses. Qualitative analyses completed on the open-ended questions used the constant comparative method for a subsample (n = 24) of participants. Descriptive quantitative analyses of survey data utilized bivariate analyses and stepwise logistic regression to explore the relation between risk behaviors and sexual activity among the full sample (n = 57). Qualitative analyses revealed two groups of participants: (a) multiple risk behaviors and negative life-events, and (b) minimal risk behaviors and positive life-events. Quantitative analyses indicated older youth, smokers, and those with higher hope pathways were more likely to report vaginal sex. The unique cultural and social contexts of Arab-American youth provide a framework for recommendations for the prevention of risk behaviors. ©2016 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  18. HIV-Related Sexual Risk Behavior Among African American Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Kate; McCauley, Jenna; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Brown, Jennifer L.; Sales, Jessica M.; Rose, Eve; Wingood, Gina M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Latent class analysis (LCA) is a useful statistical tool that can be used to enhance understanding of how various patterns of combined sexual behavior risk factors may confer differential levels of HIV infection risk and to identify subtypes among African American adolescent girls. Methods: Data for this analysis is derived from baseline assessments completed prior to randomization in an HIV prevention trial. Participants were African American girls (n=701) aged 14–20 years presenting to sexual health clinics. Girls completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview, which assessed a range of variables regarding sexual history and current and past sexual behavior. Results: Two latent classes were identified with the probability statistics for the two groups in this model being 0.89 and 0.88, respectively. In the final multivariate model, class 1 (the “higher risk” group; n=331) was distinguished by a higher likelihood of >5 lifetime sexual partners, having sex while high on alcohol/drugs, less frequent condom use, and history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), when compared with class 2 (the “lower risk” group; n=370). The derived model correctly classified 85.3% of participants into the two groups and accounted for 71% of the variance in the latent HIV-related sexual behavior risk variable. The higher risk class also had worse scores on all hypothesized correlates (e.g., self-esteem, history of sexual assault or physical abuse) relative to the lower risk class. Conclusions: Sexual health clinics represent a unique point of access for HIV-related sexual risk behavior intervention delivery by capitalizing on contact with adolescent girls when they present for services. Four empirically supported risk factors differentiated higher versus lower HIV risk. Replication of these findings is warranted and may offer an empirical basis for parsimonious screening recommendations for girls presenting for sexual healthcare services. PMID

  19. Child Sexual Abuse and Its Relationship with Health Risk Behaviors among Rural Children and Adolescents in Hunan, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Danhua; Li, Xiaoming; Fan, Xinghua; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The current study was designed to explore the prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) and its association with health risk behaviors (i.e., smoking, alcohol use, binge drinking, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempt) among rural children and adolescents in China. Methods: A sample of 683 rural children and adolescents (8 to 18 years of…

  20. Child Sexual Abuse and Its Relationship with Health Risk Behaviors among Rural Children and Adolescents in Hunan, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Danhua; Li, Xiaoming; Fan, Xinghua; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The current study was designed to explore the prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) and its association with health risk behaviors (i.e., smoking, alcohol use, binge drinking, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempt) among rural children and adolescents in China. Methods: A sample of 683 rural children and adolescents (8 to 18 years of…

  1. Substance Use and Mental Health Problems as Predictors of HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors among Adolescents in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Ronald G., Jr.; Auslander, Wendy F.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between substance use, mental health problems, and HIV sexual risk behaviors among a sample of foster care adolescents. Data were collected through structured baseline interviews with 320 adolescents (ages 15 to 18 years) who resided in foster care placements and participated in a larger evaluation study of an…

  2. Substance Use and Mental Health Problems as Predictors of HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors among Adolescents in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Ronald G., Jr.; Auslander, Wendy F.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between substance use, mental health problems, and HIV sexual risk behaviors among a sample of foster care adolescents. Data were collected through structured baseline interviews with 320 adolescents (ages 15 to 18 years) who resided in foster care placements and participated in a larger evaluation study of an…

  3. Motivational Systems in Adolescence: Possible Implications for Age Differences in Substance Abuse and Other Risk-Taking Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L.; Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Spear, Linda P.

    2010-01-01

    Adolescence is an evolutionarily conserved developmental phase characterized by hormonal, physiological, neural and behavioral alterations evident widely across mammalian species. For instance, adolescent rats, like their human counterparts, exhibit elevations in peer-directed social interactions, risk-taking/novelty seeking and drug and alcohol…

  4. An Exploratory Study of Psychosocial Risk Behaviors of Adolescents Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: Comparisons and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll, Kenneth M.; Cutler, Martin M.; Thobro, Patti; Haas, Robin; Powell, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    The study compared psychosocial risk behaviors of adolescents who were deaf or hard of hearing with those of their hearing peers in a residential treatment facility. Statistically significant differences emerged between groups. The adolescents who were deaf or hard of hearing demonstrated clinically higher scores than those of their hearing peers…

  5. An Exploratory Study of Psychosocial Risk Behaviors of Adolescents Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: Comparisons and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll, Kenneth M.; Cutler, Martin M.; Thobro, Patti; Haas, Robin; Powell, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    The study compared psychosocial risk behaviors of adolescents who were deaf or hard of hearing with those of their hearing peers in a residential treatment facility. Statistically significant differences emerged between groups. The adolescents who were deaf or hard of hearing demonstrated clinically higher scores than those of their hearing peers…

  6. A Longitudinal Test of the Parent-Adolescent Family Functioning Discrepancy Hypothesis: A Trend toward Increased HIV Risk Behaviors Among Immigrant Hispanic Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Córdova, David; Schwartz, Seth J; Unger, Jennifer B; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Villamar, Juan A; Soto, Daniel W; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Lee, Tae Kyoung; Meca, Alan; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Oshri, Assaf; Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Piña-Watson, Brandy; Romero, Andrea J

    2016-10-01

    Parent-adolescent discrepancies in family functioning play an important role in HIV risk behaviors among adolescents, yet longitudinal research with recent immigrant Hispanic families remains limited. This study tested the effects of trajectories of parent-adolescent family functioning discrepancies on HIV risk behaviors among recent-immigrant Hispanic adolescents. Additionally, we examined whether and to what extent trajectories of parent-adolescent family functioning discrepancies vary as a function of gender. We assessed family functioning of 302 Hispanic adolescents (47 % female) and their parent (70 % female) at six time points over a three-year period and computed latent discrepancy scores between parent and adolescent reports at each timepoint. Additionally, adolescents completed measures of sexual risk behaviors and alcohol use. We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis to determine the feasibility of collapsing parent and adolescent reported family functioning indicators onto a single latent discrepancy variable, tested model invariance over time, and conducted growth mixture modeling (GMM). GMM yielded a three-class solution for discrepancies: High-Increasing, High-Stable, and Low-Stable. Relative to the Low-Stable class, parent-adolescent dyads in the High-Increasing and High-Stable classes were at greater risk for adolescents reporting sexual debut at time 6. Additionally, the High-Stable class was at greater risk, relative to the Low-Stable class, in terms of adolescent lifetime alcohol use at 30 months post-baseline. Multiple group GMM indicated that trajectories of parent-adolescent family functioning trajectories did not vary by gender. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.

  7. Risk Factors for Adolescent Suicide and Suicidal Behavior: Mental and Substance Abuse Disorders, Family Environmental Factors, and Life Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brent, David A.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews psychopathologic risk factors for adolescent suicide and suicidal behavior, namely, affective, disruptive, substance abuse, psychotic, and personality disorders. Discusses interaction of psychopathology with age and gender. Reviews role of family environmental risk factors and stress events in suicide and suicidal behavior, both alone and…

  8. The Influence of School-Based Natural Mentoring Relationships on School Attachment and Subsequent Adolescent Risk Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, David S.; Grenard, Jerry L.; Sussman, Steve; Rohrbach, Louise A.

    2010-01-01

    A relatively new area of research suggests that naturally occurring mentoring relationships may influence the development of adolescents by protecting against risk behaviors. Few studies have explored how these relationships function to reduce risk behavior among youth, especially in the school context. Based on previous research and theory, we…

  9. The Influence of School-Based Natural Mentoring Relationships on School Attachment and Subsequent Adolescent Risk Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, David S.; Grenard, Jerry L.; Sussman, Steve; Rohrbach, Louise A.

    2010-01-01

    A relatively new area of research suggests that naturally occurring mentoring relationships may influence the development of adolescents by protecting against risk behaviors. Few studies have explored how these relationships function to reduce risk behavior among youth, especially in the school context. Based on previous research and theory, we…

  10. Risky Decision Making in a Laboratory Driving Task Is Associated with Health Risk Behaviors during Late Adolescence but Not Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Kahn, Rachel; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Chiu, Pearl; Steinberg, Laurence; King-Casas, Brooks

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized by increasing incidence of health risk behaviors, including experimentation with drugs and alcohol. To fill the gap in our understanding of the associations between risky decision-making and health risk behaviors, we investigated associations between laboratory-based risky decision-making using the Stoplight task and…

  11. Child Behavior Checklist Profiles of Children and Adolescents with and at High Risk for Developing Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Lisa L.; DelBello, Melissa P.; Stanford, Kevin E.; Strakowski, Stephen M.

    2007-01-01

    In order to recognize behavioral patterns in children and adolescents at risk for developing bipolar disorder, this study examined Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) profiles of bipolar offspring both with (BD group) and without ("at-risk" or AR group) bipolar disorder themselves. The BD youth had three CBCL subscale T scores greater than…

  12. Risky Decision Making in a Laboratory Driving Task Is Associated with Health Risk Behaviors during Late Adolescence but Not Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Kahn, Rachel; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Chiu, Pearl; Steinberg, Laurence; King-Casas, Brooks

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized by increasing incidence of health risk behaviors, including experimentation with drugs and alcohol. To fill the gap in our understanding of the associations between risky decision-making and health risk behaviors, we investigated associations between laboratory-based risky decision-making using the Stoplight task and…

  13. Child Behavior Checklist Profiles of Children and Adolescents with and at High Risk for Developing Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Lisa L.; DelBello, Melissa P.; Stanford, Kevin E.; Strakowski, Stephen M.

    2007-01-01

    In order to recognize behavioral patterns in children and adolescents at risk for developing bipolar disorder, this study examined Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) profiles of bipolar offspring both with (BD group) and without ("at-risk" or AR group) bipolar disorder themselves. The BD youth had three CBCL subscale T scores greater than…

  14. Operational Definitions of Sexual Orientation and Estimates of Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Derrick D.; Blosnich, John R.; Farmer, Grant W.; Adams, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Increasing attention to the health of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations comes with requisite circumspection about measuring sexual orientation in surveys. However, operationalizing these variables also requires considerable thought. This research sought to document the consequences of different operational definitions of sexual orientation by examining variation in health risk behaviors. Methods Using Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey data, we examined how operational definitions of sexual behavior and sexual identity influenced differences among three health behaviors known to disparately affect LGB populations: smoking, suicide risk, and methamphetamine use. Sexual behavior and sexual identity were also examined together to explore if they captured unique sources of variability in behavior. Results Estimates of health disparities changed as a result of using either sexual behavior or sexual identity. Youth who reported their sexual identity as “not sure” also had increased odds of health risk behavior. Disaggregating bisexual identity and behavior from same-sex identity and behavior frequently resulted in the attenuation or elimination of health disparities that would have otherwise been attributable to exclusively same-sex sexual minorities. Finally, sexual behavior and sexual identity explained unique and significant sources of variability in all three health behaviors. Conclusion Researchers using different operational definitions of sexual orientation could draw different conclusions, even when analyzing the same data, depending upon how they chose to represent sexual orientation in analyses. We discuss implications that these manipulations have on data interpretation and provide specific recommendations for best-practices when analyzing sexual orientation data collected from adolescent populations. PMID:25110718

  15. Risk-taking behaviors and AIDS knowledge: experiences and beliefs of minority adolescent mothers.

    PubMed

    Koniak-Griffin, D; Nyamathi, A; Vasquez, R; Russo, A A

    1994-12-01

    Using a qualitative focus-group methodology, this study investigated risk-taking behaviors and AIDS knowledge among minority pregnant and parenting adolescents at risk for heterosexual and perinatal transmission of HIV. Seven focus groups were conducted with a total of 48 young women recruited from alternative schools and residential facilities for pregnant adolescents and young mothers in Southern California. Participants also completed a background questionnaire soliciting sociodemographic information and an AIDS knowledge test. The sample included 33 Latinas and 15 African-Americans, ranging in age from 12 to 19 years. There were bipolar findings regarding risk-taking behaviors. At one end of the continuum were young women with a history of one of more of the following behaviors: multiple sex partners, drug and alcohol use, carrying weapons, and participating in gang-related activities. Contrasting with these, were those who had one or two sex partners and no history of alcohol or drug abuse. A majority of the participants were having unprotected sex. A variety of factors affected condom use, including gender inequality, embarrassment, and personal preferences and values. Risk-taking was also influenced by lack of security and safety in daily living, emotion-focused coping and peer pressure.

  16. Health risk behaviors in relation to making a smoking quit attempt among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Abrantes, Ana M; Lee, Christina S; MacPherson, Laura; Strong, David R; Borrelli, Belinda; Brown, Richard A

    2009-04-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine youth risk behaviors in relation to: (a) making a smoking quit attempt, and (b) successful cessation among adolescent smokers. Data were analyzed from the public use dataset of the 2003 national school-based Youth Risk Behavior Survey. The sample consisted of 2,033 students (weighted mean age of 16.3 years, 49.8% female, 73.6% White) who reported a history of daily smoking. While almost two-thirds (63.5%) of adolescent smokers reported making a quit attempt in the last year, only 10% of those were able to successfully quit. Factors associated with making a quit attempt included depression and participating in sports while high-risk sexual activity and engaging in substance use other than alcohol or marijuana were negatively related to making a quit attempt. Externalizing health behaviors (e.g., fighting, drug use, and high risk sexual activity) were associated with decreased likelihood of cessation. Findings from this study may inform efforts to develop more effective smoking prevention and treatment programs for youth.

  17. Mindfulness and Eating Behavior in Adolescent Girls at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Pivarunas, Bernadette; Kelly, Nichole R.; Pickworth, Courtney K.; Cassidy, Omni; Radin, Rachel M.; Shank, Lisa M.; Vannucci, Anna; Courville, Amber B.; Chen, Kong Y.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A.; Shomaker, Lauren B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship of dispositional mindfulness to binge eating and associated eating attitudes and behaviors among adolescent girls at risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods Participants were 114 overweight or obese adolescents enrolled in a study of girls with a family history of T2D and mild depressive symptoms. Adolescent self-reports of mindfulness, eating in the absence of hunger, and depressive symptoms were collected. An interview was administered to determine presence of binge eating episodes and a behavioral task was used to assess the reinforcing value of food relative to other non-snack food rewards. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results In analyses accounting for race, percent body fat, lean mass, height, age, and depressive symptoms, dispositional mindfulness was associated with a lower odds of binge eating (p = .002). Controlling for the same potential confounds, mindfulness was also inversely associated with eating concern, eating in the absence of hunger in response to fatigue/boredom, and higher food reinforcement relative to physical activity (all p < .05). Conclusions In girls with a family history of T2D, independent of body composition and depressive symptoms, intra-individual differences in mindfulness are related to binge eating and associated attitudes and behaviors that may confer risk for obesity and metabolic problems. Further research is needed to determine the extent to which mindfulness plays a role in the etiology and/or maintenance of disinhibited eating in adolescents at risk for T2D. PMID:26172157

  18. Combination social protection for reducing HIV-risk behavior amongst adolescents in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Cluver, Lucie D; Orkin, Mark F; Yakubovich, Alexa R; Sherr, Lorraine

    2016-01-01

    Background Social protection (i.e. cash transfers, free schools, parental support) has potential for adolescent HIV-prevention. We aimed to identify which social protection interventions are most effective and whether combined social protection has greater effects in South Africa. Methods In this prospective longitudinal study, we interviewed 3516 adolescents aged 10-18 between 2009 and 2012. We sampled all homes with a resident adolescent in randomly-selected census areas in four urban and rural sites in two South African provinces. We measured household receipt of fourteen social protection interventions and incidence of HIV-risk behaviors. Using gender-disaggregated multivariate logistic regression and marginal-effects analyses, we assessed respective contributions of interventions and potential combination effects. Results Child-focused grants, free schooling, school feeding, teacher support, and parental monitoring were independently associated with reduced HIV-risk behavior incidence (OR 0.10-0.69). Strong effects of combination social protection were shown, with cumulative reductions in HIV-risk behaviors. For example, girls’ predicted past-year incidence of economically-driven sex dropped from 11% with no interventions, to 2% amongst those with a child grant, free school and good parental monitoring. Similarly, girls’ incidence of unprotected/casual sex or multiple-partners dropped from 15% with no interventions to 10% with either parental monitoring or school feeding, and to 7% with both interventions. Conclusion In real-world, high-epidemic conditions, ‘combination social protection’ shows strong HIV-prevention effects for adolescents and may maximize prevention efforts. PMID:26825176

  19. Cell Phone Internet Access, Online Sexual Solicitation, Partner Seeking, and Sexual Risk Behavior among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Eric; Winetrobe, Hailey; Holloway, Ian W.; Montoya, Jorge; Plant, Aaron; Kordic, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Online partner seeking is associated with sexual risk behavior among young adults (specifically men who have sex with men), but this association has yet to be explored among a probability sample of adolescents. Moreover, cell phone internet access and sexual risk taking online and offline have not been explored. A probability sample (N = 1,831) of Los Angeles Unified School District high school students was collected in 2011. Logistic regression models assessed relationships between specific sexual risk behaviors (online sexual solicitation, seeking partners online, sex with internet-met partners, condom use) and frequency of internet use, internet access points, and demographics. Students with cell phone internet access were more likely to report being solicited online for sex, being sexually active, and having sex with an internet-met partner. Bisexual-identifying students reported higher rates of being approached online for sex, being sexually active, and not using condoms at last sex. Gay, lesbian, and questioning (GLQ) students were more likely to report online partner seeking and unprotected sex at last sex with an internet-met partner. Additionally, having sex with an internet-met partner was associated with being male, online sexual solicitation, and online partner seeking. Internet- and school-based sexual health programs should incorporate safety messages regarding online sexual solicitation, seeking sex partners online, and engaging in safer sex practices with all partners. Programs must target adolescents of all sexual identities, as adolescents may not yet be “out,” and bisexual and GLQ adolescents are more likely to engage in risky sex behaviors. PMID:25344027

  20. Cell phone internet access, online sexual solicitation, partner seeking, and sexual risk behavior among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rice, Eric; Winetrobe, Hailey; Holloway, Ian W; Montoya, Jorge; Plant, Aaron; Kordic, Timothy

    2015-04-01

    Online partner seeking is associated with sexual risk behavior among young adults (specifically men who have sex with men), but this association has yet to be explored among a probability sample of adolescents. Moreover, cell phone internet access and sexual risk taking online and offline have not been explored. A probability sample (N = 1,831) of Los Angeles Unified School District high school students was collected in 2011. Logistic regression models assessed relationships between specific sexual risk behaviors (online sexual solicitation, seeking partners online, sex with internet-met partners, condom use) and frequency of internet use, internet access points, and demographics. Students with cell phone internet access were more likely to report being solicited online for sex, being sexually active, and having sex with an internet-met partner. Bisexual-identifying students reported higher rates of being approached online for sex, being sexually active, and not using condoms at last sex. Gay, lesbian, and questioning (GLQ) students were more likely to report online partner seeking and unprotected sex at last sex with an internet-met partner. Additionally, having sex with an internet-met partner was associated with being male, online sexual solicitation, and online partner seeking. Internet- and school-based sexual health programs should incorporate safety messages regarding online sexual solicitation, seeking sex partners online, and engaging in safer sex practices with all partners. Programs must target adolescents of all sexual identities, as adolescents may not yet be "out," and bisexual and GLQ adolescents are more likely to engage in risky sex behaviors.

  1. Methamphetamine use and high-risk sexual behaviors among incarcerated female adolescents with a diagnosed STD.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Jane K; Grella, Christine E; Boudov, Melina R; Kerndt, Peter R; Kadrnka, Carmel M

    2011-04-01

    Juvenile detention settings provide an important venue for addressing the health-related needs of adolescent populations, who often have high rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and concomitant drug use. This study examines factors associated with methamphetamine use and risky sexual behaviors among 539 incarcerated female adolescents between ages 12-18 years with an STD diagnosis. Data were obtained from interviews with detainees receiving STD case management services within a California juvenile detention facility in January 2006-June 2007. High-risk behaviors characterized the sample, such as low use of condoms consistently (43.3%), prior STD infection (25%), pregnancy history (26%), arrest charge for prostitution or drug use (23%), and a history of prostitution (18%). Half of the sample reported weekly alcohol or drug use; most commonly used drugs were marijuana (37%), alcohol (21%), and methamphetamine (16%). In multivariate analysis, African Americans had a lower odds of methamphetamine use (odds ratio [OR] = .163) compared with whites. Detainees who reported inconsistent condom use had over twice the odds of methamphetamine use (OR = 2.7) compared with consistent condom users. In addition, those who reported alcohol use had twice the odds of methamphetamine use (2.0). There was a significant interaction between Latina ethnicity and having an arrest charge for drugs or prostitution; Latinas who had this charge had over 11 times the odds of using methamphetamine compared with those with other arrest charges (OR = 11.28). A better understanding of the relationship between drug use and sexual risk behaviors of STD-positive incarcerated female adolescents can inform the development of appropriate corrections and community-based interventions serving this segment of high-risk adolescents.

  2. Relationships of Social Context and Identity to Problem Behavior among High-Risk Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Mason, Craig A.; Pantin, Hilda; Wang, Wei; Brown, C. Hendricks; Campo, Ana E.; Szapocznik, Jose

    2009-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine (a) family and school functioning and (b) personal and ethnic identity are associated with conduct problems, drug use, and sexual risk taking in a sample of 227 high-risk Hispanic adolescents. Adolescents participated in the study with their primary parents, who were mostly mothers. Adolescents completed…

  3. A neuroscience perspective on sexual risk behavior in adolescence and emerging adulthood.

    PubMed

    Victor, Elizabeth C; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2016-05-01

    Late adolescence and emerging adulthood (specifically ages 15-24) represent a period of heightened sexual risk taking resulting in the greatest annual rates of sexually transmitted infections and unplanned pregnancies in the US population. Ongoing efforts to prevent such negative consequences are likely to benefit from a deepening of our understanding of biological mechanisms through which sexual risk taking emerges and biases decision making during this critical window. Here we present a neuroscience framework from which a mechanistic examination of sexual risk taking can be advanced. Specifically, we adapt the neurodevelopmental triadic model, which outlines how motivated behavior is governed by three systems: approach, avoidance, and regulation, to sexual decision making and subsequent risk behavior. We further propose a testable hypothesis of the triadic model, wherein relatively decreased threat-related amygdala reactivity and increased reward-related ventral striatum reactivity leads to sexual risk taking, which is particularly exaggerated during adolescence and young adulthood when there is an overexpression of dopaminergic neurons coupled with immature top-down prefrontal cortex regulation. We conclude by discussing how future research based on our adapted triadic model can inform ongoing efforts to improve intervention and prevention efforts.

  4. A neuroscience perspective on sexual risk behavior in adolescence and emerging adulthood

    PubMed Central

    VICTOR, ELIZABETH C.; HARIRI, AHMAD R.

    2016-01-01

    Late adolescence and emerging adulthood (specifically ages 15–24) represent a period of heightened sexual risk taking resulting in the greatest annual rates of sexually transmitted infections and unplanned pregnancies in the US population. Ongoing efforts to prevent such negative consequences are likely to benefit from a deepening of our understanding of biological mechanisms through which sexual risk taking emerges and biases decision making during this critical window. Here we present a neuroscience framework from which a mechanistic examination of sexual risk taking can be advanced. Specifically, we adapt the neurodevelopmental triadic model, which outlines how motivated behavior is governed by three systems: approach, avoidance, and regulation, to sexual decision making and subsequent risk behavior. We further propose a testable hypothesis of the triadic model, wherein relatively decreased threat-related amygdala reactivity and increased reward-related ventral striatum reactivity leads to sexual risk taking, which is particularly exaggerated during adolescence and young adulthood when there is an overexpression of dopaminergic neurons coupled with immature top-down prefrontal cortex regulation. We conclude by discussing how future research based on our adapted triadic model can inform ongoing efforts to improve intervention and prevention efforts. PMID:26611719

  5. Connectedness and Perceived Burdensomeness among Adolescents at Elevated Suicide Risk: An Examination of the Interpersonal Theory of Suicidal Behavior.

    PubMed

    Opperman, Kiel; Czyz, Ewa K; Gipson, Polly Y; King, Cheryl A

    2015-01-01

    The interpersonal theory of suicidal behavior emphasizes the constructs of perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and acquired capacity, which warrant investigation in adolescents at risk for suicide due to interpersonal stressors. This study examined one component of the interpersonal theory of suicidal behavior, "suicidal desire" (suicidal ideation), in 129 adolescents (12-15 years) recruited from a general medical emergency department who screened positive for bully victimization, bully perpetration, or low interpersonal connectedness. Greater perceived burdensomeness combined with low family connectedness was a significant predictor of suicidal ideation. This suggests the importance of addressing connectedness and perceptions of burdensomeness in prevention and early intervention efforts with at-risk adolescents.

