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Sample records for adolescent risky behavior

  1. Parental Work Schedules and Adolescent Risky Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Wen-Jui; Miller, Daniel P.; Waldfogel, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Using a large contemporary data set (the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Supplement), the authors examined the effects of parental work schedules on adolescent risky behaviors at age 13 or 14 and the mechanisms that might explain them. Structural equation modeling suggests mothers who worked more often at night spent significantly less…

  2. Successful Schools and Risky Behaviors Among Low-Income Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Coller, Karen M.; Dudovitz, Rebecca N.; Kennedy, David P.; Buddin, Richard; Shapiro, Martin F.; Kataoka, Sheryl H.; Brown, Arleen F.; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Bergman, Peter; Chung, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We examined whether exposure to high-performing schools reduces the rates of risky health behaviors among low-income minority adolescents and whether this is due to better academic performance, peer influence, or other factors. METHODS: By using a natural experimental study design, we used the random admissions lottery into high-performing public charter high schools in low-income Los Angeles neighborhoods to determine whether exposure to successful school environments leads to fewer risky (eg, alcohol, tobacco, drug use, unprotected sex) and very risky health behaviors (eg, binge drinking, substance use at school, risky sex, gang participation). We surveyed 521 ninth- through twelfth-grade students who were offered admission through a random lottery (intervention group) and 409 students who were not offered admission (control group) about their health behaviors and obtained their state-standardized test scores. RESULTS: The intervention and control groups had similar demographic characteristics and eighth-grade test scores. Being offered admission to a high-performing school (intervention effect) led to improved math (P < .001) and English (P = .04) standard test scores, greater school retention (91% vs 76%; P < .001), and lower rates of engaging in ≥1 very risky behaviors (odds ratio = 0.73, P < .05) but no difference in risky behaviors, such as any recent use of alcohol, tobacco, or drugs. School retention and test scores explained 58.0% and 16.2% of the intervention effect on engagement in very risky behaviors, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing performance of public schools in low-income communities may be a powerful mechanism to decrease very risky health behaviors among low-income adolescents and to decrease health disparities across the life span. PMID:25049339

  3. Brief Report: Associations between Emotional Competence and Adolescent Risky Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hessler, Danielle M.; Katz, Lynn Fainsilber

    2010-01-01

    The current study examines associations between emotional competence (i.e., awareness, regulation, comfort with expression) and adolescent risky behavior. Children from a longitudinal study participated at age 9 and 16 (N = 88). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with children about their emotional experiences and coded for areas of…

  4. Adolescents Engaging in Risky Sexual Behavior: Sexual Activity and Associated Behavioral Risk Factors in Bolivian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novilla, M. Lelinneth B.; Dearden, Kirk A.; Crookston, Benjamin T.; De La Cruz, Natalie; Hill, Susan; Torres, Scott B.

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence of risky sexual activities among Bolivian adolescents within the context of other behavioral factors that contribute to compromised health outcomes, unintended pregnancies, and sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS. Data was collected from 576 adolescents, 13-18 years of age, from six schools in La…

  5. The Evolutionary Basis of Risky Adolescent Behavior: Implications for Science, Policy, and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Bruce J.; Del Giudice, Marco; Dishion, Thomas J.; Figueredo, Aurelio Jose; Gray, Peter; Griskevicius, Vladas; Hawley, Patricia H.; Jacobs, W. Jake; James, Jenee; Volk, Anthony A.; Wilson, David Sloan

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes an evolutionary model of risky behavior in adolescence and contrasts it with the prevailing developmental psychopathology model. The evolutionary model contends that understanding the evolutionary functions of adolescence is critical to explaining why adolescents engage in risky behavior and that successful intervention…

  6. Factors influencing adolescents engagement in risky Internet behavior.

    PubMed

    Liau, Albert Kienfie; Khoo, Angeline; Ang, Peng Hwa

    2005-12-01

    The present study used data from the SAFT (Safety, Awareness, Facts and Tools) Singapore survey, a national survey of 1,124 youths aged 12-17, to explore the issue of risk on the Internet. We investigated factors that influence adolescents' engagement in risky Internet behavior, in particular, meeting face-to-face someone they first encountered online. The adolescents ranged from ages 12 to 17, with a mean of 14.32 (SD = 1.37); 49.6% of the adolescents were girls. The study utilized a 93-item survey that was part of the SAFT Project. Results indicated that 16% of adolescent Internet users in Singapore have had a face-to-face meeting with someone first encountered online. The following factors were found to be predictors of adolescents engagement in such face-to-face meetings: age, frequency of Internet use, frequency of chatting and gaming behavior, parental rules, type of personal information given out, amount of inappropriate messages received, whether inappropriate websites have been visited, and type of internet advice heard. Implications of the results are discussed.

  7. Methamphetamine Use Is Independently Associated with Recent Risky Sexual Behaviors and Adolescent Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zapata, Lauren B.; Hillis, Susan D.; Marchbanks; Polly A.; Curtis, Kathryn M.; Lowry, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Background: Lifetime methamphetamine use among adolescents is estimated to be between 5% and 10%. Youth substance use in general is known to be associated with risky sexual behaviors, but the effect of methamphetamine use on recent risky sexual behaviors and adolescent pregnancy has received little attention. The purpose of this analysis was to…

  8. Adolescents' Neural Processing of Risky Decisions: Effects of Sex and Behavioral Disinhibition

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, Thomas J.; Dalwani, Manish S.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; Young, Susan E.; Sakai, Joseph T.; Raymond, Kristen M.; McWilliams, Shannon K.; Roark, Melissa J.; Banich, Marie T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Accidental injury and homicide, relatively common among adolescents, often follow risky behaviors; those are done more by boys and by adolescents with greater behavioral disinhibition (BD). Hypothesis Neural processing during adolescents' risky decision-making will differ in youths with greater BD severity, and in males vs. females, both before cautious behaviors and before risky behaviors. Methodology/Principal Findings 81 adolescents (Patients with substance and conduct problems, and comparison youths (Comparisons)), assessed in a 2 x 2 design (Patients:Comparisons x Male:Female) repeatedly decided between doing a cautious behavior that earned 1 cent, or a risky one that either won 5 or lost 10 cents. Odds of winning after risky responses gradually decreased. Functional magnetic resonance imaging captured brain activity during 4-sec deliberation periods preceding responses. Most neural activation appeared in known decision-making structures. Patients, who had more severe BD scores and clinical problems than Comparisons, also had extensive neural hypoactivity. Comparisons' greater activation before cautious responses included frontal pole, medial prefrontal cortex, striatum, and other regions; and before risky responses, insula, temporal, and parietal regions. Males made more risky and fewer cautious responses than females, but before cautious responses males activated numerous regions more than females. Before risky behaviors female-greater activation was more posterior, and male-greater more anterior. Conclusions/Significance Neural processing differences during risky-cautious decision-making may underlie group differences in adolescents' substance-related and antisocial risk-taking. Patients reported harmful real-life decisions and showed extensive neural hypoactivity during risky-or-cautious decision-making. Males made more risky responses than females; apparently biased toward risky decisions, males (compared with females) utilized many more neural

  9. The evolutionary basis of risky adolescent behavior: implications for science, policy, and practice.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Bruce J; Del Giudice, Marco; Dishion, Thomas J; Figueredo, Aurelio José; Gray, Peter; Griskevicius, Vladas; Hawley, Patricia H; Jacobs, W Jake; James, Jenée; Volk, Anthony A; Wilson, David Sloan

    2012-05-01

    This article proposes an evolutionary model of risky behavior in adolescence and contrasts it with the prevailing developmental psychopathology model. The evolutionary model contends that understanding the evolutionary functions of adolescence is critical to explaining why adolescents engage in risky behavior and that successful intervention depends on working with, instead of against, adolescent goals and motivations. The current article articulates 5 key evolutionary insights into risky adolescent behavior: (a) The adolescent transition is an inflection point in development of social status and reproductive trajectories; (b) interventions need to address the adaptive functions of risky and aggressive behaviors like bullying; (c) risky adolescent behavior adaptively calibrates over development to match both harsh and unpredictable environmental conditions; (d) understanding evolved sex differences is critical for understanding the psychology of risky behavior; and (e) mismatches between current and past environments can dysregulate adolescent behavior, as demonstrated by age-segregated social groupings. The evolutionary model has broad implications for designing interventions for high-risk youth and suggests new directions for research that have not been forthcoming from other perspectives.

  10. The Cost of Materialism in a Collectivistic Culture: Predicting Risky Behavior Engagement in Chinese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Randy P.; McWhinnie, Chad M.; Goldfinger, Marc; Abela, John R. Z.; Zhu, Xiongzhao; Yao, Shuqiao

    2010-01-01

    The goals of the current study were to examine whether (a) negative events mediate the relationship between materialism and risky behavior engagement and (b) materialism moderates the relationship between stress and engagement in risky behaviors in Chinese youth. At Time 1, 406 adolescents (ages 14-19) from Yue Yang, China, completed measures…

  11. The Role of Religiosity in the Relationship between Parents, Peers, and Adolescent Risky Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landor, Antoinette; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.; Brody, Gene H.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2011-01-01

    Research has documented a negative relationship between religion and risky sexual behavior. Few studies, however, have examined the processes whereby religion exerts this effect. The present study develops and tests a model of various mechanisms whereby parental religiosity reduces the likelihood of adolescents' participation in risky sexual…

  12. Dating Violence and Substance Use as Longitudinal Predictors of Adolescents' Risky Sexual Behavior.

    PubMed

    Shorey, Ryan C; Fite, Paula J; Choi, HyeJeong; Cohen, Joseph R; Stuart, Gregory L; Temple, Jeff R

    2015-08-01

    The objectives of this study is to examine dating violence perpetration and victimization (physical, psychological, and sexual) and lifetime substance use (alcohol, marijuana, and hard drugs) as longitudinal predictors of adolescents' risky sexual behavior across 1 year and to determine whether predictors varied across adolescents' gender and ethnicity. A sample of Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic male and female adolescents from seven public high schools in Texas (N = 882) participated. Adolescents completed self-report measures of dating violence, lifetime substance use, and risky sexual behavior at baseline and, 1-year later, completed a second assessment of their risky sexual behavior. Path analysis demonstrated that greater physical dating violence victimization, lifetime alcohol use, lifetime marijuana use, and age (being older) were all significant predictors of risky sexual behavior at the 1-year follow-up. These results did not vary across gender or the three ethnic groups (Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic). Overall, substance use was a longitudinal predictor of risky sexual behavior across the three ethnic groups, with physical dating violence victimization being the only type of dating violence longitudinally predicting risky sexual behavior. Prevention efforts should consider the roles of physical dating violence and substance use in preventing risky sexual behavior.

  13. Engagement in Risky Sexual Behavior: Adolescents' Perceptions of Self and the Parent-Child Relationship Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerpelman, Jennifer L.; McElwain, Alyssa D.; Pittman, Joe F.; Adler-Baeder, Francesca M.

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined associations among parenting practices, adolescents' self-esteem and dating identity exploration, and adolescents' sexual behaviors. Participants were 680 African American and European American sexually experienced adolescents attending public high schools in the southeast. Results indicated that risky sexual behavior…

  14. Mechanisms That Link Parenting Practices to Adolescents' Risky Sexual Behavior: A Test of Six Competing Theories.

    PubMed

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Sutton, Tara E; Simons, Ronald L; Gibbons, Frederick X; Murry, Velma McBride

    2016-02-01

    Risky sexual behavior, particularly among adolescents, continues to be a major source of concern. In order to develop effective education and prevention programs, there is a need for research that identifies the antecedents of such behavior. This study investigated the mediators that link parenting experiences during early adolescence to subsequent risky sexual behaviors among a diverse sample of African American youth (N = 629, 55 % female). While there is ample evidence that parenting practices (e.g., supportive parenting, harsh parenting, parental management) are antecedent to risky sexual behavior, few studies have examined whether one approach to parenting is more strongly related to risky sex than others. Using a developmental approach, the current study focused on factors associated with six theories of risky sexual behavior. While past research has provided support for all of the theories, few studies have assessed the relative contribution of each while controlling for the processes proposed by the others. The current study addresses these gaps in the literature and reports results separately by gender. Longitudinal analyses using structural equation modeling revealed that the mediating mechanisms associated with social learning and attachment theories were significantly related to the risky sexual behavior of males and females. Additionally, there was support for social control and self-control theories only for females and for life history theory only for males. We did not find support for problem behavior theory, a perspective that dominates the risky sex literature, after controlling for the factors associated with the other theories. Finally, supportive parenting emerged as the parenting behavior most influential with regard to adolescents' risky sexual behavior. These results provide insight regarding efficacious approaches to education and preventative programs designed to reduce risky sexual behaviors among adolescents. PMID:26718543

  15. Mechanisms That Link Parenting Practices to Adolescents' Risky Sexual Behavior: A Test of Six Competing Theories.

    PubMed

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Sutton, Tara E; Simons, Ronald L; Gibbons, Frederick X; Murry, Velma McBride

    2016-02-01

    Risky sexual behavior, particularly among adolescents, continues to be a major source of concern. In order to develop effective education and prevention programs, there is a need for research that identifies the antecedents of such behavior. This study investigated the mediators that link parenting experiences during early adolescence to subsequent risky sexual behaviors among a diverse sample of African American youth (N = 629, 55 % female). While there is ample evidence that parenting practices (e.g., supportive parenting, harsh parenting, parental management) are antecedent to risky sexual behavior, few studies have examined whether one approach to parenting is more strongly related to risky sex than others. Using a developmental approach, the current study focused on factors associated with six theories of risky sexual behavior. While past research has provided support for all of the theories, few studies have assessed the relative contribution of each while controlling for the processes proposed by the others. The current study addresses these gaps in the literature and reports results separately by gender. Longitudinal analyses using structural equation modeling revealed that the mediating mechanisms associated with social learning and attachment theories were significantly related to the risky sexual behavior of males and females. Additionally, there was support for social control and self-control theories only for females and for life history theory only for males. We did not find support for problem behavior theory, a perspective that dominates the risky sex literature, after controlling for the factors associated with the other theories. Finally, supportive parenting emerged as the parenting behavior most influential with regard to adolescents' risky sexual behavior. These results provide insight regarding efficacious approaches to education and preventative programs designed to reduce risky sexual behaviors among adolescents.

  16. Risky Behaviors among Adolescents in the Midwest: Personal Gratification or Peer Pressure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, David C.; Nichols, Joe D.; Eltzroth, Patricia L.

    The present study was a cross-sectional examination of the causes of adolescent participation in risky behaviors, using a diverse sample of adolescents from a Midwestern state. This research compared the relative effects of a traditional explanation of deviant behavior, differential association theory, with a modern derivative, nonsocial…

  17. Delay Discounting Mediates Parent-Adolescent Relationship Quality and Risky Sexual Behavior for Low Self-Control Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Rachel E.; Holmes, Christopher; Farley, Julee P.; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen

    2015-01-01

    Parent-adolescent relationship quality and delay discounting may play important roles in adolescents’ sexual decision making processes, and levels of self-control during adolescence could act as a buffer within these factors. This longitudinal study included 219 adolescent (55% male; mean age = 12.66 years at Wave 1; mean age = 15.10 years at Wave 2) and primary caregiver dyads. Structural equation modeling was utilized to determine whether delay discounting mediated the association between parent-adolescent relationship quality and adolescents’ risky sexual behavior and how this mediated association may differ between those with high versus low self-control. The results revealed parent-adolescent relationship quality plays a role in the development of risky sexual behavior indirectly through levels of delay discounting, but only for adolescents with low self-control. These findings could inform sex education policies and health prevention programs that address adolescent risky sexual behavior. PMID:26202153

  18. Effects of Overweight on Risky Sexual Behavior of Adolescent Girls. NBER Working Paper No. 16172

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Averett, Susan; Corman, Hope; Reichman, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    We use data from The National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health to estimate effects of adolescent girls' overweight on their propensity to engage in risky sexual behavior. We estimate single equation, two-stage, and sibling fixed-effects models and find that overweight or obese teenage girls are more likely than their recommended-weight…

  19. Some Correlates of Risky Sexual Behavior among Secondary School Adolescents in Ogun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeyemo, D. A.; Williams, T. M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine factors associated with risky sexual behaviors among secondary school adolescents in Ogun State, Nigeria. Two hundred and fifty adolescents randomly selected from three schools participated in the study. The ages of the participants ranged from 13 to 18 years. Both the independent and dependent variables were…

  20. Targeting Vulnerabilities to Risky Behavior: An Intervention for Promoting Adaptive Emotion Regulation in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claro, Anthony; Boulanger, Marie-Michelle; Shaw, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    The paper examined the effectiveness of an in-school intervention for adolescents designed to target emotional regulation skills related to risky behaviors. The Cognitive Emotion Regulation Intended for Youth (CERTIFY) program was delivered to at-risk adolescents in Montreal, Canada. Participants were drawn from an alternative high school and a…

  1. Contextual and Intrapersonal Predictors of Adolescent Risky Sexual Behavior and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shneyderman, Yuliya; Schwartz, Seth J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to test a model of contextual and intrapersonal predictors of adolescent risky sexual behaviors and of sexually transmitted infection diagnoses. Using Waves I and II from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the authors estimated a structural model in which intrapersonal factors such as…

  2. Preventing Multiple Risky Behaviors among Adolescents: Seven Strategies. Research-to-Results Brief. Publication #2011-24

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzian, Mary A.; Andrews, Kristine M.; Moore, Kristin Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Taking risks is fairly common in adolescence. Risky behaviors can be associated with serious, long-term, and--in some cases--life-threatening consequences. This is especially the case when adolescents engage in more than one harmful behavior. The tendency for risky behaviors to co-occur has been well-studied. Yet prevention efforts traditionally…

  3. Risky Business: Exploring Adolescent Risk-Taking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Tammy Jordan; Peterson, Fred L.

    2005-01-01

    Ongoing behavioral research has documented the growing prevalence of adolescent health risk behaviors, such as tobacco use, sexual activity, alcohol and other substance use, nutritional behavior, physical inactivity, and intentional injury. Newer youth risk behaviors, such as pathological gambling, are emerging as threats to public health. Risk,…

  4. Risky eating behaviors and beliefs among adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Sáez, Soledad; Pascual, Aitziber; Salaberria, Karmele; Etxebarria, Itziar; Echeburúa, Enrique

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of weight control and binge eating behaviors in a sample of 767 adolescent girls aged 16-20 years, and the differences between adolescents with and without altered eating behaviors regarding anthropometric and body image variables and beliefs associated with eating disorders. Adolescents who engaged in unhealthy strategies were found to be at a higher risk of eating disorders, since these behaviors were accompanied by higher levels of drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction, as well as by beliefs associated with the importance of weight and body shape as a means of personal and social acceptance.

  5. Risky eating behaviors and beliefs among adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Sáez, Soledad; Pascual, Aitziber; Salaberria, Karmele; Etxebarria, Itziar; Echeburúa, Enrique

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of weight control and binge eating behaviors in a sample of 767 adolescent girls aged 16-20 years, and the differences between adolescents with and without altered eating behaviors regarding anthropometric and body image variables and beliefs associated with eating disorders. Adolescents who engaged in unhealthy strategies were found to be at a higher risk of eating disorders, since these behaviors were accompanied by higher levels of drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction, as well as by beliefs associated with the importance of weight and body shape as a means of personal and social acceptance. PMID:24058109

  6. [Social environment and risky eating behaviors: an exploratory study in adolescent females in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Bojorquez, Ietza; Saucedo-Molina, Teresita de Jesús; Juárez-García, Francisco; Unikel-Santoncini, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the current study were to explore: (1) the association between the social environment at the city and family levels and risky eating behaviors in adolescent females and (2) the interaction between the social and cultural environment and body mass index (BMI). The data were obtained from a representative survey of female high school students in Mexico State, Mexico (15-19 years). A questionnaire was applied on risky eating behaviors and socio-demographic data. The municipal social and cultural environment was evaluated using the municipal marginalization index. Data analysis used multivariate regression. Prevalence of risky eating behaviors was 4.23%. BMI and family socioeconomic status were directly associated with risky eating behaviors. The municipal marginalization index was not associated with risky eating behaviors. Possible explanations for the latter are that the relevant components of the social and cultural environment were not measured, or that the municipal level does not exert a contextual effect on risky eating behaviors. The effect of BMI on risky eating behaviors was greater in more marginalized municipalities. PMID:23370022

  7. Maternal Depressive Symptoms During Childhood and Risky Adolescent Health Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Wickham, Maeve E.; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Wild, T. Cameron; Hoglund, Wendy L.G.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Maternal depression is a risk factor for adolescent depression; however, the effect of childhood exposure to maternal depression on adolescent engagement in health risk behaviors (eg, substance use, delinquency) is unclear. METHODS: We examined the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms (child’s age 4–15) and engagement in health risk behaviors at age 16 to 17 by using data from 2910 mother–youth pairs in a nationally representative prospective Canadian cohort. Maternal depressive trajectories were estimated through finite mixture modeling, and multiple regression analyses examined the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms and engagement in various health risk behaviors (linear regression) and age of debut of various behaviors (Cox regression). RESULTS: Five trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms were found: recurrent maternal symptoms, midchildhood exposure to maternal symptoms, adolescent exposure to maternal symptoms, mild maternal symptoms, and low symptoms. Adolescents exposed to maternal depressive symptoms during middle childhood were more likely to use common substances (alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana), engage in violent and nonviolent delinquent behavior, and have an earlier debut ages of cigarette, alcohol, marijuana, and hallucinogen use. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that exposure to maternal depressive symptoms, particularly in middle childhood, is associated with greater and earlier engagement in health risk behaviors. PMID:25535266

  8. Longitudinal Associations between Sibling Relationship Qualities and Risky Behavior across Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solmeyer, Anna R.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the associations between sibling intimacy and conflict and youths' reports of risky behavior in a sample of adolescents ages 11-20. Participants were mothers, fathers, and sibling dyads in 393 families who were interviewed annually for 3, 4, or 5 years. Multivariate multilevel models tested longitudinal links between…

  9. The Role of Religious Involvement on Depression, Risky Behavior, and Academic Performance among Korean American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Piljoo P.; Romo, Laura F.

    2011-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to test a theoretical path model of church engagement, personal spirituality, and mentoring relationships on depressive symptoms, involvement in risky behaviors, and self-reported grades among Korean American adolescents. It was hypothesized that personal spirituality and mentoring relationship quality would…

  10. Protective and Risk Factors Associated with Adolescent Boys' Early Sexual Debut and Risky Sexual Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohman, Brenda J.; Billings, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    Protective and risk factors associated with rates of early sexual debut and risky sexual behaviors for a sample of low-income adolescent boys were examined using bioecological theory framed by a resiliency perspective. Protective processes examined include a close mother-son and father-son relationship, parental monitoring and family routines, as…

  11. Risky Decision Making in Substance Dependent Adolescents with a Disruptive Behavior Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutter, Dennis J. L. G.; van Bokhoven, Irene; Vanderschuren, Louk J. M. J.; Lochman, John E.; Matthys, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Of all psychiatric disorders, the disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) are the most likely to predispose to substance dependence (SD). One possible underlying mechanism for this increased vulnerability is risky decision making. The aim of this study was to examine decision making in DBD adolescents with and without SD. Twenty-five DBD adolescents…

  12. Delay Discounting Mediates Parent-Adolescent Relationship Quality and Risky Sexual Behavior for Low Self-Control Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Rachel E; Holmes, Christopher; Farley, Julee P; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen

    2015-09-01

    Parent-adolescent relationship quality and delay discounting may play important roles in adolescents' sexual decision making processes, and levels of self-control during adolescence could act as a buffer within these factors. This longitudinal study included 219 adolescent (55 % male; mean age = 12.66 years at Wave 1; mean age = 15.10 years at Wave 2) and primary caregiver dyads. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was utilized to determine whether delay discounting mediated the association between parent-adolescent relationship quality and adolescents' risky sexual behavior and how this mediated association may differ between those with high versus low self-control. The results revealed parent-adolescent relationship quality plays a role in the development of risky sexual behavior indirectly through levels of delay discounting, but only for adolescents with low self-control. These findings could inform sex education policies and health prevention programs that address adolescent risky sexual behavior.

  13. Assessing Causality in the Relationship between Adolescents' Risky Sexual Online Behavior and Their Perceptions of This Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgartner, Susanne E.; Valkenburg, Patti M.; Peter, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the causal nature of the relationship between adolescents' risky sexual behavior on the internet and their perceptions of this behavior. Engagement in the following online behaviors was assessed: searching online for someone to talk about sex, searching online for someone to have sex, sending intimate…

  14. Risky Decision Making in a Laboratory Driving Task Is Associated with Health Risk Behaviors during Late Adolescence but Not Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Kahn, Rachel; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Chiu, Pearl; Steinberg, Laurence; King-Casas, Brooks

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized by increasing incidence of health risk behaviors, including experimentation with drugs and alcohol. To fill the gap in our understanding of the associations between risky decision-making and health risk behaviors, we investigated associations between laboratory-based risky decision-making using the Stoplight task and…

  15. Risky Sexual Behavior and Substance Use among Adolescents: A Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ritchwood, Tiarney D.; Ford, Haley; DeCoster, Jamie; Sutton, Marnie; Lochman, John E.

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the results of a meta-analysis of the association between substance use and risky sexual behavior among adolescents. 87 studies fit the inclusion criteria, containing a total of 104 independent effect sizes that incorporated more than 120,000 participants. The overall effect size for the relationship between substance use and risky sexual behavior was in the small to moderate range (r = .22, CI = .18, .26). Further analyses indicated that the effect sizes did not substantially vary across the type of substance use, but did substantially vary across the type of risky sexual behavior being assessed. Specifically, mean effect sizes were smallest for studies examining unprotected sex (r = .15, CI = .10, .20), followed by studies examining number of sexual partners (r = .25, CI = .21, .30), those examining composite measures of risky sexual behavior (r = .38, CI = .27, .48), and those examining sex with an intravenous drug user (r = .53, CI = .45, .60). Furthermore, our results revealed that the relationship between drug use and risky sexual behavior is moderated by several variables, including sex, ethnicity, sexuality, age, sample type, and level of measurement. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:25825550

  16. A Longitudinal Examination of Risky Sexual Behaviors among Canadian and Italian Adolescents: Considering Individual, Parental, and Friend Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boislard P., Marie-Aude; Poulin, Francois; Kiesner, Jeff; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, two longitudinal models of early adolescent risky sexual behaviors (RSB) were compared using a pooled sample of 267 Canadian and Italian adolescents (55% females; 53% Canadians) assessed yearly from grade 8 to 10. We focused on parenting practices (monitoring, control, limit setting), adolescent problem behaviors (antisocial…

  17. A longitudinal study of student-teacher relationship quality, difficult temperament, and risky behavior from childhood to early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Reio, Thomas G; Stipanovic, Natalie; Taylor, Jennifer E

    2010-10-01

    This study examines the mediating role of student-teacher relationship quality (conflict and closeness) in grades 4, 5, and 6 on the relation between background characteristics, difficult temperament at age 4 1/2 and risky behavior in 6th grade. The longitudinal sample of participants (N=1156) was from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate paths from (a) background characteristics to student-teacher relationship quality and risky behavior, (b) temperament to student-teacher relationship quality and risky behavior, and (c) student-teacher relationship quality to risky behavior. Findings indicate that students' family income, gender, receipt of special services, and more difficult temperament were associated with risky behavior. In addition, student-teacher conflict was a mediator. Students with more difficult temperaments were more likely to report risky behavior and to have conflict in their relationships with teachers. More conflict predicted more risky behavior. Closer student-teacher relationships were associated with less risky behavior. Results suggest negative relationships, specifically student-teacher relationships, may increase the risk that certain adolescents will engage in risky behavior.

  18. Contextual and intrapersonal predictors of adolescent risky sexual behavior and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Shneyderman, Yuliya; Schwartz, Seth J

    2013-08-01

    The present study was designed to test a model of contextual and intrapersonal predictors of adolescent risky sexual behaviors and of sexually transmitted infection diagnoses. Using Waves I and II from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the authors estimated a structural model in which intrapersonal factors such as adolescents' attitudes about sex, perceived parental norms, knowledge about sexual health, and birth-control self-efficacy partially mediated the effects of contextual factors such as parent-adolescent relationship quality, school connectedness, and exposure to AIDS and pregnancy education on a number of risky sexual behaviors and outcomes: early sex initiation, sex under the influence of substances, condom use at last intercourse, and having been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection. Different patterns of direct and mediated effects emerged for each sexual outcome. Results are discussed in terms of the complex interplay between environment and individual and in terms of how, when, and with whom to intervene in order to improve adolescent sexual health outcomes.

  19. Risky Health Behavior Among Adolescents in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Carrie R.; Li, Zhenghong; Foster, Rebecca H.; Mertens, Ann C.; Robison, Leslie L.; Ness, Kirsten K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To report the prevalence and comparison of cancer-linked health behaviors and identify risk factors associated with unhealthy behavior among adolescent siblings and cancer survivors. Methods The Child Health and Illness Profile—Adolescent Edition (CHIP—AE) was completed by 307 survivors and 97 sibling controls 14–20 years of age. Results Risky behavior ranged from 0.7% to 35.8% for survivors and 1.0% to 41.2% for siblings. Comparisons of sexual behavior, tobacco, alcohol, or illicit drug use utilizing continuous data revealed no differences between groups. Categorically, survivors were less likely to report past smokeless tobacco use or current use of beer/wine or binge drinking (p-values range from .01 to .04). Survivors with better mental health were at lower risk for poor behavioral outcomes. Conclusions Adolescent survivors engage in risky health behaviors at rates generally equivalent to their siblings. Aggressive health education efforts should be directed toward this high-risk population. PMID:22427699

  20. Parental Rearing Behavior Prospectively Predicts Adolescents' Risky Decision-Making and Feedback-Related Electrical Brain Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Euser, Anja S.; Evans, Brittany E.; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin; Huizink, Anja C.; Franken, Ingmar H. A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the role of parental rearing behavior in adolescents' risky decision-making and the brain's feedback processing mechanisms. Healthy adolescent participants ("n" = 110) completed the EMBU-C, a self-report questionnaire on perceived parental rearing behaviors between 2006 and 2008 (T1). Subsequently, after an average of…

  1. Family-Based Processes Associated with Adolescent Distress, Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behavior in Families Affected by Maternal HIV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Patricia; Stein, Judith A.; Bursch, Brenda; Rice, Eric; Green, Sara; Penniman, Typhanye; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated how maternal HIV and mediating family processes are associated with adolescent distress, substance use, and risky sexual behavior. Mother-adolescent (ages 12-21) dyads (N = 264) were recruited from neighborhoods where the HIV-affected families resided (161 had mothers with HIV). Mediating family processes were youth…

  2. Parental rearing behavior prospectively predicts adolescents' risky decision-making and feedback-related electrical brain activity.

    PubMed

    Euser, Anja S; Evans, Brittany E; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin; Huizink, Anja C; Franken, Ingmar H A

    2013-05-01

    The present study examined the role of parental rearing behavior in adolescents' risky decision-making and the brain's feedback processing mechanisms. Healthy adolescent participants (n = 110) completed the EMBU-C, a self-report questionnaire on perceived parental rearing behaviors between 2006 and 2008 (T1). Subsequently, after an average of 3.5 years, we assessed (a) risky decision-making during performance of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART); (b) event-related brain potentials (ERPs) elicited by positive (gain) and negative feedback (loss) during the BART; and (c) self-reported substance use behavior (T2). Age-corrected regression analyses showed that parental rejection at T1 accounted for a unique and significant proportion of the variance in risk-taking during the BART; the more adolescents perceived their parents as rejecting, the more risky decisions were made. Higher levels of perceived emotional warmth predicted increased P300 amplitudes in response to positive feedback at T2. Moreover, these larger P300 amplitudes (gain) significantly predicted risky decision-making during the BART. Parental rearing behaviors during childhood thus seem to be significant predictors of both behavioral and electrophysiological indices of risky decision-making in adolescence several years later. This is in keeping with the notion that environmental factors such as parental rearing are important in explaining adolescents' risk-taking propensities. PMID:23587039

  3. Characteristics of adolescents who intervene to stop the risky and dangerous behavior of their friends.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Lisa; Chapman, Rebekah L

    2016-03-01

    Adolescents value protecting friends from harm and report that they do intervene as bystanders in friends' risky and dangerous behavior. Moreover intervention can be effective in reducing such behaviors. The Protection-Risk Framework was used to explain bystander intervention. There were 962 students from 13 Australian high schools (mean age at time 1=13.44 years) surveyed in their 9th grade and again 1-year later when students were in 10th grade. We found that protective factors of self-efficacy, support, prosocial models, social control, and ease of opportunity related to greater intervening behavior after 12-months. Among those who reported that they had intervened in a 3-month period, a cumulative measure of protective factors was associated with their reports of intervening. Risk factors were non-significant predictors after accounting for earlier, time 1, bystander intervening behavior and demographic factors. The findings highlight potential mechanisms to promote adolescents' looking out for their friends and provide an assessment over time of bystander behavior. The theory-guided inquiry into such behavior provides a foundation on which to better develop our understanding of benefits to adolescent friendship in the injury field. PMID:26799326

  4. Characteristics of adolescents who intervene to stop the risky and dangerous behavior of their friends.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Lisa; Chapman, Rebekah L

    2016-03-01

    Adolescents value protecting friends from harm and report that they do intervene as bystanders in friends' risky and dangerous behavior. Moreover intervention can be effective in reducing such behaviors. The Protection-Risk Framework was used to explain bystander intervention. There were 962 students from 13 Australian high schools (mean age at time 1=13.44 years) surveyed in their 9th grade and again 1-year later when students were in 10th grade. We found that protective factors of self-efficacy, support, prosocial models, social control, and ease of opportunity related to greater intervening behavior after 12-months. Among those who reported that they had intervened in a 3-month period, a cumulative measure of protective factors was associated with their reports of intervening. Risk factors were non-significant predictors after accounting for earlier, time 1, bystander intervening behavior and demographic factors. The findings highlight potential mechanisms to promote adolescents' looking out for their friends and provide an assessment over time of bystander behavior. The theory-guided inquiry into such behavior provides a foundation on which to better develop our understanding of benefits to adolescent friendship in the injury field.

  5. Brief Report: Risky Sexual Behavior of Adolescents in Belgrade--Association with Socioeconomic Status and Family Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukovic, Dejana S.; Bjegovic, Vesna M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between socioeconomic status and family structure with risky sexual behaviors in adolescents. Methods: A total of 1782 15-year-old Belgrade schoolchildren (47.5% boys and 52.5% girls) completed a questionnaire from the WHO study, "Health behavior of schoolchildren." Results:…

  6. Risky Sexual Behaviors in Immigrant Adolescent Girls from the Former Soviet Union: Role of Natal and Host Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeltova, Ida; Fish, Marian C.; Revenson, Tracey A.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, schools have been increasingly involved in youth's health-related behavior, particularly risky health behaviors (e.g., HIV/AIDS and pregnancy prevention programs). This study examined how acculturation processes among adolescent girls who are recent immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) affect their practices of risky…

  7. Impact of self esteem on risky sexual behaviors among Nigerian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Enejoh, Victor; Pharr, Jennifer; Mavegam, Bertille Octavie; Olutola, Ayodotun; Karick, Haruna; Ezeanolue, Echezona E

    2016-01-01

    Although improved knowledge is often the first approach in HIV prevention for adolescents, studies have shown that despite being well informed, adolescents still engage in risky sexual behavior (RSB). Low self-esteem has been considered to be a psychological explanation for behavioral problems, but little is known about the impact of self-esteem on RSB among adolescents in Nigeria. The purpose of this study was to determine whether adolescents with high self-esteem demonstrate lower RSB compared to those with low self-esteem. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 361 adolescents in 9 secondary schools in Jos Plateau, Nigeria. The Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale was used to measure self-esteem and the Brief HIV Screener (BHS) was used to measure RSB. All data were analyzed using SPSS 21. Chi square and odds ratios were calculated to determine differences in BHS questions based on predetermined low or high self-esteem categories. Independent t-test were utilized to determine difference in mean BHS scores based on self-esteem categories. Participants were 169 male (46.8%) and 192 female (53.2%) with a mean age of 16.9. Mean self-esteem score was 27.6 with no significant difference in self-esteem scores by gender. Adolescents with low self-esteem were 1.7 times more likely to be sexually active and had a higher mean BHS scores compared to adolescents with high self-esteem. Programs aimed at reducing RSB and in-turn HIV/AIDS should consider interventions to raise adolescents' self-esteem.

