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Sample records for adolescent risk-taking behavior

  1. Sleep and risk-taking behavior in adolescents.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Erin M; Mindell, Jodi A

    2005-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between adolescents' sleep-wake patterns and risk-taking behavior. A second goal was to replicate the results obtained by Wolfson and Carskadon (1998) regarding adolescents' sleep habits. Three hundred eighty-eight adolescents (217 males, 171 females) completed the Sleep Habits Survey and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. The results indicated that adolescents who reported longer weekend delay and higher levels of sleep problems also reported significantly higher levels of risk-taking behaviors, and students' weekend delay was also related to their academic performance in this sample. As in the sample studied by Wolfson and Carskadon (1998), the adolescents in this study exhibited changes in both weekday and weekend sleep habits across grade/age. However in the present study, only school-night total sleep time and weekend delay were related to adolescents' daytime functioning, with no significant relationships being found between weekend oversleep and daytime functioning. This provides partial support for the findings of Wolfson and Carskadon (1998). Overall, sleep-wake patterns were found to relate to risk-taking behavior during adolescence in this study. PMID:15984914

  2. School Sexuality Education and Adolescent Risk-Taking Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Cecilia Dine; Wolf, Eve M.

    1995-01-01

    Examines and critiques research that measures the effects of school sexuality education programs on adolescent sexual risk-taking behavior. Discusses common methodological problems and examines studies measuring program effectiveness. Research suggests participation in school sexuality education does not promote increased or earlier sexual…

  3. Adolescents' Perceptions of Their Risk-Taking Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Jeanette; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Assessed 440 high and low sports and danger risk-taking adolescents. Sports risk takers reported more danger-related risk taking, more drug use, and higher self-esteem than non-risk takers. Danger risk takers reported greater sports-related risk taking, more drug use, less intimacy with their mothers, less family responsibility taking, and less…

  4. A Longitudinal Study of Risk-Taking Behavior in Adolescents with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, John K.; Willoughby, Teena

    2010-01-01

    Risk taking may be regarded as a normative behavior in adolescence. Risk-taking behaviors may include alcohol, smoking, drug use, delinquency, and acts of aggression. Many studies have explored the relationship between adolescents and risk-taking behavior; however, only a few studies have examined this link in adolescents with learning…

  5. Brief Report: Risk-Taking Behaviors in a Non-Western Urban Adolescent Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayar, Nalan; Sayil, Melike

    2005-01-01

    This study analyzes the age and gender related risk-taking behaviors of Turkish adolescents in an urban sample. A self-report risk taking scale was administered to 280 adolescents between the ages of 12-21. Results revealed that both the type and the frequency of risk-taking behaviors were changed according to age and gender. All risky behaviors…

  6. Factors Associated with Sexual Risk-Taking Behaviors among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, Tom; Small, Stephen A.

    1994-01-01

    Describes investigation examining factors that distinguish between sexually active adolescents who are at risk for pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases and those who are at lower risk for these outcomes. Suggests factors associated with sexual risk taking include low GPA, frequent alcohol consumption, and low levels of parental…

  7. Adolescents' perceptions of their risk-taking behavior.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, J; Field, T; Yando, R; Gonzalez, K; Lasko, D; Bendell, D

    1994-01-01

    A questionnaire comprised of several self-report scales was administered to 440 adolescents to assess differences between high and low sports and danger risk takers on relationship and personality variables. Sports risk takers reported more danger-related risk taking and more drug use but higher self-esteem than did nonrisk takers. Danger risk takers reported greater sports-related risk taking and more drug use as well as less intimacy with their mothers, less family responsibility taking, and less depression than did their nonrisk-taking counterparts. PMID:7832034

  8. Risky Business: Exploring Adolescent Risk-Taking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Tammy Jordan; Peterson, Fred L.

    2005-01-01

    Ongoing behavioral research has documented the growing prevalence of adolescent health risk behaviors, such as tobacco use, sexual activity, alcohol and other substance use, nutritional behavior, physical inactivity, and intentional injury. Newer youth risk behaviors, such as pathological gambling, are emerging as threats to public health. Risk,…

  9. Bidirectional Associations Between Alcohol Use and Sexual Risk-taking Behavior from Adolescence into Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    O’Hara, Ross E.; Cooper, M. Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Overwhelming evidence indicates that sexual risk-taking behavior and alcohol use are linked, but the nature, strength, and timing of these relations may differ between gender and racial subgroups. These issues were addressed by examining the course and interrelations of both behaviors from adolescence into young adulthood, as well as how these patterns differed between both men and women and between Blacks and Whites. Data came from a representative, community-based sample of 1867 urban participants surveyed up to 5 times over a 15-year period. Although both prospective and trajectory analyses showed that adolescent involvement in one behavior predicted later involvement in the other, most patterns were moderated by gender, race, or both. In general, positive, bidirectional associations were discovered among men and Whites. Among women, adolescent sexual risk-taking behavior positively predicted later drinking, but not vice versa. For Blacks, adolescent alcohol use was inconsistently related to later sexual risk-taking behavior, and adolescent sexual risk-taking negatively predicted later alcohol use. Results suggest that associations between sexual risk-taking behavior and alcohol use are more complex than previously thought and that an adequate understanding of these links must account for both gender and racial differences. PMID:25808720

  10. Brain Structural Correlates of Risk-Taking Behavior and Effects of Peer Influence in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Myoung Soo; Vorobyev, Victor; Moe, Dagfinn; Parkkola, Riitta; Hämäläinen, Heikki

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents are characterized by impulsive risky behavior, particularly in the presence of peers. We discriminated high and low risk-taking male adolescents aged 18–19 years by assessing their propensity for risky behavior and vulnerability to peer influence with personality tests, and compared structural differences in gray and white matter of the brain with voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), respectively. We also compared the brain structures according to the participants' actual risk-taking behavior in a simulated driving task with two different social conditions making up a peer competition situation. There was a discrepancy between the self-reported personality test results and risky driving behavior (running through an intersection with traffic lights turning yellow, chancing a collision with another vehicle). Comparison between high and low risk-taking adolescents according to personality test results revealed no significant difference in gray matter volume and white matter integrity. However, comparison according to actual risk-taking behavior during task performance revealed significantly higher white matter integrity in the high risk-taking group, suggesting that increased risky behavior during adolescence is not necessarily attributed to the immature brain as conventional wisdom says. PMID:25389976

  11. Risk-Taking Behavior among Adolescents with Prenatal Drug Exposure and Extrauterine Environmental Adversity

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Brittany L.; Bann, Carla M.; Bauer, Charles R.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S.; Lester, Barry M.; Whitaker, Toni M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Hammond, Jane; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective High-risk environments characterized by familial substance use, poverty, inadequate parental monitoring, and violence exposure are associated with an increased propensity for adolescents to engage in risk-taking behaviors (e.g., substance use, sexual behavior, and delinquency). However, additional factors such as drug exposure in utero and deficits in inhibitory control among drug-exposed youth may further influence the likelihood that adolescents in high-risk environments will engage in risk-taking behavior. This study examined the influence of prenatal substance exposure, inhibitory control, and sociodemographic/environmental risk factors on risk-taking behaviors in a large cohort of adolescents with and without prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE). Method Risk-taking behavior (delinquency, substance use, and sexual activity) was assessed in 963 adolescents (433 cocaine-exposed, 530 nonexposed) at 15 years of age. Results PCE predicted later arrests and early onset of sexual behavior in controlled analyses. Associations were partially mediated, however, by adolescent inhibitory control problems. PCE was not associated with substance use at this age. In addition, male gender, low parental involvement, and violence exposure were associated with greater odds of engaging in risk-taking behavior across the observed domains. Conclusions Study findings substantiate concern regarding the association between prenatal substance exposure and related risk factors and the long-term outcomes of exposed youth. Access to the appropriate social, educational, and medical services are essential in preventing and intervening with risk-taking behaviors and the potential consequences (e.g., adverse health outcomes, incarceration), especially among high-risk adolescent youth and their families. PMID:24220515

  12. Risk Taking in Late Adolescence: Relations between Sociomoral Reasoning, Risk Stance, and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Leigh A.; Amsel, Eric; Schillo, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    This study explored relations among late adolescents' sociomoral reasoning about risk taking, risk stance, and behavior. One-hundred and thirty-two participants (18-20-year-olds) were surveyed about their own risk stance (Avoidant, Opportunistic, Curious, Risk Seeking) and behavior in three realms (Alcohol Use, Drug Use, Reckless Driving), and…

  13. Impact of Religious Education and Religiosity on Adolescent Alcohol Use and Risk-Taking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use and risk-taking behavior among 345 male adolescents from three Israeli secular (n = 168) and three religious (n = 177) high schools were studied from 2009 to 2013. Findings show the positive impact religious education and religiosity have on minimizing alcohol use, binge drinking, school underachievement, violence, weapons possession,…

  14. The Impact of School Connectedness on Violent Behavior, Transport Risk-Taking Behavior, and Associated Injuries in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Rebekah L.; Buckley, Lisa; Sheehan, Mary C.; Shochet, Ian M.; Romaniuk, Madeline

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents engage in many risk-taking behaviors that have the potential to lead to injury. The school environment has a significant role in shaping adolescent behavior, and this study aimed to provide additional information about the benefits associated with connectedness to school. Early adolescents aged 13 to 15 years (N=509, 49% boys) were…

  15. Analogue Study of Peer Influence on Risk-Taking Behavior in Older Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; MacPherson, Laura; Schwartz, Sarah; Fox, Nathan A.; Lejuez, C. W.

    2013-01-01

    This experimental study aimed to examine whether adolescents act in a riskier manner in the presence of peers and whether peer presence alone influences risk behavior or if a direct influence process is necessary. Utilizing a behavioral task assessing risk-taking, 183 older adolescents (18–20 year olds) came to the laboratory alone once and then were randomized to one of three conditions: alone, peers present, peers encouraging. An interaction was found such that at baseline there were no significant differences between the three conditions but at the experimental session there was a significant increase in risk task scores particularly for the encouraging condition. These findings challenge proposed models of the interaction between peer influence and risk taking by providing evidence that adolescents take more risks when being encouraged by peers but that the presence of peers on its own does not lead to more risks than when completing the task alone. PMID:24122411

  16. Influence of social stress on risk-taking behavior in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Elizabeth K; Schreiber, Whitney M; Geisel, Kathy; MacPherson, Laura; Ernst, Monique; Lejuez, C W

    2013-04-01

    Risk-taking behavior involves making choices with uncertain positive or negative outcomes. Evidence suggests that risk-taking behavior is influenced by emotional state. One such emotional experience is social anxiety, which has been related to both risk-avoidant and risk-seeking decision making. The present study examined a community sample of 34 adolescents grouped into low (Low SA Group) and high (High SA Group) social anxiety (SA). Both groups were compared on changes in performance on a risk taking task (Balloon Analogue Risk Task) between a social threat condition (modified Trier Social Stress Test, High Stress) and a control condition (Low Stress). These conditions were administered on different days, and the order was counterbalanced across subjects. A group×condition interaction revealed that the High SA Group showed greater risk-taking behavior when exposed to the High Stress Condition compared to the Low Stress Condition, while the Low SA Group evidenced no difference between the two conditions. Interpretations for the increased risk behavior under the condition of social stress for those high in social anxiety are discussed as well as implications for understanding the complex relationship between social anxiety and risk behavior. PMID:23602940

  17. Evaluation of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) as a Predictor of Adolescent Real-World Risk-Taking Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lejuez, C. W.; Aklin, Will M.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Pedulla, Christina M.

    2003-01-01

    A sample of 26 adolescents tested the utility of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) as a behavioral measure of risk-taking propensity. Data indicate that riskyness on the BART was related to self-reported engagement in real-world risk-taking behaviors. These data suggest that the BART may be a useful addition to self-report batteries for the…

  18. Social Science Theories on Adolescent Risk-Taking: The Relevance of Behavioral Inhibition and Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeersch, Hans; T'Sjoen, Guy; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2013-01-01

    The major social science theories on adolescent risk-taking--strain, social control, and differential association theories--have received substantial empirical support. The relationships between variables central to these theories and individual differences in temperament related to risk-taking, however, have not been adequately studied. In a…

  19. Motivational Systems in Adolescence: Possible Implications for Age Differences in Substance Abuse and Other Risk-Taking Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L.; Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Spear, Linda P.

    2010-01-01

    Adolescence is an evolutionarily conserved developmental phase characterized by hormonal, physiological, neural and behavioral alterations evident widely across mammalian species. For instance, adolescent rats, like their human counterparts, exhibit elevations in peer-directed social interactions, risk-taking/novelty seeking and drug and alcohol…

  20. Adolescents' AIDS Risk Taking: A Rational Choice Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, William; Herman, Janna

    1990-01-01

    Discounts the belief in adolescents' irrational behavior, and proposes a rational choice decision-making theory of adolescent risk-taking behavior. Suggests that social ecology affects risk-taking choices. Proposals for AIDS education concern delayed initiation of sexual activity, promotion of condom use, and counseling of high-risk adolescents.…

  1. Intuitive Risk Taking during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, James D.; Klaczynski, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents frequently engage in risky behaviors that endanger both themselves and others. Critical to the development of effective interventions is an understanding of the processes adolescents go through when deciding to take risks. This article explores two information processing systems; a slow, deliberative, analytic system and a quick,…

  2. Neural correlates of adolescents' viewing of parents' and peers' emotions: Associations with risk-taking behavior and risky peer affiliations.

    PubMed

    Saxbe, Darby; Del Piero, Larissa; Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Kaplan, Jonas; Margolin, Gayla

    2015-01-01

    Social reorientation from parents to same-age peers is normative in adolescence, but the neural correlates of youths' socioemotional processing of parents and peers have not been explored. In the current study, 22 adolescents (average age 16.98) underwent neuroimaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging) while viewing and rating emotions shown in brief video clips featuring themselves, their parents, or an unfamiliar peer. Viewing self vs. other and parents vs. the peer activated regions in the medial prefrontal cortex, replicating prior findings that this area responds to self-relevant stimuli, including familiar and not just similar others. Viewing the peer compared with parents elicited activation in posterior 'mentalizing' structures, the precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), bilateral posterior superior temporal sulcus and right temporoparietal junction, as well as the ventral striatum and bilateral amygdala and hippocampus. Relative activations in the PCC and precuneus to the peer vs. the parent were related both to reported risk-taking behavior and to affiliations with more risk-taking peers. The results suggest neural correlates of the adolescent social reorientation toward peers and away from parents that may be associated with adolescents' real-life risk-taking behaviors and social relationships. PMID:25874749

  3. Adolescent contraceptive risk-taking behavior: a social psychological model of females' use of and compliance with birth control.

    PubMed

    Durant, R H; Sanders Jm; Jay, S; Levinson, R

    1990-01-01

    Assuming that contraceptives are readily available and affordable to most adolescents, but that insufficient contraceptive use and high pregnancy rates stem from adolescent female risk-taking, a multivariate model of adolescent female contraceptive risk-taking behavior is described. Derived from behavioral science theory and empirical research, the model postulates direct and indirect associations between relevant variables. It also assumes behavior is comprised of deciding to initiate birth control, choosing a contraceptive method, complying with the method, and deciding to change methods or discontinue birth control. Premarital sexual standards and experiences, length of sexual relationship, religiosity and traditional values, and physical and sexual development are discussed as variables that directly affect the frequency of sexual intercourse. The frequency of sexual intercourse and perceived risk of pregnancy, and the perceived probability of pregnancy and outcome experiences of sexual activity are also examined. Variables that mediate the impact of coital frequency on contraceptive risk-taking include the cognitive assessment of pregnancy and contraception, support by significant others, personality development, and experience with contraceptives. Empirical tests of the model are discussed. PMID:12317634

  4. [Risk-taking behaviors among young people].

    PubMed

    Le Breton, David

    2004-01-01

    Risk-taking behaviors are often an ambivalent way of calling for help from close friends or family - those who count. It is an ultimate means of finding meaning and a system of values; it is a sign of an adolescent's active resistance and attempts to re-establish his or her place in the world. It contrasts with the far more incisive risk of depression and the radical collapse of meaning. In spite of the suffering it engenders, risk-taking nevertheless has a positive side, fostering independence in adolescents and a search for reference points. It leads to a better self-image and is a means of developing one's identity. It is nonetheless painful in terms of its repercussions in terms of injuries, death or addiction. The turbulence caused by risk-taking behaviors illustrates a determination to be rid of one's suffering and to fight on so that life can, at last, be lived. PMID:15918660

  5. Life Satisfaction and Risk-taking Behavior in Secondary Schools Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Music, Miralem; Abidovic, Amela; Babic, Nermina; Mujaric, Ekrema; Dervisevic, Senad; Slatina, Enes; Salibasic, Mirhan; Tuna, Enes

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Life satisfaction involves cognitive component that allows evaluation of the life and accomplishments of life, and emotional component that includes an evaluation of emotions and mood that followed these accomplishments. Goal: To examine the life satisfaction of young people who attend secondary school, examine the level of satisfaction with life according to sex, to academic achievement, the presence of siblings and to examine the relationship between levels of life satisfaction and risk-taking behaviors. Results and Discussion: The results showed that there was no relationship between life satisfaction and preferences of delinquency, as well as life satisfaction and achieved academic success. The results confirmed the relationship between life satisfaction and sex as well as the relationship between life satisfaction and the presence of siblings in the family. PMID:24167431

  6. Risk of Suicidal Ideation in Adolescents with Both Self-Asphyxial Risk-Taking Behavior and Non-Suicidal Self-Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brausch, Amy M.; Decker, Kristina M.; Hadley, Andrea G.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined adolescent participation in self-asphyxial risk-taking behaviors (SAB), sometimes known as the "choking game," and its relationship with other adolescent risk behaviors, including non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). Researchers proposed that participation in SAB and NSSI would be associated with suicidal behavior, disordered…

  7. Neuromaturation and Adolescent Risk Taking: Why Development Is Not Determinism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sara B.; Sudhinaraset, May; Blum, Robert Wm.

    2010-01-01

    In the January 2009 issue of this journal, Males argues that adolescent brain science perpetuates the "myth of adolescent risk taking." He contends that those who study adolescent neuromaturation are biological determinists who ignore the profound social and environmental forces that influence adolescent behavior to further their own agendas.…

  8. A Developmental Perspective on Adolescent Risk Taking in Contemporary America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumrind, Diana

    1987-01-01

    Adolescent risk-taking behavior needs to be understood in the context of contemporary youth culture and normal development. To facilitate passage through adolescence, parents should sustain a climate of control and commitment balanced by respect for the adolescent's increased capacity for self-regulation. (Author)

  9. Rethinking Adolescent Risk-Taking Behavior and the Peer Leader Dynamic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, D. S. G.; And Others

    The nature of the interactions that occur among peer leaders, peer influence, and the dynamics of the peer reference group in the context of health, interpersonal relations and lifestyle choice were the subjects of this study. Its first stage (of two) employed a case study of a single metropolitan senior high school in Australia. Adolescent peer…

  10. Disentangling Adolescent Pathways of Sexual Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookmeyer, Kathryn A.; Henrich, Christopher C.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the authors aimed to describe the pathways of risk within sexual risk taking, alcohol use, and delinquency, and then identify how the trajectory of sexual risk is linked to alcohol use and delinquency. Risk trajectories were measured with adolescents aged 15-24 years (N = 1,778). Using…

  11. School-Level Application of a Social Bonding Model to Adolescent Risk-Taking Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Colleen M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a study that tested a model that included individual and environmental indicators of bonding to predict smoking, substance use, and sexual activity among secondary students. Individuals reporting high levels of bonding were less likely to exhibit high-risk behavior, regardless of gender. School environment directly influenced ninth…

  12. Risk-Taking Behavior in a Computerized Driving Task: Brain Activation Correlates of Decision-Making, Outcome, and Peer Influence in Male Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Vorobyev, Victor; Kwon, Myoung Soo; Moe, Dagfinn; Parkkola, Riitta; Hämäläinen, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    Increased propensity for risky behavior in adolescents, particularly in peer groups, is thought to reflect maturational imbalance between reward processing and cognitive control systems that affect decision-making. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate brain functional correlates of risk-taking behavior and effects of peer influence in 18–19-year-old male adolescents. The subjects were divided into low and high risk-taking groups using either personality tests or risk-taking rates in a simulated driving task. The fMRI data were analyzed for decision-making (whether to take a risk at intersections) and outcome (pass or crash) phases, and for the influence of peer competition. Personality test-based groups showed no difference in the amount of risk-taking (similarly increased during peer competition) and brain activation. When groups were defined by actual task performance, risk-taking activated two areas in the left medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) significantly more in low than in high risk-takers. In the entire sample, risky decision-specific activation was found in the anterior and dorsal cingulate, superior parietal cortex, basal ganglia (including the nucleus accumbens), midbrain, thalamus, and hypothalamus. Peer competition increased outcome-related activation in the right caudate head and cerebellar vermis in the entire sample. Our results suggest that the activation of the medial (rather than lateral) PFC and striatum is most specific to risk-taking behavior of male adolescents in a simulated driving situation, and reflect a stronger conflict and thus increased cognitive effort to take risks in low risk-takers, and reward anticipation for risky decisions, respectively. The activation of the caudate nucleus, particularly for the positive outcome (pass) during peer competition, further suggests enhanced reward processing of risk-taking under peer influence. PMID:26052943

  13. Risk-Taking Behavior in a Computerized Driving Task: Brain Activation Correlates of Decision-Making, Outcome, and Peer Influence in Male Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vorobyev, Victor; Kwon, Myoung Soo; Moe, Dagfinn; Parkkola, Riitta; Hämäläinen, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    Increased propensity for risky behavior in adolescents, particularly in peer groups, is thought to reflect maturational imbalance between reward processing and cognitive control systems that affect decision-making. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate brain functional correlates of risk-taking behavior and effects of peer influence in 18-19-year-old male adolescents. The subjects were divided into low and high risk-taking groups using either personality tests or risk-taking rates in a simulated driving task. The fMRI data were analyzed for decision-making (whether to take a risk at intersections) and outcome (pass or crash) phases, and for the influence of peer competition. Personality test-based groups showed no difference in the amount of risk-taking (similarly increased during peer competition) and brain activation. When groups were defined by actual task performance, risk-taking activated two areas in the left medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) significantly more in low than in high risk-takers. In the entire sample, risky decision-specific activation was found in the anterior and dorsal cingulate, superior parietal cortex, basal ganglia (including the nucleus accumbens), midbrain, thalamus, and hypothalamus. Peer competition increased outcome-related activation in the right caudate head and cerebellar vermis in the entire sample. Our results suggest that the activation of the medial (rather than lateral) PFC and striatum is most specific to risk-taking behavior of male adolescents in a simulated driving situation, and reflect a stronger conflict and thus increased cognitive effort to take risks in low risk-takers, and reward anticipation for risky decisions, respectively. The activation of the caudate nucleus, particularly for the positive outcome (pass) during peer competition, further suggests enhanced reward processing of risk-taking under peer influence. PMID:26052943

  14. A Social Neuroscience Perspective on Adolescent Risk-Taking

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Laurence

    2007-01-01

    This article proposes a framework for theory and research on risk-taking that is informed by developmental neuroscience. Two fundamental questions motivate this review. First, why does risk-taking increase between childhood and adolescence? Second, why does risk-taking decline between adolescence and adulthood? Risk-taking increases between childhood and adolescence as a result of changes around the time of puberty in the brain’s socio-emotional system leading to increased reward-seeking, especially in the presence of peers, fueled mainly by a dramatic remodeling of the brain’s dopaminergic system. Risk-taking declines between adolescence and adulthood because of changes in the brain’s cognitive control system – changes which improve individuals’ capacity for self-regulation. These changes occur across adolescence and young adulthood and are seen in structural and functional changes within the prefrontal cortex and its connections to other brain regions. The differing timetables of these changes make mid-adolescence a time of heightened vulnerability to risky and reckless behavior. PMID:18509515

  15. A Social Neuroscience Perspective on Adolescent Risk-Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    This article proposes a framework for theory and research on risk-taking that is informed by developmental neuroscience. Two fundamental questions motivate this review. First, why does risk-taking increase between childhood and adolescence? Second, why does risk-taking decline between adolescence and adulthood? Risk-taking increases between…

  16. The Personal Fable and Risk-Taking in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberts, Amy; Elkind, David; Ginsberg, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Elkind's (1967) theory of adolescent egocentrism proposes two distinct, but related, constructs--the "imaginary audience" and the "personal fable." A corollary to the imaginary audience, the personal fable (PF) yields a sense of invulnerability and speciality commonly associated with behavioral risk-taking. When regarded as a developmental…

  17. Dying for romance: risk taking as purposive behavior.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Jason T

    2011-12-01

    Many approaches have been utilized to understand adolescent risk taking. The current research frames risk taking as a purposive behavior enacted with a specific goal in mind. Rather than assuming adolescent risk taking to be the result of arrogance or perceived invulnerability, adolescent risk taking is interpreted as a means to an end. Stemming from a Tolmanian framework, an alternative explanation for adolescent risk taking is tested: adolescents are willing to take risks to the extent that the risk is associated with a needed outcome - the greater the need for the outcome, the greater the willingness to take risks. To test the proposed hypothesis, 192 participants completed a survey about their need for a romantic relationship and their willingness to endure harm to obtain a romantic relationship. Data were collected at two time points. A hierarchical regression revealed that need for romance is a significant predictor of willingness to endure harm for romance, even after gender and sensation seeking are statistically controlled. Moreover, need for romance at T1 was shown to be predictive of harm for romance at T2. Results are supportive of taking a purposive - that is, Tolmanian - approach, as a means for interpreting adolescent behavior. PMID:21745031

  18. Adolescent tanning, disordered eating, and risk taking.

    PubMed

    Schwebel, David C

    2014-04-01

    Indoor tanning and eating disorder behaviors are both significant adolescent public health risks. Recent results by Amrock and Weitzman provocatively suggest a link between the two, perhaps because of a shared cause of dysfunctional cognition about body image. This commentary discusses a possible model to explain the association between indoor tanning and eating disorder behaviors among teenagers. It also presents various strategies to prevent the negative outcomes, with a focus on preventing adolescent tanning behavior. Prevention strategies worth consideration include counseling by pediatricians or other health professionals, improved parental supervision and monitoring, and policy change to prohibit adolescent use of tanning facilities. PMID:24695120

  19. Risk-Taking and the Adolescent Brain: Who Is at Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvan, Adriana; Hare, Todd; Voss, Henning; Glover, Gary; Casey, B. J.

    2007-01-01

    Relative to other ages, adolescence is described as a period of increased impulsive and risk-taking behavior that can lead to fatal outcomes (suicide, substance abuse, HIV, accidents, etc.). This study was designed to examine neural correlates of risk-taking behavior in adolescents, relative to children and adults, in order to predict who may be…

  20. Longitudinal Changes in Prefrontal Cortex Activation Underlie Declines in Adolescent Risk Taking

    PubMed Central

    Galvan, Adriana; Fuligni, Andrew J.; Lieberman, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical developmental phase during which risk-taking behaviors increase across a variety of species, raising the importance of understanding how brain changes contribute to such behaviors. While the prefrontal cortex is thought to influence adolescent risk taking, the specific ways in which it functions are unclear. Using longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging in human adolescents, we found that ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) activation decreased during an experimental risk-taking task over time, with greater declines in VLPFC associated with greater declines in self-reported risky behavior. Furthermore, greater decreases in functional coupling between the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and ventral striatum over time were associated with decreases in self-reported risky behavior. Thus, disparate roles of the VLPFC and MPFC modulate longitudinal declines in adolescent risk taking. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Adolescence is a developmental period marked by steep increases in risk-taking behavior coupled with dramatic brain changes. Although theories propose that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) may influence adolescent risk taking, the specific ways in which it functions remain unclear. We report the first longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging study to examine how neural activation during risk taking changes over time and contributes to adolescents' real-life risk-taking behavior. We find that longitudinal declines in activation of the ventrolateral PFC are linked to declines in adolescent risk taking, whereas the medial PFC influences adolescent risk taking via its functional neural coupling with reward-related regions. This is the first study to identify the mechanism by which different regions of the PFC disparately contribute to declines in risk taking. PMID:26269638

  1. In Their Own Words: Adolescents Strategies to Prevent Friend's Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Lisa; Chapman, Rebekah L.; Sheehan, Mary C.; Reveruzzi, Bianca N.

    2014-01-01

    Injury is a significant public health problem among youth. A primary cause of adolescent injury is risk-taking behavior, including alcohol use, interpersonal violence and road-related risks. A novel approach to prevention is building on friendships by encouraging adolescents to intervene into their friends' risk taking. Fifty-one early…

  2. Reducing sexual risk taking behaviors among adolescents who engage in transactional sex in post-conflict Liberia

    PubMed Central

    Atwood, Katharine A.; Kennedy, Stephen B.; Shamblen, Steve; Taylor, Curtis H.; Quaqua, Monica; Bee, Ernree M.; Gobeh, Mawen E.; Woods, Daisajou V.; Dennis, Barclay

    2013-01-01

    Transactional sex (TS) has been correlated with HIV/STD infection, pregnancy, early marriage, and sexual violence in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Few Western-based HIV prevention programs adapted for SSA have examined intervention impacts for this group. This article examines whether an HIV prevention intervention, delivered to sixth-grade students in Liberia (age range 14–17) and found to increase condom use and other mediators for the larger sample, significantly impacted sexual behaviors and mediators for those who engaged in TS. Using an attention-matched, group-randomized controlled design, four matched pairs of elementary schools in Monrovia, Liberia, were randomly assigned to an adapted eight-module HIV prevention or a general health curriculum. Nine-month impacts of the intervention on sexual risk behaviors and mediators for those who engaged in TS, when compared with other study participants, are presented. Twelve percent of our sample of sixth graders (n = 714) ever engaged in TS. The majority of females reported being promised something in exchange for sex (52%), whereas the majority of males (52%) reported being both the giver and recipient of gifts in exchange for sex. Compared with other students, those who engaged in TS reported greater increases in the number of sex partners, reported greater frequency of sexual intercourse, were more likely to try to get pregnant or someone else pregnant, and reported greater reductions in protective sexual attitudes and HIV risk perception at the nine month follow-up, in both the intervention and the control groups. Our intervention, although successful for the general in-school adolescent sample, did not impact risk behaviors or mediators for adolescents who engaged in TS. Future research should explore the complex sexual economy in which TS is embedded and consider adapting HIV prevention interventions to the needs of this high-risk group. PMID:23626654

  3. Depressive Symptoms and Health-Related Risk-Taking in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testa, C. Rylann; Steinberg, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between symptoms and a variety of health-related risk-taking behaviors during adolescence. A survey of 20,745 adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health provided data for analysis. Adolescents who reported more depressive symptoms were found to wear seatbelts less often, wear…

  4. The quality of adolescents' peer relationships modulates neural sensitivity to risk taking.

    PubMed

    Telzer, Eva H; Fuligni, Andrew J; Lieberman, Matthew D; Miernicki, Michelle E; Galván, Adriana

    2015-03-01

    Adolescents' peer culture plays a key role in the development and maintenance of risk-taking behavior. Despite recent advances in developmental neuroscience suggesting that peers may increase neural sensitivity to rewards, we know relatively little about how the quality of peer relations impact adolescent risk taking. In the current 2-year three-wave longitudinal study, we examined how chronic levels of peer conflict relate to risk taking behaviorally and neurally, and whether this is modified by high-quality peer relationships. Forty-six adolescents completed daily diaries assessing peer conflict across 2 years as well as a measure of peer support. During a functional brain scan, adolescents completed a risk-taking task. Behaviorally, peer conflict was associated with greater risk-taking behavior, especially for adolescents reporting low peer support. High levels of peer support buffered this association. At the neural level, peer conflict was associated with greater activation in the striatum and insula, especially among adolescents reporting low peer support, whereas this association was buffered for adolescents reporting high peer support. Results are consistent with the stress-buffering model of social relationships and underscore the importance of the quality of adolescents' peer relationships for their risk taking. PMID:24795443

  5. Adolescent Risk-Taking and Social Meaning: A Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunstein, Cass R.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent risk-taking can be illuminated through an understanding of the development of the brain, of dual-processing theories, and of social norms and meanings. When adolescents take unjustified risks, it is often because of the weakness of their analytic systems, which provide an inadequate check on impulsive or ill-considered decisions. Social…

  6. Risk Taking in First and Second Generation Afro-Caribbean Adolescents: An Emerging Challenge for School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolly, Kim; Archibald, Cynthia; Liehr, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    School nurses are well positioned to address risk-taking behaviors for adolescents in their care. The purpose of this mixed-method exploratory study was to explore risk taking in Afro-Caribbean adolescents in South Florida, comparing first- to second-generation adolescents. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from an immigrant group…

  7. Adolescent and adult risk-taking in virtual social contexts

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Anneke D. M.; Norman, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of experimental data addressing how peers influence adolescent risk-taking. Here, we examined peer effects on risky decision-making in adults and adolescents using a virtual social context that enabled experimental control over the peer “interactions.” 40 adolescents (age 11–18) and 28 adults (age 20–38) completed a risk-taking (Wheel of Fortune) task under four conditions: in private; while being observed by (fictitious) peers; and after receiving ‘risky’ or ‘safe’ advice from the peers. For high-risk gambles (but not medium-risk or even gambles), adolescents made more risky decisions under peer observation than adults. Adolescents, but not adults, tended to resist ‘safe’ advice for high-risk gambles. Although both groups tended to follow ‘risky’ advice for high-risk gambles, adults did so more than adolescents. These findings highlight the importance of distinguishing between the effects of peer observation and peer advice on risky decision-making. PMID:25566150

  8. Risk-Taking and Sensation Seeking Propensity in Post-Institutionalized Early Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Loman, Michelle M.; Johnson, Anna E.; Quevedo, Karina; Lafavor, Theresa L.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Youth with histories of institutional/orphanage care are at increased risk for externalizing and internalizing problems during childhood and adolescence. Although these problems have been well described, the related adolescent behaviors of risk-taking and sensation seeking have not yet been explored in this population. This study examined risk-taking and sensation seeking propensity, and associations with conduct problems and depressive symptoms, in early adolescents who were adopted as young children from institutional care. Methods Risk-taking and sensation seeking propensities of 12- and 13-year-old post-institutionalized (PI; n=54) adolescents were compared to two groups: youth internationally adopted early from foster care (PFC; n=44) and non-adopted youth (NA; n=58). Participants were recruited to equally represent pre/early- and mid/late-pubertal stages within each group. Participants completed the youth version of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (Lejuez et al., 2007) and the Sensation Seeking Scale for Children (Russo et al., 1991). Parents completed clinical ratings of participants’ conduct problems and depressive symptoms. Results PI adolescents demonstrated lower risk-taking than PFC and NA peers. Pre/early-pubertal PI youth showed lower sensation seeking, while mid/late pubertal PI youth did not differ in from other groups. PI adolescents had higher levels of conduct problems but did not differ from the other youth in depressive symptoms. In PI youth only, conduct problems were negatively correlated with risk-taking and positively correlated with sensation seeking, while depressive symptoms were negatively correlated with both risk-taking and sensation seeking. Conclusions Early institutional care is associated with less risk-taking and sensation seeking during adolescence. The deprived environment of an institution likely contributes to PI youth having a preference for safe choices, which may only be partially reversed with puberty. Whether

  9. Depressive symptoms and health-related risk-taking in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Testa, C Rylann; Steinberg, Laurence

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated the relation between symptoms and a variety of health-related risk-taking behaviors during adolescence. A survey of 20,745 adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health provided data for analysis. Adolescents who reported more depressive symptoms were found to wear seatbelts less often, wear bike-helmets less often, and drive while drunk more frequently. Depressive symptoms did not correlate with reported condom use. The found relations were all mediated by reported levels of hopelessness. Reported levels of anhedonia and suicidality also mediated some of the found relations. Therefore, adolescents experiencing depressive symptoms, especially those reporting hopelessness, should be considered at jeopardy for a variety of health-related risk-taking behaviors. PMID:20560751

  10. Adolescent Risk-Taking and the Five-Factor Model of Personality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullone, Eleonora; Moore, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the links between adolescent risk-taking and personality, as conceptualized using the Five-factor Model of personality (N=459). Results reveal that risk judgments, personality factors, age and sex were significant predictors of risk behaviors; however, the personality factor of significance was found to differ depending upon the risk…

  11. Does the Adolescent Brain Make Risk Taking Inevitable? A Skeptical Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Males, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly influential theories hold that the "teenage brain" suffers cognitive flaws that impel risk taking. Aside from warnings by leading researchers that brain science is insufficiently advanced to yield definitive findings that teenage behaviors are internally driven, the belief that adolescents take excessive risks has been developed using…

  12. Teachers' Perceptions of School Connectedness and Risk-Taking in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Rebekah L.; Buckley, Lisa; Sheehan, Mary; Shochet, Ian M.

    2014-01-01

    School connectedness has been shown to be an important protective factor in adolescent development, which is associated with reduced risk-taking behavior. Interventions to increase students' connectedness to school commonly incorporate aspects of teacher training. To date, however, research on connectedness has largely been based on student…

  13. Sex differences in risk taking behavior among Dutch cyclists.

    PubMed

    Cobey, Kelly D; Stulp, Gert; Laan, Freek; Buunk, Abraham P; Pollet, Thomas V

    2013-01-01

    The majority of research examining sex differences in risk-taking behavior focuses on overt physical risk measures in which failed risk attempts may result in serious injury or death. The present research describes sex differences in patterns of risk taking in day-to-day behavior among Dutch cyclists. Through three observational studies we test sex differences in risk taking in situations of financial risk (fines for failing to use bike lights, Study 1), theft risk (bike locking behavior, Study 2) as well as physical risk (risky maneuvers, Study 3). Results corroborate previous findings by showing that across these domains men are more inclined to take risks than women. We discuss how these findings might be used in an applied context. PMID:23674522

  14. Pathways to Sexual Risk Taking Among Female Adolescent Detainees

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Vera; Kopak, Albert; Robillard, Alyssa; Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Holliday, Rhonda C.; Braithwaite, Ronald L.

    2011-01-01

    Sexual risk taking among female delinquents represents a significant public health problem. Research is needed to understand the pathways leading to sexual risk taking among this population. This study sought to address this issue by identifying and testing two pathways from child maltreatment to non-condom use among 329 White and 484 African American female adolescent detainees: a relational pathway and a substance use coping pathway. The relational pathway indicated that child maltreatment would be related to non-condom use via depressive self-concept and condom use self-efficacy. The substance use coping pathway suggested that depressive self-concept and alcohol-based expectancies for sexual enhancement would mediate the relationship between child maltreatment and non-condom use. As hypothesized, the relational pathway variables were associated with one another in the expected directions; however, evidence of mediation was not found. Support for mediation was found for the substance use coping pathway. Exploratory across group comparison analysis indicated that the relational pathway was significant for White girls whereas the substance use coping pathway was significant for African American girls. Limitations and implications for future research are discussed. PMID:21188488

  15. The Relationships between Emerging Adults' Expressed Desire to Marry and Frequency of Participation in Risk-Taking Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Brian J.; Dworkin, Jodi

    2009-01-01

    The impact that desire to marry has on risk-taking behaviors during emerging adulthood is examined in the current investigation using nationally representative data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Looking both at the simple relationships between desire to marry and risk-taking behaviors, as well as the…

  16. Peers Increase Adolescent Risk Taking Even When the Probabilities of Negative Outcomes Are Known

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ashley R.; Chein, Jason; Steinberg, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    The majority of adolescent risk taking occurs in the presence of peers, and recent research suggests that the presence of peers may alter how the potential rewards and costs of a decision are valuated or perceived. The current study further explores this notion by investigating how peer observation affects adolescent risk taking when the information necessary to make an informed decision is explicitly provided. We used a novel probabilistic gambling task in which participants decided whether to play or pass on a series of offers for which the reward and loss outcome probabilities were made explicit. Adolescent participants completed the task either alone or under the belief that they were being observed by an unknown peer in a neighboring room. Participants who believed a peer was observing them chose to gamble more often than participants who completed the task alone, and this effect was most evident for decisions with a greater probability of loss. These results suggest that the presence of peers can increase risk taking among adolescents even when specific information regarding the likelihood of positive and negative outcomes is provided. The findings expand our understanding of how peers influence adolescent decision making and have important implications regarding the value of educational programs aimed at reducing risky behaviors during adolescence. PMID:24447118

  17. Differential associations between impulsivity and risk-taking and brain activations underlying working memory in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Panwar, Karni; Rutherford, Helena J V; Mencl, W Einar; Lacadie, Cheryl M; Potenza, Marc N; Mayes, Linda C

    2014-11-01

    Increased impulsivity and risk-taking are common during adolescence and relate importantly to addictive behaviors. However, the extent to which impulsivity and risk-taking relate to brain activations that mediate cognitive processing is not well understood. Here we examined the relationships between impulsivity and risk-taking and the neural correlates of working memory. Neural activity was measured in 18 adolescents (13-18 years) while they engaged in a working memory task that included verbal and visuospatial components that each involved encoding, rehearsal and recognition stages. Risk-taking and impulsivity were assessed using the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) and the adolescent version of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11A), respectively. We found overlapping as well as distinct regions subserving the different stages of verbal and visuospatial working memory. In terms of risk-taking, we found a positive correlation between BART scores and activity in subcortical regions (e.g., thalamus, dorsal striatum) recruited during verbal rehearsal, and an inverse correlation between BART scores and cortical regions (e.g., parietal and temporal regions) recruited during visuospatial rehearsal. The BIS-11A evidenced that motor impulsivity was associated with activity in regions recruited during all stages of working memory, while attention and non-planning impulsivity was only associated with activity in regions recruited during recognition. In considering working memory, impulsivity and risk-taking together, both impulsivity and risk-taking were associated with activity in regions recruited during rehearsal; however, during verbal rehearsal, differential correlations were found. Specifically, positive correlations were found between: (1) risk-taking and activity in subcortical regions, including the thalamus and dorsal striatum; and, (2) motor impulsivity and activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus, insula, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Therefore

  18. Red Color and Risk-Taking Behavior in Online Environments

    PubMed Central

    Gnambs, Timo; Appel, Markus; Oeberst, Aileen

    2015-01-01

    In many situations red is associated with hazard and danger. As a consequence, it was expected that task-irrelevant color cues in online environments would affect risk-taking behaviors. This assumption was tested in two web-based experiments. The first study (N = 383) demonstrated that in risky choice dilemmas respondents preferred the less risky option when the displayed university logo was in red (versus gray); but only when both choice alternatives were at least moderately risky. The second study (N = 144) replicated these results with a behavioral outcome: Respondents showed more cautious behavior in a web-based game when the focal stimuli were colored red (versus blue). Together, these findings demonstrate that variations in the color design of a computerized environment affect risk taking: Red color leads to more conservative choices and behaviors. PMID:26207983

  19. Youth Risk Taking Behavior: The Role of Schools. A Center Policy & Practice Analysis Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Risk taking is natural. As the bumper stickers says: "Risk taking happens!" Risk taking behavior may be beneficial or harmful. Some risk taking is unintentional. But a considerable amount stems from proactive or reactive motivation. For schools, some forms of student risk taking behavior are a necessity, and some forms are a problem. With respect…

  20. Not all risk taking behavior is bad: Associative sensitivity predicts learning during risk taking among high sensation seekers

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Lee, Steve S.; Tottenham, Nim

    2013-01-01

    Risk taking behavior can be both adaptive and maladaptive depending on context. The majority of studies of risk taking, however, focus on clinical populations and dangerous or harmful risk taking. Individual differences in learning during risk taking are rarely examined in relation to task performance. The present study examined risk taking and associated outcomes in an exploration-based instrumental learning task (Balloon Emotional Learning Task; BELT), which presented a series of balloons in which participants pump up for points. Consistent with prior work, sensation seeking predicted increased risk taking behavior. Importantly, however, a significant interaction between sensation seeking and associative sensitivity, an attentional construct defined as the frequency and remoteness of automatic cognitive activity, was found. Specifically, among individuals high in sensation seeking, associative sensitivity predicted fewer balloon explosions and an increase in points earned on the balloon condition with the most potential feedback driven learning. Thus, these findings suggest that sensation seekers are a heterogeneous group, and secondary traits such as associative sensitivity moderate behavior such as risk taking and learning according to context. PMID:23935235

  1. Adolescent Risk-Taking: Integrating Personal, Cognitive, and Social Aspects of Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Ty W.; Byrnes, James P.

    2009-01-01

    Developmental research has examined individual differences, cognitive developmental bases, and psychosocial factors of adolescent risk-taking. The current paper presents a general adolescent risk-taking model that adopts aspects of each of these primarily independent areas. This model is based on the premise that adolescents take risks when (a)…

  2. Peers Increase Adolescent Risk Taking by Enhancing Activity in the Brain's Reward Circuitry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chein, Jason; Albert, Dustin; O'Brien, Lia; Uckert, Kaitlyn; Steinberg, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    The presence of peers increases risk taking among adolescents but not adults. We posited that the presence of peers may promote adolescent risk taking by sensitizing brain regions associated with the anticipation of potential rewards. Using fMRI, we measured brain activity in adolescents, young adults, and adults as they made decisions in a…

  3. Gender Differences in Adolescent Risk Taking: Are They Diminishing?--An Australian Intergenerational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott-Chapman, Joan; Denholm, Carey; Wyld, Colin

    2008-01-01

    Research investigating patterns of intergenerational risk taking has produced evidence of increased risk taking of female adolescents compared with their mother's generation and a reduction in the traditional gap between levels of teenage male and female risk taking. The research is part of a larger, multistage project on factors affecting…

  4. The role of testosterone in aggressive and non-aggressive risk-taking in adolescent boys.

    PubMed

    Vermeersch, Hans; T'Sjoen, Guy; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Vincke, John

    2008-03-01

    While there exists increasing evidence of a relationship between testosterone (T) and risk-taking (RT), many issues remain unsolved. This paper tries to address two main-questions: (i) does T influence aggressive risk-taking (ART) and/or non-aggressive risk-taking (NART) behavior and (ii) is this relationship stable throughout age and pubertal development and how is the relationship affected by affiliations with peers that are highly involved in RT, referred to as differential association (DA)? For a sample of 301 third-grade adolescent boys (mean age 14.4 years), we assessed the relationship between serum levels of T and estradiol (E2), DA and ART/NART. Significant effects of SHBG (Beta=-0.15; p<0.029) and free testosterone (FT) (Beta=0.23; p<0.003) on NART were shown. No significant effects were found with respect to ART. Further analyses showed that the FT-NART and the FT-ART relations differed as to age but not as to pubertal development (PD) and that the relationship between FT and RT is mediated by DA as such that individuals with higher levels of FT have friends that are more involved in RT and their influence contributes to increased levels of RT. Our results indicate that hormone-related interests and predispositions may influence the development of affiliations with risk-taking peers, a factor which is crucial in understanding adolescent RT. PMID:18234200

  5. Pathways to Sexual Risk Taking among Female Adolescent Detainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Vera; Kopak, Albert; Robillard, Alyssa; Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Holliday, Rhonda C.; Braithwaite, Ronald L.