  6. The Risk Behaviors and Mental Health of Detained Adolescents: A Controlled, Prospective Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhenhua; Xiong, Hongyan; Jia, Ran; Yang, Guoyu; Guo, Tianyou; Meng, Zhaoyou; Huang, Guangyu; Zhang, Yao

    2012-01-01

    Background To assess the behavioral risk factors and mental health needs of adolescents in juvenile detention centers (JDC). Method A total of 238 boys aged 12–17 years was surveyed who had been admitted to a detention center and compared them with boys from the community (n = 238) matched for sex and age. We assessed behavioral risk factors and mental health problems by using the Youth Risk Behavior Survey questionnaire (YRBS) and the Youth Self-Report questionnaire (YSR). Results Young offenders had significantly higher YRBS scores than controls for drug use (odds ratio (OR) 5.16, 95% CI 2.27–7.84), sexual intercourse (OR, 2.51; 95% CI 1.55–2.90), irregular diet (4.78, 2.11–7.51), suicide attempts (1.96, 1.32–5.85), and physical fighting behavior (3.49, 1.60–7.07), but not for tobacco use, alcohol use, and high–risk cycling. Young offenders at the time of admission (6.61, 2.58–15.2), at 6 months (3.12, 1.81–10.1), and at 12 months (5.29, 1.98–13.3) reported statistically higher levels of total mental health problems than adolescents in a community sample. Conclusions Young offenders have a high rate of mental and behavioral disorders. In the detention period, aggressive behavior, self–destructive/identity, and externalizing of problems improved while withdrawn, anxious or depressed, and internalizing of problems worsened. PMID:22629367

  7. A Conceptual Framework for the Analysis of Risk and Problem Behaviors: The Case of Adolescent Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilamo-Ramos; Vincent; Jaccard, James; Dittus, Patricia; Gonzalez, Bernardo; Bouris, Alida

    2008-01-01

    A framework for the analysis of adolescent problem behaviors was explicated that draws on five major theories of human behavior. The framework emphasizes intentions to perform behaviors and factors that influence intentions as well as moderate the impact of intentions on behavior. The framework was applied to the analysis of adolescent sexual risk…

  8. A Conceptual Framework for the Analysis of Risk and Problem Behaviors: The Case of Adolescent Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilamo-Ramos; Vincent; Jaccard, James; Dittus, Patricia; Gonzalez, Bernardo; Bouris, Alida

    2008-01-01

    A framework for the analysis of adolescent problem behaviors was explicated that draws on five major theories of human behavior. The framework emphasizes intentions to perform behaviors and factors that influence intentions as well as moderate the impact of intentions on behavior. The framework was applied to the analysis of adolescent sexual risk…

  9. Trajectories of Multiple Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors in a Low-Income African American Population

    PubMed Central

    Mustanski, Brian; Byck, Gayle R.; Dymnicki, Allison; Sterrett, Emma; Henry, David; Bolland, John

    2014-01-01

    This study examined interdependent trajectories of sexual risk, substance use, and conduct problems among 12–18 year-old African American youth who were followed annually as part of the Mobile Youth Study (MYS). We used growth-mixture modeling (GMM) to model the development of these three outcomes in the 1406 participants who met the inclusion criteria. Results indicate that there were four distinct classes: normative low risk (74.3% of sample); increasing high risk takers (11.9%); adolescent-limited conduct problems and drug risk with high risky sex (8.0%); and early experimenters (5.8%) The higher risk classes had higher rates of pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) diagnoses than the normative sample at each of the ages we examined. Differing somewhat from our hypothesis, all of the non-normative classes exhibited high sexual risk behavior. While prevention efforts should be focused on addressing all three risk behaviors, the high rate of risky sexual behavior in the 25% of the sample that fall into the three non-normative classes, underscores an urgent need for improved sex education, including teen pregnancy and HIV/STI prevention, in this community. PMID:24229555

  10. Academic and Behavioral Trajectories for At-Risk Adolescents in Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montague, Marjorie; Enders, Craig; Cavendish, Wendy; Castro, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study was twofold: (a) to investigate academic, behavioral, and emotional outcomes for adolescents who were followed longitudinally from middle through high school and (b) to determine if early assessment of achievement and behavior predicts academic and behavioral outcomes for adolescents who were identified as at…

  11. Gender Differences in at Risk Versus Offender Adolescents: A Dimensional Approach of Antisocial Behavior.

    PubMed

    Urben, Sébastien; Habersaat, Stéphanie; Suter, Maya; Pihet, Sandrine; De Ridder, Jill; Stéphan, Philippe

    2016-12-01

    The current study investigated gender differences in the main components of antisocial behavior in an at-risk versus an offender group of adolescents. One-hundred and forty-three adolescents divided into two different risk groups [at risk (n = 54) and offenders (n = 89)] were compared according to gender (111 boys and 32 girls). Externalizing symptoms were assessed with the Delinquent and Aggressive subscales of the Youth Self-report Questionnaire, internalizing problems with the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Beck Depressive Inventory and personality traits with the Barratt-Impulsiveness Scale as well as the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory. Results revealed a consistent interaction pattern, with girls presenting higher levels of externalizing symptoms, more motor impulsivity and a more arrogant and deceitful interpersonal style than boys in the at-risk group. In contrast, in the offenders' group, psychopathic traits were more present in boys than in girls. Regarding internalizing problems, girls showed more depression than boys, independently of the risk group. Among offending youths, girls present equally severe externalizing problems, and problematic personality traits as boys. At-risk girls have the highest rates of difficulties across the tested domains and should therefore be specifically targeted for prevention and intervention.

  12. Family dinner meal frequency and adolescent development: relationships with developmental assets and high-risk behaviors.

    PubMed

    Fulkerson, Jayne A; Story, Mary; Mellin, Alison; Leffert, Nancy; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; French, Simone A

    2006-09-01

    To examine associations between family meal frequency and developmental assets and high-risk behaviors among a national sample of adolescents. Anonymous surveys were distributed to 99,462 sixth to 12th grade students from public and alternative schools in 213 cities and 25 states across the United States. Logistic regression analyses tested differences in assets and high-risk behaviors by family dinner frequency. Consistent positive associations were found between the frequency of family dinners and all developmental assets, including both external (e.g., support, boundaries and expectations; odds ratio [OR] 2.1-3.7) and internal assets (e.g., commitment to learning, positive values, social competencies, and positive identity; OR 1.8-2.6); relationships were attenuated, but remained significant after adjusting for demographics and general family communication and support. Consistent inverse relationships were found between the frequency of family dinners and all high-risk behaviors measured (i.e., substance use, sexual activity, depression/suicide, antisocial behaviors, violence, school problems, binge eating/purging, and excessive weight loss; OR .36-.58), relationships were attenuated, but remained significant after adjusting for demographics and family factors. The findings of the present study suggest that the frequency of family dinner is an external developmental asset or protective factor that may curtail high-risk behaviors among youth. Creative and realistic strategies for enhancing and supporting family meals, given the context within which different families live, should be explored to promote healthy adolescent development. Family rituals such as regular mealtimes may ease the stress of daily living in the fast-paced families of today's society.

  13. Longitudinal Correlates of Health Risk Behaviors in Children and Adolescents with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ievers-Landis, Carolyn E; Walders-Abramson, Natalie; Amodei, Nancy; Drews, Kimberly L; Kaplan, Joan; Levitt Katz, Lorraine E; Lavietes, Sylvia; Saletsky, Ron; Seidman, Daniel; Yasuda, Patrice

    2015-05-01

    To characterize, during a 2-year period, the proportion of youth with type 2 diabetes (T2D) enrolled in the Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth study that reported ever at least trying smoking cigarettes and/or drinking alcohol. Longitudinal data were examined for participants with T2D ages 10-18 years at baseline. Youth psychosocial, parent/family, environmental, and biological correlates of trying health risk behaviors were tested via cross-sectional multivariate models at each time point. Longitudinal models were explored for selected factors. Data were obtained from the Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth study's ethnically diverse participants at baseline (N=644), 6-month (N=616), and 24-month (N=543) assessments. The percentage of youth ever trying only smoking remained stable at 4%; only drinking alcohol increased from 17% to 26%, and both smoking and drinking increased from 10% to 18% during the 2-year period. Factors related to trying health risk behaviors were older age, male sex, non-Hispanic white race-ethnicity, lower grades, more depressive symptoms, and stressful life events. Depressive symptoms, stressful life events, and body mass index Z-score (the latter with smoking only) were related to engagement in health risk behaviors over time. Youth with T2D who are already at risk for health complications and who reported engaging in activities that further increase the likelihood of life-threatening morbidities were characterized. Although most correlates of trying these risk behaviors are nonmodifiable, intervention efforts may need to focus on potentially modifiable factors, such as depressive symptoms and lower grades. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Brief Strategic Family Therapy: An Intervention to Reduce Adolescent Risk Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Szapocznik, José; Schwartz, Seth J.; Muir, Joan A.; Brown, C. Hendricks

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the brief strategic family therapy (BSFT; J. Szapocznik, M. A. Scopetta, & O. E. King, 1978, The effect and degree of treatment comprehensiveness with a Latino drug abusing population. In D. E. Smith, S. M. Anderson, M. Burton, N. Gotlieb, W. Harvey, & T. Chung, Eds, A multicultural view of drug abuse, pp. 563–573, Cambridge, MA: G. K. Hall & J. Szapocznik, M. A. Scopetta, & O. E. King, 1978, Theory and practice in matching treatment to the special characteristics and problems of Cuban immigrants, Journal of Community Psychology, 6, 112–122.) approach to treating adolescent drug abuse and related problem behaviors. The treatment intervention is reviewed, including specialized features such as engagement of difficult families. Empirical evidence supporting the BSFT approach is presented. We then illustrate ways in which clinicians can use the model with troubled families whose adolescents may be at risk for drug use and HIV. Finally, future directions for BSFT research are described. PMID:23936750

  15. Randomized controlled trial of a cognitive-behavioral therapy for at-risk Korean male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Myung-Sun; Nam, Kyoung A; Kim, Myung-Ah

    2010-06-01

    This study examined the effects of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) aimed at enhancing the resilience of high-risk adolescents with alcohol-dependent parents in Suwon, South Korea. The study used a randomized control group pretest and posttest design. The experimental group participated in 10 sessions of CBT, and the scores on resilience increased significantly after the intervention, whereas the scores of self-concept and depression did not change. In the control group, none of the scores of outcome variables changed significantly after the intervention period. The results indicate that the developed CBT program might be effective for improving the resilience of adolescents with alcohol-dependent parents. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Brief Strategic Family Therapy: An Intervention to Reduce Adolescent Risk Behavior.

    PubMed

    Szapocznik, José; Schwartz, Seth J; Muir, Joan A; Brown, C Hendricks

    2012-06-01

    This article reviews the brief strategic family therapy (BSFT; J. Szapocznik, M. A. Scopetta, & O. E. King, 1978, The effect and degree of treatment comprehensiveness with a Latino drug abusing population. In D. E. Smith, S. M. Anderson, M. Burton, N. Gotlieb, W. Harvey, & T. Chung, Eds, A multicultural view of drug abuse, pp. 563-573, Cambridge, MA: G. K. Hall & J. Szapocznik, M. A. Scopetta, & O. E. King, 1978, Theory and practice in matching treatment to the special characteristics and problems of Cuban immigrants, Journal of Community Psychology, 6, 112-122.) approach to treating adolescent drug abuse and related problem behaviors. The treatment intervention is reviewed, including specialized features such as engagement of difficult families. Empirical evidence supporting the BSFT approach is presented. We then illustrate ways in which clinicians can use the model with troubled families whose adolescents may be at risk for drug use and HIV. Finally, future directions for BSFT research are described.

  17. Risky decision making in a laboratory driving task is associated with health risk behaviors during late adolescence but not adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Kahn, Rachel; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Chiu, Pearl H.; Steinberg, Laurence; King-Casas, Brooks

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized by increasing incidence of health risk behaviors, including experimentation with drugs and alcohol. To fill the gap in our understanding of the associations between risky decision-making and health risk behaviors, we investigated associations between laboratory-based risky decision-making using the Stoplight task and self-reported health risk behaviors. Given that there has been no examination of potential age differences in the associations between risky decision-making and health risk behaviors, we also examined whether the association of risky decision-making with health risk behaviors is consistent across adolescence and adulthood using two-group structural equation modeling (SEM). The results indicated significant differences across the two age groups: adolescents (17–20 year olds) who took more risks on the Stoplight task reported greater frequency and earlier onset of substance use, whereas stoplight performance was not associated with substance use frequency or onset among adults (31–61 year olds). Our findings suggest that a laboratory-based measure of risky decision-making is significantly related to health risk behaviors among adolescents but not among adults. PMID:26770006

  18. The potential for PTSD, substance use, and HIV risk behavior among adolescents exposed to Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Karla D; Brief, Deborah J; Vielhauer, Melanie J; Sussman, Steve; Keane, Terence M; Malow, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Adverse psychosocial outcomes can be anticipated among youth exposed to Hurricane Katrina. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable to the consequences of this natural disaster and may suffer lasting consequences in the form of psychological morbidity and the development of negative health behaviors due to their exposure. We review existing literature on the effects of exposure to natural disasters and similar traumas on youth and, where data on youth are unavailable, on adults. The effect of natural disasters is discussed in terms of risk for three negative health outcomes that are of particular concern due to their potential to cause long-term morbidity: post-traumatic stress disorder, substance use disorder, and HIV-risk behavior. Where available, data from studies of the effects of Hurricane Katrina are included.

  19. The Potential for PTSD, Substance Use, and HIV Risk Behavior among Adolescents Exposed to Hurricane Katrina

    PubMed Central

    WAGNER, KARLA D.; BRIEF, DEBORAH J.; VIELHAUER, MELANIE J.; SUSSMAN, STEVE; KEANE, TERENCE M.; MALOW, ROBERT

    2014-01-01

    Adverse psychosocial outcomes can be anticipated among youth exposed to Hurricane Katrina. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable to the consequences of this natural disaster and may suffer lasting consequences in the form of psychological morbidity and the development of negative health behaviors due to their exposure. We review existing literature on the effects of exposure to natural disasters and similar traumas on youth and, where data on youth are unavailable, on adults. The effect of natural disasters is discussed in terms of risk for three negative health outcomes that are of particular concern due to their potential to cause long-term morbidity: post-traumatic stress disorder, substance use disorder, and HIV-risk behavior. Where available, data from studies of the effects of Hurricane Katrina are included. PMID:19895305

  20. Parenting practices and adolescent risk behavior: rules on smoking and drinking also predict cannabis use and early sexual debut.

    PubMed

    de Looze, Margaretha; van den Eijnden, Regina; Verdurmen, Jacqueline; Vermeulen-Smit, Evelien; Schulten, Ingrid; Vollebergh, Wilma; ter Bogt, Tom

    2012-12-01

    Previous research has provided considerable support for idea that increased parental support and control are strong determinants of lower prevalence levels of adolescent risk behavior. Much less is known on the association between specific parenting practices, such as concrete rules with respect to smoking and drinking and adolescent risk behavior. The present paper examined whether such concrete parental rules (1) have an effect on the targeted behaviors and (2) predict other, frequently co-occurring, risk behaviors (i.e., cannabis use and early sexual intercourse). These hypotheses were tested in a nationally representative sample of 12- to 16-year-old adolescents in the Netherlands. We found that both types of rules were associated with a lower prevalence of the targeted behaviors (i.e., smoking and drinking). In addition, independent of adolescent smoking and drinking behaviors, parental rules on smoking predicted a lower prevalence of cannabis use and early sexual intercourse, and parental rules on alcohol use also predicted a lower prevalence of early sexual intercourse. This study showed that concrete parental rule setting is more strongly related to lower levels of risk behaviors in adolescents compared to the more general parenting practices (i.e., support and control). Additionally, the effects of such rules do not only apply to the targeted behavior but extend to related behaviors as well. These findings are relevant to the public health domain and suggest that a single intervention program that addresses a limited number of concrete parenting practices, in combination with traditional support and control practices, may be effective in reducing risk behaviors in adolescence.

  1. Acculturation, risk behaviors and physical dating violence victimization among Cuban-American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M; Williams, Jessica R; Merisier, Mireille; Cummings, Amanda M; Prado, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the relationships among acculturation, risk behaviors, and reported physical dating violence among Cuban-American ninth grade adolescents. Participants (N=82) completed a questionnaire that assessed their level of acculturation to the U.S. (Americanism), their maintenance of the Hispanic culture (Hispanicism), binge drinking, drug use, sexual intercourse, condom use and physical dating violence victimization. Multiple logistic regression was conducted. Hispanicism was associated with a decrease in odds of reporting physical dating violence victimization. Drug use and not using a condom were associated with an increase in odds of reporting physical dating violence victimization.

  2. Neighborhoods and Adolescent Health-Risk Behavior: An Ecological Network Approach1

    PubMed Central

    Browning, Christopher R.; Soller, Brian; Jackson, Aubrey L.

    2014-01-01

    This study integrates insights from social network analysis, activity space perspectives, and theories of urban and spatial processes to present an innovative approach to neighborhood effects on health-risk behavior among youth. We suggest spatial patterns of neighborhood residents’ non-home routine activities may be conceptualized as ecological, or “eco”-networks, which are two-mode networks that indirectly link residents through socio-spatial overlap in routine activities. We further argue structural configurations of eco-networks are consequential for youth’s behavioral health. In this study we focus on a key structural feature of eco-networks—the neighborhood-level extent to which households share two or more activity locations, or eco-network reinforcement—and its association with two dimensions of health-risk behavior, substance use and delinquency/sexual activity. Using geographic data on non-home routine activity locations among respondents from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A.FANS), we constructed neighborhood-specific eco-networks by connecting sampled households to “activity clusters,” which are sets of spatially-proximate activity locations. We then measured eco-network reinforcement and examined its association with adolescent dimensions of health risk behavior employing a sample of 830 youth ages 12-17 nested in 65 census tracts. We also examined whether neighborhood-level social processes (collective efficacy and intergenerational closure) mediate the association between eco-network reinforcement and the outcomes considered. Results indicated eco-network reinforcement exhibits robust negative associations with both substance use and delinquency/sexual activity scales. Eco-network reinforcement effects were not explained by potential mediating variables. In addition to introducing a novel theoretical and empirical approach to neighborhood effects on youth, our findings highlight the importance of eco

  3. Neighborhoods and adolescent health-risk behavior: an ecological network approach.

    PubMed

    Browning, Christopher R; Soller, Brian; Jackson, Aubrey L

    2015-01-01

    This study integrates insights from social network analysis, activity space perspectives, and theories of urban and spatial processes to present an novel approach to neighborhood effects on health-risk behavior among youth. We suggest spatial patterns of neighborhood residents' non-home routines may be conceptualized as ecological, or "eco"-networks, which are two-mode networks that indirectly link residents through socio-spatial overlap in routine activities. We further argue structural configurations of eco-networks are consequential for youth's behavioral health. In this study we focus on a key structural feature of eco-networks--the neighborhood-level extent to which household dyads share two or more activity locations, or eco-network reinforcement--and its association with two dimensions of health-risk behavior, substance use and delinquency/sexual activity. Using geographic data on non-home routine activity locations among respondents from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A.FANS), we constructed neighborhood-specific eco-networks by connecting sampled households to "activity clusters," which are sets of spatially-proximate activity locations. We then measured eco-network reinforcement and examined its association with dimensions of adolescent health risk behavior employing a sample of 830 youth ages 12-17 nested in 65 census tracts. We also examined whether neighborhood-level social processes (collective efficacy and intergenerational closure) mediate the association between eco-network reinforcement and the outcomes considered. Results indicated eco-network reinforcement exhibits robust negative associations with both substance use and delinquency/sexual activity scales. Eco-network reinforcement effects were not explained by potential mediating variables. In addition to introducing a novel theoretical and empirical approach to neighborhood effects on youth, our findings highlight the importance of intersecting conventional routines for

  4. [Comparative study of the subjective emotional experience among adolescents showing depressive symptoms associated or not with risk-taking behavior].

    PubMed

    Bréjard, V; Pasquier, A; Bonnet, A; Pedinielli, J-L

    2011-09-01

    Relationships between risk-taking behavior and depressive disorders in young people are considered as a complex psychopathological problem. Previous findings showed strong correlations between substance abuse, risk-taking behavior and depressive symptoms. Nevertheless, questions remain concerning potential common factors of depression and risk-taking behavior. Besides research focusing on personality dimensions, some others highlight the role played by emotions and their pathological aspects. In these studies, pathological emotional processing such as alexithymia or specific deficit in emotional intensity was linked to both risk-taking behavior and depressive disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate potential specific emotional profiles of adolescents engaged in pathological risk-taking or depressive symptomatology, versus adolescents presenting an association of both. Four hundred and eigty-eight adolescents (m(age)=14,93, SD=1,44), with 257 boys (m(age)=15, SD=1,51) and 231 girls (m(age)=14,52, SD=1,23), were spread into four groups: adolescents engaged in high level risk-taking, adolescents showing both high risk-taking and high depressive symptoms, depressed adolescents, and a control group without any pathological aspects. The four groups completed a set of three assessments: Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Scale (YRBSS), Level of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) and Differential Emotional Scale (DES). Adolescents engaged in risk-taking have the lowest level of emotional awareness and subjective emotional intensity, while adolescents of the second group (depression with risk-taking behavior) have a higher level on both measures. Depressed adolescents present the highest score of emotional awareness within the pathological groups, lower than controls. Paradoxically, their ability to represent themselves others' emotions were higher than the control group, just as the intensity of their subjective emotional experience in case of negative emotions

  5. Association of fitness with life satisfaction, health risk behaviors, and adherence to the Mediterranean diet in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Grao-Cruces, Alberto; Fernández-Martínez, Antonio; Nuviala, Alberto

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between aerobic, musculoskeletal, and motor capacity and life satisfaction, risk behavior, and adherence to the Mediterranean diet in adolescents. A total of 1,988 Spanish adolescents (12-16 years old) participated in this cross-sectional study. Life satisfaction, risk behavior, and adherence to the Mediterranean diet were measured by validated questionnaires for these ages. Aerobic, musculoskeletal muscle, and motor capacity were evaluated objectively with the ALPHA battery tests. Adolescents with low aerobic capacity had a higher risk of showing less (vs. very happy) life satisfaction (odds ratio [OR] = 1.303, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1,054-1,611). These adolescents were also more likely to report risk behaviors such as sometimes (vs. never) of smoking tobacco (OR = 1.752, 95% CI = 1,218-2,520), besides having a low adherence to the Mediterranean diet (vs. high) (OR = 1.410, 95% CI = 1,113-1,786). Adolescents with low upper-body musculoskeletal capacity showed a lower risk of reporting risk behaviors such as alcohol consumption or getting drunk occasionally (vs. never) (OR = 0.662, 95% CI = 520-843; OR = 0.561, 95% CI = 419-753, respectively). The results suggest that the aerobic capacity contributes significantly to greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet, greater life satisfaction, and lower tobacco consumption, whereas musculoskeletal capacity seems to be related to alcohol consumption.

  6. Testing the application of a Western scientific theory of AIDS risk behavior among adolescents in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Astatke, H; Serpell, R

    2000-09-01

    To test whether a theoretical scheme developed in the United States within the framework of Western science could be applied to a study of HIV risk behaviors among Ethiopian youths. Informal interviews and focus group discussions were conducted to determine the relevance of particular AIDS-related risk and protective factors suggested by Jessor's theoretical framework and to generate additional risk and protective factors that were not suggested by a review of the (predominantly Western) literature on adolescent risk behavior. Data from informal interviews and focus group discussions were used to develop survey instruments and procedures for administering survey instruments A pilot study among 99 youths was conducted to examine the reliability and construct validity of the survey instrument. Based on information from focus group discussions and informal interviews, we confirmed the relevance of particular AIDS-related risk and protective factors. The definition of existing constructs was expanded and additional risk and protective factors were incorporated into the existing framework. Existing items and procedures for administering survey instruments were improved and new items were generated. The reliability of survey instruments was determined and improved whenever possible. We discuss the value of these preliminary steps for securing external validity by identifying theoretical constructs that are relevant to the population at hand and the use of a survey instrument that adequately captures these constructs and provides reliable information.

  7. Factors Influencing Adolescents' Decisions To Engage in Risk-Taking Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolison, Mary R.; Scherman, Avraham

    2002-01-01

    In this study, 171 older adolescents completed a risk-taking inventory to measure risk involvement. Results showed that perceived risks affected risk-taking more significantly than did perceived benefits. Higher sensation seeking tendencies were affiliated with more risk-taking. Locus of control was not related to risk-taking. (Contains 38…

  8. Multiple behavioral risk factors among adolescent survivors of childhood cancer in the Survivor Health and Resilience Education (SHARE) program.

    PubMed

    Tercyak, Kenneth P; Donze, Jessica R; Prahlad, Sowmya; Mosher, Revonda B; Shad, Aziza T

    2006-11-01

    Health-compromising behaviors among survivors of childhood cancer may increase their risks of cancer recurrence and the onset of chronic disease in adulthood. Regardless of whether such behaviors occur singly or in combination with one another, multiple behavioral risk factors must be identified and addressed early to promote better health outcomes within this special population. Adolescent survivors may be especially vulnerable, as reported rates of smoking and other risky behaviors are at or near levels of their healthy peers. The psychological literature suggests stress may play a role in risk behavior initiation and maintenance, including multiple behavioral risks, and that adolescent survivors are stress-prone. This report focuses on the prevalence and co-occurrence of three behavioral risk factors (cigarette use, insufficient physical activity, and non-adherence to sun protection recommendations) and describes stress-health behavior relationships in this special population. All patients in this study (n = 75) were adolescent survivors of childhood cancer and completed a baseline assessment of their health behaviors and stress as part of a randomized controlled trial of health promotion. Twenty-eight percent of the patients reported one of three risk factors, 12% reported two of three risk factors, and 7% reported all three risk factors. Non-adherence to sun protection was the single most common risk factor; physical inactivity and non-adherent sun protection were the most common co-occurring risk factors. Greater age and stress were significantly associated with the presence of more behavioral risk factors. The evidence suggests interventions to reduce multiple health-compromising behaviors in these patients are warranted, and that efforts to address these patients' personal and family stress levels are important as well. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. History of family violence, childhood behavior problems, and adolescent high-risk behaviors as predictors of girls' repeated patterns of dating victimization in two developmental periods.

    PubMed

    Vézina, Johanne; Hébert, Martine; Poulin, François; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to document the prevalence of repeated patterns of dating victimization and to examine, within the frameworks of an ecological model and lifestyle/routine activities theories, associations between such patterns and family, peer, and individual factors. Dating victimization in adolescence (age 15) and early adulthood (age 21) was evaluated in 443 female participants. Multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed that history of family violence, childhood behavior problems, and adolescent high-risk behaviors were associated with an increased risk for girls of being victimized (psychologically and/or physically/sexually) in their dating relationships, either in adolescence or early adulthood, or at both developmental periods.