  8. Media and risky behaviors.

    PubMed

    Escobar-Chaves, Soledad Liliana; Anderson, Craig A

    2008-01-01

    Liliana Escobar-Chaves and Craig Anderson investigate two important trends among American youth and examine the extent to which the two trends might be related. First, the authors note that U.S. youth are spending increasing amounts of time using electronic media, with the average American youngster now spending one-third of each day with some form of electronic media. Second, the authors demonstrate that American adolescents are engaging in a number of unhealthful behaviors that impose huge societal costs. Escobar-Chaves and Anderson detail the extent of five critical types of adolescent health risk behaviors identified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-obesity, smoking, drinking, sexual risk taking, and violence. Obesity, the authors note, has become an epidemic among America's young people. Cigarette smoking among adolescents is one of the ten leading health indicators of greatest government concern. Alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence are widespread problems among the nation's youth and are the source of the three leading causes of death among youth. More than 20 percent of American high school students have sexual intercourse for the first time before they reach the age of fourteen. And twelve- to twenty-year-olds perpetrated 28 percent of the single-offender and 41 percent of multiple-offender violent crimes in the United States in 2005. Escobar-Chaves and Anderson present and evaluate research findings on the influence of electronic media on these five risk behaviors among adolescents. Researchers, they say, have found modest evidence that media consumption contributes to the problem of obesity, modest to strong evidence that it contributes to drinking and smoking, and strong evidence that it contributes to violence. Research has been insufficient to find links between heavy media exposure and early sexual initiation. The authors note the need for more large-scale longitudinal studies that specifically examine the cumulative effects of

  9. Risky driving and lifestyles in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Bina, Manuela; Graziano, Federica; Bonino, Silvia

    2006-05-01

    Several studies have shown that risky driving is especially prevalent among young drivers and recent research has pointed out that driving in adolescence should be investigated in the more general context of adolescent development. The first aim of this contribution was to analyze involvement in risky driving in a normative sample of 645 Italian adolescents, boys and girls, aged 14-17, through a self-report questionnaire. A second aim was to evaluate the association between risky driving and lifestyle, defined as involvement in other health risk behaviors and leisure activities. The main results showed that many adolescents drove cars and motorcycles without the required driving license and the most frequent offences were speeding and failure to maintain a safe braking distance. Gender and age differences were also investigated. Results concerning the association between risky driving and lifestyle showed that risky driving was not an isolated behavior. Boys who displayed risky driving practices were more likely to adopt a lifestyle characterized by high involvement in antisocial behaviors, tobacco smoking, comfort eating and time spent in non-organized activities with friends. Girls involved in risky driving were more likely to be involved in other risk-taking behaviors, antisocial behaviors and drug use.

  10. Forward-Thinking Teens: The Effects of College Costs on Adolescent Risky Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Benjamin W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of college costs on teenagers' engagement in risky behaviors before they are old enough to attend college. Individuals with brighter prospects for future schooling attainment may engage in less drug and alcohol use and risky sexual activity because they have more to lose if such behaviors have harmful effects in…

  11. Risky Sexual Behavior among Rural Female Adolescents in Malaysia: A Limited Role of Protective Factors

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadian, Maryam; Hamsan, Hanina H.; Abdullah, Haslinda; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu; Noor, Amna Md

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents the findings of a cross-sectional survey on the risk and protective factors of premarital sexual behavior among rural female adolescents in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods: We investigated data on 770 female respondents aged 13-17 years in rural areas to identify predictive factors for premarital sexual intercourse. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate regression. Specific socio-demographic factors, psychological and family domains, peer delinquency, and knowledge and attitudes about sexuality were considered in risky sexual behaviors in rural Malay girls. The effects of other covariates for premarital sexual intercourse were controlled by logistic regression model. Results: Of the 770 rural female students, about 3.2% of respondents reported experience of sexual intercourse in the past three months. Out of those sexually active girls, 36% were 17 years old and 20% stated having sexual intercourse with more than one partner, and 72% did not use contraception during the most recent sexual intercourse. Midnight activities, peer-sexual disorder, self-evaluation, and attitude toward sexual health were significant predictors of sexual intercourse in rural girls in Malaysia. Conclusion: The finding highlights the impact of psychological factors and peer group influences on the challenges of premarital sexual behavior among rural girls and the notion of school-based sexual health education for adolescents. This study triggers other researchers take into account a comprehensive view of protective factors operating in adolescents’ risky sexual behaviors in Asian culture seeing that family domain variables, unexpectedly, exerted no predicting influence on sexually active female teens in rural areas in Malaysia. PMID:24762359

  12. Gender-specific relationships between depressive symptoms, marijuana use, parental communication and risky sexual behavior in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Randi Melissa; Mermelstein, Robin; Wakschlag, Laurie

    2013-08-01

    A large body of research has identified correlates of risky sexual behavior, with depressive symptoms and marijuana use among the most consistent psychosocial predictors of sexual risk. However, substantially less research has examined the relationship between these risk variables and adolescent risky sexual behavior over time as well as the interaction of these individual-level predictors with family-level variables such as parenting factors. Additionally, most studies have been restricted to one index of risky sexual behavior, have not taken into account the complex role of gender, and have not controlled for several of the factors that independently confer risk for risky sexual behavior. Therefore, the current study investigated the association between depressive symptoms and parameters of parenting on marijuana use, number of sexual partners and condom usage measured 9 months later for both boys and girls. Participants were 9th and 10th grade adolescents (N = 1,145; 57.7% female). We found that depressive symptoms may be a gender-specific risk factor for certain indices of risky sexual behavior. For boys only, marijuana use at Time 2 accounted for the variance in the relationship between depressive symptoms at Time 1 and number of partners at Time 2. Additionally, strictness of family rules at Time 1 was associated with the number of partners with whom girls engaged in sex at Time 2, but only among those with lower levels of depressive symptoms at Time 1. Results from the current investigation speak to the utility of examining the complex, gender-specific pathways to sexual risk in adolescents. Findings suggest that treatment of mental health and substance use problems may have important implications in rates of risky sexual behavior and, conceivably, controlling the high rates of serious individual and public health repercussions.

  13. Gender-Specific Relationships Between Depressive Symptoms, Marijuana Use, Parental Communication and Risky Sexual Behavior in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Randi Melissa; Mermelstein, Robin; Wakschlag, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    A large body of research has identified correlates of risky sexual behavior, with depressive symptoms and marijuana use among the most consistent psychosocial predictors of sexual risk. However, substantially less research has examined the relationship between these risk variables and adolescent risky sexual behavior over time as well as the interaction of these individual-level predictors with family-level variables such as parenting factors. Additionally, most studies have been restricted to one index of risky sexual behavior, have not taken into account the complex role of gender, and have not controlled for several of the factors that independently confer risk for risky sexual behavior. Therefore, the current study investigated the association between depressive symptoms and parameters of parenting on marijuana use, number of sexual partners and condom usage measured 9 months later for both boys and girls. Participants were 9th and 10th grade adolescents (N = 1,145; 57.7 % female). We found that depressive symptoms may be a gender-specific risk factor for certain indices of risky sexual behavior. For boys only, marijuana use at Time 2 accounted for the variance in the relationship between depressive symptoms at Time 1 and number of partners at Time 2. Additionally, strictness of family rules at Time 1 was associated with the number of partners with whom girls engaged in sex at Time 2, but only among those with lower levels of depressive symptoms at Time 1. Results from the current investigation speak to the utility of examining the complex, gender-specific pathways to sexual risk in adolescents. Findings suggest that treatment of mental health and substance use problems may have important implications in rates of risky sexual behavior and, conceivably, controlling the high rates of serious individual and public health repercussions. PMID:22927009

  14. The Impact of Adolescents' News and Action Movie Viewing on Risky Driving Behavior: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beullens, Kathleen; Roe, Keith; Van den Bulck, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Traffic crashes remain an important cause of injury and death among young people. The aim of the current study was to examine whether adolescents' viewing of particular television genres predicted later risky driving. Data were collected with a two-wave panel survey (N = 426); structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationships…

  15. Self-esteem and resilience: the connection with risky behavior among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Veselska, Zuzana; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Orosova, Olga; Gajdosova, Beata; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2009-03-01

    The aim was to explore the association of self-esteem and resilience with smoking and cannabis use among adolescents, separately for gender. A sample of 3694 adolescents (mean age 14.3 years) from elementary schools in Slovakia filled out the Rosenberg Self-esteem scale, the Resiliency scale and answered questions about cigarette and cannabis use. Logistic regression models showed associations between negative self-esteem and risky behavior, but only among boys. Regarding resilience, structured style and family cohesion were associated with a lower probability of smoking and cannabis use among both boys and girls. In contrast, social competence increased the probability of smoking and cannabis use among both groups. Negative self-esteem seems to play an important role regarding smoking and cannabis use among boys. Resilience seems to have mixed effects, some aspects being protective while other aspects increase the likelihood of smoking and use of cannabis. These results imply that the prevention of substance use should target not only specific individual characteristics, but also the possible risk or protective influences of the social environment, i.e. the family and social network. PMID:19056183

  16. Temporal Relationships among Depressive Symptoms, Risky Behavior Engagement, Perceived Control, and Gender in a Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Randy P.; Tsai, Beatrice; Abela, John R. Z.

    2010-01-01

    The goals of the study were to examine whether (a) risky behaviors precede depressive symptoms or, conversely, depressive symptoms predict risky behavior engagement; (b) gender moderates the relationship between risky behavior engagement and depressive symptoms; and (c) perceived control strengthens the association between risky behavior…

  17. "What Should I Do?" How Consultants Impact Adolescents' Risky Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finken, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Consultation plays a key role in adolescents' risky decisions and influences what options and consequences are considered, how potential consequences are valued, and even what choices adolescents make. Even with impulsive decisions, informal consultation affects how likely an adolescent is to engage in risky behaviors. Unfortunately several…

  18. A Comparison of Two Models of Risky Sexual Behavior During Late Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Braje, Sopagna Eap; Eddy, J Mark; Hall, Gordon C N

    2016-01-01

    Two models of risky sexual behavior (RSB) were compared in a community sample of late adolescents (N = 223). For the traumagenic model, early negative sexual experiences were posited to lead to an association between negative affect with sexual relationships. For the cognitive escape model, depressive affect was posited to lead to engagement in RSB as a way to avoid negative emotions. The current study examined whether depression explained the relationship between sexual trauma and RSB, supporting the cognitive escape model, or whether it was sexual trauma that led specifically to RSB, supporting the traumagenic model. Physical trauma experiences were also examined to disentangle the effects of sexual trauma compared to other emotionally distressing events. The study examined whether the results would be moderated by participant sex. For males, support was found for the cognitive escape model but not the traumagenic model. Among males, physical trauma and depression predicted engagement in RSB but sexual trauma did not. For females, support was found for the traumagenic and cognitive escape model. Among females, depression and sexual trauma both uniquely predicted RSB. There was an additional suppressor effect of socioeconomic status in predicting RSB among females. Results suggest that the association of trauma type with RSB depends on participant sex. Implications of the current study for RSB prevention efforts are discussed.

  19. Neural mechanisms of impulse control in sexually risky adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Goldenberg, Diane; Telzer, Eva H.; Lieberman, Matthew D.; Fuligni, Andrew; Galván, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    The consequences of risky sexual behavior are of public concern. Adolescents contribute disproportionately to negative consequences of risky sexual behavior. However, no research has examined the neural correlates of impulse control and real-world engagement in risky sexual behavior in this population. The aim of the present study was to examine this question. Twenty sexually active adolescents performed an impulse control task during a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan and risky sexual behaviors were assessed through self-report. Sexual riskiness ratings were negatively associated with activation in the prefrontal cortex during response inhibition. These results suggest that diminished engagement of impulse control circuitry may contribute to sexual riskiness in adolescents. PMID:23835204

  20. Risky Sexual Behavior in Adolescent Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    PubMed Central

    Klosky, James L.; Foster, Rebecca H.; Li, Zhenghong; Peasant, Courtney; Howell, Carrie; Mertens, Ann C.; Robison, Leslie L.; Ness, Kirsten K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify correlates of risky sexual behavior among adolescents surviving childhood cancer. Methods The Child Health and Illness Profile - Adolescent Edition (CHIP-AE) was completed by 307 survivors of childhood cancer aged 15–20 years (M age at diagnosis 1.53 years; range 0–3.76). Univariate analyses were performed using Chi-square and Fischer’s exact tests, and multivariable logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals for risky sexual behaviors. Results Diagnosis of central nervous system cancer (OR =.13, 95% CI: .02–.96, p<.05), no history of beer/wine consumption (OR =.20, CI: .06–.68, p =.01), and fewer negative peer influences (OR =.28, CI: .09–.84, p =.02) associated with decreased likelihood of sexual intercourse. Good psychological health (scores ≥ −1.5 SD on the CHIP-AE Emotional Discomfort scale) associated with decreased risk of early intercourse (OR =.19, CI: .05–.77, p= .02), whereas high parental education (≥ college degree) associated with decreased risk of multiple lifetime sexual partners (OR =.25, CI: .09–.72, p =.01). Increased time from diagnosis (OR =.27, CI: .10–.78, p = .02) and psychological health (OR =.09, CI: .02–.36, p < .01) associated with decreased risk of unprotected sex at last intercourse, whereas high parent education associated with increased risk (OR = 4.27, CI: 1.46–12.52, p =.01). Conclusions Risky sexual behavior in adolescents surviving childhood cancer is associated with cancer type, time since diagnosis, psychological health, alcohol use, and peer influences. Consideration of these factors may provide direction for future interventions designed to reduce adolescent sexual risk-taking. PMID:24364376

  1. Measuring risky adolescent cycling behaviour.

    PubMed

    Feenstra, Hans; Ruiter, Robert A C; Schepers, Jan; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn; Kok, Gerjo

    2011-09-01

    Adolescents are at a greater risk of being involved in traffic accidents than most other age groups, even before they start driving cars. This article aims to determine the factor structure of a self-report questionnaire measuring adolescent risky cycling behaviour, the ACBQ (Adolescent Cycling Behaviour Questionnaire). The questionnaire's structure was based on the widely used Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ). A sample of secondary school students (N = 1749; age range: 13-18 years) filled out the questionnaire. Factor analysis revealed a three-factor structure underlying the questionnaire, which was confirmed on two equally large portions of the entire sample. These three underlying factors were identified as errors, common violations and exceptional violations. The ACBQ is a useful instrument for measuring adolescents' risky cycling behaviour.

  2. A longitudinal examination of risky sexual behaviors among Canadian and Italian adolescents: Considering individual, parental, and friend characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Boislard P., Marie-Aude; Poulin, François; Kiesner, Jeff; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, two longitudinal models of early adolescent risky sexual behaviors (RSB) were compared using a pooled sample of 267 Canadian and Italian adolescents (55% females; 53% Canadians) assessed yearly from grade 8 to 10. We focused on parenting practices (monitoring, control, limit setting), adolescent problem behaviors (antisocial behaviors, substance use) and their friends’ deviance (antisocial behaviors, substance use) as predictors of condom use frequency and lifetime number of sexual partners. The socialization model postulates that youths’ problem behaviors and RSB are behaviors learned within the friendship network where deviancy training can occur. The selection model posits that delinquent youth tend to affiliate with each other, and that RSB is one of many behaviors that can form the basis of selection. Using structural equation modeling, this study showed that the socialization model was the most accurate to explain the emergence of RSB. A full mediation of parenting practices, passing through deviant friends and youths’ problem behavior, was observed for condom use. The same process applied to number of sexual partners, but a direct effect for parenting practices was also found. PMID:21857759

  3. Evaluating the Role of "Nothing To Lose" Attitudes on Risky Behavior in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Duncan, Greg J.; Boisjoly, Johanne

    2002-01-01

    Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health provide modest support for an association between adolescents' expectations for their future health and educational attainment and their risk-taking behaviors involving early sexual intercourse, selling drugs, and weapon use. Noteworthy "school climate" predictors were found, including…

  4. Risky Behavior, Ecstasy, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callier, Heather H.

    2011-01-01

    Ecstasy is a risky behavior that continues to be a concern in the education system today. The review of the Ecstasy literature focused on the definition of risky behavior, prevalence, and other basis aspects of Ecstasy; discovering life events that are associated with Ecstasy use, the function of this behavior, interventions for substance abuse,…

  5. Risky or Needy? Dynamic Risk Factors and Delinquent Behavior of Adolescents in Secure Residential Youth Care.

    PubMed

    Harder, Annemiek T; Knorth, Erik J; Kalverboer, Margrite E

    2015-09-01

    Although it is known that adolescents in secure residential care often show multiple behavior problems, it is largely unknown which dynamic risk factors are associated with their problems. The aim of the present study is to examine dynamic risk factors for 164 Dutch adolescents in secure residential care. Results show that a majority reports multiple risk factors in both an individual and contextual domain but that about a fifth shows relatively few risk factors. Substance abuse and delinquent friends were among the five most prevalent risk factors and predicted the seriousness of the adolescents' delinquent behavior prior to admission. The four groups that were found by cluster analysis could be distinguished by problem type and seriousness. The findings indicate that treatment for some adolescents should be mainly focused on their individual needs, while other adolescents need intensive, multimodal treatment focusing on both risks in the individual, family, and peer domains.

  6. [Survey on risky sexual behavior and sexually transmitted diseases among adolescent students from Havana City, 1996].

    PubMed

    Cortés Alfaro, A; García Roche, R G; Hernández Sánchez, M; Monterrey Gutiérrez, P; Fuentes Abreu, J

    1999-01-01

    The observed increase of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in Cuba aroused the interest of carrying out a study aimed at exploring risky sexual behaviours and attitudes, and histories of STD. A crosswise descriptive study was undertaken using a randomized sample taken from the universe of adolescent students in the City of Havana during 1995-96 school year. The sample was made up by 2,793 teenagers aged 11-19 years (1,370 females and 1,423 males). Previously trained experts linked to this field collected data by means of a structured interview which had been drawn up for this end. It was confirmed that more than half of adolescent students did not use condom in their sexual intercourse 57% had more than one sexual partner along the year, 40% believed it was difficult to keep only one partner whereas 35% had more than one sexual partner at the same time. Risk and protected sexual habits were noticed, with 39% for oral-genital and 21.4% for genital-anal. 22% for the interviewed adolescent said they had histories of STD.

  7. [Survey on risky sexual behavior and sexually transmitted diseases among adolescent students from Havana City, 1996].

    PubMed

    Cortés Alfaro, A; García Roche, R G; Hernández Sánchez, M; Monterrey Gutiérrez, P; Fuentes Abreu, J

    1999-01-01

    The observed increase of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in Cuba aroused the interest of carrying out a study aimed at exploring risky sexual behaviours and attitudes, and histories of STD. A crosswise descriptive study was undertaken using a randomized sample taken from the universe of adolescent students in the City of Havana during 1995-96 school year. The sample was made up by 2,793 teenagers aged 11-19 years (1,370 females and 1,423 males). Previously trained experts linked to this field collected data by means of a structured interview which had been drawn up for this end. It was confirmed that more than half of adolescent students did not use condom in their sexual intercourse 57% had more than one sexual partner along the year, 40% believed it was difficult to keep only one partner whereas 35% had more than one sexual partner at the same time. Risk and protected sexual habits were noticed, with 39% for oral-genital and 21.4% for genital-anal. 22% for the interviewed adolescent said they had histories of STD. PMID:10887571

  8. Physiological correlates of neurobehavioral disinhibition that relate to drug use and risky sexual behavior in adolescents with prenatal substance exposure.

    PubMed

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Lagasse, Linda L; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R; Whitaker, Toni M; Hammond, Jane A; Lester, Barry M

    2014-01-01

    Physiological correlates of behavioral and emotional problems, substance use onset and initiation of risky sexual behavior have not been studied in adolescents with prenatal drug exposure. We studied the concordance between baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) at age 3 and baseline cortisol levels at age 11. We hypothesized that children who showed concordance between RSA and cortisol would have lower neurobehavioral disinhibition scores which would in turn predict age of substance use onset and first sexual intercourse. The sample included 860 children aged 16 years participating in the Maternal Lifestyle Study, a multisite longitudinal study of children with prenatal exposure to cocaine and other substances. Structural equation modeling was used to test pathways between prenatal substance exposure, early adversity, baseline RSA, baseline cortisol, neurobehavioral disinhibition, drug use, and sexual behavior outcomes. Concordance was studied by examining separate male and female models in which there were statistically significant interactions between baseline RSA and cortisol. Prenatal substance exposure was operationalized as the number of substances to which the child was exposed. An adversity score was computed based on caregiver postnatal substance use, depression and psychological distress, number of caregiver changes, socioeconomic and poverty status, quality of the home environment, and child history of protective service involvement, abuse and neglect. RSA and cortisol were measured during a baseline period prior to the beginning of a task. Neurobehavioral disinhibition, based on composite scores of behavioral dysregulation and executive dysfunction, substance use and sexual behavior were derived from questionnaires and cognitive tests administered to the child. Findings were sex specific. In females, those with discordance between RSA and cortisol (high RSA and low cortisol or low RSA and high cortisol) had the most executive dysfunction which, in

  9. Physiological Correlates of Neurobehavioral Disinhibition that Relate to Drug Use and Risky Sexual Behavior in Adolescents with Prenatal Substance Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Lagasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Hammond, Jane A.; Lester, Barry M.

    2015-01-01

    Physiological correlates of behavioral and emotional problems, substance use onset and initiation of risky sexual behavior have not been studied in adolescents with prenatal drug exposure. We studied the concordance between baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) at age 3 and baseline Cortisol levels at age 11. We hypothesized that children who showed concordance between RSA and Cortisol would have lower neurobehavioral disinhibition scores which would in turn predict age of substance use onset and first sexual intercourse. The sample included 860 children aged 16 years participating in the Maternal Lifestyle Study, a multisite longitudinal study of children with prenatal exposure to cocaine and other substances. Structural equation modeling was used to test pathways between prenatal substance exposure, early adversity, baseline RSA, baseline Cortisol, neurobehavioral disinhibition, drug use, and sexual behavior outcomes. Concordance was studied by examining separate male and female models in which there were statistically significant interactions between baseline RSA and Cortisol. Prenatal substance exposure was operationalized as the number of substances to which the child was exposed. An adversity score was computed based on caregiver postnatal substance use, depression and psychological distress, number of caregiver changes, socioeconomic and poverty status, quality of the home environment, and child history of protective service involvement, abuse and neglect. RSA and Cortisol were measured during a baseline period prior to the beginning of a task. Neurobehavioral disinhibition, based on composite scores of behavioral dysregulation and executive dysfunction, substance use and sexual behavior were derived from questionnaires and cognitive tests administered to the child. Findings were sex specific. In females, those with discordance between RSA and Cortisol (high RSA and low Cortisol or low RSA and high Cortisol) had the most executive dysfunction which, in

  10. Association Among Subtypes of Bullying Status and Sexually-Risky Behaviors of Urban African American Adolescents in Chicago.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jun Sung; Voisin, Dexter R; Cho, Sujung; Espelage, Dorothy L

    2016-10-01

    Bullying is found to be associated with various negative psychosocial outcomes. However, few studies have explored the association between bullying involvement and sexually-risky behaviors. Youth were recruited from three high schools, one youth church group, two community youth programs, and four public venues. Six hundred-and-thirty-eight urban African American adolescents (aged 12-22) in Chicago completed a self-report questionnaire. Major findings indicated that males were more likely than females to have sex with someone in exchange for drugs. Bullying perpetration, victimization, and perpetration-victimization were negatively associated with having sex with a condom. Older youth, and those identified as perpetrators and perpetrator-victims were more likely to have impregnated someone or been pregnant. Stress and coping framework should be considered. Bullying prevention should provide youth with several healthy coping strategies for reducing sexually-risky behaviors. Community-based and school-based violence prevention programs need to consider sexual risk outcomes associated with involvement in bullying. PMID:26914838

  11. Association Among Subtypes of Bullying Status and Sexually-Risky Behaviors of Urban African American Adolescents in Chicago.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jun Sung; Voisin, Dexter R; Cho, Sujung; Espelage, Dorothy L

    2016-10-01

    Bullying is found to be associated with various negative psychosocial outcomes. However, few studies have explored the association between bullying involvement and sexually-risky behaviors. Youth were recruited from three high schools, one youth church group, two community youth programs, and four public venues. Six hundred-and-thirty-eight urban African American adolescents (aged 12-22) in Chicago completed a self-report questionnaire. Major findings indicated that males were more likely than females to have sex with someone in exchange for drugs. Bullying perpetration, victimization, and perpetration-victimization were negatively associated with having sex with a condom. Older youth, and those identified as perpetrators and perpetrator-victims were more likely to have impregnated someone or been pregnant. Stress and coping framework should be considered. Bullying prevention should provide youth with several healthy coping strategies for reducing sexually-risky behaviors. Community-based and school-based violence prevention programs need to consider sexual risk outcomes associated with involvement in bullying.

  12. Possible Insomnia Predicts Some Risky Behaviors among Adolescents when Controlling for Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catrett, Christina D.; Gaultney, Jane F.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated whether previously reported links between sleep and risk taking among adolescents (E. M. O'Brien & J. A. Mindell, 2005) are associated--concurrently, longitudinally, or both--with sleep or underlying depression. The present study analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of 4,353 adolescents in the United States…

  13. Divorce as risky behavior.

    PubMed

    Light, Audrey; Ahn, Taehyun

    2010-11-01

    Given that divorce often represents a high-stakes income gamble, we ask how individual levels of risk tolerance affect the decision to divorce. We extend the orthodox divorce model by assuming that individuals are risk averse, that marriage is risky, and that divorce is even riskier. The model predicts that conditional on the expected gains to marriage and divorce, the probability of divorce increases with relative risk tolerance because risk averse individuals require compensation for the additional risk that is inherent in divorce. To implement the model empirically, we use data for first-married women and men from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to estimate a probit model of divorce in which a measure of risk tolerance is among the covariates. The estimates reveal that a 1-point increase in risk tolerance raises the predicted probability of divorce by 4.3% for a representative man and by 11.4% for a representative woman. These findings are consistent with the notion that divorce entails a greater income gamble for women than for men.

  14. Divorce as Risky Behavior

    PubMed Central

    LIGHT, AUDREY; AHN, TAEHYUN

    2010-01-01

    Given that divorce often represents a high-stakes income gamble, we ask how individual levels of risk tolerance affect the decision to divorce. We extend the orthodox divorce model by assuming that individuals are risk averse, that marriage is risky, and that divorce is even riskier. The model predicts that conditional on the expected gains to marriage and divorce, the probability of divorce increases with relative risk tolerance because risk averse individuals require compensation for the additional risk that is inherent in divorce. To implement the model empirically, we use data for first-married women and men from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to estimate a probit model of divorce in which a measure of risk tolerance is among the covariates. The estimates reveal that a 1-point increase in risk tolerance raises the predicted probability of divorce by 4.3% for a representative man and by 11.4% for a representative woman. These findings are consistent with the notion that divorce entails a greater income gamble for women than for men. PMID:21308563

  15. Maternal and Paternal Psychological Control as Moderators of the Link between Peer Attitudes and Adolescents' Risky Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Hessel, Elenda T.; Szwedo, David E.; Spilker, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Maternal and paternal psychological control, peer attitudes, and the interaction of psychological control and peer attitudes at age 13 were examined as predictors of risky sexual behavior before age 16 in a community sample of 181 youth followed from age 13 to 16. Maternal psychological control moderated the link between peer attitudes and sexual…

  16. A Longitudinal Study of Student-Teacher Relationship Quality, Difficult Temperament, and Risky Behavior from Childhood to Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Reio, Thomas G., Jr.; Stipanovic, Natalie; Taylor, Jennifer E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the mediating role of student-teacher relationship quality (conflict and closeness) in grades 4, 5, and 6 on the relation between background characteristics, difficult temperament at age 41/2 and risky behavior in 6th grade. The longitudinal sample of participants (N = 1156) was from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and…

  17. Mindfulness for Adolescents: A Promising Approach to Supporting Emotion Regulation and Preventing Risky Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broderick, Patricia C.; Jennings, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the contextual and neuropsychological challenges of the adolescent period with particular attention to the role that universal prevention can play in moderating the harmful effects of stress. The centrality of emotion regulation skills to long-term health and wellness suggests their importance in prevention and intervention…

  18. Increasing the Screening and Counseling of Adolescents for Risky Health Behaviors: A Primary Care Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozer, Elizabeth M.; Adams, Sally H.; Lustig, Julie L.; Gee, Scott; Garber, Andrea K.; Gardner, Linda Rieder; Rehbein, Michael; Addison, Louise; Irwin, Charles E., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether a systems intervention for primary care providers resulted in increased preventive screening and counseling of adolescent patients, compared with the usual standard of care. Methods: The intervention was conducted in 2 out-patient pediatric clinics; 2 other pediatric clinics in the same health maintenance…

  19. Underage driving as an indicator of risky behavior in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Huber, J Charles; Carozza, Susan E; Gorman, Dennis M

    2006-05-01

    Driving among children and adolescents below the legal driving age in Texas was examined. There were 4170 accidents between 1995 and 2000 (66.5% involved injury/fatality). Drivers were more often male, and underage driving was greatest during the late afternoon/early evening. Risk of severe injury or death was inversely related to speed and nighttime driving, and was greater in rural areas, in accidents involving passengers and among black children and youth compared with white.

  20. Adolescents Risky MP3-Player Listening and Its Psychosocial Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Ineke; Brug, Johannes; Van Der Ploeg, Catharina P. B.; Raat, Hein

    2011-01-01

    Analogue to occupational noise-induced hearing loss, MP3-induced hearing loss may be evolving into a significant social and public health problem. To inform prevention strategies and interventions, this study investigated correlates of adolescents' risky MP3-player listening behavior primarily informed by protection motivation theory. We invited…

  1. Maternal drinking and risky sexual behavior in offspring.

    PubMed

    De Genna, Natacha M; Cornelius, Marie D

    2015-04-01

    Teenage mothers are more likely to use drugs, and their children are more likely to use substances and become pregnant during adolescence. Teenage mothers' substance use may play a role in the intergenerational risk for adolescent pregnancy. Pregnant adolescents (12-18 years) were seen during pregnancy and postnatal years 6, 10, 14, and 16 (n = 332). Teenage mothers reported on substance use and family characteristics. The offspring reported substance use (starting at age 10) and sexual behavior (ages 14 and 16). Prenatal alcohol exposure was associated with offspring (a) having a risky first sex partner and (b) multiple sex partners in the past year. Heavy maternal drinking during childhood was associated with offspring reports of a risky first sex partner and early teenage pregnancy. Findings from this unique birth cohort have implications for alcohol prevention efforts with girls during and after a teenage pregnancy and interventions to prevent risky sex in high-risk youth.

  2. Neural correlates of adolescents' viewing of parents' and peers' emotions: Associations with risk-taking behavior and risky peer affiliations.

    PubMed

    Saxbe, Darby; Del Piero, Larissa; Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Kaplan, Jonas; Margolin, Gayla

    2015-01-01

    Social reorientation from parents to same-age peers is normative in adolescence, but the neural correlates of youths' socioemotional processing of parents and peers have not been explored. In the current study, 22 adolescents (average age 16.98) underwent neuroimaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging) while viewing and rating emotions shown in brief video clips featuring themselves, their parents, or an unfamiliar peer. Viewing self vs. other and parents vs. the peer activated regions in the medial prefrontal cortex, replicating prior findings that this area responds to self-relevant stimuli, including familiar and not just similar others. Viewing the peer compared with parents elicited activation in posterior 'mentalizing' structures, the precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), bilateral posterior superior temporal sulcus and right temporoparietal junction, as well as the ventral striatum and bilateral amygdala and hippocampus. Relative activations in the PCC and precuneus to the peer vs. the parent were related both to reported risk-taking behavior and to affiliations with more risk-taking peers. The results suggest neural correlates of the adolescent social reorientation toward peers and away from parents that may be associated with adolescents' real-life risk-taking behaviors and social relationships.

  3. Are the adolescent behaviors too risky? A school-based study in a district of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Dipta K; Mukhopadhyay, Sujishnu; Sinhababu, Apurba; Biswas, Akhil B

    2012-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken among 2068 school-going adolescents of a subdistrict area of West Bengal, India for assessment of entire array of risk behaviors and their correlates. Aggressive, suicidal, substance use and sexual risk behaviors were measured using a self-administered, multi-item, validated questionnaire in the local vernacular. Prevalence of physical fights, weapon carrying in the last 30 days and gang fights in the last 12 months were 27.1%, 7.3% and 13.0%, respectively. Current users of tobacco, alcohol and illicit substances were 7.1%, 3.4% and 2.0%, respectively. Suicidal ideation and attempts were reported by 11.7% and 3.5% of students. Almost one-tenth of respondents had premarital sexual intercourse. Male gender, low subjective economic status, exposure to electronic media and poor academic achievements were associated with most of the studied risk behaviors, except that females showed more propensities to suicidal behavior. The magnitude and pattern of adolescent risk behaviors, though less studied in India, warrants urgent, coordinated actions.

  4. Impact of Two Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Interventions on Risky Sexual Behavior: A Three-Arm Cluster Randomized Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Michael R.; van Zyl, Michiel A.; Antle, Becky F.; Langley, Cheri N.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To test the efficacy of Reducing the Risk (RTR) and Love Notes (LN) on reducing risky sexual behavior among youths yet to experience or cause a pregnancy. Methods. The four dependent variables were ever had sex, condom use, birth control use, and number of sexual partners at 3- and 6-month follow-up in a 3-arm cluster randomized controlled trial of 1448 impoverished youths, aged 14 to 19 years, in 23 community-based organizations in Louisville, Kentucky, from September 2011 through March 2014. Results. At 3 and 6 months, compared with the control condition, youths in RTR reported fewer sexual partners and greater use of birth control. At 6 months, LN participants reported greater use of birth control and condoms, fewer sexual partners, and were less likely to have ever had sex compared with the control condition. Conclusions. We provided additional evidence for the continued efficacy of RTR and the first rigorous study of LN, which embeds sex education into a larger curriculum on healthy relationships and violence prevention. PMID:27689500

  5. Identifying peer effects using spatial analysis: the role of peers on risky sexual behavior

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the role of peer effects on early sexual debut for a sample of adolescents using data from the National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health (Add Health). Most studies analyzing peer influences ignore the “reflection” problem that occurs with studying peer effects. To address the reflection problem, this paper employs a spatial econometric approach to estimate a social interactions model. This is the first study in the literature on adolescent risky sexual behavior to use this approach to estimate peer effects. Similar to other research on peer effects and adolescent risky sexual behavior, this paper finds the existence of peer effects. However, the more vital outcome from this study is that older and male peers increase the likelihood of adolescent early sexual debut, while peers whose mothers are more open about sexual activity decrease adolescent risky sexual behavior. This methodology can help further our knowledge about the social context that influences adolescent sexual behavior. PMID:26300714

  6. The impact of health education transmitted via social media or text messaging on adolescent and young adult risky sexual behavior: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Jones, Krista; Eathington, Patricia; Baldwin, Kathleen; Sipsma, Heather

    2014-07-01

    Despite the increased use of social media and text messaging among adolescents, it is unclear how effective education transmitted via these mechanisms is for reducing sexual risk behavior. Accordingly, we conducted a systematic review of the literature to examine the effectiveness of social media and text messaging interventions designed to increase sexually transmitted disease (STD) knowledge, increase screening/testing, decrease risky sexual behaviors, and reduce the incidence of STDs among young adults aged 15 through 24 years. Eleven studies met our inclusion criteria. Most of the included studies used a control group to explore intervention effects and included both young men and women. Sample sizes ranged from 32 to 7606 participants, and follow-up periods ranged between 4 weeks and 12 months. These studies provide preliminary evidence indicating that social media and text messaging can increase knowledge regarding the prevention of STDs. These interventions may also affect behavior, such as screening/testing for STDs, sexual risk behaviors, and STD acquisition, but the evidence for effect is weak. Many of these studies had several limitations that future research should address, including a reliance on self-reported data, small sample sizes, poor retention, low generalizability, and low analytic rigor. Additional research is needed to determine the most effective and engaging approaches for young men and women.

  7. The impact of health education transmitted via social media or text messaging on adolescent and young adult risky sexual behavior: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Jones, Krista; Eathington, Patricia; Baldwin, Kathleen; Sipsma, Heather

    2014-07-01

    Despite the increased use of social media and text messaging among adolescents, it is unclear how effective education transmitted via these mechanisms is for reducing sexual risk behavior. Accordingly, we conducted a systematic review of the literature to examine the effectiveness of social media and text messaging interventions designed to increase sexually transmitted disease (STD) knowledge, increase screening/testing, decrease risky sexual behaviors, and reduce the incidence of STDs among young adults aged 15 through 24 years. Eleven studies met our inclusion criteria. Most of the included studies used a control group to explore intervention effects and included both young men and women. Sample sizes ranged from 32 to 7606 participants, and follow-up periods ranged between 4 weeks and 12 months. These studies provide preliminary evidence indicating that social media and text messaging can increase knowledge regarding the prevention of STDs. These interventions may also affect behavior, such as screening/testing for STDs, sexual risk behaviors, and STD acquisition, but the evidence for effect is weak. Many of these studies had several limitations that future research should address, including a reliance on self-reported data, small sample sizes, poor retention, low generalizability, and low analytic rigor. Additional research is needed to determine the most effective and engaging approaches for young men and women. PMID:24922099

  8. Peer rejection, affiliation with deviant peers, delinquency, and risky sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Fontaine, Reid Griffith; Bates, John E; Pettit, Gregory S

    2014-10-01

    Risky sexual behavior poses significant health risks by increasing sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies. Previous research has documented many factors related to risky sexual behavior. This study adds to the literature by proposing a prospective, developmental model of peer factors related to risky sexual behavior. Developmental pathways to risky sexual behavior were examined in a sample of 517 individuals (51% female; 82% European American, 16% African American, 2% other) followed from age 5-27. Structural equation models examined direct and indirect effects of peer rejection (assessed via peer nominations at ages 5, 6, 7, and 8), affiliation with deviant peers (assessed via self-report at ages 11 and 12), and delinquency (assessed via maternal report at ages 10 and 16) on risky sexual behavior (assessed via self-report at age 27). More peer rejection during childhood, affiliation with deviant peers during pre- adolescence, and delinquency in childhood and adolescence predicted more risky sexual behavior through age 27, although delinquency at age 16 was the only risk factor that had a significant direct effect on risky sexual behavior through age 27 above and beyond the other risk factors. Peer rejection was related to subsequent risk factors for girls but not boys. Peer risk factors as early as age 5 shape developmental pathways through childhood and adolescence and have implications for risky sexual behavior into adulthood.