    2011-01-01

    Sexual risk taking among female delinquents represents a significant public health problem. Research is needed to understand the pathways leading to sexual risk taking among this population. This study sought to address this issue by identifying and testing two pathways from child maltreatment to non-condom use among 329 White and 484 African…

  6. Substance use and sexual risk taking among black adolescents and white adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cooper, M L; Peirce, R S; Huselid, R F

    1994-05-01

    Analyses of data from a random sample of 1,259 sexually active adolescents revealed that substance use was associated with increased sexual risk taking on 2 occasions of intercourse (1st intercourse ever and 1st intercourse with most recent partner), even after controlling for demographic experiential, and dispositional confounders. Within-persons analyses yielded similar results, indicating that adolescents who used substances, on 1 of the 2 occasions, reported higher levels of risk taking on the occasion when substances were used than on the no-substance use occasion. However, substance use was both more common and more strongly linked to risk taking among White than Black adolescents, suggesting that White adolescents are a greater risk of negative consequences related to substance use proximal to intercourse. PMID:8055860

  7. Who are those "risk-taking adolescents"? Individual differences in developmental neuroimaging research.

    PubMed

    Bjork, James M; Pardini, Dustin A

    2015-02-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has illuminated the development of human brain function. Some of this work in typically-developing youth has ostensibly captured neural underpinnings of adolescent behavior which is characterized by risk-seeking propensity, according to psychometric questionnaires and a wealth of anecdote. Notably, cross-sectional comparisons have revealed age-dependent differences between adolescents and other age groups in regional brain responsiveness to prospective or experienced rewards (usually greater in adolescents) or penalties (usually diminished in adolescents). These differences have been interpreted as reflecting an imbalance between motivational drive and behavioral control mechanisms, especially in mid-adolescence, thus promoting greater risk-taking. While intriguing, we caution here that researchers should be more circumspect in attributing clinically significant adolescent risky behavior to age-group differences in task-elicited fMRI responses from neurotypical subjects. This is because actual mortality and morbidity from behavioral causes (e.g. substance abuse, violence) by mid-adolescence is heavily concentrated in individuals who are not neurotypical, who rather have shown a lifelong history of behavioral disinhibition that frequently meets criteria for a disruptive behavior disorder, such as conduct disorder, oppositional-defiant disorder, or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. These young people are at extreme risk of poor psychosocial outcomes, and should be a focus of future neurodevelopmental research. PMID:25176616

  8. Brief Report: Classification of Adolescent Suicide and Risk-Taking Deaths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sankey, Melissa; Lawrence, Ruth

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the suicide and risk-taking deaths of adolescents aged 12-17 years between January 1996 and December 2000. The methodology consisted of a case file review of government records. One hundred and eighty-seven adolescents (133 males, 54 females) died by suicide and risk-taking and could be classified into three distinct groups:…

  9. Risk-Taking among Adolescents: Associations with Social and Affective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Keren; Ben-Zur, Hasida

    2007-01-01

    The research investigated the associations of social and affective factors with risk-taking in male and female adolescents. A sample of 269 Israeli adolescents completed questionnaires measuring frequency of involvement in risk-taking behaviours, relationships with parents, orientation towards peer group, depressive mood, and aggressive behaviour.…

  10. The Association of Childhood Personality on Sexual Risk Taking during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkins, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Background: Sexual risk taking during adolescence such as failure to use contraception or condoms is associated with premature parenthood and high rates of sexually transmitted infection. The relation of childhood personality to sexual risk taking during adolescence has been largely unexplored. Methods: Using data collected from participants in…

  11. Peers Increase Adolescent Risk Taking Even When the Probabilities of Negative Outcomes Are Known

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ashley R.; Chein, Jason; Steinberg, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    The majority of adolescent risk taking occurs in the presence of peers, and recent research suggests that the presence of peers may alter how the potential rewards and costs of a decision are valuated or perceived. The current study further explores this notion by investigating how peer observation affects adolescent risk taking when the…

  12. Impact of grade separator on pedestrian risk taking behavior.

    PubMed

    Khatoon, Mariya; Tiwari, Geetam; Chatterjee, Niladri

    2013-01-01

    Pedestrians on Delhi roads are often exposed to high risks. This is because the basic needs of pedestrians are not recognized as a part of the urban transport infrastructure improvement projects in Delhi. Rather, an ever increasing number of cars and motorized two-wheelers encourage the construction of large numbers of flyovers/grade separators to facilitate signal free movement for motorized vehicles, exposing pedestrians to greater risk. This paper describes the statistical analysis of pedestrian risk taking behavior while crossing the road, before and after the construction of a grade separator at an intersection of Delhi. A significant number of pedestrians are willing to take risks in both before and after situations. The results indicate that absence of signals make pedestrians behave independently, leading to increased variability in their risk taking behavior. Variability in the speeds of all categories of vehicles has increased after the construction of grade separators. After the construction of the grade separator, the waiting time of pedestrians at the starting point of crossing has increased and the correlation between waiting times and gaps accepted by pedestrians show that after certain time of waiting, pedestrians become impatient and accepts smaller gap size to cross the road. A Logistic regression model is fitted by assuming that the probability of road crossing by pedestrians depends on the gap size (in s) between pedestrian and conflicting vehicles, sex, age, type of pedestrians (single or in a group) and type of conflicting vehicles. The results of Logistic regression explained that before the construction of the grade separator the probability of road crossing by the pedestrian depends on only the gap size parameter; however after the construction of the grade separator, other parameters become significant in determining pedestrian risk taking behavior. PMID:22857788

  13. Gender specific effect of psychological stress and cortisol reactivity on adolescent risk taking.

    PubMed

    Daughters, Stacey B; Gorka, Stephanie M; Matusiewicz, Alexis; Anderson, Katelyn

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate how psychological stress, gender and cortisol response to stress relate to risk behavior among 132 14-18 year old adolescents. Participants completed a laboratory based risk task prior to and immediately after a computerized psychological stress task, and salivary cortisol was collected from pre-stress to 60 min following initial stress exposure. Results indicate that adolescent boys (n = 59) and girls (n = 73) demonstrate different patterns of risk taking (RT) in response to stress, such that boys evidenced an increase in RT following stress exposure, whereas girls evidenced a decrease in RT. In addition, a gender by cortisol interaction demonstrated that for boys, both a smaller total cortisol output (AUCg) and peak cortisol response to stress (PC) was associated with greater stress-induced RT. Both cortisol measures were unrelated to stress-induced RT among girls. Taken together, data suggest that among boys, a blunted cortisol response to stress underlies an increase in risk taking in the context of psychological stress. Further research with an additional behavioral stress task is needed prior to drawing conclusions regarding the relation between female gender, cortisol response to stress, and risk taking in the context of psychological stress. PMID:23338478

  14. Adolescent Risk Taking, Cocaine Self-Administration, and Striatal Dopamine Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Marci R; Weiss, Virginia G; Beas, B Sofia; Morgan, Drake; Bizon, Jennifer L; Setlow, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Poor decision making and elevated risk taking, particularly during adolescence, have been strongly linked to drug use; however the causal relationships among these factors are not well understood. To address these relationships, a rat model (the Risky Decision-making Task; RDT) was used to determine whether individual differences in risk taking during adolescence predict later propensity for cocaine self-administration and/or whether cocaine self-administration causes alterations in risk taking. In addition, the RDT was used to determine how risk taking is modulated by dopamine signaling, particularly in the striatum. Results from these experiments indicated that greater risk taking during adolescence predicted greater intake of cocaine during acquisition of self-administration in adulthood, and that adult cocaine self-administration in turn caused elevated risk taking that was present following 6 weeks of abstinence. Greater adolescent risk taking was associated with lower striatal D2 receptor mRNA expression, and pharmacological activation of D2/3 receptors in the ventral, but not dorsal, striatum induced a decrease in risk taking. These findings indicate that the relationship between elevated risk taking and cocaine self-administration is bi-directional, and that low striatal D2 receptor expression may represent a predisposing factor for both maladaptive decision making and cocaine use. Furthermore, these findings suggest that striatal D2 receptors represent a therapeutic target for attenuating maladaptive decision making when choices include risk of adverse consequences. PMID:24145852

  15. Adolescent risk taking, cocaine self-administration, and striatal dopamine signaling.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Marci R; Weiss, Virginia G; Beas, B Sofia; Morgan, Drake; Bizon, Jennifer L; Setlow, Barry

    2014-03-01

    Poor decision making and elevated risk taking, particularly during adolescence, have been strongly linked to drug use; however the causal relationships among these factors are not well understood. To address these relationships, a rat model (the Risky Decision-making Task; RDT) was used to determine whether individual differences in risk taking during adolescence predict later propensity for cocaine self-administration and/or whether cocaine self-administration causes alterations in risk taking. In addition, the RDT was used to determine how risk taking is modulated by dopamine signaling, particularly in the striatum. Results from these experiments indicated that greater risk taking during adolescence predicted greater intake of cocaine during acquisition of self-administration in adulthood, and that adult cocaine self-administration in turn caused elevated risk taking that was present following 6 weeks of abstinence. Greater adolescent risk taking was associated with lower striatal D2 receptor mRNA expression, and pharmacological activation of D2/3 receptors in the ventral, but not dorsal, striatum induced a decrease in risk taking. These findings indicate that the relationship between elevated risk taking and cocaine self-administration is bi-directional, and that low striatal D2 receptor expression may represent a predisposing factor for both maladaptive decision making and cocaine use. Furthermore, these findings suggest that striatal D2 receptors represent a therapeutic target for attenuating maladaptive decision making when choices include risk of adverse consequences. PMID:24145852

  16. Blunted Feedback Processing During Risk-Taking in Adolescents with Features of Problematic Internet Use

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Yvonne H. C.; Potenza, Marc N.; Mayes, Linda C.; Crowley, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    While the conceptualization of problematic Internet use (PIU) as a ‘behavioral addiction’ resembling substance-use disorders is debated, the neurobiological underpinnings of PIU remain understudied. This study examined whether adolescents displaying features of PIU (at-risk PIU; ARPIU) are more impulsive and exhibit blunted responding in the neural mechanisms underlying feedback processing and outcome evaluation during risk-taking. Event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by positive (i.e. reward) and negative (i.e. loss) feedback were recording during performance on a modified version of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) among ARPIU (n=39) and non-ARPIU subjects (n=27). Compared to non-ARPIU, ARPIU adolescents displayed higher levels of urgency and lack of perseverance on the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale. Although no between-group difference in BART performance was observed, ERPs demonstrated overall decreased sensitivity to feedback in ARPIU compared to non-ARPIU adolescents, as indexed by blunted feedback-related negativity (FRN) and P300 amplitudes to both negative and positive feedback. The present study provides evidence for feedback processing during risk-taking as a neural correlate of ARPIU. Given recent concerns regarding the growing prevalence of PIU as a health concern, future work should examine the extent to which feedback processing may represent a risk factor for PIU, a consequence of PIU, or possibly both. PMID:25679363

  17. Blunted feedback processing during risk-taking in adolescents with features of problematic Internet use.

    PubMed

    Yau, Yvonne H C; Potenza, Marc N; Mayes, Linda C; Crowley, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    While the conceptualization of problematic Internet use (PIU) as a "behavioral addiction" resembling substance-use disorders is debated, the neurobiological underpinnings of PIU remain understudied. This study examined whether adolescents displaying features of PIU (at-risk PIU; ARPIU) are more impulsive and exhibit blunted responding in the neural mechanisms underlying feedback processing and outcome evaluation during risk-taking. Event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by positive (i.e. reward) and negative (i.e. loss) feedback were recorded during performance on a modified version of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) among ARPIU (n=39) and non-ARPIU subjects (n=27). Compared to non-ARPIU, ARPIU adolescents displayed higher levels of urgency and lack of perseverance on the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale. Although no between-group difference in BART performance was observed, ERPs demonstrated overall decreased sensitivity to feedback in ARPIU compared to non-ARPIU adolescents, as indexed by blunted feedback-related negativity (FRN) and P300 amplitudes to both negative and positive feedback. The present study provides evidence for feedback processing during risk-taking as a neural correlate of ARPIU. Given recent concerns regarding the growing prevalence of PIU as a health concern, future work should examine the extent to which feedback processing may represent a risk factor for PIU, a consequence of PIU, or possibly both. PMID:25679363

  18. Peer Influence on Risk Taking, Risk Preference, and Risky Decision Making in Adolescence and Adulthood: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Margo; Steinberg, Laurence

    2005-01-01

    In this study, 306 individuals in 3 age groups--adolescents (13-16), youths (18-22), and adults (24 and older)--completed 2 questionnaire measures assessing risk preference and risky decision making, and 1 behavioral task measuring risk taking. Participants in each age group were randomly assigned to complete the measures either alone or with 2…

  19. Does Adolescent Risk Taking Imply Weak Executive Function? A Prospective Study of Relations between Working Memory Performance, Impulsivity, and Risk Taking in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romer, Daniel; Betancourt, Laura M.; Brodsky, Nancy L.; Giannetta, Joan M.; Yang, Wei; Hurt, Hallam

    2011-01-01

    Studies of brain development suggest that the increase in risk taking observed during adolescence may be due to insufficient prefrontal executive function compared to a more rapidly developing subcortical motivation system. We examined executive function as assessed by working memory ability in a community sample of youth (n = 387, ages 10 to 12…

  20. Risk Taking under the Influence: A Fuzzy-Trace Theory of Emotion in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivers, Susan E.; Reyna, Valerie F.; Mills, Britain

    2008-01-01

    Fuzzy-trace theory explains risky decision making in children, adolescents, and adults, incorporating social and cultural factors as well as differences in impulsivity. Here, we provide an overview of the theory, including support for counterintuitive predictions (e.g., when adolescents "rationally" weigh costs and benefits, risk taking increases,…

  1. Risk-taking propensity and sensitivity to punishment in adolescents with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder symptoms and/or reading disability.

    PubMed

    Poon, Kean; Ho, Connie Suk-Han

    2016-01-01

    Many studies reported that adolescents with ADHD/RD more frequently engage in risk-taking behaviors. Very few have examined their risk taking patterns and the impact of their comorbidity. The present study compared the risk-taking propensity, sensitivity to punishment and delinquency outcome in Chinese adolescents with ADHD symptoms (AS) and/or RD using a simulated risk task, the Balloon Analogous Risk Task (BART). Adolescents with AS (n=37), RD (n=35), AS+RD (n=35), and control (n=36) were recruited from local secondary schools. Results showed that adolescents with ADHD, despite their great risk-taking propensity, were sensitive to immediate punishment whereas adolescents with RD were found to display normal risk-taking propensity, yet showed a tendency of being less sensitive to punishment. The comorbidity ADHD+RD group had the highest delinquency score, and exhibited greatest risk taking and least sensitivity to punishment, which provided further support that comorbid condition might have stronger impact on risk taking or even delinquency than the pure groups. The present findings provides a useful picture of the risk taking pattern associated with different groups, allowing for effective matching for future prevention and intervention program. PMID:26969810

  2. Risk Perception and Risk-Taking Behaviour during Adolescence: The Influence of Personality and Gender.

    PubMed

    Reniers, Renate L E P; Murphy, Laura; Lin, Ashleigh; Bartolomé, Sandra Para; Wood, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of personality characteristics and gender on adolescents' perception of risk and their risk-taking behaviour. Male and female participants (157 females: 116 males, aged 13-20) completed self-report measures on risk perception, risk-taking and personality. Male participants perceived behaviours as less risky, reportedly took more risks, were less sensitive to negative outcomes and less socially anxious than female participants. Path analysis identified a model in which age, behavioural inhibition and impulsiveness directly influenced risk perception, while age, social anxiety, impulsiveness, sensitivity to reward, behavioural inhibition and risk perception itself were directly or indirectly associated with risk-taking behaviour. Age and behavioural inhibition had direct relationships with social anxiety, and reward sensitivity was associated with impulsiveness. The model was representative for the whole sample and male and female groups separately. The observed relationship between age and social anxiety and the influence this may have on risk-taking behaviour could be key for reducing adolescent risk-taking behaviour. Even though adolescents may understand the riskiness of their behaviour and estimate their vulnerability to risk at a similar level to adults, factors such as anxiety regarding social situations, sensitivity to reward and impulsiveness may exert their influence and make these individuals prone to taking risks. If these associations are proven causal, these factors are, and will continue to be, important targets in prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:27100081

  3. The relationship between life satisfaction, risk-taking behaviors, and youth violence.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, John M; Piquero, Alex R; Valois, Robert F; Zullig, Keith J

    2005-11-01

    This study builds on existing criminological theories and examines the role of life satisfaction and self-control in explaining youth violence. Using data from a stratified cluster sample of 5,414 public high school students who responded to the South Carolina Youth Risk Behavior Survey, the study examines the relationship between adolescents'perceptions of life satisfaction, behavioral risky acts, and self-reported acts of violence. Analyses indicate that higher levels of life satisfaction are associated with lower violence. Participation in work and involvement in health-related risk-taking behaviors pertaining to sex, drugs, and alcohol are also associated with increased violence. The implications of these findings for criminological theory and for school-based violence prevention programs are discussed. PMID:16210738

  4. Motives for Risk-Taking in Adolescence: A Cross-Cultural Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloep, M.; Guney, N.; Cok, F.; Simsek, O. F.

    2009-01-01

    Most research on adolescent risk-taking has been conducted in Western societies, but it is as yet unknown whether motives to engage in risk behaviours show cultural variety. This study sets out to investigate differences in perceived motives to engage in perceived risks in Turkish and Welsh samples of young people (N = 922) between 14 and 20 years…

  5. Why Risk Irrelevance? A Translational Research Model for Adolescent Risk-Taking Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Erica; Allen, Reg; Hogan, David; Martinez, Carissa

    2008-01-01

    Framed by the literature on research-policy transfer, this paper explores a "real world" task of translating adolescent risk-taking data into "whole-of-system" services development. It aims to explore challenges and opportunities in using large-N quantitative data analyses of such complex constructs to inform holistic policy-making. It offers a…

  6. The Risk-Taking and Self-Harm Inventory for Adolescents: Development and Psychometric Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrouva, Ioanna; Fonagy, Peter; Fearon, Pasco R. M.; Roussow, Trudie

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we report on the development and psychometric evaluation of the Risk-Taking (RT) and Self-Harm (SH) Inventory for Adolescents (RTSHIA), a self-report measure designed to assess adolescent RT and SH in community and clinical settings. 651 young people from secondary schools in England ranging in age from 11.6 years to 18.7 years and…

  7. Risk Perception and Risk-Taking Behaviour during Adolescence: The Influence of Personality and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Reniers, Renate L. E. P.; Murphy, Laura; Lin, Ashleigh; Bartolomé, Sandra Para; Wood, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of personality characteristics and gender on adolescents’ perception of risk and their risk-taking behaviour. Male and female participants (157 females: 116 males, aged 13–20) completed self-report measures on risk perception, risk-taking and personality. Male participants perceived behaviours as less risky, reportedly took more risks, were less sensitive to negative outcomes and less socially anxious than female participants. Path analysis identified a model in which age, behavioural inhibition and impulsiveness directly influenced risk perception, while age, social anxiety, impulsiveness, sensitivity to reward, behavioural inhibition and risk perception itself were directly or indirectly associated with risk-taking behaviour. Age and behavioural inhibition had direct relationships with social anxiety, and reward sensitivity was associated with impulsiveness. The model was representative for the whole sample and male and female groups separately. The observed relationship between age and social anxiety and the influence this may have on risk-taking behaviour could be key for reducing adolescent risk-taking behaviour. Even though adolescents may understand the riskiness of their behaviour and estimate their vulnerability to risk at a similar level to adults, factors such as anxiety regarding social situations, sensitivity to reward and impulsiveness may exert their influence and make these individuals prone to taking risks. If these associations are proven causal, these factors are, and will continue to be, important targets in prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:27100081

  8. Applying Decision-Making Approaches to Health Risk-Taking Behaviors: Progress and Remaining Challenges.

    PubMed

    Cho; Keller; Cooper

    1999-06-01

    This paper critically examines how risk-taking behaviors can be modeled from a decision-making perspective. We first review several applications of a decision perspective to the study of risk-taking behaviors, including studies that investigate consequence generation and the components of the overall utility (i.e., consequence, desirability, and likelihood) of risk-taking and studies that investigate the validity of two decision-oriented models (subjective expected utility and the theory of reasoned action) in predicting risk-taking behaviors. We then discuss challenges in modeling risk-taking behaviors from a decision-making perspective. These challenges include (i) finding the factors that are necessary to improve the predictability of models, (ii) difficulties in eliciting the individual components of overall utility, and (iii) incorporating overall utility changes over time. Copyright 1999 Academic Press. PMID:10366518

  9. Reliability and Validity of the Youth Version of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART-Y) in the Assessment of Risk-Taking Behavior among Inner-City Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lejuez, C. W.; Aklin, Will; Daughters, Stacey; Zvolensky, Michael; Kahler, Christopher; Gwadz, Marya

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of the youth version of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART-Y) for assessing adolescent risk behaviors among a sample of 98 inner-city African American adolescents (M age = 14.8, SD = 1.5). In addition to a relation with sensation seeking, BART-Y responding evidenced a significant relation with a…

  10. Teenagers and Risk-Taking at Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Ann

    2002-01-01

    Teen risk-taking is normal, healthy developmental behavior. Teens act out their fantasies--good and bad--at camp because it is a safe place away from parents. Signs of unhealthy risk-taking, camp staff responses, and how the September 11 tragedy might affect risk-taking are discussed. Sidebars describe tips for understanding adolescent behavior…

  11. Locating and applying sociological theories of risk-taking to develop public health interventions for adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pound, Pandora; Campbell, Rona

    2015-01-01

    Sociological theories seldom inform public health interventions at the community level. The reasons for this are unclear but may include difficulties in finding, understanding or operationalising theories. We conducted a study to explore the feasibility of locating sociological theories within a specific field of public health, adolescent risk-taking, and to consider their potential for practical application. We identified a range of sociological theories. These explained risk-taking: (i) as being due to lack of social integration; (ii) as a consequence of isolation from mainstream society; (iii) as a rite of passage; (iv) as a response to social constraints; (v) as resistance; (vi) as an aspect of adolescent development; (vii) by the theory of the ‘habitus’; (viii) by situated rationality and social action theories; and (ix) as social practice. We consider these theories in terms of their potential to inform public health interventions for young people. PMID:25999784

  12. Exploring sexual risk taking among American Indian adolescents through protection motivation theory.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Rachel; Tingey, Lauren; Mullany, Britta; Parker, Sean; Lee, Angelita; Barlow, Allison

    2016-09-01

    This paper examines decision-making around sexual behavior among reservation-based American Indian youth. Focus group discussions were conducted with youth ages 13-19 years old. Through these discussions, we explored youth's knowledge, attitudes and behaviors related to sexual risk taking through the lens of the protection motivation theory to inform the adaptation of an evidence-based HIV prevention intervention. Findings suggest that condom use self-efficacy and HIV prevention knowledge is low, vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections is lacking and alcohol plays a significant role in sexual risk taking in this population. In addition, parental monitoring and peer influence may contribute to or protect against sexual risk taking. Results suggest that future HIV prevention interventions should be delivered to gender-specific peer groups, include a parental component, teach sexual health education and communication skills, integrate substance-use prevention, and work to remove stigma around obtaining and using condoms. PMID:27064364

  13. A Latent Class Analysis of Maternal Responsiveness and Autonomy-Granting in Early Adolescence: Prediction to Later Adolescent Sexual Risk-Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanza, H. Isabella; Huang, David Y. C.; Murphy, Debra A.; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2013-01-01

    The present study sought to extend empirical inquiry related to the role of parenting on adolescent sexual risk-taking by using latent class analysis (LCA) to identify patterns of adolescent-reported mother responsiveness and autonomy-granting in early adolescence and examine associations with sexual risk-taking in mid- and late-adolescence.…

  14. Religiosity and Sexual Risk-Taking Behavior during the Transition to College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaleski, Ellen H.; Schiaffino, Kathleen M.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the degree to which religious identity acts as a protective buffer against sexual risk-taking in late adolescence in 230 first-year college students. Results indicate that greater intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity were associated with less sexual activity and condom use. (Contains 21 references and 1 table.) (Author/GCP)

  15. Exploring the role of parents and peers in young adolescents' risk taking on social networking sites.

    PubMed

    Shin, Wonsun; Ismail, Nurzali

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the role of parental and peer mediation in young adolescents' engagement in risk-taking in social networking sites (SNSs). A survey conducted in Malaysia with 469 SNS users aged 13-14 revealed that control-based parental mediation can cause boomerang effects, making young adolescents more inclined to taking risks in SNSs. While discussion-based parental mediation was found to be negatively related to young adolescents' befriending strangers in SNSs, it did not reduce privacy risks. Findings also suggested that peer influence could result in undesirable outcomes. In particular, the more young adolescents talked about Internet-related issues with peers, the more likely they were to disclose personally identifiable information on SNSs. PMID:25126969

  16. Neural correlates of adolescents’ viewing of parents’ and peers’ emotions: Associations with risk-taking behavior and risky peer affiliations

    PubMed Central

    Saxbe, Darby; Del Piero, Larissa; Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Kaplan, Jonas; Margolin, Gayla

    2015-01-01

    Social reorientation from parents to same-age peers is normative in adolescence, but the neural correlates of youths’ socioemotional processing of parents and peers have not been explored. In the current study, twenty-two adolescents (average age 16.98) underwent neuroimaging (fMRI) while viewing and rating emotions shown in brief video clips featuring themselves, their parents, or an unfamiliar peer. Viewing self vs. other and parents vs. the peer activated regions in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), replicating prior findings that this area responds to self-relevant stimuli, including familiar and not just similar others (Kreinen, Tu, & Buckner, 2010). Viewing the peer compared with parents elicited activation in posterior ‘mentalizing’ structures, the precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), bilateral pSTS and right TPJ, as well as the ventral striatum and bilateral amygdala and hippocampus. Relative activations in the PCC and precuneus to the peer vs. the parent were related both to reported risk-taking behavior and to affiliations with more risk-taking peers. The results suggest neural correlates of the adolescent social reorientation towards peers and away from parents that may be associated with adolescents’ real-life risk-taking behaviors and social relationships. PMID:25874749

  17. Testing Risk-Taking Behavior in Chinese Undergraduate Students

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xiufang; Li, Jia; Du, Xiulian

    2014-01-01

    The DOSPERT, developed by Weber, Blais and Betz, can be used to measure risk behaviors in a variety of domains. We investigated the use of this scale in China. The participants were 1144 undergraduate students. After we removed some items that were not homogeneous, a principal component analysis extracted six components that accounted for 44.48% of the variance, a value similar to that obtained in the analysis conducted by Weber et al. Chinese undergraduates scored higher on the investment subscale compared with the results of Weber’s study. The analysis of individual differences indicated that there was a significant gender difference in the ethical, investment and health/safety subscales, where males scored significantly higher than females. The type of home location was also significant on the ethical and health/safety subscales, where undergraduates from the countryside scored lower than undergraduates from cities and towns on the ethical subscale, and undergraduates from towns scored higher than those from other two areas on the health/safety subscale. Male undergraduates from towns scored higher than male undergraduates from other areas on the gambling subscale. PMID:24836525

  18. Investigating the predictive of risk-taking attitudes and behaviors among Iranian drivers

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Ehsanollah; Haghi, Azam; Maracy, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: World Health Organization findings shows that up to year 2020 the number of fatality due to driving accidents will increases up to 65%, which is 80% is in developing countries. Iran has one of the highest rates of road traffic accident mortality rate in the world. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried out in the center and west of Iran upon 540 ordinary and taxi drivers who were driving regularly from bus terminals and the travel agencies to other cities. Data collection tool is a questionnaire that measuring driving risk taking by two items of risky driving behaviors and risk taking attitudes. Findings: The results of this study showed that the averages of risk driving behaviors scores were higher than the average of risk taking attitudes scores. The results of logistic regression test showed that the risky driving behaviors can be a predictor of driving accidents due to individuals’ risk taking (P = 0.014). Among all these variables, attitude toward rule violations and speeding, aggressive driving and violation of the road laws respectively are important predictive of drivers’ risk taking (P < 0.0010). Discussion and Conclusion: Although attitude toward risk taking has been located at a low level by different ways, a desired result was not obtained from the reduction of those high risky behaviors; in fact, high-rate of accidents and traffic incidence in Iran indicates this matter well. PMID:24741659

  19. Behavioral Approach System Sensitivity and Risk Taking Interact to Predict Left-Frontal EEG Asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Black, Chelsea L.; Goldstein, Kim E.; LaBelle, Denise R.; Brown, Christopher W.; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2014-01-01

    The Behavioral Approach System (BAS) hypersensitivity theory of bipolar disorder (BD; Alloy & Abramson, 2010; Depue & Iacono, 1989) suggests that hyperreactivity in the BAS results in the extreme fluctuations of mood characteristic of BD. In addition to risk conferred by BAS hypersensitivity, cognitive and personality variables may play a role in determining risk. We evaluated relationships among BAS sensitivity, risk taking, and an electrophysiological correlate of approach motivation, relative left-frontal electroencephalography (EEG) asymmetry. BAS sensitivity moderated the relationship between risk taking and EEG asymmetry. More specifically, individuals who were high in BAS sensitivity showed left-frontal EEG asymmetry regardless of their level of risk-taking behavior. However, among individuals who were moderate in BAS sensitivity, risk taking was positively associated with asymmetry. These findings suggest that cognitive and personality correlates of bipolar risk may evidence unique contributions to a neural measure of trait-approach motivation. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25022775

  20. Behavioral approach system sensitivity and risk taking interact to predict left-frontal EEG asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Black, Chelsea L; Goldstein, Kim E; LaBelle, Denise R; Brown, Christopher W; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2014-09-01

    The Behavioral Approach System (BAS) hypersensitivity theory of bipolar disorder (BD; Alloy & Abramson, 2010; Depue & Iacono, 1989) suggests that hyperreactivity in the BAS results in the extreme fluctuations of mood characteristic of BD. In addition to risk conferred by BAS hypersensitivity, cognitive and personality variables may play a role in determining risk. We evaluated relationships among BAS sensitivity, risk taking, and an electrophysiological correlate of approach motivation, relative left-frontal electroencephalography (EEG) asymmetry. BAS sensitivity moderated the relationship between risk taking and EEG asymmetry. More specifically, individuals who were high in BAS sensitivity showed left-frontal EEG asymmetry regardless of their level of risk-taking behavior. However, among individuals who were moderate in BAS sensitivity, risk taking was positively associated with asymmetry. These findings suggest that cognitive and personality correlates of bipolar risk may evidence unique contributions to a neural measure of trait-approach motivation. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25022775

  1. Risk Taking Under the Influence: A Fuzzy-Trace Theory of Emotion in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Rivers, Susan E.; Reyna, Valerie F.; Mills, Britain

    2008-01-01

    Fuzzy-trace theory explains risky decision making in children, adolescents, and adults, incorporating social and cultural factors as well as differences in impulsivity. Here, we provide an overview of the theory, including support for counterintuitive predictions (e.g., when adolescents “rationally” weigh costs and benefits, risk taking increases, but it decreases when the core gist of a decision is processed). Then, we delineate how emotion shapes adolescent risk taking—from encoding of representations of options, to retrieval of values/principles, to application of those values/principles to representations of options. Our review indicates that: (i) Gist representations often incorporate emotion including valence, arousal, feeling states, and discrete emotions; and (ii) Emotion determines whether gist or verbatim representations are processed. We recommend interventions to reduce unhealthy risk-taking that inculcate stable gist representations, enabling adolescents to identify quickly and automatically danger even when experiencing emotion, which differs sharply from traditional approaches emphasizing deliberation and precise analysis. PMID:19255597

  2. Influence of risk-taking health behaviours of adolescents on cervical cancer prevention: a Hungarian survey.

    PubMed

    Marek, E; Berenyi, K; Dergez, T; Kiss, I; D'Cruz, G

    2016-01-01

    An anonymous questionnaire survey was conducted among the Hungarian adolescents to establish their use of tobacco, alcohol and drugs in relation to sexual behaviours, knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer, and beliefs and attitudes towards screening and vaccination. Results indicated that adolescent risk-taking health behaviours correlate with risky sexual behaviours. As risk-taking behaviours do not correlate with a better awareness of the risk associated with HPV infection, it is of crucial importance that HPV/cervical cancer preventing educational programmes shall be sensitive to this 'vulnerable' population and draw the attention of these adolescents to their increased risk of sexually transmitted diseases and undesired pregnancies. Well-designed behavioural change interventions may be effective when in addition to providing adolescents (both men and women) with clear information about the implications of an HPV infection, they also aim to improve safer sex behaviours: consistent condom usage, limiting the number of sex partners, as well as encouraging regular participation in gynaecological screenings and uptake of the HPV vaccine. As this study population demonstrated positive attitudes towards the primary and secondary prevention of cervical cancer, the free HPV vaccination for the 12-13-year-old girls in Autumn 2014 will hopefully increase the currently low uptake of the vaccine in Hungary. PMID:26059166

  3. Neural network development in late adolescents during observation of risk-taking action.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Miyuki; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Higuchi, Shigekazu; Hida, Akiko; Enomoto, Minori; Umezawa, Jun; Mishima, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Emotional maturity and social awareness are important for adolescents, particularly college students beginning to face the challenges and risks of the adult world. However, there has been relatively little research into personality maturation and psychological development during late adolescence and the neural changes underlying this development. We investigated the correlation between psychological properties (neuroticism, extraversion, anxiety, and depression) and age among late adolescents (n = 25, from 18 years and 1 month to 22 years and 8 months). The results revealed that late adolescents became less neurotic, less anxious, less depressive and more extraverted as they aged. Participants then observed video clips depicting hand movements with and without a risk of harm (risk-taking or safe actions) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The results revealed that risk-taking actions elicited significantly stronger activation in the bilateral inferior parietal lobule, temporal visual regions (superior/middle temporal areas), and parieto-occipital visual areas (cuneus, middle occipital gyri, precuneus). We found positive correlations of age and extraversion with neural activation in the insula, middle temporal gyrus, lingual gyrus, and precuneus. We also found a negative correlation of age and anxiety with activation in the angular gyrus, precentral gyrus, and red nucleus/substantia nigra. Moreover, we found that insula activation mediated the relationship between age and extraversion. Overall, our results indicate that late adolescents become less anxious and more extraverted with age, a process involving functional neural changes in brain networks related to social cognition and emotional processing. The possible neural mechanisms of psychological and social maturation during late adolescence are discussed. PMID:22768085

  4. Neural Network Development in Late Adolescents during Observation of Risk-Taking Action

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, Shigekazu; Hida, Akiko; Enomoto, Minori; Umezawa, Jun; Mishima, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Emotional maturity and social awareness are important for adolescents, particularly college students beginning to face the challenges and risks of the adult world. However, there has been relatively little research into personality maturation and psychological development during late adolescence and the neural changes underlying this development. We investigated the correlation between psychological properties (neuroticism, extraversion, anxiety, and depression) and age among late adolescents (n = 25, from 18 years and 1 month to 22 years and 8 months). The results revealed that late adolescents became less neurotic, less anxious, less depressive and more extraverted as they aged. Participants then observed video clips depicting hand movements with and without a risk of harm (risk-taking or safe actions) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The results revealed that risk-taking actions elicited significantly stronger activation in the bilateral inferior parietal lobule, temporal visual regions (superior/middle temporal areas), and parieto-occipital visual areas (cuneus, middle occipital gyri, precuneus). We found positive correlations of age and extraversion with neural activation in the insula, middle temporal gyrus, lingual gyrus, and precuneus. We also found a negative correlation of age and anxiety with activation in the angular gyrus, precentral gyrus, and red nucleus/substantia nigra. Moreover, we found that insula activation mediated the relationship between age and extraversion. Overall, our results indicate that late adolescents become less anxious and more extraverted with age, a process involving functional neural changes in brain networks related to social cognition and emotional processing. The possible neural mechanisms of psychological and social maturation during late adolescence are discussed. PMID:22768085

  5. Risk perception and risk-taking behavior of construction site dumper drivers.

    PubMed

    Bohm, Jonathan; Harris, Don

    2010-01-01

    In the UK construction site dumpers cause more serious accidents than any other type of construction plant. Previous research has indicated that driver behavior plays a pivotal role in the vast majority of these accidents. This study used a paired comparison technique to explore dumper drivers' and subject matter experts' (SMEs') risk perception and its relationship to risk-taking behavior. It was found that driver risk perception significantly differed from measures of "objective risk", derived from accident data and also from SMEs' risk perception. Furthermore, drivers still engaged in undertaking perceived high risk behaviors. The results suggest that driver risk perception was linked to the "perceived dread" of an accident, rather than its likelihood and that risk-taking behavior was often driven by situational factors, such as site safety rules or the behavior of other personnel on the site, together with an overarching culture that prioritizes production over safety. PMID:20331919

  6. Is Jumping off the Roof "Always" a Bad Idea? A Rejoinder on Risk Taking and the Adolescent Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Males, Mike A.

    2010-01-01

    Three respondents provide cogent commentary on the author's first article, "Does the Adolescent Brain Make Risk Taking Inevitable? A Skeptical Appraisal." Two respondent papers argue that the author mischaracterized valid and useful developmental and biological arguments affirming adolescents' singular risk propensities; the third response raises…

  7. Adult and Middle School Girls' Perceptions of Risk-Taking Behavior: Implications for School Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Brett Johnson; Garibaldi, Mark

    2013-01-01

    There is an overwhelming disconnect between young adolescent girls and adults, in relationship to perceptions of middle schoolgirl risk taking. This mixed-methods study investigates the differences between adult practitioners and middle school girls' perceptions of risk taking, understanding of consequences, and needs among middle school…

  8. Investigating the effects of behavior constructs on academic persistence in engineering, creativity and risk-taking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deanes, Viveca K.

    Increasingly over the last decade, engineering colleges across this nation have conducted research to identify factors that will help them better predict students' academic persistence in engineering. While initial efforts were aimed at predicting those who would graduate, recent efforts have been directed toward predicting who will persist to the second year, as it has been found that a substantial percentage of those who leave engineering do so during their first year. Prior research investigated the predictability of academic persistence using academic credentials such as grade point averages and SAT scores. However, recent research on academic persistence in engineering has suggested differences in students' behavior and students' levels of dissonance-induced stress, rather than differences in academic credentials, may distinguish persisters from non-persisters. One aspect of an individual's behavior, compliance, and behavior-related stress, referred to as dissonance-induced stress, are proposed to have an effect on academic persistence. Research shows compliance (or conformity) is diametrically opposed to creativity, which is essential to leadership and innovation in engineering. A similar relationship is likely to exist between compliance and risk-taking. This research investigated whether behavior and dissonance-induced stress are good predictors of academic persistence in engineering. This research also investigated relationships between behavior, creativity, and risk-taking. Students who were enrolled in a first-year Fundamentals in Engineering course (ENGR 112) were the subjects in this research. The Style Analysis Instrument was used to collect data regarding students' behavioral orientations. The Style Analysis Instrument provides both natural and adapted measures in four dimensions of human behavior: dominance, influence, steadiness, and compliance. The Creativity and Risk-Taking Instrument was used to collect data regarding students' creativity and

  9. Executive functioning and risk-taking behavior in Parkinson's disease patients with impulse control disorders.

    PubMed

    Pineau, Fanny; Roze, Emmanuel; Lacomblez, Lucette; Bonnet, Anne-Marie; Vidailhet, Marie; Czernecki, Virginie; Corvol, Jean-Christophe

    2016-06-01

    Impulse control disorders (ICD) are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and are associated with dopaminergic medication. The purpose of this study was to investigate executive function and risk-taking behavior in PD patients with ICD. 17 PD patients with ICD (ICD-PD) were compared to 20 PD patients without ICD (CTRL-PD) using neuropsychological and experimental tasks. Executive functions were assessed using standard executive testing (Conner's Performance Test, Modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Trail Making Test and phonological verbal fluency). Subjects were also submitted to an experimental gambling task consisted of three decks of money cards: neutral deck (equal opportunity for gains as losses), winning deck (small amount of money with a positive balance) and loser deck (high amount of money with a negative balance), evaluating risk-taking behavior (number of cards picked in each deck) and valuation of the reward (subjective appreciation of the value of each deck). There was no significant difference in executive functioning between groups. Both groups selected more cards in the losing deck (high amount of money) as compared to the neutral deck (Mann-Whitney test, ICD-PD, p = 0.02; CTRL-PD, p = 0.003) and to the winning deck (Mann-Whitney test, ICD-PD p = 0.0001; CTRL-PD p = 0.003), suggesting an increased risk-taking behavior. Interestingly, we found that ICD-PD patients estimated the value of decks differently from CTRL-PD patients, taking into account mainly the positive reinforced value of the decks (Mann-Whitney test, p = 0.04). This study showed that executive pattern and risk-taking behavior are similar between ICD-PD and CTRL-PD patients. However, ICD-PD patients showed a specific deficit of the subjective estimation of the reward. Links between this deficit and metacognitive skills are discussed. PMID:27085342

  10. Gender and the Effects of an Economic Empowerment Program on Attitudes Toward Sexual Risk-Taking Among AIDS-Orphaned Adolescent Youth in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Ssewamala, Fred; Ismayilova, Leyla; McKay, Mary; Sperber, Elizabeth; Bannon, William; Alicea, Stacey

    2009-01-01

    Purpose This paper examines gender differences in attitudes towards sexual risk-taking behaviors of AIDS-orphaned youth participating in a randomized control trial testing an economic empowerment intervention in rural Uganda. Methods Adolescents (average age 13.7 years) who had lost one or both parents to AIDS from fifteen comparable schools were randomly assigned to either an experimental (n=135) or control condition (n=142). Adolescents in the experimental condition, in addition to usual care, also received support and incentives to save money toward secondary education. Results Findings indicate that although adolescent boys and girls within the experimental condition saved comparable amounts, the intervention appears to have benefited girls, in regards to the attitudes towards sexual risk-taking behavior, in a different way and to a lesser extent than boys. Conclusions Future research should investigate the possibility that adolescent girls might be able to develop equally large improvements in protective attitudes towards sexual risk-taking through additional components that address gendered social norms. PMID:20307827

  11. Risk-taking behaviors and impulsivity among veterans with and without PTSD and mild TBI.

    PubMed

    James, Lisa M; Strom, Thad Q; Leskela, Jennie

    2014-04-01

    Military personnel commonly experience post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), both of which are associated with premature mortality. The present study examined two factors that may play a role in premature mortality--impulsivity and risk-taking behaviors--in a sample of 234 veterans screening positive for PTSD, mTBI, PTSD + mTBI, and controls. Analyses of variance demonstrated that veterans with PTSD, regardless of mTBI status, reported engaging in more frequent risky behaviors and reported a greater tendency to engage in impulsive behaviors when in a negative affective state. They also reported more premilitary delinquent behaviors and more suicide-related behaviors than controls. The present study highlights associations between impulsivity, risk-taking behaviors, and PTSD, and suggests continuity across the lifespan in terms of a predisposition to engage in impulsive and/or risky behaviors. Thorough evaluation of impulsivity and potentially risky behaviors is important in clinical settings to guide interventions and reduce the mortality and public health impact of high-risk behaviors in veterans. PMID:24690958

  12. Theoretically Motivated Interventions for Reducing Sexual Risk Taking in Adolescence: A Randomized Controlled Experiment Applying Fuzzy-trace Theory

    PubMed Central

    Reyna, Valerie F.; Mills, Britain A.

    2014-01-01

    Fuzzy-trace theory is a theory of memory, judgment, and decision-making, and their development. We applied advances in this theory to increase the efficacy and durability of a multicomponent intervention to promote risk reduction and avoidance of premature pregnancy and STIs. 734 adolescents from high schools and youth programs in three states (Arizona, Texas, and New York) were randomly assigned to one of three curriculum groups: RTR (Reducing the Risk), RTR+ (a modified version of RTR using fuzzy-trace theory), and a control group. We report effects of curriculum on self-reported behaviors and behavioral intentions plus psychosocial mediators of those effects, namely, attitudes and norms, motives to have sex or get pregnant, self-efficacy and behavioral control, and gist/verbatim constructs. Among 26 outcomes, 19 showed an effect of at least one curriculum relative to the control group: RTR+ produced improvements for 17 outcomes and RTR produced improvements for 12 outcomes. For RTR+, two differences (for perceived parental norms and global benefit perception) were confined to age, gender, or racial/ethnic subgroups. Effects of RTR+ on sexual initiation emerged six months after the intervention, when many adolescents became sexually active. Effects of RTR+ were greater than RTR for nine outcomes, and remained significantly greater than controls at one-year follow-up for 12 outcomes. Consistent with fuzzy-trace theory, results suggest that, by emphasizing gist representations, which are preserved over long time periods and are key memories used in decision-making, the enhanced intervention produced larger and more sustained effects on behavioral outcomes and psychosocial mediators of adolescent risk-taking. PMID:24773191

  13. Theoretically motivated interventions for reducing sexual risk taking in adolescence: a randomized controlled experiment applying fuzzy-trace theory.

    PubMed

    Reyna, Valerie F; Mills, Britain A

    2014-08-01

    Fuzzy-trace theory is a theory of memory, judgment, and decision making, and their development. We applied advances in this theory to increase the efficacy and durability of a multicomponent intervention to promote risk reduction and avoidance of premature pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Seven hundred and thirty-four adolescents from high schools and youth programs in 3 states (Arizona, Texas, and New York) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 curriculum groups: RTR (Reducing the Risk), RTR+ (a modified version of RTR using fuzzy-trace theory), and a control group. We report effects of curriculum on self-reported behaviors and behavioral intentions plus psychosocial mediators of those effects: namely, attitudes and norms, motives to have sex or get pregnant, self-efficacy and behavioral control, and gist/verbatim constructs. Among 26 outcomes, 19 showed an effect of at least 1 curriculum relative to the control group: RTR+ produced improvements for 17 outcomes and RTR produced improvements for 12 outcomes. For RTR+, 2 differences (for perceived parental norms and global benefit perception) were confined to age, gender, or racial/ethnic subgroups. Effects of RTR+ on sexual initiation emerged 6 months after the intervention, when many adolescents became sexually active. Effects of RTR+ were greater than RTR for 9 outcomes, and remained significantly greater than controls at 1-year follow-up for 12 outcomes. Consistent with fuzzy-trace theory, results suggest that by emphasizing gist representations, which are preserved over long periods and are key memories used in decision making, the enhanced intervention produced larger and more sustained effects on behavioral outcomes and psychosocial mediators of adolescent risk taking. PMID:24773191

  14. Adolescent Transitions: Risk-Taking and Health. Growing Up Well. Focus on Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brindis, Claire

    This report, fifth of eight in a series, highlights the views of California parents and other adults about issues affecting the health of adolescents, the role communities play in helping young people grow up well, and policies to address behaviors that undermine their health. Six in 10 parents surveyed by the California Center for Health…

  15. Sexual Attitudes and Risk-Taking Behaviors of High School Students in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aras, Sahbal; Semin, Semih; Gunay, Turkan; Orcin, Esmahan; Ozan, Sema

    2007-01-01

    Background: The risk of sexually transmitted diseases is high but opportunities of sexual education for adolescents are limited in Turkey. The aim of this study was to evaluate sexual attitudes and behaviors and to determine the predictors of sexual initiation among adolescents. Methods: A questionnaire designed by the researchers was administered…

  16. A Latent Class Analysis of Maternal Responsiveness and Autonomy-Granting in Early Adolescence: Prediction to Later Adolescent Sexual Risk-Taking

    PubMed Central

    Lanza, H. Isabella; Huang, David Y. C.; Murphy, Debra A.; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2013-01-01

    The present study sought to extend empirical inquiry related to the role of parenting on adolescent sexual risk-taking by using latent class analysis (LCA) to identify patterns of adolescent-reported mother responsiveness and autonomy-granting in early adolescence and examine associations with sexual risk-taking in mid- and late-adolescence. Utilizing a sample of 12- to 14-year-old adolescents (N = 4,743) from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97), results identified a four-class model of maternal responsiveness and autonomy-granting: low responsiveness/high autonomy-granting, moderate responsiveness/moderate autonomy-granting, high responsiveness/low autonomy-granting, high responsiveness/moderate autonomy-granting. Membership in the low responsiveness/high autonomy-granting class predicted greater sexual risk-taking in mid- and late-adolescence compared to all other classes, and membership in the high responsiveness/ moderate autonomy-granting class predicted lower sexual risk-taking. Gender and ethnic differences in responsiveness and autonomy-granting class membership were also found, potentially informing gender and ethnic disparities of adolescent sexual risk-taking. PMID:23828712

  17. Does life history predict risk-taking behavior of wintering dabbling ducks?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, J.T.; Eadie, J.M.; Moore, T.G.

    2006-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that longer-lived, less fecund species should take fewer risks when exposed to predation than shorter-lived, more fecund species. We tested this prediction for seven species of dabbling ducks (Anas) by measuring the approach behavior (behavior of ducks when approaching potential landing sites) of 1099 duck flocks during 37 hunting trials and 491 flocks during 13 trials conducted immediately after the 1999-2000 waterfowl hunting season in California, USA. We also experimentally manipulated the attractiveness of the study site by using two decoy treatments: (1) traditional, stationary decoys only, and (2) traditional decoys in conjunction with a mechanical spinning-wing decoy. Approach behavior of ducks was strongly correlated with their life history. Minimum approach distance was negatively correlated with reproductive output during each decoy treatment and trial type. Similarly, the proportion of flocks taking risk (approaching landing sites to within 45 m) was positively correlated with reproductive output. We found similar patterns of approach behavior in relation to other life-history parameters (i.e., adult female body mass and annual adult female survival rate). Thus, species characterized by a slower life-history strategy (e.g., Northern Pintail [A. acuta]) were more risk-averse than species with a faster life-history strategy (e.g., Cinnamon Teal [A. cyanoptera]). Furthermore, although we were able to reduce risk-averseness using the spinning-wing decoy, we were unable to override the influence of life history on risk-taking behavior. Alternative explanations did not account for the observed correlation between approach behavior and life-history parameters. These results suggest that life history influences the risk-taking behavior of dabbling ducks and provide an explanation for the differential vulnerability of waterfowl to harvest. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2006.