  10. Cognitive Functioning and Family Risk Factors in Relation to Symptom Behaviors of ADHD and ODD in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forssman, Linda; Eninger, Lilianne; Tillman, Carin M.; Rodriguez, Alina; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In this study, the authors investigated whether ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) behaviors share associations with problems in cognitive functioning and/or family risk factors in adolescence. This was done by examining independent as well as specific associations of cognitive functioning and family risk factors with ADHD and…

  11. Brief Report: Direct and Indirect Relations of Risk Factors with Eating Behavior Problems in Late Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Birgit; Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; Zimmermann-van Beuningen, Ritine

    2009-01-01

    This study explored correlations between risk factors and eating behavior problems in late adolescent, non-clinical females (N = 301). Participants completed questionnaires for assessing eating problems, the closely associated factors of Body Mass Index (BMI) and body dissatisfaction, and a number of other risk variables that are thought to be…

  12. Gender-based model comparisons of maternal values, monitoring, communication, and early adolescent risk behavior.

    PubMed

    Cottrell, Lesley; Yu, Shuli; Liu, Hongjie; Deveaux, Lynette; Lunn, Sonja; Bain, Rosa Mae; Stanton, Bonita

    2007-10-01

    To examine the relationships among maternal values, monitoring knowledge, parent-adolescent communication, and adolescent risk involvement based on adolescent gender. Parental reports of their personal values, monitoring knowledge, and communication with their children were compared with adolescent reports of risk involvement using information gathered from 647 Bahamian mother-adolescent (9-13 years) dyads. Parental values of conservation (e.g., conformity) were positively associated with greater parent-adolescent communication and communication was significantly associated with greater monitoring knowledge for both genders. Among mother-son dyads only, group-based parental values of self-transcendence (e.g., universalism) were significantly associated with greater perceived parental monitoring knowledge; individualized self-enhancement values (e.g., hedonism) were negatively associated with open and supportive parent-adolescent communication. Parental values influence other parenting processes such as monitoring and communication. Parental monitoring, in turn, inversely influences adolescent risk involvement. These influences appear to differ based on the adolescent's gender, as many of the relationships were stronger among mother-son dyads. These findings highlight a need to better understand the nature of the relationship between maternal values, parent-adolescent interactions, and adolescents' risk decisions.

  13. Appetitive traits from infancy to adolescence: using behavioral and neural measures to investigate obesity risk.

    PubMed

    Carnell, Susan; Benson, Leora; Pryor, Katherine; Driggin, Elissa

    2013-09-10

    We come into the world with enduring predispositions towards food, which interact with environmental factors to influence our eating behaviors and weight trajectories. But our fates are not sealed - by learning more about this process we can identify ways to intervene. To advance this goal this we need to be able to assess appetitive traits such as food cue responsiveness and satiety sensitivity at different developmental stages. Assessment methods might include behavioral measures (e.g. eating behavior tests, psychometric questionnaires), but also biomarkers such as brain responses to food cues measured using fMRI. Evidence from infants, children and adolescents suggests that these indices of appetite differ not only with body weight, but also with familial obesity risk as assessed by parent weight, which reflects both genetic and environmental influences, and may provide a useful predictor of obesity development. Behavioral and neural approaches have great potential to inform each other: examining eating behavior can help us identify meaningful appetitive endophenotypes whose neural bases can be probed, while increasing knowledge of the shared neurobiology underlying appetite, obesity, and related behaviors and disorders may ultimately lead to innovative generalized interventions. Another challenge will be to combine comprehensive behavioral and neural assessments of appetitive traits with measures of relevant genetic and environmental factors within long-term prospective studies. This approach may help to identify the biobehavioral precursors of obesity, and lay the foundations for targeted neurobehavioral interventions that can interrupt the pathway to excess weight. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Appetitive traits from infancy to adolescence: Using behavioral and neural measures to investigate obesity risk

    PubMed Central

    Carnell, Susan; Benson, Leora; Pryor, Katherine; Driggin, Elissa

    2013-01-01

    We come into the world with enduring predispositions towards food, which interact with environmental factors to influence our eating behaviors and weight trajectories. But our fates are not sealed – by learning more about this process we can identify ways to intervene. To advance this goal this we need to be able to assess appetitive traits such as food cue responsiveness and satiety sensitivity at different developmental stages. Assessment methods might include behavioral measures (e.g. eating behavior tests, psychometric questionnaires), but also biomarkers such as brain responses to food cues measured using fMRI. Evidence from infants, children and adolescents suggests that these indices of appetite differ not only with body weight, but also with familial obesity risk as assessed by parent weight, which reflects both genetic and environmental influences, and may provide a useful predictor of obesity development. Behavioral and neural approaches have great potential to inform each other: examining eating behavior can help us identify meaningful appetitive endophenotypes whose neural bases can be probed, while increasing knowledge of the shared neurobiology underlying appetite, obesity, and related behaviors and disorders may ultimately lead to innovative generalized interventions. Another challenge will be to combine comprehensive behavioral and neural assessments of appetitive traits with measures of relevant genetic and environmental factors within long-term prospective studies. This approach may help to identify the biobehavioral precursors of obesity, and lay the foundations for targeted neurobehavioral interventions that can interrupt the pathway to excess weight. PMID:23458627

  15. The Association Between Weapon Carrying and Health Risk Behaviors Among Adolescent Students in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Saiphoklang, On-Anong; Wongboonsin, Kua; Wongboonsin, Patcharawalai; Perngparn, Usaneya; Cottler, Linda B

    2015-07-30

    Carrying weapons is a significant social and public health problem worldwide, especially among adolescents. The present study examined the association between weapon carrying and related risk behaviors among Thai adolescents. A cross-sectional study of 2,588 high school and vocational school students aged 11 to 19 years from 26 schools in Bangkok, Thailand, was conducted in 2014. This study found that 7.8% of youth reported having carried a weapon in the past 12 months. The high prevalence of weapon carrying was reported by male students, and males were more likely to have reported carrying a weapon than females. The association between weapon carrying and the health risk behaviors like drinking, smoking, any drug use, and physical fighting were significant with higher odds of weapon carrying in all models. Among males, weapon carrying was related to drinking and smoking, any drug use, physical fighting, and school type. Among females, suicidal thoughts were significantly related along with drinking and smoking, any drug use, and physical fighting. Having a mother who used substances was significant only among females. These data could be used for further interventions about weapon carrying to reduce violence. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. The Role of Distal Variables in Behavior Change: Effects of Adolescents' Risk for Marijuana Use on Intention to Use Marijuana.

    PubMed

    Yzer, Marco C; Cappella, Joseph N; Fishbein, Martin; Hornik, Robert; Sayeed, Sarah; Ahern, R Kirkland

    2004-06-01

    This study uses an integrative model of behavioral prediction as an account of adolescents' intention to use marijuana regularly. Adolescents' risk for using marijuana regularly is examined to test the theoretical assumption that distal variables affect intention indirectly. Risk affects intention indirectly if low-risk and high-risk adolescents differ on the strength with which beliefs about marijuana are held, or if they differ on the relative importance of predictors of intention. A model test confirmed that the effect of risk on intention is primarily indirect. Adolescents at low and high risk particularly differed in beliefs concerning social costs and costs to self-esteem. Not surprisingly, at-risk adolescents took a far more positive stand toward using marijuana regularly than did low-risk adolescents. On a practical level, the integrative model proved to be an effective tool for predicting intention to use marijuana, identifying key variables for interventions, and discriminating between target populations in terms of determinants of marijuana use.

  17. The relationship of character strengths to sexual behaviors and related risks among African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ma, Mindy; Kibler, Jeffrey L; Dollar, Katherine M; Sly, Kaye; Samuels, Deanne; Benford, Melissa White; Coleman, Melissa; Lott, LaTonya; Patterson, Kevin; Wiley, Floyd

    2008-01-01

    Relatively few studies have examined positive character traits that are associated with lower HIV/STD risks. In the present study, the relationships of character strengths with sexual behaviors and attitudes were assessed among 383 African-American adolescents. Character strengths were measured using the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths. Because the strengths were highly inter-correlated, stepwise discriminant function analyses were utilized to assess their independent associations with sexual behaviors and attitudes. Greater Love of Learning was related to self-reported abstinence from sexual intercourse for boys and self-reported abstinence from drug use for boys and girls. Greater Love of Learning and Curiosity were related to the belief in no premarital sex for boys, whereas only Curiosity was significant for girls. Prudence was related to reported abstinence from sexual intimacy (e.g., touching or kissing). Judgment was related to sexual initiation efficacy for girls and boys, whereas Leadership was only significant for girls. The findings suggest that character strengths may be associated with lower levels of sexual behaviors and sex-related beliefs among a sample of African-American adolescents.

  18. Pathways Linking Childhood Maltreatment and Adolescent Sexual Risk Behaviors: The Role of Attachment Security.

    PubMed

    Thibodeau, Marie-Eve; Lavoie, Francine; Hébert, Martine; Blais, Martin

    2017-10-01

    Previous research has shown an association between child maltreatment (sexual abuse, physical abuse, neglect, or witnessing interparental violence) and adolescent sexual risk behaviors (SRBs). The mechanisms explaining this association are not well understood, but attachment theory could provide further insight into them. This study examined the relationships between child maltreatment and SRBs and investigated anxious and avoidant attachment as mediators. The sample comprised 1,900 sexually active adolescents (13 to 17 years old; 60.8% girls) attending Quebec high schools. The results of path analyses indicated that neglect was associated with a higher number of sexual partners, casual sexual behavior, and being younger at first intercourse. Anxious attachment mediated the relation between neglect and number of sexual partners, whereas avoidant attachment explained the relation between neglect and number of sexual partners, casual sexual behavior, and age at first intercourse (for boys only). Sexual abuse was directly associated with all three SRBs. Neither anxious attachment nor avoidant attachment mediated these associations. Youth with a history of neglect and sexual abuse represent a vulnerable population that is likely to engage in SRBs. Interventions designed to induce a positive change in attachment security may reduce SRBs among victims of neglect.

  19. Evaluation of behavioral problems after prenatal dexamethasone treatment in Swedish adolescents at risk of CAH.

    PubMed

    Wallensteen, Lena; Zimmermann, Marius; Sandberg, Malin Thomsen; Gezelius, Anton; Nordenström, Anna; Hirvikoski, Tatja; Lajic, Svetlana

    2016-09-01

    Prenatal dexamethasone (DEX) treatment in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is effective in reducing virilization in affected girls, but other lasting effects are largely unknown. Here, we explore potential side effects of the treatment that will eventually help to make risk benefit analyses of the treatment. Therefore, we investigated the long-term effects of such prenatal DEX treatment on behavioral problems and temperament in children aged 7-17years. Standardized parent-completed questionnaires were used to evaluate adaptive functioning, behavioral and emotional problems (using CBCL), social anxiety (SPAI-C-P), and temperament (EAS). Self-reports were used to assess the children's own perception of social anxiety (SASC-R). The study compared 34 DEX-treated children and adolescents who were treated during the first trimester of fetal life and do not have CAH with 66 untreated controls from the Swedish population. No statistically significant differences were found between groups, suggesting that healthy children who were treated with DEX during early fetal life seem to be well adjusted without major behavioral or emotional problems as assessed by their parents. Moreover, self-reported social anxiety was not increased in DEX-exposed children and adolescents. In fact, the control group scored higher on items assessing anxiety in new, social situations. Nevertheless, for some of these comparisons, non-significant moderate to large effect sizes were observed, implying that the null findings should be interpreted with caution and require studies on larger, internationally combined cohorts.

  20. Associations between sleep duration and physical activity and dietary behaviors in Chinese adolescents: results from the Youth Behavioral Risk Factor Surveys of 2015.

    PubMed

    Gong, Qing Hai; Li, Hui; Zhang, Xiao Hong; Zhang, Tao; Cui, Jun; Xu, Guo Zhang

    2017-09-01

    To assess the association between sleep duration and physical activity and dietary behaviors among adolescents in a representative sample. The analysis was performed using data from the 2015 Ningbo Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Associations between physical activity and dietary behaviors and sleep duration were examined on weighted data using logistic regression. Of the 10726 students, roughly 40% reported sleep duration <8 h. Longer sleep duration was associated with higher likelihood of milk intake, fruit consumption, vegetable consumption, water consumption, moderate physical activity, and muscle-strengthening physical activity, and with a lower likelihood of cigarette use, alcohol use, sweets intake, Western fast food intake, and breakfast skipping. Insufficient sleep may be common among Chinese adolescents. Sleep duration was associated with dietary behaviors, physical activity, and other health-related behaviors. These findings suggest that sleep duration could be a potential target for many health-risk behaviors in young adolescents. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Parental Monitoring and Its Associations With Adolescent Sexual Risk Behavior: A Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dittus, Patricia J.; Michael, Shannon L.; Becasen, Jeffrey S.; Gloppen, Kari M.; McCarthy, Katharine; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    CONTEXT Increasingly, health care providers are using approaches targeting parents in an effort to improve adolescent sexual and reproductive health. Research is needed to elucidate areas in which providers can target adolescents and parents effectively. Parental monitoring offers one such opportunity, given consistent protective associations with adolescent sexual risk behavior. However, less is known about which components of monitoring are most effective and most suitable for provider-initiated family-based interventions. OBJECTIVE We performed a meta-analysis to assess the magnitude of association between parental monitoring and adolescent sexual intercourse, condom use, and contraceptive use. DATA SOURCES We conducted searches of Medline, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsycInfo, Cochrane, the Education Resources Information Center, Social Services Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Proquest, and Google Scholar. STUDY SELECTION We selected studies published from 1984 to 2014 that were written in English, included adolescents, and examined relationships between parental monitoring and sexual behavior. DATA EXTRACTION We extracted effect size data to calculate pooled odds ratios (ORs) by using a mixed-effects model. RESULTS Higher overall monitoring (pooled OR, 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69–0.80), monitoring knowledge (pooled OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.73–0.90), and rule enforcement (pooled OR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.59–0.75) were associated with delayed sexual intercourse. Higher overall monitoring (pooled OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.01–1.24) and monitoring knowledge (pooled OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.01–1.31) were associated with greater condom use. Finally, higher overall monitoring was associated with increased contraceptive use (pooled OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.09–1.86), as was monitoring knowledge (pooled OR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.42–3.63). LIMITATIONS Effect sizes were not uniform across studies, and most studies were cross

  2. Multi-level risk factors and developmental assets associated with aggressive behavior in disadvantaged adolescents.

    PubMed

    Smokowski, Paul R; Guo, Shenyang; Cotter, Katie L; Evans, Caroline B R; Rose, Roderick A

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined multilevel risk factors and developmental assets on longitudinal trajectories of aggressive behavior in a diverse sample of rural adolescents. Using ecological and social capital theories, we explored the impact of positive and negative proximal processes, social capital, and contextual characteristics (i.e., school and neighborhood) on adolescent aggression. Data came from the Rural Adaptation Project, which is a 5-year longitudinal panel study of more than 4,000 middle and high school students from 40 public schools in two rural, low income counties in North Carolina. A three-level HLM model (N = 4,056 at Wave 1, 4,251 at Wave 2, and 4,256 at Wave 3) was estimated to predict factors affecting the change trajectories of aggression. Results indicated that negative proximal processes in the form of parent-adolescent conflict, friend rejection, peer pressure, delinquent friends, and school hassles were significant predictors of aggression. In addition, social capital in the form of ethnic identity, religious orientation, and school satisfaction served as buffers against aggression. Negative proximal processes were more salient predictors than positive proximal processes. School and neighborhood characteristics had a minimal impact on aggression. Overall, rates of aggression did not change significantly over the 3-year study window. Findings highlight the need to intervene in order to decrease negative interactions in the peer and parent domains. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Self-esteem and health-risk behaviors among Turkish late adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kavas, Ayşenur Büyükgöze

    2009-01-01

    The current study investigated (a) the relationship between self-esteem and health-risk behaviors and use of cigarettes, alcohol, and drugs, and (b) the gender differences in self-esteem and health-risk behaviors among a group of 243 late adolescents (124 males, 119 females) using a cross-sectional survey design. The age range of the participants was 17 to 24 with a mean age of 20.43 (SD = 1.21). Participants completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and a self-report questionnaire including items about demographic characteristics and participation within a range of health-risk behaviors. The findings of the study revealed that self-esteem was negatively associated with alcohol and illicit drug use; however, these results did not suggest any significant relationship between self-esteem and smoking cigarettes. Comparisons between males and females did not indicate any gender differences on the self-esteem scale. On the other hand, significant gender differences were found on cigarette and drug use with males reporting more cigarette and drug use. Limitations of the study and possible implications for counseling practice are discussed.

  4. Marijuana use and risky sexual behavior among high-risk adolescents: trajectories, risk factors, and event-level relationships.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Angela D; Schmiege, Sarah J; Magnan, Renee E

    2012-09-01

    Adolescents involved with the juvenile justice system have a high incidence of risky sexual behaviors resulting in unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Substance use may be particularly important as a risk factor for unsafe sexual behavior for this group, and recent evidence suggests a possible association between marijuana use and risky sexual behavior. Adolescents (n = 728; 33% female) on probation were followed for 2 years, at intervals of 6 months, to explore the association of marijuana use and condom use longitudinally and at a specific intercourse occasion. Latent growth curve modeling indicated that greater marijuana use at baseline was associated with a steeper decline in condom use over the 2-year period of the study. In-depth analysis of the most recent intercourse occasion suggested that condom use was less likely if marijuana was being used by the participant or his/her partner and that this association was more pronounced if intercourse occurred with someone the participant had just met. Implications for the prevention of risky sexual behavior in this population are discussed.

  5. Prospective Relations among Low-Income African American Adolescents' Maternal Attachment Security, Self-Worth, and Risk Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Lockhart, Ginger; Phillips, Samantha; Bolland, Anneliese; Delgado, Melissa; Tietjen, Juliet; Bolland, John

    2017-01-01

    This study examined prospective mediating relations among mother-adolescent attachment security, self-worth, and risk behaviors, including substance use and violence, across ages 13-17 in a sample of 901 low-income African American adolescents. Path analyses revealed that self-worth was a significant mediator between attachment security and risk behaviors, such that earlier attachment security predicted self-worth 1 year later, which in turn, predicted substance use, weapon carrying, and fighting in the 3rd year. Implications for the role of the secure base concept within the context of urban poverty are discussed.

  6. Victimization of Peruvian adolescents and health risk behaviors: young lives cohort

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While extensive research has been conducted on bullying and victimization in western countries, research is lacking in low- and middle-income settings. This study focused on bullying victimization in Peru. It explored the relationship between the caregiver’s perception of child victimization and the child’s view of selected negative experiences occurring with other children their age. Also, the study examined the association between victimization and adolescent health risk behaviors. Methods This study used data from 675 children participating in the Peru cohort of the Young Lives study. Children and caregivers were interviewed in 2002 when children were 8 years of age and again in 2009 when children were 15 years of age. Measures of victimization included perceptions from children and caregivers while measures of health risk behaviors included cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and sexual relations among adolescents. Results Caregivers identified 85 (12.6%) children bullied at ages 8 and 15, 235 (34.8%) bullied at age 8 only, 61 (9.0%) bullied at age 15 only, and 294 (43.6%) not bullied at either age. Children who were bullied at both ages compared with all other children were 1.58 (95% CI 1.00-2.50) times more likely to smoke cigarettes, 1.57 (1.04-2.38) times more likely to drink alcohol, and 2.17 (1.41-3.33) times more likely to have ever had a sexual relationship, after adjusting for gender. The caregiver’s assessment of child victimization was significantly associated with child reported bullying from other children their age. Child reported victimization was significantly associated with increased risky behaviors in some cases. Conclusion Long-term victimization from bullying is more strongly associated than less frequent victimization with increased risk of cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and sexual relations at age 15. Hence, programs focused on helping children learn how to mitigate and prevent bullying consistently over time may

  7. Crack cocaine use and high-risk behaviors among sexually active black adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fullilove, M T; Golden, E; Fullilove, R E; Lennon, R; Porterfield, D; Schwarcz, S; Bolan, G

    1993-06-01

    The recent spread of crack cocaine use among inner-city teenagers has been accompanied by dramatic increases in juvenile delinquency and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among teenagers. This study examined the prevalence of five factors which promote STDs, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), among a sample of sexually active black adolescent crack users and non-users from the San Francisco Bay Area. Significant differences were observed between these groups with respect to history of engaging in sexual intercourse under the influence of drugs or alcohol, exchanging sexual favors for drugs or money, condom use in the most recent sexual encounter, and having five or more sexual partners in the last year. Approximately 63% of all respondents reported engaging in at least one of these risk behaviors. In multiple logistic regression analysis, reporting one or more of these STD/HIV risk behaviors was significantly associated with crack use and having one or more relatives who used drugs. Intervention efforts need to address both individual and environmental risk factors in order to reduce teens' risk for STDs, including HIV.

  8. HIV/STD Risk Behaviors Among In-School Adolescents in Post-Conflict Liberia

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Stephen B.; Atwood, Katharine A.; Harris, Albert O.; Taylor, Curtis H.; Gobeh, Mawen E.; Quaqua, Monica; Woods, Daisajou V.; Bee, Ernree M.; Warlonfa, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a randomized trial to address the health needs of in-school adolescents in Liberia, where we analyzed data from a behavioral survey administered to 820 students from 8 urban schools. Our findings suggest that adolescents are at significant risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs): 36% of respondents were sexually experienced, 34% of those had first sex at ages 14 or younger, and 66% of first sexual encounters were unprotected while 16% were described as “forced.” Also, females were more likely to have older boyfriends (Pearson chi square = 19.2, p = 0.0001) and sex resulting into pregnancies (Pearson chi square = 11.5, p = 0.01), while males were more likely to have a greater number of sexual partners (Pearson chi square = 5.6, p = 0.05) in the previous 3 months. We recommend further research to explore challenges associated with implementing behavioral-driven studies in post-conflict environments. PMID:21924644

  9. [Correlation of resistance to peer pressure and risky decision-making with adolescent health risk behaviors].

    PubMed

    An, Jing; Sun, Ying; Wang, Xi; Zu, Ping; Mai, Jin-cheng; Liang, Jian-ping; Xu, Zhi-yong; Man, Xue-jun; Mao, Yan; Tao, Fang-biao

    2013-03-01

    To explore possible interrelationships among resistance to peer pressure, risky decision-making and health risk behaviors among young adolescents. Based on the cluster sampling method, the participants who were recruited from 5 junior middle schools in Guangzhou and 3 junior middle schools in Shenyang city on October, 2010, were administered to complete the questionnaire concerned with their experiences with drinking and smoking during the past 30 days preceding the survey, and the hours using computer daily both in weekdays and in weekend. The level of resistance to peer influence and risky decision-making were assessed by Resistance to peer influence scale (RPIS) and Youth decision-making questionnaire (YDMQ). Logistic regression was used to explore possible interrelationships among resistance to peer influence, risky decision-making and health risk behaviors among young adolescents. A total of 1985 questionnaires were valid, including 1001(50.4%) boys and 984 (49.6%) girls. About 27.1% (537/1985) junior middle school students reported having health risk behaviors, boys' (30.7%, 307/1001) was higher than girls' (23.4%, 230/984) with significant gender difference (P < 0.05). The prevalence of smoking, drinking during the past 30 days before the survey and using computer over 3 hours daily in weekdays and in weekend were 5.1% (102/1985), 14.3% (284/1985), 3.5% (70/1985) and 13.7% (272/1985), respectively. The rate of drinking, using computer over 3 hours daily in weekdays and in weekend were higher in males (16.4% (164/1001), 4.5% (45/1001), 16.2% (162/1001)) than those in females (12.2% (120/984), 2.5% (25/984), 11.2% (110/984)) (P < 0.05). The scores of RPIS and YDMQ of the two cities adolescents were 2.82 ± 0.39 and 1.68 ± 0.62. The students reported smoking, drinking during the past 30 days before the survey and using computer over 3 hours daily in weekend gained lower RPIS scores (2.43 ± 0.40, 2.61 ± 0.41, 2.77 ± 0.40) than their counterparts who didn

  10. Learning Disabilities and Risk-Taking Behavior in Adolescents: A Comparison of Those with and without Comorbid Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, John; Vervaeke, Sherri-Leigh; Willoughby, Teena

    2008-01-01

    Risk-taking behavior includes alcohol and drug use, delinquency, acts of aggression, sexual activity, and so on. Many studies have explored the relationship between adolescents and risk-taking behavior; however, only a few studies have examined this link in adolescents with learning disabilities (LD) or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder…

  11. Peer Contagion of Aggression and Health Risk Behavior among Adolescent Males: An Experimental Investigation of Effects on Public Conduct and Private Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2006-01-01

    Peer contagion of adolescent males' aggressive/health risk behaviors was examined using a computerized "chat room" experimental paradigm. Forty-three 11th-grade White adolescents (16-17 years old) were led to believe that they were interacting with other students (i.e., "e-confederates"), who endorsed aggressive/health risk behaviors and whose…

  12. Maternal influence on adolescent self-esteem, ethnic pride and intentions to engage in risk behavior in Latino youth.

    PubMed

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent

    2009-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between ethnic pride, self-esteem and adolescent intentions to smoke cigarettes and engage in sexual intercourse. It also explored the influence of maternal levels of ethnic pride and self-esteem as indirect predictors of adolescent risk intentions. Middle school youth were randomly selected from six schools in the Bronx, NY. A total of 1,538 adolescents and their mothers were recruited. Mothers completed self-administered questionnaires about self-esteem and ethnic pride. Adolescents completed self-administered questionnaires about their intentions to engage in risk behaviors, as well as items about community connectedness, language spoken at home, self-esteem and ethnic pride. Results suggest that adolescent ethnic pride had protective effects on risk intentions through the mediator of self-esteem as well as independent of it. Maternal ethnic pride was associated with adolescent ethnic pride and, in turn, risk intentions, but the effect was weak in magnitude. Speaking Spanish at home was not significantly associated with ethnic pride. Both age and gender were related to ethnic pride, with ethnic pride diminishing as adolescents became older and females having higher levels of ethnic pride than males.

  13. The Effects of Race/Ethnicity, Income, and Family Structure on Adolescent Risk Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Robert W.; Beuhring, Trisha; Shew, Marcia L.; Bearinger, Linda H.; Sieving, Renee E.; Resnick, Michael D.

    2000-01-01

    Examined the unique and combined contributions of race/ethnicity, income, and family structure to adolescent smoking, alcohol use, violence, suicide, and sexual intercourse. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health indicated that though some behaviors appeared to relate to the factors, when taken together, these factors…

  14. Ecodevelopmental Trajectories of Family Functioning: Links with HIV/STI Risk Behaviors and STI among Black Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Cordova, David; Heinze, Justin; Mistry, Ritesh; Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of family functioning trajectories on sexual risk behaviors and STI in adolescents. A sample of 850 predominantly (80%) Black adolescents from Michigan, United States, was assessed at baseline, 12, 24, and 36 months post-baseline. Adolescents were from working-class families with a mean age of 14.9 years (SD = .64, Range = 13.9 to 16.9) at baseline. Participants completed measures of family functioning at each time point. At 36 months post-baseline, levels of sexual risk behaviors, including sex initiation, unprotected sex, and alcohol or drug use before last sexual intercourse, and STIs were assessed. Latent class growth analysis (LCGA) yielded four-class solutions for family conflict and parent support. Adolescents with high or increasing family conflict trajectories, and low or decreasing family support trajectories, were at relatively greater risk of sexual risk behaviors and STIs. Yet, the additional trajectories differ across outcomes highlighting the complexities of the role of family functioning on sexual risk behaviors and STIs over time. Multiple group LCGA indicate some findings vary as a function of gender. PMID:27253262

  15. Ecodevelopmental trajectories of family functioning: Links with HIV/STI risk behaviors and STI among Black adolescents.