  9. Peer rejection, affiliation with deviant peers, delinquency, and risky sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Fontaine, Reid Griffith; Bates, John E; Pettit, Gregory S

    2014-10-01

    Risky sexual behavior poses significant health risks by increasing sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies. Previous research has documented many factors related to risky sexual behavior. This study adds to the literature by proposing a prospective, developmental model of peer factors related to risky sexual behavior. Developmental pathways to risky sexual behavior were examined in a sample of 517 individuals (51% female; 82% European American, 16% African American, 2% other) followed from age 5-27. Structural equation models examined direct and indirect effects of peer rejection (assessed via peer nominations at ages 5, 6, 7, and 8), affiliation with deviant peers (assessed via self-report at ages 11 and 12), and delinquency (assessed via maternal report at ages 10 and 16) on risky sexual behavior (assessed via self-report at age 27). More peer rejection during childhood, affiliation with deviant peers during pre- adolescence, and delinquency in childhood and adolescence predicted more risky sexual behavior through age 27, although delinquency at age 16 was the only risk factor that had a significant direct effect on risky sexual behavior through age 27 above and beyond the other risk factors. Peer rejection was related to subsequent risk factors for girls but not boys. Peer risk factors as early as age 5 shape developmental pathways through childhood and adolescence and have implications for risky sexual behavior into adulthood. PMID:25150986

  10. Behavioral Decision Research Intervention Reduces Risky Sexual Behavior.

    PubMed

    Downs, Julie S; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Fischhoff, Baruch; Murray, Pamela J

    2015-01-01

    Although adolescents are at disproportionate risk for sexually transmitted infections, most sex education programs have shown little effect on sexual behavior. An interactive video intervention developed by our team has been identified as one of a few programs that have been documented to reduce sexually transmitted infections in this population. Building on behavioral decision research, we used a mental models approach to interview young women about their sexual decisions, finding, among other things, the strong role of perceived social norms. We based our intervention on these results, aiming to help young women identify and implement personally and socially acceptable decision strategies. A randomized controlled trial found that the video reduced risky sexual behavior and the acquisition of chlamydia infection. We recently revised the video to suit more diverse audiences, and upgraded it to modern standards of cinematography and interactivity. It is now in field trial.

  11. Behavioral Decision Research Intervention Reduces Risky Sexual Behavior.

    PubMed

    Downs, Julie S; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Fischhoff, Baruch; Murray, Pamela J

    2015-01-01

    Although adolescents are at disproportionate risk for sexually transmitted infections, most sex education programs have shown little effect on sexual behavior. An interactive video intervention developed by our team has been identified as one of a few programs that have been documented to reduce sexually transmitted infections in this population. Building on behavioral decision research, we used a mental models approach to interview young women about their sexual decisions, finding, among other things, the strong role of perceived social norms. We based our intervention on these results, aiming to help young women identify and implement personally and socially acceptable decision strategies. A randomized controlled trial found that the video reduced risky sexual behavior and the acquisition of chlamydia infection. We recently revised the video to suit more diverse audiences, and upgraded it to modern standards of cinematography and interactivity. It is now in field trial. PMID:26149165

  12. Risky Sexual Behavior: A Race-Specific Social Consequence of Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Tamara G. J.; Dias, Janice Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Scant attention has been given to the consequence of actual weight status for adolescents' sexual wellbeing. In this article, we investigate the race-specific connection between obesity and risky sexual behavior among adolescent girls. Propensity scores and radius matching are used to analyze a sample of 340 adolescents aged 16-17 who participated…

  13. Family and the Risky Behaviors of High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Haghdoost, Aliakbar; Abazari, Faroukh; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Dortaj Rabori, Eshagh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Family plays an important role in helping adolescent acquiring skills or strengthening their characters. Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the influences of family factors, risky and protective, on adolescent health-risk behavior (HRB). Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, students of high schools in Kerman, Iran at all levels participated, during November 2011 till December 2011. The research sample included 1024 students (588 females and 436 males) aged 15 to 19 years. A CTC (Communities That Care Youth Survey) questionnaire was designed in order to collect the profile of the students’ risky behaviors. Stratified cluster sampling method was used to collect the data. Results: Using logistic regression, 7 variables enrolled; 4 of them were risk factors and 3 were protective factors. The risk factors were age, (linear effect, ORa = 1.20, P = 0.001), boys versus girls (ORa = 2.33, P = 0.001), family history of antisocial behavior (ORa = 2.29, P = 0.001), and parental attitudes favorable toward antisocial behavior (ORa = 1.72, P = 0.03). And, protective factors were family religiosity (ORa = 0.65, P = 0.001), father education (linear effect, ORa = 0.48, P = 0.001), and family attachment (ORa = 0.78, P = 0.001). Conclusions: Our findings showed that family has a very significant role in protecting students against risky behaviors. The education level of the father, family religiosity, and attachment were the most important factors. PMID:25558380

  14. Race, Drug Use and Risky Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broman, Clifford L.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines drug use, including alcohol, as a factor in risky sexual behavior while considering patterns across sex and race. Both factors have been given insufficient attention in prior research. The data for this study come from a survey of 1,052 college students from a Midwestern state. Findings indicate that drug use is associated with…

  15. Protective Functions of Family Relationships and School Factors on the Deviant Behavior of Adolescent Boys and Girls: Reducing the Impact of Risky Friendships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosnoe, Robert; Erickson, Kristan Glasgow; Dornbusch, Sanford M.

    2002-01-01

    Used self-reports and reports from friends to explore gender differences in the impact of risk and protective factors on adolescent deviant behavior. Both family and school factors reduced adolescent delinquency and substance use and protected adolescents against the impact of having deviant friends, though school factors were more consistently…

  16. Vasopressin increases human risky cooperative behavior.

    PubMed

    Brunnlieb, Claudia; Nave, Gideon; Camerer, Colin F; Schosser, Stephan; Vogt, Bodo; Münte, Thomas F; Heldmann, Marcus

    2016-02-23

    The history of humankind is an epic of cooperation, which is ubiquitous across societies and increasing in scale. Much human cooperation occurs where it is risky to cooperate for mutual benefit because successful cooperation depends on a sufficient level of cooperation by others. Here we show that arginine vasopressin (AVP), a neuropeptide that mediates complex mammalian social behaviors such as pair bonding, social recognition and aggression causally increases humans' willingness to engage in risky, mutually beneficial cooperation. In two double-blind experiments, male participants received either AVP or placebo intranasally and made decisions with financial consequences in the "Stag hunt" cooperation game. AVP increases humans' willingness to cooperate. That increase is not due to an increase in the general willingness to bear risks or to altruistically help others. Using functional brain imaging, we show that, when subjects make the risky Stag choice, AVP down-regulates the BOLD signal in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), a risk-integration region, and increases the left dlPFC functional connectivity with the ventral pallidum, an AVP receptor-rich region previously associated with AVP-mediated social reward processing in mammals. These findings show a previously unidentified causal role for AVP in social approach behavior in humans, as established by animal research. PMID:26858433

  17. Vasopressin increases human risky cooperative behavior

    PubMed Central

    Brunnlieb, Claudia; Nave, Gideon; Camerer, Colin F.; Schosser, Stephan; Vogt, Bodo; Münte, Thomas F.; Heldmann, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    The history of humankind is an epic of cooperation, which is ubiquitous across societies and increasing in scale. Much human cooperation occurs where it is risky to cooperate for mutual benefit because successful cooperation depends on a sufficient level of cooperation by others. Here we show that arginine vasopressin (AVP), a neuropeptide that mediates complex mammalian social behaviors such as pair bonding, social recognition and aggression causally increases humans’ willingness to engage in risky, mutually beneficial cooperation. In two double-blind experiments, male participants received either AVP or placebo intranasally and made decisions with financial consequences in the “Stag hunt” cooperation game. AVP increases humans’ willingness to cooperate. That increase is not due to an increase in the general willingness to bear risks or to altruistically help others. Using functional brain imaging, we show that, when subjects make the risky Stag choice, AVP down-regulates the BOLD signal in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), a risk-integration region, and increases the left dlPFC functional connectivity with the ventral pallidum, an AVP receptor-rich region previously associated with AVP-mediated social reward processing in mammals. These findings show a previously unidentified causal role for AVP in social approach behavior in humans, as established by animal research. PMID:26858433

  18. Vasopressin increases human risky cooperative behavior.

    PubMed

    Brunnlieb, Claudia; Nave, Gideon; Camerer, Colin F; Schosser, Stephan; Vogt, Bodo; Münte, Thomas F; Heldmann, Marcus

    2016-02-23

    The history of humankind is an epic of cooperation, which is ubiquitous across societies and increasing in scale. Much human cooperation occurs where it is risky to cooperate for mutual benefit because successful cooperation depends on a sufficient level of cooperation by others. Here we show that arginine vasopressin (AVP), a neuropeptide that mediates complex mammalian social behaviors such as pair bonding, social recognition and aggression causally increases humans' willingness to engage in risky, mutually beneficial cooperation. In two double-blind experiments, male participants received either AVP or placebo intranasally and made decisions with financial consequences in the "Stag hunt" cooperation game. AVP increases humans' willingness to cooperate. That increase is not due to an increase in the general willingness to bear risks or to altruistically help others. Using functional brain imaging, we show that, when subjects make the risky Stag choice, AVP down-regulates the BOLD signal in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), a risk-integration region, and increases the left dlPFC functional connectivity with the ventral pallidum, an AVP receptor-rich region previously associated with AVP-mediated social reward processing in mammals. These findings show a previously unidentified causal role for AVP in social approach behavior in humans, as established by animal research.

  19. Maternal Models of Risk: Links between Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behavior in African American Female Caregivers and Daughters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brakefield, Tiffany; Wilson, Helen; Donenberg, Geri

    2012-01-01

    African American (AA) adolescent girls are at heightened risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and thus knowledge of factors related to risky sexual behavior in this population is crucial. Using Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1977), this paper examines pathways from female caregivers' risky sexual behavior and substance use to…

  20. Differential neurobiological effects of expert advice on risky choice in adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Engelmann, Jan B; Moore, Sara; Monica Capra, C; Berns, Gregory S

    2012-06-01

    We investigated behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms by which risk-averse advice, provided by an expert, affected risky decisions across three developmental groups [early adolescents (12-14 years), late adolescents (15-17 years), adults (18+ years)]. Using cumulative prospect theory, we modeled choice behavior during a risky-choice task. Results indicate that advice had a significantly greater impact on risky choice in both adolescent groups than in adults. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the neural correlates of this behavioral effect. Developmental effects on correlations between brain activity and valuation parameters were obtained in regions that can be classified into (i) cognitive control regions, such as dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and ventrolateral PFC; (ii) social cognition regions, such as posterior temporoparietal junction; and (iii) reward-related regions, such as ventromedial PFC (vmPFC) and ventral striatum. Within these regions, differential effects of advice on neural correlates of valuation were observed across development. Specifically, advice increased the correlation strength between brain activity and parameters reflective of safe choice options in adolescent DLPFC and decreased correlation strength between activity and parameters reflective of risky choice options in adult vmPFC. Taken together, results indicate that, across development, distinct brain systems involved in cognitive control and valuation mediate the risk-reducing effect of advice during decision making under risk via specific enhancements and reductions of the correlation strength between brain activity and valuation parameters.

  1. Sex and the Self: The Impact of Early Sexual Onset on the Self-Concept and Subsequent Risky Behavior of African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houlihan, Amy E.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gerrard, Meg; Yeh, Hsiu-Chen; Reimer, Rachel A.; Murry, Velma M.

    2008-01-01

    A 5-year longitudinal study of African American adolescents, aged 10 to 12 at Time 1, used the prototype/willingness (prototype) model to examine the (social) cognitive effects of the onset of sexual behavior on self-concept. Structural equation modeling (SEM) showed that becoming sexually active was related to favorable changes in adolescents'…

  2. Decision making, risky behavior, and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Camchong, Jazmin; Endres, Michael; Fein, George

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholism can be described as a disorder characterized by impulsive decision-making processes, wherein potential short-term appetitive outcomes of drinking (e.g., intoxication) are deemed more important than potential long-term aversive consequences of drinking (e.g., drunk-driving arrests). Separate but interrelated neurocognitive pathways to impulsive decision making exist - one reflected by weak "top-down" executive control over impulsive and compulsive urges to consume alcohol, the other reflected by a strong "bottom-up" appetitive drive in impulsive and compulsive urges to consume alcohol. We present behavioral evidence of poor executive control and strong appetitive drive and neural evidence describing differences in functional and organizational patterns in brain executive control and appetitive drive networks. We discuss how these behavioral and neural aspects of alcoholism are associated with impulsive decision making and risky behavior in alcoholics, and how these patterns differ at different stages of alcoholism dependence and recovery.

  3. Impulsivity, risky behaviors and accidents in alcohol-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Wnorowska, Anna; Mika, Katarzyna; Bugaj, Marcin; Podgórska, Anna; Barry, Kristen; Blow, Frederic C; Brower, Kirk J; Wojnar, Marcin

    2013-03-01

    Impulsivity and alcohol drinking are both considered as important predictors of unintentional as well as intentional injuries. However, relationships of impulsivity with risky behaviors and a history of accidents have not been investigated in alcohol dependence. The aim of this study was to analyze relationships between the frequency of risky behaviors and level of behavioral as well as cognitive impulsivity in alcohol-dependent patients. By means of Barratt's Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) and stop-signal task, the levels of cognitive and behavioral impulsivity among 304 alcohol-dependent patients were measured. Also, patients were asked to answer questions from the Short Inventory of Problems applying to risky behaviors and accidents after alcohol drinking. In addition participants completed a questionnaire to assess frequency of other behaviors from the analyzed spectrum (use of other drugs, driving or aggressive behavior after alcohol drinking). The statistical analysis revealed a significant association between impulsivity and frequency of risky behaviors in alcohol-dependent patients. Individuals with higher scores in BIS behaved more frequently in a risky way and had significantly more accidents after alcohol drinking. The association with risky behaviors was strongest for non-planning and attentional impulsivity subscales, whereas frequency of accidents was particularly associated with motor impulsivity. A multivariate analysis revealed that impulsivity was the most important predictor of risky behaviors, but did not significantly predict a history of accidents. Our study confirms that impulsivity is an important correlate of risky behaviors in alcohol-dependent individuals, along with global psychopathology and severity of alcohol dependence.

  4. Predicting the Problem Behavior in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karaman, Neslihan G.

    2013-01-01

    Problem statement: Problem behavior theory describes both protective factors and risk factors to explain adolescent problem behaviors, such as delinquency, alcohol use, and reckless driving. The theory holds that problem behaviors involving risky behavior are used by adolescents as a means to gain peer acceptance and respect. Problem behaviors…

  5. Gender Differences in the Factors Explaining Risky Behavior Online.

    PubMed

    Sasson, Hagit; Mesch, Gustavo

    2016-05-01

    In searching for the social and cognitive antecedents of risky online behaviors, some studies have relied on the theory of planned behavior. According to the theory, three components serve as predictors of a given behavior-attitudes toward the behavior (beliefs that people hold about a given behavior), subjective norms (perceptions of what significant others think about the behavior) and perceived behavior control (perceptions about the ease or difficulty of engaging in a particular behavior). However, none of these studies considered the possibility that these factors work differently for boys and girls. We constructed models of the possible antecedents (attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavior control) of risky behavior online and tested them using a representative sample of 495 sixth to eleventh grade students (46 % female) in a large city in Israel. We measured risky behavior online with items indicating the frequency of posting personal details, sending an insulting message and meeting face-to-face with a stranger met online. Structural equation modeling revealed that peers' subjective norms (beliefs that friends approve of engaging in risky online behaviors), parents' subjective norms (beliefs that parents accept involvement in risky online behaviors) and perceived behavior control were related to boys' risky behavior online, whereas for girls, only parents' subjective norms had such an association. Expanding the models to include other factors underscored that family factors were most strongly associated with girls' risky behavior online.

  6. Gender Differences in the Factors Explaining Risky Behavior Online.

    PubMed

    Sasson, Hagit; Mesch, Gustavo

    2016-05-01

    In searching for the social and cognitive antecedents of risky online behaviors, some studies have relied on the theory of planned behavior. According to the theory, three components serve as predictors of a given behavior-attitudes toward the behavior (beliefs that people hold about a given behavior), subjective norms (perceptions of what significant others think about the behavior) and perceived behavior control (perceptions about the ease or difficulty of engaging in a particular behavior). However, none of these studies considered the possibility that these factors work differently for boys and girls. We constructed models of the possible antecedents (attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavior control) of risky behavior online and tested them using a representative sample of 495 sixth to eleventh grade students (46 % female) in a large city in Israel. We measured risky behavior online with items indicating the frequency of posting personal details, sending an insulting message and meeting face-to-face with a stranger met online. Structural equation modeling revealed that peers' subjective norms (beliefs that friends approve of engaging in risky online behaviors), parents' subjective norms (beliefs that parents accept involvement in risky online behaviors) and perceived behavior control were related to boys' risky behavior online, whereas for girls, only parents' subjective norms had such an association. Expanding the models to include other factors underscored that family factors were most strongly associated with girls' risky behavior online. PMID:27016219

  7. Should we ask our Children about Sex, Drugs and Rock & Roll?: Potentially Harmful Effects of Asking Questions About Risky Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Fitzsimons, Gavan J.; Moore, Sarah G.

    2009-01-01

    Research shows that asking questions can fundamentally change behavior. We review literature on this question-behavior effect, which demonstrates that asking questions changes both normal and risky behaviors. We discuss potential explanations for the effect and review recent findings that reveal interesting moderators of the influence of questions on behavior. We then highlight the potential impact of the question-behavior effect in an important public health context: screening adolescents for risky behavior. While medical guidelines emphasize the importance of asking adolescents questions about substance (drug, alcohol) use and sexual behaviors, research on the question-behavior effect suggests that asking adolescents about risky behaviors has the potential to increase the frequency with which they engage in these behaviors. We argue that the act of screening or measuring risky behavior is potentially counterproductive. We emphasize the importance of interventions beyond screening, and suggest ways in which screening can be carried out to minimize its impact. In short, asking questions about behaviors can change behavior, and asking questions about risky behaviors may itself be a risky undertaking. PMID:23750098

  8. Emotion Dysregulation and Risky Sexual Behavior in Revictimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messman-Moore, Terri L.; Walsh, Kate L.; DiLillo, David

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined emotion dysregulation as a mechanism underlying risky sexual behavior and sexual revictimization among adult victims of child sexual abuse (CSA) and child physical abuse (CPA). Methods: Participants were 752 college women. Victimization history, emotion dysregulation, and risky sexual behavior were assessed…

  9. Risky Behavior in Gambling Tasks in Individuals with ADHD – A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Lewis-Evans, Ben; Tucha, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this review was to gain insight into the relationship between Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and risky performance in gambling tasks and to identify any potential alternate explanatory factors. Methods PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Knowledge were searched for relevant literature comparing individuals with ADHD to normal controls (NCs) in relation to their risky performance on a gambling task. In total, fourteen studies in children/adolescents and eleven studies in adults were included in the review. Results Half of the studies looking at children/adolescents with ADHD found evidence that they run more risks on gambling tasks when compared to NCs. Only a minority of the studies on adults with ADHD reported aberrant risky behavior. The effect sizes ranged from small to large for both age groups and the outcome pattern did not differ between studies that applied an implicit or explicit gambling task. Two studies demonstrated that comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) increased risky behavior in ADHD. Limited and/or inconsistent evidence was found that comorbid internalizing disorders (IDs), ADHD subtype, methylphenidate use, and different forms of reward influenced the outcomes. Conclusion The evidence for increased risky performance of individuals with ADHD on gambling tasks is mixed, but is stronger for children/adolescents with ADHD than for adults with ADHD, which may point to developmental changes in reward and/or penalty sensitivity or a publication bias for positive findings in children/adolescents. The literature suggests that comorbid ODD/CD is a risk factor in ADHD for increased risky behavior. Comorbid IDs, ADHD subtype, methylphenidate use, and the form of reward received may affect risky performance in gambling tasks; however, these factors need further examination. Finally, the implications of the findings for ADHD models and the ecological validity of gambling tasks are discussed

  10. Positive urgency predicts illegal drug use and risky sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Zapolski, Tamika C B; Cyders, Melissa A; Smith, Gregory T

    2009-06-01

    There are several different personality traits that dispose individuals to engage in rash action. One such trait is positive urgency: the tendency to act rashly when experiencing extremely positive affect. This trait may be relevant for college student risky behavior, because it appears that a great deal of college student risky behavior is undertaken during periods of intensely positive mood states. To test this possibility, the authors conducted a longitudinal study designed to predict increases in risky sexual behavior and illegal drug use over the course of the first year of college (n=407). In a well-fitting structural model, positive urgency predicted increases in illegal drug use and risky sexual behavior, even after controlling for time 1 (T1) involvement in both risky behaviors, biological sex, and T1 scores on four other personality dispositions to rash action. The authors discuss the theoretical and practical implications of this finding. PMID:19586152

  11. Does Familism Lead to Increased Parental Monitoring?: Protective Factors for Coping with Risky Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Andrea J.; Ruiz, Myrna

    2007-01-01

    We examined coping with risky behaviors (cigarettes, alcohol/drugs, yelling/ hitting, and anger), familism (family proximity and parental closeness) and parental monitoring (knowledge and discipline) in a sample of 56 adolescents (11-15 years old) predominantly of Mexican descent at two time points. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated…

  12. Unwanted Online Sexual Solicitation and Risky Sexual Online Behavior across the Lifespan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgartner, Susanne E.; Valkenburg, Patti M.; Peter, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    There are widespread concerns that on the internet, adolescents are especially vulnerable and take more risks than adults. However, research supporting this concern is still missing. The aim of this study was to explore whether (a) unwanted online sexual solicitation, (b) risky sexual online behavior, and (c) the perception of risks and benefits…

  13. Impulsivity, risky behaviors and accidents in alcohol-dependent patients

    PubMed Central

    Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Wnorowska, Anna; Mika, Katarzyna; Bugaj, Marcin; Podgórska, Anna; Barry, Kristen; Blow, Frederic C.; Brower, Kirk J.; Wojnar, Marcin

    2013-01-01

    Impulsivity and alcohol drinking are both considered as important predictors of unintentional as well as intentional injuries. However, relationships of impulsivity with risky behaviors and a history of accidents have not been investigated in alcohol dependence. The aim of this study was to analyze relationships between the frequency of risky behaviors and level of behavioral as well as cognitive impulsivity in alcohol-dependent patients. By means of Barratt’s Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) and stop-signal task, the levels of cognitive and behavioral impulsivity among 304 alcohol-dependent patients were measured. Also, patients were asked to answer questions from the Short Inventory of Problems applying to risky behaviors and accidents after alcohol drinking. In addition participants completed a questionnaire to assess frequency of other behaviors from the analyzed spectrum (use of other drugs, driving or aggressive behavior after alcohol drinking). The statistical analysis revealed a significant association between impulsivity and frequency of risky behaviors in alcohol-dependent patients. Individuals with higher scores in BIS behaved more frequently in a risky way and had significantly more accidents after alcohol drinking. The association with risky behaviors was strongest for non-planning and attentional impulsivity subscales, whereas frequency of accidents was particularly associated with motor impulsivity. A multivariate analysis revealed that impulsivity was the most important predictor of risky behaviors, but did not significantly predict a history of accidents. Our study confirms that impulsivity is an important correlate of risky behaviors in alcohol-dependent individuals, along with global psychopathology and severity of alcohol dependence. PMID:23246707

  14. Continued risky behavior in HIV-infected youth.

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, C; Buskin, S

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to describe and compare risky behaviors in HIV-infected youths and adults. METHODS: Records of HIV-infected outpatients were reviewed for the period January 1990 to February 1998. Youths (younger than 22 years at HIV diagnosis and younger than 25 years at study entry, n = 139) were compared with adults (22 years or older at HIV diagnosis or 25 years or older at study entry, n = 2880). Risky behaviors occurring after HIV diagnosis included unsafe sex and needle sharing. RESULTS: Female and male youths were more than twice as likely as adults to engage in risky behavior (adjusted odds ratios of 2.6 and 2.3, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Both youths and adults continue to engage in risky behaviors after HIV diagnosis. Prospective studies are needed, along with targeted public health campaigns, for youths with HIV and for those at risk of infection. PMID:10630148

  15. Changing the Context Is Important and Necessary, but Not Sufficient, for Reducing Adolescent Risky Sexual Behavior: A Reply to Steinberg (2015).

    PubMed

    Bryan, Angela D; Gillman, Arielle S; Hansen, Natasha S

    2016-07-01

    Starting school later, keeping adolescents busy with structured programming, and making free condoms available, as Steinberg (2015) suggests, are important and necessary steps, but they are simply not sufficient if the goal is reducing sexually transmitted infections and unplanned pregnancy. We agree that the current state of affairs, which in many schools involves sexuality education using programs that are not empirically supported, is unacceptable. However, abandoning sexuality education entirely would leave adolescents ill equipped to protect themselves. Despite the fact that current intervention technology is neither perfect nor optimally effective, there are empirically supported, school-based sexual risk reduction interventions that teach these skills and are readily available. In addition, even though we agree that structured afternoon programs for school-aged adolescents would reduce the opportunity for sexual risk behavior during the school years, such programs would not address the demographic reality of sexual risk that continues for adolescents and emerging adults far past the end of traditional secondary education. We believe Steinberg's suggestions are an excellent start and ought to be implemented. But complementary to this approach should be the use of existing empirically supported sexual risk reduction interventions and research into the development of even more effective interventions. PMID:27474139

  16. Changing the Context Is Important and Necessary, but Not Sufficient, for Reducing Adolescent Risky Sexual Behavior: A Reply to Steinberg (2015).

    PubMed

    Bryan, Angela D; Gillman, Arielle S; Hansen, Natasha S

    2016-07-01

    Starting school later, keeping adolescents busy with structured programming, and making free condoms available, as Steinberg (2015) suggests, are important and necessary steps, but they are simply not sufficient if the goal is reducing sexually transmitted infections and unplanned pregnancy. We agree that the current state of affairs, which in many schools involves sexuality education using programs that are not empirically supported, is unacceptable. However, abandoning sexuality education entirely would leave adolescents ill equipped to protect themselves. Despite the fact that current intervention technology is neither perfect nor optimally effective, there are empirically supported, school-based sexual risk reduction interventions that teach these skills and are readily available. In addition, even though we agree that structured afternoon programs for school-aged adolescents would reduce the opportunity for sexual risk behavior during the school years, such programs would not address the demographic reality of sexual risk that continues for adolescents and emerging adults far past the end of traditional secondary education. We believe Steinberg's suggestions are an excellent start and ought to be implemented. But complementary to this approach should be the use of existing empirically supported sexual risk reduction interventions and research into the development of even more effective interventions.

  17. Sibling Differences in Parent-Child Conflict and Risky Behavior: A 3-Wave Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Chun Bun; Solmeyer, Anna R.; McHale, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    To better understand why siblings growing up in the same family are often as different as unrelated individuals, this study explored the role of differential experiences with parents in the development of sibling differences. Cross-lagged models tested directions of effect by examining whether differential parent-child conflict predicted sibling differences in risky behavior over time, or vice versa. Participants were mothers, fathers, and the two eldest adolescent siblings (mean ages at Time 1 = 15.12 and 12.58 years) from 355 European American, work- and middle-class families. On three occasions over a 2-year period, mothers and fathers reported on their conflict with each of the two siblings, and siblings reported on their own risky behavior. Results revealed that, controlling for sibling age differences and average levels of conflict and risky behavior at Time 1, youths who had more conflict with their mothers and fathers relative to their siblings subsequently engaged in relatively more risky behavior. Also, youths who engaged in more risky behavior relative to their siblings experienced relatively more conflict with their fathers, but not mothers, at later time points. Findings highlight the importance of examining both family dynamics and child characteristics in understanding sibling differentiation, and illuminate potential differences in parenting processes involving mothers versus fathers. PMID:22775198

  18. Assessing Causality in the Relationship Between Adolescents’ Risky Sexual Online Behavior and Their Perceptions of this Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Valkenburg, Patti M.; Peter, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the causal nature of the relationship between adolescents’ risky sexual behavior on the internet and their perceptions of this behavior. Engagement in the following online behaviors was assessed: searching online for someone to talk about sex, searching online for someone to have sex, sending intimate photos or videos to someone online, and sending one’s telephone number and address to someone exclusively known online. The relationship between these behaviors and adolescents’ perceptions of peer involvement, personal invulnerability, and risks and benefits was investigated. A two-wave longitudinal study among a representative sample of 1,445 Dutch adolescents aged 12–17 was conducted (49% females). Autoregressive cross-lagged structural equation models revealed that perceived peer involvement, perceived vulnerability, and perceived risks were all significant predictors of risky sexual online behavior 6 months later. No reverse causal paths were found. When the relationships between perceptions and risky sexual online behavior were modeled simultaneously, only perceived peer involvement was a determinant of risky sexual online behavior. Findings highlight the importance of addressing peer involvement in future interventions to reduce adolescents’ risky sexual online behavior. PMID:20177962

  19. Peer Influence on Risk Taking, Risk Preference, and Risky Decision Making in Adolescence and Adulthood: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Margo; Steinberg, Laurence

    2005-01-01

    In this study, 306 individuals in 3 age groups--adolescents (13-16), youths (18-22), and adults (24 and older)--completed 2 questionnaire measures assessing risk preference and risky decision making, and 1 behavioral task measuring risk taking. Participants in each age group were randomly assigned to complete the measures either alone or with 2…

  20. The Association between Internalizing Symptomology and Risky Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perle, Jonathan G.; Levine, Alison B.; Odland, Anthony P.; Ketterer, Jessica L.; Cannon, Megan A.; Marker, Craig D.

    2013-01-01

    Internalizing symptoms (withdrawn/depressed and anxious/depressed), measured by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), were examined as related to the development of externalizing problems, a pathway to risky behavior. A cross-section of children ages 6 to 15 was drawn from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's (NICHD) Study…

  1. Ethnic identity and risky health behaviors in school-age Mexican-American children.

    PubMed

    Love, Ashley S; Yin, Zenong; Codina, Edward; Zapata, Jesse T

    2006-06-01

    The study examined the relationship between ethnic identity and risky health behaviors in 1,892 Mexican-American students (M age= 14.6, SD= 1.35; 50.3% male) in South Texas. The Ethnic Identity Scale assessed ethnic identity and questions from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey measured risky health behaviors (mixed use of alcohol and drugs, heavy drinking, driving under the influence, regular marijuana use, regular cigarette smoking, lack of regular exercise, not eating breakfast regularly, and carrying a gun or knife to school). Logistic regression tested the relationships between ethnic identity and report of risky health behaviors controlling for potential confounders (sex, free school lunch status, grade, and self-reported school grade). Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and confidence intervals were calculated. Results indicated that being associated with Mexican-American cultural identity was significantly associated with a decreased mixed use of alcohol and drugs (AOR= .97), heavy drinking (AOR= .98), and regular marijuana use (AOR= .97). A stronger ethnic identity was protective against engaging in risky health behaviors among these Mexican-American adolescents.

  2. Determinants of risky driving behavior: a narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Jafarpour, Saba; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2014-01-01

    Road traffic crashes (RTCs) account for great mortality and morbidity rates worldwide, resulting in substantial global burden. Factors contributing to RTC generally fall into three categories: environmental, vehicle, and human, with the human factor being by far the leading determinant. Obtaining an in-depth exploration of driving behavior and factors underpinning risky driving could be of particular importance to facilitate the establishment of effective policies. The present article provides insight to different aspects of risky driving behavior, at micro and macro levels, from individual attitudes, and psychological factors like personality, temperament, mood and emotions, to socioeconomic context, social norms, cultural backgrounds, level of law enforcement, and internalization of legality in the society. Risky driving behavior is a multidimensional issue and any effort to design and establish modification policies should be based on a comprehensive understanding of its determinants in different aspects. PMID:25695000

  3. Personality types and risky health behaviors in Norwegian students.

    PubMed

    Vollrath, Margarete E; Torgersen, Svenn

    2008-06-01

    Typological research has received increasing interest in recent years, but is still regarded as substandard by personality psychologists. The current investigation shows how a typological approach can enhance our understanding of the influence of personality on risky health behaviors. We focused on Torgersen's eight personality types that represent unique configurations of high and low Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Constraint (Vollrath & Torgersen, 2000). Participants were 606 Norwegian university students. Measures assessed personality factors, smoking, abuse of drugs and alcohol, drunk driving, and risky sexual behaviors. Results replicated earlier research showing that types combining either high Extraversion and low Constraint (Hedonists, Impulsives) or high Neuroticism and low Constraint (Insecures) engage in more risky health behaviors. The discussion focuses on demonstrating that the study of types is a valuable supplement to the dimensional tradition in personality psychology.

  4. A Parallel Process Growth Mixture Model of Conduct Problems and Substance Use with Risky Sexual Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Johnny; Witkiewitz, Katie; McMahon, Robert J.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    Conduct problems, substance use, and risky sexual behavior have been shown to coexist among adolescents, which may lead to significant health problems. The current study was designed to examine relations among these problem behaviors in a community sample of children at high risk for conduct disorder. A latent growth model of childhood conduct problems showed a decreasing trend from grades K to 5. During adolescence, four concurrent conduct problem and substance use trajectory classes were identified (high conduct problems and high substance use, increasing conduct problems and increasing substance use, minimal conduct problems and increasing substance use, and minimal conduct problems and minimal substance use) using a parallel process growth mixture model. Across all substances (tobacco, binge drinking, and marijuana use), higher levels of childhood conduct problems during kindergarten predicted a greater probability of classification into more problematic adolescent trajectory classes relative to less problematic classes. For tobacco and binge drinking models, increases in childhood conduct problems over time also predicted a greater probability of classification into more problematic classes. For all models, individuals classified into more problematic classes showed higher proportions of early sexual intercourse, infrequent condom use, receiving money for sexual services, and ever contracting an STD. Specifically, tobacco use and binge drinking during early adolescence predicted higher levels of sexual risk taking into late adolescence. Results highlight the importance of studying the conjoint relations among conduct problems, substance use, and risky sexual behavior in a unified model. PMID:20558013

  5. Moving beyond the trait conceptualization of self-esteem: the prospective effect of impulsiveness, coping, and risky behavior engagement.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, Randy P; Gardiner, Casey K

    2012-10-01

    Past research has largely focused on examining self-esteem as an independent as opposed to a dependent variable. At the same time, research suggests that during adolescence, self-esteem is subject to yearly, monthly, as well as daily change, and consequently, it is important to identify underlying vulnerability factors and behaviors, which shape self-esteem lability. In the current multi-wave, longitudinal study, 142 adolescents between the ages of 12-18 completed monthly assessments across 4 months. At the initial assessment, adolescents provided self-report data pertaining to impulsiveness, maladaptive coping, risky behavior engagement, and self-esteem. At each of the follow-up assessments, adolescents provided information about risky behavior engagement and self-esteem. Results of time-lagged, idiographic multilevel mediation analyzes indicated that risky behavior engagement mediated the relationship between impulsiveness/maladaptive coping and subsequent low self-esteem. Critically, when included in the same model, impulsiveness was significant above and beyond maladaptive coping. Additionally, the reverse model with self-esteem as the predictor and risky behavior included as the dependent variable was not significant suggesting that our effect was unidirectional. As a whole, these findings suggest that impulsive youth may engage in behaviors, which ultimately precipitate negative self-evaluations and transient declines in self-esteem.