  18. Risk and protective factors for sexual risk taking among adolescents involved in Prime Time.

    PubMed

    Garwick, Ann; Nerdahl, Peggy; Banken, Rachel; Muenzenberger-Bretl, Lynn; Sieving, Renee

    2004-10-01

    This article describes a preliminary qualitative evaluation of risk and protective factors associated with consistent contraceptive use and healthy sexual decision-making among ten of the first participants in the Prime Time intervention study. Prime Time is an 18-month intervention including one-on-one case management and peer educator training targeting sexually active 13-17-year-old girls who are recruited from health care clinics. Using an approach grounded in findings from previous research, social cognitive theory, and the social development model, Prime Time aims to improve participants' contraceptive use consistency, reduce number of sexual partners, and reduce unwanted sexual activity. Findings from this preliminary evaluation alert health care providers to the complex and dynamic nature of adolescent girls' sexual behaviors and to a broad range of risk and protective factors within individuals and their environments that may influence adolescent girls' sexual behaviors and contraceptive use. Findings suggest that an ongoing, supportive relationship with a case manager who is able to pace and tailor an intervention to the individual young person can have positive effects on adolescent girls' sexual behaviors and contraceptive use. PMID:15614258

  19. Risk-taking plants: anisohydric behavior as a stress-resistance trait.

    PubMed

    Sade, Nir; Gebremedhin, Alem; Moshelion, Menachem

    2012-07-01

    Water scarcity is a critical limitation for agricultural systems. Two different water management strategies have evolved in plants: an isohydric strategy and an anisohydric strategy. Isohydric plants maintain a constant midday leaf water potential (Ψleaf) when water is abundant, as well as under drought conditions, by reducing stomatal conductance as necessary to limit transpiration. Anisohydric plants have more variable Ψleaf and keep their stomata open and photosynthetic rates high for longer periods, even in the presence of decreasing leaf water potential. This risk-taking behavior of anisohydric plants might be beneficial when water is abundant, as well as under moderately stressful conditions. However, under conditions of intense drought, this behavior might endanger the plant. We will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these two water-usage strategies and their effects on the plant's ability to tolerate abiotic and biotic stress. The involvement of plant tonoplast AQPs in this process will also be discussed. PMID:22751307

  20. The Experience of Daily Hassles, Cardiovascular Reactivity and Adolescent Risk Taking and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeersch, Hans; T'Sjoen, Guy; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Vincke, John; Bracke, Piet

    2010-01-01

    Based on Boyce and Ellis's model on "context" and "biological sensitivity to the context", this article analyzes the interaction between the experience of daily hassles and experimentally induced cardiovascular reactivity as an indicator of stress reactivity, in explaining risk taking and self-esteem. This study found, in a sample of 599…

  1. The Relationship between Life Satisfaction, Risk-Taking Behaviors, and Youth Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, John M.; Piquero, Alex R.; Valois, Robert F.; Zullig, Keith J.

    2005-01-01

    This study builds on existing criminological theories and examines the role of life satisfaction and self-control in explaining youth violence. Using data from a stratified cluster sample of 5,414 public high school students who responded to the South Carolina Youth Risk Behavior Survey, the study examines the relationship between adolescents'…

  2. Organizing Effects of Testosterone and Economic Behavior: Not Just Risk Taking

    PubMed Central

    Brañas-Garza, Pablo; Rustichini, Aldo

    2011-01-01

    Recent literature emphasizes the role that testosterone, as well as markers indicating early exposure to T and its organizing effect on the brain (such as the ratio of second to fourth finger, ), have on performance in financial markets. These results may suggest that the main effect of T, either circulating or in fetal exposure, on economic behavior occurs through the increased willingness to take risks. However, these findings indicate that traders with a low digit ratio are not only more profitable, but more able to survive in the long run, thus the effect might consist of more than just lower risk aversion. In addition, recent literature suggests a positive correlation between abstract reasoning ability and higher willingness to take risks. To test the two hypotheses of testosterone on performance in financial activities (effect on risk attitude versus a complex effect involving risk attitude and reasoning ability), we gather data on the three variables in a sample of 188 ethnically homogeneous college students (Caucasians). We measure a digit ratio, abstract reasoning ability with the Raven Progressive Matrices task, and risk attitude with choice among lotteries. Low digit ratio in men is associated with higher risk taking and higher scores in abstract reasoning ability when a combined measure of risk aversion over different tasks is used. This explains both the higher performance and higher survival rate observed in traders, as well as the observed correlation between abstract reasoning ability and risk taking. We also analyze how much of the total effect of digit ratio on risk attitude is direct, and how much is mediated. Mediation analysis shows that a substantial part of the effect of T on attitude to risk is mediated by abstract reasoning ability. PMID:22242144

  3. When Is It Ethical to Inform Administrators about Student Risk-Taking Behaviors? Perceptions of School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Michael S.; Sullivan, Jeremy R.; Growcock, David

    2012-01-01

    School counselors from across the United States responded to a survey asking when they should break confidentiality and report student risk-taking behaviors to school administrators. Generally, counselors believed it to be more ethical to break confidentiality when the behaviors were directly observed (as opposed to reported by students) and when…

  4. Transcranial alternating current stimulation increases risk-taking behavior in the balloon analog risk task.

    PubMed

    Sela, Tal; Kilim, Adi; Lavidor, Michal

    2012-01-01

    The process of evaluating risks and benefits involves a complex neural network that includes the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). It has been proposed that in conflict and reward situations, theta-band (4-8 Hz) oscillatory activity in the frontal cortex may reflect an electrophysiological mechanism for coordinating neural networks monitoring behavior, as well as facilitating task-specific adaptive changes. The goal of the present study was to investigate the hypothesis that theta-band oscillatory balance between right and left frontal and prefrontal regions, with a predominance role to the right hemisphere (RH), is crucial for regulatory control during decision-making under risk. In order to explore this hypothesis, we used transcranial alternating current stimulation, a novel technique that provides the opportunity to explore the functional role of neuronal oscillatory activities and to establish a causal link between specific oscillations and functional lateralization in risky decision-making situations. For this aim, healthy participants were randomly allocated to one of three stimulation groups (LH stimulation/RH stimulation/Sham stimulation), with active AC stimulation delivered in a frequency-dependent manner (at 6.5 Hz; 1 mA peak-to-peak). During the AC stimulation, participants performed the Balloon Analog Risk Task. This experiment revealed that participants receiving LH stimulation displayed riskier decision-making style compared to sham and RH stimulation groups. However, there was no difference in decision-making behaviors between sham and RH stimulation groups. The current study extends the notion that DLPFC activity is critical for adaptive decision-making in the context of risk-taking and emphasis the role of theta-band oscillatory activity during risky decision-making situations. PMID:22347844

  5. Chronic treatment with mood stabilizer lithium inhibits amphetamine-induced risk-taking manic-like behaviors.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhu; Wang, Ying; Tan, Hua; Bharti, Veni; Che, Yi; Wang, Jun-Feng

    2015-08-31

    A lack of behavioral tests and animal models for manic-depressive bipolar disorder is recognized as an important factor limiting development of novel pharmaceutical treatments for the disorder. Repeated amphetamine-induced hyperactivity is a commonly used animal model for mania. However, hyperactivity represents only one facet of mania and is also seen in other disorders. Increased engagement in risk taking behavior is frequently observed in the manic phase of bipolar disorder. In the present study, we analyzed the effect of the most commonly used mood stabilizer lithium on repeated amphetamine treatment-induced risk-taking behaviors in rats using elevated plus maze and wire-beam bridge tests. We found that repeated amphetamine treatment not only increased locomotor activity, but also increased risk taking behaviors in rats, and further that chronic lithium treatment inhibited the amphetamine-increased risk taking behavior. Our studies suggest that these tests may be useful tools to analyze the pharmacological validity of new and improved anti-manic drugs in animals. PMID:26219985

  6. The Effectiveness of Personalizing Acquaintance Rape Prevention: Programs on Perception of Vulnerability and on Reducing Risk-Taking Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Michael D.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Tested hypothesis that a personalized acquaintance rape prevention program reduces risk-taking behavior and increases perception of vulnerability. Seventy female college students were exposed to Acquaintance Rape Prevention Program with experimentals and controls receiving personalized or nonpersonalized instruction, respectively. Findings showed…

  7. A Risk-Taking "Set" in a Novel Task among Adolescents with Serious Conduct and Substance Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Thomas J.; Raymond, Kristen M.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; Thompson, Laetitia L.; Lejuez, Carl W.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Adolescent patients' conduct disorder and substance use disorder symptoms are "risky behaviors" with unpredictable rewards and punishments. The authors asked whether such youths also take excessive risks in new situations without prior learning, peer pressure, or intoxication. Method: Subjects were 20 adolescent patients in a program…

  8. Treating psychological trauma among Rwandan orphans is associated with a reduction in HIV risk-taking behaviors: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Annie; Uwihoreye, Chaste; Kamen, Charles; Grant, Philip; McGlynn, Lawrence; Mugabe, Isaac; Nshimyumukiza, Martin; Dongier, Pierre; Slamowitz, Debbie; Padilla, Cindy; Uvamahoro, Jaqueline; Musayidire, Irene; Mukarubuga, Ancilla; Zolopa, Andrew

    2013-12-01

    The nongovernmental organization, Uyisenga N'Manzi (UNM), provides Rwandan orphans of genocide and HIV/AIDS with education, social, and mental health services. Many orphans in UNM report symptoms of psychological trauma. The primary study objective was to evaluate a multidisciplinary program integrating HIV prevention with an existing package of mental health services. We randomly selected 120 orphans between ages 15-25 years served by UNM and evaluated sexually-transmitted infections, HIV risk-taking behaviors and knowledge, and mental health at baseline, 5, 9, and 12 months. Increased trauma symptoms at baseline were associated with poorer coping skills and social functioning, and increased psychological distress and HIV risk-taking behavior. Following the 12-month intervention, trauma symptoms declined significantly, with those accessing counseling services showing greatest improvement. Orphans with the highest trauma scores benefited most from the intervention. In this at-risk population, addressing mental health issues in the context of HIV prevention is critical. PMID:24245594

  9. The effects of subjective loss of control on risk-taking behavior: the mediating role of anger

    PubMed Central

    Beisswingert, Birgit M.; Zhang, Keshun; Goetz, Thomas; Fang, Ping; Fischbacher, Urs

    2015-01-01

    Based on the Appraisal Tendency Framework on the antecedents and consequences of emotions two experimental studies examined the relationship between externally caused loss of control experiences and risk-taking behavior, as well as the assumed mediation of this relationship by the emotion anger. An experimental paradigm for inducing externally caused and consequently externally attributed loss of control which should lead to experiences of anger was developed and pretested in a Pilot Study. The relationship between loss of control experiences, anger, and risk-taking behavior was investigated using two separate student samples from Germany (N = 84, 54% female) and China (N = 125; 64% female). In line with our hypotheses, results showed that anger mediated the link between subjective loss of control experiences and increasing risk-taking behavior. Multiple group comparisons revealing similar patterns in both samples affirmed the results’ cross-cultural generalizability. These results implicate that anger makes people less risk averse in the process of economic decision making. PMID:26217244

  10. Dual Trajectories of Reactive and Proactive Aggression from Mid-childhood to Early Adolescence: Relations to Sensation Seeking, Risk Taking, and Moral Reasoning.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lixian; Colasante, Tyler; Malti, Tina; Ribeaud, Denis; Eisner, Manuel P

    2016-05-01

    We examined the roles of sensation seeking, risk taking, and moral reasoning in the development of reactive and proactive aggression. Data were drawn from a multiethnic, longitudinal study of children from Switzerland (N = 1571; 52 % male; assessed annually over 6 years; 7-years-old at Time 1). At all 6 time points, teachers reported children's reactive and proactive aggression via questionnaire. Children's sensation seeking (at Time 1) and risk taking (at Time 2) were assessed with two interactive computer tasks and their moral reasoning was assessed at Time 2 in response to four hypothetical vignettes depicting moral transgressions. Parallel process Latent Class Growth Analysis (PP-LCGA) identified six dual trajectories of reactive and proactive aggression. Children with either childhood-limited or adolescent-onset aggression showed high sensation seeking. Children with persistent, high levels of both reactive and proactive aggression across time showed high levels of sensation seeking and risk taking, as well as low levels of moral reasoning. Children with only high risk taking were more likely to display moderate levels of aggression across time. These findings highlight the shared and differential roles of sensation seeking, risk taking, and moral reasoning in the dual development of reactive and proactive aggression from mid-childhood to early adolescence. We discuss implications for common and tailored strategies to combat these aggression subtypes. PMID:26370547

  11. How Are Self-Efficacy and Family Involvement Associated with Less Sexual Risk Taking among Ethnic Minority Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Campen, Kali S.; Romero, Andrea J.

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigates the protective influences of family involvement (i.e., parental monitoring, communication, closeness, and family proximity) and sexual self-efficacy on the risky sexual behavior of ethnic minority (predominantly Mexican-origin) adolescents in the southwestern United States (N = 122). Results indicate that whereas…

  12. Sex Differences in Associations of School Connectedness with Adolescent Sexual Risk-Taking in Nova Scotia, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langille, Donald B.; Asbridge, Mark; Azagba, Sunday; Flowerdew, Gordon; Rasic, Daniel; Cragg, Amber

    2014-01-01

    Background: Associations of lower school connectedness have been seen with adolescent sexual risk behaviors, but little is known about gender differences with respect to these relationships. Understanding any such differences could contribute to better supporting the school environment to promote youth sexual health. Methods: We used provincially…

  13. Risk-taking and decision-making in youth: relationships to addiction vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Balogh, Kornelia N.; Mayes, Linda C.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Decision-making and risk-taking behavior undergo developmental changes during adolescence. Disadvantageous decision-making and increased risk-taking may lead to problematic behaviors such as substance use and abuse, pathological gambling and excessive internet use. Methods Based on MEDLINE searches, this article reviews the literature on decision-making and risk-taking and their relationship to addiction vulnerability in youth. Results Decision-making and risk-taking behaviors involve brain areas that undergoing developmental changes during puberty and young adulthood. Individual differences and peer pressure also relate importantly to decision-making and risk-taking. Conclusions Brain-based changes in emotional, motivational and cognitive processing may underlie risk-taking and decision-making propensities in adolescence, making this period a time of heightened vulnerability for engagement in additive behaviors. PMID:24294500

  14. Neuroimaging supports behavioral personality assessment: Overlapping activations during reflective and impulsive risk taking.

    PubMed

    Pletzer, Belinda; M Ortner, Tuulia

    2016-09-01

    Personality assessment has been challenged by the fact that different assessment methods (implicit measures, behavioral measures and explicit rating scales) show little or no convergence in behavioral studies. In this neuroimaging study we address for the first time, whether different assessment methods rely on separate or overlapping neuronal systems. Fifty nine healthy adult participants completed two objective personality tests of risk propensity: the more implicit Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) and the more explicit Game of Dice Task (GDT). Significant differences in activation, as well as connectivity patterns between both tasks were observed. In both tasks, risky decisions yielded significantly stronger activations than safe decisions in the bilateral caudate, as well as the bilateral Insula. The finding of overlapping brain areas validates different assessment methods, despite their behavioral non-convergence. This suggests that neuroimaging can be an important tool of validation in the field of personality assessment. PMID:27373370

  15. Childhood Behavior Problems Linked to Sexual Risk Taking in Young Adulthood: A Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramrakha, Sandhya; Bell, Melanie L.; Paul, Charlotte; Dickson, Nigel; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Caspi, Avshalom

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study whether behavioral and emotional problems during childhood predicted early sexual debut, risky sex at age 21 years, and sexually transmitted infections up to age 21 years. Some possible mediational pathways were also explored. Method: Participants were enrolled in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (n =…

  16. Risk-Taking Behavior among High School Students in South Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Sunghyun; Kim Choe, Minja; Lee, Myung-Sun; Lee, Sun-Hee

    2001-01-01

    A sample of high school students revealed that 43% had drunk regularly; 32% had smoked; and 11% had experienced sexual intercourse. Going to school in Seoul, not having two parents in the family, and living away from immediate family were associated with a higher likelihood of experiencing these behaviors. (BF)

  17. Executive Cognitive Functions and Impulsivity as Correlates of Risk Taking and Problem Behavior in Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romer, Daniel; Betancourt, Laura; Giannetta, Joan M.; Brodsky, Nancy L.; Farah, Martha; Hurt, Hallam

    2009-01-01

    Initiation of drug use and other risky behavior in preadolescence is associated with poor developmental outcomes. In this research, we examine models that ascribe the trajectory to (a) weak executive cognitive function (ECF), (b) early manifestation of externalizing problems, or (c) heightened levels of trait impulsivity. We test the explanatory…

  18. Social Capital and Sexual Risk-Taking Behaviors Among Older Adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Amin, Iftekhar

    2016-09-01

    Using the General Social Survey (GSS) 2012, a national household-based probability sample of non-institutionalized U.S. adults, this study examined the association of social capital and sexual risk behaviors among older adults aged 55 years and older. Of the 547 respondents, 87% reported not using condoms during their last intercourse, and nearly 15% reported engaging in sexual risk behaviors, such as casual sex, paid sex, male to male sex, and drug use. Binary logistic regression results showed that age, gender, marital status, education, race, sexual orientation, and sexual frequencies were significant predictors of older adults' unprotected sex. Social capital was not a predictor of unprotected sex but was positively associated with other human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted disease (HIV/STD) risk behaviors such as sex with strangers, having multiple sex partners, injecting drugs, and having male to male sex. Findings of this study highlight the importance of HIV/STD prevention programs for older adults. PMID:25245384

  19. Examining attachment to God and health risk-taking behaviors in college students.

    PubMed

    Horton, Karissa D; Ellison, Christopher G; Loukas, Alexandra; Downey, Darcy L; Barrett, Jennifer B

    2012-06-01

    Drawing on insights from attachment theory, this study examined whether three types of attachment to God--secure, avoidant, and anxious--were associated with health-risk behaviors, over and above the effects of religious attendance, peer support, and demographic covariates, in a sample of 328 undergraduate college students. Contrary to prior theory, secure attachment to God is not inversely associated with recent alcohol or marijuana use, or substance use prior to last sexual intercourse. Instead, avoidant and anxious attachment to God are associated with higher levels of drinking; anxious attachment to God is associated with marijuana use; and avoidant attachment to God is associated with substance use prior to last sexual intercourse. These patterns are gender-specific; problematic attachment to God is linked with negative outcomes solely among men. PMID:20632208

  20. Economic Behavior under the Influence of Alcohol: An Experiment on Time Preferences, Risk-Taking, and Altruism

    PubMed Central

    Corazzini, Luca; Filippin, Antonio; Vanin, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    We report results from an incentivized laboratory experiment undertaken with the purpose of providing controlled evidence on the causal effects of alcohol consumption on risk-taking, time preferences and altruism. Our design disentangles the pharmacological effects of alcohol intoxication from those mediated by expectations, as we compare the behavior of three groups of subjects: those who participated in an experiment with no reference to alcohol, those who were exposed to the possibility of consuming alcohol but were given a placebo and those who effectively consumed alcohol. All subjects participated in a series of economic tasks administered in the same sequence across treatments. After controlling for both the willingness to pay for an object and the potential misperception of probabilities as elicited in the experiment, we detect no effect of alcohol in depleting subjects’ risk tolerance. However, we find that alcohol intoxication increases impatience and makes subjects less altruistic. PMID:25853520

  1. Perceived safety and teen risk taking in online chat sites.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Cheryl; Prawitz, Aimee D; Derscheid, Linda E; Montgomery, Bette

    2011-03-01

    Framed by theories of adolescent development, this study explored relationships among adolescents' perceptions of chat-site safety, time spent chatting, and risky online behaviors. Tenth graders (N = 139) in rural Midwestern U.S. schools completed surveys. Factor analysis produced three factors each for perception of safety and risk-taking behaviors. Regression analyses revealed that perception of safety factors were useful in predicting online risk-taking behaviors. Teens with more social discomfort and those who thought it was safe to reveal personal information and trust chat-site "friends" were more likely to take risks. As time spent in chat sites increased, so did risk-taking behaviors. Implications for educators and parents are discussed, such as initiation of conversations about safe Internet use, parental participation in chat sites as teens' invited "friends," and school programs to teach safe online practices. PMID:20677982

  2. Impulsivity, Sensation Seeking, and Risk-Taking Behaviors among HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Heroin Dependent Persons.

    PubMed

    Paydary, Koosha; Mahin Torabi, Somayeh; SeyedAlinaghi, SeyedAhmad; Noori, Mehri; Noroozi, Alireza; Ameri, Sara; Ekhtiari, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to compare impulsivity and risky decision making among HIV-positive and negative heroin dependent persons. Methods. We compared different dimensions of impulsivity and risky decision making in two groups of 60 HIV-positive and 60 HIV-negative male heroin dependent persons. Each group was comprised of equal numbers of current (treatment seeker) and former (abstinent) heroin addicts. Data collection tools included Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), and Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS). Results. In SSS, comprised of four subscales including thrill and adventure seeking (TAS), experience seeking (ES), disinhibition (DIS), and boredom susceptibility (BS), there was a borderline difference in DIS (P = 0.08) as HIV-positive group scored higher than HIV-negative group. Also, ES and total score were significantly higher among HIV-positive patients. In BART, HIV-positive subjects scored higher in risk taking than HIV-negative subjects as reflected in higher Average Number of puffs in Successful Balloons (ANSB). In BIS, HIV-positive group scored significantly higher in cognitive impulsivity (CI) (P = 0.03) and nonplanning impulsivity (NPI) (P = 0.05) in comparison to HIV-negative group. Also, current heroin addicts scored significantly higher in NPI compared to former addict HIV-negative participants (P = 0.015). IGT did not show any significant difference between groups. Conclusion. Higher levels of impulsivity and risk taking behaviors among HIV-positive heroin addicts will increase serious concerns regarding HIV transmission from this group to other opiate dependents and healthy people. PMID:27051528

  3. Impulsivity, Sensation Seeking, and Risk-Taking Behaviors among HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Heroin Dependent Persons

    PubMed Central

    Paydary, Koosha; Mahin Torabi, Somayeh; SeyedAlinaghi, SeyedAhmad; Noori, Mehri; Noroozi, Alireza; Ameri, Sara; Ekhtiari, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to compare impulsivity and risky decision making among HIV-positive and negative heroin dependent persons. Methods. We compared different dimensions of impulsivity and risky decision making in two groups of 60 HIV-positive and 60 HIV-negative male heroin dependent persons. Each group was comprised of equal numbers of current (treatment seeker) and former (abstinent) heroin addicts. Data collection tools included Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), and Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS). Results. In SSS, comprised of four subscales including thrill and adventure seeking (TAS), experience seeking (ES), disinhibition (DIS), and boredom susceptibility (BS), there was a borderline difference in DIS (P = 0.08) as HIV-positive group scored higher than HIV-negative group. Also, ES and total score were significantly higher among HIV-positive patients. In BART, HIV-positive subjects scored higher in risk taking than HIV-negative subjects as reflected in higher Average Number of puffs in Successful Balloons (ANSB). In BIS, HIV-positive group scored significantly higher in cognitive impulsivity (CI) (P = 0.03) and nonplanning impulsivity (NPI) (P = 0.05) in comparison to HIV-negative group. Also, current heroin addicts scored significantly higher in NPI compared to former addict HIV-negative participants (P = 0.015). IGT did not show any significant difference between groups. Conclusion. Higher levels of impulsivity and risk taking behaviors among HIV-positive heroin addicts will increase serious concerns regarding HIV transmission from this group to other opiate dependents and healthy people. PMID:27051528

  4. The Effect of a Developmental Play Program on the Self Concept, Risk-Taking Behaviors, and Motoric Proficiency of Mildly Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roswal, Glenn; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The results of an investigation to determine the effect of the Children's Developmental Play Program on behavioral and neuromotor functioning of developmentally disabled children indicates that it serves as a valuable resource to the child, community, and inservice teachers. This study observed risk-taking behaviors, self-concept, and motor skills…

  5. Adolescent Health Problems: Behavioral Perspectives. Advances in Pediatric Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallander, Jan L., Ed.; Siegel, Lawrence J., Ed.

    This book examines the relationship between adolescent risk-taking behaviors and health. The health-related problems of adolescents frequently are manifestations of social, economic, or behavioral factors. Following an overview (Siegal), the chapters in the first section of the book explore general and conceptual issues: (1) "Epidemiology of…

  6. "Outness" as a Moderator of the Association Between Syndemic Conditions and HIV Risk-Taking Behavior Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Tijuana, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Smith, Laramie R; Goodman-Meza, David; Torres, Karla; Semple, Shirley J; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Patterson, Thomas L

    2016-02-01

    Multiple psychosocial conditions tend to co-occur and contribute to higher risk for HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM), a phenomenon known as syndemics. Less is known about moderating factors that may attenuate the relation between syndemic conditions and sexual risk-taking. We examined disclosure of same-sex sexual behavior or "outness" as a moderating factor of the syndemic effect. We recruited a sample of MSM (n = 191) using respondent-driven sampling in Tijuana, Mexico. Participants completed a survey of syndemic conditions (i.e., substance use, depression, violence, internalized homophobia, and sexual compulsivity), sexual risk-taking (i.e., condom unprotected anal sex with a stranger in the past 2 months), and the degree to which they are "out" about sex with men. Consistent with previous research, we found that men who report more syndemic conditions show a greater prevalence of sexual risk-taking. As predicted, men who were out to more people showed a weaker association between syndemic conditions and sexual risk-taking, whereas men who were out to fewer people showed the strongest association. This study is the first to provide evidence of "outness" as a moderating factor that attenuates syndemic effects on sexual risk-taking. Building upon previous research, the data suggest that "outness" may be a resilience factor for MSM in Tijuana. HIV prevention intervention implications are discussed. PMID:26324079

  7. Sensation Seeking and Risk-Taking Propensity as Mediators in the Relationship between Childhood Abuse and HIV-Related Risk Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornovalova, Marina A.; Gwadz, Marya A.; Kahler, Christopher; Aklin, W. M.; Lejuez, C. W.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Although a wealth of literature suggests that childhood physical, emotional, and sexual abuse are related to later-life HIV-related risk behaviors, few studies have explored disinhibition (e.g., impulsivity, risk-taking propensity, and sensation-seeking) as a risk factor in this relationship. Method: This cross-sectional study examined…

  8. The use of alcohol by Miami's adolescent public school students 1992: peers, risk-taking, and availability as central forces.

    PubMed

    Yarnold, B M

    1998-01-01

    This analysis examines the use of alcohol by 535 adolescents in Dade County Public Schools during 1992. Statistically significant factors which tend to increase the probability of alcohol use by adolescents include: the fact that their friends drink, their awareness of the risks associated with the use of alcohol, and their ease in obtaining alcohol. Hence, the typical adolescent who uses alcohol seems to be a risk-taker, who may enjoy the dangers involved with alcohol use; friends are also users of alcohol. Not significantly related to alcohol use are a number of other variables, including family-related variables (whether adolescents live with their mothers, fathers, or alone; and whether someone in the family has a problem with drugs or alcohol). Similarly, early cigarette smoking did not serve as a gateway to later alcohol use. Religion, gender, race, academic performance, and extracurricular school activities (athletics, music, school clubs, and other activities) were all unrelated to the use of alcohol by adolescents. Although the typical adolescent who consumed alcohol was older (in grades 9 through 12), this was not a significant variable. PMID:9816807

  9. Self-Efficacy, Risk-Taking Behavior and Mental Health as Predictors of Personal Growth Initiative among University Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunyemi, Ajibola O.; Mabekoje, Sesan Ola

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: This study sought to determine the combined and relative efficacy of self-efficacy, risk-taking behaviour and mental health on personal growth initiative of university undergraduates. Method: The expo-facto research design was used to conduct the study. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select 425 participants from 6…

  10. Risk-assessment and risk-taking behavior predict potassium- and amphetamine-induced dopamine response in the dorsal striatum of rats

    PubMed Central

    Palm, Sara; Momeni, Shima; Lundberg, Stina; Nylander, Ingrid; Roman, Erika

    2014-01-01

    Certain personality types and behavioral traits display high correlations to drug use and an increased level of dopamine in the reward system is a common denominator of all drugs of abuse. Dopamine response to drugs has been suggested to correlate with some of these personality types and to be a key factor influencing the predisposition to addiction. This study investigated if behavioral traits can be related to potassium- and amphetamine-induced dopamine response in the dorsal striatum, an area hypothesized to be involved in the shift from drug use to addiction. The open field and multivariate concentric square field™ tests were used to assess individual behavior in male Wistar rats. Chronoamperometric recordings were then made to study the potassium- and amphetamine-induced dopamine response in vivo. A classification based on risk-taking behavior in the open field was used for further comparisons. Risk-taking behavior was correlated between the behavioral tests and high risk takers displayed a more pronounced response to the dopamine uptake blocking effects of amphetamine. Behavioral parameters from both tests could also predict potassium- and amphetamine-induced dopamine responses showing a correlation between neurochemistry and behavior in risk-assessment and risk-taking parameters. In conclusion, the high risk-taking rats showed a more pronounced reduction of dopamine uptake in the dorsal striatum after amphetamine indicating that this area may contribute to the sensitivity of these animals to psychostimulants and proneness to addiction. Further, inherent dopamine activity was related to risk-assessment behavior, which may be of importance for decision-making and inhibitory control, key components in addiction. PMID:25076877

  11. The Use of Alcohol by Miami's Adolescent Public School Students 1992: Peers, Risk-Taking, and Availability as Central Forces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarnold, Barbara M.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the use of alcohol by adolescents (N=535) in Dade County Public Schools during 1992. Significant factors that increase the probability of alcohol use are friends who drink, awareness of risks associated with alcohol use, and ease in obtaining alcohol. Family-related variables, smoking, religion, gender, race, academic performance, and…

  12. Depression, Compulsive Sexual Behavior, and Sexual Risk-Taking Among Urban Young Gay and Bisexual Men: The P18 Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Storholm, Erik David; Satre, Derek D; Kapadia, Farzana; Halkitis, Perry N

    2016-08-01

    Young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (YMSM) are at increased likelihood of experiencing depression and engaging in condomless sexual behaviors. The goal of the current investigation was to examine the relationship between negative mood and compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) and to assess for their individual and combined influence on sexual risk-taking behavior among a diverse sample of YMSM in New York City (the P18 Cohort Study). We first analyzed sociodemographic, depressive symptoms, CSB, and sexual risk-taking from the cross-sectional data of 509, 18- or 19-year-old YMSM recruited using non-probability sampling. We found a significant positive correlation between CSB and depression and between CSB and frequency of condomless anal sex acts reported over the last 30 days. Multivariate results found that the presence of both depression and CSB contributed to elevated sexual risk-taking among these urban YMSM. Clinical implications include the importance of assessing for CSB when depression is present and vice versa in order to improve HIV prevention. Informed by minority stress theory and syndemic theory, our results suggest that interventions focused on the health of YMSM recognize that mental health and social context all interact to increase physical health vulnerability vis-a-vis sexual behaviors, depression, and CSB. Thus, HIV prevention and intervention programs need to incorporate mental health components and services that address these needs. PMID:26310878

  13. Relationships of job hazards, lack of knowledge, alcohol use, health status and risk taking behavior to work injury of coal miners: a case-control study in India.

    PubMed

    Kunar, Bijay Mihir; Bhattacherjee, Ashis; Chau, Nearkasen

    2008-01-01

    Objective is to assess the relationships of job hazards, individual characteristics, and risk taking behavior to occupational injuries of coal miners. This case-control study compared 245 male underground coal miners with injury during the previous two-year period with 330 matched controls without injury during the previous five years. Data were collected via face-to-face interview and analyzed using the conditional logistic model. Handling material, poor environmental/working conditions, and geological/strata control- related hazards were the main risk factors: adjusted ORs 5.15 (95% CI 2.42-10.9), 2.40 (95% CI 1.29-4.47), and 2.25 (95% CI 1.24-4.07) respectively. Their roles were higher among the face-workers than among the non-face-workers. No formal education, alcohol consumption, disease, big-family, and risk-taking behavior were associated with injuries (2.36risk-taking behavior. PMID:18431033

  14. The Development of Reproductive Strategy in Females: Early Maternal Harshness [right arrow] Earlier Menarche [right arrow] Increased Sexual Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Jay; Steinberg, Laurence; Houts, Renate M.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.

    2010-01-01

    To test a proposition central to J. Belsky, L. Steinberg, and P. Draper's (1991) evolutionary theory of socialization--that pubertal maturation plays a role in linking early rearing experience with adolescent sexual risk taking (i.e., frequency of sexual behavior) and, perhaps, other risk taking (e.g., alcohol, drugs, delinquency)--the authors…

  15. Risk-Taking Behavior in a Gambling Task Associated with Variations in the Tryptophan Hydroxylase 2 Gene: Relevance to Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Juhasz, Gabriella; Downey, Darragh; Hinvest, Neal; Thomas, Emma; Chase, Diana; Toth, Zoltan G; Lloyd-Williams, Kathryn; Mekli, Krisztina; Platt, Hazel; Payton, Antony; Bagdy, Gyorgy; Elliott, Rebecca; Deakin, J F William; Anderson, Ian M

    2010-01-01

    Decision making, choosing the best option from the possible outcomes, is impaired in many psychiatric conditions including affective disorders. We tested the hypothesis that variations in serotonergic genes (TPH2, TPH1, SLC6A4, HTR1A), which influence serotonin availability, affect choice behavior in a probabilistic gambling task. A population cohort (N=1035) completed a paper-and-pencil gambling task, filled out personality and symptom questionnaires and gave consent for the use of their DNA in a genetic association study. A subgroup of subjects (N=69) also completed a computer version of the task. The gambling task was designed to estimate an individual's tendency to take a risk when choosing between a smaller but more certain ‘win' and a larger, less probable one. We genotyped seven haplotype tagging SNPs in the TPH2 gene, and previously reported functional polymorphisms from the other genes (rs1800532, 5HTTLPR, and rs6295). Carriers of the more prevalent TPH2 haplotype, which was previously associated with less active enzyme variant, showed reduced risk taking on both tasks compared with subjects not carrying the common haplotype. The effect of TPH2 haplotypes on risk-taking was independent of current depression and anxiety symptoms, neuroticism and impulsiveness scores. We did not find an association between functional polymorphisms in the TPH1, SLC6A4, HTR1A genes and risk-taking behavior. In conclusion, our study demonstrates the role of the TPH2 gene and the serotonin system in risk taking and suggests that TPH2 gene may contribute to the expression of psychiatric phenotypes through altered decision making. PMID:20043001

  16. Sensation Seeking Predicting Growth in Adolescent Problem Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Byck, Gayle R.; Swann, Greg; Schalet, Benjamin; Bolland, John; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    There is limited literature on the relationship between sensation seeking and adolescent risk behaviors, particularly among African Americans. We tested the association between psychometrically-derived subscales of the Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale and the intercepts and slopes of individual growth curves of conduct problems, sexual risk taking, and substance use from ages 13-18 years by sex. Boys and girls had different associations between sensation seeking and baseline levels and growth of risk behaviors. The Pleasure Seeking scale was associated with baseline levels of conduct problems in boys and girls, baseline substance use in boys, and growth in sexual risk taking and substance use by girls. Girls had the same pattern of associations with the Danger/Novelty scale as the Pleasure Seeking scale. Knowledge about the relationships between adolescent risk taking and sensation seeking can help in the targeted design of prevention and intervention programs for the understudied population of very low-income, African American adolescents. PMID:25112599

  17. Sensation seeking predicting growth in adolescent problem behaviors.

    PubMed

    Byck, Gayle R; Swann, Gregory; Schalet, Benjamin; Bolland, John; Mustanski, Brian

    2015-06-01

    There is limited literature on the relationship between sensation seeking and adolescent risk behaviors, particularly among African Americans. We tested the association between psychometrically-derived subscales of the Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale and the intercepts and slopes of individual growth curves of conduct problems, sexual risk taking, and substance use from ages 13 to 18 years by sex. Boys and girls had different associations between sensation seeking and baseline levels and growth of risk behaviors. The Pleasure Seeking scale was associated with baseline levels of conduct problems in boys and girls, baseline substance use in boys, and growth in sexual risk taking and substance use by girls. Girls had the same pattern of associations with the Danger/Novelty scale as the Pleasure Seeking scale. Knowledge about the relationships between adolescent risk taking and sensation seeking can help in the targeted design of prevention and intervention programs for the understudied population of very low-income, African American adolescents. PMID:25112599

  18. Does Anticipation Training Affect Drivers' Risk Taking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Frank P.; Horswill, Mark S.; Alexander, Jane L.

    2006-01-01

    Skill and risk taking are argued to be independent and to require different remedial programs. However, it is possible to contend that skill-based training could be associated with an increase, a decrease, or no change in risk-taking behavior. In 3 experiments, the authors examined the influence of a skill-based training program (hazard…

  19. Risk Taking Transfer in Development Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Kathy; Priest, Simon

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-seven corporate managers completed the Priest Attarian Risk Taking Inventory before and after a day of rappelling. Subjects also completed a business version of the inventory a few weeks before and a few weeks after the experience. Subjects appeared to transfer some of their new risk-taking behaviors to their jobs. (KS)

  20. Changes in Risk-Taking among High School Students, 1991-1997: Evidence from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boggess, Scott; Lindberg, Laura Duberstein; Porter, Laura

    Using nationally representative data from students in grades 9 to 12 from the national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBS) of 1991, 1993, 1995, and 1997, this study examined changes in high school students' participation in health risk behaviors. Ten specific health risk behaviors were identified, each of which poses potential immediate and…

  1. Oxytocin and vasopressin modulate risk-taking.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nilam; Grillon, Christian; Pavletic, Nevia; Rosen, Dana; Pine, Daniel S; Ernst, Monique

    2015-02-01

    The modulation of risk-taking is critical for adaptive and optimal behavior. This study examined how oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) influence risk-taking in function of three parameters: sex, risk-valence, and social context. Twenty-nine healthy adults (14 males) completed a risk-taking task, the Stunt task, both in a social-stress (evaluation by unfamiliar peers) and non-social context, in three separate drug treatment sessions. During each session, one of three drugs, OT, AVP, or placebo (PLC), was administered intra-nasally. OT and AVP relative to PLC reduced betting-rate (risk-averse effect). This risk-averse effect was further qualified: AVP reduced risk-taking in the positive risk-valence (high win-probability), and regardless of social context or sex. In contrast, OT reduced risk-taking in the negative risk-valence (low win-probability), and only in the social-stress context and men. The reduction in risk-taking might serve a role in defensive behavior. These findings extend the role of these neuromodulators to behaviors beyond the social realm. How the behavioral modulation of risk-taking maps onto the function of the neural targets of OT and AVP may be the next step in this line of research. PMID:25446228

  2. The Life Attitudes Schedule: A Theoretically Derived Scale To Assess Adolescent Life-Enhancing, Life-Compromising, and Suicidal Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewinsohn, Peter; And Others

    Adolescent engagement in risk-taking and life-compromising behaviors has become a public health concern. This paper describes the development of three alternate forms of a new scale to measure suicidal and risk-taking behavior, the Life Attitudes Schedule (LAS). The LAS, which was developed and piloted on 1,539 high-school students and young…

  3. Adolescent Risk Perception: A View of Risk Taking Behavior By Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Severson, Herb; And Others

    This study employed a psychometric paradigm to explore how young people think about risk. Forty-one high school students were asked to rate 30 activities on 14 characteristics such as personal risk, perceived control over the risk, peer influence, etc. The study also included a questionnaire on actual participation in each of the 30 activities.…

  4. The social context for risky sexual behavior among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Metzler, C W; Noell, J; Biglan, A; Ary, D; Smolkowski, K

    1994-08-01

    This study supports a model of adolescents' risky sexual behavior in which this behavior is seen as a product of the same peer and family factors which influence a wide range of problem behaviors. The Patterson et al. (1992) model of peer and parental factors associated with adolescents' sexual risk-taking behavior was tested on three independent samples of adolescents, ages 14 through 18. Adolescents whose peers were reported to engage in diverse problem behaviors were more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior. Poor parental monitoring and parent-child coercive interactions were associated having deviant peers, and poor parental monitoring also had a direct relationship to risky sexual behavior. Family involvement was associated with fewer parent-child coercive interactions. Less availability of parental figures in the family was directly associated with risky sexual behavior and was also associated with poorer parental monitoring. PMID:7966262

  5. Teen Risk-Taking: A Statistical Portrait.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindberg, Laura Duberstein; Boggess, Scott; Porter, Laura; Williams, Sean

    This report provides a statistical portrait of teen participation in 10 of the most prevalent risk behaviors. It focuses on the overall participation in each behavior and in multiple risk taking. The booklet presents the overall incidence and patterns of teen involvement in the following risk behaviors: (1) regular alcohol use; (2) regular tobacco…

  6. Enhancers and Inhibitors of Teacher Risk Taking: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponticell, Judith A.

    2003-01-01

    Examined teacher risk taking during the development of a school-within-a-school program in a Professional Development School, targeting sophomores at high risk for dropping out. Findings indicated that a psychology of risk-taking behavior provided a useful lens for understanding teacher risk-taking in this context and that the three essential…

  7. The Influence of Child Attributes and Social-Situational Context on School-Age Children's Risk Taking Behaviors that Can Lead to Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrongiello, B.A.; Sedore, L.

    2005-01-01

    Many injuries occur to school-age children when they are allowed independence in decisions about risk taking during play. The present study examined the influence of child attributes (sensation seeking, typical emotional responses in risk situations) and social-situational context (peer presence) on risk taking. Children in the Experimental Group…

  8. Do Psychiatric Disorders Moderate the Relationship Between Psychological Distress and Sexual Risk-Taking Behaviors in Young Men Who Have Sex with Men? A Longitudinal Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Beidas, Rinad S.; Birkett, Michelle; Newcomb, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) account for two-thirds of new HIV infections in young people in the United States. Identifying between-person and within-person correlates of sexual risk-taking provides critical information for developing behavioral prevention efforts for this group. Possible predictors of sexual-risk behavior in YMSM include major depressive disorder (MDD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and variation in psychological distress over time. To date, research has been equivocal with regard to the relationship between psychiatric disorders, psychological distress, and sexual risk behaviors. Participants included 119 16–20-year-old YMSM. Ethnicity/race of the participants included: black/African-American (46.2%), white (19.3%), Latino/Hispanic (12.6%), multiracial (11.8%), Asian/Pacific Islander (2.5%), and other (5.9%). Sexual risk outcomes included total number of male partners and unprotected anal sex acts across four waves of data collection (24 months). The study found that the between-person correlates, including ethnicity and age, predicted total male partners. Between-person correlates, including ethnicity, MDD, and a moderating effect of PTSD on psychological distress emerged as determinants of unprotected anal sex acts. PMID:22680282

  9. Do psychiatric disorders moderate the relationship between psychological distress and sexual risk-taking behaviors in young men who have sex with men? A longitudinal perspective.

    PubMed

    Beidas, Rinad S; Birkett, Michelle; Newcomb, Michael E; Mustanski, Brian

    2012-06-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) account for two-thirds of new HIV infections in young people in the United States. Identifying between-person and within-person correlates of sexual risk-taking provides critical information for developing behavioral prevention efforts for this group. Possible predictors of sexual-risk behavior in YMSM include major depressive disorder (MDD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and variation in psychological distress over time. To date, research has been equivocal with regard to the relationship between psychiatric disorders, psychological distress, and sexual risk behaviors. Participants included 119 16-20-year-old YMSM. Ethnicity/race of the participants included: black/African-American (46.2%), white (19.3%), Latino/Hispanic (12.6%), multiracial (11.8%), Asian/Pacific Islander (2.5%), and other (5.9%). Sexual risk outcomes included total number of male partners and unprotected anal sex acts across four waves of data collection (24 months). The study found that the between-person correlates, including ethnicity and age, predicted total male partners. Between-person correlates, including ethnicity, MDD, and a moderating effect of PTSD on psychological distress emerged as determinants of unprotected anal sex acts. PMID:22680282

  10. A comparison of younger and older gay men's HIV risk-taking behaviors: the Communication Technologies 1989 Cross-Sectional Survey.

    PubMed

    Stall, R; Barrett, D; Bye, L; Catania, J; Frutchey, C; Henne, J; Lemp, G; Paul, J

    1992-01-01

    Data from the 1989 Communication Technologies cross-sectional survey of gay men in San Francisco indicate that both levels and correlates of sexual risk are different between younger and older gay men. Gay men under the age of 30 report higher risk behavior for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection than do gay men who are 30 years of age or older. Further, the set of correlates of unprotected anal intercourse are different between younger and older gay men. Both young and old gay men report that having a primary partner and a lower perceived impact of the AIDS epidemic on their sexual behavior are associated with risk. However, among young gay men, reporting a lower attributed risk for HIV infection to unprotected anal intercourse, higher concern about AIDS risks, and shorter length of residence in San Francisco are positively correlated with risk-taking behavior. These associations were not statistically significant among gay men 30 years of age or older. It appears that the circumstances and/or reasons for taking sexual risk are different between older and younger gay men. Prevention programs must be designed so that they are sensitive to the needs of each generation of gay men. PMID:1613666

  11. Preventing Sexual Risk Behaviors among Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Adolescents: The Benefits of Gay-Sensitive HIV Instruction in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Susan M.; Ledsky, Rebecca; Lehman, Thomas; Goodenow, Carol; Sawyer, Richard; Hack, Tim

    2001-01-01

    Compared the sexual risk taking behaviors of gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) and heterosexual adolescents, evaluating associations between gay-sensitive school HIV instruction and GLB adolescents' risk behaviors. Surveys indicated that GLB students had more high risk behaviors than heterosexual students, and those in schools with gay-sensitive…

  12. Maternal risk taking on the balloon analogue risk task as a prospective predictor of youth alcohol use escalation.

    PubMed

    Banducci, Anne N; Felton, Julia W; Dahne, Jennifer; Ninnemann, Andrew; Lejuez, C W

    2015-10-01

    The transition from late childhood through middle adolescence represents a critical developmental period during which there is a rapid increase in the initiation and escalation of alcohol use. Alcohol use is part of a constellation of risk taking behaviors that increase during this developmental transition, which can be explained by environmental and genetic factors. Social learning theory (SLT) implicates observations of parental drinking in the development of alcohol use in youth. Parental risk taking more broadly has not previously been examined as a factor predictive of alcohol use escalation in youth across adolescence. The current study examined the relative contributions of maternal risk taking on the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) and maternal alcohol use in the prediction of alcohol escalation among youth over three years. Participants were a sample of 245 youth (55.0% male, 49.6% Caucasian) who participated annually between grades 8 and 10, drawn from a larger study of adolescent risk taking. Within our sample, maternal risk taking, as measured by the BART, predicted increases in alcohol use. Interestingly, maternal alcohol use and other youth factors were not predictive of escalations in youth alcohol use. Our findings suggest the importance of considering maternal riskiness more broadly, rather than solely focusing on maternal alcohol use when attempting to understand youth alcohol use across adolescence. These findings emphasize the relevance of maternal risk taking as measured by a behavioral task and suggest a general level of riskiness displayed by mothers might encourage youth to behave in a riskier manner themselves. PMID:26046400

  13. The Role of Deliberative Decision Making, Parenting, and Friends in Adolescent Risk Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Jennifer M.; Crockett, Lisa J.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents may engage in risk behaviors that jeopardize their futures. Although adolescent risk-taking has long been attributed to faulty decision making, surprisingly little research has directly examined this link. This study examined the role of deliberative decision making (the tendency to consider options and consequences before making a…

  14. Evaluating the Role of "Nothing To Lose" Attitudes on Risky Behavior in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Duncan, Greg J.; Boisjoly, Johanne

    2002-01-01

    Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health provide modest support for an association between adolescents' expectations for their future health and educational attainment and their risk-taking behaviors involving early sexual intercourse, selling drugs, and weapon use. Noteworthy "school climate" predictors were found, including…

  15. Sexual Behavior of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Hilmar

    1978-01-01

    Confined to discussion of heterosexual activities, this article examines adolescent sexual behavior in terms of promiscuity; the search for a sexual behavior code; the impact of the media; and the influence of peer groups, religious identification, and the adult double standard. (JC)

  16. [Adolescent behavioral disorders].

    PubMed

    Karila, Laurent; Larrar, Michael; Ferreri, Mélanie

    2014-04-01

    Adolescence is a period of physical and mental transition between childhood and adulthood, two supposedly quieter periods. Puberty and social pressures generate painful psychic conflicts even for a subject without particular problem. Behavioral disorders of adolescents are numerous and heterogeneous. It is oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, hyperactive disorder with attention deficit which often begin during childhood to evolve negatively in adolescence. Eating disorders, addictive disorders, self-mutilation and scarification are also found. Therapeutic management should be multimodal and involve different actors in the health, education and social areas. PMID:24855786

  17. Triadic model of the neurobiology of motivated behavior in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    ERNST, MONIQUE; PINE, DANIEL S.; HARDIN, MICHAEL

    2009-01-01

    Background Risk-taking behavior is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in adolescence. In the context of decision theory and motivated (goal-directed) behavior, risk-taking reflects a pattern of decision-making that favors the selection of courses of action with uncertain and possibly harmful consequences. We present a triadic, neuroscience systems-based model of adolescent decision-making. Method We review the functional role and neurodevelopmental findings of three key structures in the control of motivated behavior, i.e. amygdala, nucleus accumbens, and medial/ventral prefrontal cortex. We adopt a cognitive neuroscience approach to motivated behavior that uses a temporal fragmentation of a generic motivated action. Predictions about the relative contributions of the triadic nodes to the three stages of a motivated action during adolescence are proposed. Results The propensity during adolescence for reward/novelty seeking in the face of uncertainty or potential harm might be explained by a strong reward system (nucleus accumbens), a weak harm-avoidant system (amygdala), and/or an inefficient supervisory system (medial/ventral prefrontal cortex). Perturbations in these systems may contribute to the expression of psychopathology, illustrated here with depression and anxiety. Conclusions A triadic model, integrated in a temporally organized map of motivated behavior, can provide a helpful framework that suggests specific hypotheses of neural bases of typical and atypical adolescent behavior. PMID:16472412

  18. Sleepy Teens Are Risk-Taking Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158191.html Sleepy Teens Are Risk-Taking Teens Sleep deprivation leads to unsafe behaviors, CDC researchers ... than 50,000 students, researchers found that those teens who got seven hours of sleep or less ...