    PubMed

    Córdova, David; Heinze, Justin E; Mistry, Ritesh; Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2016-07-01

    We examined the effects of family functioning trajectories on sexual risk behaviors and STI in adolescents. A sample of 850 predominantly (80%) Black adolescents from Michigan, United States, was assessed at baseline, 12, 24, and 36 months postbaseline. Adolescents were from working-class families with a mean age of 14.9 years (SD = .64, Range = 13.9 to 16.9) at baseline. Participants completed measures of family functioning at each time point. At 36 months postbaseline, levels of sexual risk behaviors, including sex initiation, unprotected sex, and alcohol or drug use before last sexual intercourse, and STIs were assessed. Latent class growth analysis (LCGA) yielded 4-class solutions for family conflict and parent support. Adolescents with high or increasing family conflict trajectories, and low or decreasing family support trajectories, were at relatively greater risk of sexual risk behaviors and STIs. Yet, the additional trajectories differ across outcomes highlighting the complexities of the role of family functioning on sexual risk behaviors and STIs over time. Multiple Group LCGA indicate some findings vary as a function of gender. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Relationships among Subjective Social Status, Weight Perception, Weight Control Behaviors, and Weight Status in Adolescents: Findings from the 2009 Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Yeongmi; Choi, Eunsook; Seo, Yeongmi; Kim, Tae-gu

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study identified relationships among subjective social status (SSS), weight perception, weight control behaviors, and weight status in Korean adolescents using nationally representative data collected from the 2009 Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey. Methods: Data from 67,185 students aged 12-18 years were analyzed.…

  17. Relationships among Subjective Social Status, Weight Perception, Weight Control Behaviors, and Weight Status in Adolescents: Findings from the 2009 Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Yeongmi; Choi, Eunsook; Seo, Yeongmi; Kim, Tae-gu

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study identified relationships among subjective social status (SSS), weight perception, weight control behaviors, and weight status in Korean adolescents using nationally representative data collected from the 2009 Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey. Methods: Data from 67,185 students aged 12-18 years were analyzed.…

  18. Looking to the future, working on the present. Intention to donate blood and risk behavior: A study on adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sara, Alfieri; Vincenzo, Saturni; Elena, Marta

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate adolescents' propensity to donate blood, the incidence in this population of risk behaviors that limit and restrict the potential for blood donation, thus reducing the number of possible subjects suitable for donation, and the link between propensity to donate and healthy lifestyles. Adolescents were asked to complete an anonymous self-report questionnaire during class time. The questionnaire included ad hoc items designed to investigate the intention to donate blood and behaviors traditionally considered to put adolescents' "health at risk". Participants were 201 students from northern Italy (range 12-19, M = 17.98, SD = 1.82; 38.9% male, 61.1% female). About half of respondents perceived that they were able to donate blood and could overcome any obstacle that might prevent them from doing so. Some of the examined risk behaviors were widespread in the population under consideration. The linear regressions run show that there is no link between the propensity to give blood and a tendency to engage in healthy lifestyles. The study shows that adolescents demonstrate an interest in blood donation; however, it shows a real lack of "action" to make it happen: there is, indeed, a serious lack of attention to matters related to healthy lifestyles. In fact, adolescents are not aware of how to act to access the world of donation, with the risk that they present themselves at blood donation centers and are then found to be unfit to donate. The research offers many suggestions and implications.

  19. Identity development as a buffer of adolescent risk behaviors in the context of peer group pressure and control.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Tara M; Ellis, Wendy E; Wolfe, David A

    2012-08-01

    We examined identity development as a moderator of the relation between peer group pressure and control and adolescents' engagement in risk behaviors. Participants (n=1070; M(age)=15.45 years) completed a self-report measure of identity exploration, the degree to which they have explored a variety of self-relevant values, beliefs and goals, and identity commitment, the degree to which they have secured a personal identity. Participants further reported on their frequency of risk behaviors (substance use and general deviancy) and experienced peer group pressure and control. Results confirmed that identity commitment was a buffer of substance use and identity exploration was a buffer of general deviancy in more pressuring peer groups. In more controlling peer groups, teens with greater identity commitment engaged in less risk behavior than teens with low-identity commitment. Thus, identity development may be a suitable target to deter negative effects of peer pressure in high-risk adolescents.

  20. Rape Victimization and High Risk Sexual Behaviors: Longitudinal Study of African-American Adolescent Females

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Delia L.; Sales, Jessica M.; Salazar, Laura F.; Hardin, James W.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Rose, Eve

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: African-American women are affected by disproportionately high rates of violence and sexually transmitted infections (STI)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. It is imperative to address the intersection of these two urgent public health issues, particularly as these affect African-American adolescent girls. This study assessed the prevalence of rape victimization (RV) among a sample of African-American adolescent females and examined the extent to which participants with a history of RV engage in STI/HIV associated risk behaviors over a 12-month time period. Methods: Three hundred sixty-seven African-American adolescent females ages 15–21, seeking sexual health services at three local teenager-oriented community health agencies in an urban area of the Southeastern United States, participated in this study. Participants were asked to complete an audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) at baseline, 6- and 12-month follow-up. We assessed sociodemographics, history of RV and sexual practices. At baseline, participants indicating they had experienced forced sex were classified as having a history of RV. Results: Twenty-five percent of participants reported a history of RV at baseline. At 6- and 12-months, victims of RV had significantly lower proportions of condom-protected sex (p=.008), higher frequency of sex while intoxicated (p=.005), more inconsistent condom use (p=.008), less condom use at last sex (p=.017), and more sex partners (p=.0001) than non-RV victims. Over the 12-month follow-up period, of those who did not report RV at baseline, 9.5% reported that they too had experienced RV at some point during the 12-month time frame. Conclusion: African-American adolescent females who experience RV are engaging in more risky sexual behaviors over time than non-RV girls, thereby placing themselves at higher risk for contracting STIs. In light of the results from this unique longitudinal study, we discuss considerations for policies and

  1. Distinct Stress and Resource Profiles Among At-Risk Adolescents: Implications for Violence and Other Problem Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Logan-Greene, Patricia; Nurius, Paula S; Thompson, Elaine Adams

    2012-10-01

    This study tests for the presence of subgroups among youth at-risk for school drop-out and whether those groups differ on levels of violence and related problem behaviors. Latent profile analysis was employed with a diverse adolescent sample (N = 849) to identify and describe subgroups based on assessment of stress and coping resources, resulting in four distinct groups: Low Risk, Unprotected, Risk Only, and High Risk. Tests across these groups demonstrated significant heterogeneity in violent behaviors, substance use, and school disengagement. The value of stress and protective resource assessment and tailoring interventions to meet the differing needs of vulnerable youth is discussed.

  2. Suicidal behavior and suicide among children and adolescents-risk factors and epidemiological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Dodig-Curković, Katarina; Curković, Mario; Radić, Josipa; Degmecić, Dunja; Fileković, Pavo

    2010-06-01

    In last decade suicide attempts and suicides among youngsters are increasing greatly and are one of the leading causes of mortality in this age group. Epidemiological data are pointing on more frequent trend of self-destructive behavior among youngsters in the world as well as in our country. Risk factors which influence on increasing number of suicide attempts and suicides in this age are different in etiology: interference of genetic influences, family dynamics and external environment (school, friends, social environment, peers, television, video, and internet). Croatia as a country in transition is also following trends in the world according to epidemiological data, what is for sure great challenge for all who participate in dealing with youngsters, especially psychiatric services. In the planning of treatment is very important to include family with intention to accomplish optimal therapeutic effect. Also, it is very important to warn parents on their part of responsibility in upbringing and developing of their adolescent.

  3. Identity Development as a Buffer of Adolescent Risk Behaviors in the Context of Peer Group Pressure and Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumas, Tara M.; Ellis, Wendy E.; Wolfe, David A.

    2012-01-01

    We examined identity development as a moderator of the relation between peer group pressure and control and adolescents' engagement in risk behaviors. Participants (n = 1070; M[subscript age] = 15.45 years) completed a self-report measure of "identity exploration", the degree to which they have explored a variety of self-relevant values, beliefs…

  4. Childhood Peer Rejection and Aggression as Predictors of Adolescent Girls' Externalizing and Health Risk Behaviors: A 6-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinstein, Mitchell J.; La Greca, Annette M.

    2004-01-01

    This 6-year longitudinal study examined girls' peer-nominated social preference and aggression in childhood as predictors of self- and parent-reported externalizing symptoms, substance use (i.e.. cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use), and sexual risk behavior in adolescence. Participants were 148 girls from diverse ethnic backgrounds, who were…

  5. Attitudes toward Sexuality and Sexual Behaviors of Asian-American Adolescents. Implications for Risk of HIV Infection. An Occasional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Connie S.

    There has been a widespread perception that Asian Americans are at lower risk for HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases than the population as a whole. This report assesses the knowledge of Asian American adolescents about AIDS and their sexual behaviors and explores whether there is a difference between a Cambodian group (half the…

  6. Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Depression Prevention Program for High-Risk Adolescents Outperforms Two Alternative Interventions: A Randomized Efficacy Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Gau, Jeff M.

    2008-01-01

    In this depression prevention trial, 341 high-risk adolescents (mean age = 15.6 years, SD = 1.2) with elevated depressive symptoms were randomized to a brief group cognitive-behavioral (CB) intervention, group supportive-expressive intervention, bibliotherapy, or assessment-only control condition. CB participants showed significantly greater…

  7. Predictors of Sexual Risk Behavior among Zimbabwean Adolescents With and Without Disabilities: Implications for HIV/AIDS Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magaya, Lindiwe

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine sexual risk behaviors among Zimbabwean adolescents with and without disabilities. Participants included 456 Zimbabwean high school students. Results indicated that more males than females engaged in sexual activities as early as nine years of age or younger. Females who reported having had sex, also…

  8. Identity Development as a Buffer of Adolescent Risk Behaviors in the Context of Peer Group Pressure and Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumas, Tara M.; Ellis, Wendy E.; Wolfe, David A.

    2012-01-01

    We examined identity development as a moderator of the relation between peer group pressure and control and adolescents' engagement in risk behaviors. Participants (n = 1070; M[subscript age] = 15.45 years) completed a self-report measure of "identity exploration", the degree to which they have explored a variety of self-relevant values, beliefs…

  9. Health Behavior and Metabolic Risk Factors Associated with Normal Weight Obesity in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Arngrimsson, Sigurbjorn A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore health behaviors and metabolic risk factors in normal weight obese (NWO) adolescents compared with normal weight lean (NWL) peers. Design and Methods A cross-sectional study of 18-year-old students (n = 182, 47% female) in the capital area of Iceland, with body mass index within normal range (BMI, 18.5–24.9 kg/m2). Body composition was estimated via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, fitness was assessed with maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) during treadmill test, dietary intake through 24-hour recall, questionnaires explained health behavior and fasting blood samples were taken. NWO was defined as normal BMI and body fat >17.6% in males and >31.6% in females. Results Among normal weight adolescents, 42% (n = 76) were defined as NWO, thereof 61% (n = 46) male participants. Fewer participants with NWO were physically active, ate breakfast on a regular basis, and consumed vegetables frequently compared with NWL. No difference was detected between the two groups in energy- and nutrient intake. The mean difference in aerobic fitness was 5.1 ml/kg/min between the groups in favor of the NWL group (p<0.001). NWO was positively associated with having one or more risk factors for metabolic syndrome (Odds Ratio OR = 2.2; 95% confidence interval CI: 1.2, 3.9) when adjusted for sex. High waist circumference was more prevalent among NWO than NWL, but only among girls (13% vs 4%, p = 0.019). Conclusions High prevalence of NWO was observed in the study group. Promoting healthy lifestyle with regard to nutrition and physical activity in early life should be emphasized regardless of BMI. PMID:27560824

  10. On the association between sexual attraction and adolescent risk behavior involvement: Examining mediation and moderation.

    PubMed

    Busseri, Michael A; Willoughby, Teena; Chalmers, Heather; Bogaert, Anthony F

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of a large-scale survey of high-school youth, the authors compared adolescents reporting exclusively heterosexual, mostly heterosexual, bisexual, and predominately same-sex attraction based on high-risk involvement across a range of risk behaviors. Bisexual and same-sex attracted groups were characterized by heightened high-risk involvement relative to the other two groups. Mediation analysis was used to determine whether these group disparities were explained by a set of normative predictive factors spanning multiple life domains. Differences among a combined exclusively/mostly heterosexual attraction group and both the bisexual and same-sex attraction groups were attenuated (66% and 50%, respectively) after incorporating the hypothesized intervening predictive factors, providing evidence of partial mediation. Primary mediators included intrapersonal (attitudes toward risk-taking; academic orientation), interpersonal (peer victimization; parental relationships; unstructured activities), and environmental (substance availability) factors. Mediation results were consistent across participant age and sex. Implications, limitations, and directions for future research are discussed. Copyright (c) 2008 APA.

  11. Genetic influences on adolescent behavior.

    PubMed

    Dick, Danielle M; Adkins, Amy E; Kuo, Sally I-Chun

    2016-11-01

    Adolescence is a transitional, developmental phase with marked shifts in behavior, particularly as related to risk-taking and experimentation. Genetic influences on adolescent behavior also show marked changes across this developmental period; in fact, adolescence showcases the dynamic nature of genetic influences on human behavior. Using the twin studies literature on alcohol use and misuse, we highlight several principles of genetic influence on adolescent behavior. We illustrate how genetic influences change (increase) across adolescence, as individuals have more freedom to express their predispositions and to shape their social worlds. We show how there are multiple genetic pathways to risk, and how the environment can moderate the importance of genetic predispositions. Finally, we review the literature aimed at identifying specific genes involved in adolescent behavior and understanding how identified genes impact adolescent outcomes. Ultimately, understanding how genetic predispositions combine with environmental influences to impact pathways of risk and resilience should be translated into improved prevention and intervention efforts; this remains a rich area for future research.

  12. The effect of acculturation and discrimination on mental health symptoms and risk behaviors among adolescent migrants in Israel.

    PubMed

    Nakash, Ora; Nagar, Maayan; Shoshani, Anat; Zubida, Hani; Harper, Robin A

    2012-07-01

    This study examines the role of acculturation, perceived discrimination, and self-esteem in predicting the mental health symptoms and risk behaviors among 1.5 and second generation non-Jewish adolescents born to migrant families compared with native-born Jewish Israeli adolescents in Israel. Participants included n = 65 1.5 migrant adolescents, n = 60 second generation migrant adolescents, and n = 146 age, gender, and socioeconomic matched sample of native-born Jewish Israelis. Participants completed measures of acculturation pattern, perceived discrimination, and self-esteem as well as measures of mental health symptoms and risk behaviors. Results show that migrant adolescents across generations reported worse mental health symptoms compared with native-born Jewish Israelis. However, only the 1.5 generation migrants reported higher engagement in risk behaviors compared with second generation migrants and native-born Jewish Israelis. Our findings further showed that acculturation plays an important role in predicting the mental health status of migrant youth, with those characterized with integrated acculturative pattern reporting lower mental health symptoms compared with assimilated acculturation pattern. Importantly, contextual factors, such as higher perception of discrimination in the receiving culture as well as individual factors such as lower self-esteem and female gender were strongly associated with worse mental health symptoms. The findings manifest the complex relationship between contextual factors and individual level variables in the acculturative process of migrants as well as the importance of examining the effect of migration generation on mental health outcomes.

  13. Adverse Life Events and Psychopathology and Prosocial Behavior in Late Adolescence: Testing the Timing, Specificity, Accumulation, Gradient, and Moderation of Contextual Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flouri, Eirini; Kallis, Constantinos

    2007-01-01

    A study examines the role of contextual risk in psychopathology and prosocial behavior in adolescents. The results show that risk accumulation matters instead of specificity and that the number of adverse life events is nonmultiplicative with psychopathology.

  14. Similarity of risk and protective behaviors among African-American pre- and early adolescent members of naturally occurring friendship groups.

    PubMed Central

    Fang, X.; Stanton, B.; Li, X.; Romer, D.; Galbraith, J.; Feigelman, S.

    1996-01-01

    To determine whether self-reported risk and protective behaviors, expectations, and attitudes are more similar among African-American early adolescents within a community-based friendship group than across groups, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 382 African-American youth 9 through 15 years of age forming 76 community-based groups of 3 through 10 same-gender friends. Each member of the friendship group reported his/her own past involvement in nine risk behaviors (sexual intercourse, substance abuse, drug-trafficking, and other delinquent activities) and two protective behaviors (high academic performance and regular church attendance) and their expectations and feelings regarding several of these behaviors. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated overall and by gender and age. Members were generally more similar within friendship groups than across groups with regard to several risk behaviors and expectations including sexual intercourse and drug-trafficking. Particularly striking was the similarity among members of "junior" friendship groups (e.g., median age of youth < 11 years) of both risk and protective behaviors and expectations. The finding of enhanced similarity of risk behaviors and expectations among members within groups suggests that intervention delivery through community-based friendship groups may be a useful approach for risk prevention efforts targeting pre-adolescent African-American youth living in low-income settings. PMID:8982522

  15. Relationships between hours of sleep and health-risk behaviors in US adolescent students.

    PubMed

    McKnight-Eily, Lela R; Eaton, Danice K; Lowry, Richard; Croft, Janet B; Presley-Cantrell, Letitia; Perry, Geraldine S

    2011-10-01

    To examine associations between insufficient sleep (<8h on average school nights) and health-risk behaviors. 2007 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey data of U.S. high school students (n=12,154) were analyzed. Associations were examined on weighted data using multivariate logistic regression. Insufficient sleep on an average school night was reported by 68.9% of students. Insufficient sleep was associated with higher odds of current use of cigarettes (age-adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.45-1.93), marijuana (AOR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.31-1.76), and alcohol (AOR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.46-1.84); current sexual activity (AOR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.25-1.59); seriously considered attempting suicide (AOR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.60-2.16); feeling sad or hopeless (AOR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.43-1.84); physical fighting (AOR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.24-1.60), not being physically active at least 60min ≥ 5days in the past 7days (AOR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.04-1.29), using the computer ≥3h/day (AOR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.38-1.80), and drinking soda/pop > 1time/day (AOR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.03-1.28). Two-thirds of adolescent students reported insufficient sleep, which was associated with many health-risk behaviors. Greater awareness of the impact of sleep insufficiency is vital. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Adolescent rats are more prone to binge eating behavior: a study of age and obesity as risk factors.

    PubMed

    Bekker, Liza; Barnea, Royi; Brauner, Akiva; Weller, Aron

    2014-08-15

    Binge eating (BE) is characterized by repeated, intermittent over-consumption of food in a brief period of time. This study aims to advance the understanding of potential risk factors for BE such as obesity, overeating and adolescence as an age group. We used the Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat, a genetic overeating-induced obesity model with increased preferences for sweet and fat. Adolescent and adult rats from both strains (OLETF and the lean control strain, Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka [LETO]) received limited access to a palatable liquid diet (Ensure vanilla) for three weeks. Water and chow were available throughout the study, but access to Ensure was limited to two hours, three times a week (3TW group) or every work day (5TW group). As expected, OLETF rats consumed more Ensure and were more BE-prone (BEP) than LETO rats at both ages. Adolescent rats showed a significantly larger binge size as demonstrated by a greater increase in Ensure intake, compared to adults. Furthermore, while the adults reduced their chow intake, compensating for increased Ensure intake, the adolescents increased their chow intake too. Finally, the adolescent rats showed binge like behavior earlier in the study and they tended to be BEP more than the adults. Our findings in rats suggest that adolescents and in particular obese adolescents are at risk for BE, and BE can lead to overweight, thus providing the basis for examination of biological mechanisms of this process in animal models.

  17. Associations between the prenatal environment and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescent girls: Internalizing and externalizing behavior symptoms as mediators

    PubMed Central

    Beal, Sarah J.; Hillman, Jennifer; Dorn, Lorah D.; Out, Dorothée; Pabst, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines links among adolescent internalizing and externalizing symptoms, the prenatal environment (e.g., nicotine exposure) and pre/perinatal maternal health, and cardiovascular risk factors. Girls (N=262) ages 11–17 reported internalizing and externalizing behaviors and mothers reported about the prenatal environment and maternal health during and 3 months post-pregnancy. Adolescent cardiovascular risk included adiposity, smoking, blood pressure, and salivary C-reactive protein. Internalizing symptoms mediated relations between prenatal exposures/maternal health and adiposity; externalizing symptoms mediated relations between prenatal exposures and adolescent smoking. Healthcare providers who attend to internalizing and externalizing symptoms in girls may ultimately influence cardiovascular health, especially among those with pre/perinatal risk factors. PMID:25750471

  18. Locating Economic Risks for Adolescent Mental and Behavioral Health: Poverty and Affluence in Families, Neighborhoods, and Schools.

    PubMed

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Sims, Jacqueline; Dearing, Eric; Spielvogel, Bryn

    2017-02-28

    Research has identified risks of both poverty and affluence for adolescents. This study sought to clarify associations between income and youth mental and behavioral health by delineating economic risks derived from family, neighborhood, and school contexts within a nationally representative sample of high school students (N = 13,179, average age 16). Attending schools with more affluent schoolmates was associated with heightened likelihoods of intoxication, drug use, and property crime, but youth at poorer schools reported greater depressive and anxiety symptoms, engagement in violence, and for male adolescents, more frequent violence and intoxication. Neighborhood and family income were far less predictive. Results suggest that adolescent health risks derive from both ends of the economic spectrum, and may be largely driven by school contexts.

  19. Sex-Related HIV Risk Reduction Behavior among Adolescents in DATOS-A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joshi, Vandana; Hser, Yih-Ing; Grella, Christine E.; Houlton, Roberta

    2001-01-01

    Examined the effect of drug treatment on reducing HIV-related risky sex behavior among 796 adolescents entering drug treatment programs in four U.S. cities. Found that 54 percent reported reductions in risky sex behavior after treatment. Lack of improvement was associated with conduct-disorder diagnosis, abuse history, unmet physical and emotional…

  20. Increased Risk for School Violence-Related Behaviors among Adolescents with Insufficient Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildenbrand, Aimee K.; Daly, Brian P.; Nicholls, Elizabeth; Brooks-Holliday, Stephanie; Kloss, Jacqueline D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: School violence is associated with significant acute and long-term negative health outcomes. Previous investigations have largely neglected the role of pertinent health behaviors in school violence, including sleep. Insufficient sleep is associated with adverse physical, behavioral, and psychosocial consequences among adolescents, many…

  1. Increased Risk for School Violence-Related Behaviors among Adolescents with Insufficient Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildenbrand, Aimee K.; Daly, Brian P.; Nicholls, Elizabeth; Brooks-Holliday, Stephanie; Kloss, Jacqueline D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: School violence is associated with significant acute and long-term negative health outcomes. Previous investigations have largely neglected the role of pertinent health behaviors in school violence, including sleep. Insufficient sleep is associated with adverse physical, behavioral, and psychosocial consequences among adolescents, many…

  2. Factor analysis and psychometric properties of the Mother-Adolescent Sexual Communication (MASC) instrument for sexual risk behavior.

    PubMed

    Cox, Mary Foster; Fasolino, Tracy K; Tavakoli, Abbas S

    2008-01-01

    Sexual risk behavior is a public health problem among adolescents living at or below poverty level. Approximately 1 million pregnancies and 3 million cases of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are reported yearly. Parenting plays a significant role in adolescent behavior, with mother-adolescent sexual communication correlated with absent or delayed sexual behavior. This study developed an instrument examining constructs of mother-adolescent communication, the Mother-Adolescent Sexual Communication (MASC) instrument. A convenience sample of 99 mothers of middle school children completed the self-administered questionnaires. The original 34-item MASC was reduced to 18 items. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the 18-item scale, which resulted in four factors explaining 84.63% of the total variance. Internal consistency analysis produced Cronbach alpha coefficients of .87, .90, .82, and .71 for the four factors, respectively. Convergent validity via hypothesis testing was supported by significant correlations with several subscales of the Parent-Child Relationship Questionnaire (PCRQ) with MASC factors, that is, content and style factors with warmth, personal relationships and disciplinary warmth subscales of the PCRQ, the context factor with personal relationships, and the timing factor with warmth. In light of these findings, the psychometric characteristics and multidimensional perspective of the MASC instrument show evidence of usefulness for measuring and advancing knowledge of mother and adolescent sexual communication techniques.

  3. Childhood Traumatic Brain Injury and the Associations With Risk Behavior in Adolescence and Young Adulthood: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Eleanor; Cohen, Miriam; Munafò, Marcus

    2017-03-09

    To systematically review the evidence that childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with risk behavior in adolescence and young adulthood. Risk behavior included one or more of the following: use of substances, including alcohol, tobacco, and illicit substances; involvement in criminal behavior; and behavioral issues with conduct. A literature search was conducted using these terms: child, pediatric, traumatic brain injury, head injury, adolescent, psychosocial, antisocial, conduct, substance use. Studies describing original research were included if they reported outcomes over the age of 13 years in participants who sustained a TBI between birth and age 13 years. Six journal articles were reviewed based on 4 separate studies. Three articles indicated a relationship between childhood TBI and increased problematic substance use in adolescence and young adulthood. Three articles supported an association between childhood TBI and later externalizing behavior; however, 2 articles did not support this link. More research is warranted to explore the association between childhood TBI and later risk behavior as the relationship is not currently understood. Future research should build on existing longitudinal research with continued use of medical records for identifying TBI and inclusion of a non-brain-related trauma group to control for general injury effects.This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CCBY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  4. Risky Driving, Mental Health, and Health-Compromising Behaviors: Risk Clustering in Late Adolescents and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sommers, Marilyn S.; Fargo, Jamison D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Health-compromising behaviors in adolescents and adults co-occur. Because motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death and disability for these age groups, understanding the association between risky driving and other health compromising behaviors is critical. Methods We performed a secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial of an intervention for participants who screened positive for risky driving and problem drinking. Using baseline data, we examined relationships among conduct behavior problems before and after age 15, depressive symptoms, sleep, problem drinking, and risky driving (hostile, reckless and drinking and driving) in late adolescents ages 18–24 (n= 110) and adults ages 25–44 (n= 202). We developed a measurement model for the entire sample using confirmatory factor analysis, which was then specified as a multi-group structural equation model. Results Late adolescents and adults had some similar associations for pathways through problem drinking to drinking and driving; depression to reckless driving; and conduct behavior problems after 15 to hostile driving. Late adolescents, however, had more complex relationships: depressive symptoms and conduct behavior problems before 15 were associated with more risky driving behaviors through multiple pathways and males reported more risky driving. Conclusions Risky driving is associated with other health-compromising behaviors and mental health factors. It is a multidimensional phenomenon more pronounced in late adolescence than adulthood. In order to promote safe driving, the findings support the need to consider behaviors that are a health threat in the late adolescent population during driving training and licensure. PMID:24814717

  5. Comparing Growth Trajectories of Risk Behaviors from Late Adolescence through Young Adulthood: An Accelerated Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodbeck, Jeannette; Bachmann, Monica S.; Croudace, Tim J.; Brown, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Risk behaviors such as substance use or deviance are often limited to the early stages of the life course. Whereas the onset of risk behavior is well studied, less is currently known about the decline and timing of cessation of risk behaviors of different domains during young adulthood. Prevalence and longitudinal developmental patterning of…

  6. Comparing Growth Trajectories of Risk Behaviors from Late Adolescence through Young Adulthood: An Accelerated Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodbeck, Jeannette; Bachmann, Monica S.; Croudace, Tim J.; Brown, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Risk behaviors such as substance use or deviance are often limited to the early stages of the life course. Whereas the onset of risk behavior is well studied, less is currently known about the decline and timing of cessation of risk behaviors of different domains during young adulthood. Prevalence and longitudinal developmental patterning of…

  7. Contributions of Parent-Adolescent Negative Emotionality, Adolescent Conflict, and Adoption Status to Adolescent Externalizing Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Bibiana D.; Rueter, Martha A.