  6. Childhood ADHD Predicts Risky Sexual Behavior in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flory, Kate; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Gnagy, Elizabeth; Smith, Bradley

    2006-01-01

    This study compared young adults (ages 18 to 26) with and without childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on self-reported risky sexual behaviors. Participants were 175 men with childhood ADHD and 111 demographically similar men without ADHD in the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS). Childhood ADHD predicted earlier…

  7. Throwing Caution to the Wind: Rationales for Risky Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de La Rue, Denise; Ruback, R. Barry

    There appears to be a tendency for people who have not been victimized by negative life events to perceive themselves as less vulnerable to victimization than others. Research has revealed this unrealistic optimism in risk perception. A study on rationales for risky behaviors was conducted to identify reasons other than this illusion of…

  8. High parental monitoring prevents adolescents from engaging in risky sexual practices in Harar, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Dessie, Yadeta; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu

    2014-01-01

    Background Emerging findings have shown that high parental monitoring of adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health (SRH) communications between parents and adolescents and good parenting styles prevent adolescents from engaging in risky sexual practices. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the associations of parental monitoring, parent–adolescent SRH communications, and parenting styles with risky sexual practices among adolescents in Harar, Ethiopia. Designs This was a cross-sectional study conducted on adolescents aged 13–18 who had sexual initiations. Adolescents who failed to use any contraceptive method and/or condom during last sexual intercourse and who experienced multiple sexual partners in the 12 months prior to the study were taken as ‘at risk’. In view of these, the adolescents risk count ranged from zero to three – greater number indicates higher count of risky sexual practices. Poisson regression model was used to examine the associations and p<0.05 indicated a statistical significance. Results It was found out that 301 of 633 (47.55%; 95% CI=43.62%, 51.45%) adolescents experienced one or more risky sexual practices. High parental monitoring compared to low decreases the Incidence Rate of engaging in risky sexual practices by 28% (adjusted incidence rate ratio, or IRR=0.72; 95% CI=0.520, 0.986). Those who had a satisfactory level of SRH communications with their parents compared to poor communicators experianced less incidence rate of risky sexual practices which was marginal (adjusted IRR=0.82; 95% CI=0.637, 1.051). Conclusions A significant proportion of the adolescents engaged in one or more risky sexual practices. Importantly, high parental monitoring decreases the likelihood of these risky practices. Therefore, parents need to be encouraged to keep an eye on their young children. PMID:25398086

  9. Quality of Parent Communication about Sex and Its Relationship to Risky Sexual Behavior among Youth in Psychiatric Care: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Helen W.; Donenberg, Geri

    2004-01-01

    Background: The number of HIV infections among adolescents is increasing, and youth in psychiatric care are at particular risk because of their high rates of risky sexual behavior. Methods: As part of a larger longitudinal study examining AIDS-risk behavior among adolescents in psychiatric care, this pilot study investigated the relationship…

  10. Frequent Nonprescription Stimulant Use and Risky Behaviors in College Students: The Role of Effortful Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Adam M.; Graziano, Paulo A.; Balkhi, Amanda M.; McNamara, Joseph P. H.; Cottler, Linda B.; Meneses, Evander; Geffken, Gary R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to (a) investigate the association between nonprescription stimulant use (NPSU) and risky behaviors, including risky sex, driving, financial behaviors, and drug use and (b) collect preliminary evidence on mechanisms that may link NPSU to risky behaviors. Participants: A sample of 555 college students was…

  11. Learning to Play It Safe (or Not): Stable and Evolving Neural Responses during Adolescent Risky Decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Lauren E.; Peake, Shannon J.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.; Pfeifer, Jennifer H.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent decision-making is a topic of great public and scientific interest. However, much of the neuroimaging research in this area contrasts only one facet of decision-making (e.g., neural responses to anticipation or receipt of monetary rewards). Few studies have directly examined the processes that occur immediately before making a decision between two options that have varied and unpredictable potential rewards and penalties. Understanding adolescent decision-making from this vantage point may prove critical to ameliorating risky behavior and improving developmental outcomes. In this study, participants aged 14–16 years engaged in a driving simulation game while undergoing fMRI. Results indicated activity in ventral striatum preceded risky decisions and activity in right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) preceded safe decisions. Furthermore, participants who reported higher sensation-seeking and sensitivity to reward and punishment demonstrated lower rIFG activity during safe decisions. Finally, over successive games, rIFG activity preceding risky decisions decreased, whereas thalamus and caudate activity increased during positive feedback (taking a risk without crashing). These results indicate that regions traditionally associated with reward processing and inhibition not only drive risky decision-making in the moment but also contribute to learning about risk tradeoffs during adolescence. PMID:25100220

  12. The Dopamine Transporter Gene, a Spectrum of Most Common Risky Behaviors, and the Legal Status of the Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Guang; Cai, Tianji; Guo, Rui; Wang, Hongyu; Harris, Kathleen Mullan

    2010-01-01

    This study tests the specific hypothesis that the 9R/9R genotype in the VNTR of the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) exerts a general protective effect against a spectrum of risky behaviors in comparison to the 10R/9R and 10R/10R genotypes, drawing on three-time repeated measures of risky behaviors in adolescence and young adulthood on about 822 non-Hispanic white males from the Add Health study. Our data have established two empirical findings. The first is a protective main effect in the DAT1 gene against risky behaviors. The second finding is that the protective effect varies over age, with the effect prominent at ages when a behavior is illegal and the effect largely vanished at ages when the behavior becomes legal or more socially tolerated. Both the protective main effect and the gene-lifecourse interaction effect are replicated across a spectrum of most common risky behaviors: delinquency, variety of sexual partners, binge drinking, drinking quantity, smoking quantity, smoking frequency, marijuana use, cocaine use, other illegal drug use, and seatbelt non-wearing. We also compared individuals with the protective genotype and individuals without it in terms of age, physical maturity, verbal IQ, GPA, received popularity, sent popularity, church attendance, two biological parents, and parental education. These comparisons indicate that the protective effect of DAT1*9R/9R cannot be explained away by these background characteristics. Our work demonstrates how legal/social contexts can enhance or reduce a genetic effect on risky behaviors. PMID:20179766

  13. Befriending Risky Peers: Factors Driving Adolescents' Selection of Friends with Similar Marijuana Use.

    PubMed

    de la Haye, Kayla; Green, Harold D; Pollard, Michael S; Kennedy, David P; Tucker, Joan S

    2015-10-01

    Adolescents often befriend peers who are similar to themselves on a range of demographic, behavioral, and social characteristics, including substance use. Similarities in lifetime history of marijuana use have even been found to predict adolescent friendships, and we examine whether this finding is explained by youth's selection of friends who are similar on a range of more proximate, observable characteristics that are risk factors for marijuana use. Using two waves of individual and social network data from two high schools that participated in Add Health (N = 1,612; 52.7% male), we apply longitudinal models for social networks to test whether or not several observable risky attributes (psychological, behavioral, and social) predict adolescent friendship choices, and if these preferences explain friend's similarities on lifetime marijuana use. Findings show that similarities on several risk factors predict friendship choices, however controlling for this, the preference to befriend peers with a similar history of marijuana use largely persists. The results highlight the range of social selection processes that lead to similarities in marijuana use among friends and larger peer groups, and that also give rise to friendship groups whose members share similar risk factors for substance use. Friends with high "collective risk" are likely to be important targets for preventing the onset and social diffusion of substance use in adolescents.

  14. Social anxiety, acute social stress, and reward parameters interact to predict risky decision-making among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Richards, Jessica M; Patel, Nilam; Daniele-Zegarelli, Teresa; MacPherson, Laura; Lejuez, C W; Ernst, Monique

    2015-01-01

    Risk-taking behavior increases during adolescence, leading to potentially disastrous consequences. Social anxiety emerges in adolescence and may compound risk-taking propensity, particularly during stress and when reward potential is high. However, the manner in which social anxiety, stress, and reward parameters interact to impact adolescent risk-taking is unclear. To clarify this question, a community sample of 35 adolescents (15-18yo), characterized as having high or low social anxiety, participated in a study over two separate days, during each of which they were exposed to either a social stress or a control condition, while performing a risky decision-making task. The task manipulated, orthogonally, reward magnitude and probability across trials. Three findings emerged. First, reward magnitude had a greater impact on the rate of risky decisions in high social anxiety (HSA) than low social anxiety (LSA) adolescents. Second, reaction times (RTs) were similar during the social stress and the control conditions for the HSA group, whereas the LSA group's RTs differed between conditions. Third, HSA adolescents showed the longest RTs on the most negative trials. These findings suggest that risk-taking in adolescents is modulated by context and reward parameters differentially as a function of social anxiety. PMID:25465884

  15. The Timing of School Transitions and Early Adolescent Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippold, Melissa A.; Powers, Christopher J.; Syvertsen, Amy K.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigates whether rural adolescents who transition to a new school in sixth grade have higher levels of risky behavior than adolescents who transition in seventh grade. Our findings indicate that later school transitions had little effect on problem behavior between sixth and ninth grades. Cross-sectional analyses found…

  16. Risky sexual behavior among married alcoholic men.

    PubMed

    Hall, Julie H; Fals-Stewart, William; Fincham, Frank D

    2008-04-01

    The current study explored whether the wives of men entering alcoholism treatment are at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) exposure as a result of their husbands' sexual risk behaviors. The extramarital relationships of married alcoholic men entering outpatient treatment (n = 125) were compared with those of a demographically matched community sample of nonalcoholic married men (n = 125). The proportion of alcoholic men who reported 1 or more extramarital affairs in the previous year (14%) was significantly higher than that of the community sample (4%). Additionally, only 2 alcoholic husbands and 1 nonalcoholic husband reported that his wife was aware of the extramarital relationship. For both groups, none of the men who engaged in extramarital relationships reported consistent use of condoms when having sexual intercourse with their wives or with their extramarital partners. These results suggest that wives of alcoholic men are unknowingly placed at risk for indirect exposure to STIs as a result of their husbands' sexual risk behaviors. Thus, infidelity in treatment-seeking alcohol-abusing men represents a significant public health issue.

  17. Neurobiological and memory models of risky decision making in adolescents versus young adults.

    PubMed

    Reyna, Valerie F; Estrada, Steven M; DeMarinis, Jessica A; Myers, Regina M; Stanisz, Janine M; Mills, Britain A

    2011-09-01

    Predictions of fuzzy-trace theory and neurobiological approaches are examined regarding risk taking in a classic decision-making task--the framing task--as well as in the context of real-life risk taking. We report the 1st study of framing effects in adolescents versus adults, varying risk and reward, and relate choices to individual differences, sexual behavior, and behavioral intentions. As predicted by fuzzy-trace theory, adolescents modulated risk taking according to risk and reward. Adults showed standard framing, reflecting greater emphasis on gist-based (qualitative) reasoning, but adolescents displayed reverse framing when potential gains for risk taking were high, reflecting greater emphasis on verbatim-based (quantitative) reasoning. Reverse framing signals a different way of thinking compared with standard framing (reverse framing also differs from simply choosing the risky option). Measures of verbatim- and gist-based reasoning about risk, sensation seeking, behavioral activation, and inhibition were used to extract dimensions of risk proneness: Sensation seeking increased and then decreased, whereas inhibition increased from early adolescence to young adulthood, predicted by neurobiological theories. Two additional dimensions, verbatim- and gist-based reasoning about risk, loaded separately and predicted unique variance in risk taking. Importantly, framing responses predicted real-life risk taking. Reasoning was the most consistent predictor of real-life risk taking: (a) Intentions to have sex, sexual behavior, and number of partners decreased when gist-based reasoning was triggered by retrieval cues in questions about perceived risk, whereas (b) intentions to have sex and number of partners increased when verbatim-based reasoning was triggered by different retrieval cues in questions about perceived risk.

  18. Discotheques and the risk of hearing loss among youth: risky listening behavior and its psychosocial correlates.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Ineke; Brug, Johannes; Van der Ploeg, Catharina P B; Raat, Hein

    2010-10-01

    There is an increasing population at risk of hearing loss and tinnitus due to increasing high-volume music listening. To inform prevention strategies and interventions, this study aimed to identify important protection motivation theory-based constructs as well as the constructs 'consideration of future consequences' and 'habit strength' as correlates of adolescents' unsafe discotheque-visiting behavior. We invited 1687 adolescents (12-19 years old) at Dutch secondary schools to complete questionnaires about music-listening behaviors, sociodemographic characteristics and psychosocial determinants of behavior. Over 70% of participants reported to have visited discotheques; 24.6% of them were categorized as visitors at risk for hearing loss due to estimated exposure of 100 dBA for 1.25 hours per week or more without the use of hearing protection. Compared with visitors not at risk for hearing loss, those at risk were more likely not to live with both parents and less likely to consider future consequences and for them visiting high-volume music discotheques was more habitual. Risky exposure to high-volume music in discotheques is associated with several sociodemographic and psychosocial factors, with habit strength being the strongest correlate. Voluntary behavior change among adolescents might be difficult to achieve, because visiting discotheques seems to be strongly linked to current adolescent lifestyle.

  19. Effects of combat deployment on risky and self-destructive behavior among active duty military personnel.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Cynthia J; Stander, Valerie A; McWhorter, Stephanie K; Rabenhorst, Mandy M; Milner, Joel S

    2011-10-01

    Although research has documented negative effects of combat deployment on mental health, few studies have examined whether deployment increases risky or self-destructive behavior. The present study addressed this issue. In addition, we examined whether deployment effects on risky behavior varied depending on history of pre-deployment risky behavior, and assessed whether psychiatric conditions mediated effects of deployment on risky behavior. In an anonymous survey, active duty members of the U.S. Marine Corps and U.S. Navy (N = 2116) described their deployment experiences and their participation in risky recreational activities, unprotected sex, illegal drug use, self-injurious behavior, and suicide attempts during three time frames (civilian, military pre-deployment, and military post-deployment). Respondents also reported whether they had problems with depression, anxiety, or PTSD during the same three time frames. Results revealed that risky behavior was much more common in civilian than in military life, with personnel who had not deployed, compared to those who had deployed, reporting more risky behavior and more psychiatric problems as civilians. For the current time period, in contrast, personnel who had deployed (versus never deployed) were significantly more likely to report both risky behavior and psychiatric problems. Importantly, deployment was associated with increases in risky behavior only for personnel with a pre-deployment history of engaging in risky behavior. Although psychiatric conditions were associated with higher levels of risky behavior, psychiatric problems did not mediate associations between deployment and risky behavior. Implications for understanding effects of combat deployment on active duty personnel and directions for future research are discussed.

  20. Factors affecting stability and change in risky driving from late adolescence to the late twenties.

    PubMed

    Vassallo, Suzanne; Lahausse, Julie; Edwards, Ben

    2016-03-01

    The risky driving tendencies of young drivers has been extensively researched, but much less is known about across-time patterns of risky driving behavior and the factors which influence these. This study identified factors associated with stable, increasing and decreasing risky driving trajectories among 751 Australian drivers participating in an ongoing longitudinal study. Five groups were formed on the basis of participants' patterns of risky driving from 19-20 to 27-28 years (i.e., stable low-risk, stable speeding, stable high-risk, increasing and decreasing). Very few participants exhibited a stable high-risk pattern. Characteristics that differentiated the different across-time groups were identified using Multinomial Logistic Regression. The most consistent correlates of risky driving patterns were antisocial behavior, binge drinking and relationship status. Sex, school completion, temperament, civic engagement, and antisocial peer friendships were also correlated with different across-time patterns. The implications of these findings for road safety are discussed.

  1. Neural Mechanisms of Risky Decision-Making and Reward Response in Adolescent Onset Cannabis Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    De Bellis, Michael D.; Wang, Lihong; Bergman, Sara R.; Yaxley, Richard H.; Hooper, Stephen R.; Huettel, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Neural mechanisms of decision-making and reward response in adolescent cannabis use disorder (CUD) are underexplored. Methods Three groups of male adolescents were studied: CUD in full remission (n=15); controls with psychopathology without substance use disorder history(n=23); and healthy controls(n=18). We investigated neural processing of decision-making and reward under conditions of varying risk and uncertainty with the Decision-Reward Uncertainty Task while participants were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results Abstinent adolescents with CUD compared to controls with psychopathology showed hyperactivation in one cluster that spanned left superior parietal lobule/left lateral occipital cortex/precuneus while making risky decisions that involved uncertainty, and hypoactivation in left orbitofrontal cortex to rewarded outcomes compared to no-reward after making risky decisions. Post-hoc region of interest analyses revealed that both control groups significantly differed from the CUD group (but not from each other) during both the decision-making and reward outcome phase of the Decision-Reward Uncertainty Task. In the CUD group, orbitofrontal activations to reward significantly and negatively correlated with total number of individual drug classes the CUD patients experimented with prior to treatment. CUD duration significantly and negatively correlated with orbitofrontal activations to no-reward. Conclusions The adolescent CUD group demonstrated distinctly different activation patterns during risky decision-making and reward processing (after risky decision-making) compared to both the controls with psychopathology and healthy control groups. These findings suggest that neural differences in risky decision-making and reward processes are present in adolescent addiction, persist after remission from first CUD treatment, and may contribute to vulnerability for adolescent addiction. PMID:23773952

  2. A longitudinal examination of parenting processes and Latino youth's risky sexual behaviors.

    PubMed

    Killoren, Sarah E; Deutsch, Arielle R

    2014-12-01

    Latino adolescents engage in riskier sexual behaviors compared to their peers, shown by their higher rates of sexually transmitted infections and lower rates of condom usage; therefore, examining the precursors and correlates of these risky sexual behaviors is important for prevention-intervention program development. Based on cultural-ecological, symbolic interaction, and gender socialization perspectives, we examined associations among mothers' and fathers' parenting and Latino youth's sexual risk over a 5 year period. Further, we investigated the direct and moderating roles of acculturation (e.g., language spoken in the home), nativity (e.g., citizenship status), and adolescents' gender. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (N = 1,899 Latino youth; 49 % female), we conducted a multi-level path model controlling for adolescents' age and prior sexual experience. Our findings revealed that more strictness by mothers and less strictness by fathers at Time 1 were related to lower sexual risk for adolescents at Time 2. Additionally, more monitoring by fathers at Time 2 was associated with lower sexual risk for adolescents at Time 3. Significant gender differences were found such that there were stronger associations among parenting processes and sexual risk for girls than for boys. Finally, we found support for the immigrant paradox (foreign-born youth reported lower sexual risk than US-born youth) and greater gender differences (boys had riskier sexual behaviors than girls) for immigrant compared to US-born youth. The findings reveal the complex associations among parenting processes, nativity status, gender, and sexual risk for Latino adolescents. PMID:24186702

  3. Preventing Adolescent Risk Behavior in the Rural Context: An Integrative Analysis of Adolescent, Parent, and Provider Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rishel, Carrie W.; Cottrell, Lesley; Kingery, Tricia

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent risk behavior remains prevalent and contributes to numerous social problems and growing health care costs. Contrary to popular perception, adolescents in rural areas engage in risky behaviors at least as much as youth from urban or suburban settings. Little research, however, focuses on risk behavior prevention in the rural context.…

  4. Identifying Mediators of the Influence of Family Factors on Risky Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Burt, Callie Harbin; Tambling, Rachel Blyskal

    2013-01-01

    Participation in risky sexual behaviors has many deleterious consequences and is a source of concern for parents as well as practitioners, researchers, and public policy makers. Past research has examined the effect of family structure and supportive parenting on risky sexual behaviors among emerging adults. In the present study, we attempt to…

  5. An Examination of Risky Drinking Behaviors and Motivations for Alcohol Use in a College Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Brynn E.; Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Linden, Ashley N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined (1) drinking motives as a mediator of risky drinking behaviors (ie, pregaming and drinking games) and alcohol-related problems and (2) whether gender moderates the association between risky drinking behaviors and negative consequences. Participants: Participants ("N" = 368; 68% female) were drinkers…

  6. Child Abuse, Early Maladaptive Schemas, and Risky Sexual Behavior in College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roemmele, Melissa; Messman-Moore, Terri L.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that individuals abused as children are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior during adulthood. The present study examined early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the child abuse-risky sexual behavior relationship among 653 college women. Self-report surveys assessed three forms of child abuse: Sexual,…

  7. Trajectories of psychopathology and risky behaviors associated with childhood abuse and neglect in low-income urban African American girls.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Helen W; Samuelson, Sarah L; Staudenmeyer, Anna H; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2015-07-01

    The current study examined patterns of psychopathology, drug and alcohol use, and sexual behavior associated with childhood abuse and neglect in a high-risk sample of low-income African American girls seeking mental health treatment. Participants (N=177) were African American girls recruited from mental health clinics serving low-income communities in Chicago, IL and followed over six waves of data collection (T1-T6) reflecting early (mean age 14) to late (mean age 17) adolescence. Child abuse and neglect history was determined from adolescent and caregiver reports. Latent curve modeling examined patterns of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, drug and alcohol use, sexual experience, and risky sexual behavior reported by girls and associations with reported child abuse and neglect. Overall, these trajectories indicated a decrease in internalizing and externalizing symptoms, stability of drug and alcohol use, and an increase in sexual experience and risky sexual behaviors over time. Child abuse and neglect was associated with increased internalizing symptoms and sexual experience at baseline and with externalizing symptoms and risky sexual behavior both at baseline and the final point. Child abuse and neglect was not significantly associated with alcohol or drug use. This study adds to the literature on the long-term consequences of child abuse and neglect by demonstrating patterns of psychopathology and risky behavior that persist over time in a high-risk group of girls with self or parent reported histories of abuse and neglect. Interventions that address externalizing problems and health risk behaviors may be of particular importance for this population.

  8. Crash and Risky Driving Involvement Among Novice Adolescent Drivers and Their Parents

    PubMed Central

    Ouimet, Marie Claude; Zhang, Zhiwei; Klauer, Sheila E.; Lee, Suzanne E.; Wang, Jing; Albert, Paul S.; Dingus, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We compared rates of risky driving among novice adolescent and adult drivers over the first 18 months of adolescents' licensure. Methods. Data-recording systems installed in participants’ vehicles provided information on driving performance of 42 newly licensed adolescent drivers and their parents. We analyzed crashes and near crashes and elevated g-force event rates by Poisson regression with random effects. Results. During the study period, adolescents were involved in 279 crashes or near crashes (1 involving injury); parents had 34 such accidents. The incidence rate ratio (IRR) comparing adolescent and parent crash and near-crash rates was 3.91. Among adolescent drivers, elevated rates of g-force events correlated with crashes and near crashes (r = 0.60; P < .001). The IRR comparing incident rates of risky driving among adolescents and parents was 5.08. Adolescents’ rates of crashes and near crashes declined with time (with a significant uptick in the last quarter), but elevated g-force event rates did not decline. Conclusions. Elevated g-force events among adolescents may have contributed to crash and near-crash rates that remained much higher than adult levels after 18 months of driving. PMID:22021319

  9. Does Awareness of Status and Risks of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Impact Risky Transmission Behavior Among Infected Adolescents? A Case Study of Clients Attending an Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Clinic in Kano, Kano State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Lawan, Umar Muhammad; Envuladu, Esther Awazzi; Abubakar, Sanusi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive adolescents by virtue of their position are prone to dangerous behaviors including risk-taking for HIV transmission. Objective: To determine the awareness of HIV status and risk factors for HIV transmission among HIV-positive adolescents, and how these impact their behavior. Materials and Methods: A case study approach was used to study a random sample of 400 HIV-positive adolescent children attending an antiretroviral (ART) clinic in Kano, Kano State, Nigeria. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 16.0 computer statistical software. Result: The mean age of the adolescents was 14.9 ± 3.15 years. The majority were females (54.8%) from a polygamous family (57.5%). About two-thirds or 251 (62.8%) patients knew their HIV status. The age of 14 years and above (z = 11.36, P = 0.0001) and having at least secondary school level of education (z = 2.78, P = 0.005) were significantly associated with awareness of HIV status on binary logistic regression. Up to 311 (77.8%) patients had good awareness of the risks of HIV transmission. Awareness of risk of HIV transmission was associated with awareness of HIV status (X2 = 166.2, P = 0.0001). There was a significant variation in the behaviors between those who were aware of their HIV status and those who were not. Paradoxically, the percentage differences in risk-taking were remarkably high in all the variables examined, and were all in the direction of the adolescents who had good knowledge of the risk factors for HIV transmission. Conclusion and Recommendation: Health ministries, development partners working in this field, and behavioral change communication experts should develop formidable strategies for addressing this menace. There is also a dire need for further research in this area. PMID:27051087

  10. HIV knowledge and risky sexual behavior among men in Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Rugigana, Etienne; Birungi, Francine; Nzayirambaho, Manassé

    2015-01-01

    Introduction New infections of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) remain a big problem in many countries. Different interventions have been implemented to improve the general knowledge of HIV, with the hypothesis that increasing HIV knowledge will reduce risky sexual behavior (RSB). However, HIV knowledge may not necessarily reduce RSB. This study explores HIV knowledge and its effect on RSB. Methods The study used data from the 2005 and 2010 Rwanda Demographic and Health Surveys to analyze the association between HIV risk factors and two types of RSB (having two or more partners in the past 12 months; and among those with two or more partners, not using a condom at last sex) and the association between HIV knowledge and those RSB. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine predictors of RSB. Results Among 2,773 men in 2005 and 3,772 men in 2010, 5% and 7% respectively reported having two or more sexual partners. Among them, 93% in 2005 and 74% in 2010 did not use a condom at the last sex. Between 2005 and 2010, knowledge of the protective effect of having just one uninfected faithful partner, and basic knowledge of HIV decreased. Knowledge of the protective effect of using condoms increased from 90% to 94%. However, HIV knowledge was not associated with either type of RSB. Conclusion In setting up policies and strategies related to HIV prevention, policymakers should consider that focusing on HIV knowledge is not sufficient in itself. PMID:27047620

  11. Pubertal Development and Peer Influence on Risky Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kretsch, Natalie; Harden, Kathryn Paige

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents engage in more risky behavior when they are with peers and show, on average, heightened susceptibility to peer influence relative to children and adults. However, individual differences in susceptibility to peer influence are not well understood. The current study examined whether the effect of peers on adolescents' risky decision…

  12. Prevalence of pattern of risky behaviors for reproductive and sexual health among middle- and high-school students.

    PubMed

    Campo-Arias, Adalberto; Ceballo, Guillermo Augusto; Herazo, Edwin

    2010-01-01

    This research aimed to establish the prevalence and factors associated with the pattern of risky behavior for reproductive and sexual health (PRBRSH) among secondary education students in Santa Marta, Colombia. A cross-sectional study was done. The PRBRSH was defined as having had two or more out of four possible risky sexual practices across the lifetime. Logistic regression was calculated to control for confounding variables. In total, 804 students reported lifetime sexual intercourse. PRBRSH was reported by 36.1% of the sample. Illegal substance use (OR=11.4), alcohol drinking (OR=2.5), being a middle-school student (OR=1.7) and middle or high socioeconomic status (1.4) were associated with PRBRSH. Around one out of three adolescent students is at high risk for HIV infection or unwanted pregnancy. Safe sex practices need to be promoted in this population. PMID:20549114

  13. Safe Passage: Making It through Adolescence in a Risky Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dryfoos, Joy G.

    The primary job of parents is to ensure safe passage for their children from infancy through adolescence to adulthood. Research has indicated many things schools can do to turn the privilege of safe passage into a right. Three research-based programs that work to achieve safe passage are described. The first is Caring Connection, a "one-stop-shop"…

  14. Economic booms and risky sexual behavior: evidence from Zambian copper mining cities.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Nicholas

    2012-12-01

    Existing studies suggest that individual and household level economic shocks affect the demand for and supply of risky sex. However, little evidence exists on the effects of an aggregate shock on equilibrium risky sexual behavior. This paper examines the effects of the early twenty-first century copper boom on risky sexual behavior in Zambian copper mining cities. The results suggest that the copper boom substantially reduced rates of transactional sex and multiple partnerships in copper mining cities. These effects were partly concentrated among young adults and copper boom induced in-migration to mining cities appears to have contributed to these reductions.

  15. Risky and Protective Contexts and Exposure to Violence in Urban African American Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Maryse H.; Larson, Reed; Miller, Bobbi Viegas; Luo, Zupei; Sims, Belinda; Parrella, David P.; McCauley, Cathy

    2004-01-01

    Contexts of risk for and protection from exposure to violence were identified and the relation of exposure to violence to delinquent behaviors and symptoms of trauma was examined. Using the Experience Sampling Method (ESM), the immediate daily experience of risky and protective contexts was examined. One hundred sixty-seven African American 6th-,…

  16. Brief Report: Risk-Taking Behaviors in a Non-Western Urban Adolescent Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayar, Nalan; Sayil, Melike

    2005-01-01

    This study analyzes the age and gender related risk-taking behaviors of Turkish adolescents in an urban sample. A self-report risk taking scale was administered to 280 adolescents between the ages of 12-21. Results revealed that both the type and the frequency of risk-taking behaviors were changed according to age and gender. All risky behaviors…

  17. Risky health-related behaviours among school-aged adolescents: a rational 'consumer' choice?

    PubMed

    Hartley, Jane E K

    2016-05-01

    Within the contemporary culture of consumption, school-aged adolescents, though neither waged nor salaried producers, are nevertheless treated by the media and the advertisers as if they are active consumers who are engaged in the project of the self. For those adolescents who lack the financial resources to 'buy into' this culture, anxiety may ensue. In order to ease this anxiety, and to acquire social status, some - not all - may make the 'rational' 'consumer' choice to engage in risky health-related behaviour. In situ ethnographic research is needed in order to complement and inform the existing survey-based evidence on the relationship between economic status and health-related behaviour among school-aged adolescents as they deal with the pressures of consumerism. PMID:25781521

  18. [Depression and risk behavior in adolescence].

    PubMed

    Heger, Johanna Pia; Brunner, Romuald; Parzer, Peter; Fischer, Gloria; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a vulnerable period which is associated with a heightened risk for the development of depressive disorders. Risk-behaviors like alcohol or illicit drug abuse, excessive use of media, school absenteeism and lack of sleep are also frequently occurring during this period; it is often suggested that such behaviors may be associated with mental health problems. This article includes a selective overview of literature to investigate the relation between depression and risk-behavior in adolescence; these results are compared with the results from a representative sample of German pupils who were examined in the context of the European school study SEYLE. Data from a school-based sample of 1,434 pupils with a mean age of 14.7 years (SD = 0.8) was used. Most risk-behaviors tend to be associated with increased likelihood for the development of depression and are correlated with the severity of depressive symptomatology. In this sample, alcohol abuse, smoking, media use, lack of physical activity, risky sexual behavior, school absenteeism, and sleeping problems showed an impact on the level of depression which was consistent with previous research. Illicit drug abuse showed no significant impact on depressive symptoms of young people. Further longitudinal studies are necessary to elucidate the directional relationship between depression and risk behavior in adolescence. The potential value of adolescent risk-behavior as a possible warning sign for early detection of depressive symptoms also warrants further investigation. PMID:24707767

  19. Adolescents' risky decision-making activates neural networks related to social cognition and cognitive control processes.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, María José; Padrón, Iván; de Vega, Manuel; Ferstl, Evelyn C

    2014-01-01

    This study examines by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging the neural mechanisms underlying adolescents' risk decision-making in social contexts. We hypothesize that the social context could engage brain regions associated with social cognition processes and developmental changes are also expected. Sixty participants (adolescents: 17-18, and young adults: 21-22 years old) read narratives describing typical situations of decision-making in the presence of peers. They were asked to make choices in risky situations (e.g., taking or refusing a drug) or ambiguous situations (e.g., eating a hamburger or a hotdog). Risky as compared to ambiguous scenarios activated bilateral temporoparietal junction (TPJ), bilateral middle temporal gyrus (MTG), right medial prefrontal cortex, and the precuneus bilaterally; i.e., brain regions related to social cognition processes, such as self-reflection and theory of mind (ToM). In addition, brain structures related to cognitive control were active [right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), bilateral orbitofrontal cortex], whereas no significant clusters were obtained in the reward system (ventral striatum). Choosing the dangerous option involved a further activation of control areas (ACC) and emotional and social cognition areas (temporal pole). Adolescents employed more neural resources than young adults in the right DLPFC and the right TPJ in risk situations. When choosing the dangerous option, young adults showed a further engagement in ToM related regions (bilateral MTG) and in motor control regions related to the planning of actions (pre-supplementary motor area). Finally, the right insula and the right superior temporal gyrus were more activated in women than in men, suggesting more emotional involvement and more intensive modeling of the others' perspective in the risky conditions. These findings call for more comprehensive developmental accounts of decision-making in

  20. Health-risk behaviors in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Rew, Lynn; Horner, Sharon D; Brown, Adama

    2011-01-01

    The major morbidities and mortalities of adolescents are related to preventable risky behaviors, but how, when, and in whom these behaviors develop in early adolescence is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine which set of risk factors and protective resources of school-age children were best predictors of health-risk behaviors in early adolescence. A longitudinal, cohort sequential design was used with a diverse sample of 1,934 children in grades 4 through 8. Parents provided demographic and neighborhood data for children through a mailed survey. Children completed valid scales annually at schools, using audio-computer-assisted self-interviewing (A-CASI) technology. Significant gender and racial/ethnic differences were found in carrying a weapon and using alcohol. Higher perceived levels of stress increased the risk for alcohol use as did riding in a car with a driver who was drinking. Health behaviors exhibited while in 4th through 6th grades protected early adolescents from alcohol use and riding in a car with a driver who was drinking. A parent's education and perceived safety in neighborhood protected against carrying a weapon and smoking. Many findings are similar to those of national samples, but others show positive differences in this localized sample, over 50% of whom were Latino. Protective resources suggest numerous nursing interventions to promote healthy adolescent development.

  1. Maternal Drinking and Risky Sexual Behavior in Offspring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Genna, Natacha M.; Cornelius, Marie D.

    2015-01-01

    Teenage mothers are more likely to use drugs, and their children are more likely to use substances and become pregnant during adolescence. Teenage mothers' substance use may play a role in the intergenerational risk for adolescent pregnancy. Pregnant adolescents (12-18 years) were seen during pregnancy and postnatal years 6, 10, 14, and 16 (n =…

  2. Emotional abilities as predictors of risky driving behavior among a cohort of middle aged drivers.

    PubMed

    Arnau-Sabatés, Laura; Sala-Roca, Josefina; Jariot-Garcia, Mercè

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between emotional abilities and the influence of this relationship on self reported drivers' risky attitudes. The risky driving attitudes and emotional abilities of 177 future driving instructors were measured. The results demonstrate that risky attitudes correlate negatively with emotional abilities. Regression analysis showed that adaptability and interpersonal abilities explained the differences observed in the global risk attitude index. There were some differences in the specific risk factors. The variability observed in the speed and distraction and fatigue factors could also be explained by interpersonal and adaptability abilities. Nevertheless the tendency to take risks was explained by stress management and also interpersonal components. Emotional abilities have the weakest relation with alcohol and drugs factor, and in this case the variability observed was explained by the adaptability component. The results obtained highlight the importance take off including emotional abilities in prevention programs to reduce risky driving behaviors.

  3. Emotional abilities as predictors of risky driving behavior among a cohort of middle aged drivers.

    PubMed

    Arnau-Sabatés, Laura; Sala-Roca, Josefina; Jariot-Garcia, Mercè

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between emotional abilities and the influence of this relationship on self reported drivers' risky attitudes. The risky driving attitudes and emotional abilities of 177 future driving instructors were measured. The results demonstrate that risky attitudes correlate negatively with emotional abilities. Regression analysis showed that adaptability and interpersonal abilities explained the differences observed in the global risk attitude index. There were some differences in the specific risk factors. The variability observed in the speed and distraction and fatigue factors could also be explained by interpersonal and adaptability abilities. Nevertheless the tendency to take risks was explained by stress management and also interpersonal components. Emotional abilities have the weakest relation with alcohol and drugs factor, and in this case the variability observed was explained by the adaptability component. The results obtained highlight the importance take off including emotional abilities in prevention programs to reduce risky driving behaviors. PMID:22269574

  4. Acculturation, alcohol consumption and AIDS-related risky sexual behavior among African American women.

    PubMed

    Hines, A M; Snowden, L R; Graves, K L

    1998-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between acculturation, alcohol consumption and AIDS-related risky sexual behavior in a national probability sample of 533 African American women. Results indicated that women who were the heaviest drinkers were also the least acculturated. However, women most likely to engage in risky sexual behavior, including having multiple partners, being nonmonogamous or in a nonmonogamous relationship, and being nonmonogamous or in a nonmonogamous relationship and not using a condom consistently, were high in acculturation rather than low. Alcohol use proved related to risky sexual behavior when considered in conjunction with respondents' level of acculturation. Women at risk for contracting AIDS were not low acculturated African American women who drank heavily, but high acculturated African American women. Findings from this study extend our understanding of risk and contain implications for research and prevention efforts in the area of alcohol use and AIDS-related sexual behavior among African American women.

  5. Growth in Adolescent Delinquency and Alcohol Use in Relation to Young Adult Crime, Alcohol Use Disorders, and Risky Sex: A Comparison of Youth from Low- versus Middle-Income Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, W. Alex; Hitch, Julia E.; Kosterman, Rick; McCarty, Carolyn A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Hawkins, J. David

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study examined adolescent delinquency and alcohol use in relation to young adult crime, alcohol use disorders (AUDs), and risky sex. Analyses further examined the influences of late childhood involvement in these problem behavior outcomes, with mediation through teen delinquency and alcohol use, and examined differences in the…

  6. The Risky Business of Adolescence: How To Help Teens Stay Safe--Part I. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session (June 17, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

    This document, comprising the first of two parts, contains testimony examining the vulnerability of today's youth to health problems because of risky sexual behaviors and substance abuse, and how adolescents may be encouraged to make healthy choices. An opening statement by Representative Patricia Schroeder is presented. Testimony from these…

  7. The Risky Business of Adolescence: How To Help Teens Stay Safe--Part II. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session (June 18, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

    This document, comprising the second of two parts, contains testimony examing the vulnerability of today's youth to health problems because of risky sexual behaviors and substance abuse, and how adolescents may be encouraged to make healthy choices. An opening statement by Representative Patricia Schroeder is presented. Testimony from these…

  8. Adolescents' Demonstrative Behavior Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parfilova, Gulfiya G.; Karimova, Lilia Sh.