  19. Developmental Changes in Dopamine Neurotransmission in Adolescence: Behavioral Implications and Issues in Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlstrom, Dustin; Collins, Paul; White, Tonya; Luciana, Monica

    2010-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized by increased risk-taking, novelty-seeking, and locomotor activity, all of which suggest a heightened appetitive drive. The neurotransmitter dopamine is typically associated with behavioral activation and heightened forms of appetitive behavior in mammalian species, and this pattern of activation has been described in…

  20. HIV Testing among Heterosexual Young Adults: The Influence of Individual Attitudes and Behaviors, Partner’s Risk-Taking and Relationship Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Longmore, Monica A.; Johnson, Wendi L.; Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.

    2012-01-01

    This study relies on survey (N=704) and in-depth qualitative (N = 100) interviews (Toledo Adolescent Relationship Study) to examine individual, partner, and relationship barriers and facilitators to HIV testing in a sample of young adults. Consistent with the public health goal of routine testing, nearly 40% of respondents had an HIV test within the context of their current sexual relationship, and women were significantly more likely to have tested within the current relationship than were men. For women, it was both their own risky behavior, and the partners’ characteristics and related relationship dynamics that distinguished testers from non-testers. In contrast, for men their own risky behavior was the most salient factor influencing their odds of being tested. These results showcase gender specific approaches to best promote sexual health, i.e., routine HIV testing among young adults. PMID:22489753

  1. Pathways of Adolescent Suicidal Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munzer, Jane; And Others

    Suicide attempts and suicidal ideation among adolescents have been increasing faster than those for adults. This study addresses three questions on adolescent suicidal behavior: (1) Why do some adolescents with psychiatric disorders have a history of suicidal behaviors and some do not?; (2) How do intrapsychic and interpersonal underpinnings of…

  2. Sexual risk taking among Taiwanese youth.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chao-Hsing

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to understand sexual risk-taking behavior among Taiwanese youth. Thirty-six participants were purposively selected for two to three semistructured, in-depth individual interviews. The constant comparative method and coding process were used for data analysis. The core category of preserving the fantasy of romantic innocence emerged from the initial data analysis to explain how and why young people engage in sexual risk taking. Accordingly, the subcategories of suppressing carnal knowledge and being swept away by love were developed. Suppressing carnal knowledge consisted of keeping silent, having an inadequate sexual education, and having stereotypical thinking and was identified as an explanation as to why young people cannot relate knowledge to actual practice. Being swept away by love included a false knowledge of one's sexual partner, shifting levels of intimacy, and nonacceptance of one's own sexuality. This conceptualization emphasizes the reasons why young people engage in sexual risk taking; that is, cultural reluctance to discuss sexuality openly. The implication of this theorizing is that interventions to reduce sexual risk taking should be done on an individual basis and should consider one's developmental context in order to increase one's skills in effectively discussing sex and sexuality. PMID:11841684

  3. Sex-Specific Pathways to Early Puberty, Sexual Debut, and Sexual Risk Taking: Tests of an Integrated Evolutionary-Developmental Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Jenee; Ellis, Bruce J.; Schlomer, Gabriel L.; Garber, Judy

    2012-01-01

    The current study tested sex-specific pathways to early puberty, sexual debut, and sexual risk taking, as specified by an integrated evolutionary-developmental model of adolescent sexual development and behavior. In a prospective study of 238 adolescents (n = 129 girls and n = 109 boys) followed from approximately 12-18 years of age, we tested for…

  4. Structuring the Future: Anticipated Life Events, Peer Networks, and Adolescent Sexual Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Soller, Brian; Haynie, Dana L.

    2013-01-01

    While prior research has established associations between individual expectations of future events and risk behavior among adolescents, the potential effects of peers’ future perceptions on risk-taking have been overlooked. We extend prior research by testing whether peers’ anticipation of college completion is associated with adolescent sexual risk-taking. We also examine whether adolescents’ perceptions of the negative consequences of pregnancy and idealized romantic relationship scripts mediate the association between peers’ anticipation of college completion and sexual risk-taking. Results from multivariate regression models with data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) indicate peers’ anticipation of college completion is negatively associated with a composite measure of sexual risk-taking and positively associated with the odds of abstaining from sexual intercourse and only engaging in intercourse with a romantic partner (compared to having intercourse with a non-romantic partner). In addition, perceptions of the negative consequences of pregnancy and sexualized relationship scripts appear to mediate a large portion of the association between peers’ anticipation of future success and sexual risk-taking and the likelihood of abstaining (but not engaging in romantic-only intercourse). Results from our study underscore the importance of peers in shaping adolescent sexual behavior. PMID:24223438

  5. Education Blended with Yoga--A Solution for Youth Risk Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selvi, B. Tamil; Thangarajathi, S.

    2010-01-01

    All teenagers take risks as a normal part of growing up. Risk-taking is the tool an adolescent uses to define and develop his or her identity, and healthy risk-taking is a valuable experience. Healthy adolescent risk-taking behaviors which tend to have a positive impact on an adolescent's development can include participation in sports, the…

  6. Pathological Internet Use and Risk-Behaviors among European Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Durkee, Tony; Carli, Vladimir; Floderus, Birgitta; Wasserman, Camilla; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit A.; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Hoven, Christina W.; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Nemes, Bogdan; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar A.; Värnik, Peeter; Wasserman, Danuta

    2016-01-01

    Risk-behaviors are a major contributor to the leading causes of morbidity among adolescents and young people; however, their association with pathological Internet use (PIU) is relatively unexplored, particularly within the European context. The main objective of this study is to investigate the association between risk-behaviors and PIU in European adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted within the framework of the FP7 European Union project: Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE). Data on adolescents were collected from randomized schools within study sites across eleven European countries. PIU was measured using Young’s Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ). Risk-behaviors were assessed using questions procured from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS). A total of 11,931 adolescents were included in the analyses: 43.4% male and 56.6% female (M/F: 5179/6752), with a mean age of 14.89 ± 0.87 years. Adolescents reporting poor sleeping habits and risk-taking actions showed the strongest associations with PIU, followed by tobacco use, poor nutrition and physical inactivity. Among adolescents in the PIU group, 89.9% were characterized as having multiple risk-behaviors. The significant association observed between PIU and risk-behaviors, combined with a high rate of co-occurrence, underlines the importance of considering PIU when screening, treating or preventing high-risk behaviors among adolescents. PMID:27005644

  7. Pathological Internet Use and Risk-Behaviors among European Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Durkee, Tony; Carli, Vladimir; Floderus, Birgitta; Wasserman, Camilla; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit A; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Hoven, Christina W; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Nemes, Bogdan; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar A; Värnik, Peeter; Wasserman, Danuta

    2016-03-01

    Risk-behaviors are a major contributor to the leading causes of morbidity among adolescents and young people; however, their association with pathological Internet use (PIU) is relatively unexplored, particularly within the European context. The main objective of this study is to investigate the association between risk-behaviors and PIU in European adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted within the framework of the FP7 European Union project: Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE). Data on adolescents were collected from randomized schools within study sites across eleven European countries. PIU was measured using Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ). Risk-behaviors were assessed using questions procured from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS). A total of 11,931 adolescents were included in the analyses: 43.4% male and 56.6% female (M/F: 5179/6752), with a mean age of 14.89 ± 0.87 years. Adolescents reporting poor sleeping habits and risk-taking actions showed the strongest associations with PIU, followed by tobacco use, poor nutrition and physical inactivity. Among adolescents in the PIU group, 89.9% were characterized as having multiple risk-behaviors. The significant association observed between PIU and risk-behaviors, combined with a high rate of co-occurrence, underlines the importance of considering PIU when screening, treating or preventing high-risk behaviors among adolescents. PMID:27005644

  8. Risk-taking and the media.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Peter; Vingilis, Evelyn; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Vogrincic, Claudia

    2011-05-01

    In recent years, media formats with risk-glorifying content, such as video games that simulate illegal street racing ("bang and crash" games), films about extreme sports, and risky stunts have emerged as top sellers of the media industry. A variety of recent studies conducted by several researchers revealed that exposure to risk-glorifying media content (e.g., video games that simulate reckless driving, smoking and drinking in movies, or depictions that glorify extreme sports) increases the likelihood that recipients will show increased levels of risk-taking inclinations and behaviors. The present article (1) reviews the latest research on the detrimental impact of risk-glorifying media on risk-taking inclinations (cognitions, emotions, behaviors), (2) puts these findings in the theoretical context of recent sociocognitive models on media effects, and (3) makes suggestions to science and policymakers on how to deal with these effects in the future. PMID:21155859

  9. Failure Is Not an Option: Risk-Taking Is Moderated by Anxiety and Also by Cognitive Ability in Children and Adolescents Diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South, Mikle; Dana, Julianne; White, Sarah E.; Crowley, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding hetereogeneity in symptom expression across the autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is a major challenge for identifying causes and effective treatments. In 40 children and adolescents diagnosed with ASD and 37 IQ--and age-matched comparison participants (the TYP group), we found no differences in summary measures on an experimental…

  10. The Role of Supporters in Facilitating the Use of Technologies by Adolescents and Adults with Learning Disabilities: A Place for Positive Risk-Taking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seale, Jane

    2014-01-01

    The role of supporters in facilitating access to and use of technology by people (adolescents and adults) with learning disabilities has not been the primary focus of much of the research that has been undertaken to date. The review of literature presented in this paper suggests, however, that issues of support, risk and safety are emerging as…

  11. Motivational Affordance and Risk-Taking Across Decision Domains.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xi; Scholer, Abigail A

    2016-03-01

    We propose a motivational affordance account to explain both stability and variability in risk-taking propensity in major decision domains. We draw on regulatory focus theory to differentiate two types of motivation (prevention, promotion) that play a key role in predicting risk-taking. Study 1 demonstrated that prevention motivation is negatively associated with risk-taking across six key decision domains, including health/safety, ethics, recreation, gambling, investment, and social. In contrast, promotion motivation is positively associated with risk-taking in the social and investment domains. Study 2 replicated the same pattern and provided direct evidence that promotion motivation is a strong predictor of risk-taking only in domains where there is true potential for gains. Study 3 manipulated promotion (vs. prevention) motivation experimentally to demonstrate that motivational affordance is a critical mechanism for understanding risk-taking behaviors. PMID:26802189

  12. Trust Building via Risk Taking: A Cross-Societal Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Karen S.; Yamagishi, Toshio; Cheshire, Coye; Cooper, Robin; Matsuda, Masafumi; Mashima, Rie

    2005-01-01

    The role of risk taking in building trust relations has largely been overlooked in the burgeoning literature on trust in the social sciences; yet it is central to understanding how trust develops. We argue that a series of risk-taking behaviors is indispensable to building a trust relation. We conducted experiments in Japan and the United States…

  13. Correlates of Intellectual Risk Taking in Elementary School Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beghetto, Ronald A.

    2009-01-01

    This study had the goal of exploring factors associated with elementary students' (N = 585) reports of intellectual risk taking in science. Intellectual risk taking (IRT) was defined as engaging in adaptive learning behaviors (sharing tentative ideas, asking questions, attempting to do and learn new things) that placed the learner at risk of…

  14. Neurobiology of the Adolescent Brain and Behavior: Implications for Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, B. J.; Jones, Rebecca M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Adolescence is a developmental period that entails substantial changes in risk-taking behavior and experimentation with alcohol and drugs. Understanding how the brain is changing during this period relative to childhood and adulthood and how these changes vary across individuals are key in predicting risk for later substance abuse and…

  15. School Health Promotion Policies and Adolescent Risk Behaviors in Israel: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesler, Riki; Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Baron-Epel, Orna

    2016-01-01

    Background: Health promotion policies targeting risk-taking behaviors are being implemented across schools in Israel. This study identified the most effective components of these policies influencing cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among adolescents. Methods: Logistic hierarchical linear model (HLM) analysis of data for 5279 students in…

  16. Fast thought speed induces risk taking.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Jesse J; Pronin, Emily

    2012-04-01

    In two experiments, we tested for a causal link between thought speed and risk taking. In Experiment 1, we manipulated thought speed by presenting neutral-content text at either a fast or a slow pace and having participants read the text aloud. In Experiment 2, we manipulated thought speed by presenting fast-, medium-, or slow-paced movie clips that contained similar content. Participants who were induced to think more quickly took more risks with actual money in Experiment 1 and reported greater intentions to engage in real-world risky behaviors, such as unprotected sex and illegal drug use, in Experiment 2. These experiments provide evidence that faster thinking induces greater risk taking. PMID:22395129

  17. Relationships of Social Context and Identity to Problem Behavior among High-Risk Hispanic Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Mason, Craig A.; Pantin, Hilda; Wang, Wei; Brown, C. Hendricks; Campo, Ana; Szapocznik, José

    2008-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the extent to which (a) family and school functioning and (b) personal and ethnic identity is associated with conduct problems, drug use, and sexual risk taking in a sample of 227 high-risk Hispanic adolescents. Adolescents participated in the study with their primary parents, who were mostly mothers. Adolescents completed measures of family and school functioning, personal and ethnic identity, conduct problems, and drug use. Parents completed measures of family functioning and adolescent conduct problems. Results indicated that school functioning and personal identity confusion were related to alcohol use, illicit drug use, and sexual risk taking indirectly through adolescent reports of conduct problems. Adolescent reports of family functioning were related to alcohol use, illicit drug use, and sexual risk taking through school functioning and conduct problems. Results are discussed in terms of the problem behavior syndrome and in terms of the finding of relative independence of contextual and identity variables vis-à-vis conduct problems, substance use, and sexual risk taking. PMID:19412356

  18. Excellent gamer, excellent driver? The impact of adolescents' video game playing on driving behavior: a two-wave panel study.

    PubMed

    Beullens, Kathleen; Roe, Keith; Van den Bulck, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the impact of adolescents' playing of racing and drive'em up games on their risky driving behavior. Participants were 354 adolescent boys and girls who took part in a longitudinal panel survey on video game playing and risk taking attitudes, intentions and behaviors. In line with cultivation theory and theory of planned behavior the results showed that (even after controlling for aggression and sensation seeking) video game playing during adolescence succeeded in predicting later risky driving behavior through adolescents' attitudes and intentions to exhibit this behavior in the future. The results suggest that this relationship may in part be explained by the game content. PMID:21094297

  19. Risky business: executive function, personality, and reckless behavior during adolescence and emerging adulthood.

    PubMed

    Pharo, Henry; Sim, Clark; Graham, Mikala; Gross, Julien; Hayne, Harlene

    2011-12-01

    Adolescence is a risky business. Despite outstanding physical health, the risk of injury or death during adolescence is 2-3 times that of childhood. The primary cause of this increase in morbidity and mortality is heightened risky behavior including drinking, driving, drug-taking, smoking, and unprotected sex. Why is it that some adolescents take big risks, while others do not? One potential source of individual differences in risk-taking behavior may lie in individual differences in executive function including judgment, impulse control, self-monitoring, and planning. Researchers have hypothesized that limited brain system integration and efficiency, particularly in the prefrontal cortex and related structures, may be involved in the range and degree of risky behavior commonly exhibited by teens. In the present study, we examined the relation between risky behavior, personality factors, and performance on neuropsychological tests of executive function. The community sample of 136 adolescents aged 13- to 17-years-old and 57 emerging adults aged 18- to 22-years-old exhibited marked individual differences in risk-taking behavior; participants' scores on a alcohol, smoking, drugs, sex, driving, and antisocial behavior questionnaire ranged from 0 to near the maximum value possible. We found that risky personality and performance on the neuropsychological tests were both significant predictors of real-world risk-taking. These data have important implications for current public policies involving adolescents and emerging adults. PMID:22004262

  20. Cerebral maturation in adolescence: behavioral vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Ernst, M; Korelitz, Katherine E

    2009-12-01

    Recent neurodevelopmental research has been focusing on the transition period of adolescence into adulthood. This growing interest was spurred by the long-standing realization of the high cost of this transition period in terms of morbidity and mortality, and the emergence of research tools that permit direct examination of brain function in humans. The cost of reaching adulthood is understood as resulting from the typical behavioral and environmental changes that accompany adolescence [4]. The present review describes how the current research helps formulate neurobiological models that can be used to guide future work. One example of such a model, the triadic neural systems model [8], will be examined in more detail. This review will proceed in three stages. First, we will show how neural development results from the confluence of maturational changes that are quantitatively and qualitatively heterogeneous across brain regions, neurochemical and molecular systems. This normative developmental heterogeneity is translated into typical adolescent behavioral patterns, including risk-taking, novelty-seeking, emotional intensity and lability, and peer-group social primacy [5, 9]. Second, based on the notion that motivated behavior can be operationally decomposed into the three core modules of approach, avoidance and control, any alteration in the balance of these three core entities can affect behavior in unique ways. This formulation will serve as the foundation of the neural systems model framework proposed in this review. Third, functional neuroimaging is being used to examine how neural systems underlie this balance within the neural systems model. We will provide a summary of the state of research in this area. Finally, we will show how this research is important for understanding not only normal development, but also the psychopathology. The role of genetic or environmental factors will not be addressed here, despite their critical roles in determining and

  1. Who are those “risk-taking adolescents”? Individual differences in developmental neuroimaging research

    PubMed Central

    Bjork, James M.; Pardini, Dustin A.

    2014-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has illuminated the development of human brain function. Some of this work in typically-developing youth has ostensibly captured neural underpinnings of adolescent behavior--which is characterized by risk-seeking propensity, according to psychometric questionnaires and a wealth of anecdote. Notably, cross-sectional comparisons have revealed age-dependent differences between adolescents and other age groups in regional brain responsiveness to prospective or experienced rewards (usually greater in adolescents) or penalties (usually diminished in adolescents). These differences have been interpreted as reflecting an imbalance between motivational drive and behavioral control mechanisms, especially in mid-adolescence, thus promoting greater risk-taking. While intriguing, we caution here that researchers should be more circumspect in attributing clinically significant adolescent risky behavior to age-group differences in task-elicited fMRI responses from neurotypical subjects. This is because actual mortality and morbidity from behavioral causes (e.g. substance abuse, violence) by mid-adolescence is heavily concentrated in individuals who are not neurotypical, who rather have shown a lifelong history of behavioral disinhibition that frequently meets criteria for a disruptive behavior disorder, such as conduct disorder, oppositional-defiant disorder, or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. These young people are at extreme risk of poor psychosocial outcomes, and should be a focus of future neurodevelopmental research. PMID:25176616

  2. DYT1 dystonia increases risk taking in humans.

    PubMed

    Arkadir, David; Radulescu, Angela; Raymond, Deborah; Lubarr, Naomi; Bressman, Susan B; Mazzoni, Pietro; Niv, Yael

    2016-01-01

    It has been difficult to link synaptic modification to overt behavioral changes. Rodent models of DYT1 dystonia, a motor disorder caused by a single gene mutation, demonstrate increased long-term potentiation and decreased long-term depression in corticostriatal synapses. Computationally, such asymmetric learning predicts risk taking in probabilistic tasks. Here we demonstrate abnormal risk taking in DYT1 dystonia patients, which is correlated with disease severity, thereby supporting striatal plasticity in shaping choice behavior in humans. PMID:27249418

  3. Development of adolescent problem behavior.

    PubMed

    Ary, D V; Duncan, T E; Biglan, A; Metzler, C W; Noell, J W; Smolkowski, K

    1999-04-01

    The developmental model of adolescent antisocial behavior advanced by Patterson and colleagues (e.g., Patterson, Reid, & Dishion, 1992) appears to generalize the development of a diverse set of problem behaviors. Structural equation modeling methods were applied to 18-month longitudinal data from 523 adolescents. The problem behavior construct included substance use, antisocial behavior, academic failure, and risky sexual behavior. Families with high levels of conflict were less likely to have high levels of parent-child involvement. Such family conditions resulted in less adequate parental monitoring of adolescent behavior, making associations with deviant peers more likely. Poor parental monitoring and associations with deviant peers were strong predictors of engagement in problem behavior. These constructs accounted for 46% of the variance in problem behavior. Although association with deviant peers was the most proximal social influence on problem behavior, parental monitoring and family factors (conflict and involvement) were key parenting practices that influenced this developmental process. PMID:10400060

  4. Adolescent Behavior Change: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Educational Programs and Studies Information Service.

    This focus paper contains reprints of 11 articles intended to provide an overview of the key issues in the area of adolescent behavior change as it relates to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) education. Included are: (1) "Preventing HIV Infection and AIDS in Children and Adolescents" (J.…

  5. Goal Oriented and Risk Taking Behavior: The Roles of Multiple Systems for Caucasian and Arab-American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tynan, Joshua J.; Somers, Cheryl L.; Gleason, Jamie H.; Markman, Barry S.; Yoon, Jina

    2015-01-01

    With Bronfenbrenner's (1977) ecological theory and other multifactor models (e.g. Pianta, 1999; Prinstein, Boergers, & Spirito, 2001) underlying this study design, the purpose was to examine, simultaneously, key variables in multiple life contexts (microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem levels) for their individual and combined roles in…

  6. Homelessness Experiences, Sexual Orientation, and Sexual Risk Taking among High School Students in Los Angeles

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Eric; Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey; Fulginiti, Anthony; Astor, Roee; Montoya, Jorge; Plant, Aaron; Kordic, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Prior studies reported homeless adolescents engage in more sexual risk than their housed peers. However, these comparisons are typically made post hoc by comparing homeless adolescent community-based samples with high school probability samples. This study utilizes a random sample of high school students to examine homelessness experiences and sexual risk behaviors. Methods A supplemental survey to the Youth Risk Behavior Survey containing questions regarding homelessness and sexual health was administered to Los Angeles high school students (N=1,839). Multivariate logistic regressions assessed the associations between demographics, past year homelessness experiences (i.e., place of nighttime residence), and being sexually active and condom use at last intercourse. Results Homelessness experiences consisted of staying in a shelter (10.4%), a public place (10.1%), and with a stranger (5.6%). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, questioning (LGBTQ), younger, and male adolescents were more likely to experience homelessness. LGBTQ adolescents were also more likely to report staying with a stranger and less likely to report staying in a shelter. Compared to adolescents who stayed in shelters, adolescents who stayed with strangers and in public places were more likely to engage in unprotected sex at last intercourse. Conclusions Adolescents who report sexual activity and sexual risk taking are more likely to report homelessness experiences. With regard to sexual health, staying with strangers could be a particularly risky form of homelessness; LGBTQ and Black adolescents are more likely to experience this form of homelessness. Efforts to reduce homelessness and sexual risk-taking need to recognize the specific vulnerabilities faced by these populations. PMID:23360897

  7. Morningness-eveningness and risk taking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lili; Chartrand, Tanya L

    2015-01-01

    Depending on individual differences in biological rhythms and diurnal preferences, people have long been described as either "larks" or "owls." Larks and owls differ greatly in personality aspects, but from the behavioral perspective it is unclear whether they have significant differences in terms of risky behaviors. Whether morning types or evening types are consistently more risk-taking or risk-averse in different domains remains unknown. This study adopted a general American adult sample to systematically investigate the relationship between chronotype and individuals' risky behaviors in different domains. By using different methods to measure risky behaviors in different domains, the current research obtained convergent results that morningness was negatively related only to financially risky behaviors for American adults. More specifically, by using the composite scale of morningness and the domain-specific risk attitude scale, Study 1 showed that for American adults, morning types were less likely than evening types to engage in financially risky behaviors (N = 212). In Study 2, after scenario-based methods were used to measure risky behavior, results showed that that participants engaged less in risky behaviors in the domains of gambling and investment (N = 187). A mediator test showed that the negative relationship between morningness and financially risky behaviors was partly mediated by individuals' self-control ability (self-control scale, Study 1). PMID:25901637

  8. Adolescent Protective Behavior to Reduce Drug and Alcohol Use, Alcohol-Related Harm and Interpersonal Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Lisa; Sheehan, Mary; Chapman, Rebekah

    2009-01-01

    Typically adolescents' friends are considered a risk factor for adolescent engagement in risk-taking. This study took a more novel approach, by examining adolescent friendship as a protective factor. In particular it investigated friends' potential to intervene to reduce risk-taking. Five-hundred-forty adolescents (mean age 13.47 years) were asked…

  9. Adolescent Balloon Analog Risk Task and Behaviors that Influence Risk of Motor Vehicle Crash Injury

    PubMed Central

    Vaca, Federico E.; Walthall, Jessica M.; Ryan, Sheryl; Moriarty-Daley, Alison; Riera, Antonio; Crowley, Michael J.; Mayes, Linda C.

    2013-01-01

    Risk-taking propensity is a pivotal facet of motor vehicle crash involvement and subsequent traumatic injury in adolescents. Clinical encounters are important opportunities to identify teens with high risk-taking propensity who may later experience serious injury. Our objective was to compare self-reports of health risk behavior with performance on the Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART), a validated metric of risk-taking propensity, in adolescents during a clinical encounter. 100 adolescent patients from a hospital emergency department and adolescent health clinic completed a computer-based survey of self-reported risk behaviors including substance use behaviors and behaviors that influence crash involvement. They then completed the BART, a validated laboratory-based risk task in which participants earn points by pumping up a computer-generated balloon with greater pumps leading to increased chance of balloon explosion. 20 trials were undertaken. Mean number of pumps on the BART showed a correlation of .243 (p=.015) with self-reported driver/passenger behaviors and attitudes towards driving that influence risk of crash injury. Regression analyses showed that self-reports of substance use and mean number of pumps on the BART uniquely predict self-reports of behaviors influencing the risk of crash injury. The BART is a promising correlate of real-world risk-taking behavior related to traffic safety. It remains a valid predictor of behaviors influencing risk of crash injury when using just 10 trials, suggesting its utility as a quick and effective screening measure for use in busy clinical environments. This tool may be an important link to prevention interventions for those most at-risk for future motor vehicle crash involvement and injury. PMID:24406948

  10. Age and Social Context Modulate the Effect of Anxiety on Risk-taking in Pediatric Samples.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Dana; Patel, Nilam; Pavletic, Nevia; Grillon, Christian; Pine, Daniel S; Ernst, Monique

    2016-08-01

    Although risk-taking has been studied from a developmental perspective, no study has examined how anxiety, age, risk-valence and social context interact to modulate decision-making in youths. This study probes this question using a risk-taking task, the Stunt Task, in clinically anxious children (n = 17, 10 F, age = 8.3-12.1 years), healthy children (n = 13, 4 F, age = 9.3-12.2 years), clinically anxious adolescents (n = 18, 6 F, age = 12.3-17.7 years), and healthy adolescents (n =14, 10 F, age = 12.5-17.3 years). Social context was manipulated: in one condition, participants were led to believe that a group of peers were observing and judging their performance (peer-judge), while, in the other condition, they were led to believe that peers were not observing them (control). Only anxious children showed an influence of social context on their risk-taking behavior. Specifically, anxious children bet significantly less and had slower reaction times (RT) during the peer-judge than control condition. However, across social conditions, risk-valence modulated RT differently in function of age and diagnosis. Anxious children were slower on the positive-valence risky trial, whereas anxious adolescents were slower on the negative-valence risky trials relative to their respective healthy peers. In conclusion, clinically anxious children were the only group that was sensitive (risk-averse) to the effect of a negative peer-judge context. The negative peer-judge context did not affect risky decision-making in adolescents, whether they were anxious or healthy. Future work using a stronger aversive social context might be more effective at influencing risky behavior in this age group. PMID:26659306

  11. Age and Social Context Modulate the Effect of Anxiety on Risk-taking in Pediatric Samples

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Dana; Patel, Nilam; Pavletic, Nevia; Grillon, Christian; Pine, Daniel S.

    2016-01-01

    Although risk-taking has been studied from a developmental perspective, no study has examined how anxiety, age, risk-valence and social context interact to modulate decision-making in youths. This study probes this question using a risk-taking task, the Stunt Task, in clinically anxious children (n=17, 10 F, age=8.3–12.1 years), healthy children (n=13, 4 F, age=9.3–12.2 years), clinically anxious adolescents (n=18, 6 F, age=12.3–17.7 years), and healthy adolescents (n =14, 10 F, age=12.5–17.3 years). Social context was manipulated: in one condition, participants were led to believe that a group of peers were observing and judging their performance (peer-judge), while, in the other condition, they were led to believe that peers were not observing them (control). Only anxious children showed an influence of social context on their risk-taking behavior. Specifically, anxious children bet significantly less and had slower reaction times (RT) during the peer-judge than control condition. However, across social conditions, risk-valence modulated RT differently in function of age and diagnosis. Anxious children were slower on the positive-valence risky trial, whereas anxious adolescents were slower on the negative-valence risky trials relative to their respective healthy peers. In conclusion, clinically anxious children were the only group that was sensitive (risk-averse) to the effect of a negative peer-judge context. The negative peer-judge context did not affect risky decision-making in adolescents, whether they were anxious or healthy. Future work using a stronger aversive social context might be more effective at influencing risky behavior in this age group. PMID:26659306

  12. Social anxiety and disinhibition: An analysis of curiosity and social rank appraisals, approach-avoidance conflicts, and disruptive risk-taking behavior

    PubMed Central

    Kashdan, Todd B.; Elhai, Jon D.; Breen, William E.

    2008-01-01

    We examined how social anxiety is related to appraisals for various disinhibited behaviors and sought to identify potential subgroups of socially anxious people. College students completed trait measures and appraised disinhibited behaviors on their potential for threat, opportunity to satisfy curiosity, and ability to enhance social status. Three months later, participants were asked to report on their frequency of disinhibited behaviors since the initial assessment. People with greater social anxiety demonstrated frequent approach-avoidance conflicts - co-existing recognition of threats and rewards - about social interactions and disinhibited behaviors. Even when asked about the activity most likely to be avoided, participants with greater social anxiety evaluated these as having potential to satisfy curiosity and advance their social status. Three qualitatively different groups of people were identified based on social anxiety tendencies and approach-avoidance appraisal patterns. Groups differed on the degree of approach-avoidance conflicts, measures of psychological and social well-being, and frequency of social interactions and disinhibited behaviors. Moderately socially anxious people who were approach oriented reported the most difficulties. Results suggest that social anxiety is associated with tension between competing desires to avoid anxiety and explore. However, there appears to be important variability in the regulatory orientation, behavior, and well-being of socially anxious people. Conclusions about the nature of social anxiety may be compromised by not attending to existing differences in self-regulatory orientation and strategies. PMID:17981434

  13. Do Thai parents really know about the sexual risk taking of their children? A qualitative study in Bangkok

    PubMed Central

    Fongkaew, Warunee; Cupp, Pamela K.; Miller, Brenda A.; Atwood, Katharine A.; Chamratrithirong, Apichat; Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Rosati, Michael J.; Chookhare, Warunee; Byrnes, Hilary F.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the perceptions of parents and adolescents toward sexual risk-taking behaviors. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 parents and 30 adolescents (aged 13–14 years) in Bangkok, and were analyzed by using coding and thematic analysis. The results showed that although parents generally believed that Thai teens begin to have sex at an early age and engage in sexual risk-taking behaviors, they trusted that their teens would follow parental guidance and rules and not engage in sexual activity at this age. Most of the Thai teens in the present study reported that their parents were not really aware of their sexual behaviors because of their tendency to keep their sexual stories secret for fear of being scolded, blamed, and punished. The teens also reported that they wanted their parents to listen, give them warmth and more freedom, and be more in touch with their activities. Parents expressed their need for knowledge and skills so that they could help guide their adolescent children to avoid sexual risk-taking behaviors. A family intervention specifically aimed at empowering Thai urban parents is needed. PMID:22950618

  14. Suicidal Behavior among Early Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gover, F. Jill

    There is a great deal of concern about teenage suicide. This study obtained a prevalence rate of suicidal behaviors among non-psychiatric early adolescents (ages 11-16) and investigated personal and family variables that may characterize the young teenagers who report varying degrees of suicidal behavior. A self-report questionnaire was…

  15. Impulsivity and Risk Taking in Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, L Felice; Lee, Junghee; Davis, Michael C; Altshuler, Lori; Glahn, David C; Miklowitz, David J; Green, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Impulsive risk taking contributes to deleterious outcomes among clinical populations. Indeed, pathological impulsivity and risk taking are common in patients with serious mental illness, and have severe clinical repercussions including novelty seeking, response disinhibition, aggression, and substance abuse. Thus, the current study seeks to examine self-reported impulsivity (Barratt Impulsivity Scale) and performance-based behavioral risk taking (Balloon Analogue Risk Task) in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Participants included 68 individuals with bipolar disorder, 38 with schizophrenia, and 36 healthy controls. Self-reported impulsivity was elevated in the bipolar group compared with schizophrenia patients and healthy controls, who did not differ from each other. On the risk-taking task, schizophrenia patients were significantly more risk averse than the bipolar patients and controls. Aside from the diagnostic group differences, there was a significant effect of antipsychotic (AP) medication within the bipolar group: bipolar patients taking AP medications were more risk averse than those not taking AP medications. This difference in risk taking because of AP medications was not explained by history of psychosis. Similarly, the differences in risk taking between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder were not fully explained by AP effects. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed. PMID:23963117

  16. Erratum to: The prevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV, and HIV-related risk-taking behaviors among Palestinian injecting drug users in the East Jerusalem Governorate.

    PubMed

    Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Chetty, Agnes; Rabie, Randa Abu; Jwehan, Isam; Ramlawi, Asad

    2012-08-01

    The objective of the study was to determine HIV, HBV, HCV seroprevalence and to assess HIV risks among Palestinian injecting drug users (IDUs) in the East Jerusalem Governorate. Following formative research, a bio-behavioral survey using respondent-driven sampling was carried out in 2010 among 199 IDUs aged 19-56 years (M = 41.33, SD = 8.09). Venous blood was drawn for biological testing. Data on drug abuse and sexual behaviors were collected by face-to-face interviewing. No HIV + cases were found. Five participants were infected with Hepatitis B and 84 participants (estimated population proportion of 40.3%) tested positive for Hepatitis C. A great majority of the surveyed IDUs (90.4%) reported using sterile injecting equipment the last time they injected. In a multivariate assessment, age (OR = 2.52, p < .05), education (OR = 6.67, p < .01), personal network size (OR = .18, p < .001), and the frequency of drug injecting in the past month (OR = .20, p < .001) were associated with using sterile injecting equipment in the past week. Condom use at most recent sexual intercourse was reported by about a third (34.2%) of IDUs. The study documented substantial exposure to HIV risks among Palestinian IDUs whose vulnerability is inseparable from sociopolitic and socioeconomic characteristics of their social environment. PMID:22782840

  17. The prevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV, and HIV-related risk-taking behaviors among Palestinian injecting drug users in the East Jerusalem Governorate.

    PubMed

    Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Chetty, Agnes; Rabie, Randa Abu; Jwehan, Isam; Ramlawi, Asad

    2012-08-01

    The objective of the study was to determine HIV, HBV, HCV seroprevalence and to assess HIV risks among Palestinian injecting drug users (IDUs) in the East Jerusalem Governorate. Following formative research, a bio-behavioral survey using respondent-driven sampling was carried out in 2010 among 199 IDUs aged 19-56 years(M=41.33, SD=8.09). Venous blood was drawn for biological testing. Data on drug abuse and sexual behaviors were collected by face-to-face interviewing. No HIV+cases were found. Five participants were infected with Hepatitis B and 84 participants(estimated population proportion of 40.3 %) tested positive for Hepatitis C. A great majority of the surveyed IDUs (90.4 %) reported using sterile injecting equipment the last time they injected. In a multivariate assessment, age (OR=2.52, pG.05), education(OR=6.67, pG.01), personal network size (OR=.18, pG.001), and the frequency of drug injecting in the past month (OR=.20, pG.001) were associated with using sterile injecting equipment in the past week. Condom use at most recent sexual intercourse was reported by about a third (34.2 %) of IDUs. The study documented substantial exposure to HIV risks among Palestinian IDUs whose vulnerability is inseparable from sociopolitic and socioeconomic characteristics of their social environment [corrected]. PMID:22674463

  18. Affective and Deliberative Processes in Risky Choice: Age Differences in Risk Taking in the Columbia Card Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figner, Bernd; Mackinlay, Rachael J.; Wilkening, Friedrich; Weber, Elke U.

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated risk taking and underlying information use in 13- to 16- and 17- to 19-year-old adolescents and in adults in 4 experiments, using a novel dynamic risk-taking task, the Columbia Card Task (CCT). The authors investigated risk taking under differential involvement of affective versus deliberative processes with 2 versions of…

  19. ONGOING SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASE ACQUISTION AND RISK TAKING BEHAVIOR AMONG U.S. HIV-INFECTED PATIENTS IN PRIMARY CARE: IMPLICATIONS FOR PREVENTION INTERVENTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Kenneth H; Bush, Timothy; Henry, Keith; Overton, Turner; Hammer, John; Richardson, Jean; Wood, Kathy; Conley, Lois; Papp, John; Caliendo, Angela M.; Patel, Pragna; Brooks, John T

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY A study of HIV-infected persons in primary care in four U.S. found that 13% had a prevalent STD at enrollment and 7% an incident STD six months later. Background To better understand the factors associated with HIV and STD transmitting behavior among HIV-infected persons, we estimated STD prevalence and incidence and associated risk factors among a diverse sample of HIV-infected patients in primary care. Methods We analyzed data from 557 participants in the SUN study, a prospective observational cohort of HIV-infected persons in primary care in four U.S. cities. At enrollment and six months thereafter, participants completed an audio computer-assisted self interview about their sexual behavior, and were screened for genitourinary, rectal and pharyngeal N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis infections by nucleic acid amplification testing, and for serologic evidence of syphilis. Women provided cervicovaginal samples and men provided urine to screen for T. vaginalis by polymerase chain reaction. Results Thirteen percent of participants had a prevalent STD at enrollment and 7% an incident STD six months later. The most commonly diagnosed infections were rectal chlamydia, oropharyngeal gonorrhea, and chlamydial urethritis among the men, and trichomoniasis among the women. Other than trichomoniasis, 94% of incident STDs were identified in MSM. Polysubstance abuse other than marijuana, and having ≥ 4 sex partners in the six months prior to testing were associated with diagnosis of an incident STD. Conclusions STDs were commonly diagnosed among contemporary HIV-infected patients receiving routine outpatient care, particularly among sexually active MSM who used recreational drugs. These findings underscore the need for frequent STD screening, prevention counseling, and substance abuse treatment for HIV-infected persons in care. PMID:22183836

  20. Measurement of sexual risk taking among college students.

    PubMed

    Turchik, Jessica A; Garske, John P

    2009-12-01

    Current measures of sexual risk taking are either too narrowly focused to be used with college students or do not have adequate psychometric properties. The goal of the current study was to develop a broad and psychometrically sound measure of sexual risk taking. A total of 613 undergraduate students (302 men, 311 women) at a mid-sized Midwestern university in the U.S. were surveyed to develop and gather reliability and validity information on a new measure of sexual risk, the Sexual Risk Survey (SRS). The measure was found to be multifactorial with five factors. The measure was found to have good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The SRS also demonstrated evidence of convergent and concurrent validity by its relationships with reported number of sexual partners and history of infidelity as well as measures of sensation seeking, sexual desire, substance use, sexual excitation and inhibition, and sexual health consequences. Social desirability was not found to be related to sexual risk taking scores and threat of sexual disclosure was only weakly related. An investigation of sex differences revealed that men reported greater intentions to engage in sexual risk behaviors and greater overall sexual risk taking behavior compared to women. The SRS provides researchers with a valid and comprehensive measure of sexual risk taking that can be used to clarify inconsistent findings in the literature and to assess outcome in programs designed to prevent and reduce sexual risk behaviors among college students. PMID:18563548

  1. Are Tattooing and Body Piercing Indicators of Risk-Taking Behaviours among High School Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deschesnes, Marthe; Fines, Phillipe; Demers, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To date, studies pertaining to possible links between body modification and risk-taking behaviours have been conducted mainly among targeted groups. The objective of this study is to examine the influence of a number of risk-taking behaviours on the probability of being pierced or tattooed among a general adolescent population. Methods:…

  2. Risk taking among diabetic clients.

    PubMed

    Joseph, D H; Schwartz-Barcott, D; Patterson, B

    1992-01-01

    Diabetic clients must make daily decisions about their health care needs. Observational and anecdotal evidence suggests that vast differences exist between the kinds of choices diabetic clients make and the kinds of chances they are willing to take. The purpose of this investigation was to develop a diabetic risk-assessment tool. This instrument, which is based on subjective expected utility theory, measures risk-prone and risk-averse behavior. Initial findings from a pilot study of 18 women clients who are on insulin indicate that patterns of risk behavior exist in the areas of exercise, skin care, and diet. PMID:1729123

  3. DYT1 dystonia increases risk taking in humans

    PubMed Central

    Arkadir, David; Radulescu, Angela; Raymond, Deborah; Lubarr, Naomi; Bressman, Susan B; Mazzoni, Pietro; Niv, Yael

    2016-01-01

    It has been difficult to link synaptic modification to overt behavioral changes. Rodent models of DYT1 dystonia, a motor disorder caused by a single gene mutation, demonstrate increased long-term potentiation and decreased long-term depression in corticostriatal synapses. Computationally, such asymmetric learning predicts risk taking in probabilistic tasks. Here we demonstrate abnormal risk taking in DYT1 dystonia patients, which is correlated with disease severity, thereby supporting striatal plasticity in shaping choice behavior in humans. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14155.001 PMID:27249418

  4. Social Network and Risk-Taking Behavior Most Associated with Rapid HIV Testing, Circumcision, and Preexposure Prophylaxis Acceptability Among High-Risk Indian Men

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rupali; Dandona, Rakhi; Kumar, Prem; Kumar, Anil; Lakshmi, Vemu; Laumann, Edward; Mayer, Kenneth; Dandona, Lalit

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Indian truck drivers and their younger apprentice drivers are at increased risk of HIV infection. We determine network and risk practices associated with willingness to adopt HIV prevention interventions currently not being used in India: rapid HIV testing, circumcision, and preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in order to inform the National AIDS Control Program (NACP). Truck drivers and truck cleaners were systematically recruited to participate in a social network and risk survey in Hyderabad, Southern India. Three separate composite measures of acceptability of rapid HIV testing, circumcision, and PrEP acceptability were utilized to independently assess the relationship of these prevention interventions with risk-practices and social network characteristics. An 89% participation rate yielded 1602 truck drivers and truck cleaners with 54.2% younger than 30 years of age and 2.8% HIV infected. Twenty-five percent of respondents reported sex with female sex workers (FSW) and 5% with men (MSM). Rapid testing, circumcision, and PrEP acceptability were 97.4%, 9.1%, and 85.9%, respectively. Participants reporting prosocial network characteristics were more accepting of rapid testing (adjusted odds ratio [AORs] 3.07–6.71; p<0.05) and demonstrated variable PrEP acceptability (AORs 0.08–2.22; p<0.001). Sex with FSWs was associated with PrEP acceptability (AOR 4.27; p<0.001); sex with MSM was associated with circumcision acceptability only (AOR 2.66; p<0.01). Social network factors and risk-practices were associated with novel prevention acceptability, but not consistently across intervention type and with variable directionality. The NACP will need to consider that intervention uptake may likely be most successful when efforts are targeted to individuals with specific behavior and social network characteristics. PMID:22973951

  5. Adaptive Learning and Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denrell, Jerker

    2007-01-01

    Humans and animals learn from experience by reducing the probability of sampling alternatives with poor past outcomes. Using simulations, J. G. March (1996) illustrated how such adaptive sampling could lead to risk-averse as well as risk-seeking behavior. In this article, the author develops a formal theory of how adaptive sampling influences risk…

  6. Academic Risk Taking, Development, and External Constraint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Margaret M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Academic risk taking--the selection of schoollike tasks ranging in difficulty and probability of success--was examined for 602 students in grades 4, 6, and 8 in Taiwan. Results of a self-report measure of tolerance for failure and a risk-taking task are discussed concerning self-enhancement versus self-assessment goals, metacognitive skills, and…

  7. Greater exposure to sexual content in popular movies predicts earlier sexual debut and increased sexual risk taking.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Ross E; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D

    2012-09-01

    Early sexual debut is associated with risky sexual behavior and an increased risk of unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections later in life. The relations among early movie sexual exposure (MSE), sexual debut, and risky sexual behavior in adulthood (i.e., multiple sexual partners and inconsistent condom use) were examined in a longitudinal study of U.S. adolescents. MSE was measured using the Beach method, a comprehensive procedure for media content coding. Controlling for characteristics of adolescents and their families, analyses showed that MSE predicted age of sexual debut, both directly and indirectly through changes in sensation seeking. MSE also predicted engagement in risky sexual behaviors both directly and indirectly via early sexual debut. These results suggest that MSE may promote sexual risk taking both by modifying sexual behavior and by accelerating the normal rise in sensation seeking during adolescence. PMID:22810165

  8. Frequent dieting among adolescents: psychosocial and health behavior correlates.

    PubMed Central

    French, S A; Story, M; Downes, B; Resnick, M D; Blum, R W

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The present study examined correlates of frequent dieting in 33,393 adolescents. It was hypothesized that frequent dieting would be correlated with negative psychosocial and health behavior outcomes. METHODS. A comprehensive, school-based health behavior survey was administered in 1987 to public school students in grades 7 through 12 in Minnesota. Students self-reported dieting behavior; substance use; suicidal, sexual, and delinquent behavior; family and peer concerns; sick days; and abuse history. Differences on psychosocial and health behavior risk factors by dieting frequency and by purging status were assessed with multivariate logistic regression, with body mass index and demographic variables controlled. RESULTS. Dieting frequency was associated with history of binge eating (females: odds ratio [OR] = 1.46, males: OR = 1.53); poor body image (females: OR = 0.56, males: OR = 0.63); lower connectedness to others (females: OR = 0.79); greater alcohol use (females: OR = 1.17); and greater tobacco use (females: OR = 1.08). Purging status was independently associated with negative risk factors in both males and females. CONCLUSIONS. These findings suggest that frequent dieting efforts in adolescents should not be viewed in isolation, but rather in the broader context of health and risk-taking behaviors. PMID:7733431

  9. Mothers' and Fathers' Socialization of Preschoolers' Physical Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagan, Lisa Kindleberger; Kuebli, Janet

    2007-01-01

    This study examined how parents influence sex differences in young children's physical risk taking behaviors. Eighty three- and four-year old, mostly middle class and Caucasian children climbed across a five-foot high catwalk and walked across a three-foot high beam under their mother or father's supervision. Based on average preschooler gross…

  10. Individual Differences of Action Orientation for Risk Taking in Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raab, Markus; Johnson, Joseph G.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this article is to explain empirical risk-taking behavior in sports from an individual cognitive modeling perspective. A basketball task was used in which participants viewed four video options that varied in the degree of associated risk. The participants were independently classified by scores on the Questionnaire for Assessing…

  11. Fear, excitement, and financial risk-taking.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chan Jean; Andrade, Eduardo B

    2015-01-01

    Can fear trigger risk-taking? In this paper, we assess whether fear can be reinterpreted as a state of excitement as a result of contextual cues and promote, rather than discourage, risk-taking. In a laboratory experiment, the participants' emotional states were induced (fear vs. control), followed by a purportedly unrelated financial task. The task was framed as either a stock market investment or an exciting casino game. Our results showed that incidental fear (vs. control) induced risk-averse behaviour when the task was framed as a stock investment decision. However, fear encouraged risk-taking when the very same task was framed as an exciting casino game. The impact of fear on risk-taking was partially mediated by the excitement felt during the financial task. PMID:24661027

  12. Increased Risk Taking in Relation to Chronic Stress in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ceccato, Smarandita; Kudielka, Brigitte M.; Schwieren, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    Chronic stress is a public health problem that affects a significant part of the population. While the physiological damage it causes is under ongoing scrutiny, its behavioral effects have been overlooked. This is one of the first studies to examine the relation between chronic stress and decision-making, using a standard lottery paradigm. We measured risk taking in the gain domain through binary choices between financially incentivized lotteries. We then measured self-reported chronic stress with the Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress (TICS). We additionally collected hair samples in a subsample of volunteers, in order to quantify accumulation of the stress hormone cortisol. We discovered a significant positive, though modest, correlation between self-reported chronic stress and risk taking that is stronger for women than for men. This confirms part of the findings in acute stress research that show a connection between higher stress and increased risk taking. However, unlike the biologically-based results from acute stress research, we did not identify a significant relation between hair cortisol and behavior. In line with previous literature, we found a clear gender difference in risk taking and self-reports: women generally take less risk and report slightly higher stress levels than men. We conclude that perceived chronic stress can impact behavior in risky situations. PMID:26858663

  13. Wired: Energy Drinks, Jock Identity, Masculine Norms, and Risk Taking

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kathleen E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective The author examined gendered links among sport-related identity, endorsement of conventional masculine norms, risk taking, and energy-drink consumption. Participants The author surveyed 795 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory-level courses at a public university. Methods The author conducted linear regression analyses of energy-drink consumption frequencies on sociodemographic characteristics, jock identity, masculine norms, and risk-taking behavior. Results Of participants, 39% consumed an energy drink in the past month, with more frequent use by men (2.49 d/month) than by women (1.22 d/month). Strength of jock identity was positively associated with frequency of energy-drink consumption; this relationship was mediated by both masculine norms and risk-taking behavior. Conclusions Sport-related identity, masculinity, and risk taking are components of the emerging portrait of a toxic jock identity, which may signal an elevated risk for health-compromising behaviors. College undergraduates’ frequent consumption of Red Bull and comparable energy drinks should be recognized as a potential predictor of toxic jock identity. PMID:18400659

  14. Risk Behavior and Personal Resiliency in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince-Embury, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between self-reported risk behaviors and personal resiliency in adolescents; specifically whether youth with higher personal resiliency report less frequent risk behaviors than those with lower personal resiliency. Self-reported risk behavior is surveyed by the "Adolescent Risk Behavior Inventory"…

  15. Predicting the Problem Behavior in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karaman, Neslihan G.

    2013-01-01

    Problem statement: Problem behavior theory describes both protective factors and risk factors to explain adolescent problem behaviors, such as delinquency, alcohol use, and reckless driving. The theory holds that problem behaviors involving risky behavior are used by adolescents as a means to gain peer acceptance and respect. Problem behaviors…

  16. Anticipating early fatality: friends', schoolmates' and individual perceptions of fatality on adolescent risk behaviors.