    2011-01-01

    Although most adopted children are well adjusted, research has consistently found that adopted adolescents are at an increased risk for externalizing behaviors. The present investigation tested a model whereby parent-adolescent negative emotionality traits, adolescent conflict, and adoption status contribute to adolescent externalizing behaviors.…

  8. Predicting the Problem Behavior in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karaman, Neslihan G.

    2013-01-01

    Problem statement: Problem behavior theory describes both protective factors and risk factors to explain adolescent problem behaviors, such as delinquency, alcohol use, and reckless driving. The theory holds that problem behaviors involving risky behavior are used by adolescents as a means to gain peer acceptance and respect. Problem behaviors…

  9. Alcohol Use Among Hispanic Early Adolescents in the United States: An Examination of Behavioral Risk and Protective Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Hernandez, Lynn; Maynard, Brandy R.; Saltzman, Leia Y.; Vaughn, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined the behavioral and protective correlates of alcohol use among young Hispanics. Using a national sample (N = 7,606), logistic regression and latent profile analysis (LPA) are employed to examine the relationships between alcohol use, psychosocial factors, and externalizing behavior among Hispanics during early adolescence. Early drinkers are more likely to report truancy, fighting, smoking, and drug use. LPA results revealed a three class solution. Classes identified included: psychosocial risk (41.11%), moderate protection (39.44%), and highly religious (19.44%). Alcohol use is clearly associated with externalizing behavior; however, an important degree of psychosocial and behavioral heterogeneity nevertheless exists. PMID:24491151

  10. Social Science Theories on Adolescent Risk-Taking: The Relevance of Behavioral Inhibition and Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeersch, Hans; T'Sjoen, Guy; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2013-01-01

    The major social science theories on adolescent risk-taking--strain, social control, and differential association theories--have received substantial empirical support. The relationships between variables central to these theories and individual differences in temperament related to risk-taking, however, have not been adequately studied. In a…

  11. Social Science Theories on Adolescent Risk-Taking: The Relevance of Behavioral Inhibition and Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeersch, Hans; T'Sjoen, Guy; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2013-01-01

    The major social science theories on adolescent risk-taking--strain, social control, and differential association theories--have received substantial empirical support. The relationships between variables central to these theories and individual differences in temperament related to risk-taking, however, have not been adequately studied. In a…

  12. Dutch adolescent private drinking places: prevalence, alcohol consumption, and other risk behaviors.

    PubMed

    van Hoof, Joris J; Mulder, Joost; Korte, Jojanneke; Postel, Marloes G; Pieterse, Marcel E

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this research was to explore the increasingly popular Dutch health phenomenon of 'gathering in private peer group settings (barracks)', with a focus on the prevalence and characteristics of barracks, alcohol consumption, and other (risk) behaviors of their visitors. Three studies were conducted. The first consisted of field research in which 51 barracks were visited and group-interviews were held. The second was an Internet study in which 442 barracks' websites were analyzed using content analysis. The third consisted of a questionnaire completed by 1457 adolescents, aged 15-17, in order to explore differences in behavior between barracks visitors and non-visitors. There was wide variation in barracks' characteristics and culture. Barracks' members and visitors also organize diverse activities that are publicly shown on the websites. Barracks are associated with various legal issues, such as alcohol sales to minors, lack of parental supervision, and illicit drug use. Barracks' visitors drink alcohol more frequently, drink more alcohol per occasion (up to fifteen bottles of beer a night), and have been drunk more frequently than non-visitors. Policymakers must be aware of the barracks phenomenon and use their powers in adjacent political and legal areas (such as in binge drinking, illicit drug use, and public safety) to intervene and create solid, responsible, and tailor-made policies.

  13. Association of smokeless tobacco use and smoking in adolescents in the US: Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, R. Constance

    2014-01-01

    Background Using smokeless tobacco and smoking are risk behaviors for oral cancer, soft tissue lesions, caries, periodontal disease and other oral conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine adolescent smokeless tobacco use and smoking. Methods The study was a cross-sectional analysis of participants with complete data on smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and other variables of interest in the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n=9655). Descriptive analysis and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed. Results The unadjusted odds ratio for smokeless tobacco use and smoking was 9.68 (95% CI: 7.72, 12.13, p<.0001); the adjusted odds ratio was 3.92 (95%CI: 2.89, 5.31, p<.0001). Adolescents using smokeless tobacco were more likely to be male, to smoke, and to have engaged in binge drinking. Conclusions Adolescents who are using smokeless tobacco are more likely to also be engaging in concomitant smoking and are participating in other risk-taking behaviors. Practice implications Dentists are involved in helping patients in tobacco cessation. The strong association of smoking with smokeless tobacco needs to be considered in designing cessation programs for adolescents. PMID:23904581

  14. Differential Risk for Late Adolescent Conduct Problems and Mood Dysregulation Among Children with Early Externalizing Behavior Problems

    PubMed Central

    Bierman, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the differential emergence of antisocial behaviors and mood dysregulation among children with externalizing problems, the present study prospectively followed 317 high-risk children with early externalizing problems from school entry (ages 5–7) to late adolescence (ages 17–19). Latent class analysis conducted on their conduct and mood symptoms in late adolescence revealed three distinct patterns of symptoms, characterized by: 1) criminal offenses, conduct disorder symptoms, and elevated anger (“conduct problems”), 2) elevated anger, dysphoric mood, and suicidal ideation (“mood dysregulation”), and 3) low levels of severe conduct and mood symptoms. A diathesis-stress model predicting the first two outcomes was tested. Elevated overt aggression at school entry uniquely predicted conduct problems in late adolescence, whereas elevated emotion dysregulation at school entry uniquely predicted mood dysregulation in late adolescence. Experiences of low parental warmth and peer rejection in middle childhood moderated the link between early emotion dysregulation and later mood dysregulation but did not moderate the link between early overt aggression and later conduct problems. Thus, among children with early externalizing behavior problems, increased risk for later antisocial behavior or mood dysfunction may be identifiable in early childhood based on levels of overt aggression and emotion dysregulation. For children with early emotion dysregulation, however, increased risk for mood dysregulation characterized by anger, dysphoric mood, and suicidality – possibly indicative of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder – emerges only in the presence of low parental warmth and/or peer rejection during middle childhood. PMID:25183553

  15. Differential risk for late adolescent conduct problems and mood dysregulation among children with early externalizing behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Okado, Yuko; Bierman, Karen L

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the differential emergence of antisocial behaviors and mood dysregulation among children with externalizing problems, the present study prospectively followed 317 high-risk children with early externalizing problems from school entry (ages 5-7) to late adolescence (ages 17-19). Latent class analysis conducted on their conduct and mood symptoms in late adolescence revealed three distinct patterns of symptoms, characterized by: 1) criminal offenses, conduct disorder symptoms, and elevated anger ("conduct problems"), 2) elevated anger, dysphoric mood, and suicidal ideation ("mood dysregulation"), and 3) low levels of severe conduct and mood symptoms. A diathesis-stress model predicting the first two outcomes was tested. Elevated overt aggression at school entry uniquely predicted conduct problems in late adolescence, whereas elevated emotion dysregulation at school entry uniquely predicted mood dysregulation in late adolescence. Experiences of low parental warmth and peer rejection in middle childhood moderated the link between early emotion dysregulation and later mood dysregulation but did not moderate the link between early overt aggression and later conduct problems. Thus, among children with early externalizing behavior problems, increased risk for later antisocial behavior or mood dysfunction may be identifiable in early childhood based on levels of overt aggression and emotion dysregulation. For children with early emotion dysregulation, however, increased risk for mood dysregulation characterized by anger, dysphoric mood, and suicidality--possibly indicative of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder--emerges only in the presence of low parental warmth and/or peer rejection during middle childhood.

  16. A clinic-based youth development program to reduce sexual risk behaviors among adolescent girls: prime time pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sieving, Renee E; Bernat, Debra H; Resnick, Michael D; Oliphant, Jennifer; Pettingell, Sandra; Plowman, Shari; Skay, Carol

    2012-07-01

    Multifaceted, sustained efforts are needed to reduce early pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases among high-risk adolescents. An important area for research is testing youth development interventions offered through clinic settings, where access to high-risk adolescents is plentiful and few efforts have rigorously evaluated a dual approach of building protective factors while addressing risk. This article presents findings from a pilot study of Prime Time, a clinic-based youth development intervention to reduce sexual risk behaviors among girls at risk for early pregnancy. Girls aged 13 to 17 years meeting specified risk criteria were assigned to Prime Time treatment groups. The Prime Time intervention included a combination of case management services and peer leadership groups. Participants completed self-report surveys at baseline, 12 and 18 months following enrollment. At 12 months, the intervention group reported significantly fewer sexual partners than the control group. At 18 months, the intervention group reported significantly more consistent condom use with trends toward more consistent hormonal and dual method use. Dose-response analyses suggested that relatively high levels of exposure to a youth development intervention were needed to change contraceptive use behaviors among adolescents at risk for early pregnancy. Given promising findings, further testing of the Prime Time intervention is warranted.

  17. Applying Ecodevelopmental Theory and the Theory of Reasoned Action to Understand HIV Risk Behaviors Among Hispanic Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Johis; Huang, Shi; Prado, Guillermo

    2012-01-03

    HIV/AIDS is listed as one of the top 10 reasons for the death of Hispanics between the ages of 15 and 54 in the United States. This cross sectional, descriptive secondary study proposed that using both the systemic (ecodevelopmental) and the individually focused (theory of reasoned action) theories together would lead to an increased understanding of the risk and protective factors that influence HIV risk behaviors in this population. The sample consisted of 493 Hispanic adolescent 7th and 8th graders and their immigrant parents living in Miami, Florida. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used for the data analysis. Family functioning emerged as the heart of the model, embedded within a web of direct and mediated relationships. The data support the idea that family can play a central role in the prevention of Hispanic adolescents' risk behaviors.

  18. Indicators of Victimization and Sexual Orientation Among Adolescents: Analyses From Youth Risk Behavior Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Everett, Bethany G.; Rosario, Margaret; Birkett, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We used nuanced measures of sexual minority status to examine disparities in victimization and their variations by gender, age, and race/ethnicity. Methods. We conducted multivariate analyses of pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. Results. Although all sexual minorities reported more fighting, skipping school because they felt unsafe, and having property stolen or damaged at school than did heterosexuals, rates were highest among youths who identified as bisexual or who reported both male and female sexual partners. Gender differences among sexual minorities appeared to be concentrated among bisexuals and respondents who reported sexual partners of both genders. Sexual minority youths reported more fighting than heterosexual youths, especially at younger ages, and more nonphysical school victimization that persisted through adolescence. White and Hispanic sexual minority youths reported more indicators of victimization than did heterosexuals; we found few sexual minority differences among African American and Asian American youths. Conclusions. Victimization carries health consequences, and sexual minorities are at increased risk. Surveys should include measures that allow tracking of disparities in victimization by sexual minority status. PMID:24328633

  19. Adolescent and young adult vegetarianism: better dietary intake and weight outcomes but increased risk of disordered eating behaviors.

    PubMed

    Robinson-O'Brien, Ramona; Perry, Cheryl L; Wall, Melanie M; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2009-04-01

    Examine characteristics of current and former adolescent and young adult vegetarians and investigate the relationships between vegetarianism, weight, dietary intake, and weight-control behaviors. Cross-sectional analysis using data from a population-based study in Minnesota (Project EAT-II: Eating Among Teens). Participants completed a mailed survey and food frequency questionnaire in 2004. Males and females (n=2,516), ages 15-23 years. Weight status, dietary intake (fruit, vegetables, fat, calories), unhealthful weight-control behaviors. Multiple regression models controlling for socioeconomic status and sex were used to test for significant differences between current, former, and never vegetarians within the younger and older cohort. Participants were identified as current (4.3%), former (10.8%), and never (84.9%) vegetarians. Current vegetarians in the younger and older cohorts had healthier dietary intakes than nonvegetarians with regard to fruits, vegetables, and fat. Among young adults, current vegetarians were less likely than never vegetarians to be overweight or obese. Adolescent and young adult current vegetarians were more likely to report binge eating with loss of control when compared to nonvegetarians. Among adolescents, former vegetarians were more likely than never vegetarians to engage in extreme unhealthful weight-control behaviors. Among young adults, former vegetarians were more likely than current and never vegetarians to engage in extreme unhealthful weight-control behaviors. Adolescent and young adult vegetarians may experience the health benefits associated with increased fruit and vegetable intake and young adults may experience the added benefit of decreased risk for overweight and obesity. However, current vegetarians may be at increased risk for binge eating with loss of control, while former vegetarians may be at increased risk for extreme unhealthful weight-control behaviors. It would be beneficial for clinicians to inquire about

  20. Contextualizing Exposures and Experiences of Behaviors That Influence the Risk of Crash Injury in Latino Adolescent Males

    PubMed Central

    Vaca, Federico E.; Trevino, Sandra; Riera, Antonio; Meyer, Emily; Anderson, Craig L.

    2012-01-01

    The largest proportion of mortality burden for U.S. Latino adolescent males is attributed to motor vehicle crashes. In a traffic safety context, relatively little is known about how these youth regularly interface within their own culture and how developmental factors as well as behavior choices influence their risk of crash injury. This complex sociobehavioral interface has implications for how this group perceives, interprets, and navigates the adolescent period that is coupled with passenger and driver experiences. We conducted a mixed method study with triangulation design inclusive of in-depth ethnically concordant interviews. Purposive sampling was used to select Latino adolescent males (15–18 years old). Validated measures of acculturation, sensation and reward seeking, and threat avoidance were administered. Using a standard discussion guide with prompts, we explored respondents’ perceptions of Latino cultural themes, ideas, attitudes, and experiences regarding passenger and driver safety. Codes were created and defined as concepts emerging from the data in an inductive fashion. Using the constant comparative method, we compared coded text to identify novel themes and expand existing themes until thematic saturation was reached. Despite Latino adolescent males expressing a high value of passenger and driver safety, this did not uniformly manifest in their reports of real-life behaviors. Their experiences reflected a dense frequency of exposure to risky behavior modeling and crash injury risk. Opportunities for Latino youth and family-focused risk reduction skill strategies are plentiful. Further research should explore how culture influences parent perceptions of safety and risk and the extent to which family structure shapes the modeling of risk that their adolescent faces. PMID:23169119

  1. Do Parents Meet Adolescents' Monitoring Standards? Examination of the Impact on Teen Risk Disclosure and Behaviors if They Don't.

    PubMed

    Cottrell, Lesley; Rishel, Carrie; Lilly, Christa; Cottrell, Scott; Metzger, Aaron; Ahmadi, Halima; Wang, Bo; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined how adolescents compare monitoring efforts by their parents to those of a "good parent" standard and assessed the impact of these comparisons on adolescent self-disclosure and risk behavior and their perceptions of their parents' monitoring knowledge. Survey responses from 519 adolescents (12-17 years) at baseline of a larger, longitudinal study examining parental monitoring and adolescent risk were examined. Adolescents' "good parent comparisons" differed greatly by monitoring areas (e.g., telephone use, health, money); however, between 5.5% and 25.8% of adolescents believed their parents needed to monitor their activities more than they currently were monitoring. Alternatively, between 8.5% and 23.8% of adolescents believed their parents needed to monitor their activities less often. These perceptions significantly distinguished adolescents in terms of their level of disclosure, perceived monitoring knowledge, and risk involvement. Adolescents who viewed their parents as needing to monitor more were less likely to disclose information to their parents (p<.001), less likely to perceive their parents as having greater monitoring knowledge (p<.001), and more likely to be involved in a risk behaviors (p<.001) than adolescents who perceived their parents needed no change. Adolescent disclosure to a parent is a powerful predictor of adolescent risk and poor health outcomes. These findings demonstrate that adolescents' comparisons of their parents' monitoring efforts can predict differences in adolescent disclosure and future risk. Obtaining adolescent "good parent" comparisons may successfully identify intervention opportunities with the adolescent and parent by noting the areas of need and direction of monitoring improvement.

  2. Obesity, Dietary Habits, and Sedentary Behaviors Among Adolescents in Sudan: Alarming Risk Factors for Chronic Diseases in a Poor Country.

    PubMed

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Nabag, Fatima O; Al-Mannai, Mariam

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of obesity, dietary habits, and sedentary patterns among Sudanese adolescents. A multistage stratified sampling method was used to select 945 adolescents (507 males and 438 females) aged 14 to 18 years, from Khartoum State, Sudan. A self-reported pretested questionnaire was used to collect the data. Overweight and obesity were determined using the International Obesity Task Force standard, which is based on body mass index for sex and age. Overweight and obesity were growing problems among urban Sudanese adolescents (10.7%). Breakfast was commonly consumed on a daily basis by the majority of adolescents (74.2%), followed by lunch (63.9%) and supper (33.5%). Snacking was not a common practice among these individuals. Vegetables (63.9%) were more frequently consumed (more than 3 days per week) than fruit (30.1%). There were significant differences between genders regarding intake of vegetables (P < .048), chicken (P < .013), dairy products, sweets, nuts, chocolate, and legumes (P < .001 for all). Sedentary behaviors (long duration of television viewing and Internet use) were highly prevalent, and physical activity was rarely practiced (6.8%). The findings indicated that risk factors for diet-related chronic diseases such as unhealthy dietary habits and sedentary behaviors are starting to rise among urban adolescents in Sudan. This creates the need for immediate action to prevent and control these risk factors before these diseases become major public health problems. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Partner violence, power, and gender differences in South African adolescents' HIV/sexually transmitted infections risk behaviors.

    PubMed

    Teitelman, Anne M; Jemmott, John B; Bellamy, Scarlett L; Icard, Larry D; O'Leary, Ann; Heeren, G Anita; Ngwane, Zolani; Ratcliffe, Sarah J

    2016-07-01

    Low relationship power and victimization by intimate partner violence (IPV) have been linked to HIV risks among adult and adolescent women. This article examines associations of IPV and relationship power with sexual-risk behaviors and whether the associations differ by gender among South African adolescents. Sexual-risk behaviors (multiple partners in past 3 months; condom use at last sex), IPV, and relationship power were collected from 786 sexually experienced adolescents (mean age = 16.9) in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, during the 54-month follow-up of a HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk-reduction intervention trial. The data were analyzed with logistic regression models. Adolescent boys were less likely to report condom use at last sex (p = .001) and more likely to report multiple partners (p < .001). A Gender × IPV interaction (p = .002) revealed that as IPV victimization increased, self-reported condom use at last sex decreased among girls, but increased among boys. A Gender × Relationship Power interaction (p = .004) indicated that as relationship power increased, self-reported condom use at last sex increased among girls, but decreased among boys. A Gender × IPV interaction (p = .004) indicated that as IPV victimization increased, self-reports of having multiple partners increased among boys, but not among girls. As relationship power increased, self-reports of having multiple partners decreased irrespective of gender. HIV risk-reduction interventions and policies should address gender differences in sexual-risk consequences of IPV and relationship power among adolescents and promote gender equity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Childhood and Adolescent Sexual Abuse and Subsequent Sexual Risk Behavior: Evidence from Controlled Studies, Methodological Critique, and Suggestions for Research

    PubMed Central

    Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Vanable, Peter A.

    2008-01-01

    Childhood and adolescent sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with a wide variety of adverse psychological and health outcomes, including negative sexual health outcomes. In this paper, we review the literature investigating the relation between CSA and subsequent sexual risk behaviors among men and women. Previous research has found a relatively consistent association between CSA and higher rates of sexual risk behaviors, particularly sex trading, more sexual partners, and an earlier age of first intercourse. However, there are a number of limitations to this research, including lack of a consistent definition of CSA, failure to investigate gender as a moderator, and possible confounding of the CSA experience with some of the sexual behavior outcome variables. Further, although there appears to be an association between CSA and later sexual risk behavior, researchers have not established whether this association is causal. Suggestions for future research and implications for clinical practice are discussed. PMID:18045760

  5. Neural correlates of adolescents' viewing of parents' and peers' emotions: Associations with risk-taking behavior and risky peer affiliations.

    PubMed

    Saxbe, Darby; Del Piero, Larissa; Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Kaplan, Jonas; Margolin, Gayla

    2015-01-01

    Social reorientation from parents to same-age peers is normative in adolescence, but the neural correlates of youths' socioemotional processing of parents and peers have not been explored. In the current study, 22 adolescents (average age 16.98) underwent neuroimaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging) while viewing and rating emotions shown in brief video clips featuring themselves, their parents, or an unfamiliar peer. Viewing self vs. other and parents vs. the peer activated regions in the medial prefrontal cortex, replicating prior findings that this area responds to self-relevant stimuli, including familiar and not just similar others. Viewing the peer compared with parents elicited activation in posterior 'mentalizing' structures, the precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), bilateral posterior superior temporal sulcus and right temporoparietal junction, as well as the ventral striatum and bilateral amygdala and hippocampus. Relative activations in the PCC and precuneus to the peer vs. the parent were related both to reported risk-taking behavior and to affiliations with more risk-taking peers. The results suggest neural correlates of the adolescent social reorientation toward peers and away from parents that may be associated with adolescents' real-life risk-taking behaviors and social relationships.

  6. Adolescent Risk Perception: A View of Risk Taking Behavior By Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Severson, Herb; And Others

    This study employed a psychometric paradigm to explore how young people think about risk. Forty-one high school students were asked to rate 30 activities on 14 characteristics such as personal risk, perceived control over the risk, peer influence, etc. The study also included a questionnaire on actual participation in each of the 30 activities.…

  7. Long-Term Follow-Up of Behavior Modification With High-Risk Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCombs, Dan; And Others

    1978-01-01

    This investigation reports on follow-up information received from past participants of a school-based social learning program designed for problem adolescents. Data resulting from this pilot study fail to conclusively demonstrate the long-term merits of the behavioral program with this population. (Author)

  8. Adolescent Health in North Dakota: Findings of the 1992 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, Stephen L.

    An anonymous survey of health and sexual behavior statistics from adolescents in North Dakota is presented in this document. Seventeen thousand students from North Dakota schools in grades 9-12 participated in the survey. Survey questions were taken from the following categories: (1) safety; (2) suicide; (3) tobacco, alcohol and other drugs; (4)…

  9. Understanding the Sexual Behavior of Adolescents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    Public health officials and educators have a long-standing interest in adolescent sexual behavior and risk prevention-an interest intensified by the...spread of HIV. Unfortunately, understanding of adolescent sexuality is quite limited. Research on adolescent sexual behavior has typically...concentrated on vaginal intercourse. However, adolescents who are virgins (defined as never having had vaginal intercourse) may still be sexually active and may

  10. Sibling influence on mexican-origin adolescents' deviant and sexual risk behaviors: the role of sibling modeling.

    PubMed

    Whiteman, Shawn D; Zeiders, Katharine H; Killoren, Sarah E; Rodriguez, Sue Annie; Updegraff, Kimberly A

    2014-05-01

    A growing body of research indicates that siblings uniquely influence each other's health risk behaviors during adolescence and young adulthood. Mechanisms underlying these associations, however, are largely unknown because they are rarely tested directly. The present study addressed this gap by examining the role of sibling modeling in explaining changes in Mexican-origin youths' deviant and sexual risk behaviors over time. The sample included 380 Mexican-origin siblings (older sibling age: M = 21.18, SD = 1.59; younger sibling age: M = 18.19, SD = .46) from (N = 190) families. Participants provided self-reports of their sibling relationship qualities, including modeling, as well as their engagement in deviant and sexual risk-taking behaviors in two home interviews across a 2-year span. A series of residualized regression models revealed that younger siblings' perceptions of modeling moderated the links between older siblings' deviant and sexual risk behaviors and younger siblings' subsequent behaviors in those same domains. Specifically, high levels of modeling predicted stronger associations between older siblings' earlier and younger siblings' later risk behaviors controlling for younger siblings' earlier behaviors as well as variables that have been used as proxies for social learning in previous research. Social learning mechanisms, especially modeling, are salient processes through which older siblings transmit norms and expectations regarding participation in health risk behaviors. Future research should continue to explore the ways in which siblings influence each other because such processes are emerging targets for intervention and prevention. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Impact of Thai Family Matters on Parent/Adolescent Sexual Risk Communication Attitudes and Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    CUPP, PAMELA K.; ATWOOD, KATHARINE A.; BYRNES, HILARY F.; MILLER, BRENDA A.; FONGKAEW, WARUNEE; CHAMRATRITHIRONG, APHICHAT; RHUCHAROENPORNPANICH, ORRATAI; ROSATI, MICHAEL J.; CHOOKHARE, WARUNEE

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a combined family-based substance abuse and HIV prevention intervention targeting families with children ages 13-14 in Bangkok, Thailand. Families (n=340) were randomly and proportionally selected from seven districts in Bangkok with half randomly assigned to an experimental or control condition. Families in the intervention condition were exposed to five interactive booklets about adolescent substance use and risky sexual behavior. Trained health educators followed up by phone to encourage completion of each booklet. Primary outcomes reported in this paper include whether the intervention increased the frequency of parent/child communication in general or about sexual risk taking in particular as well as whether the intervention reduced discomfort discussing sexual issues. We also tested to see if booklet completion was associated with communication outcomes at the 6-month follow-up. Multivariate findings indicate that the intervention significantly affected the frequency of general parent/child communication based on child reports. The intervention marginally affected frequency of parent/child communication about sexual issues based on parent reports. Booklet completion was associated with reduced discomfort discussing sex and was marginally associated with frequency of parent/child discussion of sex based on parent reports only. These findings indicate that a family-based program can have an impact on communication patterns. PMID:24094085

  12. Interactive video behavioral intervention to reduce adolescent females' STD risk: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Downs, Julie S; Murray, Pamela J; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Penrose, Joyce; Palmgren, Claire; Fischhoff, Baruch

    2004-10-01

    A longitudinal randomized design was used to evaluate the impact of a theoretically based, stand-alone interactive video intervention on 300 urban adolescent girls' (a) knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), (b) self-reported sexual risk behavior, and (c) STD acquisition. It was compared to two controls, representing high-quality informational interventions. One used the same content in book form; the other used commercially available brochures. Following randomization, the interventions were administered at baseline, with booster sessions at 1, 3, and 6 months. Self-reports revealed that those assigned to the interactive video were significantly more likely to be abstinent in the first 3 months following initial exposure to the intervention, and experienced fewer condom failures in the following 3 months, compared to controls. Six months after enrollment, participants in the video condition were significantly less likely to report having been diagnosed with an STD. A non-significant trend in data from a clinical PCR assay of Chlamydia trachomatis was consistent with that finding.