    2016-01-01

    The problem of demonstrative behavior is very topical among teenagers and this issue has become the subject of systematic scientific research. Demonstrative manifestations in adolescents disrupt the favorable socialization; therefore, understanding, prevention and correction of demonstrative behavior at this age is relevant and requires special…

  9. Sexual Behavior of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Hilmar

    1978-01-01

    Confined to discussion of heterosexual activities, this article examines adolescent sexual behavior in terms of promiscuity; the search for a sexual behavior code; the impact of the media; and the influence of peer groups, religious identification, and the adult double standard. (JC)

  10. Relations Between Trait Impulsivity, Behavioral Impulsivity, Physiological Arousal, and Risky Sexual Behavior among Young Men

    PubMed Central

    Derefinko, Karen J.; Peters, Jessica R.; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A.; Walsh, Erin C.; Adams, Zachary W.; Lynam, Donald R.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined how impulsivity-related traits (negative urgency, sensation seeking, and positive urgency), behavioral measures of risk taking and reward seeking, and physiological reactivity related to three different risky sexual behaviors in sexually active undergraduate men (N = 135). Regression analyses indicated that sensation seeking and behavioral risk-taking predicted unique variance in number of sexual partners. These findings suggest that, for young men, acquisition of new partners is associated with need for excitement and reward and willingness to take risks to meet those needs. Sensation seeking, behavioral risk-taking, and skin conductance reactivity to arousing stimuli was related to ever having engaged in sex with a stranger, indicating that, for men, willingness to have sex with a stranger is related not only to the need for excitement and risk-taking but also with innate responsiveness to arousing environmental triggers. In contrast, regression analyses indicated that young men who were impulsive in the context of negative emotions were less likely to use condoms, suggesting that emotion-based impulsivity may be an important factor in negligent prophylactic use. This study adds to the current understanding of the divergence between the correlates of risky sexual behaviors and may lend utility to the development of individualized HIV prevention programming. PMID:24958252

  11. Youth Personality Factors as Predictors of Risky All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV) Driving Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Jinnah, H A; Stoneman, Z

    2016-04-01

    Children and youth account for a disproportionately high number of all-terrain vehicle (ATV) related injuries and deaths. This study explored whether and how youth personality factors such as sensation seeking (including thrill seeking and behavioral intensity) and youth safety consciousness predict risky A TV riding behaviors. Survey information was collected from farm families in Georgia having youth who were active on farms. Data were analyzed from 104 youth between the ages 10 through 14 years who were active users ofATVs. Boys and girls had similar exposure to ATVs. Risky ATV riding behaviors were associated with age but not with gender. Boys and girls were equally likely to drive adult-sized ATVs, drive ATVs on public roads, drive ATVs fast, and carry extra passengers on single-seat ATVs. Boys had higher scores than girls on personality factors like thrill seeking and behavioral intensity. Hierarchical regression revealed that although there were multiple determinants of risky ATV riding behaviors of youth, thrill seeking appeared to be an important factor, which was moderated by safety consciousness. Youth who are low in thrill seeking and have a high level of safety consciousness reported less risky ATV riding behaviors. High thrill seekers were more likely to report indulging in risky ATV riding behaviors regardless of their level of safety consciousness. Our results suggest that personality traits (such as sensation seeking) of the target population should be considered when developing ATV safety interventions, as these traits will likely influence an intervention's level of success. Low thrill seekers would be prime candidates for safety training, as an increase in their safety consciousness may be more likely to result in decreased risky riding behaviors. High thrill seekers may be less amenable to training and will more likely require interventions external to the individual, including legislation, improved ATV safety design, use of crush protection

  12. Youth Personality Factors as Predictors of Risky All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV) Driving Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Jinnah, H A; Stoneman, Z

    2016-04-01

    Children and youth account for a disproportionately high number of all-terrain vehicle (ATV) related injuries and deaths. This study explored whether and how youth personality factors such as sensation seeking (including thrill seeking and behavioral intensity) and youth safety consciousness predict risky A TV riding behaviors. Survey information was collected from farm families in Georgia having youth who were active on farms. Data were analyzed from 104 youth between the ages 10 through 14 years who were active users ofATVs. Boys and girls had similar exposure to ATVs. Risky ATV riding behaviors were associated with age but not with gender. Boys and girls were equally likely to drive adult-sized ATVs, drive ATVs on public roads, drive ATVs fast, and carry extra passengers on single-seat ATVs. Boys had higher scores than girls on personality factors like thrill seeking and behavioral intensity. Hierarchical regression revealed that although there were multiple determinants of risky ATV riding behaviors of youth, thrill seeking appeared to be an important factor, which was moderated by safety consciousness. Youth who are low in thrill seeking and have a high level of safety consciousness reported less risky ATV riding behaviors. High thrill seekers were more likely to report indulging in risky ATV riding behaviors regardless of their level of safety consciousness. Our results suggest that personality traits (such as sensation seeking) of the target population should be considered when developing ATV safety interventions, as these traits will likely influence an intervention's level of success. Low thrill seekers would be prime candidates for safety training, as an increase in their safety consciousness may be more likely to result in decreased risky riding behaviors. High thrill seekers may be less amenable to training and will more likely require interventions external to the individual, including legislation, improved ATV safety design, use of crush protection

  13. Other-Sex Friendships in Late Adolescence: Risky Associations for Substance Use and Sexual Debut?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mrug, Sylvie; Borch, Casey; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents' friendships with other-sex peers serve important developmental functions, but they may also facilitate engagement in problem behavior. This study examines the unique contributions of other-sex friendships and friends' behavior to alcohol use, smoking, and initiation of sexual intercourse among late adolescent girls and boys. A total…

  14. Childhood Sexual Abuse in Males and Subsequent Risky Sexual Behavior: A Potential Alcohol-Use Pathway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Davis, Kelly Cue; George, William H.; Norris, Jeanette

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among boys has been associated with a variety of subsequent maladaptive behaviors. This study explored a potential connection between CSA and an increased likelihood of risky sexual behavior in adulthood. Further, the study examined whether or not alcohol use may contribute to this relationship. Method: As…

  15. Collective Behavior and the Risky Shift: A Theory of Communication Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtright, John A.

    The purpose of this essay was to propose a new explanation of collective behavior and to hypothesize the role of communication in this process. Unlike previous theories, which rely on a group effect, this explanation is based on the behavior of individual members of the collectivity. Using the experimental finding of the "risky shift," or the…

  16. Psychological Control Associated with Youth Adjustment and Risky Behavior in African American Single Mother Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincaid, Carlye; Jones, Deborah J.; Cuellar, Jessica; Gonzalez, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    A distinction between parental behavioral control and psychological control has been elucidated in the literature, yet far less is known about the role of psychological control in youth adjustment broadly or risky behavior in particular. We examined the interrelationship of maternal psychological control, youth psychosocial adjustment, and youth…

  17. Factors Influencing the Relationship between Sexual Trauma and Risky Sexual Behavior in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Nicole L.; Johnson, Dawn M.

    2013-01-01

    While the relationship between sexual trauma and risky sexual behavior (RSB) has received much attention, only a handful of studies have investigated the factors that protect victims of sexual trauma from developing this maladaptive pattern of behavior. The current study investigated the protective role of social support, quality and quantity, in…

  18. Alcohol consumption, strength of religious beliefs, and risky sexual behavior in college students.

    PubMed

    Poulson, R L; Eppler, M A; Satterwhite, T N; Wuensch, K L; Bass, L A

    1998-03-01

    Relationships among alcohol use, strength of religious convictions, and unsafe sexual practices of 210 students at a large public university in the "bible belt" were examined. The women with strong religious beliefs consumed less alcohol and were less likely to engage in risky sexual behavior than were female participants with weaker religious convictions. Among the men, religious conviction was not significantly correlated with alcohol consumption or risky sexual behavior, but alcohol consumption and inconsistent use of condoms and multiple sexual partners were significantly correlated. Men had higher rates of alcohol consumption and unprotected sexual activity than women did, yet the two groups did not differ in overall frequency of sexual activity. Future research is needed to (a) provide greater understanding of gender differences in alcohol use, risky sexual behavior, and religious beliefs of college students in the region and (b) determine whether similar correlations exist in other areas of the country.

  19. Parenting behaviors during risky driving by teens with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Schatz, Nicole K; Fabiano, Gregory A; Morris, Karen L; Shucard, Jennifer M; Leo, Brittany A; Bieniek, Courtney

    2014-03-01

    Parenting practices for teen drivers with ADHD were observed via a video monitor installed in vehicles. All teens had recently completed a driver education course and were in the driving permit stage of a graduated driver-licensing program. Parent behaviors were coded during drives when teens were driving safely and during drives when teens engaged in risky driving. The overall frequency of positive parenting strategies was low, regardless of whether teens drove safely or engaged in risky driving. Although the rate of negative feedback was also low, parents engaged in significantly more criticism and were rated by an observer to appear angrier when teens were driving in a risky manner. No other differences in parent behaviors associated with the quality of teen driving were observed. The inconsistencies between observed parenting behaviors and those parenting practices recommended as effective with teens with ADHD are discussed. The need for further research addressing effective strategies for teaching teens with ADHD to drive is highlighted.

  20. Early adolescents' sexual behaviors.

    PubMed

    Porter, C P; Ronis, D L; Oakley, D J; Guthrie, B J; Killion, C

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze changes in early adolescents' intimate behaviors and the initiation of sexual intercourse over a one-year time period. The changes are interpreted within the context of recent progress in understanding the development of early adolescents. Public school students in sixth and ninth grades of selected schools in a midwestern industrial city were studied in two waves of data collection. A total of 106 students provided data for the second year, allowing comparisons of their Time 2 with their Time 1 responses. Five of eight intimate behaviors studied increased in frequency during the year. Also, the adolescents' perceived benefits of having sexual intercourse increased and perceived costs decreased during the follow-up year. Increases in the frequency of intimate behaviors but not changes in their perceptions of the benefits and costs predicted whether or not students had initiated sexual intercourse during the follow-up period. These findings support current understanding of early adolescence as a time of incremental learning about intimacy and about sexual relationships. The findings suggest that preventing early sexual intercourse may require understanding the specific behavioral competencies related to healthful development of intimacy. Pediatric nurses can be leaders in providing the necessary counseling and education to young adolescents, their families, and their communities.

  1. Effects of a Comprehensive, Multiple Risky Behavior Prevention Program on High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; LaChapelle, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to examine the effect of a multiple risky behaviors prevention program applied comprehensively throughout an entire school system involving universal, selective, and indicated levels of students at a local private high school during a 4-year period. The noncurriculum prevention program was created based upon the key elements of effective prevention programming and the need to address the growing variety of risky behaviors that the youth face today. Results (n = 469 to 614) indicated that 7 out of 15 risky behaviors statistically significantly decreased throughout the 4-year study, with 6 behaviors involving alcohol and drugs. However, many of the targeted non-substance-use risky behaviors displayed inconsistent prevalence rate patterns without statistically significant changes. These findings indicate that the frequency and intensity of programming for non-substance-use behaviors should be increased to a value at least equal to that of the substance-use behaviors. Implications for schools, prevention specialists, and future program development and research are discussed. PMID:27672475

  2. Effects of a Comprehensive, Multiple Risky Behavior Prevention Program on High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; LaChapelle, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to examine the effect of a multiple risky behaviors prevention program applied comprehensively throughout an entire school system involving universal, selective, and indicated levels of students at a local private high school during a 4-year period. The noncurriculum prevention program was created based upon the key elements of effective prevention programming and the need to address the growing variety of risky behaviors that the youth face today. Results (n = 469 to 614) indicated that 7 out of 15 risky behaviors statistically significantly decreased throughout the 4-year study, with 6 behaviors involving alcohol and drugs. However, many of the targeted non-substance-use risky behaviors displayed inconsistent prevalence rate patterns without statistically significant changes. These findings indicate that the frequency and intensity of programming for non-substance-use behaviors should be increased to a value at least equal to that of the substance-use behaviors. Implications for schools, prevention specialists, and future program development and research are discussed.

  3. Effects of a Comprehensive, Multiple Risky Behavior Prevention Program on High School Students.

    PubMed

    Collier, Crystal; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J; LaChapelle, Alicia; Davison, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to examine the effect of a multiple risky behaviors prevention program applied comprehensively throughout an entire school system involving universal, selective, and indicated levels of students at a local private high school during a 4-year period. The noncurriculum prevention program was created based upon the key elements of effective prevention programming and the need to address the growing variety of risky behaviors that the youth face today. Results (n = 469 to 614) indicated that 7 out of 15 risky behaviors statistically significantly decreased throughout the 4-year study, with 6 behaviors involving alcohol and drugs. However, many of the targeted non-substance-use risky behaviors displayed inconsistent prevalence rate patterns without statistically significant changes. These findings indicate that the frequency and intensity of programming for non-substance-use behaviors should be increased to a value at least equal to that of the substance-use behaviors. Implications for schools, prevention specialists, and future program development and research are discussed. PMID:27672475

  4. How reinforcement sensitivity and perceived risk influence young drivers' reported engagement in risky driving behaviors.

    PubMed

    Harbeck, Emma L; Glendon, A Ian

    2013-05-01

    Gray's reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST), implementing Carver and White's behavior inhibition system (BIS) and behavior approach system (BAS) scales, was used to predict reported engagement in 10 risky driving behaviors: speeding (2 levels), driving under the influence of alcohol, racing other vehicles, cell phone use (hand-held and hands free), tailgating, unsafe overtaking, driving while fatigued, and not wearing a seatbelt. Participants were 165 young male and female (n=101) drivers aged 17-25 years who held a valid Australian driver's license. Effects of the explanatory variables and specific risk perceptions upon engagement in the reported risky driving behaviors were examined using SEM analyses. Also of interest was whether perceived risk mediated the relationship between the personality variables and reported engagement in risky driving behaviors. RST variables, negative reactivity, reward responsiveness and fun seeking, accounted for unique variance in young drivers' perceived risk. Reward responsiveness and perceived risk accounted for unique variance in young drivers' reported engagement in risky driving behaviors. Negative reactivity was completely mediated by perceived risk in its negative relationship with reported engagement. To better understand driving related risk decision making, future research could usefully incorporate drivers' motivation systems. This has the potential to lead to more tailored approaches to identifying risk-prone drivers and provide information for the development and implementation of media campaigns and educational programs. PMID:23474239

  5. How reinforcement sensitivity and perceived risk influence young drivers' reported engagement in risky driving behaviors.

    PubMed

    Harbeck, Emma L; Glendon, A Ian

    2013-05-01

    Gray's reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST), implementing Carver and White's behavior inhibition system (BIS) and behavior approach system (BAS) scales, was used to predict reported engagement in 10 risky driving behaviors: speeding (2 levels), driving under the influence of alcohol, racing other vehicles, cell phone use (hand-held and hands free), tailgating, unsafe overtaking, driving while fatigued, and not wearing a seatbelt. Participants were 165 young male and female (n=101) drivers aged 17-25 years who held a valid Australian driver's license. Effects of the explanatory variables and specific risk perceptions upon engagement in the reported risky driving behaviors were examined using SEM analyses. Also of interest was whether perceived risk mediated the relationship between the personality variables and reported engagement in risky driving behaviors. RST variables, negative reactivity, reward responsiveness and fun seeking, accounted for unique variance in young drivers' perceived risk. Reward responsiveness and perceived risk accounted for unique variance in young drivers' reported engagement in risky driving behaviors. Negative reactivity was completely mediated by perceived risk in its negative relationship with reported engagement. To better understand driving related risk decision making, future research could usefully incorporate drivers' motivation systems. This has the potential to lead to more tailored approaches to identifying risk-prone drivers and provide information for the development and implementation of media campaigns and educational programs.

  6. Shared aetiology of risky sexual behaviour and adolescent misconduct: genetic and environmental influences.

    PubMed

    Verweij, K J H; Zietsch, B P; Bailey, J M; Martin, N G

    2009-02-01

    Risky sexual behaviour (RSB) is a major risk factor for serious diseases as well as unplanned pregnancy. It is not known if RSB has a genetic basis or if it is only influenced by social and cultural conditions. Adolescent conduct disorder has previously been linked to RSB and has been found to be influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. In this study, we look at normal variation in a broad measure of RSB and in retrospectively reported adolescent misconduct in a large community sample of twins (n = 4904) to partition the variance and covariance between the traits into genetic and environmental components. We found that RSB is influenced to the same extent by genes, shared environment and unshared environment. Adolescent misconduct is moderately influenced by genetic factors and only modestly by shared environmental factors. Moreover, RSB is associated with adolescent misconduct (r = 0.5), primarily because of genetic correlation between the variables. The implications of our findings as well as possible sex differences are discussed.

  7. Shaping Adolescent Gambling Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcuri, Alan F.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Surveyed the incidence of casino gambling by adolescents. Results indicated that 64 percent of the students at one Atlantic City high school had gambled at the casinos. The dangers of shaping compulsive gambling behavior through societal acceptance of legalized gambling are discussed. (Author/BL)

  8. Risky Lifestyle as a Mediator of the Relationship between Deviant Peer Affiliation and Dating Violence Victimization among Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vezina, Johanne; Hebert, Martine; Poulin, Francois; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have explored the possible contribution of the peer group to dating violence victimization. The current study tested the hypothesis that a risky lifestyle would mediate the relationship between deviant peer affiliation and dating violence victimization among adolescent girls. The proposed mediation model was derived from lifestyles and…

  9. Exposure to Community Violence and Protective and Risky Contexts among Low Income Urban African American Adolescents: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldner, Jonathan; Peters, Tracy L.; Richards, Maryse H.; Pearce, Steven

    2011-01-01

    This study examined protective and risky companionship and locations for exposure to community violence among African American young adolescents living in high crime, urban areas. The Experience Sampling Method (ESM), an in vivo data collection method, was employed to gather information from 233 students (62% female) over 3 years, beginning in the…

  10. Risky Sexual Behavior in Gay and Bisexual Men: Internalized Heterosexism, Sensation Seeking, and Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kashubeck-West, Susan; Szymanski, Dawn M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated risky sexual behavior in a sample of 209 gay and bisexual men. Using structural equation modeling, the mediating relations of substance use factors (expectations about the sexually enhancing effects of substance use and substance use during sex) between internalized heterosexism (IH) and sensation seeking and unprotected…

  11. Does Body Image Play a Role in Risky Sexual Behavior and Attitudes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillen, Meghan M.; Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Shearer, Cindy L.

    2006-01-01

    Body image and sexuality, both physically-oriented domains of the self, are likely linked, but few studies have examined their associations. In the present investigation, we studied emerging adult undergraduates (ages 17-19), focusing specifically on risky sexual behaviors and attitudes. Participants (N=434) completed a survey on body image,…

  12. Intimacy and Risky Sexual Behavior--What Does It Have to Do with Death?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taubman--Ben-Ari, Orit

    2004-01-01

    The current series of studies was conducted to explore the interplay between death awareness, fear of intimacy, and unsafe sex. In Study 1 (n=73), making mortality salient led to higher willingness to engage in risky sexual behaviors, in comparison to a control condition. In addition, only in the mortality salience condition, lower fear of…

  13. Risky health behaviors among students in Majmaah University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Tahir; Alghamdi, Talal; Alzahrani, Mansour; Alfhaid, Fahad; Sami, Waqas; Aldahash, Bader A.; Aldukhayel, Dukhayel S.; Alshanbah, Fahad S.; Almutairi, Naif M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Risky behaviors are those that potentially expose people to harm, or significant risk of harm, which prevent them from reaching their potential in life and which can cause significant morbidity or mortality. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine the overall prevalence of risky behaviors among university students; to determine the prevalence of smoking, drifting, fast driving and physical inactivity among university students; and to determine the associations between such behavior and demographic characteristics. Materials and Methods: An observational cross-sectional study conducted in three colleges. The data were randomly collected from 340 students aged 18-30 years from February to March 2015 using a self-administered questionnaire in Arabic. The data were entered using SPSS v 22.0. Mean and standard deviation were calculated for quantitative variables, and frequency and percentages were computed for categorical variables. Chi-square or Fisher's Exact test, as appropriate, were used to test for statistical significance. Results: The overall prevalence of risky behaviors (smoking, drifting, fast driving, and physical inactivity) among students was 47.35%. Overall, 28% of the students were smokers, 25.2% were involved in drifting, 60.9% reported driving fast, and 66.4% were physically inactive. The age between 18-20 years was significantly associated with higher rates of drifting, fast driving, and physical inactivity. Conclusion: The prevalence of risky behaviors among university students was high. Physical inactivity and fast driving were the most common identified risky behaviors. Increasing awareness of these risks in the youth may significantly decrease related morbidities, complications, and even mortalities. PMID:27625578

  14. Risky health behaviors among students in Majmaah University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Tahir; Alghamdi, Talal; Alzahrani, Mansour; Alfhaid, Fahad; Sami, Waqas; Aldahash, Bader A.; Aldukhayel, Dukhayel S.; Alshanbah, Fahad S.; Almutairi, Naif M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Risky behaviors are those that potentially expose people to harm, or significant risk of harm, which prevent them from reaching their potential in life and which can cause significant morbidity or mortality. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine the overall prevalence of risky behaviors among university students; to determine the prevalence of smoking, drifting, fast driving and physical inactivity among university students; and to determine the associations between such behavior and demographic characteristics. Materials and Methods: An observational cross-sectional study conducted in three colleges. The data were randomly collected from 340 students aged 18-30 years from February to March 2015 using a self-administered questionnaire in Arabic. The data were entered using SPSS v 22.0. Mean and standard deviation were calculated for quantitative variables, and frequency and percentages were computed for categorical variables. Chi-square or Fisher's Exact test, as appropriate, were used to test for statistical significance. Results: The overall prevalence of risky behaviors (smoking, drifting, fast driving, and physical inactivity) among students was 47.35%. Overall, 28% of the students were smokers, 25.2% were involved in drifting, 60.9% reported driving fast, and 66.4% were physically inactive. The age between 18-20 years was significantly associated with higher rates of drifting, fast driving, and physical inactivity. Conclusion: The prevalence of risky behaviors among university students was high. Physical inactivity and fast driving were the most common identified risky behaviors. Increasing awareness of these risks in the youth may significantly decrease related morbidities, complications, and even mortalities.

  15. Novice Drivers' Risky Driving Behavior, Risk Perception, and Crash Risk: Findings From the DRIVE Study

    PubMed Central

    Senserrick, Teresa; Boufous, Soufiane; Stevenson, Mark; Chen, Huei-Yang; Woodward, Mark; Norton, Robyn

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We explored the risky driving behaviors and risk perceptions of a cohort of young novice drivers and sought to determine their associations with crash risk. Methods. Provisional drivers aged 17 to 24 (n = 20 822) completed a detailed questionnaire that included measures of risk perception and behaviors; 2 years following recruitment, survey data were linked to licensing and police-reported crash data. Poisson regression models that adjusted for multiple confounders were created to explore crash risk. Results. High scores on questionnaire items for risky driving were associated with a 50% increased crash risk (adjusted relative risk = 1.51; 95% confidence interval = 1.25, 1.81). High scores for risk perception (poorer perceptions of safety) were also associated with increased crash risk in univariate and multivariate models; however, significance was not sustained after adjustment for risky driving. Conclusions. The overrepresentation of youths in crashes involving casualties is a significant public health issue. Risky driving behavior is strongly linked to crash risk among young drivers and overrides the importance of risk perceptions. Systemwide intervention, including licensing reform, is warranted. PMID:19608953

  16. Risky lifestyle as a mediator of the relationship between deviant peer affiliation and dating violence victimization among adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Vézina, Johanne; Hébert, Martine; Poulin, François; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E

    2011-07-01

    Few studies have explored the possible contribution of the peer group to dating violence victimization. The current study tested the hypothesis that a risky lifestyle would mediate the relationship between deviant peer affiliation and dating violence victimization among adolescent girls. The proposed mediation model was derived from lifestyles and routine activities theories. A sample of 550 girls (mean age = 15) drawn from a larger representative community sample in Quebec, Canada, completed a questionnaire on three forms of dating violence victimization (psychological, physical, and sexual). Results revealed that girls with a higher level of affiliation with deviant peers were more likely to endorse a risky lifestyle and reported higher rates of all forms of dating violence victimization. Further analyses showed that, while deviant peer affiliation is associated with dating violence victimization, this relationship may be explained, at least partially for psychological violence, and completely for physical/sexual violence, by the girls' own risky lifestyle. Future preventive interventions for adolescent dating violence victimization should target deviant peer groups, as well as adolescent girls who display a risky lifestyle.

  17. Is Accuracy of Weight Perception Associated with Health Risk Behaviors in a Diverse Sample of Obese Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenhart, Clare M.; Daly, Brian P.; Eichen, Dawn M.

    2011-01-01

    Current evidence is equivocal as to whether adolescent's perception of weight status is linked to both healthy and risky behaviors. This study examined the association between accurate and inaccurate perception of weight and self-reported health and risk behaviors among a diverse sample of obese, urban adolescents. Data were analyzed from 1,180…

  18. Change in Age-Specific, Psychosocial Correlates of Risky Sexual Behaviors Among Youth: Longitudinal Findings From a Deep South, High-Risk Sample

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Rebecca J.; Traylor, Amy C.; Church, Wesley T.; Bolland, John M.

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined psychosocial predictors of change in intercourse frequency and number of sexual partners among youth within a socio-ecological framework and assessed whether these determinants vary by stage of adolescent development. Longitudinal data were derived from a large, community study of adolescent risky behavior among predominantly high-risk, African American youth. Significant predictors of intercourse frequency for early adolescents included age, gender, self-worth, and familial factors; for older youth, age, gender, self-worth, curfews, and sense of community exerted significant effects. Among early adolescents, age, gender, self-worth, familial factors, and sense of community predicted change in the number of sexual partners in the previous year, while age, gender, self-worth, parental knowledge, curfews, and sense of community were predictive of change in the number of sexual partners in the previous year among older youth. Study implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:26388682

  19. Risky sexual behaviors: The role of ethnic identity in HIV risk in migrant workers.

    PubMed

    Shehadeh, Nancy; McCoy, H Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Migrant workers have been shown to be at a heightened level of risk for HIV, and ethnic identity has been posited to have an impact on engagement in risky sexual behaviors. Our longitudinal study examined associations between baseline and short-term changes in ethnic identity and high-risk sexual behaviors. Baseline (n = 431) and 6-month assessment (n = 270) data were obtained from a larger HIV prevention study conducted among African American and Hispanic migrant workers. Repeated-measures multivariate analysis of covariance and multiple linear regressions were used. Ethnic identity explore, a subscale of ethnic identity, was a significant predictor of overall sexual risk [F(8, 422) = 6.953, p < .001] and unprotected vaginal acts [F(8, 422) = 8.444, p < .001] at baseline. However, ethnic identity had no bearing on changes in risky sexual behaviors. Ethnic identity explore was associated with safer sexual behaviors.

  20. Using Community Based Participatory Research to Create a Culturally Grounded Intervention for Parents and Youth to Prevent Risky Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Felipe González; Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Harthun, Mary L.; Valdez, Hector

    2011-01-01

    The principal goal of this article is to contribute to the field of prevention science by providing a sequential description of how Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) was used to develop a parent education curriculum aimed at preventing and decreasing adolescent drug use and risky sexual behaviors. CBPR principles are outlined, and information is provided on the unique contributions of researchers and community members who came together to develop this parent education program. Focus group information is presented as an exemplar to illustrate how thematic content from focus groups was used to inform the development of this parent education curriculum. A step by step description is given to facilitate replication of this process by other prevention researchers who are interested in applying this CBPR approach to develop a culturally responsive parent education intervention. PMID:21107693

  1. An Investigation on Students' Risky Sexual Behavior at KwaZulu-Natal University, Durban, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutinta, Given; Govender, Kaymarlin; Gow, Jeff; George, Gavin

    2013-01-01

    University environments are fertile grounds for risky sexual behaviors. This study investigated students' risky sexual practices at the University of KwaZulu-Natal in Durban, South Africa. Data were collected using quantitative and qualitative methods. A total of 1,405 questionnaires were administered, and 80 in-depth interviews and four…

  2. Risky behaviors: effects of Toxorhynchites splendens (Diptera: Culicidae) predator on the behavior of three mosquito species.

    PubMed

    Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Fadzly, Nik; Yusof, Nur Aishah; Dieng, Hamady

    2015-01-01

    Viable biocontrol agents for mosquito control are quite rare, therefore improving the efficacy of existing biological agents is an important study. We need to have a better understanding of the predation-risk behavioral responses toward prey. This research examined prey choices by Toxorhynchites splendens by monitoring the behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Anopheles sinensis larvae when exposed to the predator. The results show that Tx. splendens prefers to consume Ae. aegypti larvae. The larvae exhibited different behavioral responses when Tx. splendens was present which suggest vulnerability in the presence of predators. "Thrashing" and "browsing" activities were greater in Ae. aegypti larvae. Such active and risky movements could cause vulnerability for the Ae. aegypti larvae due to increasing of water disturbance. In contrast, Ae. albopictus and An. sinensis larvae exhibited passive, low-risk behaviors, spending most of the time on the "wall" position near the edges of the container. We postulated that Ae. aegypti has less ability to perceive cues from predation and could not successfully alter its behavior to reduce risk of predation risk compared with Ae. albopictus and An. sinensis. Our results suggest that Tx. splendens is a suitable biocontrol agent in controlling dengue hemorrhagic vector, Ae. aegypti.

  3. Risky Behaviors: Effects of Toxorhynchites splendens (Diptera: Culicidae) Predator on the Behavior of Three Mosquito Species

    PubMed Central

    Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Fadzly, Nik; Yusof, Nur Aishah; Dieng, Hamady

    2015-01-01

    Viable biocontrol agents for mosquito control are quite rare, therefore improving the efficacy of existing biological agents is an important study. We need to have a better understanding of the predation-risk behavioral responses toward prey. This research examined prey choices by Toxorhynchites splendens by monitoring the behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Anopheles sinensis larvae when exposed to the predator. The results show that Tx. splendens prefers to consume Ae. aegypti larvae. The larvae exhibited different behavioral responses when Tx. splendens was present which suggest vulnerability in the presence of predators. “Thrashing” and “browsing” activities were greater in Ae. aegypti larvae. Such active and risky movements could cause vulnerability for the Ae. aegypti larvae due to increasing of water disturbance. In contrast, Ae. albopictus and An. sinensis larvae exhibited passive, low-risk behaviors, spending most of the time on the “wall” position near the edges of the container. We postulated that Ae. aegypti has less ability to perceive cues from predation and could not successfully alter its behavior to reduce risk of predation risk compared with Ae. albopictus and An. sinensis. Our results suggest that Tx. splendens is a suitable biocontrol agent in controlling dengue hemorrhagic vector, Ae. aegypti. PMID:26386041

  4. Associations Between Changing Developmental Contexts and Risky Sexual Behavior in the Two Years Following High School

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Jennifer A.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; White, Helene R.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    The present study tested associations between common developmental contexts (relationship involvement, independent living, college attendance, work) and risky sexual behavior (casual sex, inconsistent condom use, high-risk sex) across the two years following high school. Data were drawn from the Raising Healthy Children project, and included 801 participants aged 18–21 years. Longitudinal analyses, which controlled for early sexual debut, high school substance use, and high school grades, showed that living with a parent was protective against all three sexual risk behavior outcomes (ORs about 0.70). Being in a romantic relationship was associated with a lower probability of casual sex, but a higher probability of inconsistent condom use. Attending college was associated with a lower probability of high-risk sex (OR = 0.67). Working was not related to the sexual risk behaviors examined. Levels of sexual risk behavior showed little change across the two years following high school. Findings from this study suggest that developmental context may affect young adults’ engagement in risky sexual behavior. Programs aimed at promoting sexual health and reducing risk behaviors for STIs among young adults should consider targeting those in romantic relationships, those not living with parents, and those not attending college. Further, to develop effective prevention programs for these targeted youth, it is critical that we understand the mechanisms leading to risky sex in these groups. PMID:20571863

  5. Spanish young adults' perceptions of the costs and benefits of risky driving behaviors.

    PubMed

    Dhami, Mandeep K; García-Retamero, Rocío

    2012-07-01

    We used an open-ended survey to elicit Spanish young adults' perceptions of the benefits and drawbacks of speeding and not wearing a seatbelt (or helmet). Around half of the sample reported past engagement in these two risky behaviors, although forecasted engagement was low. Past and forecasted risk taking were positively correlated. Participants provided more drawbacks than benefits of each risky behavior. Drawbacks typically referred to a combination of behavioral acts and social reactions (e.g., accident, punishment) that occurred during the journey. By contrast, benefits largely referred to personal effects (e.g., save time, comfort) that occurred after the journey had ended (speeding) or during the journey (not wearing a seatbelt/helmet). These findings contribute to our theoretical understanding of young adults' risk taking on the road, and to the development of road safety programs.

  6. A Preliminary Examination of Negative Affect, Emotion Dysregulation, and Risky Behaviors among Military Veterans in Residential Substance Abuse Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Nicole H.; Williams, Daniel C.; Connolly, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Substance use disorder (SUD) is highly prevalent among military populations and associated with a wide range of negative outcomes. The goal of the present study was to explicate the relations among negative affect, emotion dysregulation, and urges to engage in risky behaviors among military veterans in residential SUD treatment. Emotion dysregulation (overall and three dimensions: access to emotion regulation strategies, impulse control, and emotional awareness) mediated the relation between negative affect and urges to engage in risky behaviors. Findings highlight the potential utility of treatments targeting emotion dysregulation in reducing risky behaviors among military veterans with SUD. PMID:27088056

  7. Blunted feedback processing during risky decision making in adolescents with a parental history of substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Euser, Anja S; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin; Crowley, Michael J; Evans, Brittany E; Huizink, Anja C; Franken, Ingmar H A

    2013-11-01

    Risky decision making, a hallmark phenotype of substance use disorders (SUD), is thought to be associated with deficient feedback processing. Whether these aberrations are present prior to SUD onset or reflect merely a consequence of chronic substance use on the brain remains unclear. The present study investigated whether blunted feedback processing during risky decision making reflects a biological predisposition to SUD. We assessed event-related potentials elicited by positive and negative feedback during performance of a modified version of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) among high-risk adolescents with a parental history of SUD (HR; n = 61) and normal-risk controls (NR; n = 91). HR males made significantly more risky and faster decisions during the BART than did NR controls. Moreover, HR adolescents showed significantly reduced P300 amplitudes in response to both positive and negative feedback as compared to NR controls. These differences were not secondary to prolonged substance use exposure. Results are discussed in terms of feedback-specific processes. Reduced P300 amplitudes in the BART may reflect poor processing of feedback at the level of overall salience, which may keep people from effectively predicting the probability of future gains and losses. Though conclusions are tentative, blunted feedback processing during risky decision making may represent a promising endophenotypic vulnerability marker for SUD. PMID:24229553

  8. Racial residential segregation and risky sexual behavior among non-Hispanic blacks, 2006-2010.

    PubMed

    Lutfi, Khaleeq; Trepka, Mary Jo; Fennie, Kristopher P; Ibanez, Gladys; Gladwin, Hugh

    2015-09-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have disproportionately affected the non-Hispanic black population in the United States. A person's community can affect his or her STI risk by the community's underlying prevalence of STIs, sexual networks, and social influences on individual behaviors. Racial residential segregation-the separation of racial groups in a residential context across physical environments-is a community factor that has been associated with negative health outcomes. The objective of this study was to examine if non-Hispanic blacks living in highly segregated areas were more likely to have risky sexual behavior. Demographic and sexual risk behavior data from non-Hispanic blacks aged 15-44 years participating in the National Survey of Family Growth were linked to Core-Based Statistical Area segregation data from the U.S. Census Bureau. Five dimensions measured racial residential segregation, each covering a different concept of spatial variation. Multilevel logistic regressions were performed to test the effect of each dimension on sexual risk behavior controlling for demographics and community poverty. Of the 3643 participants, 588 (14.5%) reported risky sexual behavior as defined as two or more partners in the last 12 months and no consistent condom use. Multilevel analysis results show that racial residential segregation was associated with risky sexual behavior with the association being stronger for the centralization [aOR (95% CI)][2.07 (2.05-2.08)] and concentration [2.05 (2.03-2.07)] dimensions. This suggests risky sexual behavior is more strongly associated with neighborhoods with high concentrations of non-Hispanic blacks and an accumulation of non-Hispanic blacks in an urban core. Findings suggest racial residential segregation is associated with risky sexual behavior in non-Hispanic blacks 15-44 years of age with magnitudes varying by dimension. Incorporating additional contextual factors may

  9. Racial residential segregation and risky sexual behavior among non-Hispanic blacks, 2006-2010.

    PubMed

    Lutfi, Khaleeq; Trepka, Mary Jo; Fennie, Kristopher P; Ibanez, Gladys; Gladwin, Hugh

    2015-09-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have disproportionately affected the non-Hispanic black population in the United States. A person's community can affect his or her STI risk by the community's underlying prevalence of STIs, sexual networks, and social influences on individual behaviors. Racial residential segregation-the separation of racial groups in a residential context across physical environments-is a community factor that has been associated with negative health outcomes. The objective of this study was to examine if non-Hispanic blacks living in highly segregated areas were more likely to have risky sexual behavior. Demographic and sexual risk behavior data from non-Hispanic blacks aged 15-44 years participating in the National Survey of Family Growth were linked to Core-Based Statistical Area segregation data from the U.S. Census Bureau. Five dimensions measured racial residential segregation, each covering a different concept of spatial variation. Multilevel logistic regressions were performed to test the effect of each dimension on sexual risk behavior controlling for demographics and community poverty. Of the 3643 participants, 588 (14.5%) reported risky sexual behavior as defined as two or more partners in the last 12 months and no consistent condom use. Multilevel analysis results show that racial residential segregation was associated with risky sexual behavior with the association being stronger for the centralization [aOR (95% CI)][2.07 (2.05-2.08)] and concentration [2.05 (2.03-2.07)] dimensions. This suggests risky sexual behavior is more strongly associated with neighborhoods with high concentrations of non-Hispanic blacks and an accumulation of non-Hispanic blacks in an urban core. Findings suggest racial residential segregation is associated with risky sexual behavior in non-Hispanic blacks 15-44 years of age with magnitudes varying by dimension. Incorporating additional contextual factors may

  10. Youth alcohol use and risky sexual behavior: evidence from underage drunk driving laws.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Christopher

    2005-05-01

    Recent research calls into question previous methods for estimating the relationship between alcohol use and risky sexual behavior among youths [Rashad, I., Kaestner, R., 2004. Teenage sex, drugs and alcohol use: problems identifying the cause of risky behaviors. Journal of Health Economics 23, 493-503]. This paper provides new evidence on this question by using reductions in heavy alcohol use among underage males induced by state adoption of very strict age-targeted "Zero Tolerance" drunk driving laws. I estimate reduced form models of the effects of Zero Tolerance laws on state gonorrhea rates by age group and race over the period 1981-2000, controlling for state and year fixed effects and state-specific time trends. I find that adoption of a Zero Tolerance law was associated with a significant reduction in gonorrhea rates among 15-19-year-old white males, with no effect for slightly older males age 20-24 whose drinking behavior was unaffected by the tougher policies. I find mixed effects for white females and no significant effects for blacks. While not conclusive, these results suggest an important role for alcohol use in risky sexual behavior among young men.