    PubMed

    Haynie, Dana L; Soller, Brian; Williams, Kristi

    2014-02-01

    Past research indicates that anticipating adverse outcomes, such as early death (fatalism), is associated positively with adolescents' likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors. Health researchers and criminologists have argued that fatalism influences present risk taking in part by informing individuals' motivation for delaying gratification for the promise of future benefits. While past findings highlight the association between the anticipation of early death and a number of developmental outcomes, no known research has assessed the impact of location in a context characterized by high perceptions of fatality. Using data from Add Health and a sample of 9,584 adolescents (51% female and 71% white) nested in 113 schools, our study builds upon prior research by examining the association between friends', school mates', and individual perceptions of early fatality and adolescent risk behaviors. We test whether friends' anticipation of being killed prior to age 21 or location in a school where a high proportion of the student body subscribes to attitudes of high fatality, is associated with risky behaviors. Results indicate that friends' fatalism is positively associated with engaging in violent delinquency, non-violent delinquency, and drug use after controlling for individual covariates and prior individual risk-taking. Although friends' delinquency accounts for much of the effect of friends' fatalism on violence, none of the potential intervening variables fully explain the effect of friends' fatalism on youth involvement in non-violent delinquency and drug use. Our results underscore the importance of friendship contextual effects in shaping adolescent risk-taking behavior and the very serious consequences perceptions of fatality have for adolescents' involvement in delinquency and drug use. PMID:23828725

  17. Promoting Adolescents' Prosocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidron, Yael; Fleischman, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Saying a kind word to a classmate, acknowledging other students' feelings, sharing books and advice, defending a victim of bullying--these are just a few of the prosocial behaviors that can enhance students' social and academic lives at school. Because children do not develop social values in a vacuum, educators, policymakers, and researchers are…

  18. Effects of Voluntary Alcohol Intake on Risk Preference and Behavioral Flexibility during Rat Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    McMurray, Matthew S.; Amodeo, Leslie R.; Roitman, Jamie D.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use is common in adolescence, with a large portion of intake occurring during episodes of binging. This pattern of alcohol consumption coincides with a critical period for neurocognitive development and may impact decision-making and reward processing. Prior studies have demonstrated alterations in adult decision-making following adolescent usage, but it remains to be seen if these alterations exist in adolescence, or are latent until adulthood. Here, using a translational model of voluntary binge alcohol consumption in adolescents, we assess the impact of alcohol intake on risk preference and behavioral flexibility during adolescence. During adolescence (postnatal day 30–50), rats were given 1-hour access to either a 10% alcohol gelatin mixture (EtOH) or a calorie equivalent gelatin (Control) at the onset of the dark cycle. EtOH consuming rats were classified as either High or Low consumers based on intake levels. Adolescent rats underwent behavioral testing once a day, with one group performing a risk preference task, and a second group performing a reversal-learning task during the 20-day period of gelatin access. EtOH-High rats showed increases in risk preference compared to Control rats, but not EtOH-Low animals. However, adolescent rats did a poor job of matching their behavior to optimize outcomes, suggesting that adolescents may adopt a response bias. In addition, adolescent ethanol exposure did not affect the animals' ability to flexibly adapt behavior to changing reward contingencies during reversal learning. These data support the view that adolescent alcohol consumption can have short-term detrimental effects on risk-taking when examined during adolescence, which does not seem to be attributable to an inability to flexibly encode reward contingencies on behavioral responses. PMID:25007338

  19. Illness Behavior and Social Competence in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Lynn S.; Van Slyke, Deborah A.

    This study examined the relationship of illness behavior to perceived competence and gender in adolescents. It was hypothesized that, like adults, adolescents with lower levels of perceived social competence would report more illness behavior. A significant gender difference was expected such that girls would report more illness behavior than…

  20. Adolescents' Neural Processing of Risky Decisions: Effects of Sex and Behavioral Disinhibition

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, Thomas J.; Dalwani, Manish S.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; Young, Susan E.; Sakai, Joseph T.; Raymond, Kristen M.; McWilliams, Shannon K.; Roark, Melissa J.; Banich, Marie T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Accidental injury and homicide, relatively common among adolescents, often follow risky behaviors; those are done more by boys and by adolescents with greater behavioral disinhibition (BD). Hypothesis Neural processing during adolescents' risky decision-making will differ in youths with greater BD severity, and in males vs. females, both before cautious behaviors and before risky behaviors. Methodology/Principal Findings 81 adolescents (Patients with substance and conduct problems, and comparison youths (Comparisons)), assessed in a 2 x 2 design (Patients:Comparisons x Male:Female) repeatedly decided between doing a cautious behavior that earned 1 cent, or a risky one that either won 5 or lost 10 cents. Odds of winning after risky responses gradually decreased. Functional magnetic resonance imaging captured brain activity during 4-sec deliberation periods preceding responses. Most neural activation appeared in known decision-making structures. Patients, who had more severe BD scores and clinical problems than Comparisons, also had extensive neural hypoactivity. Comparisons' greater activation before cautious responses included frontal pole, medial prefrontal cortex, striatum, and other regions; and before risky responses, insula, temporal, and parietal regions. Males made more risky and fewer cautious responses than females, but before cautious responses males activated numerous regions more than females. Before risky behaviors female-greater activation was more posterior, and male-greater more anterior. Conclusions/Significance Neural processing differences during risky-cautious decision-making may underlie group differences in adolescents' substance-related and antisocial risk-taking. Patients reported harmful real-life decisions and showed extensive neural hypoactivity during risky-or-cautious decision-making. Males made more risky responses than females; apparently biased toward risky decisions, males (compared with females) utilized many more neural

  1. Barriers that influence eating behaviors in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Sandra; Horner, Sharon D

    2005-08-01

    Adolescence is a time of rapid growth and development with biologic, psychological, and emotional changes occurring simultaneously. We conducted a critical review of the literature to analyze key topics in the study of adolescents' eating behaviors and to identify barriers to healthy eating experienced by adolescents. The literature documents that nutritional deficits and poor eating established during adolescence have long-term health, growth, and developmental consequences. Gaps in the literature are identified and recommendations for future studies are proposed. PMID:16030505

  2. Washington State Survey of Adolescent Health Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Dept. of Social and Health Services, Olympia.

    The 1992 Washington State Survey of Adolescent Health Behaviors (WSSAHB) was created to collect information regarding a variety of adolescent health behaviors among students in the state of Washington. It expands on two previous administrations of a student tobacco, alcohol, and other drug survey and includes questions about medical care, safety,…

  3. Risk-Taking and Reasons for Living in Non-Clinical Italian University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pompili, Maurizio; Lester, David; Innamorati, Marco; Narciso, Valentina; Vento, Alessandro; De Pisa, Eleonora; Tatarelli, Roberto; Girardi, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    The associations between risk-taking, hopelessness, and reasons for living were explored in a sample of 312 Italian students. Respondents completed the Physical Risk Assessment Inventory, the Physical Risk-Taking Behavior Inventory, the Beck Hopelessness Scale, and the Reasons for Living Inventory. Students with lower scores on the Reasons for…

  4. Features of Parent-Adolescent Relationships and Adolescents' Problem Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repinski, Daniel J.; Zook, Joan M.

    Seven features of adolescents' relationships with mothers and with fathers (time together per day, number of activities, degree of influence, subjective closeness, and frequency of experiencing positive, hostile, and sad emotions in the relationship) were used to predict adolescents' problem behavior and chemical use. Using a sample of 64 seventh-…

  5. Cost Discrepancy, Signaling, and Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemon, Jim

    2005-01-01

    If risk taking is in some measure a signal to others by the person taking risks, the model of "costly signaling" predicts that the more the apparent cost of the risk to others exceeds the perceived cost of the risk to the risk taker, the more attractive that risk will be as a signal. One hundred and twelve visitors to youth "drop-in" centers…

  6. Current health issues in Korean adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    During the adolescent period, they experience rapid physical, emotional, cognitive developments while they establish their lifestyle and habitual routines that strongly influence adult health and life. Recent rapid economic growth in Korea, and the earlier onset of physical, sexual, and psychological maturation of adolescents, has resulted in changes in the health status of adolescents from many years ago. Risk-taking behaviors such as drinking alcohol, smoking, and sexual experiences are critical issues that affect the health of, adolescents. Therefore, it is important for pediatricians to note the that risk-taking behaviors of adolescents in Korea that are caused by individual psychosocial factors. This review article illustrates the current health status of Korean adolescents and provides an overview of risk-taking behaviors, to inform pediatricians about some of the key issues. PMID:22232620

  7. Young Adult Cannabis Users Report Greater Propensity for Risk-Taking Only in Non-Monetary Domains

    PubMed Central

    Gilman, Jodi M.; Calderon, Vanessa; Curran, Max T.; Evins, A. Eden

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Though substance use is often associated with elevated risk-taking in real-world scenarios, many risk-taking tasks in experimental psychology using financial gambles fail to find significant differences between individuals with substance use disorders and healthy controls. We assessed whether participants using marijuana would show a greater propensity for risk-taking in distinct domains including, but not limited to, financial risk-taking. METHODS In the current study, we assessed risk-taking in young adult (age 18–25) regular marijuana users and in non-using control participants using a domain-specific risk-taking self-report scale (DOSPERT) encompassing five domains of risk-taking (social, financial, recreational, health/safety, and ethical). We also measured behavioral risk-taking using a laboratory monetary risk-taking task. RESULTS Marijuana users and controls reported significant differences on the social, health/safety, and ethical risk-taking scales, but no differences in the propensity to take recreational or financial risks. Complementing the self-report finding, there were no differences between marijuana users and controls in their performance on the laboratory risk-taking task. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that financial risk-taking may be less sensitive than other domains of risk-taking in assessing differences in risky behavior between those who use marijuana and those who do not. In order to more consistently determine whether increased risk-taking is a factor in substance use, it may be necessary to use both monetary risk-taking tasks and complementary assessments of non-monetary-based risk-taking measures. PMID:25577478

  8. Teaching Efficacy, Innovation, School Culture and Teacher Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Margaret Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is an exploratory study of teacher risk taking. The risk-taking literature in education and other types of organizations is lacking in studies exploring the concept of healthy risk taking and how that risk taking is related to other concepts such as organizational culture, innovation, and efficacy. The purpose of this study was…

  9. Acute Exercise Increases Sex Differences in Amateur Athletes' Risk Taking.

    PubMed

    Pighin, S; Savadori, L; Bonini, N; Andreozzi, L; Savoldelli, A; Schena, F

    2015-10-01

    The research presented here investigates the interaction between acute exercise, biological sex and risk-taking behavior. The study involved 20 amateur athletes (19-33 years old), 10 males and 10 females, who were asked to undergo subsequent experimental sessions designed to compare their risky behaviors on the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) 34 at rest and while exercising at moderate intensity (60% of their maximal aerobic power). Results showed that physical exercise affected male and female participants differently: Whereas males became more risk seeking, females became more risk averse during exercise. PMID:26090877

  10. Risk Taking for Potential Reward Decreases across the Lifespan.

    PubMed

    Rutledge, Robb B; Smittenaar, Peter; Zeidman, Peter; Brown, Harriet R; Adams, Rick A; Lindenberger, Ulman; Dayan, Peter; Dolan, Raymond J

    2016-06-20

    The extent to which aging affects decision-making is controversial. Given the critical financial decisions that older adults face (e.g., managing retirement funds), changes in risk preferences are of particular importance [1]. Although some studies have found that older individuals are more risk averse than younger ones [2-4], there are also conflicting results, and a recent meta-analysis found no evidence for a consistent change in risk taking across the lifespan [5]. There has as yet been little examination of one potential substrate for age-related changes in decision-making, namely age-related decline in dopamine, a neuromodulator associated with risk-taking behavior. Here, we characterized choice preferences in a smartphone-based experiment (n = 25,189) in which participants chose between safe and risky options. The number of risky options chosen in trials with potential gains but not potential losses decreased gradually over the lifespan, a finding with potentially important economic consequences for an aging population. Using a novel approach-avoidance computational model, we found that a Pavlovian attraction to potential reward declined with age. This Pavlovian bias has been linked to dopamine, suggesting that age-related decline in this neuromodulator could lead to the observed decrease in risk taking. PMID:27265392

  11. [Adolescents engaging in sexually offending behavior].

    PubMed

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Työläjärvi, Marja; Eronen, Markku

    2015-01-01

    Sexually offending behavior by adolescents may be directed towards children, age-mates and adults. Neurocognitive and psychiatric disorders and the associated inability to age-related interpersonal relationships and inability to control the sexual desires activated during adolescence may lead a young person to seek inappropriate sexual satisfaction from children. Sometimes the offenses are part of antisocial development. Interventions should be focused on the distorted cognitions and attitudes maintaining the injurious sexual behavior, and on the risk of criminal behavior in general. Pharmacological therapy, mainly with SSRI drugs, has also been tested in adolescents. PMID:26233982

  12. Mass Media Influence on Adolescent Consumer Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Roy L.; And Others

    Questionnaires completed by 607 middle school and high school students provided data about the learning of selected advertising-related cognitions among adolescents and on the short-term effect of these cognitions and other communication variables on adolescent consumption behavior. Among the findings were the following: susceptibility to…

  13. Adolescent Work Experiences and Family Formation Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staff, Jeremy; VanEseltine, Matthew; Woolnough, April; Silver, Eric; Burrington, Lori

    2012-01-01

    A long-standing critique of adolescent employment is that it engenders a precocious maturity of more adult-like roles and behaviors, including school disengagement, substance use, sexual activity, inadequate sleep and exercise, and work-related stress. Though negative effects of high-intensity work on adolescent adjustment have been found, little…

  14. Female Adolescents of Alcohol Misusers: Sexual Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandy, Joseph M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Impact of parent alcohol misuse on the sexual behavior of female adolescents was studied with 1,134 teenagers of alcohol-misusing parents. Index adolescents were more likely to report sexual intercourse and greater frequency of intercourse. Gender of the drinking parent was related to a number of factors related to sexuality. (SLD)

  15. Violent Behaviors among African-American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Darhyl

    1995-01-01

    Explores the development of behaviors by using Erik Erikson's psychosocial developmental theory, with emphasis on adolescents. Examines factors, such as identity versus identity diffusion, that may be contributing to increasing acts of violence by African American adolescents. Other factors are examined that may contribute to increased violence.…

  16. Delinquent Behavior of Dutch Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weenink, Don

    2011-01-01

    This article compares Dutch rural and non-rural adolescents' delinquent behavior and examines two social correlates of rural delinquency: communal social control and traditional rural culture. The analyses are based on cross-sectional data, containing 3,797 participants aged 13-18 (48.7% females). The analyses show that rural adolescents are only…

  17. Adolescent Decision Making: Implications for Prevention Programs. Summary of a Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischhoff, Baruch, Ed.; Crowell, Nancy A., Ed.; Kipke, Michele, Ed.

    Risk taking is a natural part of teenagers' lives. They need to take some risks in order to grow. However, they can also get into trouble with their risk taking when it involves behaviors such as sex, drinking, smoking, violence, and drug use. Interest in the role that decision making plays in adolescents' involvement in high-risk behaviors led…

  18. Adolescent Drug Use and Other Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hundleby, John D.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Two-hundred-thirty-one adolescents completed questionnaires concerning their use of drugs (alcohol, tobacco, pain-killers, and marijuana). Factor analysis of endorsements of a broad range of behavior, followed by regression analysis, indicated that sexual behavior, general delinquency, school achievement, and social behavior were all related to…

  19. Real and hypothetical monetary rewards modulate risk taking in the brain.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sihua; Pan, Yu; Wang, You; Spaeth, Andrea M; Qu, Zhe; Rao, Hengyi

    2016-01-01

    Both real and hypothetical monetary rewards are widely used as reinforcers in risk taking and decision making studies. However, whether real and hypothetical monetary rewards modulate risk taking and decision making in the same manner remains controversial. In this study, we used event-related potentials (ERP) with a balloon analogue risk task (BART) paradigm to examine the effects of real and hypothetical monetary rewards on risk taking in the brain. Behavioral data showed reduced risk taking after negative feedback (money loss) during the BART with real rewards compared to those with hypothetical rewards, suggesting increased loss aversion with real monetary rewards. The ERP data demonstrated a larger feedback-related negativity (FRN) in response to money loss during risk taking with real rewards compared to those with hypothetical rewards, which may reflect greater prediction error or regret emotion after real monetary losses. These findings demonstrate differential effects of real versus hypothetical monetary rewards on risk taking behavior and brain activity, suggesting a caution when drawing conclusions about real choices from hypothetical studies of intended behavior, especially when large rewards are used. The results have implications for future utility of real and hypothetical monetary rewards in studies of risk taking and decision making. PMID:27383241

  20. Real and hypothetical monetary rewards modulate risk taking in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Sihua; Pan, Yu; Wang, You; Spaeth, Andrea M.; Qu, Zhe; Rao, Hengyi

    2016-01-01

    Both real and hypothetical monetary rewards are widely used as reinforcers in risk taking and decision making studies. However, whether real and hypothetical monetary rewards modulate risk taking and decision making in the same manner remains controversial. In this study, we used event-related potentials (ERP) with a balloon analogue risk task (BART) paradigm to examine the effects of real and hypothetical monetary rewards on risk taking in the brain. Behavioral data showed reduced risk taking after negative feedback (money loss) during the BART with real rewards compared to those with hypothetical rewards, suggesting increased loss aversion with real monetary rewards. The ERP data demonstrated a larger feedback-related negativity (FRN) in response to money loss during risk taking with real rewards compared to those with hypothetical rewards, which may reflect greater prediction error or regret emotion after real monetary losses. These findings demonstrate differential effects of real versus hypothetical monetary rewards on risk taking behavior and brain activity, suggesting a caution when drawing conclusions about real choices from hypothetical studies of intended behavior, especially when large rewards are used. The results have implications for future utility of real and hypothetical monetary rewards in studies of risk taking and decision making. PMID:27383241

  1. Predicting women's alcohol risk-taking while abroad.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gabie; Klein, Sarah

    2010-05-01

    Numerous studies have examined risk factors that are associated with heavy alcohol use; however, much of this research has not addressed factors that specifically relate to women's alcohol use. The current study has extended the previous literature on women's alcohol-use behavior by examining factors associated with risky drinking in young women traveling abroad (n = 55). Using a pretest-posttest design, we examined the influence of disinhibition sensation-seeking and endorsement of social enhancement alcohol expectancies in relation to participation in risky alcohol use while abroad for three weeks. Analyses confirmed that disinhibition sensation-seeking and social enhancement alcohol expectancies were associated with participation in risky alcohol-use behaviors while abroad (controlling for alcohol-use at the pretest). Analysis of qualitative data reinforced the importance of social facilitation in women's alcohol risk-taking. Participants' qualitative data also emphasized characteristics of situational disinhibition relating to travel as well as culturally-specific motivations for alcohol-use behaviors. Further research examining women's personal need for disinhibition and the role of situational disinhibition in motivating alcohol risk-taking is warranted. In addition, the current findings suggest that interventions focusing on the connections between alcohol use and enhancement of social relationships and the potential isolating effects of non-use are necessary. PMID:20512745

  2. Stability and change in risk-taking propensity across the adult life span.

    PubMed

    Josef, Anika K; Richter, David; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R; Wagner, Gert G; Hertwig, Ralph; Mata, Rui

    2016-09-01

    Can risk-taking propensity be thought of as a trait that captures individual differences across domains, measures, and time? Studying stability in risk-taking propensities across the life span can help to answer such questions by uncovering parallel, or divergent, trajectories across domains and measures. We contribute to this effort by using data from respondents aged 18 to 85 in the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP) and by examining (a) differential stability, (b) mean-level differences, and (c) individual-level changes in self-reported general (N = 44,076) and domain-specific (N = 11,903) risk-taking propensities across adulthood. In addition, we investigate (d) the correspondence between cross-sectional trajectories of self-report and behavioral measures of social (trust game; N = 646) and nonsocial (monetary gamble; N = 433) risk taking. The results suggest that risk-taking propensity can be understood as a trait with moderate stability. Results show reliable mean-level differences across the life span, with risk-taking propensities typically decreasing with age, although significant variation emerges across domains and individuals. Interestingly, the mean-level trajectory for behavioral measures of social and nonsocial risk taking was similar to those obtained from self-reported risk, despite small correlations between task behavior and self-reports. Individual-level analyses suggest a link between changes in risk-taking propensities both across domains and in relation to changes in some of the Big Five personality traits. Overall, these results raise important questions concerning the role of common processes or events that shape the life span development of risk-taking across domains as well as other major personality facets. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26820061

  3. Temperamental exuberance and executive function predict propensity for risk-taking in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Lahat, Ayelet; Degnan, Kathryn A.; White, Lauren K.; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; Henderson, Heather A.; Lejuez, C. W.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2015-01-01

    The present study takes a multilevel approach to examine developmental trajectories in risk-taking propensity. We examined the moderating role of specific executive function components, attention shifting and inhibitory control, on the link between exuberant temperament in infancy and propensity for risk-taking in childhood. Risk-taking was assessed using a task previously associated with sensation seeking and antisocial behaviors. Two hundred and ninety one infants were brought into the lab and behaviors reflecting exuberance were observed at 4, 9, 24, and 36 months of age. Executive function was assessed at 48 months of age. Risk-taking propensity was measured when children were 60 months of age. The results indicate that exuberance and attention shifting, but not inhibitory control, significantly interact to predict propensity for risk-taking. Exuberance was positively associated with risk-taking propensity among children relatively low in attention shifting but unrelated for children high in attention shifting. These findings illustrate the multifinality of developmental outcomes for temperamentally exuberant young children and point to the distinct regulatory influences of different executive functions for children of differing temperaments. Attention shifting likely affords a child the ability to consider both positive and negative consequences, and moderates the relation between early exuberance and risk-taking propensity. PMID:22781858

  4. Behavioral Genetic Analyses of Prosocial Behavior in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Alice M.; Light-Hausermann, Jade H.; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Eley, Thalia C.

    2009-01-01

    Prosocial behavior is an important aspect of normal social and psychological development. Adult and child twin studies typically estimate the heritability of prosocial behavior to be between 30 and 50%, although relatively little is known about genetic and environmental influences upon prosocial behavior in adolescence. We therefore examined…

  5. Condom Use among Sexually Active Rural High School Adolescents: Personal, Environmental, and Behavioral Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Tammy; Puskar, Kathryn; Terhorst, Lauren; Terry, Martha Ann; Charron-Prochownik, Denise

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents who engage in unprotected intercourse are at risk of pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI). Although adolescents in rural areas participate in levels of sexual risk taking similar to that of nonrural youth, few data are available identifying factors that influence condom use among rural adolescents. The purpose of this…

  6. Personality, sexuality, and substance use as predictors of sexual risk taking in college students.

    PubMed

    Turchik, Jessica A; Garske, John P; Probst, Danielle R; Irvin, Clinton R

    2010-09-01

    Sexual risk taking among college students is common and can lead to serious consequences, such as unintended pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections. This study utilized responses from 310 undergraduate psychology students aged 18 to 23 to examine personality, sexuality, and substance use predictors of sexual risk behaviors over a six-month period. Data were collected from 2005 to 2006 at a medium-sized Midwestern U.S. university. Results indicated that greater alcohol and recreational drug use, higher extraversion, and lower agreeableness were related to sexual risk taking in men. For women, greater alcohol and drug use, higher sexual excitation, and lower sexual inhibition were predictive of sexual risk taking. Among women, but not men, sensation seeking was found to mediate the relationship between the four significant substance use, personality, and sexuality variables and sexual risk taking. Implications for sexual risk behavior prevention and intervention programming are discussed. PMID:19711220

  7. Demographics, Affect, and Adolescents' Health Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terre, Lisa; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined relationship between affect, demographics, and health-related lifestyle among 139 public high school students. Data analyses revealed distinctive demographic and affective correlates of different health behaviors. No one variable uniformly predicted adolescents' health behaviors. Demographics and affect showed differential relationships…

  8. Programming for Adolescents with Behavioral Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braaten, Sheldon, Ed.; And Others

    This book presents 17 papers from a 1982 national multidisciplinary conference on services for behaviorally disordered adolescents. The following papers are included: "Programming for Youth in Secondary Schools and the Community," (W. Van Til); "Who's Crazy? II" (C. Michael Nelson); "Correlates of Successful Adaptive Behavior: Comparative Studies…

  9. Dialectical Behavior Therapy with Suicidal Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Alec L.; Rathus, Jill H.; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2006-01-01

    Filling a tremendous need, this highly practical book adapts the proven techniques of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) to treatment of multiproblem adolescents at highest risk for suicidal behavior and self-injury. The authors are master clinicians who take the reader step by step through understanding and assessing severe emotional…

  10. Stress Reactivity and Corticolimbic Response to Emotional Faces in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jie; Chaplin, Tara M.; Wang, Fei; Sinha, Rajita; Mayes, Linda C.; Blumberg, Hilary P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Adolescence is a critical period in the development of lifelong patterns of responding to stress. Understanding underpinnings of variations in stress reactivity in adolescents is important, as adolescents with altered stress reactivity are vulnerable to negative risk-taking behaviors including substance use, and have increased lifelong…

  11. Predicting Adolescent Deviant Behaviors through Data Mining Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yu-Chin; Hsu, Yung-Chieh

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is the time during which people develop and form their crucial values, personality traits, and beliefs. Hence, as deviant behaviors occur during adolescence, it is important to guide adolescents away from such behaviors and back to normal behaviors. Moreover, although there are various kinds of deviant behavior, most of them would…

  12. Maternal and Adolescent Temperament as Predictors of Maternal Affective Behavior during Mother-Adolescent Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Emily; Yap, Marie B. H.; Simmons, Julian G.; Sheeber, Lisa B.; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined maternal and early adolescent temperament dimensions as predictors of maternal emotional behavior during mother-adolescent interactions. The sample comprised 151 early adolescents (aged 11-13) and their mothers (aged 29-57). Adolescent- and mother-reports of adolescent temperament and self-reports of maternal temperament were…

  13. Chronic cocaine or ethanol exposure during adolescence alters novelty-related behaviors in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Stansfield, Kirstie H; Kirstein, Cheryl L

    2007-04-01

    Adolescence is a time of high-risk behavior and increased exploration. This developmental period is marked by a greater probability to initiate drug use and is associated with an increased risk to develop addiction and adulthood dependency and drug use at this time is associated with an increased risk. Human adolescents are predisposed toward an increased likelihood of risk-taking behaviors [Zuckerman M. Sensation seeking and the endogenous deficit theory of drug abuse. NIDA Res Monogr 1986;74:59-70.], including drug use or initiation. In the present study, adolescent animals were exposed to twenty days of either saline (0.9% sodium chloride), cocaine (20 mg/kg) or ethanol (1 g/kg) i.p. followed by a fifteen-day washout period. All animals were tested as adults on several behavioral measures including locomotor activity induced by a novel environment, time spent in the center of an open field, novelty preference and novel object exploration. Animals exposed to cocaine during adolescence and tested as adults exhibited a greater locomotor response in a novel environment, spent less time in the center of the novel open field and spent less time with a novel object, results that are indicative of a stress or anxiogenic response to novelty or a novel situation. Adolescent animals chronically administered ethanol and tested as adults, unlike cocaine-exposed were not different from controls in a novel environment, indicated by locomotor activity or time spent with a novel object. However, ethanol-exposed animals approached the novel object more, suggesting that exposure to ethanol during development may result in less-inhibited behaviors during adulthood. The differences in adult behavioral responses after drug exposure during adolescence are likely due to differences in the mechanisms of action of the drugs and subsequent reward and/or stress responsivity. Future studies are needed to determine the neural substrates of these long lasting drug-induced changes. PMID

  14. Adolescence: booze, brains, and behavior.

    PubMed

    Monti, Peter M; Miranda, Robert; Nixon, Kimberly; Sher, Kenneth J; Swartzwelder, H Scott; Tapert, Susan F; White, Aaron; Crews, Fulton T

    2005-02-01

    This article represents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2004 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, organized and chaired by Peter M. Monti and Fulton T. Crews. The presentations and presenters were (1) Introduction, by Peter M. Monti; (2) Adolescent Binge Drinking Causes Life-Long Changes in Brain, by Fulton T. Crews and Kim Nixon; (3) Functional Neuroimaging Studies in Human Adolescent Drinkers, by Susan F. Tapert; (4) Abnormal Emotional Reactivity as a Risk Factor for Alcoholism, by Robert Miranda, Jr.; (5) Alcohol-Induced Memory Impairments, Including Blackouts, and the Changing Adolescent Brain, by Aaron M. White and H. Scott Swartzwelder; and (6) Discussion, by Kenneth Sher. PMID:15714044

  15. Relapse and Risk-taking among Iranian Methamphetamine Abusers Undergoing Matrix Treatment Model

    PubMed Central

    Taymoori, Parvaneh; Pashaei, Tahereh

    2016-01-01

    Background This study investigated the correlation between risk-taking and relapse among methamphetamine (MA) abusers undergoing the Matrix Model of treatment. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on male patients who were stimulant drug abusers undergoing the matrix treatment in the National Center for Addiction Research. A sampling was done using the availability method including 92 male patients. Demographic questionnaires and drug abuse related questionnaire were completed for each patient. Then, Bart’s balloon risk-taking test was administered to the patients. Findings Participants had a mean age ± standard deviation (SD) of 27.59 ± 6.60 years with an age range of 17-29 years. Unemployment, unmarried status, criminal offense, and also addiction family history increased the probability of relapse. In addition, a greater adjusted score of the risk-taking test increased the odds of relapse by more than 97%. The simultaneous abuse of opium and stimulants compared to the abuse of stimulants only, revealed no statistically significant differences for relapse. Patients with higher risk-taking behavior had a more probability of relapse. Conclusion This finding indirectly implies the usefulness of Bart’s risk-taking test in assessing risk-taking behavior in stimulant drug abusers. PMID:27274793

  16. Adolescents Engaging in Risky Sexual Behavior: Sexual Activity and Associated Behavioral Risk Factors in Bolivian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novilla, M. Lelinneth B.; Dearden, Kirk A.; Crookston, Benjamin T.; De La Cruz, Natalie; Hill, Susan; Torres, Scott B.

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence of risky sexual activities among Bolivian adolescents within the context of other behavioral factors that contribute to compromised health outcomes, unintended pregnancies, and sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS. Data was collected from 576 adolescents, 13-18 years of age, from six schools in La…

  17. Adolescent Temperament: Childhood Problem Precursors and Problem Behavior Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windle, Michael

    Interrelations between childhood behavior problems and adolescent temperament, and between adolescent temperament and problem behaviors, were studied. A sample of 311 adolescents with an average age of 15.7 years completed self-report measures regarding behavior problems before age 13, temperament, alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems,…

  18. Sexual Behavior Disorders in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, William D.

    The paper reviews the literature on sexual delinquency in male and female adolescents and considers guidelines for effective intervention in nonspecialized treatment programs. A section on sexual delinquency in females touches on prostitution and incest, while a section on males notes the changing composition of the sexually delinquent population.…

  19. Specificity of early movie effects on adolescent sexual behavior and alcohol use.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Ross E; Gibbons, Frederick X; Li, Zhigang; Gerrard, Meg; Sargent, James D

    2013-11-01

    Adolescents' movie sex exposure (MSE) and movie alcohol exposure (MAE) have been shown to influence later sexual behavior and drinking, respectively. No study to date, however, has tested whether these effects generalize across behaviors. This study examined the concurrent influences of early (i.e., before age 16) MSE and MAE on subsequent risky sex and alcohol use among a national sample of 1228 U.S. adolescents. Participants reported their health behaviors and movie viewing up to six times between 2003 and 2009 in telephone interviews. The Beach method was used to create a population-based estimate of each participant's MSE and MAE, which were then entered into a structural equation model (SEM) to predict lifetime risky sex and past month alcohol use at ages 18-21. For both men and women, MAE predicted alcohol use, mediated by age of initiation of heavy episodic drinking (HED) and age of sexual debut; MAE also predicted risky sex via age of sexual debut. Among men only, MSE indirectly predicted risky sex and alcohol use. Findings indicated that early exposure to risk content from movies had both specific and general effects on later risk-taking, but gender differences were evident: for men, MSE was a stronger predictor than MAE, but for women, only MAE predicted later risk behavior. These results have implications for future media research, prevention programs for adolescent sex and alcohol use, and movie ratings that can guide parents' decisions as to which movies are appropriate for their children. PMID:24034968

  20. Acute Stress Modulates Risk Taking in Financial Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Porcelli, Anthony J.; Delgado, Mauricio R.

    2016-01-01

    People’s decisions are often susceptible to various demands exerted by the environment, leading to stressful conditions. Although a goal for researchers is to elucidate stress-coping mechanisms to facilitate decision-making processes, it is important to first understand the interaction between the state created by a stressful environment and how decisions are performed in such environments. The objective of this experiment was to probe the impact of exposure to acute stress on financial decision-making and examine the particular influence of stress on decisions with a positive or negative valence. Participants’ choices exhibited a stronger reflection effect when participants were under stress than when they were in the no-stress control phase. This suggests that stress modulates risk taking, potentially exacerbating behavioral bias in subsequent decision making. Consistent with dual-process approaches, decision makers fall back on automatized reactions to risk under the influence of disruptive stress. PMID:19207694

  1. Risk factors for suicidal behavior in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kirkcaldy, B D; Siefen, G R; Urkin, J; Merrick, J

    2006-10-01

    Adolescent suicide is today a public health problem among the leading cause of mortality among adolescents and young adults. There seems to be many reasons for this increase (which has different trends in different populations), but associations have been found with increased substance abuse, television and video violence, socio-economic status and easy access to firearms. Gender differences have also been observed with crime, suicide and substance abuse higher among males, while eating disorder, depression and suicidal behavior more prevalent among females. This paper will review prevalence and incidence of adolescent suicidal behavior, socio-demographic and psychological risk factors, associated cognitive factors and socio-economic factors. Risk factors include previous suicide attempts, a history of others in the family who have been suicidal, mental illness, alcohol and drug use, and other self-destructive behaviors as well as consideration being given to hopelessness, hostility, negative self-concept and isolation. At the individual difference level, factors such as trait depression, anger and hostility, perfectionism and social sensitivity would seem critical variables, as would age, gender and intellectual functioning. Sociological and family-related factors may also be implicated including dysfunctional family organizations, a history of physical or psychological abuse (sexual abuse) and limited extent of social support networks. A frequently reported precipitating event of suicidal behavior is family adversity including rejection, separation and interpersonal conflict. At a socio-economic level it would seem essential to provide comprehensive document about the social and economic conditions from which the adolescent comes. PMID:17008855

  2. Adolescents' Sedentary Behaviors in Two European Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aibar Solana, Alberto; Bois, Julien E.; Zaragoza, Javier; Bru, Noëlle; Paillard, Thierry; Generelo, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine and compare the correlates of objective sedentary behavior (SB) and nonschool self-reported SB in adolescents from 2 midsized cities, 1 in France (Tarbes) and 1 in Spain (Huesca). Stability of objective SB and nonschool self-reported SB were also assessed at different time points during 1 academic…

  3. Adolescents' Behavior and Attitudes toward AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salehi, Saeed; And Others

    The need for effective programs to delay sexual activity and to educate adolescents regarding the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has never been greater. Statistics point out that a significant number of teenagers throughout the United States engage in behavior that increases their risks of becoming infected with HIV. This study examined…

  4. Treating Depression and Oppositional Behavior in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Rachel H.; Becker-Weidman, Emily G.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Jordan, Neil; Silva, Susan G.; Rohde, Paul; March, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Adolescents with depression and high levels of oppositionality often are particularly difficult to treat. Few studies, however, have examined treatment outcomes among youth with both externalizing and internalizing problems. This study examines the effect of fluoxetine, cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), the combination of fluoxetine and CBT, and…

  5. Parental Work Schedules and Adolescent Risky Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Wen-Jui; Miller, Daniel P.; Waldfogel, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Using a large contemporary data set (the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Supplement), the authors examined the effects of parental work schedules on adolescent risky behaviors at age 13 or 14 and the mechanisms that might explain them. Structural equation modeling suggests mothers who worked more often at night spent significantly less…

  6. A Study on Correlation of Risk-Taking and the Oral Production of English Majors in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yang; Lin, Yuewu

    2015-01-01

    Risk-taking refers to the tendency to engage in behaviors that have the potential to be harmful or dangerous, yet at the same time provides the opportunity for some kinds of outcome that can be perceived as positive. Ely (1986) and Bang (1999) have mentioned the relationship between risk-taking and oral production in the process of English…

  7. Suicidal behavior in Indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Diana; Sher, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Suicide is both a public and mental health problem, and is a leading cause of deaths, especially among adolescents. Two factors that contribute to the decision of adolescents to commit suicide are having a primary mood disorder and/or substance use. In the Indian culture, the family unit has both a positive and negative impact on suicide. The family serves as a protective factor that provides a strong support for the individual, but alternately creates an inseparable individual when seeking mental health care, which often complicates the situation. Due to the stigma, Indians typically perceive having a mental illness as shameful. Religion is integral to the Indian culture so much so that individuals often use herbal remedies, seek help from religious leaders, and attend religious establishments prior to obtaining a mental health evaluation in those that are subsequently deemed as mentally ill. Despite the fact that suicides are underreported and misdiagnosed in India, it is known that the highest rates are among those <30 years old. The methods most commonly used to commit suicide in India include the ingestion of poison (often pesticides), hanging, burning, and drowning. When immigrating, Indians tend to switch the methods they use to commit suicide from ingestion of poison to hanging, which may reflect a lack of available poisonous substances or the influence of the host culture. Considering the high suicide rates in adolescents, the importance of providing psychoeducation, restricting access to lethal means, and promoting social integration in immigrants are various ways by which suicides in Indian adolescents can be avoided. PMID:24006319

  8. Adolescent Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors: A Developmental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.; Reznik, Yana

    2009-01-01

    Understanding adolescents' attitudes regarding sexual behavior is key to understanding why they choose to engage or not engage in sex, which sexual behavior(s) they initiate and continue, and the outcomes experienced during and following sexual behavior. This article briefly explores adolescent sexual behavior, positive and negative outcomes…

  9. Associations Between a Dopamine D4 Receptor Gene, Alcohol Use, and Sexual Behaviors among Female Adolescent African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Sales, Jessica M.; Smearman, Erica; Brown, Jennifer L.; Brody, Gene H.; Philibert, Robert A.; Rose, Eve; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent African-American females are disproportionately impacted by HIV, thus there is a clear need to understand factors associated with increased HIV-risk behaviors among this vulnerable population. We sought to explore the association between a dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4), a genetic marker associated with natural variations in rewarding behaviors, and self-reported alcohol-use and sexual risk-behaviors, while controlling for other known correlates of risk-taking such as impulsivity, sensation seeking, and peer norms among a group of high-risk African American female adolescents to evaluate whether this biological factor enhances our understanding of patterns of risk in this vulnerable group. PMID:27087792

  10. The Role of Family, Religiosity, and Behavior in Adolescent Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, David M.; Williams, Robert J.; Mossiere, Annik M.; Schopflocher, Donald P.; el-Guebaly, Nady; Hodgins, David C.; Smith, Garry J.; Wood, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    Predictors of adolescent gambling behavior were examined in a sample of 436 males and females (ages 13-16). A biopsychosocial model was used to identify key variables that differentiate between non-gambling and gambling adolescents. Logistic regression found that, as compared to adolescent male non-gamblers, adolescent male gamblers were older,…

  11. Acute behavioral interventions and outpatient treatment strategies with suicidal adolescents

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Kimberly H. McManama; Singer, Jonathan B.; LeCloux, Mary; Duarté-Vélez, Yovanska; Spirito, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors among adolescents, there is limited knowledge of effective interventions to use with this population. This paper reviews the findings of studies on behavioral interventions for adolescents who are at acute suicide risk, as well as outpatient treatment and risk management strategies with suicidal adolescents. The importance of addressing comorbid behaviors and enhancing protective factors are discussed. Cultural considerations in working with suicidal adolescents and strategies for conducting culturally competent treatment are explored. PMID:26279646

  12. Superstition, risk-taking and risk perception of accidents among South African taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Renner, Walter

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate taxi drivers' superstition and risk perception of accidents as well as risk-taking in an urban area in South Africa. One hundred and thirty drivers of minibuses, so-called "taxis" were interviewed on the basis of: (1) a superstition scale; (2) a risk-taking scale; (3) a list of perceived causes of road traffic accidents. Drivers showed largely superstitious attitudes and expressed a high degree of risk-taking behavior. Superstition was positively correlated with the number of self-reported accidents the drivers had been involved in and the number of accidents they had witnessed. Path analysis revealed a direct path from superstition to accident involvement while the influence of formal education was negligible. Risk-taking was inversely correlated with driving experience and the number of accidents witnessed but not so with the number of accidents involved in. There was no clear pattern of associations between superstition and risk-taking and perceived causes of accidents. Superstition and risk-taking were slightly and inversely correlated with each other. It is concluded that superstition represents an attitude that is associated with a driver's accident risk, and further research on superstitious attitudes among South African drivers is advocated. PMID:12729825

  13. Adolescent Suicide and Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Goldstein, Tina R.; Brent, David A.

    2006-01-01

    This review examines the descriptive epidemiology, and risk and protective factors for youth suicide and suicidal behavior. A model of youth suicidal behavior is articulated, whereby suicidal behavior ensues as a result of an interaction of socio-cultural, developmental, psychiatric, psychological, and family-environmental factors. On the basis of…

  14. Romance, risk, and replication: Can consumer choices and risk-taking be primed by mating motives?

    PubMed

    Shanks, David R; Vadillo, Miguel A; Riedel, Benjamin; Clymo, Ashley; Govind, Sinita; Hickin, Nisha; Tamman, Amanda J F; Puhlmann, Lara M C

    2015-12-01

    Interventions aimed at influencing spending behavior and risk-taking have considerable practical importance. A number of studies motivated by the costly signaling theory within evolutionary psychology have reported that priming inductions (such as looking at pictures of attractive opposite sex members) designed to trigger mating motives increase males' stated willingness to purchase conspicuous consumption items and to engage in risk-taking behaviors, and reduce loss aversion. However, a meta-analysis of this literature reveals strong evidence of either publication bias or p-hacking (or both). We then report 8 studies with a total sample of over 1,600 participants which sought to reproduce these effects. None of the studies, including one that was fully preregistered, was successful. The results question the claim that romantic primes can influence risk-taking and other potentially harmful behaviors. PMID:26501730

  15. Chinese drivers' risky driving and risk taking in other life situations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei; Rau, Pei-Luen Patrick; Salvendy, Gavriel

    2011-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to investigate Chinese drivers' preferences to risk-taking behaviors encountered in daily life, including safety and health, finance, recreation, social areas, and ethics. The second aim was to evaluate the association between Chinese risky driving and other risk-taking behaviors. A questionnaire survey was conducted with the 324 Chinese drivers who responded. Through a principal component analysis an 8-factor structure was created to interpret different domains of risk-taking behaviors. They were risks in driving, ethics, recreation, gambling, abused health (voluntarily engaging in smoking and binge drinking), investment, ignored health (ignoring personal health, such as eating expired food), and monetary social areas. The result of multiple regression analysis showed that drivers who were likely to engage in driving risks were also likely to take risks in domains of ethics, abused health, gambling, investment, recreation, and ignored health. PMID:21679667

  16. Relationship Status, Psychological Orientation, and Sexual Risk Taking in a Heterosexual African American College Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winfield, Evelyn B.; Whaley, Arthur L.

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined relationship status, psychological orientation toward sexual risk taking, and other characteristics as potential correlates of risky sexual behavior in a sample of 223 heterosexual African American college students. Risky sexual behavior was investigated as a multinomial variable (i.e., abstinence, consistent condom use,…

  17. Teasing Experiences and Risk-Taking: Gender and Self-Esteem as Moderator and Mediator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, David H.; Somers, Cheryl L.; Pernice-Duca, Francesca; Van Dale, Kimberly G.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the roles of gender and self-esteem in the relations between various teasing experiences and externalizing behavior. Externalizing behavior was measured as reported risk-taking and alcohol consumption. Within a sample of 651 high school students located in the Midwest, males reported significantly more externalizing behavior…

  18. Influence of Asthma on the Longitudinal Trajectories of Cigarette Use Behaviors From Adolescence to Adulthood Using Latent Growth Curve Models

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jisuk

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: While epidemiologic research indicates that the prevalence of risk-taking behaviors including cigarette smoking among young people with asthma is substantial, the longitudinal patterns of cigarette smoking in this vulnerable population have received little attention. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in the longitudinal trajectories of cigarette use behaviors from adolescence to adulthood between young people with and without asthma. Methods: Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) during the years 1994 to 1995 (Wave I, adolescence), 2001 to 2002 (Wave III, young adulthood), and 2007 to 2008 (Wave IV, adulthood) were analyzed (n=12 244). Latent growth curve models were used to examine the longitudinal trajectories of cigarette use behaviors during the transition to adulthood according to asthma status. Results: Regardless of asthma status, the trajectory means of cigarette use behaviors were found to increase, and then slightly decrease from adolescence to adulthood. In total participants, there were no statistically significant differences in initial levels and changes in cigarette use behaviors according to asthma status. However, in select sex and race subgroups (i.e., females and non-whites), former asthmatics showed greater escalation in cigarette use behaviors than did non-asthmatics or current asthmatics. Conclusions: This study indicated that the changing patterns of cigarette use behaviors during the transition to adulthood among young people with asthma are comparable to or even more drastic than those among young people without asthma. PMID:25857649

  19. Possible Insomnia Predicts Some Risky Behaviors among Adolescents when Controlling for Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catrett, Christina D.; Gaultney, Jane F.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated whether previously reported links between sleep and risk taking among adolescents (E. M. O'Brien & J. A. Mindell, 2005) are associated--concurrently, longitudinally, or both--with sleep or underlying depression. The present study analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of 4,353 adolescents in the United States…

  20. Health Promotion and Risk Behaviors among Adolescents in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortabag, Tulay; Ozdemir, Serpil; Bakir, Bilal; Tosun, Nuran

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents experience the onset and development of several health-related behaviors. The purpose of this study is to determine health risk and promotion behaviors of adolescents between the ages of 11 and 19 who were attending and to test the reliability and validity analysis of the Turkish version of Adolescent Health Promotion Scale (AHPS). The…

  1. South African Adolescents: Pathways to Risky Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, David W.; Morojele, Neo K.; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, Judith S.