  13. Depression and Anxiety Prevention Based on Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for At-Risk Adolescents: A Meta-Analytic Review.

    PubMed

    Rasing, Sanne P A; Creemers, Daan H M; Janssens, Jan M A M; Scholte, Ron H J

    2017-01-01

    Depression and anxiety disorders are among the most common mental disorders during adolescence. During this life phase, the incidence of these clinical disorders rises dramatically, and even more adolescents suffer from symptoms of depression or anxiety that are just below the clinical threshold. Both clinical and subclinical levels of depression or anxiety symptoms are related to decreased functioning in various areas, such as social and academic functioning. Prevention of depression and anxiety in adolescents is therefore imperative. We conducted a meta-analytic review of the effects of school-based and community-based prevention programs that are based on cognitive behavioral therapy with the primary goal preventing depression, anxiety, or both in high risk adolescents. Articles were obtained by searching databases and hand searching reference lists of relevant articles and reviews. The selection process yielded 32 articles in the meta-analyses. One article reported on two studies and three articles reported on both depression and anxiety. This resulted in a total of 36 studies, 23 on depression and 13 on anxiety. For depression prevention aimed at high risk adolescents, meta-analysis showed a small effect of prevention programs directly after the intervention, but no effect at 3-6 months and at 12 months follow-up. For anxiety prevention aimed at high risk adolescents, no short-term effect was found, nor at 12 months follow-up. Three to six months after the preventive intervention, symptoms of anxiety were significantly decreased. Although effects on depression and anxiety symptoms were small and temporary, current findings cautiously suggest that depression and anxiety prevention programs based on CBT might have small effects on mental health of adolescents. However, it also indicates that there is still much to be gained for prevention programs. Current findings and possibilities for future research are discussed in order to further improve the effectiveness

  14. The Association of Sexual Experience with Attitudes, Beliefs, and Risk Behaviors of Inner-City Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Ellen Johnson; Bauman, Laurie J.

    2006-01-01

    We compared knowledge, attitudes, and demographic characteristics of 630 sexually experienced and 422 inexperienced inner-city adolescents aged 14-17 years. Sexual experience was associated with indicators of risk previously reported in the literature: male gender, older age, single-family home, smoking, drinking, and poorer academic performance.…

  15. Culturally Sensitive Risk Behavior Prevention Programs for African American Adolescents: A Systematic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Isha; Cooper, Shauna M.; Zarrett, Nicole; Flory, Kate

    2013-01-01

    The current review conducted a systematic assessment of culturally sensitive risk prevention programs for African American adolescents. Prevention programs meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were evaluated across several domains: (1) theoretical orientation and foundation; (2) methodological rigor; (3) level of cultural integration; (4)…

  16. Culturally Sensitive Risk Behavior Prevention Programs for African American Adolescents: A Systematic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Isha; Cooper, Shauna M.; Zarrett, Nicole; Flory, Kate

    2013-01-01

    The current review conducted a systematic assessment of culturally sensitive risk prevention programs for African American adolescents. Prevention programs meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were evaluated across several domains: (1) theoretical orientation and foundation; (2) methodological rigor; (3) level of cultural integration; (4)…

  17. The Association of Sexual Experience with Attitudes, Beliefs, and Risk Behaviors of Inner-City Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Ellen Johnson; Bauman, Laurie J.

    2006-01-01

    We compared knowledge, attitudes, and demographic characteristics of 630 sexually experienced and 422 inexperienced inner-city adolescents aged 14-17 years. Sexual experience was associated with indicators of risk previously reported in the literature: male gender, older age, single-family home, smoking, drinking, and poorer academic performance.…

  18. Adolescents' Perspectives on Personalized E-Feedback in the Context of Health Risk Behavior Screening for Primary Care: Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Zieve, Garret G; Richardson, Laura P; Katzman, Katherine; Spielvogle, Heather; Whitehouse, Sandy; McCarty, Carolyn A

    2017-07-20

    Electronic health screening tools for primary care present an opportunity to go beyond data collection to provide education and feedback to adolescents in order to motivate behavior change. However, there is limited research to guide feedback message development. The aim of this study was to explore youth perceptions of and preferences for receiving personalized feedback for multiple health risk behaviors and reinforcement for health promoting behaviors from an electronic health screening tool for primary care settings, using qualitative methodology. In total, 31 adolescents aged 13-18 years completed the screening tool, received the electronic feedback, and subsequently participated in individual, semistructured, qualitative interviews lasting approximately 60 min. Participants were queried about their overall impressions of the tool, perceptions regarding various types of feedback messages, and additional features that would help motivate health behavior change. Using thematic analysis, interview transcripts were coded to identify common themes expressed across participants. Overall, the tool was well-received by participants who perceived it as a way to enhance-but not replace-their interactions with providers. They appreciated receiving nonjudgmental feedback from the tool and responded positively to information regarding the consequences of behaviors, comparisons with peer norms and health guidelines, tips for behavior change, and reinforcement of healthy choices. A small but noteworthy minority of participants dismissed the peer norms as not real or relevant and national guidelines as not valid or reasonable. When prompted for possible adaptations to the tool, adolescents expressed interest in receiving follow-up information, setting health-related goals, tracking their behaviors over time, and communicating with providers electronically between appointments. Adolescents in this qualitative study desired feedback that validates their healthy behavior choices

  19. Risk Behaviors Related to Inter-personal Violence Among School and College-going Adolescents in South Delhi

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rahul; Grover, Vijay L; Chaturvedi, Sanjay

    2008-01-01

    Background: Injuries are a major cause of death and disability among the adolescents in the world. Objective: To study risk behavior related to interpersonal violence amongst school- and college-going adolescents in South Delhi and its epidemiological correlates. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Three schools and two colleges in South Delhi. Participants: Five hundred and fifty adolescents aged 14-19 years. Statistical Analysis: Proportions, Chi-square test, multivariate logistic regression. Results: Among the study participants, 65 (11.8%) reported having carried a weapon in past 30 days. Seventy-four (13.5%) respondents had threatened or injured someone with a weapon in past 12 months. Almost one in every two boys (49.1%) reported being involved in a physical fight in past 12 months. Involvement in interpersonal violence was found to be significantly more amongst males than females. Adolescents who were working part time were more likely to be ‘at risk’ (67.5%) than those not working (48.5%). In logistic regression analysis, the significant correlates of interpersonal violence were male gender, lower age, number of close friends, having seen role models smoke/drink, and residing in resettlement colonies, slums or villages. The findings regarding violence-related behaviors among adolescents are remarkably similar to those in other countries. PMID:19967030

  20. “Sexting” and its relation to sexual activity and sexual risk behavior in a national survey of adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ybarra, Michele L.; Mitchell, Kimberly J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the relation between “sexting,” (sending and sharing sexual photos online via text messaging and in-person) with sexual risk behaviors and psychosocial challenge in adolescence. Methods Data were collected online between 2010 and 2011 with 3,715 randomly selected 13- to 18-year-old youth across the United States. Results Seven percent of youth reported sending or showing someone sexual pictures of themselves, where they were nude or nearly nude, online, via text messaging, or in-person, during the past year. Although females and older youth were more likely to share sexual photos than males and younger youth, the profile of psychosocial challenge and sexual behavior was similar for all youth. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, sharing sexual photos was associated with all types of sexual behaviors assessed (e.g., oral sex, vaginal sex) as well as some of the risky sexual behaviors examined—particularly having concurrent sexual partners and having more past-year sexual partners. Adolescents who shared sexual photos also were more likely to use substances and less likely to have high self-esteem than their demographically similar peers. Conclusions While the media has portrayed “sexting” as a problem caused by new technology, health professionals may be more effective by approaching it as an aspect of adolescent sexual development and exploration and, in some cases, risk-taking and psychosocial challenge. PMID:25266148

  1. Beliefs and attitudes of male and female adolescents and the risk of smoking behavior

    PubMed Central

    Kasim, K; Al-Zalabani, A; Abd El-Moneim, ES; Amer, S

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adolescent smoking relates to numerous risk factors, of which beliefs and attitudes toward smoking may play a role. The study aimed to investigate the association between beliefs and attitudes and the risk of adolescent smoking. Materials and Methods: In a school-based cross-sectional study, 3,400 students were recruited from 34 intermediate and secondary schools in Madinah City, Al Madinah Region, Saudi Arabia. Data about sociodemographics, smoking-related factors, and beliefs and attitudes toward smoking were collected using a valid and reliable self-administered questionnaire. Prevalence of smoking was estimated and the studied beliefs and attitudes were compared by smoking status and sex using appropriate statistical analyses including multivariate logistic regression. Results: Of the 3,322 respondents, 33.02% (38.9% males and 26.4% females) were current smokers. Beliefs and attitudes toward smoking significantly differed between smokers and nonsmokers in the studied male and female students. The adjusted risk of smoking was significantly increased among female adolescents who believed that male smokers were more attractive [odds ratio (OR) = 2.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.6-2.9] and among male smokers who believed that female smokers are more attractive (OR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.2-2.2). The risk was also increased among all adolescents who believed that smoking lent comfort in social gatherings. Belief that smoking is harmful, however, was negatively associated with the risk of smoking, particularly among females (OR = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.35-0.91). Conclusions: The study revealed a considerable high prevalence of smoking among male and female adolescents. Addressing the beliefs and knowledge about smoking during childhood is crucial in any antismoking program. PMID:27089105

  2. Spirituality & Religiosity as Factors in Adolescents' Risk for Anti-Social Behaviors and Use of Resilient Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langehough, Steven O.; Walters, Connor; Knox, David; Rowley, Michael

    Current literature indicates the positive effect of a spiritual or religious orientation on recovery from alcohol abuse, drug addiction, codependency, and child sexual abuse, and as a personal control against deviant behavior in adolescents. Yet spiritual resources have been underutilized not only in prevention but in intervention programs. This…

  3. Associations of participation in service activities with academic, behavioral, and civic outcomes of adolescents at varying risk levels.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jennifer A; Shumow, Lee; Kackar, Hayal Z

    2012-07-01

    Youth who participate in service activities differ from those who do not on a number of key demographic characteristics like socio-economic status and other indicators of risk; and most studies demonstrating positive outcomes among service participants employ small non-representative samples. Thus, there is little evidence as to whether the outcomes associated with service participation are similar among students with varying levels of risk. The National Household Education Survey of 1999, a large nationally representative cross-sectional data set that focused on community service, was analyzed to investigate associations between the risk status of 4,306 adolescent students (50.2% female; 63.3% European American, M age = 15.9), their participation in community service, and their academic adjustment, behavioral problems, and civic knowledge. Because adolescents who participate in service differ from those who do not with respect to demographic characteristics, propensity score analyses were used to correct for potential selection bias in the examination of these relationships. Analyses tested competing theoretical models of service-protective versus compensatory-among students at varying levels of risk, and suggested that service acts as a compensatory factor with respect to academic, behavioral, and civic outcomes. Propensity score analyses revealed patterns suggesting that, in some cases, students with certain demographic profiles that are themselves related to the likelihood of service participation may benefit from service participation more than others. Findings are discussed in terms of their significance for adolescent development, for planning service programs, and for educational policy.

  4. Identifying principal risk factors for the initiation of adolescent smoking behaviors: the significance of psychological reactance.

    PubMed

    Miller, Claude H; Burgoon, Michael; Grandpre, Joseph R; Alvaro, Eusebio M

    2006-01-01

    An in-school youth survey for a major state anti-tobacco media campaign was conducted with 1,831 students (Grades 6-12) from 70 randomly selected classrooms throughout the state. Tobacco users accounted for nearly 25% of the sample. Pretest questionnaires assessed demographic variables, tobacco use, and various other risk factors. Several predictors of adolescents' susceptibility to tobacco use, including prior experimentation with tobacco, school performance, parental smoking status, parents' level of education, parental communication, parental relationship satisfaction, best friend's smoking status, prevalence of smokers in social environment, self-perceived potential to smoke related to peer pressure, and psychological reactance, were examined using discriminant analysis and logistic regression to identify the factors most useful in classifying adolescents as either high-risk or low-risk for smoking uptake. Results corroborate findings in the prevention literature indicating that age, prior experimentation, and having friends who smoke are among the principal predictors of smoking risk. New evidence is presented indicating that psychological reactance also should be considered as an important predictor of adolescent smoking initiation. The utility of producing antismoking messages informed by an awareness of the key risk factors-particularly psychological reactance-is discussed both in terms of the targeting and design of anti-tobacco campaigns.

  5. Mexican-Origin Youth's Risk Behavior from Adolescence to Young Adulthood: The Role of Familism Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Lorey A.; Zeiders, Katharine H.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Rodríguez de Jesús, Sue A.; Perez-Brena, Norma J.

    2017-01-01

    Engagement in risk behavior has implications for individuals' academic achievement, health, and well-being, yet there is a paucity of developmental research on the role of culturally relevant strengths in individual and family differences in risk behavior involvement among ethnic minority youth. In this study, we used a longitudinal…

  6. Adolescent gambling and coping within a generalized high-risk behavior framework.

    PubMed

    van Hamel, Anton; Derevensky, Jeffrey; Takane, Yoshio; Dickson, Laurie; Gupta, Rina

    2007-12-01

    Data were collected for 1998 middle/high-school students in Ontario to assess involvement in gambling, substance use, and generalized risky behavior. To predict these outcomes, measures for anxiety, family cohesion, and coping style were also administered. Three a-priori models were posited to account for the impact of risk factors, protective factors, and combined risk/protective factors on the development of risky behaviors. A high-risk cohort composed of subjects endorsing at least one risky behavior (gambling, substance use, or generalized risky behavior) within the clinical range was created to test an unobserved outcome variable created from all three measures of risky behavior, which was successfully predicted by two of the three a-priori models. Implications for the inclusion of gambling within a constellation of high-risk behaviors and recommendations for future prevention efforts are discussed.

  7. The Relationship between Smoking and Unhealthy Weight Control Behaviors among Korean Adolescents: The Tenth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, 2014.

    PubMed

    Sim, Won Yong; Cho, Young Gyu; Kang, Jae Heon; Park, Hyun Ah; Kim, Kyoung Woo; Hur, Yang Im; Shin, Koh Eun; Byeon, Gyeong Ran

    2017-01-01

    Adolescent smoking is positively related to weight control attempts, especially by unhealthy methods. The co-occurrence of smoking and unhealthy weight control behaviors may cause serious health problems in adolescents. This study examined the relationship of smoking with unhealthy weight control behaviors among Korean adolescents. This cross-sectional study involved 31,090 students of grades 7 to 12, who had tried to reduce or maintain their weight during the 30 days prior to The Tenth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, 2014. Data on height, weight, weight control methods, smoking, alcohol intake, living with one's family, and perceived economic status were obtained through self-report questionnaires. 'Unhealthy weight control behaviors' were subcategorized into 'extreme weight control behaviors' and 'less extreme weight control behaviors.' The smoking rates were 13.3%±0.4% in boys and 3.8%±0.2% in girls. Current smokers were more likely to engage in extreme weight control behaviors (odds ratio [OR], 1.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09 to 2.00 in boys, and OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.59 to 2.65 in girls) and less extreme weight control behaviors (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.40 in boys, and OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.22 to 1.76 in girls) compared to non-smokers among both boys and girls. Current smoking is independently related to a high likelihood of engaging in unhealthy weight control behaviors among Korean adolescents. This relationship is stronger for girls than for boys. Extreme weight control behaviors have a stronger relationship with current smoking than less extreme weight control behaviors.

  8. The effects of racial discrimination on the HIV-risk cognitions and behaviors of Black adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Stock, Michelle L; Peterson, Laurel M; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg

    2013-05-01

    Two studies examined the impact of racial discrimination on HIV-risk (substance use and risky sex) behaviors (Study 1) and cognitions (Study 2) among African Americans. Study 1 examined longer-term effects of cumulative discrimination on HIV-risk behaviors among 833 adolescents. In Study 2, Black young adults were excluded or included in an online game (Cyberball) by White peers. Study 1 revealed that discrimination was associated with greater HIV-risk behaviors contemporaneously, and with an increase in these behaviors over a 3-year period. In Study 2, excluded participants tended to attribute their exclusion to racial discrimination and reported greater risky sex and substance use willingness. In Study 1, the relation between discrimination and risky sex was mediated by substance use behavior. In Study 2, substance use willingness mediated the relation between perceived discrimination and risky sex willingness. Findings highlight the importance of examining the effects of discrimination on HIV risk among Black youth. The studies also demonstrate the utility of assessing social-psychological processes when examining the effects of discrimination on HIV-risk cognitions and behavior. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) State-of-the-Science Conference on Preventing Violence and Related Health-Risking Social Behaviors in Adolescents--A Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    Although youth in the United States remain substantially more violent than adolescents and young adults in most industrial countries, the National Institutes of Health's (NIH) State-of-the-Science Conference on Preventing Violence and Related Health-Risking Social Behaviors in Adolescents identified many reasons for optimism about our capacity to…

  10. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) State-of-the-Science Conference on Preventing Violence and Related Health-Risking Social Behaviors in Adolescents--A Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    Although youth in the United States remain substantially more violent than adolescents and young adults in most industrial countries, the National Institutes of Health's (NIH) State-of-the-Science Conference on Preventing Violence and Related Health-Risking Social Behaviors in Adolescents identified many reasons for optimism about our capacity to…

  11. Maternal Mind-Mindedness Provides a Buffer for Pre-Adolescents at Risk for Disruptive Behavior.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Claire; Aldercotte, Amanda; Foley, Sarah

    2017-02-01

    Maternal mind-mindedness, defined as the propensity to view one's child as an agent with independent thoughts and feelings, mitigates the impact of low maternal education on conduct problems in young children (Meins et al. 2013), but has been little studied beyond the preschool years. Addressing this gap, we applied a multi-measure and multi-informant approach to assess family adversity and disruptive behavior at age 12 for a socially diverse sample of 116 children for whom ratings of disruptive behavior at age 6 were available. Each mother was asked to describe her child and transcripts of these five-minute speech samples were coded for (i) mind-mindedness (defined by the proportion of child attributes that were mental rather than physical or behavioral) and (ii) positivity (defined by the proportion of child attributes that were positive rather than neutral or negative). Our regression results showed that, independent of associations with prior adjustment, family adversity, child gender and low maternal monitoring, mothers' mind-mindedness (but not positivity) predicted unique variance in disruptive behavior at age 12. In addition, a trend interaction term provided partial support for the hypothesis that pre-adolescents exposed to family adversity may benefit in particular from maternal mind-mindedness. We discuss the possible mechanisms underpinning these findings and their implications for clinical interventions to reduce disruptive behavior in adolescence.

  12. The influence of school-based natural mentoring relationships on school attachment and subsequent adolescent risk behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Black, David S.; Grenard, Jerry L.; Sussman, Steve; Rohrbach, Louise A.

    2010-01-01

    A relatively new area of research suggests that naturally occurring mentoring relationships may influence the development of adolescents by protecting against risk behaviors. Few studies have explored how these relationships function to reduce risk behavior among youth, especially in the school context. Based on previous research and theory, we proposed and tested a mediation model, which hypothesized that school attachment mediated the longitudinal association between school-based natural mentoring relationships and risk behaviors, including eight indicators of substance use and violence. Students (N = 3320) from 65 high schools across eight states completed a self-report questionnaire at baseline and 1-year follow-up. The sample was comprised of youth with an average age of 14.8 years and an almost equal percentage of females (53%) and males from various ethnic backgrounds. Tests for mediation were conducted in Mplus using path analysis with full information maximum likelihood procedures and models adjusted for demographic covariates and baseline level of the dependent variable. Results suggested that natural mentoring relationships had a protective indirect influence on all eight risk behaviors through its positive association on the school attachment mediator. Implications are discussed for strengthening the association between school-based natural mentoring and school attachment to prevent risk behaviors among youth. PMID:20675354

  13. The influence of school-based natural mentoring relationships on school attachment and subsequent adolescent risk behaviors.

    PubMed

    Black, David S; Grenard, Jerry L; Sussman, Steve; Rohrbach, Louise A

    2010-10-01

    A relatively new area of research suggests that naturally occurring mentoring relationships may influence the development of adolescents by protecting against risk behaviors. Few studies have explored how these relationships function to reduce risk behavior among youth, especially in the school context. Based on previous research and theory, we proposed and tested a mediation model, which hypothesized that school attachment mediated the longitudinal association between school-based natural mentoring relationships and risk behaviors, including eight indicators of substance use and violence. Students (N = 3320) from 65 high schools across eight states completed a self-report questionnaire at baseline and 1-year follow-up. The sample was comprised of youth with an average age of 14.8 years and an almost equal percentage of females (53%) and males from various ethnic backgrounds. Tests for mediation were conducted in Mplus using path analysis with full information maximum likelihood procedures and models adjusted for demographic covariates and baseline level of the dependent variable. Results suggested that natural mentoring relationships had a protective indirect influence on all eight risk behaviors through its positive association on the school attachment mediator. Implications are discussed for strengthening the association between school-based natural mentoring and school attachment to prevent risk behaviors among youth.

  14. The power of aspirations and expectations: the connection between educational goals and risk behaviors among African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Chris M; Lewis, Rhonda K; Lee, Felecia A; Stowell, David

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies and interventions have been designed to either reduce the prevalence of risky behaviors (substance use, sexual activity, etc.) or increase the level of educational activity for adolescents. Research suggests that these two constructs may be related yet little is known about this relationship among African American youth. Archival data from the Risk Reduction Project was used to explore the connection between the protective factors of educational aspirations/expectations and recent participation in risky behavior. Results suggest that recent use of marijuana, alcohol to the point of intoxication, and sexual activity predicted lower aspirations and expectations among African American youth. From a positive youth development perspective, this study suggests the development of holistic interventions that build educational assets in youth, in addition to working to minimize risk behaviors. Limitations and suggestions for future research are also discussed.

  15. Sexual experience among emotionally and behaviorally disordered students in therapeutic day schools: an ecological examination of adolescent risk.

    PubMed

    Donenberg, Geri R; Emerson, Erin; Brown, Larry K; Houck, Christopher; Mackesy-Amiti, Mary Ellen

    2012-09-01

    This study examined gender differences in family, peer, partner, and mental health characteristics related to sexual experience among emotionally and behaviorally disordered students in therapeutic day schools, a population at elevated risk for negative sexual health outcomes. A total of 417 13- to 20-year-old adolescents reported on their family functioning, peer and partner relationship characteristics, mental health problems, and self-reported sexual behavior. For boys and girls, peer influence and conduct problems predicted sexual experience, and family dysfunction was related to negative peer influence. Greater rejection sensitivity was related to less sexual experience for boys and girls. The final path model revealed indirect effects of family dysfunction on boys' but not girls' sexual experiences. Findings underscore the utility of an ecological approach to understand social and personal mechanisms that increase risk and mitigate negative outcomes among emotionally and behaviorally disordered boys and girls in therapeutic day schools.

  16. Sexual Experience Among Emotionally and Behaviorally Disordered Students in Therapeutic Day Schools: An Ecological Examination of Adolescent Risk

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, Erin; Brown, Larry K.; Houck, Christopher; Mackesy-Amiti, Mary Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study examined gender differences in family, peer, partner, and mental health characteristics related to sexual experience among emotionally and behaviorally disordered students in therapeutic day schools, a population at elevated risk for negative sexual health outcomes. Methods A total of 417 13- to 20-year-old adolescents reported on their family functioning, peer and partner relationship characteristics, mental health problems, and self-reported sexual behavior. Results For boys and girls, peer influence and conduct problems predicted sexual experience, and family dysfunction was related to negative peer influence. Greater rejection sensitivity was related to less sexual experience for boys and girls. The final path model revealed indirect effects of family dysfunction on boys’ but not girls’ sexual experiences. Conclusions Findings underscore the utility of an ecological approach to understand social and personal mechanisms that increase risk and mitigate negative outcomes among emotionally and behaviorally disordered boys and girls in therapeutic day schools. PMID:22467883

  17. Associations between obesity, adverse behavioral patterns and cardiovascular risk factors among adolescent inhabitants of a Greek island.

    PubMed

    Garoufi, Anastasia; Grammatikos, Evangelos E; Kollias, Anastasios; Grammatikos, Emmanuel; Stergiou, George S; Soldatou, Alexandra

    2017-04-01

    Excess weight, unhealthy lifestyle habits and their sequelae have become a well-recognized public health problem in most countries. The objective of the study was to examine the relationship of adolescent overweight/obesity with behavioral habits and their association with blood pressure (BP) and lipid profile. Anthropometric parameters, lifestyle, BP and lipid profile of 736 adolescents were evaluated cross-sectionally. The classifications of normal weight, overweight and obese were based on BMI z-scores. About 42.1% of adolescents were overweight/obese, 11.3% were smokers, 33.2% consumed alcohol and 34% reported low activity. Males began smoking earlier, consumed alcohol more often, exercised less and spent more screen time than females. Alcohol consumption was more prevalent among smokers and was associated with higher BP and dyslipidemia. Smokers exercised less intensely and had lower high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) than non-smokers. Obesity was a risk factor for higher BP and dyslipidemia. Longer screen time was associated with higher triglycerides, while intense physical activity with lower systolic BP. Obesity is related to an adverse lipid and BP profile during adolescence. Clustering of hazardous habits was observed, which is known to aggravate the cardiovascular risk.