  11. The Problematic and Risky Internet Use Screening Scale (PRIUSS) for Adolescents and Young Adults: Scale Development and Refinement

    PubMed Central

    Jelenchick, Lauren A.; Eickhoff, Jens; Christakis, Dimitri A; Brown, Richard L.; Zhang, Chong; Benson, Meghan; Moreno, Megan A.

    2014-01-01

    Problematic Internet use (PIU) is a growing health concern among adolescents and young adults. The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to develop and refine a theoretically-grounded and psychometrically-validated assessment instrument for PIU specifically tailored to adolescents and young adults. An item pool was developed using concept mapping and a review of the literature, and administered to 714 students from two universities between 18 and 25 years of age. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used in a development subsample (n=500) to construct the scale. A cross-validation sample (n=214) was used to confirm the scale’s reliability. The Problematic and Risky Internet Use Screening Scale (PRIUSS) is an 18-item scale with three subscales: Social Impairment, Emotional Impairment, and Risky/Impulsive Internet Use. Based on its strong theoretical foundation and promising psychometric performance, the PRIUSS may be a valuable tool for screening and prevention efforts in this population. PMID:24882938

  12. Subgrouping of risky behaviors among Iranian college students: a latent class analysis

    PubMed Central

    Safiri, Saeid; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Yunesian, Masud; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Shamsipour, Mansour; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Background Risky behaviors may interrupt development or cause considerable morbidity or mortality. This study’s purpose was to determine subgroups of students based on risky behaviors and assess the prevalence of risky behaviors in each of the subgroups. Participants and methods This anonymous cross-sectional study was carried out in October 2015 and November 2015, with 1,777 students from Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, through multistage random sampling method. The data were analyzed by latent class analysis. Results The prevalence rates of cigarette smoking (more than or equal to ten cigarettes), hookah use (≥1 time/month), and alcohol consumption (≥1 time/month) during the last year were 12.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.9–14.0), 11.6% (95% CI: 10.0–13.1), and 4.9% (95% CI: 3.8–5.9), respectively. The prevalence rates of illicit opioids (1.8%, 95% CI: 1.2–2.5), cannabis (1.2%, 95% CI: 0.7–1.7), methamphetamine (1.1%, 95% CI: 0.6–1.6), methylphenidate (2.5%, 95% CI: 1.7–3.2), and extramarital sex (5.5%, 95% CI: 4.5–6.6) over the last year were also estimated. Three latent classes were determined: 1) low risk; 2) cigarette and hookah smoker; and 3) high risk. It is worth mentioning that 3.7% of males and 0.4% of females were in the high risk group. Conclusion Subgrouping of college students showed that a considerable percentage of them, especially males, were classified into the high risk and cigarette and hookah smoker groups. Appropriate preventive measures that consider multiple different risky behaviors simultaneously are needed for this part of the population. PMID:27524898

  13. On early starters and late bloomers: the development of sexual behavior in adolescence across personality types.

    PubMed

    Baams, Laura; Overbeek, Geertjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between personality and sexual development among mid-adolescents. In the current study, we used a person-centered approach to investigate the relation between personality types and the development of sexual behavior. We hypothesized that undercontrolling adolescents would engage in more advanced, casual, and risky sexual behavior compared to their resilient and overcontrolling peers. Data were used from 407 mid-adolescents (Mage = 14.5) followed across four measurement waves spanning 18 months. Results from latent class analyses (LCA) identified the three classical personality types: resilients, undercontrollers, and overcontrollers. Controlling for perceived pubertal timing and biological sex, latent growth curve analyses in Mplus showed that, at baseline, undercontrollers were more sexually experienced and engaged in more casual and risky sexual behavior than resilients and overcontrollers. Although initial levels of sexual behavior differed by personality types, over time increases in sexual behavior occurred at a similar rate across the types. Overall, the current study showed that undercontrolling adolescents are early sexual developers who engage in more advanced, casual, and risky sexual behavior than other adolescents. The implications of these findings for longer-term differences in sexual behavior between personality types in later adolescence are discussed.

  14. Iowa Gambling Task Performance and Executive Function Predict Low-income Urban Preadolescents’ Risky Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Ursache, Alexandra; Raver, C. Cybele

    2015-01-01

    This study examines preadolescents’ reports of risk-taking as predicted by two different, but related inhibitory control systems involving sensitivity to reward and loss on the one hand, and higher order processing in the context of cognitive conflict, known as executive functioning (EF), on the other. Importantly, this study examines these processes with a sample of inner-city, low-income preadolescents and as such examines the ways in which these processes may be related to risky behaviors as a function of children's levels of both concurrent and chronic exposure to household poverty. As part of a larger longitudinal study, 382 children (ages 9 -11) provided a self-report of risky behaviors and participated in the Iowa Gambling task, assessing bias for infrequent loss (preference for infrequent, high magnitude versus frequent, low magnitude loss) and the Hearts and Flowers task assessing executive functioning. Results demonstrated that a higher bias for infrequent loss was associated with higher risky behaviors for children who demonstrated lower EF. Furthermore, bias for infrequent loss was most strongly associated with higher risk-taking for children facing highest levels of poverty. Implications for early identification and prevention of risk-taking in inner-city preadolescents are discussed. PMID:26412918

  15. Alcohol Consumption and Risky Sexual Behavior Among Persons Attending Alcohol Consumption Venues in Gaborone, Botswana.

    PubMed

    Lama, Tsering Pema; Kumoji, E 'Kuor; Ketlogetswe, Ditsotlhe; Anderson, Marina; Brahmbhatt, Heena

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol use is a known key risk factor associated with risky sexual behavior that contributes to HIV transmission. This cross-sectional study used time location sampling to investigate alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors that occurred after ingesting alcohol among 609 patrons of alcohol venues in Gaborone, Botswana. Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores were categorized as low (1-7), medium (8-15), and high (16+) for analysis. Logistic regression models stratified by gender assessed the association between alcohol use and condom use at last sex after drinking alcohol. Among females, the odds of condom use during last sex after drinking alcohol were significantly lower for high compared to low AUDIT scores (AOR = 0.17, 95% CI 0.06-0.54). Among males, factors significantly associated with condom use at last sex after alcohol use were low levels of education (primary level compared to university and above AOR = 0.13; 95% CI 0.03-0.55) and beliefs that alcohol use did not increase risky sexual behaviors (AOR = 0.26; 95% CI 0.11-0.62). HIV prevention interventions should target females and emphasize sexual risks associated with alcohol use.

  16. Barrier and Facilitators of HIV Related Risky Sexual Behavior

    PubMed Central

    SHAHNAZI, Ashkan; FOROUZAN, Ameneh Setareh; NEDJAT, Saharnaz; ASGARI, Soheila; MAJDZADEH, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study was conducted to identify the determinants of protective behavior in relation to HIV transmission. Since the risk of transmission is higher among those who have extramarital intercourse, the study sample constituted of such people. Methods: We started this study in 2010 and finished it in 2011. Participants were divided into low-risk and high-risk groups. High-risk people included sex workers and those who presented at drop-in centers. Interviewees were 18 men and women in the low-risk group and 12 men and women in the high-risk group. Data were collected through in-depth interviews and were analyzed using the thematic framework method. Results: In both groups, protective behavior was influenced by willingness to protect, intention or decision to protect, and personal, social, and environmental barriers and facilitators. In terms of willingness, behavior was influenced to preserve sexual pleasure by avoiding condoms. In terms of barriers and facilitators, trust in partner, misperceptions, condom inaccessibility, unplanned sex, fear of contracting the disease, partner’s wish, ethical commitments were mentioned by both groups, stigma of condom possession by the low-risk group, and partner’s force was mentioned by the high-risk group. Conclusion: Educational programs need to focus on changing the concept that “condoms reduce sexual pleasure”. In addition, interventional programs to strengthen factors such as self-efficacy, ethical commitments, faithfulness, and correct beliefs such as undue trust in partner, misconception of being safe, unplanned sex, and the stigma of possessing condoms can be very effective in changing high-risk sexual behavior. PMID:26056638

  17. Associations between school difficulties and health-related problems and risky behaviours in early adolescence: A cross-sectional study in middle-school adolescents in France.

    PubMed

    Chau, Kénora; Kabuth, Bernard; Causin-Brice, Odile; Delacour, Yves; Richoux-Picard, Catherine; Verdin, Monique; Armand, Isabelle; Chau, Nearkasen

    2016-10-30

    Health-related problems and risky behaviours (substance use) are frequent in adolescents, may alter their physical and mental capabilities, and may thus generate school absenteeism, low academic performance, and school dropout ideation. This study assessed their associations and the contribution of socioeconomic factors among 1559 middle-school adolescents (mean age 13.5+1.3) from north-eastern France. They completed a questionnaire including socioeconomic characteristics, health-related problems (poor physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and living environment) assessed with the World Health Organization's quality of life measure (score<25th percentile), risky behaviours, school absences during the present school year, last-trimester academic performance, and school dropout ideation. Data were analysed using logistic regression models. School absenteeism was frequent (12.6% of subjects for 8-14 days, and 6.0% for ≥15 days); 8.2% of subjects had low academic performance (average school-mark <10/20) and 3.9% school dropout ideation. All school difficulties were strongly associated with all health-related problems (gender-age-school-level-adjusted odds ratios gasOR between 1.5 and 4.2), and with risky behaviours (gasOR between 1.4 and 14). Socioeconomic factors differently contributed to these associations (contribution reaching 77%). Policy makers, schools, physicians and parents should be more aware of the problems and help adolescents to reduce health-related problems and risky behaviours and to increase resilience.

  18. Associations between school difficulties and health-related problems and risky behaviours in early adolescence: A cross-sectional study in middle-school adolescents in France.

    PubMed

    Chau, Kénora; Kabuth, Bernard; Causin-Brice, Odile; Delacour, Yves; Richoux-Picard, Catherine; Verdin, Monique; Armand, Isabelle; Chau, Nearkasen

    2016-10-30

    Health-related problems and risky behaviours (substance use) are frequent in adolescents, may alter their physical and mental capabilities, and may thus generate school absenteeism, low academic performance, and school dropout ideation. This study assessed their associations and the contribution of socioeconomic factors among 1559 middle-school adolescents (mean age 13.5+1.3) from north-eastern France. They completed a questionnaire including socioeconomic characteristics, health-related problems (poor physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and living environment) assessed with the World Health Organization's quality of life measure (score<25th percentile), risky behaviours, school absences during the present school year, last-trimester academic performance, and school dropout ideation. Data were analysed using logistic regression models. School absenteeism was frequent (12.6% of subjects for 8-14 days, and 6.0% for ≥15 days); 8.2% of subjects had low academic performance (average school-mark <10/20) and 3.9% school dropout ideation. All school difficulties were strongly associated with all health-related problems (gender-age-school-level-adjusted odds ratios gasOR between 1.5 and 4.2), and with risky behaviours (gasOR between 1.4 and 14). Socioeconomic factors differently contributed to these associations (contribution reaching 77%). Policy makers, schools, physicians and parents should be more aware of the problems and help adolescents to reduce health-related problems and risky behaviours and to increase resilience. PMID:27455144

  19. Predicting Mexican youths' intention to engage in risky behaviors: applying moral norms to the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Leon, Nellie; Modeste, Naomi; Lee, Jerry

    This study explored if moral norms as applied to the theory of planned behavior (TPB) account for additional variance in predicting intention to consume alcohol, smoke cigarettes, and engage in sexual activity among youth at a high school in Mexico. Additionally, it investigated if moral norms provide a moderating influence on the constructs of the theory: attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control for prediction of risky behavior intention. Multiple regression analyses identified predictive power of constructs; interactions of moral norms with the theory constructs were studied. Moral norms only significantly predicted sexual activity. Significant interactions were found between moral norms and the theory constructs for the three behaviors. Interventions aimed at preventing risky conduct among youth would benefit from strategies targeting beliefs in the moral order, especially because of its interaction with the other theoretical mechanisms.

  20. Patterns of adolescent sexual behavior predicting young adult sexually transmitted infections: a latent class analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Vasilenko, Sara A; Kugler, Kari C; Butera, Nicole M; Lanza, Stephanie T

    2015-04-01

    Adolescent sexual behavior is multidimensional, yet most studies of the topic use variable-oriented methods that reduce behaviors to a single dimension. In this study, we used a person-oriented approach to model adolescent sexual behavior comprehensively, using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. We identified five latent classes of adolescent sexual behavior: Abstinent (39%), Oral Sex (10%), Low-Risk (25%), Multi-Partner Normative (12%), and Multi-Partner Early (13%). Membership in riskier classes of sexual behavior was predicted by substance use and depressive symptoms. Class membership was also associated with young adult STI outcomes although these associations differed by gender. Male adolescents' STI rates increased with membership in classes with more risky behaviors whereas females' rates were consistent among all sexually active classes. These findings demonstrate the advantages of examining adolescent sexuality in a way that emphasizes its complexity.

  1. A TWO-STATE MIXED HIDDEN MARKOV MODEL FOR RISKY TEENAGE DRIVING BEHAVIOR

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, John C.; Albert, Paul S.; Zhang, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a joint model for longitudinal binary and count outcomes. We apply the model to a unique longitudinal study of teen driving where risky driving behavior and the occurrence of crashes or near crashes are measured prospectively over the first 18 months of licensure. Of scientific interest is relating the two processes and predicting crash and near crash outcomes. We propose a two-state mixed hidden Markov model whereby the hidden state characterizes the mean for the joint longitudinal crash/near crash outcomes and elevated g-force events which are a proxy for risky driving. Heterogeneity is introduced in both the conditional model for the count outcomes and the hidden process using a shared random effect. An estimation procedure is presented using the forward–backward algorithm along with adaptive Gaussian quadrature to perform numerical integration. The estimation procedure readily yields hidden state probabilities as well as providing for a broad class of predictors.

  2. Religiosity and Risky Sexual Behaviors among an African American Church-based Population

    PubMed Central

    Hawes, Starlyn M.; Berkley-Patton, Jannette Y.

    2014-01-01

    African Americans are disproportionately burdened by STDs and HIV in the US. This study examined the relationships between demographics, religiosity, and sexual risk behaviors among 255 adult African American church-based participants. Although participants were highly religious, they reported an average of seven lifetime sex partners and most inconsistently used condoms. Several demographic variables and religiosity significantly predicted lifetime HIV-related risk factors. Taken together, findings indicated that this population is at risk for HIV. Future research should continue to identify correlates of risky sexual behavior among African American parishioners to facilitate the development of HIV risk reduction interventions in their church settings. PMID:23054481

  3. Risky Disclosures on "Facebook": The Effect of Having a Bad Experience on Online Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christofides, Emily; Muise, Amy; Desmarais, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Social network websites are widely used by adolescents, but disclosing in this environment has inherent risks, as does connecting with others online. In a sample of 256 adolescent "Facebook" users, the authors explore the relationship between having a negative experience, privacy knowledge, and behavior. Their reports of bad experiences on…

  4. Attributing activity space as risky and safe: The social dimension to the meaning of place for urban adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mason, Michael J

    2010-09-01

    The social dimension of urban adolescents' interpretation of their activity space was investigated by examining reasons for attributing place as risky and safe, and analyzing these reasons by social network quality. Activity space and social network data were collected on 301 teens presenting for routine medical check-ups. SPSS Text Analysis for Surveys performed linguistic analyses on open-ended survey responses, applying concept derivation, concept inclusion, semantic networks, and co-occurrence rules. Results produced 13 categories of reasons for locations attributed as risky and safe. Categories were then transformed into dichotomous variables and analyzed with chi-square tests by social network quality. Results indicated two categories of reasons for locations attributed as risky: alcohol and drugs and Illegal activity, which were dependent upon social network quality. Two categories of reasons for locations attributed as safe, namely protective place and Neighborhood, were also dependent upon social network quality. These findings assert that adolescents' social networks influence their interpretations of risk and safety, highlighting a social dimension to the meaning of place.

  5. Explicating the role of emotion dysregulation in risky behaviors: A review and synthesis of the literature with directions for future research and clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Nicole H.; Sullivan, Tami P.; Tull, Matthew T.

    2015-01-01

    Extant literature provides support for emotion dysregulation as a transdiagnostic construct with relevance to the pathogenesis and treatment of numerous psychiatric difficulties and maladaptive behaviors, including risky, self-destructive, and health-compromising behaviors (e.g., substance use, risky sexual behavior). The aim of the present review is to synthesize theory and empirical research on the relationship between emotion dysregulation and risky behaviors. In addition, we highlight cutting-edge approaches for investigating the emotion dysregulation-risky behavior, including examination of the role of positive emotional experiences and inclusion of context-dependent and physiological assessments. Finally, we note the relevance of the emotion dysregulation-risky behavior relation to intervention efforts aimed at reducing risky behaviors. PMID:25705711

  6. Modeling predictors of risky drug use behavior among male street laborers in urban Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The application of theoretical frameworks for modeling predictors of drug risk among male street laborers remains limited. The objective of this study was to test a modified version of the IMB (Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model), which includes psychosocial stress, and compare this modified version with the original IMB model in terms of goodness-of-fit to predict risky drug use behavior among this population. Methods In a cross-sectional study, social mapping technique was conducted to recruit 450 male street laborers from 135 street venues across 13 districts of Hanoi city, Vietnam, for face-to-face interviews. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to analyze data from interviews. Results Overall measures of fit via SEM indicated that the original IMB model provided a better fit to the data than the modified version. Although the former model was able to predict a lesser variance than the latter (55% vs. 62%), it was of better fit. The findings suggest that men who are better informed and motivated for HIV prevention are more likely to report higher behavioral skills, which, in turn, are less likely to be engaged in risky drug use behavior. Conclusions This was the first application of the modified IMB model for drug use in men who were unskilled, unregistered laborers in urban settings. An AIDS prevention program for these men should not only distribute information and enhance motivations for HIV prevention, but consider interventions that could improve self-efficacy for preventing HIV infection. Future public health research and action may also consider broader factors such as structural social capital and social policy to alter the conditions that drive risky drug use among these men. PMID:23651704

  7. Intimate partner violence and risky sexual behaviors among Iranian women with substance use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Rimaz, Shahnaz; Korte, Jeffrey E.; Back, Sudie E.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Abad, Masoumeh; Shamsalizadeh, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) and risky sexual behaviors are serious and overlapping public health problems that disproportionately affect drug-involved women. Despite the fact that drug-using women experience extensive IPV, to date, no studies have investigated the association of IPV and risky sexual behaviors among drug-using women in Iran. Methods: Drug-using women (N =120) were recruited from a rehabilitation center in Tehran from March to October, 2009. The Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2), a standardized questionnaire, was used to collect data regarding violence. We used t-test and logistic regression models to explore the relationship between IPV domains and specific sexual risk behavior outcomes using SPSS 21. Results: The means (sd) for CTS2 domains were as follows: negotiation 4.29 (1.55), psychological violence 2.55 (1.51), sexual violence 0.37 (1.00), physical abuse 1.17 (1.49), injury 2.18 (1.97), and the mean total score was 1.69 (0.96). We found significantly higher injury scores, but lower sexual abuse scores among women with sexually-transmitted infection (STI) compared to women without STI (p-values 0.030 and <0.0001, respectively). In addition, we found that psychological abuse was positively associated with STI (p-value 0.03) and increased condom use (p = 0.010), possibly mediated through an increased likelihood of having multiple partners. Conclusion: The findings revealed that in Iran drug-involved women experience high rates of IPV and that IPV is associated with increased risky sexual behavior. Implication: Preventive interventions for violence that are integrated within drug treatment programs, as well as harm reduction programs are highly recommended. PMID:26034727

  8. Puerto Rican adolescents' disclosure and lying to parents about peer and risky activities: associations with teens' perceptions of Latino values.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Myriam; Smetana, Judith G

    2012-08-01

    Disclosure and lying to mothers and fathers about different activities, as defined within social domain theory, were examined as a function of Latino family values in 109 Puerto Rican lower socioeconomic status middle adolescents (M=15.58 years, SD=1.18) living in the United States. Questionnaires revealed that teens sometimes disclosed to parents about their risky prudential (unhealthy or unsafe) and peer activities. Lying was infrequent, although greater for risky than for peer issues. In general, path analyses demonstrated that teens' greater adherence to Latino family values and trust in parents were associated with more disclosure and less lying to mothers. However, these findings were moderated by the type of issue considered and perceptions of parents' Latino family values.

  9. Adolescent Behavior Change: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Educational Programs and Studies Information Service.

    This focus paper contains reprints of 11 articles intended to provide an overview of the key issues in the area of adolescent behavior change as it relates to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) education. Included are: (1) "Preventing HIV Infection and AIDS in Children and Adolescents" (J.…

  10. A comparison of adult and adolescent rat behavior in operant learning, extinction, and behavioral inhibition paradigms.

    PubMed

    Andrzejewski, Matthew E; Schochet, Terri L; Feit, Elizabeth C; Harris, Rachel; McKee, Brenda L; Kelley, Ann E

    2011-02-01

    Poor self-control, lack of inhibition, and impulsivity contribute to the propensity of adolescents to engage in risky or dangerous behaviors. Brain regions (e.g., prefrontal cortex) involved in impulse-control, reward-processing, and decision-making continue to develop during adolescence, raising the possibility that an immature brain contributes to dangerous behavior during adolescence. However, very few validated animal behavioral models are available for behavioral neuroscientists to explore the relationship between brain development and behavior. To that end, a valid model must be conducted in the relatively brief window of adolescence and not use manipulations that potentially compromise development. The present experiments used three operant arrangements to assess whether adolescent rats differ from adults in measures of learning, behavioral inhibition, and impulsivity, within the aforementioned time frame without substantial food restriction. In Experiment 1, separate squads of rats were trained to lever-press and then transitioned to two types of extinction. Relative to their baselines, adolescent rats responded more during extinction than adults, suggesting that they were less sensitive to the abolishment of the reinforcement contingency. Experiment 2 demonstrated similar age-related differences during exposure to a differential reinforcement of low rates schedule, a test of behavioral inhibition. Lastly, in Experiment 3, adolescent's responding decreased more slowly than adults during exposure to a resetting delay of reinforcement schedule, suggesting impaired self-control. Results from these experiments suggest that adolescents exhibit impaired learning, behavioral inhibition and self-control, and in concert with recent reports, provide researchers with three behavioral models to more fully explore neurobiology of risk-taking behavior in adolescence.

  11. Transitions in body and behavior: a meta-analytic study on the relationship between pubertal development and adolescent sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Baams, Laura; Dubas, Judith Semon; Overbeek, Geertjan; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2015-06-01

    The present meta-analysis studies the relations of pubertal timing and status with sexual behavior and sexual risk behavior among youth aged 10.5-22.4 years. We included biological sex, age, and ethnicity as potential moderators. Four databases were searched for studies (published between 1980 and 2012) on the relation between pubertal timing or status and sexual behavior. The outcomes were (1) sexual intercourse; (2) combined sexual behavior; and (3) risky sexual behavior. Earlier pubertal timing or more advanced pubertal status was related to earlier and more sexual behavior, and earlier pubertal timing was related to more risky sexual behavior. Further, the links between (1) pubertal status and combined sexual behavior and (2) pubertal timing and sexual intercourse status, combined sexual behavior, and risky sexual behavior were stronger for girls than boys. Most links between pubertal status, timing, and sexual behavior and sexual risk behavior were stronger for younger adolescents. Moderation by ethnicity did not yield consistent results. There was significant variation in results among studies that was not fully explained by differences in biological sex, age, and ethnicity. Future research is needed to identify moderators that explain the variation in effects and to design sexual health interventions for young adolescents.

  12. Risky Sexual Behavior and Correlates of STD Prevalence Among African American HIV Serodiscordant Couples

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports baseline behavioral and biological data collected from a cohort of 535 African American HIV serodiscordant couples enrolled in the Eban study across four urban metro areas. Data were collected on (1) the prevalence of risky sexual behaviors that occur within a couple and with concurrent sexual partners, (2) the STD prevalence for each member of the couple and (3) the correlates of STDs in the male partner as well as in the female partner. Presentation of the sociodemographic characterization and HIV risk behavior profiles of African American HIV serodiscordant couples represents an important initial description of a hidden, vulnerable population. Future research should be conducted with diverse samples of African American couples (i.e., younger couples, non-stable couples) to explore other potential correlates of STD prevalence. PMID:20499152

  13. Risky Sexual Behaviors among a Sample of Gang-identified Youth in Los Angeles

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Bill; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Jackson-Bloom, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Gang youth are at an increased likelihood of participating in unsafe sexual behaviors and at an elevated risk of exposure to sexually transmitted infection (STIs), including HIV. This manuscript presents quantitative and qualitative data on sexual behaviors among a sample of predominately heterosexual, male gang youth aged 16 to 25 years interviewed in Los Angeles between 2006 and 2007 (n = 60). In particular, sexual identity, initiation and frequency of sex, and number of sexual partners; use of condoms, children, and other pregnancies; group sex; and STIs and sex with drug users. We argue that gang youth are a particular public health concern, due to their heightened risky sexual activity, and that behavioral interventions targeting gang youth need to include a component on reducing sexual risks and promoting safe sexual health. PMID:21949598

  14. Specificity of early movie effects on adolescent sexual behavior and alcohol use.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Ross E; Gibbons, Frederick X; Li, Zhigang; Gerrard, Meg; Sargent, James D

    2013-11-01

    Adolescents' movie sex exposure (MSE) and movie alcohol exposure (MAE) have been shown to influence later sexual behavior and drinking, respectively. No study to date, however, has tested whether these effects generalize across behaviors. This study examined the concurrent influences of early (i.e., before age 16) MSE and MAE on subsequent risky sex and alcohol use among a national sample of 1228 U.S. adolescents. Participants reported their health behaviors and movie viewing up to six times between 2003 and 2009 in telephone interviews. The Beach method was used to create a population-based estimate of each participant's MSE and MAE, which were then entered into a structural equation model (SEM) to predict lifetime risky sex and past month alcohol use at ages 18-21. For both men and women, MAE predicted alcohol use, mediated by age of initiation of heavy episodic drinking (HED) and age of sexual debut; MAE also predicted risky sex via age of sexual debut. Among men only, MSE indirectly predicted risky sex and alcohol use. Findings indicated that early exposure to risk content from movies had both specific and general effects on later risk-taking, but gender differences were evident: for men, MSE was a stronger predictor than MAE, but for women, only MAE predicted later risk behavior. These results have implications for future media research, prevention programs for adolescent sex and alcohol use, and movie ratings that can guide parents' decisions as to which movies are appropriate for their children.

  15. Specificity of early movie effects on adolescent sexual behavior and alcohol use.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Ross E; Gibbons, Frederick X; Li, Zhigang; Gerrard, Meg; Sargent, James D

    2013-11-01

    Adolescents' movie sex exposure (MSE) and movie alcohol exposure (MAE) have been shown to influence later sexual behavior and drinking, respectively. No study to date, however, has tested whether these effects generalize across behaviors. This study examined the concurrent influences of early (i.e., before age 16) MSE and MAE on subsequent risky sex and alcohol use among a national sample of 1228 U.S. adolescents. Participants reported their health behaviors and movie viewing up to six times between 2003 and 2009 in telephone interviews. The Beach method was used to create a population-based estimate of each participant's MSE and MAE, which were then entered into a structural equation model (SEM) to predict lifetime risky sex and past month alcohol use at ages 18-21. For both men and women, MAE predicted alcohol use, mediated by age of initiation of heavy episodic drinking (HED) and age of sexual debut; MAE also predicted risky sex via age of sexual debut. Among men only, MSE indirectly predicted risky sex and alcohol use. Findings indicated that early exposure to risk content from movies had both specific and general effects on later risk-taking, but gender differences were evident: for men, MSE was a stronger predictor than MAE, but for women, only MAE predicted later risk behavior. These results have implications for future media research, prevention programs for adolescent sex and alcohol use, and movie ratings that can guide parents' decisions as to which movies are appropriate for their children. PMID:24034968

  16. Psychophysiological response patterns and risky sexual behavior in heterosexual and homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Erick; Goodrich, David; Petrocelli, John V; Bancroft, John

    2009-08-01

    The past few years have seen an increased awareness of the relevance of studying the role of sexual response, emotion, and traits such as sensation seeking and the propensity for sexual inhibition in risky sexual behavior. The current study examined the association between self-reported sexual risk taking and psychophysiological response patterns in 76 heterosexual and homosexual men. Measures included genital, electrodermal, startle eyeblink, and cardiovascular responses, and stimuli included threatening (depicting coercive sexual interactions) and nonthreatening (depicting consensual sexual interactions) sexual film excerpts. Sexual risk taking was hypothesized to be associated with decreased inhibition of sexual arousal and hyporeactive affective and autonomic responses to threatening sexual stimuli. Controlling for age and number of sexual partners in the past year, sexual risk taking (number of partners during the past 3 years with whom no condoms were used) was found to be associated with stronger genital responses and smaller eyeblink responses to both threatening and nonthreatening sexual stimuli. Correlations between genital and subjective sexual arousal were relatively low. Sexual risk taking was related to sensation seeking but not to the propensity for sexual inhibition. The findings suggest that risky sexual behavior may involve a role for psychophysiological mechanisms that are specific to sex as well as for ones that are associated with more general approach/avoidance response tendencies.

  17. Gender Differences in Drug Use, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Risky Sexual Behavior among Arrested Youths*

    PubMed Central

    Dembo, Richard; Belenko, Steven; Childs, Kristina; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Wareham, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Data were collected on arrested youths processed at a centralized intake facility, including youths released back to the community and those placed in secure detention. This paper reports the results of a test of a structural model involving newly arrested male and female youths’ sexually transmitted diseases (STD) test results, urine analysis results for recent cocaine and marijuana use, and self-reported engaging in risky sexual behavior. The across gender, multiple group model involved: (1) a confirmatory factor analysis of these variables, reflecting a latent variable labeled Risk, (2) a regression of Risk on the youths’ age, and (3) an examination of the covariance between Risk and the youths’ race and seriousness of arrest charge. Results indicate the youths’ STD status, drug use, and reported risky sexual behavior are interrelated phenomena, similarly experienced across gender. Age was the only correlate of Risk status that demonstrated a significant gender group difference. The youths’ race and seriousness of arrest charges did not significantly affect Risk, regardless of gender. Research and policy implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:21221415

  18. Brief Report: Parsing the Heterogeneity of Adolescent Girls' Sexual Behavior--Relationships to Individual and Interpersonal Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipwell, Alison E.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Keenan, Kate; Chung, Tammy; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Clusters of pre-sexual and sexual behaviors were identified in an urban US sample of 546 mid-adolescent girls. No distinct group of girls engaging in sexually risky behavior was revealed. Sexually active girls were older, lived with a single parent, and reported more substance use and depression, but similar levels of conduct problems, impulsivity…

  19. Increased Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behavior among Migratory Homeless Youth: Exploring the Role of Social Network Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martino, Steven C.; Tucker, Joan S.; Ryan, Gery; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Golinelli, Daniela; Munjas, Brett

    2011-01-01

    Travelers are a migratory subgroup of homeless youth who may be especially prone to engaging in risky behavior. This study compared the substance use and sexual behavior of young homeless travelers and non-travelers to evaluate the extent and possible sources of travelers' increased risk. Data came from face-to-face interviews with 419 homeless…

  20. The Moderating Effects of Cannabis Use and Decision Making on the Relationship between Conduct Disorder and Risky Sexual Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ross, J. Megan; Coxe, Stefany; Schuster, Randi M.; Rojas, Angelica; Gonzalez, Raul

    2015-01-01

    Risky sexual behavior (RSB) is a current public health concern affecting adolescents and young adults. Conduct disorder, cannabis use and decision making (DM) ability are interrelated constructs that are relevant to RSB; however, there is little research on the association of DM and RSB. Participants were 79 cannabis users assessed through self-report measures of RSB and mental health, and a timeline follow-back procedure for substance use. DM ability was assessed via the Iowa Gambling Task. We found that more conduct disorder symptoms accounted for unique variance in measures of overall RSB and an earlier initiation of oral sex, even when taking into account DM and cannabis use. Amount of cannabis use and DM ability moderated the relationships between number of conduct disorder symptoms and number of oral sex partners and age of initiation for vaginal sex. An increase in conduct disorder symptoms was associated with more oral sex partners when DM was poor and fewer partners when DM was better, however this relationship was only present at higher levels of cannabis use. Furthermore, when DM was poor, more conduct disorder symptoms predicted a younger age of initiation of vaginal sex, with the age decreasing as amount of cannabis use increased. Determining how DM influences RSB may assist in the identification of novel treatment approaches to reduce engagement in RSB. PMID:25832553

  1. Risky Behaviors and Social Networking Sites: How Is YouTube Influencing Our Youth?

    PubMed

    Ahern, Nancy R; Sauer, Penny; Thacker, Paige

    2015-10-01

    Choking, cutting, and setting oneself on fire are just a few of the risky behaviors that the YouTube video sharing website has allowed youth around the world to view, emulate, and comment on. Some researchers contend that the viewing of videos may normalize these behaviors for youth. Disturbing current trends are explored to illustrate the darker side of YouTube. Psychiatric-mental health nurses (PMHNs) are in key positions to help parents and youth better understand the benefits and risks of social networking sites, including YouTube, and to encourage healthy and safe use of the Internet. Nursing implications are offered for PMHNs, educators, health care providers, and parents who have contact with this population.

  2. Risky Behaviors and Social Networking Sites: How Is YouTube Influencing Our Youth?

    PubMed

    Ahern, Nancy R; Sauer, Penny; Thacker, Paige

    2015-10-01

    Choking, cutting, and setting oneself on fire are just a few of the risky behaviors that the YouTube video sharing website has allowed youth around the world to view, emulate, and comment on. Some researchers contend that the viewing of videos may normalize these behaviors for youth. Disturbing current trends are explored to illustrate the darker side of YouTube. Psychiatric-mental health nurses (PMHNs) are in key positions to help parents and youth better understand the benefits and risks of social networking sites, including YouTube, and to encourage healthy and safe use of the Internet. Nursing implications are offered for PMHNs, educators, health care providers, and parents who have contact with this population. PMID:26489101

  3. The impact of sexual enhancement alcohol expectancies and risky behavior on alcohol-involved rape among college women.