    2006-01-01

    This study tested a developmental model of pathways to risky sexual behavior among South African adolescents. Participants comprised 633 adolescents, 12-17 years old, recruited from households in Durban, South Africa. Data were collected using in-person interviews. Topics included adolescents' sexual behaviors, household poverty levels, vulnerable…

  2. Death Anxiety in a Risk-Taking Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaspar, Fran E.; Vesper, Joseph J.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine if a difference in death anxiety exists between people who engage in a risk-taking activity and people who do not. Motorcycle riding was chosen as a risk-taking activity. A significantly lower Death Anxiety Scale score was obtained from the motorcycle group. (Author)

  3. Trajectories of family management practices and early adolescent behavioral outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Te; Dishion, Thomas J; Stormshak, Elizabeth A; Willett, John B

    2011-09-01

    Stage-environment fit theory was used to examine the reciprocal lagged relations between family management practices and early adolescent problem behavior during the middle school years. In addition, the potential moderating roles of family structure and of gender were explored. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to describe patterns of growth in family management practices and adolescents' behavioral outcomes and to detect predictors of interindividual differences in initial status and rate of change. The sample comprised approximately 1,000 adolescents between ages 11 years and 15 years. The results indicated that adolescents' antisocial behaviors and substance use increased and their positive behavioral engagement decreased over time. As adolescent age increased, parental knowledge of their adolescent's activities decreased, as did parental rule making and support. The level and rate of change in family management and adolescent behavioral outcomes varied by family structure and by gender. Reciprocal longitudinal associations between parenting practices and adolescent problem behavior were found. Specifically, parenting practices predicted subsequent adolescent behavior, and adolescent behavior predicted subsequent parenting practices. In addition, parental warmth moderated the effects of parental knowledge and rule making on adolescent antisocial behavior and substance use over time. PMID:21688899

  4. Behavioral Health Emergencies Managed by School Nurses Working with Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Mary M.; Greenberg, Cynthia; Sapien, Robert; Bauer-Creegan, Judith; Hine, Beverly; Geary, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    Background: As members of interdisciplinary teams, school nurses provide behavioral health services. Studies indicate that school nurses may lack sufficient continuing education in adolescent behavioral health and in the management of behavioral health emergencies, specifically. We conducted this study to describe the adolescent behavioral health…

  5. Adolescent sexual behavior and childbearing.

    PubMed

    Zabin, L S

    1994-01-01

    Low self esteem does not explain problems of adolescence, particularly unwanted pregnancy and early childbearing. This intimates that their root causes are personal rather than structural and socioeconomic, thereby allowing us to blame the victim. Contrary to popular opinion, few teens (10%) want to conceive and most teens want something other than pregnancy, indicating a need for effective intervention. Teens who were ambivalent about childbearing 2 years earlier are just as likely to have given birth as those who wanted to conceive. Teens self-concept is based on the reality of their environment, which, for most teens who have given birth, involves chronic unemployment, a culture of single parenthood in which men play no supportive role in the home, and the knowledge that teens who choose to continue to attend school despite having given birth fare the same as those who drop out of school. Structural changes (jobs and career goals), long term intervention, and continuous social support are needed to improve a teen's capacity to make choices, especially those concerning contraception. In other words, motivation must be so strong that conceptions are avoided. No family wants to go on welfare and no woman wants to have a baby while a teenager, but when teens become pregnant, they tend not to choose abortion. If welfare reform creates true opportunity for jobs, it will create the motivation to avoid pregnancy but not reduce the childbearing rate among teens that conceive. Very early maturation is correlated with very early onset of sexual activity. The very best sex education and services are unlikely to be offered at a young enough age in schools. US society is obsessed with and unwilling to talk about sex. The notion of choice is not part of poor America. Interactive interventions providing continuing support are needed to make a difference in adolescent pregnancy. PMID:8086816

  6. Childhood Maltreatment and Sexual Risk Taking: The Mediating Role of Alexithymia.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Austin M; Simons, Raluca M; Simons, Jeffrey S

    2016-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment is a significant predictor of sexual risk taking. The nature of this relationship is not fully understood; however, emotion dysregulation may play an important role. We tested the role of difficulty identifying and describing feelings (i.e., alexithymia) on the relationship between childhood maltreatment and sexual risk taking. Specifically, we hypothesized two mechanisms, one in which alexithymia is related to sexual risk taking via negative urgency and alcohol use and a second one in which alexithymia is related to sexual risk taking via neediness. The participants for this study were 425 sexually active college undergraduates (303 females, 122 males) between the ages of 18 and 25 years. The results of a structural equation model indicated that alexithymia accounted for a significant part of the relationship between child maltreatment and sexual risk behavior. Moreover, the relationship between alexithymia and sexual risk taking was fully accounted for by two separate paths. First, negative urgency and subsequent alcohol use partially mediated the relationship, and the second effect was accounted for by needy interpersonal style. Adverse experiences during childhood can impair emotional functioning and contribute to behavioral and interpersonal dysregulation. PMID:26318149

  7. Regulatory Mode and Risk-Taking: The Mediating Role of Anticipated Regret

    PubMed Central

    Panno, Angelo; Lauriola, Marco; Pierro, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    We propose that decision maker’s regulatory mode affects risk-taking through anticipated regret. In the Study 1 either a locomotion or an assessment orientation were experimentally induced, and in the Studies 2 and 3 these different orientations were assessed as chronic individual differences. To assess risk-taking we used two behavioral measures of risk: BART and hot-CCT. The results show that experimentally induced assessment orientation–compared to locomotion–leads to decreased risk-taking through increased anticipated regret (Study 1). People chronically predisposed to be in the assessment state take less risk through increased anticipated regret (Study 2 and Study 3). Study 2 results also show a marginally non-significant indirect effect of chronic locomotion mode on BART through anticipated regret. Differently, Study 3 shows that people chronically predisposed to be in the locomotion state take greater risk through decreased anticipated regret, when play a dynamic risk task triggering stronger emotional arousal. Through all three studies, the average effect size for the relationship of assessment with anticipated regret was in the moderate-large range, whereas for risk-taking was in the moderate range. The average effect size for the relationship of locomotion with anticipated regret was in the moderate range, whereas for risk-taking was in the small-moderate range. These results increase our understanding of human behavior under conditions of risk obtaining novel insights into regulatory mode theory and decision science. PMID:26580960

  8. School-Based Programs for Increasing Connectedness and Reducing Risk Behavior: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Rebekah L.; Buckley, Lisa; Sheehan, Mary; Shochet, Ian

    2013-01-01

    School connectedness has a significant impact on adolescent outcomes, including reducing risk-taking behavior. This paper critically examines the literature on school-based programs targeting increased connectedness for reductions in risk taking. Fourteen articles describing seven different school-based programs were reviewed. Programs drew on a…

  9. Stability of executive function and predictions to adaptive behavior from middle childhood to pre-adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Harms, Madeline B.; Zayas, Vivian; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Carlson, Stephanie M.

    2014-01-01

    The shift from childhood to adolescence is characterized by rapid remodeling of the brain and increased risk-taking behaviors. Current theories hypothesize that developmental enhancements in sensitivity to affective environmental cues in adolescence may undermine executive function (EF) and increase the likelihood of problematic behaviors. In the current study, we examined the extent to which EF in childhood predicts EF in early adolescence. We also tested whether individual differences in neural responses to affective cues (rewards/punishments) in childhood serve as a biological marker for EF, sensation-seeking, academic performance, and social skills in early adolescence. At age 8, 84 children completed a gambling task while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. We examined the extent to which selections resulting in rewards or losses in this task elicited (i) the P300, a post-stimulus waveform reflecting the allocation of attentional resources toward a stimulus, and (ii) the SPN, a pre-stimulus anticipatory waveform reflecting a neural representation of a “hunch” about an outcome that originates in insula and ventromedial PFC. Children also completed a Dimensional Change Card-Sort (DCCS) and Flanker task to measure EF. At age 12, 78 children repeated the DCCS and Flanker and completed a battery of questionnaires. Flanker and DCCS accuracy at age 8 predicted Flanker and DCCS performance at age 12, respectively. Individual differences in the magnitude of P300 (to losses vs. rewards) and SPN (preceding outcomes with a high probability of punishment) at age 8 predicted self-reported sensation seeking (lower) and teacher-rated academic performance (higher) at age 12. We suggest there is stability in EF from age 8 to 12, and that childhood neural sensitivity to reward and punishment predicts individual differences in sensation seeking and adaptive behaviors in children entering adolescence. PMID:24795680

  10. Is risk-taking propensity a familial vulnerability factor for alcohol use? An examination in two independent samples.

    PubMed

    Gorka, Stephanie M; Liu, Huiting; Klein, Daniel; Daughters, Stacey B; Shankman, Stewart A

    2015-09-01

    Research indicates that increased risk-taking propensity (RTP) is associated with higher alcohol use. There is also some evidence to suggest that it is not just a state factor or 'scar,' but instead a vulnerability factor. If this is the case, increased RTP should be evident in healthy individuals that are at risk for alcohol use. To date, few studies have examined whether RTP is a familial vulnerability factor and thus, the aim of the current study was to test whether RTP aggregates within families and if increased RTP is evident in biological family members at risk for alcohol use. Sample 1 included 87 biological, adult sibling pairs and Sample 2 included 111 biological mother and adolescent dyads (total N = 396). All participants completed a behavioral measure of RTP and were assessed for alcohol use. Results in both samples were strikingly consistent. In Sample 1, RTP was correlated among siblings and greater frequency of proband alcohol use predicted greater sibling RTP, over and above sibling alcohol use. In Sample 2, RTP was correlated among mothers and their offspring and greater maternal alcohol use problems predicted greater adolescent RTP over and above adolescent substance use. Together, these findings suggest that RTP may be a familial vulnerability factor for alcohol use as it aggregates within families and is increased in relatives of individuals with higher levels of alcohol use. PMID:26228401

  11. Parental Work Schedules and Adolescent Risky Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Han, Wen-Jui; Miller, Daniel P.; Waldfogel, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Using a large contemporary data set, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Supplement (NLSY-CS), this paper examines the effects of parental work schedules on adolescent risky behaviors at age 13 or 14 and the mechanisms that might explain them. Structural equation modeling suggests mothers who worked more often at night spent significantly less time with children and had lower quality home environments, and these mediators were significantly linked to adolescent risky behaviors. Similar effects were not found for evening work schedules, while other types of maternal and paternal nonstandard work schedules were linked to higher parental knowledge of children’s whereabouts, which led to lower levels of adolescent risky behaviors. Subgroup analyses revealed that males, those in families with low incomes, and those whose mothers never worked at professional jobs may particularly be affected by mothers working at nights, due to spending less time together, having a lower degree of maternal closeness, and experiencing lower quality home environments. In addition, the effects of maternal night shifts were particularly pronounced if children were in the preschool or middle-childhood years when their mothers worked those schedules. Implications and avenues for future research are discussed. PMID:20822236

  12. Tattooing behavior in adolescence. A comparison study.

    PubMed

    Farrow, J A; Schwartz, R H; Vanderleeuw, J

    1991-02-01

    We characterize associations with and motivations for tattooing in adolescents through data from a controlled, three-group comparison of adolescents from a substance abuse treatment program, detention center, and private pediatric practice. We surveyed 474 adolescents (12 to 18 years old) with tattoos (12%) and without tattoos (88%). The private pediatric practice was the control site. A 34-item questionnaire was used to profile the three groups and their primary associations with tattooing with respect to race, drug use, school attendance, school grades, parental marital status, family income, tattooing by family members, criminal activity, and involvement with satanic rituals. Tattooing was significantly (P less than .005) associated with all of these variables in the ways described, as was knowledge of its association with human immunodeficiency virus infection. No interventions were made. Tattooing is common in adolescents and is associated with low self-esteem, delinquency, drug abuse, family and peer modeling, and participation in satanic rituals. Addressing the behavior as a health problem is discussed. PMID:1994684

  13. Risk Taking and Performance in Relation to Achievement-Related Motives, Defensiveness and Social Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damm, John T.; Bloxom, Anne

    The effects of two social contexts on the risk -taking behavior of elementary boys on a shuffleboard task were investigated. It was predicted that Atkinson's motive-probability-incentive (M-P-I) model would be supported in the peer-competitive context, in that the success-oriented subjects would choose more goals with median Ps values than the…

  14. Neural Correlates of Traditional Chinese Medicine Induced Advantageous Risk-Taking Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Tiffany M. Y.; Guo, Li-guo; Shi, Hong-zhi; Li, Yong-zhi; Luo, Yue-jia; Sung, Connie Y. Y.; Chan, Chetwyn C. H.; Lee, Tatia M. C.

    2009-01-01

    This fMRI study examined the neural correlates of the observed improvement in advantageous risk-taking behavior, as measured by the number of adjusted pumps in the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), following a 60-day course of a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) recipe, specifically designed to regulate impulsiveness in order to modulate…

  15. Environmental Influences on Risk Taking among Hong Kong Young Dance Partygoers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngai, Steven Sek-Yum; Ngai, Ngan-pun; Cheung, Chau-kiu

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates risk-taking behavior and its associated factors among young Hong Kong partygoers at rave parties or discos. Based on a survey of 300 14 to 28-year-old dance partygoers recruited by outreaching social workers, the study provides data on risks in terms of the likelihood of drug abuse, coitus, unprotected coitus, fighting, and…

  16. Low mate encounter rate increases male risk taking in a sexually cannibalistic praying mantis.

    PubMed

    Brown, William D; Muntz, Gregory A; Ladowski, Alexander J

    2012-01-01

    Male praying mantises are forced into the ultimate trade-off of mating versus complete loss of future reproduction if they fall prey to a female. The balance of this trade-off will depend both on (1) the level of predatory risk imposed by females and (2) the frequency of mating opportunities for males. We report the results of a set of experiments that examine the effects of these two variables on male risk-taking behavior and the frequency of sexual cannibalism in the praying mantis Tenodera sinensis. We experimentally altered the rate at which males encountered females and measured male approach and courtship behavior under conditions of high and low risk of being attacked by females. We show that male risk taking depends on prior access to females. Males with restricted access to females showed greater risk-taking behavior. When males were given daily female encounters, they responded to greater female-imposed risk by slowing their rate of approach and remained a greater distance from a potential mate. In contrast, males without recent access to mates were greater risk-takers; they approached females more rapidly and to closer proximity, regardless of risk. In a second experiment, we altered male encounter rate with females and measured rates of sexual cannibalism when paired with hungry or well-fed females. Greater risk-taking behavior by males with low mate encounter rates resulted in high rates of sexual cannibalism when these males were paired with hungry females. PMID:22558146

  17. Factors Associated with Physician Discussion of Health Behaviors with Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Won S.; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Kaur, Harsohena; Nazir, Niaman; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2006-01-01

    Behaviors developed in adolescence influence health later in life. The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of health care provider's discussion of health behaviors with overweight and non-overweight adolescents and identify demographic and health behaviors related to exercise, hours of television viewing, and weight issues…

  18. Rural Mexican-American Adolescent Sexual Risk Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Kelly, Pat; Shain, Rochelle N.; Piper, Jeanna M.

    2004-01-01

    There is a need for community-based, culturally sensitive, cognitive-behavioral interventions to reduce sexual risk behavior among minority adolescents. Studies of adolescent risk and protective behaviors have focused on identifying modifiable psychosocial variables that predict differential outcomes for subsequent intervention efforts. Research…

  19. Environmental Correlates of Gambling Behavior in Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickwire, Emerson M.; Whelan, James P.; Meyers, Andrew W.; Murray, David M.

    2007-01-01

    The present study considered the relation between adolescent gambling behavior and the perceived environment, the component of Jessor and Jessor's (1977) Problem Behavior Theory that assesses the ways that adolescents perceive the attitudes and behaviors of parents and peers. The predominantly African-American sample included 188 sophomores from…

  20. Defining Sexuality among Female Black Inner-City Young Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gershenson, Harold P.; Handler, Arden

    Adolescents are able to respond correctly to questions about pregnancy risk and contraceptive use, yet still engage in risk-taking behavior. One explanation for this phenomenon may be the existence of a personal fable. To explore the existence of the personal fable in inner-city female adolescents, 22 eighth grade black females in Chicago…

  1. Parental Power and Behaviors as Antecedents of Adolescent Conformity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Carolyn S.; And Others

    Several authorities have observed that a moderate degree of conformity by the young may be necessary for a society to function effectively. In order to examine the relationship between adolescents' perceptions of parental power and behavior and adolescent conformity, adolescents (N=368) in 184 families completed questionnaires concerning aspects…

  2. Adolescent Gambling: A Narrative Review of Behavior and Its Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariyabuddhiphongs, Vanchai

    2013-01-01

    This narrative review summarizes current knowledge on adolescent gambling for the period 1990-2010, assesses adolescent gambling behavior and person and environment predictors, and suggests directions for future research. The review includes 99 studies that identified their subjects as adolescents, children, youth, and students, and discusses…

  3. Behavioral Disorder amongst Adolescents Attending Secondary School in Southeast Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Chinawa, J. M.; Manyike, P. C.; Obu, H. A.; Odetunde, O. I.; Aniwada, E. C.; Ndu, I. K.; Chinawa, A. T.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Adolescents are prone to various forms of behavioral problems. These behavioral issues in adolescents can have serious consequences for the adolescents. Objectives. The objectives of the study are to determine the causative factors of adolescent problems and specific manifestations. Methods. Behavioral problems were investigated using a random sampling of adolescents from secondary schools in southeast Nigeria from February to April, 2014. A self-administered questionnaire was developed from Health Kids Colorado Questionnaire. Results. A total of 763 subjects completed the questionnaire. Adolescents who reported to have used tobacco 3 to 5 and 6 to 9 times during the last 30 days are just 3.14% and 3.4%, respectively. Nineteen (2.49%) adolescents claimed that they have had sex before but not in the last 3 months. Adolescents who attempted suicide are from 15 years and peaked at 18. Eighty-three (11%) adolescents who are 15 years old attempted suicide in a year; this peaks at 17 years where 235 (30.8%) committed suicide. Majority of adolescents with behavioral disorder are from the upper class family. Conclusion. This study revealed that adolescents exhibit several forms of behavioral problems. PMID:25276048

  4. Parent Behavior and Adolescents' Self-System Processes: Predictors of Behavior to Siblings and Friends Problem Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repinski, Daniel J.; Shonk, Susan M.

    This study examined the degree to which adolescent self-system processes (self-efficacy, emotional reactivity) and reports of mothers' and fathers' behavior (warmth/support, hostility) predict adolescents' behavior toward siblings and their friends' problem behavior. Subjects were 76 seventh-grade adolescents who provided self-reports of parent…

  5. Cell Phone Internet Access, Online Sexual Solicitation, Partner Seeking, and Sexual Risk Behavior among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Eric; Winetrobe, Hailey; Holloway, Ian W.; Montoya, Jorge; Plant, Aaron; Kordic, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Online partner seeking is associated with sexual risk behavior among young adults (specifically men who have sex with men), but this association has yet to be explored among a probability sample of adolescents. Moreover, cell phone internet access and sexual risk taking online and offline have not been explored. A probability sample (N = 1,831) of Los Angeles Unified School District high school students was collected in 2011. Logistic regression models assessed relationships between specific sexual risk behaviors (online sexual solicitation, seeking partners online, sex with internet-met partners, condom use) and frequency of internet use, internet access points, and demographics. Students with cell phone internet access were more likely to report being solicited online for sex, being sexually active, and having sex with an internet-met partner. Bisexual-identifying students reported higher rates of being approached online for sex, being sexually active, and not using condoms at last sex. Gay, lesbian, and questioning (GLQ) students were more likely to report online partner seeking and unprotected sex at last sex with an internet-met partner. Additionally, having sex with an internet-met partner was associated with being male, online sexual solicitation, and online partner seeking. Internet- and school-based sexual health programs should incorporate safety messages regarding online sexual solicitation, seeking sex partners online, and engaging in safer sex practices with all partners. Programs must target adolescents of all sexual identities, as adolescents may not yet be “out,” and bisexual and GLQ adolescents are more likely to engage in risky sex behaviors. PMID:25344027

  6. Gender differences in delinquent behavior among Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hun-Soo; Kim, Hyun-Sil

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined gender differences in the rate, type, and relevant variables underlying delinquent behavior among South Korean adolescents. Although female delinquency is increasing and becoming more violent in South Korea, the rate of delinquent behavior was found to be much lower among female than among male adolescents and female adolescents were much less involved in antisocial, aggressive, and psychopathic delinquent behavior compared to male adolescents. Moreover, compared to female delinquent adolescents, male delinquent adolescents were found to have greater tendencies towards antisocial personality, sociability, being sexually abused, and alcohol and drug use. In contrast, female delinquent adolescents had a greater tendency toward depression than male delinquent adolescents. No gender differences were found in the association between family dynamics and delinquent behaviors. Age and antisocial personality had the most significant total effects on male delinquent behavior. In contrast, alcohol and drug abuse was the strongest contributing factors in female delinquent behavior, although the level of alcohol and drug abuse was much higher among male adolescents than among female adolescents. PMID:15886868

  7. Measurement and Design Issues in the Study of Adolescent Sexual Behavior and the Evaluation of Adolescent Sexual Health Behavior Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michael; Palacios, Rebecca; Penhollow, Tina M.

    2012-01-01

    To improve the quality of research and commentary concerning adolescent sexuality and evaluation of both comprehensive sexuality education and abstinence education programs, this article aims to help readers (1) select appropriate measures to study adolescent sexual behavior, (2) develop appropriate study designs to evaluate adolescent sexual…

  8. Developmental Trajectories of Acculturation in Hispanic Adolescents: Associations with Family Functioning and Adolescent Risk Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Knight, George P.; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, Jose

    2013-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal acculturation patterns, and their associations with family functioning and adolescent risk behaviors, in Hispanic immigrant families. A sample of 266 Hispanic adolescents (M[subscript age] = 13.4) and their primary parents completed measures of acculturation, family functioning, and adolescent conduct problems,…

  9. Association of smokeless tobacco use and smoking in adolescents in the US: Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, R. Constance

    2014-01-01

    Background Using smokeless tobacco and smoking are risk behaviors for oral cancer, soft tissue lesions, caries, periodontal disease and other oral conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine adolescent smokeless tobacco use and smoking. Methods The study was a cross-sectional analysis of participants with complete data on smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and other variables of interest in the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n=9655). Descriptive analysis and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed. Results The unadjusted odds ratio for smokeless tobacco use and smoking was 9.68 (95% CI: 7.72, 12.13, p<.0001); the adjusted odds ratio was 3.92 (95%CI: 2.89, 5.31, p<.0001). Adolescents using smokeless tobacco were more likely to be male, to smoke, and to have engaged in binge drinking. Conclusions Adolescents who are using smokeless tobacco are more likely to also be engaging in concomitant smoking and are participating in other risk-taking behaviors. Practice implications Dentists are involved in helping patients in tobacco cessation. The strong association of smoking with smokeless tobacco needs to be considered in designing cessation programs for adolescents. PMID:23904581

  10. Externalizing Behavior Problems during Adolescence: An Ecological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Rachel; Renk, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Given the ramifications of difficulties related to externalizing behavior problems, the present study examined the relationships among adolescents' externalizing behavior problems, characteristics of adolescents' families, their perceived neighborhood support, and their acculturation. As part of this study, a culturally diverse sample of…

  11. Sun Safety Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors among Beachgoing Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merten, Julie Williams; Higgins, Sue; Rowan, Alan; Pragle, Aimee

    2014-01-01

    Background: Skin cancer rates are rising and could be reduced with better sun protection behaviors. Adolescent exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is damaging because it can lead to skin cancer. This descriptive study extends understanding of adolescent sun exposure attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors. Methods: A sample of 423 beachgoing…

  12. Adolescent Maltreatment and Its Impact on Young Adult Antisocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carolyn A.; Ireland, Timothy O.; Thornberry, Thornberry P.

    2005-01-01

    Statement of problem: "Childhood" maltreatment is known to be a risk factor for a range of later problems, but much less is known about "adolescent" maltreatment. The present study aims to investigate the impact of adolescent maltreatment on antisocial behavior, while controlling for prior levels of problem behavior as well as sociodemographic…

  13. Longitudinal Bidirectional Relations between Adolescents' Sympathy and Prosocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlo, Gustavo; Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Nielson, Matthew G.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the importance of understanding sympathy and prosocial behaviors, research on the development of these tendencies in adolescence remains relatively sparse. In the present study, we examined age trends and bidirectional longitudinal relations in sympathy and prosocial behaviors across early to middle adolescents. Participants were 500…

  14. Rural Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors: Age, Gender, and Ethnic Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salzman, Stephanie A.; Girvan, James T.

    A survey of health risk behaviors was administered to a representative sample of 7,776 Idaho students in grades 8-12. Respondents were 86% White, 6% Hispanic, 4% American Indian, 3% Asian, and 2% Black. These rural adolescents reported that they had engaged in some health risk behaviors at rates comparable to those of other U.S. adolescents: 57%…

  15. Informed-Consent Issues with Adolescent Health Behavior Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olds, R. Scott

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To identify the informed-consent issues when conducting adolescent health behavior research. Methods: A literature review was conducted across diverse academic fields about the informed-consent issues that were relevant to adolescent health behavior research. Results: Issues included defining consent, assent and permission, minimal…

  16. The Timing of School Transitions and Early Adolescent Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippold, Melissa A.; Powers, Christopher J.; Syvertsen, Amy K.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigates whether rural adolescents who transition to a new school in sixth grade have higher levels of risky behavior than adolescents who transition in seventh grade. Our findings indicate that later school transitions had little effect on problem behavior between sixth and ninth grades. Cross-sectional analyses found…

  17. A Brief Screening Measure of Adolescent Risk Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lescano, Celia M.; Hadley, Wendy S.; Beausoleil, Nancy I.; Brown, Larry K.; D'eramo, Domenic; Zimskind, Abigail

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure and reliability of a brief but comprehensive measure, the adolescent risk inventory (ARI), designed to assess adolescent risk behaviors and attitudes. Measures assessing demographics and risk behaviors were administered to 134 youth (ages 12-19) in psychiatric treatment. A confirmatory factor analysis of…

  18. Gender Differences in Delinquent Behavior among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hun-Soo; Kim, Hyun-Sil

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined gender differences in the rate, type, and relevant variables underlying delinquent behavior among South Korean adolescents. Although female delinquency is increasing and becoming more violent in South Korea, the rate of delinquent behavior was found to be much lower among female than among male adolescents and female…

  19. Negative Affect, Risk Perception, and Adolescent Risk Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Laura A.; Youngblade, Lise M.

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence, etiology, and consequences of adolescent risk behavior have stimulated much research. The current study examined relationships among anger and depressive symptomatology (DS), risk perception, self-restraint, and adolescent risk behavior. Telephone surveys were conducted with 290 14- to 20-year-olds (173 females; M = 15.98 years).…

  20. Using a Framework to Explore Associations between Parental Substance Use and the Health Outcomes of Their Adolescent Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Shelley A.

    2011-01-01

    Risk-taking behavior plays a significant role in the lives of adolescents. Adolescents engaging in risk behaviors such as substance use and risky sexual activity are at increased risk for contracting STDs, unplanned pregnancy, and other health problems. Consequently, children of substance abusers are at even greater risk for engaging in…

  1. Peer influence on adolescent boys' appearance management behaviors.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jeong-Ju

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of this research is to understand peer influence on adolescent boys' appearance management behaviors and their risk perception of these behaviors; 155 adolescent boys, average age 14.3, participated in the study. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests revealed that adolescent boys engaged in many types of behaviors, although they perceived some of them as unhealthy. When compared with adolescent boys who showed low peer influence, those with high peer influence engaged in the following behaviors more frequently: sunbathing, using tanning booths, waxing skin, and spa treatments. The findings suggest a need for further investigation regarding the motivation for and impediments to adolescent boys' appearance management behaviors. PMID:20432614

  2. Risk-taking in social settings: Group and peer effects☆

    PubMed Central

    Bougheas, Spiros; Nieboer, Jeroen; Sefton, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We investigate experimentally the effect of consultation (unincentivized advice) on choices under risk in an incentivized investment task. We compare consultation to two benchmark treatments: one with isolated individual choices, and a second with group choice after communication. Our benchmark treatments replicate findings that groups take more risk than individuals in the investment task; content analysis of group discussions reveals that higher risk-taking in groups is positively correlated with mentions of expected value. In our consultation treatments, we find evidence of peer effects: decisions within the peer group are significantly correlated. However, average risk-taking after consultation is not significantly different from isolated individual choices. We also find that risk-taking after consultation is not affected by adding a feedback stage in which subjects see the choices of their consultation peers. PMID:24926111

  3. Risk-taking behaviour is more frequent in teenage girls with multiple sexual partners

    PubMed Central

    Kuortti, Marjo; Kosunen, Elise

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations between sexual behaviour and risk-taking health behaviour among adolescent females in our changing sexual culture. Design A questionnaire study. Girls who had had multiple sexual partners (at least five in their lifetime or four during the last six months) were compared with those with fewer partners. Logistic regression was applied. Setting The Adolescent Clinic, a primary healthcare unit in the city of Tampere, Finland. Subjects A sample of 247 female clients aged 15–18 years who had experienced sexual intercourse. Main outcome measures Contraceptive practices, substance use, and sexual attitudes. Results Girls with multiple sexual partners (n = 69) and the reference group (n = 178) did not differ from each other significantly by age, age at menarche, or educational status. In univariate analysis, age at sexual debut, contraceptive practices, and various substance uses were strongly associated with having multiple sexual partners. Ever-use of emergency contraception was marginally associated, while ever-use of conventional hormonal contraception or condoms was not. In multivariate analysis, low age at sexual debut (OR 8.75 for age 11–13), omitting contraception at the most recent intercourse (OR 3.48), ever-use of withdrawal as a contraceptive method (OR 2.34), and repeated use of drugs (OR 4.10) were associated with having multiple sexual partners. Conclusion Different types of risk-taking behaviour are still interlinked. In discussions with adolescents showing one type of risk behaviour health service providers should make an effort to identify other modes of risk-taking. PMID:19221934

  4. Individuation of Female Adolescents: Relations with Adolescents' Perceptions of Maternal Behavior and with Adolescent-Mother Discrepancies in Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sher-Censor, Efrat; Oppenheim, David; Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    The study examined how individuality and connectedness of female adolescents relate to their perceptions of maternal behavior and to adolescent-mother discrepancies in perceptions of maternal behavior. Seventy 16.5-year-old daughters and their mothers participated in the study. Individuality and connectedness of the daughters were assessed from…

  5. A Neuropsychological Approach to Understanding Risk-Taking for Potential Gains and Losses

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Irwin P.; Xue, Gui; Weller, Joshua A.; Reimann, Martin; Lauriola, Marco; Bechara, Antoine

    2012-01-01

    Affective neuroscience has helped guide research and theory development in judgment and decision-making by revealing the role of emotional processes in choice behavior, especially when risk is involved. Evidence is emerging that qualitatively and quantitatively different processes may be involved in risky decision-making for gains and losses. We start by reviewing behavioral work by Kahneman and Tversky (1979) and others, which shows that risk-taking differs for potential gains and potential losses. We then turn to the literature in decision neuroscience to support the gain versus loss distinction. Relying in part on data from a new task that separates risky decision-making for gains and losses, we test a neural model that assigns unique mechanisms for risky decision-making involving potential losses. Included are studies using patients with lesions to brain areas specified as important in the model and studies with healthy individuals whose brains are scanned to reveal activation in these and other areas during risky decision-making. In some cases, there is evidence that gains and losses are processed in different regions of the brain, while in other cases the same region appears to process risk in a different manner for gains and losses. At a more general level, we provide strong support for the notion that decisions involving risk-taking for gains and decisions involving risk-taking for losses represent different psychological processes. At a deeper level, we present mounting evidence that different neural structures play different roles in guiding risky choices in these different domains. Some structures are differentially activated by risky gains and risky losses while others respond uniquely in one domain or the other. Taken together, these studies support a clear functional dissociation between risk-taking for gains and risk-taking for losses, and further dissociation at the neural level. PMID:22347161

  6. The Effectiveness of an Intervention to Promote Awareness and Reduce Online Risk Behavior in Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Schilder, Janneke D; Brusselaers, Marjolein B J; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2016-02-01

    The current study explored the effect of a school-based intervention on online risk awareness and behavior in order to shed light on a relatively unexplored field with high practical relevance. More than 800 Belgium primary school children (grade 4 and 6) were assessed at two measurements (n T1 = 812, 51.2 % female; n T2 = 819, 51.3 % female) before and after the intervention. Half of them received a 10 min classroom intervention indicating online risks. Children in the control group received a 10 min presentation concerning online applications without any emphasis on risks. Children in the intervention group were more likely to be aware of online risks directly after the intervention; this effect was still noticeable 4 months after. Reporting of online risk behavior in the intervention group was also higher compared to the control group who did not receive the intervention. Overall online risk awareness and online risk behavior were negatively associated and the awareness did not modulate the association between the intervention and online risk behavior. Furthermore, individual differences were assessed. Girls were more likely to be aware of online risks and asserted less online risk behavior than boys were. In line with the imperative in adolescence to become more risk taking, children in a higher grade were more likely to behave in a risky manner when online. The current study provides a valuable starting point for further research on how to decrease online risk behavior in early adolescence. PMID:26705253

  7. “Sexting” and its relation to sexual activity and sexual risk behavior in a national survey of adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ybarra, Michele L.; Mitchell, Kimberly J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the relation between “sexting,” (sending and sharing sexual photos online via text messaging and in-person) with sexual risk behaviors and psychosocial challenge in adolescence. Methods Data were collected online between 2010 and 2011 with 3,715 randomly selected 13- to 18-year-old youth across the United States. Results Seven percent of youth reported sending or showing someone sexual pictures of themselves, where they were nude or nearly nude, online, via text messaging, or in-person, during the past year. Although females and older youth were more likely to share sexual photos than males and younger youth, the profile of psychosocial challenge and sexual behavior was similar for all youth. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, sharing sexual photos was associated with all types of sexual behaviors assessed (e.g., oral sex, vaginal sex) as well as some of the risky sexual behaviors examined—particularly having concurrent sexual partners and having more past-year sexual partners. Adolescents who shared sexual photos also were more likely to use substances and less likely to have high self-esteem than their demographically similar peers. Conclusions While the media has portrayed “sexting” as a problem caused by new technology, health professionals may be more effective by approaching it as an aspect of adolescent sexual development and exploration and, in some cases, risk-taking and psychosocial challenge. PMID:25266148

  8. Individual and environmental influences on adolescent eating behaviors.

    PubMed

    Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; French, Simone

    2002-03-01

    Food choices of adolescents are not consistent with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Food intakes tend to be low in fruits, vegetables, and calcium-rich foods and high in fat. Skipping meals is also a concern among adolescents, especially girls. Factors influencing eating behaviors of adolescents need to be better understood to develop effective nutrition interventions to change eating behaviors. This article presents a conceptual model based on social cognitive theory and an ecological perspective for understanding factors that influence adolescent eating behaviors and food choices. In this model, adolescent eating behavior is conceptualized as a function of individual and environmental influences. Four levels of influence are described: individual or intrapersonal influences (eg, psychosocial, biological); social environmental or interpersonal (eg, family and peers); physical environmental or community settings (eg, schools, fast food outlets, convenience stores); and macrosystem or societal (eg, mass media, marketing and advertising, social and cultural norms). PMID:11902388

  9. Sibling and Parent Behavior as Predictors of Adolescents' Problem Behavior and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repinski, Daniel J.; Kucharczak, Kristy; Laing, Rebecca; Boyce, MaiLan

    This study examined the degree to which parent behavior and sibling behavior are differentially related to adolescent adjustment. Using reports from adolescent sibling pairs (41 seventh graders and an older sibling), this study was designed to examine the degree to which parent and sibling behavior (i.e., warm/supportive and hostile) uniquely, and…

  10. Risk Taking, Boundary Performance and Intentional School Internet "Misuse"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hope, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Whilst the association of risk with schools is predominately a negative one, fostering images of potential dangers, this paper draws upon a socio-cultural counter-discourse to explore the perceived benefits of certain risk taking activities within educational establishments. Using research data on school Internet "misuse" it is argued that some…

  11. The Role of Risk-Taking in Songwriting Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marade, Angelo A.; Gibbons, Jeffrey A.; Brinthaupt, Thomas M.

    2007-01-01

    Creativity involves generating novel concepts and products that are valued by the creator as well as by the public. In this paper, we argue that risk-taking in songwriting increases the likelihood of any individual's product being valued as creative. By reviewing the case histories of several successful songwriters, we show that heightened…

  12. The Drinkers Degree: Risk Taking Behaviours amongst Undergraduate Student Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Gillian; Martin, Neil; Birch, Jennifer; Oldam, Alison; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To examine risk taking behaviours associated with alcohol consumption amongst UK undergraduate students. Design and Methods. A cross-sectional web survey was used to assess attitudes and health behaviours. The survey included the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Students were also asked about why they drank alcohol; about their preferred alcoholic beverage; and if they had experienced any consequences associated with drinking alcohol as well as questions relating to sexual risk taking, drug use, and smoking. Results. 2779 (65% female; 84% White British) students completed some part of the survey. Of these, 98% (n = 2711) completed the AUDIT. Of the 92% that drank 66% (n = 1,643) were categorised as being AUDIT positive. 8% (n = 224) were categorised as probably alcohol dependent. Higher AUDIT scores were significantly associated with negative consequences such as unplanned sexual activity, physical injuries, and arguments. Other risk taking behaviours such as drug use and smoking were also found to be positively correlated with higher AUDIT scores; drug use; and smoking. Conclusions. The results from this study provide insight into students' alcohol consumption and associated risk taking. University policies need to protect students' overall health and wellbeing to ensure academic potential is maximised. PMID:26713168

  13. Academic Risk-Taking in an Online Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Linda Eleanor

    2012-01-01

    Within Higher Education, the social nature of learning may no longer equate to in-person interactions. Technology provides various interaction options and changes the learning environment. The challenge for instructors of courses in the area of teacher education is to understand the nature of academic risk-taking associated with blended learning…

  14. Wired: Energy Drinks, Jock Identity, Masculine Norms, and Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kathleen E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The author examined gendered links among sport-related identity, endorsement of conventional masculine norms, risk taking, and energy-drink consumption. Participants: The author surveyed 795 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory-level courses at a public university. Methods: The author conducted linear regression analyses of…

  15. Covariation among Adolescent Problem Behaviors: What Does It Mean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, M. Lynne; And Others

    Problem behaviors during adolescence can include substance use, low educational achievement, delinquent or conduct-disordered behavior, and indiscriminant, precocious, or risky sexual behavior. Despite the dissimilarities of these behaviors, some researchers believe that such actions share common underlying causes, which can be explained by the…

  16. The role of family, religiosity, and behavior in adolescent gambling.

    PubMed

    Casey, David M; Williams, Robert J; Mossière, Annik M; Schopflocher, Donald P; El-Guebaly, Nady; Hodgins, David C; Smith, Garry J; Wood, Robert T

    2011-10-01

    Predictors of adolescent gambling behavior were examined in a sample of 436 males and females (ages 13-16). A biopsychosocial model was used to identify key variables that differentiate between non-gambling and gambling adolescents. Logistic regression found that, as compared to adolescent male non-gamblers, adolescent male gamblers were older, had more conflict in their family, were more likely to have used drugs, and have peers that gamble. Compared to adolescent female non-gamblers, adolescent female gamblers had more attention and thought problems, and scored higher on rule-breaking. For both males and females, religiosity was a protective factor against involvement in gambling. Some of the results are consistent with previous research, while some of these findings are unique to this study. These results shed light on factors to consider when developing programs to combat the negative impacts of gambling on adolescents. PMID:21388671

  17. Impact of modeling on adolescent suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Insel, Beverly J; Gould, Madelyn S

    2008-06-01

    The evidence to date suggests that suicide modeling is a real phenomenon, although of a smaller effect size than other psychiatric and psychosocial risk factors for adolescent suicide. Multiple lines of inquiry provide converging evidence, including studies on suicide clusters, media influence on suicide (particularly coverage of nonfictional suicides), and peer influence on suicidality. Despite variations in study setting and methodology, the body of literature is consistent with a modeling hypothesis. Although advances in documentation of suicide modeling have been made over the past decade, we are still confronted by unresolved issues regarding the underlying mechanisms. Prevention and postvention strategies can be optimized to avert modeling of suicidal behavior only once research addresses the complexities and uncertainties of this phenomenon. PMID:18439450

  18. Gender Differences in Two Decision-Making Tasks in a Community Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Acremont, Mathieu; Van der Linden, Martial

    2006-01-01

    In adolescence, externalized problems such as risk taking and antisocial behavior are more frequent in boys. This suggests that there are differences in the way boys and girls evaluate risk and make decisions during this period. To explore decision making and highlight possible gender differences, 124 adolescents at a junior secondary school…

  19. Adolescents' Smoking Behavior and Attitudes: The Influence of Mothers' Smoking Communication, Behavior and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbert, Diane F.; Schiaffino, Kathleen M.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated adolescents' and parents' perceptions regarding smoking behavior, attitudes toward smoking, and smoking communication. Instruments were developed to measure multidimensional smoking communication messages and smoking attitudes in 140 mother-adolescent dyads. The prediction of relevant adolescent smoking variables is…

  20. Risky eating behaviors and beliefs among adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Sáez, Soledad; Pascual, Aitziber; Salaberria, Karmele; Etxebarria, Itziar; Echeburúa, Enrique

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of weight control and binge eating behaviors in a sample of 767 adolescent girls aged 16-20 years, and the differences between adolescents with and without altered eating behaviors regarding anthropometric and body image variables and beliefs associated with eating disorders. Adolescents who engaged in unhealthy strategies were found to be at a higher risk of eating disorders, since these behaviors were accompanied by higher levels of drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction, as well as by beliefs associated with the importance of weight and body shape as a means of personal and social acceptance. PMID:24058109

  1. Wearing a Bicycle Helmet Can Increase Risk Taking and Sensation Seeking in Adults.

    PubMed

    Gamble, Tim; Walker, Ian

    2016-02-01

    Humans adapt their risk-taking behavior on the basis of perceptions of safety; this risk-compensation phenomenon is typified by people taking increased risks when using protective equipment. Existing studies have looked at people who know they are using safety equipment and have specifically focused on changes in behaviors for which that equipment might reduce risk. Here, we demonstrated that risk taking increases in people who are not explicitly aware they are wearing protective equipment; furthermore, this happens for behaviors that could not be made safer by that equipment. In a controlled study in which a helmet, compared with a baseball cap, was used as the head mount for an eye tracker, participants scored significantly higher on laboratory measures of both risk taking and sensation seeking. This happened despite there being no risk for the helmet to ameliorate and despite it being introduced purely as an eye tracker. The results suggest that unconscious activation of safety-related concepts primes globally increased risk propensity. PMID:26740528

  2. Wearing a Bicycle Helmet Can Increase Risk Taking and Sensation Seeking in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gamble, Tim; Walker, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Humans adapt their risk-taking behavior on the basis of perceptions of safety; this risk-compensation phenomenon is typified by people taking increased risks when using protective equipment. Existing studies have looked at people who know they are using safety equipment and have specifically focused on changes in behaviors for which that equipment might reduce risk. Here, we demonstrated that risk taking increases in people who are not explicitly aware they are wearing protective equipment; furthermore, this happens for behaviors that could not be made safer by that equipment. In a controlled study in which a helmet, compared with a baseball cap, was used as the head mount for an eye tracker, participants scored significantly higher on laboratory measures of both risk taking and sensation seeking. This happened despite there being no risk for the helmet to ameliorate and despite it being introduced purely as an eye tracker. The results suggest that unconscious activation of safety-related concepts primes globally increased risk propensity. PMID:26740528

  3. Which Forms of Child/Adolescent Externalizing Behaviors Account for Late Adolescent Risky Sexual Behavior and Substance Use?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmermans, Maartje; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Koot, Hans M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Health risk behaviors like substance use (alcohol, tobacco, soft/hard drugs) and risky sexual behavior become more prevalent in adolescence. Children with behavior problems are thought to be prone to engage in health risk behaviors later in life. It is, however, unclear which problems within the externalizing spectrum account for these…

  4. Healthy Behavior Trajectories between Adolescence and Young Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Frech, Adrianne

    2012-06-01

    Healthy behaviors including adequate exercise and sleep, eating breakfast, maintaining a healthy weight, and not smoking or binge drinking inhibit chronic disease. However, little is known about how these behaviors change across life course stages, or the social factors that shape healthy behaviors over time. I use multilevel growth models and waves I-III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N=10,775) to evaluate relationships between adolescents' psychosocial resources, social support, and family of origin characteristics during adolescence and healthy behavior trajectories through young adulthood (ages 13-24). I find that healthy behaviors decline dramatically during the transition to young adulthood. Social support resources, such as school connectedness and support from parents, as well as living with non-smoking parents, are associated with higher levels of healthy behaviors across adolescence and adulthood. Social support from friends is associated with lower engagement in these behaviors, as is living in a single parent family or with a smoking parent during adolescence. Findings indicate that psychosocial, social support, and family of origin resources during adolescence exert a persistent, though generally not cumulative, influence on healthy behavior trajectories through young adulthood. PMID:22745923

  5. Motorsports Involvement among Adolescents and Young Adults with Childhood ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wymbs, Brian T.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Belendiuk, Katherine A.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; Walther, Christine A. P.; Cheong, Jee Won; McGinley, James S.; Marshal, Michael P.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Pelham, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Although children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for impulsive, health-endangering behavior, few studies have examined nonsubstance, use-related risk-taking behaviors. This study examined whether adolescents and young adults with ADHD histories were more likely than those without ADHD histories to report frequent…

  6. Bidirectional Relations between Authoritative Parenting and Adolescents' Prosocial Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Carlo, Gustavo; Christensen, Katherine J.; Yorgason, Jeremy B.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the bidirectional relations between authoritative parenting and adolescents' prosocial behavior over a 1-year time period. Data were taken from Time 2 and 3 of the Flourishing Families Project, and included reports from 319 two-parent families with an adolescent child (M age of child at Time 2 = 12.34, SD = 1.06, 52% girls).…

  7. Parenting Practices and Adolescent Sexual Behavior: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bersamin, Melina; Todd, Michael; Fisher, Deborah A.; Hill, Douglas L.; Grube, Joel W.; Walker, Samantha

    2008-01-01

    The effects of parental attitudes, practices, and television mediation on adolescent sexual behaviors were investigated in a study of adolescent sexuality and media (N = 887). Confirmatory factor analyses supported an eight-factor parenting model with television mediation factors as constructs distinct from general parenting practices. Logistic…

  8. Transition-Marking Behaviors of Adolescent Males at First Intercourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Ann L.; Flanigan, Beverly J.

    1993-01-01

    Examined male transition-marking behaviors from adolescence into adulthood at first intercourse. Findings from 80 adolescent males revealed that alcohol use at first intercourse was unrelated to use of contraceptives at that time but was inversely related to whether first intercourse was planned. Planning was positively related to contraceptive…

  9. Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence: Typology and Relation to Family Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobotková, Veronika; Blatný, Marek; Jelínek, Martin; Hrdlicka, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The study deals with the relationship between antisocial behavior in early adolescence and family environment. Sample consisted of 2,856 adolescents (53% girls, mean age 13.5 years, SD = 1.1) from urban areas in the Czech Republic. The Social and Health Assessment (SAHA), a school survey, was used to measure sociodemographic characteristics of the…

  10. Modeling Developmental Complexity in Adolescence: Hormones and Behavior in Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Susman, Elizabeth J.

    1997-01-01

    The links between endocrine physiological processes and adolescent psychological processes are the focus of this article. Presents a brief history of biopsychosocial research in adolescent development. Discusses four models for conceptualizing hormone-behavior research as illustrative of biopsychosocial models. Concludes with challenges and…

  11. Sexual At-Risk Behaviors of Sexually Abused Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinq-Mars, Caroline; Wright, John; Cyr, Mireille; McDuff, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigated sexual at-risk behaviors of sexually abused adolescent girls. Variables of interest were presence of consensual sexual activity, age at first consensual intercourse, number of sexual partners, condom use, and pregnancies. Participants were 125 sexually abused adolescent girls aged 12 to 17 years. Results showed that…

  12. Acceptance-Enhanced Behavior Therapy for Trichotillomania in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Kathi M.; Walther, Michael R.; Joseph, Jessica M.; Robinson, Jordan; Ricketts, Emily J.; Bowe, William E.; Woods, Douglas W.

    2012-01-01

    Although several studies have examined the efficacy of Acceptance Enhanced Behavior Therapy (AEBT) for the treatment of trichotillomania (TTM) in adults, data are limited with respect to the treatment of adolescents. Our case series illustrates the use of AEBT for TTM in the treatment of two adolescents. The AEBT protocol (Woods & Twohig, 2008) is…

  13. Developmental Trajectories of Childhood Obesity and Risk Behaviors in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, David Y. C.; Lanza, H. Isabella; Wright-Volel, Kynna; Anglin, M. Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Using group-based trajectory modeling, this study examined 5156 adolescents from the child sample of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to identify developmental trajectories of obesity from ages 6-18 and evaluate associations of such trajectories with risk behaviors and psychosocial health in adolescence. Four distinctive obesity…

  14. Pace: A Residential Community Oriented Behavior Modification Program for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Bernard R.; Breitmeyer, Rudolf G.