  18. [Non-linear System Dynamics Simulation Modeling of Adolescent Obesity: Using Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey].

    PubMed

    Lee, Hanna; Park, Eun Suk; Yu, Jae Kook; Yun, Eun Kyoung

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a system dynamics model for adolescent obesity in Korea that could be used for obesity policy analysis. On the basis of the casual loop diagram, a model was developed by converting to stock and flow diagram. The Vensim DSS 5.0 program was used in the model development. We simulated method of moments to the calibration of this model with data from The Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey 2005 to 2013. We ran the scenario simulation. This model can be used to understand the current adolescent obesity rate, predict the future obesity rate, and be utilized as a tool for controlling the risk factors. The results of the model simulation match well with the data. It was identified that a proper model, able to predict obesity probability, was established. These results of stock and flow diagram modeling in adolescent obesity can be helpful in development of obesity by policy planners and other stakeholders to better anticipate the multiple effects of interventions in both the short and the long term. In the future we suggest the development of an expanded model based on this adolescent obesity model.

  19. Applying Ecodevelopmental Theory and the Theory of Reasoned Action to Understand HIV Risk Behaviors Among Hispanic Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Johis; Huang, Shi; Prado, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    HIV/AIDS is listed as one of the top 10 reasons for the death of Hispanics between the ages of 15 and 54 in the United States. This cross sectional, descriptive secondary study proposed that using both the systemic (ecodevelopmental) and the individually focused (theory of reasoned action) theories together would lead to an increased understanding of the risk and protective factors that influence HIV risk behaviors in this population. The sample consisted of 493 Hispanic adolescent 7th and 8th graders and their immigrant parents living in Miami, Florida. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used for the data analysis. Family functioning emerged as the heart of the model, embedded within a web of direct and mediated relationships. The data support the idea that family can play a central role in the prevention of Hispanic adolescents’ risk behaviors. PMID:23152718

  20. Orphan Status, HIV Risk Behavior, and Mental Health Among Adolescents in Rural Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Drabkin, Anya S.; Stashko, Allison L.; Broverman, Sherryl A.; Ogwang-Odhiambo, Rose A.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine orphan status, mental health, social support, and HIV risk among adolescents in rural Kenya. Methods Randomly selected adolescents aged 10–18 years completed surveys assessing sexual activity, sex-related beliefs and self-efficacy, mental health, social support, caregiver–child communication, time since parental death, and economic resources. Analysis of covariance and regression analyses compared orphans and nonorphans; orphan status was tested as a moderator between well-being and HIV risk. Results Orphans reported poorer mental health, less social support, and fewer material resources. They did not differ from nonorphans on HIV risk indicators. Longer time since parental death was associated with poorer outcomes. In moderator analyses, emotional problems and poorer caregiver–youth communication were more strongly associated with lower sex-related self-efficacy for orphans. Conclusions Orphans are at higher risk for psychosocial problems. These problems may affect orphans’ self-efficacy for safer sex practices more than nonorphans. Decreased HIV risk could be one benefit of psychosocial interventions for orphans. PMID:22728899

  1. Family Sources of Sexual Health Information, Primary Messages, and Sexual Behavior of At-Risk, Urban Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Rosengard, Cynthia; Tannis, Candace; Dove, David C.; van den Berg, Jacob J.; Lopez, Rosalie; Stein, L. A. R.; Morrow, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sources of sexual health information exert strong influence on adolescents’ sexual behavior. Purpose The current study was undertaken to understand how family serve as sexual information sources, the messages adolescents recall from family, and how family learning experiences affect sexual behavior among at-risk adolescents. Methods Individual interviews were conducted with 69 teens, ages 15–18 years, from an alternative high school and a juvenile correctional facility to capture adolescents’ early sexual health learning experiences involving family and evaluate their association with teens’ recent sexual behavior. Sexual learning narratives were compared among gender and sexual experience groups. Results Many participants identified family as sexual health information sources. Primary messages recalled: risks of sex, protection, and relationship advice. Many adolescents portrayed learning experiences as negative, cautionary, lacking detail and not always balanced with positive messages. Participants who reported four or more sexual risks were the only group to identify pornography as a sexual health information source. Participants who reported fewer than four sexual risks were most likely to identify family sexual health information sources. Discussion Participants identified family members as sources of sexual health information, with variations by gender. Negative/cautionary messages require teens to seek additional sexual information elsewhere (primarily friends/media). Males, in particular, appear to often lack familial guidance/education. Translation to Health Education Practice Sexual health messages should be tailored to adolescents’ needs for practical and sex-positive guidance regarding mechanics of sex and formation of healthy relationships, and balanced with cautions regarding negative consequences. PMID:27882190

  2. Youth Assets and Sexual Risk Behavior: Differences between Male and Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Trisha; Gavin, Lorrie; Oman, Roy; Vesely, Sara; Aspy, Cheryl; Tolma, Eleni; Rodine, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Youth internal assets and external resources are protective factors that can help youth avoid potentially harmful behaviors. This study investigates how the relationship between youth assets or resources and two sexual risk behaviors (ever had sex and birth control use) varied by gender. Data were collected through in-home interviews from…

  3. Alcohol Use and HIV Risk Behaviors among Rural Adolescents in Khanh Hoa Province Viet Nam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaljee, L. M.; Genberg, B. L.; Minh, T. T.; Tho, L. H.; Thoa, L. T. K.; Stanton, B.

    2005-01-01

    Research suggests that youth are consuming more alcohol and at younger ages than in the past. Data also indicate that alcohol consumption is associated with participation in other risk behaviors including aggression and sexual behaviors. As part of a randomized control effectiveness trial for an HIV prevention program, 480 Vietnamese youth (15-20…

  4. Youth Assets and Sexual Risk Behavior: Differences between Male and Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Trisha; Gavin, Lorrie; Oman, Roy; Vesely, Sara; Aspy, Cheryl; Tolma, Eleni; Rodine, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Youth internal assets and external resources are protective factors that can help youth avoid potentially harmful behaviors. This study investigates how the relationship between youth assets or resources and two sexual risk behaviors (ever had sex and birth control use) varied by gender. Data were collected through in-home interviews from…

  5. Alcohol Use and HIV Risk Behaviors among Rural Adolescents in Khanh Hoa Province Viet Nam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaljee, L. M.; Genberg, B. L.; Minh, T. T.; Tho, L. H.; Thoa, L. T. K.; Stanton, B.

    2005-01-01

    Research suggests that youth are consuming more alcohol and at younger ages than in the past. Data also indicate that alcohol consumption is associated with participation in other risk behaviors including aggression and sexual behaviors. As part of a randomized control effectiveness trial for an HIV prevention program, 480 Vietnamese youth (15-20…

  6. War-related trauma exposure and multiple risk behaviors among school-going adolescents in Northern Uganda: the mediating role of depression symptoms.

    PubMed

    Okello, James; Nakimuli-Mpungu, Etheldreda; Musisi, Seggane; Broekaert, Eric; Derluyn, Ilse

    2013-11-01

    The relationship between war-related trauma exposure, depressive symptoms and multiple risk behaviors among adolescents is less clear in sub-Saharan Africa. We analyzed data collected from a sample of school-going adolescents four years postwar. Participants completed interviews assessing various risk behaviors defined by the Youth Self Report (YSR) and a sexual risk behavior survey, and were screened for post-traumatic stress, anxiety and depression symptoms based on the Impact of Events Scale Revised (IESR) and Hopkins Symptom Checklist for Adolescents (HSCL-37A) respectively. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess factors independently associated with multiple risk behaviors. The logistic regression model of Baron and Kenny (1986) was used to evaluate the mediating role of depression in the relationship between stressful war events and multiple risk behaviors. Of 551 participants, 139 (25%) reported multiple (three or more) risk behaviors in the past year. In the multivariate analyses, depression symptoms remained uniquely associated with multiple risk behavior after adjusting for potential confounders including socio-demographic characteristics, war-related trauma exposure variables, anxiety and post-traumatic stress symptoms. In mediation analysis, depression symptoms mediated the associations between stressful war events and multiple risk behaviors. The psychometric properties of the questionnaires used in this study are not well established in war affected African samples thus ethno cultural variation may decrease the validity of our measures. Adolescents with depression may be at a greater risk of increased engagement in multiple risk behaviors. Culturally sensitive and integrated interventions to treat and prevent depression among adolescents in post-conflict settings are urgently needed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Reliability and Validity of the Youth Version of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART-Y) in the Assessment of Risk-Taking Behavior among Inner-City Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lejuez, C. W.; Aklin, Will; Daughters, Stacey; Zvolensky, Michael; Kahler, Christopher; Gwadz, Marya

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of the youth version of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART-Y) for assessing adolescent risk behaviors among a sample of 98 inner-city African American adolescents (M age = 14.8, SD = 1.5). In addition to a relation with sensation seeking, BART-Y responding evidenced a significant relation with a…

  8. Communication About HIV and Risk Behaviors Among Mothers Living With HIV and Their Early Adolescent Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Lucia F.; Dolezal, Curtis; Brackis-Cott, Elizabeth; Traeger, Lara; Mellins, Claude A.

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about how mothers living with HIV communicate to their children about HIV risk. The current study explored communication between mothers and children about prevention and risk behaviors, the impact of maternal HIV infection and child knowledge of HIV, and concordance in reports from mothers and their children. The sample comprised…

  9. Sexual Behavior of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Hilmar

    1978-01-01

    Confined to discussion of heterosexual activities, this article examines adolescent sexual behavior in terms of promiscuity; the search for a sexual behavior code; the impact of the media; and the influence of peer groups, religious identification, and the adult double standard. (JC)

  10. Adolescents' Demonstrative Behavior Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parfilova, Gulfiya G.; Karimova, Lilia Sh.

    2016-01-01

    The problem of demonstrative behavior is very topical among teenagers and this issue has become the subject of systematic scientific research. Demonstrative manifestations in adolescents disrupt the favorable socialization; therefore, understanding, prevention and correction of demonstrative behavior at this age is relevant and requires special…

  11. Risk Factors Associated with Peer Victimization and Bystander Behaviors among Adolescent Students

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zepeng; Liu, Zhenni; Liu, Xiangxiang; Lv, Laiwen; Zhang, Yan; Ou, Limin; Li, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of the phenomena of peer victimization and bystander behaviors, little data has generated to describe their relationships and risk factors. In this paper, a self-administered survey using a cross-sectional cluster-random sampling method in a sample of 5450 participants (2734 girls and 2716 boys) between 4th and 11th grades was conducted at six schools (two primary schools and four middle schools) located in Shantou, China. Self-reported peer victimization, bystander behaviors and information regarding parents’ risky behaviors and individual behavioral factors were collected. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was applied to evaluate risk factors affecting peer victimization and bystander behaviors. The results indicated that urban participants were more likely to become bullying victims but less likely to become passive bystanders. Contrarily, bullying victimization was related to the increasing of passive bystander behaviors. Father drinking and mother smoking as independent factors were risk factors for peer victimization. Participants who were smoking or drinking had a tendency to be involved in both peer victimization and passive bystander behaviors. This study suggested that bystander behaviors, victims’ and parents’ educations play a more important role in peer victimization than previously thought. PMID:27472354

  12. Risk Factors Associated with Peer Victimization and Bystander Behaviors among Adolescent Students.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zepeng; Liu, Zhenni; Liu, Xiangxiang; Lv, Laiwen; Zhang, Yan; Ou, Limin; Li, Liping

    2016-07-27

    Despite the prevalence of the phenomena of peer victimization and bystander behaviors, little data has generated to describe their relationships and risk factors. In this paper, a self-administered survey using a cross-sectional cluster-random sampling method in a sample of 5450 participants (2734 girls and 2716 boys) between 4th and 11th grades was conducted at six schools (two primary schools and four middle schools) located in Shantou, China. Self-reported peer victimization, bystander behaviors and information regarding parents' risky behaviors and individual behavioral factors were collected. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was applied to evaluate risk factors affecting peer victimization and bystander behaviors. The results indicated that urban participants were more likely to become bullying victims but less likely to become passive bystanders. Contrarily, bullying victimization was related to the increasing of passive bystander behaviors. Father drinking and mother smoking as independent factors were risk factors for peer victimization. Participants who were smoking or drinking had a tendency to be involved in both peer victimization and passive bystander behaviors. This study suggested that bystander behaviors, victims' and parents' educations play a more important role in peer victimization than previously thought.

  13. Associations between Forced Sexual Initiation, HIV Status, Sexual Risk Behavior, Life Stressors, and Coping Strategies among Adolescents in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Some individuals experience their first sexual intercourse through physically forced sex, which affects the way they experience and cope with stress. We examined differences in sexual risk behavior, experience of stressors, and use of stress-coping strategies among adolescents in Nigeria based on their history of forced sexual initiation and HIV status. Methods We analyzed data from 436 sexually active 10–19-year-old adolescents recruited through a population-based survey from 12 Nigerian states. Using Lazarus and Folkman’s conceptual framework of stress and coping, we assessed if adolescents who reported forced sexual initiation were more likely to report HIV sexual risk practices, to report as stressors events related to social expectations, medical care and body images, and loss and grief, and to use more avoidance than adaptive coping strategies to manage stress. We also assessed if HIV status affected experience of stressors and use of coping strategies. Results Eighty-one adolescents (18.6%) reported a history of forced sexual initiation; these participants were significantly more likely to report anal sex practices (OR: 5.04; 95% CI: 2.14–11.87), and transactional sex (OR: 2.80; 95% CI: 1.56–4.95). Adolescents with no history of forced sexual initiation were more likely to identify as stressors, life events related to social expectations (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.96–1.11) and loss and grief (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 0.73–2.65), but not those related to medical care and body images (OR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.34–1.18). They were also more likely to use adaptive responses (OR: 1.48; 95% CI: 0.62–3.50) than avoidance responses (OR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.49–1.64) to cope with stress, though these differences were not significant. More adolescents with a history of forced sexual initiation who were HIV positive identified as stressors, life events related to medical care and body images (p = 0.03) and loss and grief (p = 0.009). Adolescents reporting forced

  14. Associations between Forced Sexual Initiation, HIV Status, Sexual Risk Behavior, Life Stressors, and Coping Strategies among Adolescents in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin; Harrison, Abigail; Brown, Brandon; Odetoyinbo, Morolake; Stockman, Jamila K; Ajuwon, Ademola J; Cáceres, Carlos F

    2016-01-01

    Some individuals experience their first sexual intercourse through physically forced sex, which affects the way they experience and cope with stress. We examined differences in sexual risk behavior, experience of stressors, and use of stress-coping strategies among adolescents in Nigeria based on their history of forced sexual initiation and HIV status. We analyzed data from 436 sexually active 10-19-year-old adolescents recruited through a population-based survey from 12 Nigerian states. Using Lazarus and Folkman's conceptual framework of stress and coping, we assessed if adolescents who reported forced sexual initiation were more likely to report HIV sexual risk practices, to report as stressors events related to social expectations, medical care and body images, and loss and grief, and to use more avoidance than adaptive coping strategies to manage stress. We also assessed if HIV status affected experience of stressors and use of coping strategies. Eighty-one adolescents (18.6%) reported a history of forced sexual initiation; these participants were significantly more likely to report anal sex practices (OR: 5.04; 95% CI: 2.14-11.87), and transactional sex (OR: 2.80; 95% CI: 1.56-4.95). Adolescents with no history of forced sexual initiation were more likely to identify as stressors, life events related to social expectations (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.96-1.11) and loss and grief (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 0.73-2.65), but not those related to medical care and body images (OR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.34-1.18). They were also more likely to use adaptive responses (OR: 1.48; 95% CI: 0.62-3.50) than avoidance responses (OR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.49-1.64) to cope with stress, though these differences were not significant. More adolescents with a history of forced sexual initiation who were HIV positive identified as stressors, life events related to medical care and body images (p = 0.03) and loss and grief (p = 0.009). Adolescents reporting forced sexual initiation and HIV-negative status were

  15. Looking to the future, working on the present. Intention to donate blood and risk behavior: A study on adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sara, Alfieri; Vincenzo, Saturni; Elena, Marta

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of this work was to investigate adolescents’ propensity to donate blood, the incidence in this population of risk behaviors that limit and restrict the potential for blood donation, thus reducing the number of possible subjects suitable for donation, and the link between propensity to donate and healthy lifestyles. Materials and Methods: Adolescents were asked to complete an anonymous self-report questionnaire during class time. The questionnaire included ad hoc items designed to investigate the intention to donate blood and behaviors traditionally considered to put adolescents’ “health at risk”. Participants were 201 students from northern Italy (range 12–19, M = 17.98, SD = 1.82; 38.9% male, 61.1% female). Results: About half of respondents perceived that they were able to donate blood and could overcome any obstacle that might prevent them from doing so. Some of the examined risk behaviors were widespread in the population under consideration. The linear regressions run show that there is no link between the propensity to give blood and a tendency to engage in healthy lifestyles. Conclusion: The study shows that adolescents demonstrate an interest in blood donation; however, it shows a real lack of “action” to make it happen: there is, indeed, a serious lack of attention to matters related to healthy lifestyles. In fact, adolescents are not aware of how to act to access the world of donation, with the risk that they present themselves at blood donation centers and are then found to be unfit to donate. The research offers many suggestions and implications. PMID:24014943

  16. ADHD and risky sexual behavior in adolescents: conduct problems and substance use as mediators of risk.

    PubMed

    Sarver, Dustin E; McCart, Michael R; Sheidow, Ashli J; Letourneau, Elizabeth J

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies have linked attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to elevated rates of risky sexual behavior (RSB) in adult samples. The current study tested whether ADHD symptoms were associated with RSB among adolescents, and examined comorbid conduct problems and problematic substance use as joint mediators of this association. ADHD symptoms, conduct problems (oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder symptoms), problematic alcohol use (alcohol use disorder symptoms, alcohol use frequency), problematic marijuana use (marijuana use disorder symptoms, marijuana use frequency), and RSB were assessed among an ethnically diverse cross-sectional sample of adolescents (N = 115; mean age = 14.9 years) involved in the juvenile justice system. Bootstrapped mediation models revealed an initial association between ADHD symptoms and RSB that was accounted for fully by the influence of problematic alcohol and marijuana use, but not conduct problems. A follow-up multiple groups mediation analysis demonstrated that the relationship between ADHD symptoms and RSB emerged only among youth with clinically elevated conduct problems, and that problematic marijuana use fully accounted for this relationship. Hyperactive/impulsive, but not inattentive, symptoms were related to RSB, although the pattern of indirect effects was consistent with the multiple groups analysis. The association between ADHD and adolescent RSB is restricted to youth with elevated comorbid conduct problems and reflects the contributions of comorbid marijuana use problems, and to a lesser extent alcohol use problems. Early identification and treatment of these comorbid conditions may be important for the prevention of negative sexual health outcomes among youth with ADHD. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  17. Differences in Sexual Practices, Sexual Behavior and HIV Risk Profile between Adolescents and Young Persons in Rural and Urban Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin; Adebajo, Sylvia; Adeyemi, Adedayo; Ogungbemi, Kayode Micheal

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to determine differences in sexual practices, HIV sexual risk behaviors, and HIV risk profile of adolescents and young persons' in rural and urban Nigeria. We recruited 772 participants 15 to 24 years old from urban and rural townships in Nigeria through a household survey. Information on participants' socio-demographic profile (age sex, residential area, number of meals taken per day), sexual practices (vagina, oral and anal sex; heterosexual and homosexual sex; sex with spouse, casual acquaintances, boy/girlfriend and commercial sex workers), sexual behavior (age of sexual debut, use of condom, multiple sex partners, transactional sex and age of sexual partner), and other HIV risk factors (use of alcohol and psychoactive substances, reason for sexual debut, knowledge of HIV prevention and HIV transmission, report of STI symptoms) were collected through an interviewer administered questionnaire. Differences in sexual behavior and sexual practices of adolescents and HIV risk profile of adolescents and young persons resident in urban and rural areas were determined. More than half (53.5%) of the respondents were sexually active, with more residing in the rural than urban areas (64.9% vs 44.1%; p<0.001) and more resident in the rural area reporting having more than one sexual partner (29.5% vs 20.4%; p = 0.04). Also, 97.3% of sexually active respondents reported having vaginal sex, 8.7% reported oral sex and 1.9% reported anal sex. More male than female respondents in the urban area used condoms during the last vaginal sexual intercourse (69.1% vs 51.9%; p = 0.02), and reported sex with casual partners (7.0% vs 15.3%; p = 0.007). More female than male respondents residing in the rural area engaged in transactional sex (1.0% vs 6.7%; p = 0.005). More females than males in both rural (3.6% vs 10.2%; p = 0.04) and urban (4.7% vs 26.6%; p<0.001) areas self-reported a history of discharge. More females than males in both rural (1.4% vs 17.0%; p = 0.04) and urban

  18. Sexually transmitted infection risk behaviors in rural Thai adolescents and young adults: support for sex- and age-specific interventions.

    PubMed

    Latimore, Amanda D; Aramrattana, Apinun; Sherman, Susan G; Galai, Noya; Srirojn, Bangorn; Thompson, Nick; Ellen, Jonathan M; Willard, Nancy; Celentano, David D

    2013-03-01

    Sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence and risks in a sample of rural Thai adolescents and young adults (14-29 years) were examined. Unprotected sex with a casual partner conferred the greatest risk for prevalent STIs, particularly for younger adolescents, and alcohol use increased the STI risk for women but not for men.

  19. Adolescents Misperceive and Are Influenced by High-Status Peers' Health Risk, Deviant, and Adaptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms, Sarah W.; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Widman, Laura; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2014-01-01

    Most peer influence research examines socialization between adolescents and their best friends. Yet, adolescents also are influenced by popular peers, perhaps due to misperceptions of social norms. This research examined the extent to which out-group and in-group adolescents misperceive the frequencies of peers' deviant, health risk, and…

  20. Adolescents Misperceive and Are Influenced by High-Status Peers' Health Risk, Deviant, and Adaptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms, Sarah W.; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Widman, Laura; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2014-01-01

    Most peer influence research examines socialization between adolescents and their best friends. Yet, adolescents also are influenced by popular peers, perhaps due to misperceptions of social norms. This research examined the extent to which out-group and in-group adolescents misperceive the frequencies of peers' deviant, health risk, and…

  1. The role of city income inequality, sex ratio and youth mortality rates in the effect of violent victimization on health-risk behaviors in Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Dandara de Oliveira; Daly, Martin; Seidl-de-Moura, Maria Lucia; Nadanovsky, Paulo

    2017-03-27

    This study integrates insights from evolutionary psychology and social epidemiology to present a novel approach to contextual effects on health-risk behaviors (unprotected sex, drunkenness episodes, drugs and tobacco experimentation) among adolescents. Using data from the 2012 Brazilian National Survey of Adolescent Health (PeNSE), we first analyzed the effects of self-reported violent victimization on health-risk behaviors of 47,371 adolescents aged 10-19 nested in the 26 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District. We then explored whether the magnitude of these associations was correlated with cues of environmental harshness and unpredictability (youth external mortality and income inequality) and mating competition (sex ratio) from the city level. Results indicated that self-reported violent victimization is associated with an increased chance of engagement in health-risk behaviors in all Brazilian state capitals, for both males and females, but the magnitude of these associations varies in relation to broader environmental factors, such as the cities' age-specific mortality rates, and specifically for females, income inequality and sex ratio. In addition to introducing a novel theoretical and empirical approach to contextual effects on adolescent health-risk behaviors, our findings reinforce the need to consider synergies between people's life experiences and the conditions where they live, when studying health-risk behaviors in adolescence.

  2. Adolescent Motivations to Engage in Pro-Social Behaviors and Abstain From Health-Risk Behaviors: A Self-Determination Theory Approach.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Sam A; Dollahite, David C; Johnson, Natalie; Christensen, Justin B

    2015-10-01

    The present study used self-determination theory to examine adolescents' motivations to engage in charitable donating and community volunteering and to abstain from sexual intercourse and marijuana use. The sample consisted of 419 late adolescents recruited from across the country through an online survey panel. Participants completed online measures of motivations to engage in donating and volunteering, motivations to abstain from sex and marijuana, and single-item indexes of the four behaviors. Variable-centered analyses (correlation and regression) found evidence for a general motivational factor, motivational specificity by behavioral domain (positive and negative behaviors), motivational specificity by particular behavior (charitable donating, volunteering, sexual risk-taking, and marijuana use), and a stronger relative role for autonomous motivations than controlled motivations. Person-centered analyses (cluster analysis) found four motivation profiles (low motivation, medium motivation, high motivation, and mixed motivation) for all four behaviors and suggested that level of autonomous motivation was a key factor differentiating the groups on levels of behavior. The findings suggest different levels of motivational specificity and highlight the importance of autonomous motivations in predicting behaviors as compared to controlled motivations. Further, similar patterns were found for motivations to engage and to abstain.

  3. Classroom-based surveys of adolescent risk-taking behaviors: reducing the bias of absenteeism.

    PubMed

    Guttmacher, Sally; Weitzman, Beth C; Kapadia, Farzana; Weinberg, Sharon L

    2002-02-01

    This investigation examined the effectiveness of intensive efforts to include frequently absent students in order to reduce bias in classroom-based studies. Grade 10 students in 13 New York City high schools (n = 2049) completed self-administered confidential surveys in 4 different phases: a 1-day classroom capture, a 1-day follow-up, and 2 separate 1-week follow-ups. Financial incentives were offered, along with opportunities for out-of-classroom participation. Findings showed that frequently absent students engaged in more risk behaviors than those who were rarely absent. Intensive efforts to locate and survey chronically absent students did not, however, significantly alter estimates of risk behavior. Weighting the data for individual absences marginally improved the estimates. This study showed that intensive efforts to capture absent students in classroom-based investigations are not warranted by the small improvements produced in regard to risk behavior estimates.

  4. [Prevalence of risk health behavior among adolescents: results from the 2009 National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE)].

    PubMed

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Sardinha, Luciana Monteiro Vasconcelos; Mendes, Isabel; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Giatti, Luana; Castro, Inês Rugani Ribeiro de; Moura, Lenildo de; Dias, Antonio José Ribeiro; Crespo, Claudio

    2010-10-01

    Adolescence is typically a developmental phase characterized by change and experimentation and therefore varying exposure to health hazards. We aimed at estimating the prevalence of protective and risk health behaviors of adolescents interviewed in the 2009 National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE). PeNSE, a partnership between the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE) and the Ministry of Health, using a PDA-based self-administered questionnaire collected information on 60,973 students enrolled at 1,453 public and private schools in the 27 state capitals and the Federal District. Among the food items most often consumed ( > or = 5 days per week), were beans (62.6%) and fruit (31.5%), but also sweets (58.3%) and soft drinks (37%), 43.1% of the students were sufficiently physically active but 79.5% spent >2 hours per day in front of the TV. As for drug use, 6.3% reported being current tobacco smokers, 27% drank alcoholic beverages regularly and 8.7% had used illicit drugs at least once. These results should guide stakeholders and policy makers in the development and implementation of programs and recommendations aimed at curtailing unhealthy exposures of adolescents in Brazil.