    PubMed

    Messman-Moore, Terri L; Ward, Rose Marie; DeNardi, Kathleen A

    2013-04-01

    A structural equation model examined sexual enhancement alcohol expectancies, heavy episodic drinking (HED), and risky sexual behavior as correlates of alcohol-involved rape in a sample of 353 college women. Prevalence of alcohol-involved rape was 15.6%. Sexual enhancement alcohol expectancies were indirectly associated with alcohol-involved rape via increased levels of HED, greater likelihood of sex while intoxicated, and number of sex partners. All forms of risky behavior were associated with alcohol-involved rape although HED had the strongest relationship. Findings suggest continued focus on women's positive alcohol expectancies and HED as risk factors for alcohol-involved rape. Implications for intervention will be discussed.

  4. Suicidal Behavior among Early Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gover, F. Jill

    There is a great deal of concern about teenage suicide. This study obtained a prevalence rate of suicidal behaviors among non-psychiatric early adolescents (ages 11-16) and investigated personal and family variables that may characterize the young teenagers who report varying degrees of suicidal behavior. A self-report questionnaire was…

  5. Experience of sexual coercion and risky sexual behavior among Ugandan university students

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Growing worldwide evidence shows that the experience of sexual coercion is fairly prevalent among young people and is associated with risky sexual behavior thereafter. The causal mechanisms behind this are unclear but may be dependent on specific contextual determinants. Little is known about factors that could buffer the negative effects of coercion. The aim of this study was to assess the association between the experience of sexual coercion and risky sexual behavior among university students of both sexes in Uganda. Methods In 2005, 980 (80%) out of a total of 1,220 students enrolled in Mbarara University of Science and Technology in Uganda participated in a self-administered questionnaire covering socio-demographic and religious factors, social capital, mental health, alcohol use, and sexual behavior. A validated scale of six items was used to assess the experience of sexual coercion. Logistic regression analyses were applied to control for confounders. Potential buffering factors were analyzed by testing for effect modification. Results Fifty-nine percent of those who responded had previously had sexual intercourse. Among the male students 29.0%, and among the female students 33.1% reported having had some experience of sexual coercion. After controlling for age, gender, and educational level of household of origin, role of religion and trust in others sexual coercion was found to be statistically significantly associated with previously had sex (OR 1.6, 95% CI; 1.1-2.3), early sexual debut (OR 2.4, 95% CI; 1.5-3.7), as well as with having had a great number of sexual partners (OR 1.9, 95% CI; 1.2-3.0), but not with inconsistent condom use. Scoring low on an assessment of mental health problems, reporting high trust in others, or stating that religion played a major role in one's family of origin seemed to buffer the negative effect that the experience of sexual coercion had on the likelihood of having many sexual partners. Conclusion The findings

  6. Taxi drivers' views on risky driving behavior in Tehran: a qualitative study using a social marketing approach.

    PubMed

    Shams, Mohsen; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Majdzadeh, Reza; Rashidian, Arash; Montazeri, Ali

    2011-05-01

    The use of the social marketing approach for public health issues is increasing. This approach uses marketing concepts borrowed from the principles of commercial marketing to promote beneficial health behaviors. In this qualitative study, four focus groups involving 42 participants were used in consumer research to explore taxi drivers' views on the driving situation and the determinants of risky driving behaviors in Tehran, as well as to gather their ideas for developing a social marketing program to reduce risky driving behaviors among taxi drivers in Tehran, Iran. Participants were asked to respond to questions that would guide the development of a marketing mix, or four Ps (product, price, place and promotion). The discussions determined that the program product should involve avoiding risky driving behaviors through increased attention to driving. They pointed out that developing and communicating with a well-designed persuasive message meant to draw their attention to driving could affect their driving behaviors. In addition, participants identified price, place and promotion strategies. They offered suggestions for marketing nonrisky driving to the target audience. The focus group discussions generated important insights into the values and the motivations that affect consumers' decisions to adopt the product. The focus group guided the development of a social marketing program to reduce risky driving behaviors in taxi drivers in Tehran, Iran.

  7. Taxi drivers' views on risky driving behavior in Tehran: a qualitative study using a social marketing approach.

    PubMed

    Shams, Mohsen; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Majdzadeh, Reza; Rashidian, Arash; Montazeri, Ali

    2011-05-01

    The use of the social marketing approach for public health issues is increasing. This approach uses marketing concepts borrowed from the principles of commercial marketing to promote beneficial health behaviors. In this qualitative study, four focus groups involving 42 participants were used in consumer research to explore taxi drivers' views on the driving situation and the determinants of risky driving behaviors in Tehran, as well as to gather their ideas for developing a social marketing program to reduce risky driving behaviors among taxi drivers in Tehran, Iran. Participants were asked to respond to questions that would guide the development of a marketing mix, or four Ps (product, price, place and promotion). The discussions determined that the program product should involve avoiding risky driving behaviors through increased attention to driving. They pointed out that developing and communicating with a well-designed persuasive message meant to draw their attention to driving could affect their driving behaviors. In addition, participants identified price, place and promotion strategies. They offered suggestions for marketing nonrisky driving to the target audience. The focus group discussions generated important insights into the values and the motivations that affect consumers' decisions to adopt the product. The focus group guided the development of a social marketing program to reduce risky driving behaviors in taxi drivers in Tehran, Iran. PMID:21376850

  8. The Power of the Like in Adolescence: Effects of Peer Influence on Neural and Behavioral Responses to Social Media.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Lauren E; Payton, Ashley A; Hernandez, Leanna M; Greenfield, Patricia M; Dapretto, Mirella

    2016-07-01

    We investigated a unique way in which adolescent peer influence occurs on social media. We developed a novel functional MRI (fMRI) paradigm to simulate Instagram, a popular social photo-sharing tool, and measured adolescents' behavioral and neural responses to likes, a quantifiable form of social endorsement and potential source of peer influence. Adolescents underwent fMRI while viewing photos ostensibly submitted to Instagram. They were more likely to like photos depicted with many likes than photos with few likes; this finding showed the influence of virtual peer endorsement and held for both neutral photos and photos of risky behaviors (e.g., drinking, smoking). Viewing photos with many (compared with few) likes was associated with greater activity in neural regions implicated in reward processing, social cognition, imitation, and attention. Furthermore, when adolescents viewed risky photos (as opposed to neutral photos), activation in the cognitive-control network decreased. These findings highlight possible mechanisms underlying peer influence during adolescence.

  9. Decreasing Risky Behavior on Social Network Sites: The Impact of Parental Involvement in Secondary Education Interventions.

    PubMed

    Vanderhoven, Ellen; Schellens, Tammy; Valcke, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Teenagers face significant risks when using increasingly popular social network sites. Prevention and intervention efforts to raise awareness about these risks and to change risky behavior (so-called "e-safety" interventions) are essential for the wellbeing of these minors. However, several studies have revealed that while school interventions often affect awareness, they have only a limited impact on pupils' unsafe behavior. Utilizing the Theory of Planned Behavior and theories about parental involvement, we hypothesized that involving parents in an e-safety intervention would positively influence pupils' intentions and behavior. In a quasi-experimental study with pre- and post-test measures involving 207 pupils in secondary education, we compared the impact of an intervention without parental involvement with one that included active parental involvement by means of a homework task. We found that whereas parental involvement was not necessary to improve the intervention's impact on risk awareness, it did change intentions to engage in certain unsafe behavior, such as posting personal and sexual information on the profile page of a social network site, and in reducing existing problematic behavior. This beneficial impact was particularly evident for boys. These findings suggest that developing prevention campaigns with active parental involvement is well worth the effort. Researchers and developers should therefore focus on other efficient strategies to involve parents. PMID:26821548

  10. A Preliminary Experimental Examination of the Effect of Emotion Dysregulation and Impulsivity on Risky Behaviors among Women with Sexual Assault-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Nicole H.; Tull, Matthew T.; Gratz, Kim L.

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with a wide range of risky behaviors (e.g., substance use and risky sexual behaviors); however, few studies have examined mechanisms that may underlie risky behaviors in this population. The present study utilized a prospective experimental design to examine the effects of emotion dysregulation and impulsivity on risky behaviors across time. Thirty women with sexual assault-related PTSD were randomly assigned to receive emotion modulation, impulsivity reduction, or healthy living (comparison condition) skills trainings. Participants completed measures of emotion dysregulation, impulsivity, and risky behaviors pre-manipulation and one month post-manipulation. Participants in the emotion modulation and impulsivity reduction conditions reported a significant reduction in risky behaviors from pre- to post-manipulation relative to the healthy living condition. Changes in emotion dysregulation from pre- to post-manipulation fully accounted for reductions in risky behaviors over time. Results provide preliminary experimental support for the role of emotion dysregulation in risky behaviors. PMID:25155301

  11. Self-reported and observed risky driving behaviors among frequent and infrequent cell phone users.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Nan; Reimer, Bryan; Mehler, Bruce; D'Ambrosio, Lisa A; Coughlin, Joseph F

    2013-12-01

    The apparently higher crash risk among individuals who use cell phones while driving may be due both to the direct interference of cell phone use with the driving task and tendencies to engage in risky driving behaviors independent of cell phone use. Measurements of actual highway driving performance, self-reported aberrant driving behaviors as measured by the Manchester Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ), and attitudes toward speeding, passing behaviors and relative concern about being involved in a crash were assessed. Individuals who reported frequently using cell phones while driving were found to drive faster, change lanes more frequently, spend more time in the left lane, and engage in more instances of hard braking and high acceleration events. They also scored higher in self-reported driving violations on the DBQ and reported more positive attitudes toward speeding and passing than drivers who did not report using a cell phone regularly while driving. These results indicate that a greater reported frequency of cell phone use while driving is associated with a broader pattern of behaviors that are likely to increase the overall risk of crash involvement.

  12. The Dow is Killing Me: Risky Health Behaviors and the Stock Market.

    PubMed

    Cotti, Chad; Dunn, Richard A; Tefft, Nathan

    2015-07-01

    We investigate how risky health behaviors and self-reported health vary with the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) and during stock market crashes. Because stock market indices are leading indicators of economic performance, this research contributes to our understanding of the macroeconomic determinants of health. Existing studies typically rely on the unemployment rate to proxy for economic performance, but this measure captures only one of many channels through which the economic environment may influence individual health decisions. We find that large, negative monthly DJIA returns, decreases in the level of the DJIA, and stock market crashes are widely associated with worsening self-reported mental health and more cigarette smoking, binge drinking, and fatal car accidents involving alcohol. These results are consistent with predictions from rational addiction models and have implications for research on the association between consumption and stock prices.

  13. Demystifying the Adolescent Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the nature of brain development in adolescence helps explain why adolescents can vacillate so often between mature and immature behavior. Early and middle adolescence, in particular, are times of heightened vulnerability to risky and reckless behavior because the brain's reward center is easily aroused, but the systems that control…

  14. People with gambling disorder and risky alcohol habits benefit more from motivational interviewing than from cognitive behavioral group therapy.

    PubMed

    Josephson, Henrik; Carlbring, Per; Forsberg, Lars; Rosendahl, Ingvar

    2016-01-01

    Background. Effective psychological treatment, including cognitive behavioral therapy and motivational interviewing (MI), is available for people with problematic gambling behaviors. To advance the development of treatment for gambling disorder, it is critical to further investigate how comorbidity impacts different types of treatments. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether screening for risky alcohol habits can provide guidance on whether people with gambling disorder should be recommended cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) or MI. Methods. The present study is a secondary analysis of a previous randomized controlled trial that compared the effects of CBGT, MI and a waitlist control group in the treatment of disordered gambling. Assessment and treatment was conducted at an outpatient dependency clinic in Stockholm, Sweden, where 53 trial participants with gambling disorder began treatment. A modified version of the National Opinion Research Centre DSM-IV Screen for gambling problems was used to assess gambling disorder. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was used to screen for risky alcohol habits. Results. The interaction between treatment and alcohol habits was significant and suggests that patients with gambling disorder and risky alcohol habits were better helped by MI, while those without risky alcohol habits were better helped by CBGT. Conclusions. The results support a screening procedure including the AUDIT prior to starting treatment for gambling disorder because the result of the screening can provide guidance in the choice of treatment. Patients with gambling disorder and risky alcohol habits are likely to be best helped if they are referred to MI, while those without risky alcohol habits are likely to be best helped if they are referred to CBGT.

  15. People with gambling disorder and risky alcohol habits benefit more from motivational interviewing than from cognitive behavioral group therapy

    PubMed Central

    Carlbring, Per; Forsberg, Lars; Rosendahl, Ingvar

    2016-01-01

    Background. Effective psychological treatment, including cognitive behavioral therapy and motivational interviewing (MI), is available for people with problematic gambling behaviors. To advance the development of treatment for gambling disorder, it is critical to further investigate how comorbidity impacts different types of treatments. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether screening for risky alcohol habits can provide guidance on whether people with gambling disorder should be recommended cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) or MI. Methods. The present study is a secondary analysis of a previous randomized controlled trial that compared the effects of CBGT, MI and a waitlist control group in the treatment of disordered gambling. Assessment and treatment was conducted at an outpatient dependency clinic in Stockholm, Sweden, where 53 trial participants with gambling disorder began treatment. A modified version of the National Opinion Research Centre DSM-IV Screen for gambling problems was used to assess gambling disorder. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was used to screen for risky alcohol habits. Results. The interaction between treatment and alcohol habits was significant and suggests that patients with gambling disorder and risky alcohol habits were better helped by MI, while those without risky alcohol habits were better helped by CBGT. Conclusions. The results support a screening procedure including the AUDIT prior to starting treatment for gambling disorder because the result of the screening can provide guidance in the choice of treatment. Patients with gambling disorder and risky alcohol habits are likely to be best helped if they are referred to MI, while those without risky alcohol habits are likely to be best helped if they are referred to CBGT. PMID:27069823

  16. Risky Sexual Behaviors and Associated Factors among Jiga High School and Preparatory School Students, Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Kassa, Getachew Mullu; Degu, Genet; Yitayew, Meseret; Misganaw, Worku; Muche, Mikiyas; Demelash, Tiguaded; Mesele, Meless; Ayehu, Melat

    2016-01-01

    Background. Young people constitute a large number of population worldwide, and majority of this population group lives in developing countries. They are at high risk of engaging in risky sexual behaviors. These risk sexual behaviors predispose youths to several sexual and reproductive health problems like STIs, HIV, unwanted pregnancy, and abortion. So, this study was conducted to assess the magnitude of risky sexual behaviors and associated factors among Jiga high school and preparatory school students, northwest Ethiopia. Methodology. Institutional based cross-sectional study design was conducted among Jiga town high school and preparatory school students. A total of 311 students were included in the study. Systematic random sampling method was used to select study participants. Data was entered using EpiData version 3.1 and it was exported to SPSS version 22 for further analysis. Descriptive analysis and bivariate and multivariate analysis were also calculated to determine factors associated with risky sexual behavior. Result. Forty-eight (16%) of respondents reported that they had sexual intercourse. From those who start sex, 44 (14.7%) were involved in risky sexual behavior which could predispose them to sexual and reproductive health problems. More than half, 27 (56.3%), of respondents first sexual intercourse was before their eighteenth birthday. The mean age and SD of fist sexual initiation were 17.2 years old and 1.35 years, respectively. Factors associated with risky sexual behavior include respondents between the ages of 20 and 23 (AOR: 5, 95%, CI: 1.59–15.98), drinking alcohol (AOR: 2.48, 95% CI: 1.13–5.41), and having poor knowledge towards HIV/AIDS (AOR: 4.53, 95%, CI: 2.06–9.94). Conclusion. A large number of in-school youths are involved in risky sexual behaviors like early sexual initiation, having multiple sexual partners, inconsistence use of condom, and having sex with high risk partner (CSWs). Age of respondents, alcohol drinking, and

  17. Men's Self-Definitions of Abusive Childhood Sexual Experiences, and Potentially Related Risky Behavioral and Psychiatric Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, William C.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate how many heterosexual and gay/bisexual men self-define abusive childhood sexual experiences (CSEs) to be childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and to assess whether CSA self-definition is associated with risky behavioral and psychiatric outcomes in adulthood. Methods: In Philadelphia County, 197 (66%) of 298 recruited men…

  18. How Perceptions of Mortality and HIV Morbidity Relate to Substance Abuse Problems and Risky Sexual Behaviors among Former Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gromet, Dena M.; Ramchand, Rajeev; Griffin, Beth Ann; Morral, Andrew R.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates whether high-risk young adults' perceptions of their likelihood of living to age 35 and of acquiring HIV are related to their substance abuse problems and risky sexual behaviors. The sample consists of data from the 72- and 87-month follow-up assessments of 449 juvenile offenders referred to probation in 1999 and 2000.…

  19. The Effects of Early Sexual Abuse on Adult Risky Sexual Behaviors among Persons with Severe Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dorn, Richard A.; Mustillo, Sarah; Elbogen, Eric B.; Dorsey, Shannon; Swanson, Jeffrey W.; Swartz, Marvin S.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: There were two aims: first, to examine the relationship between prior sexual abuse and three types of adult risky sexual behaviors [(1) ever traded sex for drugs or money, (2) had unprotected sex in the past 6 months, and (3) frequency of unprotected sex in the past 6 months] among persons with severe mental illness (SMI), and second,…

  20. Infectious disease, injection practices, and risky sexual behavior among anabolic steroid users.

    PubMed

    Ip, Eric J; Yadao, Michael A; Shah, Bijal M; Lau, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) and other performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) are commonly misused to increase muscle size and strength, as well as improve physical appearance. Many AAS and certain PEDs are administered via injection and therefore pose a risk for transmission of infectious diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). Further, AAS users may be more likely to take part in high-risk sexual behaviors than non-AAS users. This review explores the prevalence of infectious diseases as well as risky injection practices and sexual behaviors of AAS users in the current literature. A comprehensive MEDLINE search (1984-17 April 2015) for English language reports was performed on AAS users. Ten studies analyzed the prevalence of HIV infection, 6 studies analyzed HBV infection, and 6 studies analyzed HCV infection; 20 studies analyzed injection practices and 7 studies analyzed high-risk sexual behaviors of AAS users. HIV, HBV, HCV, and SSTIs have been associated with AAS users. In particular, HIV infection seems much higher among homosexual male AAS users. AAS users also take part in high-risk injection practices but to a much lower extent than intravenous drug users. AAS users are also more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behaviors than the general population. Clinicians and health-policy leaders may utilize these findings to implement strategies to decrease the spread of infectious diseases.

  1. Infectious disease, injection practices, and risky sexual behavior among anabolic steroid users.

    PubMed

    Ip, Eric J; Yadao, Michael A; Shah, Bijal M; Lau, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) and other performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) are commonly misused to increase muscle size and strength, as well as improve physical appearance. Many AAS and certain PEDs are administered via injection and therefore pose a risk for transmission of infectious diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). Further, AAS users may be more likely to take part in high-risk sexual behaviors than non-AAS users. This review explores the prevalence of infectious diseases as well as risky injection practices and sexual behaviors of AAS users in the current literature. A comprehensive MEDLINE search (1984-17 April 2015) for English language reports was performed on AAS users. Ten studies analyzed the prevalence of HIV infection, 6 studies analyzed HBV infection, and 6 studies analyzed HCV infection; 20 studies analyzed injection practices and 7 studies analyzed high-risk sexual behaviors of AAS users. HIV, HBV, HCV, and SSTIs have been associated with AAS users. In particular, HIV infection seems much higher among homosexual male AAS users. AAS users also take part in high-risk injection practices but to a much lower extent than intravenous drug users. AAS users are also more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behaviors than the general population. Clinicians and health-policy leaders may utilize these findings to implement strategies to decrease the spread of infectious diseases. PMID:26422090

  2. Prenatal Substance Exposure: What Predicts Behavioral Resilience by Early Adolescence?

    PubMed Central

    Liebschutz, Jane; Crooks, Denise; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Cabral, Howard J; Heeren, Timothy C; Gerteis, Jessie; Appugliese, Danielle P.; Heymann, Orlaith D.; Lange, Allison V.; Frank, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding behavioral resilience among at-risk adolescents may guide public policy decisions and future programs. We examined factors predicting behavioral resilience following intrauterine substance exposure (IUSE) in a prospective longitudinal birth-cohort study of 136 early adolescents (age 12.4–15.9) at-risk for poor behavioral outcomes. We defined behavioral resilience as a composite measure of lack of early substance use initiation (before age 14), lack of risky sexual behavior, or lack of delinquency. IUSEs included in this analysis were cocaine (IUCE), tobacco (IUTE), alcohol (IUAE), and marijuana (IUME). We recruited participants from Boston Medical Center as mother-infant dyads between 1990 and 1993. The majority of the sample was African-American/Caribbean (88%) and 49% female. In bivariate analyses, none and lower IUCE level predicted resilience compared to higher IUCE, but this effect was not found in an adjusted model. Instead, strict caregiver supervision (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=6.02, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.90–19.00, p=0.002), lower violence exposure (AOR=4.07, 95% CI=1.77–9.38, p<0.001), and absence of intrauterine tobacco exposure (AOR=3.71, 95% CI= 1.28–10.74, p=0.02) predicted behavioral resilience. In conclusion, caregiver supervision in early adolescence, lower violence exposure in childhood, and lack of intrauterine tobacco exposure predict behavioral resilience among a cohort of early adolescents with significant social and environmental risk. Future interventions should work to enhance parental supervision as a way to mitigate the effects of adversity on high-risk groups of adolescents. PMID:26076097

  3. Prenatal substance exposure: What predicts behavioral resilience by early adolescence?

    PubMed

    Liebschutz, Jane M; Crooks, Denise; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Cabral, Howard J; Heeren, Timothy C; Gerteis, Jessie; Appugliese, Danielle P; Heymann, Orlaith D; Lange, Allison V; Frank, Deborah A

    2015-06-01

    Understanding behavioral resilience among at-risk adolescents may guide public policy decisions and future programs. We examined factors predicting behavioral resilience following intrauterine substance exposure in a prospective longitudinal birth-cohort study of 136 early adolescents (ages 12.4-15.9 years) at risk for poor behavioral outcomes. We defined behavioral resilience as a composite measure of lack of early substance use initiation (before age 14), lack of risky sexual behavior, or lack of delinquency. Intrauterine substance exposures included in this analysis were cocaine, tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana. We recruited participants from Boston Medical Center as mother-infant dyads between 1990 and 1993. The majority of the sample was African American/Caribbean (88%) and 49% female. In bivariate analyses, none and lower intrauterine cocaine exposure level predicted resilience compared with higher cocaine exposure, but this effect was not found in an adjusted model. Instead, strict caregiver supervision (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.90, 19.00], p = .002), lower violence exposure (AOR = 4.07, 95% CI [1.77, 9.38], p < .001), and absence of intrauterine tobacco exposure (AOR = 3.71, 95% CI [1.28, 10.74], p = .02) predicted behavioral resilience. In conclusion, caregiver supervision in early adolescence, lower violence exposure in childhood, and lack of intrauterine tobacco exposure predicted behavioral resilience among a cohort of early adolescents with significant social and environmental risk. Future interventions should work to enhance parental supervision as a way to mitigate the effects of adversity on high-risk groups of adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26076097

  4. "Other Teens Drink, But Not My Kid": Does Parental Awareness of Adolescent Alcohol Use Protect Adolescents from Risky Consequences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogenschneider, Karen; Wu, Ming-yeh; Raffaelli, Marcela; Tsay, Jenner C.

    1998-01-01

    Examines white mothers (n=199) and white fathers (n=144) of adolescents reporting regular alcohol use. Less than one third of parents were aware of their adolescents' drinking. Parental awareness of adolescent alcohol use served to protect adolescents by moderating the reaction of parents' responsiveness to episodes of drinking and driving.…

  5. Problematic Internet use and other risky behaviors in college students: an application of problem-behavior theory.

    PubMed

    De Leo, Joseph Anthony; Wulfert, Edelgard

    2013-03-01

    Given the widespread use of the Internet, researchers have begun to examine the personal and social consequences associated with excessive online involvement. The present study examined college students' problematic Internet use (PIU) behaviors within the framework of Jessor and Jessor's (1977) problem-behavior theory. Its specific aim was to investigate the links between PIU with both internalizing (depression, social anxiety) and externalizing (substance use and other risky behaviors) problems. Relevant variables from the perceived environmental system, the personality system, and the behavioral system were entered in a canonical correlation analysis. The analysis yielded two distinct functions: the first function, titled traditional problem-behavior syndrome, characterized students who are impulsive, hold socially deviant attitudes and show a propensity to use tobacco and illicit drugs. The second function, titled problematic Internet-behavior syndrome, characterized students who are socially anxious, depressed, report conflictive family relations, and show a propensity toward PIU. Thus, PIU did not share the characteristics typically associated with the traditional problem-behavior syndrome consistent with problem-behavior theory, but showed correlates more consistent with internalizing rather than externalizing problems. PMID:23276311

  6. Understanding the Association between Maltreatment History and Adolescent Risk Behavior by Examining Popularity Motivations and Peer Group Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Wendy E.; Wolfe, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine how peer group processes of pressure and control and individual motivations for popularity would add to, and moderate the relationship between, childhood maltreatment and risky behavior in adolescence. A total of 1558 youth (804 girls) from three high schools in Ontario, Canada (M age = 15.02 years,…

  7. Assessments of risky driving: a Go/No-Go simulator driving task to evaluate risky decision-making and associated behavioral patterns.

    PubMed

    Ba, Yutao; Zhang, Wei; Salvendy, Gavriel; Cheng, Andy S K; Ventsislavova, Petya

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to develop and validate a Go/No-Go Simulator Driving Task (G/NG-SDT) to evaluate driver risky decision-making and associated behavioral assessments at a situation-specific level. Eighty-four participants were instructed to complete a route in as short time as possible, but avoiding any violations or crashes. To achieve this aim, they had to decide to go or wait in the dilemma scenes, paired with the baseline scenes in several scenarios. High-risk drivers with more Go decisions demonstrated more violations, in both simulator tasks and real road driving, as well as higher scores of Driving Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) violations and more Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) pumps. These high-risk drivers also showed distinguishable behavioral patterns in simulator driving, moderated by the specific driving situations (e.g. scenario and scene). Several behavior assessments were consistently distinguishable in all tested situations, qualified as robust indictors to predict risk-taking in more general driving situations. PMID:26360218

  8. Sexual Behavior and Knowledge among Adolescents with Perinatally Acquired Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Compared to HIV-Uninfected Adolescents at an Urban Tertiary Center in New Jersey

    PubMed Central

    Pineda, Carol; Kest, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Background. Sexual behaviors and knowledge among PHIV-infected (PHIV+) adolescents in comparison with HIV-uninfected youths are not well understood and continue to be studied actively. Objective. To compare sexual behavior and sexual knowledge of PHIV+ and HIV-uninfected adolescents at an urban, tertiary-care center in New Jersey. Study Design. Modified Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance questionnaire was administered to PHIV+ and HIV-uninfected adolescents to assess and compare sexual behavior and knowledge over a 1-year-period. Results. Twenty-seven PHIV+ and 100 HIV-uninfected adolescents were studied; 59% PHIV+ and 52% HIV-uninfected adolescents were sexually active. A significantly higher proportion of PHIV+ adolescents compared to HIV-uninfected adolescents reported ≥1 occasion of unprotected penetrative sex (p < 0.0001) and reported multiple (>4) sexual partners (p = 0.037). Significantly more PHIV+ males reported receptive anal intercourse (p < 0.001). About 1/3 of adolescents in both groups were unaware that sexual abstinence can prevent HIV transmission and >80% adolescents in both groups did not consider multiple sexual partners a risk factor for HIV transmission. Only 25% PHIV+ adolescents reported disclosing their seropositive status to their first sexual partners. Conclusions. High risk sexual behaviors were significantly more prevalent among PHIV+ youths; however both groups demonstrated considerable gaps in sexual knowledge. There is an urgent need for heightening awareness about risky behaviors, interventions for prevention, and reproductive health promotion among adolescents.

  9. Sexual Behavior and Knowledge among Adolescents with Perinatally Acquired Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Compared to HIV-Uninfected Adolescents at an Urban Tertiary Center in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Ashlesha; Pineda, Carol; Kest, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Background. Sexual behaviors and knowledge among PHIV-infected (PHIV(+)) adolescents in comparison with HIV-uninfected youths are not well understood and continue to be studied actively. Objective. To compare sexual behavior and sexual knowledge of PHIV(+) and HIV-uninfected adolescents at an urban, tertiary-care center in New Jersey. Study Design. Modified Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance questionnaire was administered to PHIV(+) and HIV-uninfected adolescents to assess and compare sexual behavior and knowledge over a 1-year-period. Results. Twenty-seven PHIV(+) and 100 HIV-uninfected adolescents were studied; 59% PHIV(+) and 52% HIV-uninfected adolescents were sexually active. A significantly higher proportion of PHIV(+) adolescents compared to HIV-uninfected adolescents reported ≥1 occasion of unprotected penetrative sex (p < 0.0001) and reported multiple (>4) sexual partners (p = 0.037). Significantly more PHIV(+) males reported receptive anal intercourse (p < 0.001). About 1/3 of adolescents in both groups were unaware that sexual abstinence can prevent HIV transmission and >80% adolescents in both groups did not consider multiple sexual partners a risk factor for HIV transmission. Only 25% PHIV(+) adolescents reported disclosing their seropositive status to their first sexual partners. Conclusions. High risk sexual behaviors were significantly more prevalent among PHIV(+) youths; however both groups demonstrated considerable gaps in sexual knowledge. There is an urgent need for heightening awareness about risky behaviors, interventions for prevention, and reproductive health promotion among adolescents.

  10. Sexual Behavior and Knowledge among Adolescents with Perinatally Acquired Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Compared to HIV-Uninfected Adolescents at an Urban Tertiary Center in New Jersey

    PubMed Central

    Pineda, Carol; Kest, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Background. Sexual behaviors and knowledge among PHIV-infected (PHIV+) adolescents in comparison with HIV-uninfected youths are not well understood and continue to be studied actively. Objective. To compare sexual behavior and sexual knowledge of PHIV+ and HIV-uninfected adolescents at an urban, tertiary-care center in New Jersey. Study Design. Modified Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance questionnaire was administered to PHIV+ and HIV-uninfected adolescents to assess and compare sexual behavior and knowledge over a 1-year-period. Results. Twenty-seven PHIV+ and 100 HIV-uninfected adolescents were studied; 59% PHIV+ and 52% HIV-uninfected adolescents were sexually active. A significantly higher proportion of PHIV+ adolescents compared to HIV-uninfected adolescents reported ≥1 occasion of unprotected penetrative sex (p < 0.0001) and reported multiple (>4) sexual partners (p = 0.037). Significantly more PHIV+ males reported receptive anal intercourse (p < 0.001). About 1/3 of adolescents in both groups were unaware that sexual abstinence can prevent HIV transmission and >80% adolescents in both groups did not consider multiple sexual partners a risk factor for HIV transmission. Only 25% PHIV+ adolescents reported disclosing their seropositive status to their first sexual partners. Conclusions. High risk sexual behaviors were significantly more prevalent among PHIV+ youths; however both groups demonstrated considerable gaps in sexual knowledge. There is an urgent need for heightening awareness about risky behaviors, interventions for prevention, and reproductive health promotion among adolescents. PMID:27595131

  11. Sexual Behavior and Knowledge among Adolescents with Perinatally Acquired Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Compared to HIV-Uninfected Adolescents at an Urban Tertiary Center in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Ashlesha; Pineda, Carol; Kest, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Background. Sexual behaviors and knowledge among PHIV-infected (PHIV(+)) adolescents in comparison with HIV-uninfected youths are not well understood and continue to be studied actively. Objective. To compare sexual behavior and sexual knowledge of PHIV(+) and HIV-uninfected adolescents at an urban, tertiary-care center in New Jersey. Study Design. Modified Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance questionnaire was administered to PHIV(+) and HIV-uninfected adolescents to assess and compare sexual behavior and knowledge over a 1-year-period. Results. Twenty-seven PHIV(+) and 100 HIV-uninfected adolescents were studied; 59% PHIV(+) and 52% HIV-uninfected adolescents were sexually active. A significantly higher proportion of PHIV(+) adolescents compared to HIV-uninfected adolescents reported ≥1 occasion of unprotected penetrative sex (p < 0.0001) and reported multiple (>4) sexual partners (p = 0.037). Significantly more PHIV(+) males reported receptive anal intercourse (p < 0.001). About 1/3 of adolescents in both groups were unaware that sexual abstinence can prevent HIV transmission and >80% adolescents in both groups did not consider multiple sexual partners a risk factor for HIV transmission. Only 25% PHIV(+) adolescents reported disclosing their seropositive status to their first sexual partners. Conclusions. High risk sexual behaviors were significantly more prevalent among PHIV(+) youths; however both groups demonstrated considerable gaps in sexual knowledge. There is an urgent need for heightening awareness about risky behaviors, interventions for prevention, and reproductive health promotion among adolescents. PMID:27595131

  12. A Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Risky Sexual Behavior and Decrease Sexually Transmitted Infections in Latinas Living in the United States.

    PubMed

    Althoff, Meghan D; Grayson, Cary T; Witt, Lucy; Holden, Julie; Reid, Daniel; Kissinger, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of behavioral interventions in reducing risky sexual behavior and incident sexually transmitted infections (STI) among Latina women living in the United States. Studies were found by systematically searching the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsychInfo databases without language restriction. Two independent reviewers screened abstracts and full texts of articles to find randomized control trials testing the effects of behavioral interventions aimed at changing risky sexual behavior among Latinas. Articles were selected using prespecified inclusion criteria. Two independent reviewers extracted data from the included trials in duplicate using a standardized data extraction form. Six randomized control trials met the inclusion criteria for a total of 2,909 participants. Using random effects models with inverse variance weighting, we found a protective effect of the behavioral intervention on reported risky sexual behavior (odds ratio = 0.52; 95% confidence interval = 0.42, 0.64) and on incident nonviral STI (odds ratio = 0.65; 95% confidence interval = 0.46, 0.93). Behavioral interventions targeted toward Latina populations are effective in reducing risky sexual behaviors and incident STI and should be considered by policymakers as a potential tool for HIV/STI prevention in this population.

  13. A Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Risky Sexual Behavior and Decrease Sexually Transmitted Infections in Latinas Living in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Althoff, Meghan D.; Grayson, Cary T.; Witt, Lucy; Holden, Julie; Reid, Daniel; Kissinger, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of behavioral interventions in reducing risky sexual behavior and incident sexually transmitted infections (STI) among Latina women living in the United States. Studies were found by systematically searching the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsychInfo databases without language restriction.…

  14. Determinants of risky sexual behavior and condom use among college students in China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xinying; Liu, Xiaona; Shi, Yuhui; Wang, Yanling; Wang, Peiyu; Chang, Chun

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to assess sexual behavior and condom use among Chinese college students, and to explore social-environmental and social-cognitive determinants associated with risky sexual behaviors within this population. A survey was conducted among 19,123 Chinese college students recruited through stratified cluster sampling. About 9% of the students reported having had sex (male=13.3%, female=5.0%, OR=2.918), 3.6% had multiple sexual partners (male=5.7%, female=1.6%, OR=3.624), and 0.9% had commercialized sex (male=1.6%, female=0.3%, OR=6.169). Only 24.8% of sexually active students had used a condom for every sexual encounter, and there was no significant difference in condom use between male students and female students. Logistic regression showed that sex (female, OR=0.769), age (older, OR=1.263), exposure to pornographic information (higher, OR=1.751), drinking (intoxication, OR=1.437), and smoking (OR=2.123-5.112) were all determinants of sexual behaviors. Path analysis showed that exposure to pornographic information, level of consumption, and sex education were important social-environmental factors of condom use. Condom use was more common among those who had greater HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes toward high-risk behavior, self-efficacy, and intent to use a condom. Intentions were the most important and direct factor influencing condom use. The study concluded that college students are vulnerable to sexually transmitted diseases - including HIV/AIDS infection - through sexual contact. Therefore, future HIV/AIDS prevention and safer sex interventions should focus on self-protection skills and target behavior change. PMID:23252705

  15. Risky Behaviors among HIV-Positive Female Sex Workers in Northern Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Jadhav, Apoorva; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Raghavendra, T.; Blanchard, James; Moses, Stephen; Isac, Shajy; Halli, Shiva S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Little is known about the risky sexual behaviors of HIV-positive female sex workers (FSWs) in the developing world, which is critical for programmatic purposes. This study aims to shed light on their condom use with regular clients as well as husband/cohabiting partner, a first in India. Methods. Multivariate logistic regression analyses for consistent condom use with regular clients and husband/cohabiting partner are conducted for the sample of 606 HIV-positive FSWs. Results. Older FSWs are 90% less likely and nonmobile FSWs are 70% less likely to consistently use condoms. FSWs on ART are 3.84 times more likely to use condoms. Additionally, FSWs who changed their occupation after HIV diagnosis are 70% less likely to use condoms. FSWs who are currently cohabiting are more likely to consistently use condoms with repeat clients and are 3.22 times more likely to do so if they have felt stigma associated with being HIV-positive. FSWs who have multiple repeat clients, and who do not know the sexual behavior of these clients, are more likely to use condoms consistently. Conclusion. This study would help inform programs to target the following particularly vulnerable HIV-positive FSWs: those who are older, those who changed their occupation post-HIV diagnosis, and those who are nonmobile. PMID:23365728

  16. Children’s Proneness to Shame and Guilt Predict Risky and Illegal Behaviors in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Stuewig, Jeffrey; Tangney, June P.; Kendall, Stephanie; Folk, Johanna B.; Meyer, Candace Reinsmith; Dearing, Ronda L.