    1975-01-01

    After briefly citing the wide scope and diversity of token programs, and reviewing some of these programs for adolescents in greater detail, the authors describe the structure and operation of a residential behavior modification program for emotionally disturbed, pre-delinquent, and mentally retarded adolescents. (Author)

  15. Teaching Basic Reading Skills to Adolescents with Behavioral Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, Ann Marie; And Others

    This set of transparency masters provides information on a study of 52 adolescents with behavior disorders. The study assessed the value of teaching basic reading skills to at-risk 8th- to 10th-graders who were reading below the 4th grade level. Students were divided into three groups based on IQ level. The adolescents attended a foundation course…

  16. Developing Prosocial Behaviors in Early Adolescence with Reactive Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Annis L. C.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the alarming rise of early adolescence aggression in Hong Kong, it is the pioneer evidence-based outcome study on Anger Coping Training (ACT) program for early adolescence with reactive aggression to develop their prosocial behaviors. This research program involved experimental and control groups with pre- and post-comparison using a …

  17. Risk Factors and Behaviors Associated with Adolescent Violence and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valois, Robert F.; MacDonald, John M.; Bretous, Lena; Fischer, Megan A.; Drane, J. Wanzer

    2002-01-01

    Reviews relevant research to examine risk factors and behaviors associated with adolescent aggression and violence. Adolescent aggression and violence develop and manifest within a complex constellation of factors (individual, family, school/academic, peer-related, community and neighborhood, and situational). Different risk factors are more…

  18. A Longitudinal Study of Stress Buffering for Adolescent Problem Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windle, Michael

    1992-01-01

    In a study of middle adolescents, the interrelationships between stressful events, perceived social support, internalization of problems, and externalization of problems were examined. Social support did not act as a buffer of stress. Stressful events and low family support predicted problem behaviors for adolescent girls. (BC)

  19. Estimating Peer Effects in Sexual Behavior among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Mir M.; Dwyer, Debra S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we seek to empirically quantify the role of peer social networks in influencing sexual behavior among adolescents. Using data of a nationally representative sample of adolescents we utilize a multivariate structural model with school-level fixed effects to account for the problems of contextual effects, correlated effects and peer…

  20. Lying Behavior, Family Functioning and Adjustment in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Finkenauer, Catrin; van Kooten, Dyana C.

    2006-01-01

    Communication between children and parents has been the subject of several studies, examining the effects of, for example, disclosure and secrecy on adolescents' social relationships and adjustment. Less attention has paid to adolescent deception. We developed and tested a new instrument on lying behavior in a sample of 671 parent-adolescent…

  1. Factor Structure of the Adolescent Clinical Sexual Behavior Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wherry, Jeffrey N.; Berres, Ashley K.; Sim, Leslie; Friedrich, William N.

    2009-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to determine if the Adolescent Clinical Sexual Behavior Inventory-Self-Report conformed to the five-factor scale format that was initially used with a clinical sample that included adolescents referred for sexual abuse evaluations. Participants were 141 teenagers, ages 12-19 (M = 15.11, SD = 1.4), and their…

  2. Feasibility of Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Suicidal Adolescent Inpatients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Laurence Y.; Cox, Brian J.; Gunasekara, Shiny; Miller, Alec L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) implementation in a general child and adolescent psychiatric inpatient unit and to provide preliminary effectiveness data on DBT versus treatment as usual (TAU). Method: Sixty-two adolescents with suicide attempts or suicidal ideation were admitted to one of two…

  3. Adolescents' Sleep Behaviors and Perceptions of Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noland, Heather; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph; Telljohann, Susan K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Sleep duration affects the health of children and adolescents. Shorter sleep durations have been associated with poorer academic performance, unintentional injuries, and obesity in adolescents. This study extends our understanding of how adolescents perceive and deal with their sleep issues. Methods: General education classes were…

  4. Predicting Risk-Taking With and Without Substance Use: The Effects of Parental Monitoring, School Bonding, and Sports Participation

    PubMed Central

    Dever, Bridget V.; Schulenberg, John E.; Dworkin, Jodi B.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Kloska, Deborah D.; Bachman, Jerald G.

    2013-01-01

    Risk-taking is statistically normative during adolescence, yet is associated with adverse outcomes including substance use. The present study draws the distinction between protective factors (effective for those identified as high risk takers) and promotive factors (effective for all) against substance use, focusing on parental monitoring, school bonding, and sports participation. A total of 36,514 8th and 10th grade participants in the national Monitoring the Future study were included. Although parental monitoring was associated with lower alcohol and marijuana use among all adolescents (i.e., promotive effect), these effects were strongest among the highest risk takers (i.e., protective effect) and females. School bonding was associated with lower levels of both alcohol and marijuana use among all groups of adolescents, but these promotive effects were weak. Sports participation was associated with higher levels of alcohol use among all males and among 8th grade females who did not identify as high risk takers. Despite being a risk factor for alcohol use, sports participation did demonstrate a promotive effect against marijuana use among 10th grade females only, and especially so for high risk-taking females (i.e., protective effect). Overall, these findings suggest that of the three mechanisms studied, parental monitoring emerged as the most promising entry point for substance use prevention and intervention across groups, particularly for females and high risk-taking adolescents. PMID:22960940

  5. Altered Cingulate and Insular Cortex Activation During Risk-Taking in Methamphetamine Dependence: Losses Lose Impact

    PubMed Central

    Gowin, Joshua L.; Stewart, Jennifer L.; May, April C.; Ball, Tali M.; Wittmann, Marc; Tapert, Susan F.; Paulus, Martin P.

    2013-01-01

    Aims To determine if methamphetamine-dependent (MD) individuals exhibit behavioral or neural processing differences in risk-taking relative to healthy comparison participants (CTL). Design This was a cross-sectional study comparing two groups’ behavior on a risk-taking task and neural processing as assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Settings The study was conducted in an inpatient treatment center and a research fMRI facility in the United States. Participants Sixty-eight recently abstinent MD individuals recruited from a treatment program and forty CTL recruited from the community completed the study. Measurements The study assessed risk-taking behavior (overall and post-loss) using the Risky Gains Task (RGT), sensation-seeking, impulsivity and blood-oxygenation level dependent activation in the brain during the decision phase of the RGT. Findings Relative to CTL, MD displayed decreased activation in the bilateral rostral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and greater activation in the left insula across risky and safe decisions (p<.05). Right mid insula activation among CTL did not vary between risky and safe decisions, but among MD it was higher during risky relative to safe decisions (p<.05). Among MD, lower activation in the right rostral ACC (r=−.39, p<.01) and higher activation in the right mid insula (r=.35, p<.01) during risky decisions were linked to a higher likelihood of choosing a risky option following a loss. Conclusions Methamphetamine-dependent individuals show disrupted risk-related processing in both anterior cingulate and insula, brain areas that have been implicated in cognitive control and interoceptive processing. Attenuated neural processing of risky options may lead to risk-taking despite experiencing negative consequences. PMID:24033715

  6. Specificity of Early Movie Effects on Adolescent Sexual Behavior and Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    O’Hara, Ross E.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Li, Zhigang; Gerrard, Meg; Sargent, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents’ movie sex exposure (MSE) and movie alcohol exposure (MAE) have been shown to influence later sexual behavior and drinking, respectively. No study to date, however, has tested whether these effects generalize across behaviors. This study examined the concurrent influences of early (i.e., before age 16) MSE and MAE on subsequent risky sex and alcohol use among a national sample of 1,228 U.S. adolescents. Participants reported their health behaviors and movie viewing up to six times between 2003 and 2009 in telephone interviews. The Beach method was used to create a population-based estimate of each participant’s MSE and MAE, which were then entered into a structural equation model (SEM) to predict lifetime risky sex and past month alcohol use at ages 18–21. For both men and women, MAE predicted alcohol use, mediated by age of initiation of heavy episodic drinking (HED) and age of sexual debut; MAE also predicted risky sex via age of sexual debut. Among men only, MSE indirectly predicted risky sex and alcohol use. Findings indicated that early exposure to risk content from movies had both specific and general effects on later risk-taking, but gender differences were evident: for men, MSE was a stronger predictor than MAE, but for women, only MAE predicted later risk behavior. These results have implications for future media research, prevention programs for adolescent sex and alcohol use, and movie ratings that can guide parents’ decisions as to which movies are appropriate for their children. PMID:24034968

  7. Risk taking in adversarial situations: Civilization differences in chess experts.

    PubMed

    Chassy, Philippe; Gobet, Fernand

    2015-08-01

    The projections of experts in politics predict that a new world order will emerge within two decades. Being multipolar, this world will inevitably lead to frictions where civilizations and states will have to decide whether to risk conflict. Very often these decisions are informed if not taken by experts. To estimate risk-taking across civilizations, we examined strategies used in 667,599 chess games played over eleven years by chess experts from 11 different civilizations. We show that some civilizations are more inclined to settle for peace. Similarly, we show that once engaged in the battle, the level of risk taking varies significantly across civilizations, the boldest civilization using the riskiest strategy about 35% more than the most conservative civilization. We discuss which psychological factors might underpin these civilizational differences. PMID:25912894

  8. High-School Dropouts in a Working-Class South African Community: Selected Characteristics and Risk-Taking Behaviour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flisher, Alan J.; Chalton, Derek O.

    1995-01-01

    Project documented characteristics of teenage school dropouts and then compared the prevalence of risk-taking behavior of dropouts with those attending school. Of the sample (n=548), 15% had dropped out. Those still attending school engaged in suicide behavior more frequently than dropouts whereas the latter abused substances more. (RJM)

  9. The Impact of Living in Co-Ed Resident Halls on Risk-Taking among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Brian J.; Carroll, Jason S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Although previous research has suggested that college housing impacts student behavior and outcomes, recent research linking college housing to risk-taking has been limited. In this study, we investigate if patterns of risk behavior differ based on the type of college housing environment students reside in. Participants: This study…

  10. Loss aversion and 5HTT gene variants in adolescent anxiety.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Monique; Plate, Rista C; Carlisi, Christina O; Gorodetsky, Elena; Goldman, David; Pine, Daniel S

    2014-04-01

    Loss aversion, a well-documented behavioral phenomenon, characterizes decisions under risk in adult populations. As such, loss aversion may provide a reliable measure of risky behavior. Surprisingly, little is known about loss aversion in adolescents, a group who manifests risk-taking behavior, or in anxiety disorders, which are associated with risk-avoidance. Finally, loss aversion is expected to be modulated by genotype, particularly the serotonin transporter (SERT) gene variant, based on its role in anxiety and impulsivity. This genetic modulation may also differ between anxious and healthy adolescents, given their distinct propensities for risk taking. The present work examines the modulation of loss aversion, an index of risk-taking, and reaction-time to decision, an index of impulsivity, by the serotonin-transporter-gene-linked polymorphisms (5HTTLPR) in healthy and clinically anxious adolescents. Findings show that loss aversion (1) does manifest in adolescents, (2) does not differ between healthy and clinically anxious participants, and (3), when stratified by SERT genotype, identifies a subset of anxious adolescents who are high SERT-expressers, and show excessively low loss-aversion and high impulsivity. This last finding may serve as preliminary evidence for 5HTTLPR as a risk factor for the development of comorbid disorders associated with risk-taking and impulsivity in clinically anxious adolescents. PMID:24280015

  11. Adolescence, sexual behavior and risk factors to health

    PubMed Central

    de Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Gomes, Romeu; Pires, Thiago de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the relationships between sexual behavior and risk factors to physical and mental health in adolescents. METHODS Study of 3,195 pupils aged 15 to 19 in secondary education, in public and private schools in 10 state capitals in Brazil between 2007 and 2008. Multi-stage (schools and pupils) cluster sampling was used in each city and public and private educational network. All of the students selected completed a questionnaire on the following items: socioeconomic and demographic data; sexual behavior; having sex with those of the same sex, the opposite sex, or both; alcohol and cannabis use; using condoms; traumatic sexual experiences as a child or adolescent; suicidal thoughts. The analysis included describing frequencies, Chi-square test, analysis of multiple and cluster correspondence. Responses to an open ended question in which the adolescent expressed general comments about themselves and their lives were qualitatively analyzed using content analysis. RESULTS Around 3.0% of adolescents reported homosexual or bisexual behavior, with no difference according to sex, age, skin color, social status family structure or educational network. Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior, compared to their heterosexual peers, reported: (p < 0.05): getting drunk (18.7% and 10.5%, respectively), frequent cannabis use (6.1% and 2.1%, respectively), suicidal thoughts (42.5% and 18.7%, respectively), and having been the victim of sexual violence (11.7% and 1.5%; respectively). Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior reported that they used condoms less frequently (74.2%) than their heterosexual peers (48.6%, p < 0.001). In the correspondence analysis, three groups were found, one composed of adolescents with homosexual/bisexual behavior and experiencing risk factors; suffering sexual violence, never using a condom, suicidal thoughts, frequent cannabis use; another composed of occasional cannabis and condom users, who got drunk

  12. Mapping the Academic Problem Behaviors of Adolescents with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Altszuler, Amy R.; Morrow, Anne S.; Merrill, Brittany M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study possessed two aims: (1) to develop and validate aclinician -friendly measure of academic problem behavior that is relevant to the assessment of adolescents with ADHD and (2) to better understand the cross-situational expression of academic problem behaviors displayed by these youth. Method Within a sample of 324 adolescents with DSM-IV-TR diagnosed ADHD (age M=13.07, SD=1.47), parent, teacher, and adolescent self-report versions of the Adolescent Academic Problems Checklist (AAPC) were administered and compared. Item prevalence rates, factorial validity, inter-rater agreement, internal consistency, and concurrent validity were evaluated. Results Findings indicated the value of the parent and teacher AAPC as a psychometrically valid measure of academic problems in adolescents with ADHD. Parents and teachers offered unique perspectives on the academic functioning of adolescents with ADHD, indicating the complementary roles of these informants in the assessment process. According to parent and teacher reports, adolescents with ADHD displayed problematic academic behaviors in multiple daily tasks, with time management and planning deficits appearing most pervasive. Conclusions Adolescents with ADHD display heterogeneous academic problems that warrant detailed assessment prior to treatment. As a result, the AAPC may be a useful tool for clinicians and school staff conducting targeted assessments with these youth. PMID:24933215

  13. Mapping the academic problem behaviors of adolescents with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Margaret H; Altszuler, Amy R; Morrow, Anne S; Merrill, Brittany M

    2014-12-01

    This study possessed 2 aims: (a) to develop and validate a clinician-friendly measure of academic problem behavior that is relevant to the assessment of adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and (b) to better understand the cross-situational expression of academic problem behaviors displayed by these youth. Within a sample of 324 adolescents with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision diagnosed ADHD (age M = 13.07, SD = 1.47), parent, teacher, and adolescent self-report versions of the Adolescent Academic Problems Checklist (AAPC) were administered and compared. Item prevalence rates, factorial validity, interrater agreement, internal consistency, and concurrent validity were evaluated. Findings indicated the value of the parent and teacher AAPC as a psychometrically valid measure of academic problems in adolescents with ADHD. Parents and teachers offered unique perspectives on the academic functioning of adolescents with ADHD, indicating the complementary roles of these informants in the assessment process. According to parent and teacher reports, adolescents with ADHD displayed problematic academic behaviors in multiple daily tasks, with time management and planning deficits appearing most pervasive. Adolescents with ADHD display heterogeneous academic problems that warrant detailed assessment prior to treatment. As a result, the AAPC may be a useful tool for clinicians and school staff conducting targeted assessments with these youth. PMID:24933215

  14. Clustering of Adolescent Dating Violence, Peer Violence, and Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bossarte, Robert M.; Simon, Thomas R.; Swahn, Monica H.

    2008-01-01

    To understand the co-occurrence of multiple types of violence, the authors developed a behavioral typology based on self-reports of suicidal behaviors, physical violence, and psychological abuse. Using a sample of dating adolescents from a high-risk school district, they identified five clusters of behaviors among the 1,653 students who reported…

  15. Adaptive Behavior of Children and Adolescents with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Metsiou, Katerina; Agaliotis, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    The present study explored the total adaptive behavior of children and adolescents with visual impairments, as well as their adaptive behavior in each of the domains of Communication, Daily Living Skills, and Socialization. Moreover, the predictors of the performance and developmental delay in adaptive behavior were investigated. Instrumentation…

  16. Outcome Expectancies and Risk Behaviors in Maltreated Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickoletti, Patrick; Taussig, Heather N.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined positive and negative outcome expectancies for risk behaviors, and their association with engagement in risk behaviors, in a sample of 149 maltreated adolescents. "Outcome Expectancies" are evaluative social cognitions about what will occur as a consequence of one's actions. Risk behaviors and outcome expectancies for substance…

  17. Interparental Conflict, Adolescent Behavioral Problems, and Adolescent Competence: Convergent and Discriminant Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Monica K.; Renk, Kimberly; Duhig, Amy M.; Bosco, Georgetta L.; Phares, Vicky

    2004-01-01

    To address the lack of studies examining the convergent and discriminant validity of cross-informant ratings, several statistical approaches were used in this study to evaluate the convergent and discriminant validity for ratings of interparental conflict, adolescent behavioral problems, and adolescent competence. A total of 272…

  18. The Two Faces of Adolescents' Success with Peers: Adolescent Popularity, Social Adaptation, and Deviant Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Joseph P.; Porter, Maryfrances R.; McFarland, F. Christy; Marsh, Penny; McElhaney, Kathleen Boykin

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed the hypothesis that popularity in adolescence takes on a twofold role, marking high levels of concurrent adaptation but predicting increases over time in both positive and negative behaviors sanctioned by peer norms. Multimethod, longitudinal data, on a diverse community sample of 185 adolescents (13 to 14 years), addressed…

  19. An Idiographic and Nomothetic Approach to the Study of Mexican-Origin Adolescent Mothers’ Socio-Cultural Stressors and Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Zeiders, Katharine H.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Jahromi, Laudan B.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the longitudinal relations of socio-cultural stressors (i.e., acculturative stressors, enculturative stressors, ethnic discrimination) and Mexican-origin adolescent mothers’ depressive symptoms and risk-taking behaviors. Utilizing an idiographic and nomothetic approach, we conducted lagged analyses to examine how individuals’ fluctuations in stressors predicted subsequent adjustment. Further, we investigated potential threshold effects by examining if the impact of fluctuations in stressors differed at varying levels of stressors. Mexican-origin adolescent females (N = 184) participated in yearly in-home assessments across 5 years and reported on their experiences of acculturative and enculturative stressors, ethnic discrimination, depressive symptoms, and risk-taking behaviors. Findings revealed that within-person fluctuations in acculturative stressors, and to a lesser extent, perceived discrimination, related to youths’ depressive symptoms. For risk-taking behaviors, however, only within-person fluctuations in enculturative stressors emerged as significant. Further, a threshold effect emerged in the link between enculturative stressors and risk-taking behaviors, suggesting that fluctuations in enculturative stressors predicted changes in risk-taking behaviors at high levels of enculturative stressors, but not low levels. Our findings highlight the differential relations between socio-cultural stressors and adolescent females’ adjustment, and suggest that prevention programs aimed at reducing depressive symptoms should attend to any degree of change in socio-cultural stressors, whereas programs focused on risk-taking behaviors should be especially attuned to levels of enculturative stress. PMID:25099084

  20. Cortisol Reactivity, Distress Behavior, and Behavioral and Psychological Problems in Young Adolescents: A Longitudinal Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Susman, Elizabeth J.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Examined blood cortisol levels, at three 6-month intervals, for young adolescent outpatients in relation to psychological measures derived from patient interviews preceding clinic visits and observed stress behaviors during visits. Found that adolescents in the increased cortisol reactivity group reported more behavior problems and depression…

  1. Systematic Review of Social Network Analysis in Adolescent Cigarette Smoking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Huang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Social networks are important in adolescent smoking behavior. Previous research indicates that peer context is a major causal factor of adolescent smoking behavior. To date, however, little is known about the influence of peer group structure on adolescent smoking behavior. Methods: Studies that examined adolescent social networks with…

  2. Incentive-Related Modulation of Cognitive Control in Healthy, Anxious, and Depressed Adolescents: Development and Psychopathology Related Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, Michael G.; Schroth, Elizabeth; Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique

    2007-01-01

    Background: Developmental changes in cognitive and affective processes contribute to adolescent risk-taking behavior, emotional intensification, and psychopathology. The current study examined adolescent development of cognitive control processes and their modulation by incentive, in health and psychopathology. Predictions include 1) better…

  3. Beyond Screen Time: Assessing Recreational Sedentary Behavior among Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Katherine W.; Friend, Sarah; Graham, Daniel J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Most studies of sedentary behavior have focused on television use or screen time. This study aims to examine adolescent girls' participation in a variety of recreational sedentary behaviors (e.g., talking on the phone and hanging around), and their association with physical activity (PA), dietary behaviors, and body mass index. Data were from a sample of 283 adolescent girls. Recreational sedentary behavior, PA, and dietary behaviors were self-reported, and girls' height and weight were measured. Over 95% of girls engaged in at least one recreational sedentary behavior during the recall period. Watching television and hanging around were the most common behaviors. Watching television, using the Internet, and hanging around were associated with less PA; watching television, hanging around, and talking on the phone were associated with less healthful dietary behaviors. No associations were found with body mass index. Interventions may benefit from capitalizing on and intervening upon girls' common recreational sedentary behaviors. PMID:22013514

  4. Parenting Behavior, Quality of the Parent-Adolescent Relationship, and Adolescent Functioning in Four Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wissink, Inge B.; Dekovic, Maja; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2006-01-01

    The cross-ethnic similarity in the pattern of associations among parenting behavior (support and authoritative and restrictive control), the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship (disclosure and positive and negative quality), and several developmental outcomes (aggressive behavior, delinquent behavior, and global self-esteem) was tested.…

  5. Parental and adolescent health behaviors and pathways to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Bauldry, Shawn; Shanahan, Michael J; Macmillan, Ross; Miech, Richard A; Boardman, Jason D; O Dean, Danielle; Cole, Veronica

    2016-07-01

    This paper examines associations among parental and adolescent health behaviors and pathways to adulthood. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, we identify a set of latent classes describing pathways into adulthood and examine health-related predictors of these pathways. The identified pathways are consistent with prior research using other sources of data. Results also show that both adolescent and parental health behaviors differentiate pathways. Parental and adolescent smoking are associated with lowered probability of the higher education pathway and higher likelihood of the work and the work & family pathways (entry into the workforce soon after high school completion). Adolescent drinking is positively associated with the work pathway and the higher education pathway, but decreases the likelihood of the work & family pathway. Neither parental nor adolescent obesity are associated with any of the pathways to adulthood. When combined, parental/adolescent smoking and adolescent drinking are associated with displacement from the basic institutions of school, work, and family. PMID:27194662

  6. Nicotine dependence and problem behaviors among urban South African adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pahl, Kerstin; Brook, David W; Morojele, Neo K; Brook, Judith S

    2010-04-01

    Tobacco use and its concomitant, nicotine dependence, are increasing in African countries and other parts of the developing world. However, little research has assessed nicotine dependence in South Africa or other parts of the African continent. Previous research has found that adolescent problem behaviors, including tobacco use, tend to cluster. This study examined the relationship between nicotine dependence and adolescent problem behaviors in an ethnically diverse sample of urban South African adolescents. A community sample (N = 731) consisting of "Black," "White," "Coloured," and "Indian" youths aged 12-17 years was drawn from the Johannesburg metropolitan area. Structured interviews were administered by trained interviewers. Nicotine dependence was assessed by the Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence. Logistic regression analyses showed that higher levels of nicotine dependence significantly predicted elevated levels of violent behavior, deviant behavior, marijuana and other illegal drug use, binge drinking, early sexual intercourse, multiple sexual partners, and inconsistent condom use, despite control on the adolescents' demographic characteristics, peer smoking, conflict with parents, peer deviance, and the availability of legal and illegal substances. These relationships were robust across ethnicity and gender. The findings indicate the need for policy makers and prevention and intervention programs in South Africa to consider adolescent nicotine dependence in conjunction with comorbid problem behaviors, including other substance use, sexual risk behaviors, and deviant behaviors. PMID:20099015

  7. Effects of Alcohol and Blood Alcohol Concentration Limb on Sexual Risk-Taking Intentions*

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Kelly Cue; George, William H.; Norris, Jeanette; Schacht, Rebecca L.; Stoner, Susan A.; Hendershot, Christian S.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Although there have been numerous investigations of alcohol's relationship to sexual risk taking, the vast majority of these studies have not examined whether the biphasic nature of alcohol intoxication differentially influences risky sexual decisions. Thus, a laboratory study was conducted to investigate the effects of alcohol consumption and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limb on sexual risk-taking intentions. Method: Participants (N = 150; 51.3% male) were randomly assigned to consume alcoholic drinks (target peak BAC = .08%) or nonalcoholic drinks and then completed a hypothetical sexual risk assessment involving an opposite-gender new partner while on either the ascending BAC limb or descending BAC limb. Results: Alcohol intoxication resulted in increased sexual risk-taking intentions indirectly through its influence on perceived intoxication and, subsequently, sexual arousal. An interaction of beverage condition and BAC limb condition indicated that alcohol's effects on perceived intoxication varied significantly by limb, with those on the ascending limb reporting greater perceived intoxication than those on the descending limb. Conclusions: Findings suggest that future research and prevention efforts would be better informed through a more comprehensive consideration of BAC limb effects on sexual risk behaviors. Moreover, results indicate that prevention programs should address in-the-moment states, such as perceived intoxication and sexual arousal, in interventions targeting risky sexual decision-making processes. PMID:19515289

  8. Parenting Styles and Adolescent Drug Use Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clausen, Sten-Erik

    1996-01-01

    Examined the relationship between parenting style and drug use in adolescents. Data was gathered from a sample of 846 Norwegian adolescents ages 15-20 years and their parents. Found that the combination of a low level of caring and high level of protection by parents, conceptualized as "affectionless control," was associated with drug use among…

  9. Affect-Laden Imagery and Risk Taking: The Mediating Role of Stress and Risk Perception

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how affect-laden imagery that evokes emotional stress influences risk perception and risk taking in real-life scenarios. In a series of three studies, we instructed participants to imagine the consequences of risky scenarios and then rate the intensity of the experienced stress, perceived risk and their willingness to engage in risky behavior. Study 1 showed that people spontaneously imagine negative rather than positive risk consequences, which are directly related to their lower willingness to take risk. Moreover, this relationship was mediated by feelings of stress and risk perception. Study 2 replicated and extended these findings by showing that imagining negative risk consequences evokes psychophysiological stress responses observed in elevated blood pressure. Finally, in Study 3, we once again demonstrated that a higher intensity of mental images of negative risk consequences, as measured by enhanced brain activity in the parieto-occipital lobes, leads to a lower propensity to take risk. Furthermore, individual differences in creating vivid and intense negative images of risk consequences moderated the strength of the relationship between risk perception and risk taking. Participants who created more vivid and intense images of negative risk consequences paid less attention to the assessments of riskiness in rating their likelihood to take risk. To summarize, we showed that feelings of emotional stress and perceived riskiness mediate the relationship between mental imagery and risk taking, whereas individual differences in abilities to create vivid mental images may influence the degree to which more cognitive risk assessments are used in the risk-taking process. PMID:25816238

  10. Affect-laden imagery and risk taking: the mediating role of stress and risk perception.

    PubMed

    Traczyk, Jakub; Sobkow, Agata; Zaleskiewicz, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how affect-laden imagery that evokes emotional stress influences risk perception and risk taking in real-life scenarios. In a series of three studies, we instructed participants to imagine the consequences of risky scenarios and then rate the intensity of the experienced stress, perceived risk and their willingness to engage in risky behavior. Study 1 showed that people spontaneously imagine negative rather than positive risk consequences, which are directly related to their lower willingness to take risk. Moreover, this relationship was mediated by feelings of stress and risk perception. Study 2 replicated and extended these findings by showing that imagining negative risk consequences evokes psychophysiological stress responses observed in elevated blood pressure. Finally, in Study 3, we once again demonstrated that a higher intensity of mental images of negative risk consequences, as measured by enhanced brain activity in the parieto-occipital lobes, leads to a lower propensity to take risk. Furthermore, individual differences in creating vivid and intense negative images of risk consequences moderated the strength of the relationship between risk perception and risk taking. Participants who created more vivid and intense images of negative risk consequences paid less attention to the assessments of riskiness in rating their likelihood to take risk. To summarize, we showed that feelings of emotional stress and perceived riskiness mediate the relationship between mental imagery and risk taking, whereas individual differences in abilities to create vivid mental images may influence the degree to which more cognitive risk assessments are used in the risk-taking process. PMID:25816238

  11. Risk Taking: A Required Competency for Merger, Acquisitions, and Partnerships.

    PubMed

    Trepanier, Sylvain; Crenshaw, Jeannette T; Yoder-Wise, Patricia S

    2016-01-01

    Today's nurse executive is likely to find himself or herself in the middle of a merger, acquisition, and/or partnership (MAP). This is the result of health care agencies vying for market share in the midst of stiff competition, as well as decreased reimbursement in a rapidly changing payment system. The phenomenon of MAPs is fueled by the focus on care coordination and population health management. To be prepared for the ongoing and increasing MAP activity, nurse executives need to develop the skill of risk taking as an essential competency for leading change. This article emphasizes the need to maintain and improve health care quality and patient safety. PMID:27584889

  12. Project SHINE: Effects of Parent–Adolescent Communication on Sedentary Behavior in African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Dawn K.; Schneider, Elizabeth M.; Alia, Kassandra A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examined parenting variables (communication, monitoring) as moderators of a family-based intervention for reducing sedentary behavior (SB) in African American adolescents. As a secondary aim, a similar model was tested using adolescent weight status as the outcome. Methods African American adolescents (n = 73; 12.45 ± 1.45 years; 60% girls; 63% overweight/obese) and caregivers were randomized to a 6-week interactive, parent-based intervention or general health condition. Parent–adolescent communication and monitoring of health behaviors were self-reported by parents. Adolescent SB was self-reported by youth. Results There was a significant intervention by communication interaction, such that intervention families with more positive communication showed lower adolescent SB than those with less positive communication or those in the comparison condition. No effects were found for monitoring on SB or for the model with weight status as the outcome. Conclusions Parent–adolescent communication may be an effective component to integrate into health promotion programs for African American adolescents. PMID:23685450

  13. School Behavioral Profiles of Arrested versus Nonarrested Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Hill M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Fifth grade social behavioral profiles of 75 arrested and nonarrested adolescent boys were assessed to determine their ability to predict the later arrest status of the boys in grades 5-7. Using such measures as teacher ratings of social skills and observations of negative aggressive behavior, 75 percent of subsequently arrested subjects were…

  14. Programming for Adolescents with Behavioral Disorders, Vol. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braaten, Sheldon L., Ed.; Wild, Estelle, Ed.

    This collection of 13 author-contributed papers addresses various aspects of programming for students with behavioral disorders. Papers have the following titles and authors: (1) "System Support and Transition to Adulthood for Adolescents with Seriously Disordered Behaviors: Orchestrating Successful Transitions" (Eugene Edgar); (2) "Targets for…

  15. Programming for Adolescents with Behavioral Disorders, Vol. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braaten, Sheldon L., Ed.; And Others

    This collection of 10 author-contributed papers addresses various aspects of programming for students with behavioral disorders. Papers have the following titles and authors: (1) "Teacher Ratings of School Survival Skills and Setting Demands" (Bill Bursuck et al.); (2) "Toward Least Restrictive Curriculum for Behaviorally Disordered Adolescents"…

  16. 14 and Younger: The Sexual Behavior of Young Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Bill, Ed.; Brown, Sarah, Ed.; Flanigan, Christine M., Ed.

    This collection of papers on early adolescent sexual behavior includes seven papers in two parts. Part 1, "Papers from Nationally Representative Data Sets," includes (1) "Dating and Sexual Experiences among Middle School Youth: Analyses of the NLSY97" (Elizabeth Terry-Humen and Jennifer Manlove); "(2) "Dating Behavior and Sexual Activity of Young…

  17. Empathy and Drug Use Behaviors among African-American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Anh B.; Clark, Trenette T.; Belgrave, Faye Z.

    2011-01-01

    The current study proposed that empathy may indirectly play a protective role for adolescents in drug use behaviors and that this relationship will be mediated by self-regulatory strategies found in drug refusal efficacy. We predict that empathy will be linked to prosocial behavior and aggression, though we do not believe that they will mediate…

  18. Programming for Adolescents with Behavioral Disorders. Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braaten, Sheldon, Ed.; And Others

    The book contains 10 papers concerning programming for adolescents with behavioral disorders. Papers have the following titles and authors: "What You See Is Not Always What You Get" (Richard Neel); "Implications of the Relationship between Observational and Rating Scale Data for the Assessment of Behavioral Disorders" (Russell Skiba and Patrick…

  19. Exposure to Terrorism and Violent Behavior among Adolescents in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Even-Chen, Merav Solomon; Itzhaky, Haya

    2007-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that exposure to terrorism may lead to violent behavior, but there is little empirical research on the relationship between these two variables. In the present paper, we examined the extent to which exposure to terrorism contributes to violent behavior among adolescents. In addition, we considered the role of environmental…

  20. Friends: The Role of Peer Influence across Adolescent Risk Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Kimberly A.

    2002-01-01

    Examined peer influence for 1,969 adolescents across 5 risk behaviors: smoking, alcohol consumption, marijuana use, tobacco chewing, and sexual debut. Results show that a random same-sex peer predicts a teen's risk behavior initiation through influence to initiate cigarette and marijuana use, and influence to initiate and stop alcohol and chewing…

  1. Mapping the Academic Problem Behaviors of Adolescents with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Altszuler, Amy R.; Morrow, Anne S.; Merrill, Brittany M.

    2014-01-01

    This study possessed 2 aims: (a) to develop and validate a clinician-friendly measure of academic problem behavior that is relevant to the assessment of adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and (b) to better understand the cross-situational expression of academic problem behaviors displayed by these youth. Within a…

  2. An Adolescent Age Group Approach to Examining Youth Risk Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oman, Roy F.; McLeroy, Kenneth R.; Vesely, Sara; Aspy, Cheryl B.; Smith, David W.; Penn, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated relationships among youth risk behaviors and demographic factors. Data on risk behaviors (delinquency, truancy, weapon carrying, fighting, sexuality, substance use, demographics, and family structure) were compared within specific demographic factors and by age group for diverse inner-city adolescents. Survey and interview data…

  3. Adolescents' Transitions to Behavioral Autonomy after German Unification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haase, Claudia M.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Reitzle, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the timing of behavioral autonomy transitions in two same-aged cohorts of East German adolescents assessed in 1991 and 1996. An earlier timing of autonomy privileges was associated with higher deviant behavior. A later timing of autonomy privileges and responsibilities was linked to structural constraints, specifically,…

  4. Understanding HIV testing behaviors of minority adolescents: a health behavior model analysis.

    PubMed

    Schnall, Rebecca; Rojas, Marlene; Travers, Jasmine

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults are the fastest-growing age group of people living with HIV infection in the United States. Yet many adolescents and young adults with high-risk behaviors for HIV are unaware of their HIV status and have never had an HIV test. The purpose of our work was to understand minority adolescents' beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors related to HIV testing. We conducted focus group sessions with 41 minority adolescents to assess their perceptions about HIV testing. We triangulated the findings from our focus group data with data from a 125-question survey. Analysis of focus group data demonstrated that Perceived Susceptibility, Perceived Severity, Perceived Benefits, Perceived Barriers, and Cues to Action influenced adolescents' decisions to get tested for HIV. Findings support the need to design interventions that address adolescents' perceived barriers to HIV testing and increase access to and knowledge about HIV testing. PMID:25283353

  5. Risky Sexual Behavior in Adolescent Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    PubMed Central

    Klosky, James L.; Foster, Rebecca H.; Li, Zhenghong; Peasant, Courtney; Howell, Carrie; Mertens, Ann C.; Robison, Leslie L.; Ness, Kirsten K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify correlates of risky sexual behavior among adolescents surviving childhood cancer. Methods The Child Health and Illness Profile - Adolescent Edition (CHIP-AE) was completed by 307 survivors of childhood cancer aged 15–20 years (M age at diagnosis 1.53 years; range 0–3.76). Univariate analyses were performed using Chi-square and Fischer’s exact tests, and multivariable logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals for risky sexual behaviors. Results Diagnosis of central nervous system cancer (OR =.13, 95% CI: .02–.96, p<.05), no history of beer/wine consumption (OR =.20, CI: .06–.68, p =.01), and fewer negative peer influences (OR =.28, CI: .09–.84, p =.02) associated with decreased likelihood of sexual intercourse. Good psychological health (scores ≥ −1.5 SD on the CHIP-AE Emotional Discomfort scale) associated with decreased risk of early intercourse (OR =.19, CI: .05–.77, p= .02), whereas high parental education (≥ college degree) associated with decreased risk of multiple lifetime sexual partners (OR =.25, CI: .09–.72, p =.01). Increased time from diagnosis (OR =.27, CI: .10–.78, p = .02) and psychological health (OR =.09, CI: .02–.36, p < .01) associated with decreased risk of unprotected sex at last intercourse, whereas high parent education associated with increased risk (OR = 4.27, CI: 1.46–12.52, p =.01). Conclusions Risky sexual behavior in adolescents surviving childhood cancer is associated with cancer type, time since diagnosis, psychological health, alcohol use, and peer influences. Consideration of these factors may provide direction for future interventions designed to reduce adolescent sexual risk-taking. PMID:24364376

  6. Characteristics of Mother-Child Interactions Related to Adolescents' Positive Values and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a theoretical model that considered accurate perception and acceptance of maternal values in relation to adolescents' positive values and behaviors. One hundred fifty-one mother-adolescent dyads completed measures targeting adolescent and maternal perceptions of prosocial values and adolescent behaviors (M…

  7. A Longitudinal Family-Level Model of Arab Muslim Adolescent Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aroian, Karen J.; Templin, Thomas N.; Hough, Edythe Ellison; Ramaswamy, Vidya; Katz, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Arab-American Muslim adolescents in immigrant families face a number of challenges that put them at risk for behavior problems. This study of Arab-American Muslim Adolescents and their relatively recent immigrant mothers tested a longitudinal family-level model of adolescent behavior problems. Mother-adolescent dyads (N = 530) completed measures…

  8. Effects of Familial Attachment, Social Support, Involvement, and Self-Esteem on Youth Substance Use and Sexual Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Christina Hamme; Buser, Trevor J.; Westburg, Nancy G.

    2010-01-01

    A study of protective factors against substance use and sexual risk taking was conducted among 610 high-poverty urban youth. Higher levels of family attachment, social support, involvement, and self-esteem were associated with lower levels of risk behaviors. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  9. Nicotine Dependence and Problem Behaviors Among Urban South African Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pahl, Kerstin; Brook, David W.; Morojele, Neo K.; Brook, Judith S.

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco use and its concomitant, nicotine dependence, are increasing in African countries and other parts of the developing world. However, little research has assessed nicotine dependence in South Africa or other parts of the African continent. Previous research has found that adolescent problem behaviors, including tobacco use, tend to cluster. This study examined the relationship between nicotine dependence and adolescent problem behaviors in an ethnically diverse sample of urban South African adolescents. A community sample (N = 731) consisting of “Black,” “White,” “Coloured,” and “Indian” youths aged 12–17 years was drawn from the Johannesburg metropolitan area. Structured interviews were administered by trained interviewers. Nicotine dependence was assessed by the Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence. Logistic regression analyses showed that higher levels of nicotine dependence significantly predicted elevated levels of violent behavior, deviant behavior, marijuana and other illegal drug use, binge drinking, early sexual intercourse, multiple sexual partners, and inconsistent condom use, despite control on the adolescents’ demographic characteristics, peer smoking, conflict with parents, peer deviance, and the availability of legal and illegal substances. These relationships were robust across ethnicity and gender. The findings indicate the need for policy makers and prevention and intervention programs in South Africa to consider adolescent nicotine dependence in conjunction with comorbid problem behaviors, including other substance use, sexual risk behaviors, and deviant behaviors. PMID:20099015

  10. Familism, parent-adolescent conflict, self-esteem, internalizing behaviors and suicide attempts among adolescent Latinas.

    PubMed

    Kuhlberg, Jill A; Peña, Juan B; Zayas, Luis H

    2010-08-01

    Adolescent Latinas continue to report higher levels of suicide attempts than their African-American and White peers. The phenomenon is still not understood and is theorized to be the result of the confluence of many cultural, familial, and individual level factors. In Latino cultures, belief in the importance of the family, the value known as familism, appears to protect youth's emotional and behavioral health, but parent-adolescent conflict has been found to be a risk factor for suicide attempts. The role of familism in relation to parent-adolescent conflict, self-esteem, internalizing behaviors, and suicide attempts has not been studied extensively. To address this question, we interviewed 226 adolescent Latinas, 50% of whom had histories of suicide attempts. Using path analysis, familism as a cultural asset was associated with lower levels of parent-adolescent conflict, but higher levels of internalizing behaviors, while self-esteem and internalizing behaviors mediated the relationship between parent-adolescent conflict and suicide attempts. Our findings point to the importance of family involvement in culturally competent suicide prevention and intervention programs. Reducing parent-daughter conflict and fostering closer family ties has the added effect of improving self-esteem and shrinking the likelihood of suicide attempts. PMID:20309625

  11. Risk-taking, responsibility for health, and attitude toward avoiding AIDS.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, B J

    1989-06-01

    A telephone survey was completed with 400 adults to explore a possible relation between health risk-taking and perceived personal responsibility for health. The attitude that AIDS could be avoided by being careful was weakly associated with responses to questions about wearing seat belts and smoking. The pattern held only among those who thought their health was good for people their age. After reviewing related literature, it appears that poor health status and dogmatism may contribute to denial of risk and to risky sexual behavior. Themes for public health educational campaigns are suggested. PMID:2762466

  12. Asthma and Suicidal Ideation and Behavior among Puerto Rican Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bandiera, Frank C.; Ramirez, Rafael; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Canino, Glorisa; Goodwin, Renee D.

    2013-01-01

    There is growing evidence of a positive association between asthma and suicidal ideation and behavior in the general community, although information on this potential association is scarce among adolescents and Puerto Ricans, groups at-risk for both conditions. Data came from wave three of the Boricua Youth Study, a longitudinal study of youth in the Bronx and San Juan conducted from 2000–2004. Logistic regressions for correlated data (GEE) were conducted with asthma predicting suicidal ideation and behavior among participants aged 11 years or older. After adjustment for survey design, age, gender, poverty, DSM-IV mental disorders, cigarette smoking, and stressful life events, asthma was positively associated with suicidal ideation and behavior among Puerto Rican adolescents. Public health interventions targeting Puerto Rican adolescents with asthma and future studies investigating potential biological and psychological mechanisms of association are warranted. PMID:23817156

  13. Adolescents At Risk: Causes of Youth Suicide in New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Wilhelmina J.