  5. Parent-Adolescent Agreement Concerning Adolescents' Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaus, Nicole M.; Mobilio, Andrea; King, Cheryl A.

    2009-01-01

    Information on history of suicidal thoughts and behaviors is critical in risk assessment, and multi-informant assessment has been recommended. Despite this, relatively little is known about parent-adolescent agreement regarding adolescent suicidality. To examine the extent and predictors of such agreement, 448 psychiatrically hospitalized…

  6. Type of contraception method used at last intercourse and associations with health risk behaviors among US adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Krauss, Melissa J.; Spitznagel, Edward L.; Schootman, Mario; Peipert, Jeffrey F.; Cottler, Linda B.; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2010-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to examine associations with contraception methods used at last sexual intercourse among US adolescents. Study design Data consisted of sexually active adolescents (9th–12th grade, weighted n = 24,638) from 1999–2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS). We performed multinomial multivariable logistic regression analyses with condom users at last sexual intercourse as the reference group. Results Males who used alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, and cocaine were more likely to use no method/unsure of method (OR = 2.4 CI: 1.7–3.4) or rely on withdrawal (OR = 2.6 CI: 1.5–4.3). Females with six or more sexual partners were more likely to rely on withdrawal (OR: 2.9 CI: 2.1–3.9) or contraception methods that offer no STI protection (i.e., birth control pills, OR: 1.9 CI: 1.4–2.5, and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate [DMPA, marketed as Depo Provera], OR: 2.6 CI: 1.6–4.2). Earlier age of sexual debut was also associated with nonuse. Conclusion Prevention efforts should focus on at-risk adolescents including substance-using males, females with six or more sexual partners, and those who initiate sexual intercourse at an early age. PMID:21074019

  7. West Virginia Adolescents' Health Risk Behaviors: Differences by Gender, Age, Grade Level, and Level of Rurality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meehan, Merrill L.; And Others

    In 1990, the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) was completed by a random sample of 1,448 West Virginia public-school students in grades 9-12. The sample was 51 percent male and 89 percent white. About 71 percent of subjects were aged 15-17; 39 percent were in the ninth grade. The YRBS covered behaviors producing vehicle-related or other injuries,…

  8. Family Functioning and High Risk Adolescents' Aggressive Behavior: Examining Effects by Ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Henneberger, Angela K; Varga, Shannon M; Moudy, Alyssa; Tolan, Patrick H

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between family functioning and adolescents' physical aggression has been well established, but whether these relationships might differ by ethnicity has received less attention. Ethnic variations may be important for targeting prevention programs to specific youth and families. This study examined the longitudinal relationship between family cohesion, parental monitoring, and physical aggression using data from the Multisite Violence Prevention Project sample of high-risk youth (elevated aggression). Participants were 1,232 high-risk middle school students (65% male; 70% African American; 15% Hispanic). Meaningful demographic variations were identified. After controlling for intervention condition and study site, family cohesion was significantly negatively related to physical aggression, more so for Hispanic youth. Parental monitoring was negatively associated with physical aggression for African American youth only. Our findings point to the importance of developing culturally sensitive family interventions to prevent physical aggression in middle school.

  9. Psychological and behavioral interventions to reduce HIV risk: evidence from a randomized control trial among orphaned and vulnerable adolescents in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Thurman, T R; Kidman, R; Carton, T W; Chiroro, P

    2016-01-01

    Evidence-based approaches are needed to address the high levels of sexual risk behavior and associated HIV infection among orphaned and vulnerable adolescents. This study recruited adolescents from a support program for HIV-affected families and randomly assigned them by cluster to receive one of the following: (1) a structured group-based behavioral health intervention; (2) interpersonal psychotherapy group sessions; (3) both interventions; or (4) no new interventions. With 95% retention, 1014 adolescents were interviewed three times over a 22-month period. Intent-to-treat analyses, applying multivariate difference-in-difference probit regressions, were performed separately for boys and girls to assess intervention impacts on sexual risk behaviors. Exposure to a single intervention did not impact behaviors. Exposure to both interventions was associated with risk-reduction behaviors, but the outcomes varied by gender: boys reported fewer risky sexual partnerships (β = -.48, p = .05) and girls reported more consistent condom (β = 1.37, p = .02). There was no difference in the likelihood of sexual debut for either gender. Providing both psychological and behavioral interventions resulted in long-term changes in sexual behavior that were not present when either intervention was provided in isolation. Multifaceted approaches for reducing sexual risk behaviors among vulnerable adolescents hold significant promise for mitigating the HIV epidemic among this priority population.

  10. Psychological and behavioral interventions to reduce HIV risk: evidence from a randomized control trial among orphaned and vulnerable adolescents in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Thurman, T. R.; Kidman, R.; Carton, T. W.; Chiroro, P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Evidence-based approaches are needed to address the high levels of sexual risk behavior and associated HIV infection among orphaned and vulnerable adolescents. This study recruited adolescents from a support program for HIV-affected families and randomly assigned them by cluster to receive one of the following: (1) a structured group-based behavioral health intervention; (2) interpersonal psychotherapy group sessions; (3) both interventions; or (4) no new interventions. With 95% retention, 1014 adolescents were interviewed three times over a 22-month period. Intent-to-treat analyses, applying multivariate difference-in-difference probit regressions, were performed separately for boys and girls to assess intervention impacts on sexual risk behaviors. Exposure to a single intervention did not impact behaviors. Exposure to both interventions was associated with risk-reduction behaviors, but the outcomes varied by gender: boys reported fewer risky sexual partnerships (β = −.48, p = .05) and girls reported more consistent condom (β = 1.37, p = .02). There was no difference in the likelihood of sexual debut for either gender. Providing both psychological and behavioral interventions resulted in long-term changes in sexual behavior that were not present when either intervention was provided in isolation. Multifaceted approaches for reducing sexual risk behaviors among vulnerable adolescents hold significant promise for mitigating the HIV epidemic among this priority population. PMID:26886261

  11. Predicting Developmental Change in Healthy Eating and Regular Exercise among Adolescents in China and the United States: The Role of Psychosocial and Behavioral Protection and Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessor, Richard; Turbin, Mark S.; Costa, Frances M.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports a cross-national study of developmental change in health-enhancing behavior--healthy eating and regular exercise--among adolescents in China and the United States. The application of a conceptual framework comprising psychosocial and behavioral protective and risk factors--both proximal and distal and at both the individual…

  12. Effects of Adolescent Childbearing on Maternal Depression and Problem Behaviors: A Prospective, Population-Based Study Using Risk-Set Propensity Scores

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Joseph; Xiong, Shuangyan; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Keenan, Kate E.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent mothers are reportedly at risk for depression and problem behaviors in the postpartum period, but studies have rarely considered developmental context and have yet to disentangle the effects of childbearing on adolescent functioning from selection effects that are associated with early pregnancy. The current study examined changes in adolescent depression, conduct problems and substance use (alcohol, tobacco and marijuana) across the peripartum period using risk-set propensity scores derived from a population-based, prospective study that began in childhood (the Pittsburgh Girls Study, PGS). Each of 147 childbearing adolescents (ages 12–19) was matched with two same-age, non-childbearing adolescents (n = 294) on pregnancy propensity using 15 time-varying risk variables derived from sociodemographic, psychopathology, substance use, family, peer and neighborhood domains assessed in the PGS wave prior to each pregnancy (T1). Postpartum depression and problem behaviors were assessed within the first 6 months following delivery (T2); data gathered from the non-childbearing adolescent controls spanned the same interval. Within the childbearing group, conduct problems and marijuana use reduced from T1 to T2, but depression severity and frequency of alcohol or tobacco use showed no change. When change was compared across the matched groups, conduct problems showed a greater reduction among childbearing adolescents. Relative to non-childbearing adolescents who reported more frequent substance use with time, childbearing adolescents reported no change in alcohol use and less frequent use of marijuana across the peripartum period. There were no group differences in patterns of change for depression severity and tobacco use. The results do not support the notion that adolescent childbearing represents a period of heightened risk for depression or problem behaviors. PMID:27176826

  13. Effects of Adolescent Childbearing on Maternal Depression and Problem Behaviors: A Prospective, Population-Based Study Using Risk-Set Propensity Scores.

    PubMed

    Hipwell, Alison E; Murray, Joseph; Xiong, Shuangyan; Stepp, Stephanie D; Keenan, Kate E

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent mothers are reportedly at risk for depression and problem behaviors in the postpartum period, but studies have rarely considered developmental context and have yet to disentangle the effects of childbearing on adolescent functioning from selection effects that are associated with early pregnancy. The current study examined changes in adolescent depression, conduct problems and substance use (alcohol, tobacco and marijuana) across the peripartum period using risk-set propensity scores derived from a population-based, prospective study that began in childhood (the Pittsburgh Girls Study, PGS). Each of 147 childbearing adolescents (ages 12-19) was matched with two same-age, non-childbearing adolescents (n = 294) on pregnancy propensity using 15 time-varying risk variables derived from sociodemographic, psychopathology, substance use, family, peer and neighborhood domains assessed in the PGS wave prior to each pregnancy (T1). Postpartum depression and problem behaviors were assessed within the first 6 months following delivery (T2); data gathered from the non-childbearing adolescent controls spanned the same interval. Within the childbearing group, conduct problems and marijuana use reduced from T1 to T2, but depression severity and frequency of alcohol or tobacco use showed no change. When change was compared across the matched groups, conduct problems showed a greater reduction among childbearing adolescents. Relative to non-childbearing adolescents who reported more frequent substance use with time, childbearing adolescents reported no change in alcohol use and less frequent use of marijuana across the peripartum period. There were no group differences in patterns of change for depression severity and tobacco use. The results do not support the notion that adolescent childbearing represents a period of heightened risk for depression or problem behaviors.

  14. Consumption of fruits and vegetables associated with other risk behaviors among adolescents in Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Fabiana Medeiros de Almeida; Smith-Menezes, Aldemir; Duarte, Maria de Fátima da Silva

    2016-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of consumption of fruits and vegetables and identify the association with low level of physical activity, exposure to sedentary behavior, consumption of soft drinks and overweight/obesity in adolescents. This is a cross-sectional school-based study with a representative sample of 3992 students aged 14-19 years from the state of Sergipe, Brazil. The outcome was low consumption of fruits and vegetables (<5servings/day). Independent variables were: level of physical activity, sedentary behavior, consumption of soft drinks, and overweight/obesity. Global Student Health Survey questionnaire and body mass and height measurements were used, as well as chi-square test and crude and adjusted binary logistic regression. The significance level adopted was 5%. The prevalence of inadequate consumption of fruits and vegetables was high - 88.6% (95%CI=87.6-89.5). Higher likelihood of low consumption of fruits and vegetables was verified among boys who were exposed to sedentary behavior (OR=1.63; 95%CI=1.18-2.24), who consumed soft drinks (OR=3.04; 95%CI=2.10-4.40), with insufficiently physical activity (OR=1.98; 95%CI=1.43-2.73) and girls who consumed soft drinks (OR=1.88; 95%CI=1.43-2.47) and those with overweight/obesity (OR=1.63; 95%CI=1.19-2.23). There is a need of public policies aimed at encouraging the consumption of healthy foods among adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Consumption of fruits and vegetables associated with other risk behaviors among adolescents in Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Fabiana Medeiros de Almeida; Smith-Menezes, Aldemir; Duarte, Maria de Fátima da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To determine the prevalence of consumption of fruits and vegetables and identify the association with low level of physical activity, exposure to sedentary behavior, consumption of soft drinks and overweight/obesity in adolescents. Methods: This is a cross-sectional school-based study with a representative sample of 3992 students aged 14–19 years from the state of Sergipe, Brazil. The outcome was low consumption of fruits and vegetables (<5servings/day). Independent variables were: level of physical activity, sedentary behavior, consumption of soft drinks, and overweight/obesity. Global Student Health Survey questionnaire and body mass and height measurements were used, as well as chi-square test and crude and adjusted binary logistic regression. The significance level adopted was 5%. Results: The prevalence of inadequate consumption of fruits and vegetables was high – 88.6% (95%CI=87.6–89.5). Higher likelihood of low consumption of fruits and vegetables was verified among boys who were exposed to sedentary behavior (OR=1.63; 95%CI=1.18–2.24), who consumed soft drinks (OR=3.04; 95%CI=2.10–4.40), with insufficiently physical activity (OR=1.98; 95%CI=1.43–2.73) and girls who consumed soft drinks (OR=1.88; 95%CI=1.43–2.47) and those with overweight/obesity (OR=1.63; 95%CI=1.19–2.23). Conclusions: There is a need of public policies aimed at encouraging the consumption of healthy foods among adolescents. PMID:27240560

  16. The Association between Childhood and Adolescent Sexual Abuse and Proxies for Sexual Risk Behavior: A Random Sample of the General Population of Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steel, Jennifer L.; Herlitz, Claes A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Several studies with small and ''high risk'' samples have demonstrated that a history of childhood or adolescent sexual abuse (CASA) is associated with sexual risk behaviors (SRBs). However, few studies with large random samples from the general population have specifically examined the relationship between CASA and SRBs with a…

  17. The Association between Childhood and Adolescent Sexual Abuse and Proxies for Sexual Risk Behavior: A Random Sample of the General Population of Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steel, Jennifer L.; Herlitz, Claes A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Several studies with small and ''high risk'' samples have demonstrated that a history of childhood or adolescent sexual abuse (CASA) is associated with sexual risk behaviors (SRBs). However, few studies with large random samples from the general population have specifically examined the relationship between CASA and SRBs with a…

  18. Efficacy Trial of a Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Depression Prevention Program for High-Risk Adolescents: Effects at 1- and 2-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Gau, Jeff M.; Wade, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of a brief group cognitive-behavioral (CB) depression prevention program for high-risk adolescents with elevated depressive symptoms at 1- and 2-year follow-up. Method: In this indicated prevention trial, 341 at-risk youths were randomized to a group CB intervention, group supportive expressive intervention, CB…

  19. ADHD and risky sexual behavior in adolescents: Conduct problems and substance use as mediators of risk

    PubMed Central

    Sarver, Dustin E.; McCart, Michael R.; Sheidow, Ashli J.; Letourneau, Elizabeth J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent studies have linked attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to elevated rates of risky sexual behavior (RSB) in adult samples. The current study tested whether ADHD symptoms were associated with RSB among adolescents, and examined comorbid conduct problems and problematic substance use as joint mediators of this association. Methods ADHD symptoms, conduct problems (oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder symptoms), problematic alcohol use (alcohol use disorder symptoms, alcohol use frequency), problematic marijuana use (marijuana use disorder symptoms, marijuana use frequency), and RSB were assessed among an ethnically diverse cross-sectional sample of adolescents (N=115; mean age=14.9 years) involved in the juvenile justice system. Results Bootstrapped mediation models revealed an initial association between ADHD symptoms and RSB that was accounted for fully by the influence of problematic alcohol and marijuana use, but not conduct problems. A follow-up multiple groups mediation analysis demonstrated that the relationship between ADHD symptoms and RSB emerged only among youth with clinically elevated conduct problems, and that problematic marijuana use fully accounted for this relationship. Hyperactive/impulsive but not inattentive symptoms were related to RSB, although the pattern of indirect effects was consistent with the multiple groups analysis. Conclusions The association between ADHD and adolescent RSB is restricted to youth with elevated comorbid conduct problems and reflects the contributions of comorbid marijuana use problems, and to a lesser extent alcohol use problems. Early identification and treatment of these comorbid conditions may be important for the prevention of negative sexual health outcomes among youth with ADHD. PMID:24813803

  20. Risk Factors Associated with Self-Injurious Behaviors in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duerden, Emma G.; Oatley, Hannah K.; Mak-Fan, Kathleen M.; McGrath, Patricia A.; Taylor, Margot J.; Szatmari, Peter; Roberts, S. Wendy

    2012-01-01

    While self-injurious behaviors (SIB) can cause significant morbidity for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), little is known about its associated risk factors. We assessed 7 factors that may influence self-injury in a large cohort of children with ASD: (a) atypical sensory processing; (b) impaired cognitive ability; (c) abnormal…

  1. Homeless Adolescent Parents: HIV Risk, Family Structure and Individual Problem Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Slesnick, Natasha; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Glebova, Tatiana; Glade, Aaron C.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined differences between homeless teenage fathers and mothers compared with nonparents. Overall, parents reported significantly more lifetime runaway episodes, more people growing up in their home, and reported higher lifetime HIV risk behaviors than did nonparents. Findings highlight the need for targeted prevention and intervention efforts for this subgroup of homeless youth. PMID:17046522

  2. The Challenge of Changing Drug and Sex Risk Behaviors of Runaway and Homeless Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Robert E.; Zhang, Yiming; Kwiatkowski, Carol F.

    1999-01-01

    A study of 244 street youth found that runaways receiving training in a peer-based intervention that included principles derived from the health belief model significantly increased their knowledge about HIV. Contrary to the health belief model, however, knowledge and greater perceived chance for HIV were associated with high risk behavior.…

  3. Risk Factors for Adopting Extreme Weight-Control Behaviors among Public School Adolescents in Salvador, Brazil: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    de Santana, Mônica Leila Portela; Assis, Ana Marlúcia Oliveira; Silva, Rita de Cássia Ribeiro; Raich, Rosa María; Machado, Maria Ester Pereira da Conceição; Pinto, Elizabete de Jesus; de Moraes, Lia Terezinha Lana Pimenta; Ribeiro, Hugo da Costa

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies the risk factors for extreme weight-control behaviors among adolescents in public school in Salvador, northeastern Brazil. A case-control study nested to a cross-sectional study, including 252 adolescents of both sexes, age between 11 to 17 years, with 84 cases and 168 age-matched controls was conducted. The variable outcome is represented by extreme weight-control behaviors, integrated by following the variables: self-induced vomiting and the use of laxatives, diuretics, or diet pills. Covariables included body image dissatisfaction, dieting, prolonged fasting, and self-perception of body weight. The study also investigated the demographic and anthropometric variables and economic conditions of the students' families. Conditional logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for the adoption of extreme weight-control behaviors among adolescents. Among the adolescents investigated, the conditional logistic regression explained 22% the occurrence of extreme weight-control behaviors and showed that these behaviors were positively associated to overweight (odds ratio [OR] = 3.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.42-9.17), body image dissatisfaction (OR = 3.87; 95% CI, 1.75-8.54), and the adoption of a restrictive diet (OR = 2.83; 95% CI, 1.16-6.91). The results of this study suggest that among adolescents, overweight, body image dissatisfaction, and restrictive diet are important risk factors to adoption of extreme weight-control behaviors.

  4. Association between Adolescents' Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors with Change in BMI and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Paul H.

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at identifying the association between physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) patterns during adolescents on the future increase in BMI and risk of diabetes during young adulthood. A total of 3,717 participants aged 11 to 21 at baseline who completed Waves I (1994–1995), II (1996), III (2001–2002), and IV (2008) surveys of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) were analyzed. Physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns were assessed using an interviewer-administered questionnaire at Waves I, II, and III. A participant was classified as having diabetes at Wave IV according to WHO guidelines. The k-means cluster analysis was used to identify the number of PA and SB patterns assessed using interviewer-administered questionnaire. The k-means cluster analysis identified three clusters; 575 (15.5%), 2,140 (57.6%), and 1,002 (27.0%) participants belonged to the low PA high SB (LPAHSB), the LPALSB, and the HPALSB cluster respectively. Relative to the LPALSB cluster, the HPALSB cluster had lower increase in BMI from Wave III to Wave IV (P = 0.03), whereas the difference between LPAHSB cluster and LPALSB cluster was not significant (P = 0.09). The odds of developing diabetes at Wave IV was significant for the LPAHSB cluster (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.04, 2.75) but not significant for the HPALSB cluster (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.52, 1.47) relative to the LPALSB cluster. To conclude, PA but not SB during adolescence predicted change in BMI during young adulthood. SB but not PA during adolescence predicted type 2 diabetes during young adulthood. PMID:25340773

  5. Sexual Risk Behaviors in the Adolescent Offspring of Parents with Bipolar Disorder: Prospective Associations with Parents' Personality and Externalizing Behavior in Childhood.

    PubMed

    Nijjar, Rami; Ellenbogen, Mark A; Hodgins, Sheilagh

    2016-10-01

    We recently reported that adolescent and young adult offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (OBD), relative to control offspring, were more likely to engage in sexual risk behaviors (SRBs). The present prospective study aimed to determine the contribution of parents' personality and offspring behaviour problems in middle childhood to offspring SRBs 10 years later. We hypothesized that offspring externalizing problems in childhood would mediate the relationship between parents' personality traits of neuroticism and agreeableness and adolescent SRBs. Furthermore, we expected these associations to be more robust among the OBD than controls. At baseline, 102 offspring (52 OBD and 50 controls) aged between 4 and 14 years were assessed along with their parents, who completed a self-report personality measure and child behavior rating. Behaviour ratings were also obtained from the children's teachers. Ten years later the offspring completed an interview assessing SRBs. Mediation analyses using bootstrapping revealed that, after controlling for age and presence of an affective disorder, externalizing behaviors served as a pathway through which high parental neuroticism, low parental agreeableness, and low parental extraversion were related to SRBs in offspring. Moderated mediation analyses revealed that the relationship between parental neuroticism and childhood externalizing problems was stronger for OBD than controls. These findings add to our previous results showing parents' personality contributes to intergenerational risk transfer through behavioral problems in middle childhood. These results carry implications for optimal timing of preventative interventions in the OBD.

  6. Health Status and Risk Behaviors of Sexual Minorities Among Chinese Adolescents: A School-Based Survey.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huiping; Wong, William C W; Ip, Patrick; Fan, Susan; Yip, Paul S F

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between sexual orientation and health disparities among a stratified random sample of 3776 secondary students in Hong Kong. The prevalence of homosexuality and bisexuality were 1.5% and 2.6% in boys and 1.8% and 3.7% in girls, respectively. A total of 10.7% of boys and 8.8% of girls were unsure of their sexual orientation. Homosexual and bisexual boys reported poorer physical and mental health than their heterosexual peers. Homosexual and bisexual boys were more likely to engage in smoking, frequent drinking, and vaginal sex and be subjected to sexually transmitted disease and sexual victimization. However, lesbian and bisexual girls were less likely to engage in risky health behaviors except for smoking and being subjected to sexual victimization. There is a gender-specific problem that may warrant prevention and intervention programs to address the unique health issues facing homosexual and bisexual adolescents in Hong Kong.

  7. The Role of a Parent's Incarceration in the Emotional Health and Problem Behaviors of At-Risk Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midgley, Erin Kathleen; Lo, Celia C.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of a parent's incarceration and adolescents' emotional health on their substance abuse and delinquency is described for a group of at-risk 10- to 14-year-old adolescents. Data were drawn from a two-wave longitudinal study from the federally funded Children at Risk program, ongoing in five states from 1993 to 1997. Results point to a…

  8. The Role of a Parent's Incarceration in the Emotional Health and Problem Behaviors of At-Risk Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midgley, Erin Kathleen; Lo, Celia C.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of a parent's incarceration and adolescents' emotional health on their substance abuse and delinquency is described for a group of at-risk 10- to 14-year-old adolescents. Data were drawn from a two-wave longitudinal study from the federally funded Children at Risk program, ongoing in five states from 1993 to 1997. Results point to a…

  9. Identifying sexual orientation health disparities in adolescents: analysis of pooled data from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2005 and 2007.

    PubMed

    Mustanski, Brian; Van Wagenen, Aimee; Birkett, Michelle; Eyster, Sandra; Corliss, Heather L

    2014-02-01

    We studied sexual orientation disparities in health outcomes among US adolescents by pooling multiple Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data sets from 2005 and 2007 for 14 jurisdictions. Here we describe the methodology for pooling and analyzing these data sets. Sexual orientation-related items assessed sexual orientation identity, gender of sexual contacts, sexual attractions, and harassment regarding sexual orientation. Wording of items varied across jurisdictions, so we created parallel variables and composite sexual minority variables. We used a variety of statistical approaches to address issues with the analysis of pooled data and to meet the aims of individual articles, which focused on a range of health outcomes and behaviors related to cancer, substance use, sexual health, mental health, violence, and injury.

  10. The cumulative impact of physical activity, sleep duration, and television time on adolescent obesity: 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    PubMed

    Laurson, Kelly R; Lee, Joey A; Eisenmann, Joey C

    2015-03-01

    Physical activity (PA), television time (TV), and sleep duration (SLP) are considered individual risk factors for adolescent obesity. Our aim was to investigate the concurrent influence of meeting PA, SLP, and TV recommendations on adolescent obesity utilizing 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey (YRBSS) data. Subjects included 9589 (4874 females) high school students. PA, SLP, and TV were categorized utilizing established national recommendations and youth were cross-tabulated into 1 of 8 groups based on meeting or not meeting each recommendation. Logistic models were used to examine the odds of obesity for each group. Youth meeting the PA recommendation were not at increased odds of obesity, regardless of SLP or TV status. However, not meeting any single recommendation, in general, led to increased odds of not meeting the other two. In boys, 11.8% met all recommendations while 14.1% met 0 recommendations. In girls, only 5.0% met all recommendations while 17.8% met none. Boys and girls not meeting any of the recommendations were 4.0 and 3.8 times more likely to be obese compared with their respective referent groups. Further research considering the simultaneous influence these risk factors may have on obesity and on one another is warranted.

  11. Acute behavioral interventions and outpatient treatment strategies with suicidal adolescents

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Kimberly H. McManama; Singer, Jonathan B.; LeCloux, Mary; Duarté-Vélez, Yovanska; Spirito, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors among adolescents, there is limited knowledge of effective interventions to use with this population. This paper reviews the findings of studies on behavioral interventions for adolescents who are at acute suicide risk, as well as outpatient treatment and risk management strategies with suicidal adolescents. The importance of addressing comorbid behaviors and enhancing protective factors are discussed. Cultural considerations in working with suicidal adolescents and strategies for conducting culturally competent treatment are explored. PMID:26279646

  12. Development and risk behavior among African American, Caucasian, and mixed-race adolescents living in high poverty