    1997-01-01

    Explores causes of the high teenage suicide rate in New Zealand by looking at environmental-social factors. Examines the problems these youth face, such as depression and alcohol use, and discusses their risk-taking behaviors. Findings are linked to current theory on adolescent suicide. Prevention, intervention, and treatment strategies are…

  14. Gender-Specific Outcomes for Sexually Abused Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandy, Joseph M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A study of 370 male and 2,681 female adolescents with a history of sexual abuse found that males were at higher risk than females for poor school performance, delinquent activities, extreme use of alcohol and marijuana, and sexual risk taking. Female victims showed higher risk for suicidal ideation and behavior, frequent use of alcohol, and…

  15. Reward Processing in Adolescents with Bipolar I Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Manpreet K.; Chang, Kiki D.; Kelley, Ryan G.; Cui, Xu; Sherdell, Lindsey; Howe, Meghan E.; Gotlib, Ian H.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a debilitating psychiatric condition that commonly begins in adolescence, a developmental period that has been associated with increased reward seeking. Because youth with BD are especially vulnerable to negative risk-taking behaviors, understanding the neural mechanisms by which dysregulated affect interacts…

  16. Contextual influence of Taiwanese adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavioral intent.

    PubMed

    Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Neilands, Torsten B; Chan, Shu-Min; Lightfoot, Marguerita

    2016-09-01

    This study examined parental, peer, and media influences on Taiwanese adolescents' attitudes toward premarital sex and intent to engage in sexual behavior. Participants included a convenience sample of 186 adolescents aged 13-15 recruited from two middle schools in Taiwan. Parental influence was indicated by perceived parental disapproval toward premarital sex and perceived peer sexual behavior was used to measure peer influence. Media influence was measured by the adolescents' perception of whether the media promotes premarital sex. We conducted structural equation modeling to test a hypothesized model. The findings suggested that the perceived sexual behavior of peers had the strongest effect on Taiwanese adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavioral intent, while parental disapproval and media influence also significantly contributed to adolescents' sexual attitudes and intent to engage in sex. School nurses are in an ideal position to coordinate essential resources and implement evidence-based sexually transmitted infection and HIV/AIDS prevention interventions that address issues associated with the influence of parents, peers, and media. PMID:26991765

  17. Dimensions of impulsive behavior in adolescent smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Fields, Sherecce; Collins, Christine; Leraas, Kristen; Reynolds, Brady

    2009-10-01

    Robust associations have been identified between impulsive personality characteristics and cigarette smoking during adolescents, indicating that impulsive behavior may play an important role in the initiation of cigarette smoking. The present study extended this research by using laboratory behavioral assessments to explore relationships between three specific dimensions of impulsive behavior (impulsive decision-making, inattention, and disinhibition) and adolescent cigarette smoking. Participants were male and female adolescent smokers (n = 50) and nonsmokers (n = 50). Adolescent smokers were more impulsive on a measure of decision-making; however, there were significant smoking status by gender interaction effects for impulsive inattention and disinhibition. Male smokers were most impulsive on the measure of inattention, but male smokers were least impulsive on the measure of disinhibition. Correlations between biomarkers of smoking and impulsive inattention and disinhibition were found for females but not males. The current findings, coupled with previous findings (Reynolds et al., 2007), indicate there may be robust gender difference in associations between certain types of impulsive behavior and cigarette smoking during adolescence. PMID:19803629

  18. Maternal Depressive Symptoms During Childhood and Risky Adolescent Health Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Wickham, Maeve E.; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Wild, T. Cameron; Hoglund, Wendy L.G.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Maternal depression is a risk factor for adolescent depression; however, the effect of childhood exposure to maternal depression on adolescent engagement in health risk behaviors (eg, substance use, delinquency) is unclear. METHODS: We examined the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms (child’s age 4–15) and engagement in health risk behaviors at age 16 to 17 by using data from 2910 mother–youth pairs in a nationally representative prospective Canadian cohort. Maternal depressive trajectories were estimated through finite mixture modeling, and multiple regression analyses examined the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms and engagement in various health risk behaviors (linear regression) and age of debut of various behaviors (Cox regression). RESULTS: Five trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms were found: recurrent maternal symptoms, midchildhood exposure to maternal symptoms, adolescent exposure to maternal symptoms, mild maternal symptoms, and low symptoms. Adolescents exposed to maternal depressive symptoms during middle childhood were more likely to use common substances (alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana), engage in violent and nonviolent delinquent behavior, and have an earlier debut ages of cigarette, alcohol, marijuana, and hallucinogen use. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that exposure to maternal depressive symptoms, particularly in middle childhood, is associated with greater and earlier engagement in health risk behaviors. PMID:25535266

  19. Alcohol Mixed with Energy Drink Use and Sexual Risk-Taking: Casual, Intoxicated, and Unprotected Sex

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study examined the confluence of several behaviors common to U.S. young adults: caffeinated energy drink use, alcohol use, and sexual risk-taking. The author examined relationships between the use of energy drinks mixed with alcohol (AmEDs) and three sexual risk behaviors: casual sex (i.e., intercourse with a nonexclusive and/or nonromantic partner), intoxicated sex (i.e., intercourse while under the influence of alcohol and/or illicit drugs), and unprotected sex (i.e., intercourse without use of a condom). Method Logistic regression analyses were employed to analyze data from a cross-sectional survey of 648 sexually active undergraduate students at a large public university. Results After controlling for risk-taking norms and frequency of noncaffeinated alcohol use, AmED use was associated with elevated odds of casual sex and intoxicated sex but not unprotected sex. Conclusions Although further studies are needed to test for event-level relationships, AmED use should be considered a possible risk factor for potentially health-compromising sexual behaviors. PMID:24761266

  20. Psychiatric aspects of chronic disease in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Magen, J

    1990-06-01

    In adolescents with chronic illnesses, the rate of behavioral disorders is 10% to 20% higher than that in their well peers. Rheumatoid arthritis, chronic renal disease, cystic fibrosis, cancer, and many other chronic illnesses constitute risk factors for behavioral disorders in adolescents. Because they are now living longer, more productive lives, adolescents with chronic illnesses are more often seen by their primary care physicians with behavioral disorders that can interfere with disease control. Risk-taking behaviors, difficulties with parents, noncompliance, depression, and isolation may all be manifestations of behavioral disorders. Parents and siblings may also be at risk for disorder. Particular constellations of family and individual characteristics may be associated with behavior disorder. So that these behaviors may be discovered as early as possible, it is important that the primary care physician conceptualize chronically ill adolescents and their families as "at risk." PMID:2190958

  1. Sexual Risk-taking Mediates the Association between Impulsivity and Acquisition of Sexually Transmitted Infections among Hazardously Drinking Incarcerated Women

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Bradley J.; Stein, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Background A growing literature has identified associations between impulsivity and negative behaviors such as sexual risk-taking among high-risk and/or vulnerable populations, but few studies have linked impulsivity to biological outcomes of sexual risk-taking. The main purpose of this study was to document associations among impulsivity, sexual risk-taking, and biological measures of sexually transmitted infection (STI+) in a sample of hazardously drinking incarcerated women. Methods Two hundred forty-five hazardously drinking incarcerated women self-reported alcohol consumption and consequences, impulsivity, and sexual behavior. Results Biological testing revealed a 22.9% prevalence rate for STI+. In this sample, sexual risk-taking fully mediated the association between impulsivity and likelihood of STI+. In addition, individuals reporting sexual activity with multiple partners were significantly more likely to test STI+ than those reporting sexual activity with a primary partner. Conclusion These results support previous research on impulsivity by demonstrating that impulsivity leads to STI+ through risky behavioral choices. These findings also extend prior work by documenting this association using biologically confirmed measures in a vulnerable female population that carries multiple risk factors and thus warrants increased research attention. PMID:23786513

  2. Breastfeeding behavior among adolescents: Initiation, duration, and exclusivity

    PubMed Central

    Sipsma, Heather L.; Magriples, Urania; Divney, Anna; Gordon, Derrick; Gabzdyl, Elizabeth; Kershaw, Trace

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Despite a substantial amount of evidence on breastfeeding among non-adolescent mothers, research and strategies uniquely designed to target adolescent mothers are critical as their rates of breastfeeding are disproportionately low and their transition to parenthood is often unlike that of older mothers. Literature to date, however, offers limited evidence for designing effective interventions. Therefore, we aim to fill this gap in the literature by examining breastfeeding behaviors among a cohort of female adolescents as they transition to parenthood. Methods Data are derived from a longitudinal cohort of pregnant adolescent females (ages 14-21) and their male partners followed from pregnancy through 6 months postpartum. Means and frequencies were used to describe breastfeeding experiences, breastfeeding behaviors, and sociodemographic characteristics. Multivariate logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify factors independently associated with breastfeeding initiation, exclusive breastfeeding, and breastfeeding duration. Results Approximately 71% initiated breastfeeding. Intending to breastfeed, having had complications in labor and delivery, and lower social support were associated with greater odds of breastfeeding initiation. Of the adolescent mothers who initiated breastfeeding, 84% had stopped by 6 months postpartum and among those, average breastfeeding duration was 5 weeks. Participants who exclusively breastfed had longer breastfeeding duration, and participants who had experienced intimate partner violence had shorter breastfeeding duration. Obese women and women who had more difficulty breastfeeding had lower odds of exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusions Enhanced clinical support and the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding should be considered when designing interventions to improve breastfeeding rates among adolescent mothers. PMID:23725911

  3. The Timing of School Transitions and Early Adolescent Problem Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Lippold, Melissa A.; Powers, Christopher J.; Syvertsen, Amy K.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigates whether rural adolescents who transition to a new school in sixth grade have higher levels of risky behavior than adolescents who transition in seventh grade. Our findings indicate that later school transitions had little effect on problem behavior between sixth and ninth grades. Cross-sectional analyses found a small number of temporary effects of transition timing on problem behavior: Spending an additional year in elementary school was associated with higher levels of deviant behavior in the Fall of Grade 6 and higher levels of antisocial peer associations in Grade 8. However, transition effects were not consistent across waves and latent growth curve models found no effects of transition timing on the trajectory of problem behavior. We discuss policy implications and compare our findings with other research on transition timing. PMID:24089584

  4. Preventing Adolescent Risk Behavior in the Rural Context: An Integrative Analysis of Adolescent, Parent, and Provider Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rishel, Carrie W.; Cottrell, Lesley; Kingery, Tricia

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent risk behavior remains prevalent and contributes to numerous social problems and growing health care costs. Contrary to popular perception, adolescents in rural areas engage in risky behaviors at least as much as youth from urban or suburban settings. Little research, however, focuses on risk behavior prevention in the rural context.…

  5. Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behavior in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability and Co-Occurring Somatic Chronic Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oeseburg, B.; Groothoff, J. W.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Reijneveld, S. A.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence on the association between somatic chronic diseases in ID-adolescents and the full range of pervasive developmental disorder behavior (PDD behavior) is scarce. The aim of the present study is to assess the association between somatic chronic diseases in ID-adolescents and mild PDD behavior. We obtained data on 1044 ID-adolescents, aged…

  6. Suicidal behavior in adolescents with comorbid depression and alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Ganz, D; Sher, L

    2009-06-01

    Depression, alcohol abuse and suicidality each continue to threaten adolescent populations throughout the world. The comorbidity between these diseases has been found to be up to 73% with consistent positive correlations between adolescent drinking, depression and suicidality. Alcohol abuse, depression and suicidal behavior in adolescents have also been found to have biochemical and genetic correlates. This article explores the contributing and causative factors and directional models underlying such prevalent comorbidities. Alcohol use is shown to be both a distal and proximal cause of suicide attempts in adolescent populations. Individuals with both alcoholism and depression who attempt or complete suicide often present with significantly high levels of aggression and impulsivity. These factors may be caused or nuanced by poor or underdeveloped coping skills as well as other comorbid psychiatric conditions. Such behaviors, alone or in comorbidity, may be a consequence of childhood abuse, social pressures, low self-esteem and/or delinquency- all of which may be particularly salient among adolescent populations. Such adolescent stressors are implicated as the cause for the self-medication model. Some studies suggest that depression encourages alcohol use as self-medication and then leads to suicidality, while others imply that the initial alcohol consumption is responsible for increasing depressive and suicidal symptoms in adolescents. This article discusses the social stigma associated with alcoholism, depression and suicidality, and how that may serve to enhance these disorders in adolescent populations. Many directional models are presented based on past research and as suggestions for future research. There is a lot that can be done by clinicians, legal and educational professionals and society at large that may help to prevent and treat such problems. PMID:19461576

  7. Academic Performance among Adolescents with Behaviorally Induced Insufficient Sleep Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yu Jin; Park, Juhyun; Kim, Soohyun; Cho, Seong-Jin; Kim, Seog Ju

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: The present study investigated academic performance among adolescents with behaviorally induced insufficient sleep syndrome (BISS) and attempted to identify independent predictors of academic performance among BISS-related factors. Methods: A total of 51 students with BISS and 50 without BISS were recruited from high schools in South Korea based on self-reported weekday sleep durations, weekend oversleep, and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Participants reported their academic performance in the form of class quartile ranking. The Korean version of the Composite Scale (KtCS) for morningness/eveningness, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) for depression, and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-II (BIS-II) for impulsivity were administered. Results: Adolescents with BISS reported poorer academic performance than adolescents without BISS (p = 0.02). Adolescents with BISS also exhibited greater levels of eveningness (p < 0.001), depressive symptoms (p < 0.001), and impulsiveness (p < 0.01). Longer weekend oversleep predicted poorer academic performance among adolescents with BISS even after controlling for ESS, KtCS, BDI, and BIS-II (β = 0.42, p < 0.01). Conclusions: BISS among adolescents is associated with poor academic performance and that sleep debt, as represented by weekend oversleep, predicts poorer academic performance independent of depression, impulsiveness, weekday sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and morningness/eveningness among adolescents with BISS. Citation: Lee YJ, Park J, Kim S, Cho SJ, Kim SJ. Academic performance among adolescents with behaviorally induced insufficient sleep syndrome. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(1):61–68. PMID:25515277

  8. Stress and Multiple Substance Use Behaviors Among Hispanic Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Jodi Berger; Goldbach, Jeremy T; Cervantes, Richard C; Swank, Paul

    2016-02-01

    Hispanic adolescents reported a higher annual prevalence of use of nearly all major drugs compared to non-Hispanic White and African American adolescents. Cultural or minority stressors, such as those related to the acculturation process, discrimination, immigration, poverty, and community violence, have been implicated in these outcomes. Unfortunately, few studies have examined how these stressors may have a differential or additive effect when considered simultaneously. The current study examined the relation between stress and multiple substance use behaviors in a sample of Hispanic adolescents (n = 1036), age 11-19 years old. Latent class analysis identified subgroups of Hispanic adolescents based on combinations of substance use behaviors. General linear models were used to examine mean differences by class among the eight domains of stress. Fit statistics revealed a six-class structure: no substance use risk, predominately alcohol use, low polysubstance use, high polysubstance use, illicit drug use, and predominately marijuana use. Differences in stress across the six classes were identified for four of the eight domains: family economic, acculturation gap, community and gang, and family and drug stress. The effect sizes revealed the largest mean differences in stress between the no substance use group and the two polysubstance use groups and between the no risk group and alcohol use group. The findings from this study support the use of interventions that target stress to affect multiple substance use behaviors in Hispanic adolescents. PMID:26319617

  9. Emotional Desensitization to Violence Contributes to Adolescents' Violent Behavior.

    PubMed

    Mrug, Sylvie; Madan, Anjana; Windle, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Many adolescents are exposed to violence in their schools, communities and homes. Exposure to violence at high levels or across multiple contexts has been linked with emotional desensitization, indicated by low levels of internalizing symptoms. However, the long-term consequences of such desensitization are unknown. This study examined emotional desensitization to violence, together with externalizing problems, as mediators of the relationship between exposure to violence in pre-adolescence and violent behavior in late adolescence. A community sample of youth (N = 704; 48% female; 76% African American, 22% Caucasian) reported on their exposure to violence in multiple settings at ages 11, 13 and 18. Internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed at ages 11 and 13; violent behavior was measured at age 18. Structural Equation Modeling showed that exposure to high levels of violence at age 11 was associated with lower levels of internalizing problems (quadratic effect) at age 13, as was exposure to violence across multiple contexts (linear effect). In turn, fewer internalizing problems and more externalizing problems at age 13 predicted more violent behavior at age 18. The results suggest that emotional desensitization to violence in early adolescence contributes to serious violence in late adolescence. PMID:25684447

  10. Adolescents' health behaviors and obesity: Does race affect this epidemic?

    PubMed Central

    Shelley, Mack C.; Hausafus, Cheryl O.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the influence of health behaviors and individual attributes on adolescent overweight and obesity using data from Wave II (Add Health). Structural equation model/path analysis using maximum likelihood estimation was utilized to analyze the relationships of health behaviors and attributes with obesity. Results of the model reveal that the causal paths (adolescents' attributes and health behaviors) for overweight and obesity were different for African American and Caucasian adolescents. Generally, African Americans were more susceptible to overweight and obesity than Caucasians. Although increasing levels of vigorous physical activities lowers the risk for obesity among African American and Caucasian adolescents alike, low family SES and being sedentary were associated with overweight and obesity among Caucasians. No significant associations were found among African Americans. Increased hours of sleep at night relate positively with obesity among African Americans. These findings suggest important elements in the consideration of race in developing effective intervention and prevention approaches for curbing the obesity epidemic among U.S. adolescents. PMID:21286412

  11. Stress and Multiple Substance Use Behaviors Among Hispanic Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Goldbach, Jeremy T.; Cervantes, Richard C.; Swank, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Hispanic adolescents reported a higher annual prevalence of use of nearly all major drugs compared to non-Hispanic White and African American adolescents. Cultural or minority stressors, such as those related to the acculturation process, discrimination, immigration, poverty, and community violence, have been implicated in these outcomes. Unfortunately, few studies have examined how these stressors may have a differential or additive effect when considered simultaneously. The current study examined the relation between stress and multiple substance use behaviors in a sample of Hispanic adolescents (n=1036), age 11–19 years old. Latent class analysis identified subgroups of Hispanic adolescents based on combinations of substance use behaviors. General linear models were used to examine mean differences by class among the eight domains of stress. Fit statistics revealed a six-class structure: no substance use risk, predominately alcohol use, low polysubstance use, high polysubstance use, illicit drug use, and predominately marijuana use. Differences in stress across the six classes were identified for four of the eight domains: family economic, acculturation gap, community and gang, and family and drug stress. The effect sizes revealed the largest mean differences in stress between the no substance use group and the two polysubstance use groups and between the no risk group and alcohol use group. The findings from this study support the use of interventions that target stress to affect multiple substance use behaviors in Hispanic adolescents. PMID:26319617

  12. Persisting Behavior Problems in Extremely Low Birth Weight Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, H. Gerry; Margevicius, Seunghee; Schluchter, Mark; Andreias, Laura; Hack, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe behavior problems in extremely low birth weight (ELBW, <1000 g) adolescents born 1992–1995 based on parent ratings and adolescent self-ratings at age 14 years and examine changes in parent ratings from ages 8 to 14 years. Method Parent ratings of behavior problems and adolescent self-ratings were obtained for 169 ELBW adolescents (mean birth weight 815 g, gestational age 26 weeks) and 115 normal birth weight (NBW) controls at 14 years. Parent ratings of behavior at age 8 years were also available. Behavior outcomes were assessed using symptom severity scores and rates of scores above DSM-IV symptom cut-offs for clinical disorder. Results The ELBW group had higher symptom severity scores on parent ratings at age 14 years than NBW controls for inattentive attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety, and social problems (all p’s<0.01). Rates of parent ratings meeting DSM-IV symptom criteria for inattentive ADHD were also higher for the ELBW group (12% vs. 1%, p< 0.01). In contrast, the ELBW group had lower symptom severity scores on self-ratings than controls for several scales. Group differences in parent ratings decreased over time for ADHD, especially among females, but were stable for anxiety and social problems. Conclusions ELBW adolescents continue to have behavior problems similar to those evident at a younger age, but these problems are not evident in behavioral self-ratings. The findings suggest that parent ratings provide contrasting perspectives on behavior problems in ELBW youth and support the need to identify and treat these problems early in childhood. PMID:25741950

  13. Prenatal substance exposure: What predicts behavioral resilience by early adolescence?

    PubMed

    Liebschutz, Jane M; Crooks, Denise; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Cabral, Howard J; Heeren, Timothy C; Gerteis, Jessie; Appugliese, Danielle P; Heymann, Orlaith D; Lange, Allison V; Frank, Deborah A

    2015-06-01

    Understanding behavioral resilience among at-risk adolescents may guide public policy decisions and future programs. We examined factors predicting behavioral resilience following intrauterine substance exposure in a prospective longitudinal birth-cohort study of 136 early adolescents (ages 12.4-15.9 years) at risk for poor behavioral outcomes. We defined behavioral resilience as a composite measure of lack of early substance use initiation (before age 14), lack of risky sexual behavior, or lack of delinquency. Intrauterine substance exposures included in this analysis were cocaine, tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana. We recruited participants from Boston Medical Center as mother-infant dyads between 1990 and 1993. The majority of the sample was African American/Caribbean (88%) and 49% female. In bivariate analyses, none and lower intrauterine cocaine exposure level predicted resilience compared with higher cocaine exposure, but this effect was not found in an adjusted model. Instead, strict caregiver supervision (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.90, 19.00], p = .002), lower violence exposure (AOR = 4.07, 95% CI [1.77, 9.38], p < .001), and absence of intrauterine tobacco exposure (AOR = 3.71, 95% CI [1.28, 10.74], p = .02) predicted behavioral resilience. In conclusion, caregiver supervision in early adolescence, lower violence exposure in childhood, and lack of intrauterine tobacco exposure predicted behavioral resilience among a cohort of early adolescents with significant social and environmental risk. Future interventions should work to enhance parental supervision as a way to mitigate the effects of adversity on high-risk groups of adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26076097

  14. Prenatal Substance Exposure: What Predicts Behavioral Resilience by Early Adolescence?

    PubMed Central

    Liebschutz, Jane; Crooks, Denise; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Cabral, Howard J; Heeren, Timothy C; Gerteis, Jessie; Appugliese, Danielle P.; Heymann, Orlaith D.; Lange, Allison V.; Frank, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding behavioral resilience among at-risk adolescents may guide public policy decisions and future programs. We examined factors predicting behavioral resilience following intrauterine substance exposure (IUSE) in a prospective longitudinal birth-cohort study of 136 early adolescents (age 12.4–15.9) at-risk for poor behavioral outcomes. We defined behavioral resilience as a composite measure of lack of early substance use initiation (before age 14), lack of risky sexual behavior, or lack of delinquency. IUSEs included in this analysis were cocaine (IUCE), tobacco (IUTE), alcohol (IUAE), and marijuana (IUME). We recruited participants from Boston Medical Center as mother-infant dyads between 1990 and 1993. The majority of the sample was African-American/Caribbean (88%) and 49% female. In bivariate analyses, none and lower IUCE level predicted resilience compared to higher IUCE, but this effect was not found in an adjusted model. Instead, strict caregiver supervision (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=6.02, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.90–19.00, p=0.002), lower violence exposure (AOR=4.07, 95% CI=1.77–9.38, p<0.001), and absence of intrauterine tobacco exposure (AOR=3.71, 95% CI= 1.28–10.74, p=0.02) predicted behavioral resilience. In conclusion, caregiver supervision in early adolescence, lower violence exposure in childhood, and lack of intrauterine tobacco exposure predict behavioral resilience among a cohort of early adolescents with significant social and environmental risk. Future interventions should work to enhance parental supervision as a way to mitigate the effects of adversity on high-risk groups of adolescents. PMID:26076097

  15. Adolescent Perceptions of Parental Behaviors, Adolescent Self-Esteem, and Adolescent Depressed Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plunkett, Scott W.; Henry, Carolyn S.; Robinson, Linda C.; Behnke, Andrew; Falcon, Pedro C., III

    2007-01-01

    Using symbolic interaction, we developed a research model that proposed adolescent perceptions of parental support and psychological control would be related to adolescent depressed mood directly and indirectly through self-esteem. We tested the model using self-report questionnaire data from 161 adolescents living with both of their biological…

  16. Suicidal Behavior in Chemically Dependent Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavaiola, Alan A.; Lavender, Neil

    1999-01-01

    Study explores distinctions between chemically dependent suicide attempters, chemically dependent nonsuicidal adolescents, and high school students with no history of chemical dependency (N=250). Results reveal that there were significant differences between the chemically dependent groups. It was also found that the majority of suicidal gestures…

  17. Complicity or conflict over sexual cannibalism? Male risk taking in the praying mantis Tenodera aridifolia sinensis.

    PubMed

    Lelito, Jonathan P; Brown, William D

    2006-08-01

    Male complicity versus conflict over sexual cannibalism in mantids remains extremely controversial, yet few studies have attempted to establish a causal relationship between risk of cannibalism and male reproductive behavior. We studied male risk-taking behavior in the praying mantid Tenodera aridifolia sinensis by altering the risk imposed by females and measuring changes in male behavior. We show that males were less likely to approach hungrier, more rapacious females, and when they did approach, they moved more slowly, courted with greater intensity, and mounted from a greater distance. Similarly, when forced to approach females head-on, within better view and better reach of females, males also approached more slowly and courted with greater intensity. Thus, males behaved in a manner clearly indicative of risk avoidance, and we support the hypothesis of sexual conflict over sexual cannibalism. PMID:16874635

  18. Neurobiological and memory models of risky decision making in adolescents versus young adults.

    PubMed

    Reyna, Valerie F; Estrada, Steven M; DeMarinis, Jessica A; Myers, Regina M; Stanisz, Janine M; Mills, Britain A

    2011-09-01

    Predictions of fuzzy-trace theory and neurobiological approaches are examined regarding risk taking in a classic decision-making task--the framing task--as well as in the context of real-life risk taking. We report the 1st study of framing effects in adolescents versus adults, varying risk and reward, and relate choices to individual differences, sexual behavior, and behavioral intentions. As predicted by fuzzy-trace theory, adolescents modulated risk taking according to risk and reward. Adults showed standard framing, reflecting greater emphasis on gist-based (qualitative) reasoning, but adolescents displayed reverse framing when potential gains for risk taking were high, reflecting greater emphasis on verbatim-based (quantitative) reasoning. Reverse framing signals a different way of thinking compared with standard framing (reverse framing also differs from simply choosing the risky option). Measures of verbatim- and gist-based reasoning about risk, sensation seeking, behavioral activation, and inhibition were used to extract dimensions of risk proneness: Sensation seeking increased and then decreased, whereas inhibition increased from early adolescence to young adulthood, predicted by neurobiological theories. Two additional dimensions, verbatim- and gist-based reasoning about risk, loaded separately and predicted unique variance in risk taking. Importantly, framing responses predicted real-life risk taking. Reasoning was the most consistent predictor of real-life risk taking: (a) Intentions to have sex, sexual behavior, and number of partners decreased when gist-based reasoning was triggered by retrieval cues in questions about perceived risk, whereas (b) intentions to have sex and number of partners increased when verbatim-based reasoning was triggered by different retrieval cues in questions about perceived risk. PMID:21707215

  19. Maternal Positive and Negative Interaction Behaviors and Early Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms: Adolescent Emotion Regulation as a Mediator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yap, Marie B. H.; Schwartz, Orli S.; Byrne, Michelle L.; Simmons, Julian G.; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relation between mothers' positive and negative interaction behaviors during mother-child interactions and the emotion regulation (ER) and depressive symptoms of their adolescent offspring. Event-planning (EPI) and problem-solving interactions (PSI) were observed in 163 mother-adolescent dyads, and adolescents also provided…

  20. Parental Socialization and Adolescents' Alcohol Use Behaviors: Predictive Disparities in Parents' versus Adolescents' Perceptions of the Parenting Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latendresse, Shawn J.; Rose, Richard J.; Viken, Richard J.; Pulkkinen, Lea; Kaprio, Jaakko; Dick, Danielle M.

    2009-01-01

    Among adolescents, many parenting practices have been associated with the initiation and development of drinking behaviors. However, recent studies suggest discrepancies in parents' and adolescents' perceptions of parenting and their links with adolescent use. In this study, we derive two independent sets of underlying parenting profiles (based on…

  1. Social contagion and adolescent sexual behavior: a developmental EMOSA model.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, J L; Rowe, D C

    1993-07-01

    Epidemic Models of the Onset of Social Activities (EMOSA models) describe the spread of adolescent transition behaviors (e.g., sexuality, smoking, and drinking) through an interacting adolescent network. A theory of social contagion is defined to explain how social influence affects sexual development. Contacts within a network can, with some transition rate or probability, result in an increase in level of sexual experience. Five stages of sexual development are posited. One submodel proposes a systematic progression through these stages; a competing submodel treats each as an independent process. These models are represented in sets of dynamically interacting recursive equations, which are fit to empirical prevalence data to estimate parameters. Model adjustments are substantively interpretable and can be used to test for and better understand social interaction processes that affect adolescent sexual behavior. PMID:8356187

  2. Sexting and Sexual Behavior in At-Risk Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Barker, David; Rizzo, Christie; Hancock, Evan; Norton, Alicia; Brown, Larry K.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the prevalence of sexting behaviors (sexually explicit messages and/or pictures) among an at-risk sample of early adolescents as well as the associations between sexting behaviors and sexual behaviors, risk-related cognitions, and emotional regulation skills. It also aimed to determine whether differences in risk were associated with text-based versus photo-based sexts. METHODS: Seventh-grade adolescents participating in a sexual risk prevention trial for at-risk early adolescents completed a computer-based survey at baseline regarding sexting behavior (having sent sexually explicit messages and/or pictures), sexual activities, intentions to have sex, perceived approval of sexual activity, and emotional regulation skills. RESULTS: Twenty-two percent of the sample reported having sexted in the past 6 months; sexual messages were endorsed by 17% (n = 71), sexual messages and photos by 5% (n = 21). Pictures were endorsed significantly more often by females (χ2[2] = 7.33, P = .03) and Latinos (χ2[2] = 7.27, P = .03). Sexting of any kind was associated with higher rates of engaging in a variety of sexual behaviors, and sending photos was associated with higher rates of sexual activity than sending text messages only. This was true for a range of behaviors from touching genitals over clothes (odds ratio [OR] = 1.98, P = .03) to oral sex (OR = 2.66, P < .01) to vaginal sex (OR = 2.23, P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Sexting behavior (both photo and text messages) was not uncommon among middle school youth and co-occurred with sexual behavior. These data suggest that phone behaviors, even flirtatious messages, may be an indicator of risk. Clinicians, parents, and health programs should discuss sexting with early adolescents. PMID:24394678

  3. Problematic Internet Users Show Impaired Inhibitory Control and Risk Taking with Losses: Evidence from Stop Signal and Mixed Gambles Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qi; Nan, Weizhi; Taxer, Jamie; Dai, Weine; Zheng, Ya; Liu, Xun

    2016-01-01

    According to the balance model of self-regulation, dysfunction of the inhibitory control and reward processing might be a behavioral marker for addiction and problematic behaviors. Although several studies have separately examined the inhibitory control or reward processing of individuals exhibiting problematic Internet use (PIU), no study has explored these two functions simultaneously to examine the potential imbalance of these functions. This study aimed to investigate whether the self-regulatory failure of PIU individuals results from deficits in both inhibitory control [indexed with the stop signal reaction time (SSRT) in a stop signal task] and risk taking with losses (measured as the acceptance rates of risky gables or the ratio of win/loss in a mixed gambles task). The results revealed that PIU individuals, compared with controls, showed decreased SSRT and increased error rates as well as reduced risk taking with losses. Correlational analyses revealed a significant positive relationship between the SSRT and risk taking with losses. These findings suggest that both the inhibitory control and reward functions are impaired in PIU individuals and reveal an association between these two systems. These results strengthen the balance model of self-regulation theory’s argument that deficits in inhibitory control and risk taking with losses may assist in identifying risk markers for early diagnosis, progression, and prediction of PIU. PMID:27014170

  4. Problematic Internet Users Show Impaired Inhibitory Control and Risk Taking with Losses: Evidence from Stop Signal and Mixed Gambles Tasks.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Nan, Weizhi; Taxer, Jamie; Dai, Weine; Zheng, Ya; Liu, Xun

    2016-01-01

    According to the balance model of self-regulation, dysfunction of the inhibitory control and reward processing might be a behavioral marker for addiction and problematic behaviors. Although several studies have separately examined the inhibitory control or reward processing of individuals exhibiting problematic Internet use (PIU), no study has explored these two functions simultaneously to examine the potential imbalance of these functions. This study aimed to investigate whether the self-regulatory failure of PIU individuals results from deficits in both inhibitory control [indexed with the stop signal reaction time (SSRT) in a stop signal task] and risk taking with losses (measured as the acceptance rates of risky gables or the ratio of win/loss in a mixed gambles task). The results revealed that PIU individuals, compared with controls, showed decreased SSRT and increased error rates as well as reduced risk taking with losses. Correlational analyses revealed a significant positive relationship between the SSRT and risk taking with losses. These findings suggest that both the inhibitory control and reward functions are impaired in PIU individuals and reveal an association between these two systems. These results strengthen the balance model of self-regulation theory's argument that deficits in inhibitory control and risk taking with losses may assist in identifying risk markers for early diagnosis, progression, and prediction of PIU. PMID:27014170

  5. Trajectories of Problem Behavior among Mexican-Origin Adolescent Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Toomey, Russell B.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Jahromi, Laudan B.

    2014-01-01

    Engagement in problem behaviors during adolescence has important implications for academic achievement and psychosocial well-being. The current study examined engagement in problem behavior across the transition from pregnancy to parenthood among a sample of 204 Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (ages 15-18 years; Mage = 16.8 at Time 1) to better understand the behaviors in which this sample engaged and how engagement changed over this period of transition. Descriptively, this sample engaged in relatively low levels of problem behaviors. Frequently endorsed problem behaviors included missing school or work without an excuse, lying or disobeying parents, and engagement in dangerous behaviors for a thrill; notably, substance use was not a frequently endorsed behavior until the final waves of the study, when most of the mothers were of legal age for these behaviors. Further, latent growth curve modeling revealed a non-linear pattern of change in problem behaviors, such that engagement decreased substantially from the third trimester of pregnancy to 36 months postpartum, but then leveled off between 36 and 48 months postpartum. Findings suggest a need for future research to better understand how engagement in problem behaviors changes pre- to post-pregnancy, and how to best support the decrease in problem behaviors once a pregnancy has been detected. PMID:25893152

  6. Adolescent Health-Risk Behavior and Community Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wiehe, Sarah E.; Kwan, Mei-Po; Wilson, Jeff; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Background Various forms of community disorder are associated with health outcomes but little is known about how dynamic context where an adolescent spends time relates to her health-related behaviors. Objective Assess whether exposure to contexts associated with crime (as a marker of community disorder) correlates with self-reported health-related behaviors among adolescent girls. Methods Girls (N = 52), aged 14–17, were recruited from a single geographic urban area and monitored for 1 week using a GPS-enabled cell phone. Adolescents completed an audio computer-assisted self-administered interview survey on substance use (cigarette, alcohol, or marijuana use) and sexual intercourse in the last 30 days. In addition to recorded home and school address, phones transmitted location data every 5 minutes (path points). Using ArcGIS, we defined community disorder as aggregated point-level Unified Crime Report data within a 200-meter Euclidian buffer from home, school and each path point. Using Stata, we analyzed how exposures to areas of higher crime prevalence differed among girls who reported each behavior or not. Results Participants lived and spent time in areas with variable crime prevalence within 200 meters of their home, school and path points. Significant differences in exposure occurred based on home location among girls who reported any substance use or not (p 0.04) and sexual intercourse or not (p 0.01). Differences in exposure by school and path points were only significant among girls reporting any substance use or not (p 0.03 and 0.02, respectively). Exposure also varied by school/non-school day as well as time of day. Conclusions Adolescent travel patterns are not random. Furthermore, the crime context where an adolescent spends time relates to her health-related behavior. These data may guide policy relating to crime control and inform time- and space-specific interventions to improve adolescent health. PMID:24278107

  7. A Conceptual Framework for the Analysis of Risk and Problem Behaviors: The Case of Adolescent Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilamo-Ramos; Vincent; Jaccard, James; Dittus, Patricia; Gonzalez, Bernardo; Bouris, Alida

    2008-01-01

    A framework for the analysis of adolescent problem behaviors was explicated that draws on five major theories of human behavior. The framework emphasizes intentions to perform behaviors and factors that influence intentions as well as moderate the impact of intentions on behavior. The framework was applied to the analysis of adolescent sexual risk…

  8. Effect of Psychostimulants on Impulsivity and Risk Taking in Narcolepsy with Cataplexy

    PubMed Central

    Bayard, Sophie; Langenier, Muriel Croisier; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of psychostimulants on impulsivity, depressive symptoms, addiction, pathological gambling, and risk-taking using objective sensitivity tests in narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC). Drug-free patients with NC present alterations in reward processing, but changes with psychostimulants remain unknown. Design: Prospective case-control study. Setting: Academic sleep disorders center. Participants: There were 120 participants: 41 drug-free patients with NC, 37 patients with NC taking psychostimulants, and 42 matched healthy controls. Interventions: All participants underwent a semistructured clinical interview for impulse control and addictive behaviors and completed questionnaires for depression and impulsivity. Risk taking was analyzed through performance on a decision-making task under ambiguity (Iowa Gambling Task [IGT]) and under risk (Game of Dice Task [GDT]). All patients with NC underwent 1 night of polysomnography followed by a multiple sleep latency test for drug-free patients and a maintenance wakefulness test for treated patients. Results: Depressive symptoms were higher in drug-free patients than in treated patients and controls, with no difference between controls and treated patients. No between-group differences were found for impulsivity, substance addiction, or pathological gambling. Drug-free and treated patients showed selective reduced performance on the IGT and normal performance on the GDT compared with controls, with no differences between patients taking medication and those who did not. No clinical or polysomnographic characteristics or medication type was associated with IGT scores. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that, whether taking psychostimulants or not, patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy preferred risky choices on a decision-making task under ambiguity. However, the lack of association with impulsivity, pathological gambling, or substance addiction remains of major clinical interest in narcolepsy

  9. Risk-taking in disorders of natural and drug rewards: neural correlates and effects of probability, valence, and magnitude.

    PubMed

    Voon, Valerie; Morris, Laurel S; Irvine, Michael A; Ruck, Christian; Worbe, Yulia; Derbyshire, Katherine; Rankov, Vladan; Schreiber, Liana Rn; Odlaug, Brian L; Harrison, Neil A; Wood, Jonathan; Robbins, Trevor W; Bullmore, Edward T; Grant, Jon E

    2015-03-01

    Pathological behaviors toward drugs and food rewards have underlying commonalities. Risk-taking has a fourfold pattern varying as a function of probability and valence leading to the nonlinearity of probability weighting with overweighting of small probabilities and underweighting of large probabilities. Here we assess these influences on risk-taking in patients with pathological behaviors toward drug and food rewards and examine structural neural correlates of nonlinearity of probability weighting in healthy volunteers. In the anticipation of rewards, subjects with binge eating disorder show greater risk-taking, similar to substance-use disorders. Methamphetamine-dependent subjects had greater nonlinearity of probability weighting along with impaired subjective discrimination of probability and reward magnitude. Ex-smokers also had lower risk-taking to rewards compared with non-smokers. In the anticipation of losses, obesity without binge eating had a similar pattern to other substance-use disorders. Obese subjects with binge eating also have impaired discrimination of subjective value similar to that of the methamphetamine-dependent subjects. Nonlinearity of probability weighting was associated with lower gray matter volume in dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex and orbitofrontal cortex in healthy volunteers. Our findings support a distinct subtype of binge eating disorder in obesity with similarities in risk-taking in the reward domain to substance use disorders. The results dovetail with the current approach of defining mechanistically based dimensional approaches rather than categorical approaches to psychiatric disorders. The relationship to risk probability and valence may underlie the propensity toward pathological behaviors toward different types of rewards. PMID:25270821

  10. Risk-Taking in Disorders of Natural and Drug Rewards: Neural Correlates and Effects of Probability, Valence, and Magnitude

    PubMed Central

    Voon, Valerie; Morris, Laurel S; Irvine, Michael A; Ruck, Christian; Worbe, Yulia; Derbyshire, Katherine; Rankov, Vladan; Schreiber, Liana RN; Odlaug, Brian L; Harrison, Neil A; Wood, Jonathan; Robbins, Trevor W; Bullmore, Edward T; Grant, Jon E

    2015-01-01

    Pathological behaviors toward drugs and food rewards have underlying commonalities. Risk-taking has a fourfold pattern varying as a function of probability and valence leading to the nonlinearity of probability weighting with overweighting of small probabilities and underweighting of large probabilities. Here we assess these influences on risk-taking in patients with pathological behaviors toward drug and food rewards and examine structural neural correlates of nonlinearity of probability weighting in healthy volunteers. In the anticipation of rewards, subjects with binge eating disorder show greater risk-taking, similar to substance-use disorders. Methamphetamine-dependent subjects had greater nonlinearity of probability weighting along with impaired subjective discrimination of probability and reward magnitude. Ex-smokers also had lower risk-taking to rewards compared with non-smokers. In the anticipation of losses, obesity without binge eating had a similar pattern to other substance-use disorders. Obese subjects with binge eating also have impaired discrimination of subjective value similar to that of the methamphetamine-dependent subjects. Nonlinearity of probability weighting was associated with lower gray matter volume in dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex and orbitofrontal cortex in healthy volunteers. Our findings support a distinct subtype of binge eating disorder in obesity with similarities in risk-taking in the reward domain to substance use disorders. The results dovetail with the current approach of defining mechanistically based dimensional approaches rather than categorical approaches to psychiatric disorders. The relationship to risk probability and valence may underlie the propensity toward pathological behaviors toward different types of rewards. PMID:25270821

  11. Maternal drinking behavior and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in adolescents with criminal behavior in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Momino, Wakana; Félix, Têmis Maria; Abeche, Alberto Mantovani; Zandoná, Denise Isabel; Scheibler, Gabriela Gayer; Chambers, Christina; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Flores, Renato Zamora; Schüler-Faccini, Lavínia

    2012-12-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can have serious and permanent adverse effects. The developing brain is the most vulnerable organ to the insults of prenatal alcohol exposure. A behavioral phenotype of prenatal alcohol exposure including conduct disorders is also described. This study on a sample of Brazilian adolescents convicted for criminal behavior aimed to evaluate possible clinical features of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). These were compared to a control group of school adolescents, as well as tested for other environmental risk factors for antisocial behavior. A sample of 262 institutionalized male adolescents due to criminal behavior and 154 male students aged between 13 and 21 years comprised the study population. Maternal use of alcohol was admitted by 48.8% of the mothers of institutionalized adolescents and by 39.9% of the school students. In this sample of adolescents we could not identify individual cases with a clear diagnosis of FAS, but signs suggestive of FASD were more common in the institutionalized adolescents. Social factors like domestic and family violence were frequent in the risk group, this also being associated to maternal drinking during pregnancy. The inference is that in our sample, criminal behavior is more related to complex interactions between environmental and social issues including prenatal alcohol exposure. PMID:23412828

  12. Maternal drinking behavior and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in adolescents with criminal behavior in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Momino, Wakana; Félix, Têmis Maria; Abeche, Alberto Mantovani; Zandoná, Denise Isabel; Scheibler, Gabriela Gayer; Chambers, Christina; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Flores, Renato Zamora; Schüler-Faccini, Lavínia

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can have serious and permanent adverse effects. The developing brain is the most vulnerable organ to the insults of prenatal alcohol exposure. A behavioral phenotype of prenatal alcohol exposure including conduct disorders is also described. This study on a sample of Brazilian adolescents convicted for criminal behavior aimed to evaluate possible clinical features of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). These were compared to a control group of school adolescents, as well as tested for other environmental risk factors for antisocial behavior. A sample of 262 institutionalized male adolescents due to criminal behavior and 154 male students aged between 13 and 21 years comprised the study population. Maternal use of alcohol was admitted by 48.8% of the mothers of institutionalized adolescents and by 39.9% of the school students. In this sample of adolescents we could not identify individual cases with a clear diagnosis of FAS, but signs suggestive of FASD were more common in the institutionalized adolescents. Social factors like domestic and family violence were frequent in the risk group, this also being associated to maternal drinking during pregnancy. The inference is that in our sample, criminal behavior is more related to complex interactions between environmental and social issues including prenatal alcohol exposure. PMID:23412828

  13. Mental, Emotional and Behavior Disorders in Children and Adolescents. Factsheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Mental Health Services.

    This factsheet describes the different mental, emotional, and behavior problems that can occur during childhood and adolescence. The incidence and symptoms of the following disorders are discussed: (1) anxiety disorders (including phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder);…

  14. Behavioral Phenotype of Fragile X Syndrome in Adolescence and Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Leann E.; Barker, Erin T.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Abbeduto, Leonard; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2012-01-01

    The present study explored the behavioral profile of individuals with fragile X syndrome during adolescence and adulthood. Individuals with both fragile X syndrome and autism (n = 30) were compared with (a) individuals diagnosed with fragile X syndrome (but not autism; n = 106) and (b) individuals diagnosed with autism (but not fragile X syndrome;…

  15. Family Structure, Community Context, and Adolescent Problem Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, John P.

    2006-01-01

    A number of models have been proposed to explain the relationship between family structure and adolescent problem behaviors, including several that consider parent-child relations, family income, stress, and residential mobility. However, studies have not explored whether the different types of communities within which families reside affect the…

  16. Attachment Organization and History of Suicidal Behavior in Clinical Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adam, Kenneth S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Adolescents in psychiatric treatment (N=133) participated in a case-comparison study investigating the association of attachment patterns with a history of suicidal behaviors. Attachment patterns were assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview. In accordance with definitions provided in the scoring system, 86% of case and 78% of comparison…

  17. Adolescent Health Behavior, Contentment in School, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir Logi; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Allegrante, John P.; Helgason, Asgeir R.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the association between health behavior indicators, school contentment, and academic achievement. Methods: Structural equation modeling with 5810 adolescents. Results: Our model explained 36% of the variance in academic achievement and 24% in school contentment. BMI and sedentary lifestyle were negatively related to school…

  18. Are Mexican American Adolescents at Greater Risk of Suicidal Behaviors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Robert E.; Roberts, Catherine Ramsay; Xing, Yun

    2007-01-01

    A reexamination of ethnicity as a risk factor for adolescent suicidal behavior, focusing on whether Mexican American youths are at increased risk, was undertaken. Data from a sample of 4,175 African, European, and Mexican Americans, aged 11-17, are presented. We examined lifetime attempts and past year attempts, thoughts, and plans. Odds ratios,…

  19. Father's and Mother's Psychological Violence and Adolescent Behavioral Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melancon, Claudiane; Gagne, Marie-Helene

    2011-01-01

    Maternal and paternal psychological violence were examined as potential risk factors for internalized and externalized behavior problems displayed by adolescents. Childhood family violence (physical and psychological parental violence), current extrafamily violence (bullying and dating violence), and family structure were taken into account. A…

  20. Brief Report: Associations between Emotional Competence and Adolescent Risky Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hessler, Danielle M.; Katz, Lynn Fainsilber

    2010-01-01

    The current study examines associations between emotional competence (i.e., awareness, regulation, comfort with expression) and adolescent risky behavior. Children from a longitudinal study participated at age 9 and 16 (N = 88). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with children about their emotional experiences and coded for areas of…

  1. Child and Adolescent Therapy: Cognitive-Behavioral Procedures. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Philip C., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Widely regarded as the definitive clinical reference and text in the field, this authoritative volume presents effective cognitive-behavioral approaches for treating frequently encountered child and adolescent disorders. The editor and contributors are leading experts who provide hands-on, how-to-do-it descriptions illustrated with clinical…

  2. Social Capital, Safety Concerns, Parenting, and Early Adolescents' Antisocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieno, Alessio; Nation, Maury; Perkins, Douglas D.; Pastore, Massimiliano; Santinello, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the relations between neighborhood social capital (neighbor support and social climate), safety concerns (fear of crime and concern for one's child), parenting (solicitation and support), and adolescent antisocial behavior in a sample of 952 parents (742 mothers) and 588 boys and 559 girls from five middle schools (sixth…

  3. Does Sex Education Affect Adolescent Sexual Behaviors and Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabia, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether offering sex education to young teenagers affects several measures of adolescent sexual behavior and health: virginity status, contraceptive use, frequency of intercourse, likelihood of pregnancy, and probability of contracting a sexually transmitted disease. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent…

  4. Trajectories of Family Management Practices and Early Adolescent Behavioral Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ming-Te; Dishion, Thomas J.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.; Willett, John B.

    2011-01-01

    Stage-environment fit theory was used to examine the reciprocal lagged relations between family management practices and early adolescent problem behavior during the middle school years. In addition, the potential moderating roles of family structure and of gender were explored. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to describe patterns of growth…

  5. Assessing the Eating Behaviors of Low-Income, Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahlman, Mariane; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey; Garn, Alex C.; Shen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is a need for instruments that can accurately determine the effectiveness of nutrition interventions targeting low-income, inner-city adolescents. Purpose: To examine the development of a valid and reliable eating behavior scale (EBS) for use in school-based nutrition interventions in urban, inner-city communities dominated by…

  6. Counseling Children and Adolescents: Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy and Humanism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon, Ann

    1996-01-01

    Describes specific parallels between rational emotive behavior therapy and humanism. Places specific emphasis on the application of these principles with children and adolescents. Concepts are illustrated with case studies and a description of the similarities between rational emotive and humanistic, or affective, education. Highlights emotional…

  7. Adolescent Behavior and Health in Cross-Cultural Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2012-01-01

    Specific behavioral problems appear during early adolescence, and they become more pronounced. Although these problems are universal in many aspects, cultural differences are also conspicuous. The author, in addition to analyzing the five studies in the Special Issue, addresses questions concerning the cross-cultural context. The analysis reveals…

  8. Heavy Metal Music and Reckless Behavior among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnett, Jeffrey

    1991-01-01

    Fifty-four male and 30 female adolescents who like heavy metal music were compared on various outcome variables to 56 male and 105 female peers who do not like it. Those who like heavy metal report a wider range of reckless behavior than those who do not like it. (SLD)

  9. Weight Perception and Dieting Behavior among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Gyuyoung; Ha, Yeongmi; Vann, Julie Jacobson; Choi, Eunsook

    2009-01-01

    This study examines relationships among weight status, weight perceptions, and dieting behaviors in South Korean adolescents. As perceptions of an ideal body for teens in Korea have changed over time, it is important for school nurses to understand these relationships to help students achieve health. A cross-sectional survey of 3,191 8th and 2,252…

  10. Contextual Stress and Health Risk Behaviors among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress…

  11. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Jennifer L.; Markowitz, Sarah; Petronko, Michael R.; Taylor, Caitlin E.; Wilhelm, Sabine; Wilson, G. Terence

    2010-01-01

    The onset of appearance-related concerns associated with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) typically occurs in adolescence, and these concerns are often severe enough to interfere with normal development and psychosocial functioning. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for adults with BDD. However, no treatment studies…

  12. Mothers' Economic Hardship and Behavior Problems in Their Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrell, Ginger Lockhart; Roosa, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    Concerns about the heightened prevalence of behavior problems among adolescents from low-income families have prompted researchers to understand processes through which economic variables influence functioning within multiple domains. Guided by a stress process framework and social contextual theory, this study examines processes linking perceived…

  13. Paternal Psychopathology: Relationship to Adolescent Substance Abuse and Deviant Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Research has documented the genetic contribution of paternal alcoholism and Antisocial Personality Disorder as risk factors for adolescent deviant behavior, including substance abuse. Teens (n=147) between the ages of 12 and 19 years and their parents participated in the study. The sample consisted of 74 substance abusing teens/families drawn from…

  14. Civic Participation and the Development of Adolescent Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieno, Alessio; Nation, Maury; Perkins, Douglas D.; Santinello, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed the links between civic participation and adolescent behavior problems (bullying, physical fighting, and alcohol and tobacco use), and whether civic engagement could be a moderator of the negative effects of parent/family detachment. Participants were 7,097 11-, 13-, and 15-year-olds (48.6% girls) in a region of Northern Italy.…

  15. Pain-Based Behavior with Children and Adolescents in Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anglin, James P.

    2014-01-01

    Many actions of troubled children and adolescents can disguise and conceal their ever-present and deep-seated psycho-emotional pain. Adults living and working with these youth may overlook this pain in a strategy of avoidance. Labelling troubling behavior as "outbursts," "explosions," or "acting out," ignores the…

  16. Tailoring Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Binge Eating in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarborough, Bobbi Jo; DeBar, Lynn L.; Firemark, Alison; Leung, Sue; Clarke, Gregory N.; Wilson, G. Terence

    2013-01-01

    Whereas effective treatments exist for adults with recurrent binge eating, developmental factors specific to adolescents point to the need for a modified treatment approach for youth. We adapted an existing cognitive behavioral therapy treatment manual for adults with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder (Fairburn, 2008) for use with…

  17. The breakdown of meaning and adolescent problem behavior.

    PubMed

    Hazani, Moshe

    2003-01-01

    This paper attempts to account for the upsurge of adolescents' problem behavior in high-income countries in terms of Lifton's paradigm of symbolic immortality. Whilst most of the works dealing with this subject focus on the level of the individual adolescent and his or her surrounding, Lifton shows that societal processes can affect the individual. Drawing upon his approach, it was argued that desymbolization,--the collapse of society's symbols system--produces "divided selves," individuals who harbor an 'aggressor-victim double' in their psyche, wherein an internal conflict between the aggressor and the victim engenders self-destructive impulses. In this study it is hypothesized that problem behaviors are external manifestations of underlying self-destructiveness. Thirty-four Jewish-Israeli adolescents involved in sexual promiscuity, drug abuse, anorexia nervosa, and violence were interviewed. It was found that despite individual and social dissimilarities, and the different problem behaviors, the participants were marked by inner-directed destructiveness as well as a sense of meaninglessness of life and lack of symbolic relationship to what transcends their here-and-now selves. Significantly, violent adolescents whose aggression is other-directed were found to be marked by underlying self-directed aggression as well. If the findings of this study are representative of Israeli society at large or of other affluent societies, then the epidemic proportions of youth problem behavior may indicate that these societies are undergoing desymbolization, a psychocultural breakdown. PMID:12964443

  18. Adolescent Mental Health, Behavior Problems, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Jane D.; Uemura, Ryotaro; Rohrman, Shawna

    2012-01-01

    Prior research on the association of mental health and behavior problems with academic achievement is limited because it does not consider multiple problems simultaneously, take co-occurring problems into account, and control for academic aptitude. We addressed these limitations using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health…

  19. Behavioral management of headache in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Faedda, Noemi; Cerutti, Rita; Verdecchia, Paola; Migliorini, Daniele; Arruda, Marco; Guidetti, Vincenzo

    2016-12-01

    Headache is the most frequent neurological symptom and the most prevalent pain in children and adolescents, and constitutes a serious health problem that may lead to impairment in several areas. Psychosocial factors, social environment, life events, school and family stressors are all closely related to headaches. A multidisciplinary strategy is fundamental in addressing headache in children and adolescents. Applying such a strategy can lead to reductions in frequency and severity of the pain, improving significantly the quality of life of these children.It has been demonstrated that behavioral intervention is highly effective, especially in the treatment of paediatric headache, and can enhance or replace pharmacotherapy, with the advantage of eliminating dangerous side effects and or reducing costs. Behavioral interventions appear to maximize long-term therapeutic benefits and improve compliance with pharmacological treatment, which has proven a significant problem with child and adolescent with headache.The goal of this review is to examine the existing literature on behavioral therapies used to treat headache in children and adolescents, and so provide an up-to-date picture of what behavioral therapy is and what its effectiveness is. PMID:27596923

  20. Moral Cognitive Processes Explaining Antisocial Behavior in Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Velden, Floor; Brugman, Daniel; Boom, Jan; Koops, Willem

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses the longitudinal relationships between three kinds of moral cognitions--self-serving cognitive distortions, moral judgment, perception of community--and antisocial behavior in young adolescents. Aims were to gain insight in direct and indirect relationships, stability, and causality. The sample included 724 students (M age =…