    2014-01-01

    Do shame and guilt help people avoid doing wrong? Although some research suggests that guilt-proneness is a protective factor while shame-proneness puts individuals at risk, most research is either cross-sectional or short-term. In this longitudinal study, 380 5th graders (ages 10–12) completed measures of proneness to shame and guilt. We re-interviewed 68% of participants after they turned 18 years old (range 18–21). Guilt-proneness assessed in childhood predicted fewer sexual partners, less use of illegal drugs and alcohol, and less involvement with the criminal justice system. Shame-proneness, in contrast, was a risk factor for later deviant behavior. Shame-prone children were more likely to have unprotected sex and use illegal drugs in young adulthood. These results held when controlling for childhood SES and teachers’ ratings of aggression. Children’s moral emotional styles appear to be well established by at least middle childhood, with distinct downstream implications for risky behavior in early adulthood. PMID:24842762

  17. Risk Behavior and Personal Resiliency in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince-Embury, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between self-reported risk behaviors and personal resiliency in adolescents; specifically whether youth with higher personal resiliency report less frequent risk behaviors than those with lower personal resiliency. Self-reported risk behavior is surveyed by the "Adolescent Risk Behavior Inventory"…

  18. Alcohol Use and Related Behaviors among Late-Adolescent Urban Youths: Peer and Parent Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwinn, Traci M.; Schinke, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Peer and parent influences on alcohol use and related risky behaviors were examined in a sample of late-adolescent (M = 17.3 years; SD = 1.11 years) urban youths. Participants (N = 400) completed an online measure assessing peer influences of alcohol use and alcohol offers and also parental influences of rules against alcohol use and perceived…

  19. Marijuana use is associated with risky sexual behaviors in treatment-seeking polysubstance abusers

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Leonardo F.; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Multiple types of substance use are associated with HIV risk behaviors, but relatively little research has examined the association between marijuana use and risky sexual activities in treatment-seeking polysubstance abuse patients. Objectives This study evaluated the relationship between marijuana use and sexual behaviors in 239 patients with cocaine, opioid, or alcohol use disorders who were initiating outpatient substance use treatment. Methods Participants completed the HIV Risk Behavior Scale and were classified into one of three groups based on their marijuana use histories: never (n = 66), past but not current use (n = 124), or current use (n = 49). Results Compared to never marijuana users, current and former marijuana users had a greater likelihood of having more than 50 lifetime sexual partners [odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.9 (1.0 – 15.7) and 5.2 (1.6 – 17.3), respectively]. Former marijuana users had increased risk of low frequency condom use with casual partners relative to never users [OR (95% CI) = 2.9 (1.1 – 7.6)]. Moreover, current marijuana users were more likely than never users to have had more than two recent sexual partners [OR (95% CI) = 8.1 (1.94 – 33.44)]. Conclusion Treatment-seeking polysubstance abusers with current or past marijuana use histories may be at greater risk of HIV infection than their counterparts who do not use marijuana. These data underscore the importance of increasing awareness about the potential association between marijuana use and increased high risk sexual behavior among polysubstance abusing patients. PMID:23841867

  20. Sexual behavior and the influencing factors among out of school female adolescents in Mushin market, Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Odeyemi, Kofoworola; Onajole, Adebayo; Ogunowo, Babatunde

    2009-01-01

    High rates of adolescent pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and unsafe abortions in Nigeria indicate the need for a greater understanding of factors that affect adolescent sexuality. The sexual health needs of adolescents remain poorly known and addressed particularly among vulnerable subpopulations like out-of-school adolescents. The objective of this study was to examine the sexual behavior of female out-of-school adolescents and to identify factors that influence their sexual behavior. This cross-sectional study was conducted among a representative sample of unmarried, out-of-school female adolescents (n = 332, mean age 17 y), selected using cluster sampling, who were working in a major market (Mushin) in Lagos, Nigeria. Data were collected using interviewer administered questionnaires. Many girls (43.7%) have had sexual intercourse. The mean age at initiation was 16 years. The main reason for initiation was curiosity. Risky sexual behavior and transactional sex was common. Nonconsensual sex was also reported. Sexual health knowledge was poor, and friends served as their main source of information on sexual health issues. Factors associated with the initiation of sexual activity were friends sexual behavior, the person adolescents reside with, parents marital status, availability of funds to meet basic needs, and watching pornography (p < .05). Out-of-school female adolescents engaging in risky sexual behavior are exposed to sexual abuse, lack skills to resist pressure, and have limited access to credible reproductive health information. Appropriate interventions including provision of sexuality education and a supportive environment must be instituted to address their needs.

  1. Father Involvement, Dating Violence, and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among a National Sample of Adolescent Females.

    PubMed

    Alleyne-Green, Binta; Grinnell-Davis, Claudette; Clark, Trenette T; Quinn, Camille R; Cryer-Coupet, Qiana R

    2016-03-01

    This study explored the relationship between the involvement of biological fathers and the sexual risk behaviors and dating violence/victimization and/or perpetration of adolescent girls. The data used in this cross-sectional analysis were drawn from the second wave of the public release of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Only adolescents who reported their biological sex as female, reported a history of being sexually active, and reported having a romantic partner in the previous 18 months were selected (N = 879). This study focused on overall positive sexual behaviors and use of contraception. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to best utilize capacity for dealing with latent variables and to test for possible mediation effects. The analysis demonstrated main effects of dating violence and father involvement on sexual behaviors. The more dating violence an adolescent girl experiences, the less likely she is to engage in healthy sexual behaviors. Likewise, the more involvement the biological father has in a woman's life, the more likely she is to engage in positive sexual behaviors. Perceived father involvement was associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls. Dating violence was directly associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls, particularly non-White girls. Future studies should use longitudinal models and test theoretically and empirically guided potential mediators. Future studies should also consider father figures such as step-fathers and grandfathers in addition to biological fathers, as having a father figure may be a stronger predictor of adolescent sexual behaviors than having a biological connection.

  2. Father Involvement, Dating Violence, and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among a National Sample of Adolescent Females

    PubMed Central

    Alleyne-Green, Binta; Grinnell-Davis, Claudette; Clark, Trenette T.; Quinn, Camille R.; Cryer, Qiana R.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between the involvement of biological fathers and the sexual risk behaviors and dating violence/victimization and/ or perpetration of adolescent girls. The data used in this cross-sectional analysis were drawn from the second wave of the public release of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Only adolescents who reported their biological sex as female, reported a history of being sexually active, and reported having a romantic partner in the previous 18 months were selected (N = 879). This study focused on overall positive sexual behaviors and use of contraception. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to best utilize capacity for dealing with latent variables and to test for possible mediation effects. The analysis demonstrated main effects of dating violence and father involvement on sexual behaviors. The more dating violence an adolescent girl experiences, the less likely she is to engage in healthy sexual behaviors. Likewise, the more involvement the biological father has in a woman’s life, the more likely she is to engage in positive sexual behaviors. Perceived father involvement was associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls. Dating violence was directly associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls, particularly non-White girls. Future studies should use longitudinal models and test theoretically and empirically guided potential mediators. Future studies should also consider father figures such as step-fathers and grandfathers in addition to biological fathers, as having a father figure may be a stronger predictor of adolescent sexual behaviors than having a biological connection. PMID:25475102

  3. The Role of Sexual Health Professionals in Developing a Shared Concept of Risky Sexual Behavior as it Relates to HIV Transmission.

    PubMed

    Brawner, Bridgette M; Alexander, Kamila A; Fannin, Ehriel F; Baker, Jillian L; Davis, Zupenda M

    2016-01-01

    "Risky sexual behavior" accounts for the majority of new HIV infections regardless of gender, age, geographic location, or ethnicity. The phrase, however, refers to a relatively nebulous concept that hampers development of effective sexual health communication strategies. The purpose of this paper was to propose development of a shared conceptual understanding of "risky sexual behavior." We reviewed multidisciplinary HIV/AIDS literature to identify definitions of risky sexual behavior. Both the linguistic components and the social mechanisms that contribute to the concept of risky sexual behaviors were noted. Risky sexual behavior was often defined in a subjective manner in the literature, even in the scientific research. We urge a paradigm shift to focus on explicit behaviors and the social context of those behaviors in determining HIV risk. We also propose a new definition that reduces individual biases and promotes a broader discussion of the degree of sexual risk across a diversity of behavioral contexts. Sexual health professionals can strengthen practice and research initiatives by operating from a concise working definition of risky sexual behavior that is broadly transferable and expands beyond a traditional focus on identity-based groups. PMID:26184496

  4. The Role of Sexual Health Professionals in Developing a Shared Concept of Risky Sexual Behavior as it Relates to HIV Transmission.

    PubMed

    Brawner, Bridgette M; Alexander, Kamila A; Fannin, Ehriel F; Baker, Jillian L; Davis, Zupenda M

    2016-01-01

    "Risky sexual behavior" accounts for the majority of new HIV infections regardless of gender, age, geographic location, or ethnicity. The phrase, however, refers to a relatively nebulous concept that hampers development of effective sexual health communication strategies. The purpose of this paper was to propose development of a shared conceptual understanding of "risky sexual behavior." We reviewed multidisciplinary HIV/AIDS literature to identify definitions of risky sexual behavior. Both the linguistic components and the social mechanisms that contribute to the concept of risky sexual behaviors were noted. Risky sexual behavior was often defined in a subjective manner in the literature, even in the scientific research. We urge a paradigm shift to focus on explicit behaviors and the social context of those behaviors in determining HIV risk. We also propose a new definition that reduces individual biases and promotes a broader discussion of the degree of sexual risk across a diversity of behavioral contexts. Sexual health professionals can strengthen practice and research initiatives by operating from a concise working definition of risky sexual behavior that is broadly transferable and expands beyond a traditional focus on identity-based groups.

  5. Contributions of Parent-Adolescent Negative Emotionality, Adolescent Conflict, and Adoption Status to Adolescent Externalizing Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Bibiana D.; Rueter, Martha A.

    2011-01-01

    Although most adopted children are well adjusted, research has consistently found that adopted adolescents are at an increased risk for externalizing behaviors. The present investigation tested a model whereby parent-adolescent negative emotionality traits, adolescent conflict, and adoption status contribute to adolescent externalizing behaviors.…

  6. Processes linking adolescent well-being, marital love, and coparenting.

    PubMed

    Baril, Megan E; Crouter, Ann C; McHale, Susan M

    2007-12-01

    This study examined coparenting in a sample of 177 two-parent families with firstborn adolescents by using annual home interview data from mothers, fathers, and adolescents. With a path-analytic approach and with earlier problem behaviors controlled for, coparenting conflict predicted relative increases in adolescent risky behavior over 2 years. In addition, evidence for 2 types of mediation was found. Marital love mediated the link between adolescents' early risky behavior and coparenting 1 year later, and coparenting conflict mediated the link between marital love and adolescents' risky behavior 1 year later. Linkages did not emerge for coparenting cooperation or triangulation. Interventions that are focused on the marital and coparental relationships in families with adolescents may modify trajectories of adolescent risky behavior.

  7. Impact of fathers on risky sexual behavior in daughters: a genetically and environmentally controlled sibling study.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Bruce J; Schlomer, Gabriel L; Tilley, Elizabeth H; Butler, Emily A

    2012-02-01

    Girls receiving lower quality paternal investment tend to engage in more risky sexual behavior (RSB) than peers. Whereas paternal investment theory posits that this effect is causal, it could arise from environmental or genetic confounds. To distinguish between these competing explanations, the current authors employed a genetically and environmentally controlled sibling design (N = 101 sister pairs; ages 18-36), which retrospectively examined the effects of differential sibling exposure to family disruption/father absence and quality of fathering. Consistent with a causal explanation, differences between older and younger sisters in the effects of quality of fathering on RSB were greatest in biologically disrupted families when there was a large age gap between the sisters (thus maximizing differential exposure to fathers), with greater exposure within families to higher quality fathering serving as a protective factor against RSB. Further, variation around the lower end of fathering quality appeared to have the most influence on RSB. In contrast, differential sibling exposure to family disruption/father absence (irrespective of quality of fathering) was not associated with RSB. The differential sibling-exposure design affords a new quasi-experimental method for evaluating the causal effects of fathers within families.

  8. Cross-domain influences on youth risky driving behaviors: A developmental cascade analysis

    PubMed Central

    Heinze, Justin E.; Aiyer, Sophie M.; Stoddard, Sarah A.; Wang, Jin-Liang; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    We apply a developmental cascade approach to study the longitudinal, cross-domain effects of negative family influence, deviant peer associations, and individual substance use on risky driving among a sample of low-income African American youth. Participants (N = 681) were followed from age 16 to age 21. Using structural equation modeling, we examined conceptual models of pathways to risky driving. Results indicated strong associations between domains within time points among negative family environment, deviant peer associations, individual substance use, and risky driving. Deviant peer associations were related to future risky driving. Alcohol and marijuana use also predicted later deviant peer relationships. The pathways were observed both between age 16 and 18 and between age 18 and 21. Consistent with the cascade hypotheses, we found that risks in one domain manifested as risks in the same domain across time in addition to spreading to other domains. PMID:25960589

  9. Risky Sexual Behaviors among Female Youth in Tiss Abay, a Semi-Urban Area of the Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tadesse, Gojjam; Yakob, Bereket

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about sexual risks and associated factors about female youths in semi-urban areas of Ethiopia. This study aimed to describe the nature and magnitude of risky sexual behaviors, and the socio-demographic and behavioral determinants among female youths in Tiss Abay, a semi-urban area on the outskirts of Bahir Dar City of the Amhara Region in northern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional census type study was conducted among female youths who were unmarried and aged 15–29 years in September 2011. Results 711 female youths participated in the study, with the mean age of initiation of sex of 78.6% being16.73±2.53 years. Only 52(9.3%) used condom during the first sex. Within the last 12 months, 509(71.6%) had sexual intercourse and 278(54.6%) had two or more sex partners, and 316(62.1%) did not use condom during their last sex. Sex under the influence of substances was reported by 350(68.8%), and a third of the recent sexes were against the will of participants. One or more risky sexual practices were reported by 503(70.3%) participants, including: multiple sexual partnerships, inconsistently using or not using condoms, sex under the influence of alcohol and/or sex immediately after watching pornography. Age group, current marital status, drinking homemade alcohol, chewing ‘khat’, watching pornography and using any form of stimulant substances were the predictors of risky sexual behavior. Watching pornography before sex and sex for transaction were the predicators of not using condom during most recent sex. Conclusions Risky sexual behaviors were very common among the female youths in Tiss Abay. Initiation of context-based interventions, such as raising awareness about the risks, safer sex practices, condom promotion and integration of gender issues in the programs are recommended. PMID:25738508

  10. Association between self-reported academic performance and risky sexual behavior among Ugandan university students- a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Devika; Kyagaba, Emmanuel; Ostergren, Per-Olof; Agardh, Anette

    2014-04-16

    Little is known about the association between self-reported academic performance and risky sexual behaviors and if this differs by gender, among university students. Academic performance can create psychological pressure in young students. Poor academic performance might thus potentially contribute to risky sexual behavior among university students. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between self-reported academic performance and risky sexual behaviors, and whether gender affects this relationship among Ugandan university students. In 2010, 1,954 students participated in a cross-sectional survey, conducted at Mbarara University of Science and Technology in southwestern Uganda (72% response rate). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used for the analysis. 1,179 (60.3%) students in our study sample reported having debuted sexually. Of these 440 (42.2%) used condoms inconsistently with new sexual partners, and 344 (33.6%) had had multiple sexual partners. We found a statistically significant association between poor academic performance and inconsistent condom use with a new sex partner and this association remained significant even after adjusting for all the potential confounders. There was no such association detected regarding multiple sexual partners. We also found that gender modified the effect of poor academic performance on inconsistent condom use. Females, who were poor academic performers, were found to be at a higher risk of inconsistent condom use than their male counterparts. Interventions should be designed to provide extra support to poor academic performers, which may improve their performance and self-esteem, which in turn might reduce their risky sexual behaviors.

  11. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Risky Behaviors among Trauma-exposed Inpatients with Substance Dependence: The Influence of Negative and Positive Urgency

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Nicole H.; Tull, Matthew T.; Sullivan, Tami P.; Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L.; Gratz, Kim L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among inpatients with substance use disorders (SUDs) is associated with heightened engagement in a variety of risky, self-destructive, and health-compromising behaviors (e.g., risky sexual behavior, aggression). Extant research provides support for the role of emotion dysregulation in the PTSD-risky behavior relation among inpatients with SUD; however, this research has been limited by a focus on emotion dysregulation involving negative (versus positive) emotions. The goal of the current study was to extend past research on the PTSD-risky behavior relation by examining the potential mediating roles of negative and positive urgency (two domains of emotion dysregulation defined by the tendency to engage in risky behavior in the context of negative and positive emotions, respectively). Methods Participants were 158 trauma-exposed inpatients with (n = 91) and without (n = 67) lifetime PTSD consecutively admitted to a residential SUD treatment facility (M age = 34.34; 59.5% White, 50.6% female). Patients were administered diagnostic interviews and completed self-report questionnaires. Results Significant positive associations were found among lifetime PTSD symptoms, negative and positive urgency, and risky behaviors. Moreover, findings revealed significant indirect effects of lifetime PTSD symptoms on risky behaviors through the pathways of both negative and positive urgency. Conclusions Results provide initial support for the mediating roles of both negative and positive urgency in the PTSD-risky behavior relation, highlighting the potential utility of teaching trauma-exposed inpatients with PTSD-SUD skills for tolerating negative and positive emotional states without engaging in maladaptive behaviors. PMID:26278196

  12. Meeting sex partners through the Internet, risky sexual behavior, and HIV testing among sexually transmitted infections clinic patients.

    PubMed

    Brown, Monique J; Pugsley, River; Cohen, Steven A

    2015-02-01

    The Internet has now become a popular venue to meet sex partners. People who use the Internet to meet sex partners may be at a higher risk for contracting HIV and STIs. This study examined the association between meeting sex partners from the Internet, and HIV testing, STI history, and risky sexual behavior. Data were obtained from the Virginia Department of Health STD Surveillance Network. Logistic regression models were used to obtain crude and adjusted odds ratios, and 95 % confidence intervals for the associations between meeting sex partners through the Internet and ever tested for HIV, HIV testing in the past 12 months, STI history, and risky sexual behavior. Logistic regression was also used to determine if gender and men who have sex with men interaction terms significantly improved the model. Women who met a sex partner from the Internet were more likely to have had an HIV test in the past 12 months than women who did not meet a partner in this way. On the other hand, men who met a sex partner through the Internet were more likely to have ever had an HIV test than other men, but this was only seen for heterosexual men. All populations who met a sex partner from the Internet were more likely to take part in risky sexual behavior. HIV prevention strategies should emphasize annual testing for all populations.

  13. Illness Behavior and Social Competence in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Lynn S.; Van Slyke, Deborah A.

    This study examined the relationship of illness behavior to perceived competence and gender in adolescents. It was hypothesized that, like adults, adolescents with lower levels of perceived social competence would report more illness behavior. A significant gender difference was expected such that girls would report more illness behavior than…

  14. Sex differences in behavior and neural development and their role in adolescent vulnerability to substance use.

    PubMed

    Hammerslag, Lindsey R; Gulley, Joshua M

    2016-02-01

    Adolescents are especially prone to risky behavior and to the emergence of psychological disorders like substance abuse, anxiety and depression. However, there is a sex (or gender) difference in this vulnerability, with females being more prone to developing internalizing disorders and males being more likely to engage in risky behavior and drug use. While several researchers have proposed that there is a relationship between corticolimbic circuit development and adolescent vulnerability, the current proposed models do not take sex differences into account. In this review, we explore recent findings from both human and rodent studies of sex differences during adolescence. In particular, we consider epidemiological studies on the factors that contribute to the development of substance abuse and internalizing disorders, laboratory studies on reward-related and decision-making behavior, and neuroanatomical studies on the development of several structures in the corticolimbic circuit (i.e., prefrontal cortex [PFC], amygdala and striatum). We then integrate these recent findings into models of adolescent vulnerability to substance use that have previously not addressed sex differences. Lastly, we discuss methodological considerations for the interpretation and design of studies on sex (or gender) differences during adolescence while highlighting some opportunities for future investigations.

  15. Urban Lit and Sexual Risk Behavior: A Survey of African-American Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Harris, Allyssa L

    2015-07-01

    Adolescents spend an inordinate amount of time engaged with media, which is highly sexualized. Sexualized material can be found in music, on television and the Internet, as well as in magazines and books. Adolescents engaged with media are often influenced by this sexualized content, leading them to engage in risky sexual behavior. Urban literature (urban lit) is extremely popular among African-American female adolescents due to its portrayal of urban life and hip-hop culture. The purpose of this survey was to ascertain the extent to which African-American adolescent females are reading urban literature and to document whether this genre of literature had an effect on their sexual risk behaviors.

  16. Urban Lit and Sexual Risk Behavior: A Survey of African-American Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Harris, Allyssa L

    2015-07-01

    Adolescents spend an inordinate amount of time engaged with media, which is highly sexualized. Sexualized material can be found in music, on television and the Internet, as well as in magazines and books. Adolescents engaged with media are often influenced by this sexualized content, leading them to engage in risky sexual behavior. Urban literature (urban lit) is extremely popular among African-American female adolescents due to its portrayal of urban life and hip-hop culture. The purpose of this survey was to ascertain the extent to which African-American adolescent females are reading urban literature and to document whether this genre of literature had an effect on their sexual risk behaviors. PMID:26371361

  17. Behavioral Risk Factors for AIDS among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millstein, Susan G.

    This document examines the incidence of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) among adolescents in the United States and identifies several risk factors for AIDS among this population. It classifies adolescents' risk for contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection by the degree to which adolescents engage in behaviors that are…

  18. Associations between parental deployment, relocation, and risky sexual behaviors among a clinic-based sample of military-dependent youth.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Belinda F; Peskin, Melissa F; Markham, Christine M; Burr, Jean; Roberts, Timothy; Tortolero, Susan

    2015-10-01

    Although sexual behaviors have been extensively studied among youth in general, they have been relatively understudied among military-dependent youth (MDY). Furthermore, the impact of unique military stressors, such as parental deployment and multiple relocations, on the sexual behaviors of MDY has not been assessed. In this pilot study, we estimated the prevalence of sexual behaviors among MDY, and examined the association between these behaviors and parental deployment and multiple relocations. Between June and September 2011, we recruited youth (N = 208; aged 15-19 years) who attended a military treatment facility in the southern United States, to complete a short, paper-based survey. We computed prevalence estimates and conducted Chi-square analyses, as well as logistic regression analyses, while adjusting for age, gender, and race/ethnicity. More than half (53.7 %) of the youth reported being sexually experienced, and many of these youth reported engaging in risky sexual behaviors. Parental deployment and multiple relocations were significantly associated only with having had sex in the past 3 months. Although with most sexual behaviors there was no significant association between parental deployment and multiple relocations, many MDY are sexually experienced and engage in risky sexual behaviors. MDY should thus be exposed to evidence-based strategies for sexually transmitted infection and pregnancy prevention, as well as provided with teen-friendly health care services and comprehensive sexual/reproductive health counseling. PMID:26324389

  19. Associations between parental deployment, relocation, and risky sexual behaviors among a clinic-based sample of military-dependent youth.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Belinda F; Peskin, Melissa F; Markham, Christine M; Burr, Jean; Roberts, Timothy; Tortolero, Susan

    2015-10-01

    Although sexual behaviors have been extensively studied among youth in general, they have been relatively understudied among military-dependent youth (MDY). Furthermore, the impact of unique military stressors, such as parental deployment and multiple relocations, on the sexual behaviors of MDY has not been assessed. In this pilot study, we estimated the prevalence of sexual behaviors among MDY, and examined the association between these behaviors and parental deployment and multiple relocations. Between June and September 2011, we recruited youth (N = 208; aged 15-19 years) who attended a military treatment facility in the southern United States, to complete a short, paper-based survey. We computed prevalence estimates and conducted Chi-square analyses, as well as logistic regression analyses, while adjusting for age, gender, and race/ethnicity. More than half (53.7 %) of the youth reported being sexually experienced, and many of these youth reported engaging in risky sexual behaviors. Parental deployment and multiple relocations were significantly associated only with having had sex in the past 3 months. Although with most sexual behaviors there was no significant association between parental deployment and multiple relocations, many MDY are sexually experienced and engage in risky sexual behaviors. MDY should thus be exposed to evidence-based strategies for sexually transmitted infection and pregnancy prevention, as well as provided with teen-friendly health care services and comprehensive sexual/reproductive health counseling.

  20. Neurobiological and Memory Models of Risky Decision Making in Adolescents versus Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyna, Valerie F.; Estrada, Steven M.; DeMarinis, Jessica A.; Myers, Regina M.; Stanisz, Janine M.; Mills, Britain A.

    2011-01-01

    Predictions of fuzzy-trace theory and neurobiological approaches are examined regarding risk taking in a classic decision-making task--the framing task--as well as in the context of real-life risk taking. We report the 1st study of framing effects in adolescents versus adults, varying risk and reward, and relate choices to individual differences,…

  1. Risky Alcohol Use, Peer and Family Relationships and Legal Involvement in Adolescents with Antisocial Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ybrandt, Helene

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine risk and vulnerability factors contributing to problems with alcohol use in adolescence. Data relating to seven life areas (medical status, school status, social relationships, family background and relationships, psychological functioning, legal involvement, and alcohol use) was gathered using the ADAD…

  2. Ecological factors associated with STD risk behaviors among detained female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Voisin, Dexter R; DiClemente, Ralph J; Salazar, Laura F; Crosby, Richard A; Yarber, William L

    2006-01-01

    The authors used Bronfenbrenner's conceptual framework of an ecological systems model to examine factors that are independently associated with sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk behaviors among 280 sexually active detained female adolescents. Using computer-assisted self-interviewing procedures, the authors assessed individual characteristics, peer relations, community factors, and media influences and their association to STD risk behaviors. Findings indicated that factors such as greater substance use, stronger risk-taking attitudes, lower perceived parental monitoring and familial support, gender roles supporting male dominance, risky peer norms, and lower student-teacher connectedness, were independently associated with increased STD risk behaviors. Findings suggest a multisystemic approach to STD prevention among this population.

  3. Rock Music and Korean Adolescent's Antisocial Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Inkyung; Kwak, Keumjoo; Chang, Geunyoung; Yang, Jinyoung

    The relationship between rock music preference and antisocial behavior among Korean adolescents was examined. The Korean versions of the Sensation Seeking Scale and the Antisocial Behavior Checklist were used to measure sensation seeking motivation and delinquency. Adolescents (N=1,079) were categorized as "rock/metal,""dance," or "ballad" based…

  4. Male rural-to-urban migrants and risky sexual behavior: a cross-sectional study in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun-Qing; Wang, Ke-Wei; Zhao, Rui; Li, Yu-Yan; Zhou, Ying; Li, Yi-Ran; Ji, Hong-Lei; Ji, Ming

    2014-03-10

    This study examined the prevalence and the determinants of risky sexual behavior (defined as having multiple sex partners and paying for sex) among male rural-to-urban migrants in China. An anonymous questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographics, knowledge, attitudes, and behavior associated with increased risk of risky sexual behavior from 4,069 subjects. In total 1,132 (27.8%) participants reported two or more sex partners and 802 (19.7%) participants paid for sex. A considerable proportion (29.6%-41.5%) did not use a condom during risky sexual behavior. Logistic regression analysis revealed that unmarried status (OR: 0.62, CI: 0.42-0.85 for married), earlier age at first sexual experience (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.31-0.91 for ≥ 22 years old), poor perception of risk of acquiring HIV/AIDS (OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.33-1.96 for unlikely; OR: 2.38, 95% CI: 1.61-3.70 for impossible), frequent exposure to pornography (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.60-0.81 for sometimes; OR: 0.31, 95% CI: 0.11-0.43 for never), attitudes toward legalization of commercial sex (OR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.21-0.59 for no), peer influence (OR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.27-0.88 for no), and not knowing someone who had/had died from HIV/AIDS (OR: 0.35, 95% CI: 0.20-0.53 for yes) were all significantly associated with having multiple sex partners. Those who paid for sex showed similar findings.

  5. Male Rural-to-Urban Migrants and Risky Sexual Behavior: A Cross-Sectional Study in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jun-Qing; Wang, Ke-Wei; Zhao, Rui; Li, Yu-Yan; Zhou, Ying; Li, Yi-Ran; Ji, Hong-Lei; Ji, Ming

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and the determinants of risky sexual behavior (defined as having multiple sex partners and paying for sex) among male rural-to-urban migrants in China. An anonymous questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographics, knowledge, attitudes, and behavior associated with increased risk of risky sexual behavior from 4,069 subjects. In total 1,132 (27.8%) participants reported two or more sex partners and 802 (19.7%) participants paid for sex. A considerable proportion (29.6%–41.5%) did not use a condom during risky sexual behavior. Logistic regression analysis revealed that unmarried status (OR: 0.62, CI: 0.42–0.85 for married), earlier age at first sexual experience (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.31–0.91 for ≥22 years old), poor perception of risk of acquiring HIV/AIDS (OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.33–1.96 for unlikely; OR: 2.38, 95% CI: 1.61–3.70 for impossible), frequent exposure to pornography (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.60–0.81 for sometimes; OR: 0.31, 95% CI: 0.11–0.43 for never), attitudes toward legalization of commercial sex (OR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.21–0.59 for no), peer influence (OR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.27–0.88 for no), and not knowing someone who had/had died from HIV/AIDS (OR: 0.35, 95% CI: 0.20–0.53 for yes) were all significantly associated with having multiple sex partners. Those who paid for sex showed similar findings. PMID:24619119

  6. Neural correlates of expected risks and returns in risky choice across development.

    PubMed

    van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C K; Huizenga, Hilde M; Somerville, Leah H; Delgado, Mauricio R; Powers, Alisa; Weeda, Wouter D; Casey, B J; Weber, Elke U; Figner, Bernd

    2015-01-28

    Adolescence is often described as a period of increased risk taking relative to both childhood and adulthood. This inflection in risky choice behavior has been attributed to a neurobiological imbalance between earlier developing motivational systems and later developing top-down control regions. Yet few studies have decomposed risky choice to investigate the underlying mechanisms or tracked their differential developmental trajectory. The current study uses a risk-return decomposition to more precisely assess the development of processes underlying risky choice and to link them more directly to specific neural mechanisms. This decomposition specifies the influence of changing risks (outcome variability) and changing returns (expected value) on the choices of children, adolescents, and adults in a dynamic risky choice task, the Columbia Card Task. Behaviorally, risk aversion increased across age groups, with adults uniformly risk averse and adolescents showing substantial individual differences in risk sensitivity, ranging from risk seeking to risk averse. Neurally, we observed an adolescent peak in risk-related activation in the anterior insula and dorsal medial PFC. Return sensitivity, on the other hand, increased monotonically across age groups and was associated with increased activation in the ventral medial PFC and posterior cingulate cortex with age. Our results implicate adolescence as a developmental phase of increased neural risk sensitivity. Importantly, this work shows that using a behaviorally validated decision-making framework allows a precise operationalization of key constructs underlying risky choice that inform the interpretation of results.

  7. Predictors of African American adolescents' condom use and HIV risk behavior.

    PubMed

    Reitman, D; St Lawrence, J S; Jefferson, K W; Alleyne, E; Brasfield, T L; Shirley, A

    1996-12-01

    This study evaluated predictors of risky and safer behavior in a sample of low-income African American adolescents, assessed their perceptions of the risk associated with their sexual behavior, and examined differences between adolescents who used condoms consistently, inconsistently, or engaged only in unprotected intercourse. African American adolescents (N = 312) completed measures related to AIDS knowledge, frequency of condom use, attitudes toward condoms, and sexual behavior over the preceding 2 months. Multiple regression analyses for the sexually active youths (N = 114) revealed that lower self-efficacy, higher perceived risk, and male gender were associated with high-risk behavior. Positive attitudes toward condoms and younger age had the strongest association with condom use. Consistent condom users were more knowledgeable and held more positive attitudes toward condoms, and nonusers were older. Regardless of their behavior, the adolescents generally did not perceive themselves to be a risk for HIV infection. The findings suggest that precautionary practices (condom use) and high-risk behavior (unprotected sex with multiple partners) may have different correlates. In addition, the data indicate that theoretical models developed with homosexual male populations may also be generalizable to African American adolescents' sexual behavior.

  8. Culture and context: buffering the relationship between stressful life events and risky behaviors in American Indian youth.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Julie A; Brown, Betty G; Wayment, Heidi A; Nez, Ramona Antone; Brelsford, Kathleen M

    2011-01-01

    The Sacred Mountain Youth Project was conducted to investigate risk and protective factors related to alcohol and drug use among American Indian youth. Findings indicated that stressful life events were positively associated with depressed mood, substance use, and risky behavior; cultural identity had no direct effects, but a secondary model showed that social support and protective family and peer influences were related to cultural identity. These findings suggest that the relationships between stressors and their negative sequelae are complex. Emphasis on protective processes that are culturally specific to American Indian youth may lead to effective alcohol and drug use prevention programs.

  9. Specificity of Early Movie Effects on Adolescent Sexual Behavior and Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    O’Hara, Ross E.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Li, Zhigang; Gerrard, Meg; Sargent, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents’ movie sex exposure (MSE) and movie alcohol exposure (MAE) have been shown to influence later sexual behavior and drinking, respectively. No study to date, however, has tested whether these effects generalize across behaviors. This study examined the concurrent influences of early (i.e., before age 16) MSE and MAE on subsequent risky sex and alcohol use among a national sample of 1,228 U.S. adolescents. Participants reported their health behaviors and movie viewing up to six times between 2003 and 2009 in telephone interviews. The Beach method was used to create a population-based estimate of each participant’s MSE and MAE, which were then entered into a structural equation model (SEM) to predict lifetime risky sex and past month alcohol use at ages 18–21. For both men and women, MAE predicted alcohol use, mediated by age of initiation of heavy episodic drinking (HED) and age of sexual debut; MAE also predicted risky sex via age of sexual debut. Among men only, MSE indirectly predicted risky sex and alcohol use. Findings indicated that early exposure to risk content from movies had both specific and general effects on later risk-taking, but gender differences were evident: for men, MSE was a stronger predictor than MAE, but for women, only MAE predicted later risk behavior. These results have implications for future media research, prevention programs for adolescent sex and alcohol use, and movie ratings that can guide parents’ decisions as to which movies are appropriate for their children. PMID:24034968

  10. Dating Violence Perpetration and/or Victimization and Associated Sexual Risk Behaviors among a Sample of Inner-City African American and Hispanic Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alleyne-Green, Binta; Coleman-Cowger, Victoria H.; Henry, David B.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of physical and psychological dating violence victimization and perpetration reported by inner-city African American and Hispanic adolescent girls as well as associated risky sexual behaviors among this population. Participants in this study were 10th- and 11th-grade female students from seven…

  11. Risky business: trauma exposure and rate of posttraumatic stress disorder in African American children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Kristin L; Martens, Patricia M; Belcher, Harolyn M E

    2011-06-01

    Demographics, parental risk factors, and experiencing interpersonal trauma (domestic violence, community violence, and physical and sexual abuse) are related to childhood posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Little is known about these factors and the risk of PTSD in African American children. This study examined associations between PTSD symptoms and gender, age, parent mental illness, parent substance abuse, and interpersonal trauma in African American children. Participants were 257 children and adolescents, ages 8-17 years (M = 11.7, SD = 2.5), who received outpatient mental health treatment. Being female and witnessing domestic violence was associated with more PTSD symptoms. Exposure to community violence and physical abuse increased the odds of clinically significant PTSD symptomatology by more than 2 times. The rate of PTSD (16%) was lower in the current study than in other same-age study populations (25%-40%). Risk factors and identification strategies for PTSD are discussed.

  12. “Group sex” parties and other risk patterns: A qualitative study about the perceptions of sexual behaviors and attitudes of adolescents in Soweto, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Janan; Khunwane, Mamakiri; Laher, Fatima; de Bruyn, Guy; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Gray, Glenda

    2011-01-01

    This study explored perceptions about sexual behaviors and attitudes of adolescents living in Soweto, Johannesburg, South Africa, from the perspective of parents, counselors and adolescents. A qualitative methodology was applied. Nine focus group discussions (FGDs) were held; three with parents of adolescents, two with counselors who work with adolescents, two with female adolescents aged 16-18 years and two with male adolescents aged 16-18 years. In total, 80 participants were recruited from in and around Soweto. FGDs were guided by a semi-structured interview guide, audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and translated into English. Data were analyzed using Maxqda, a qualitative software analysis program. There were eight key themes related to adolescent sexuality and perceived attitudes towards relationships. Five themes were common to all participant groupings (parents, counselors and adolescents): (1) dating during adolescence, (2) adolescent females dating older males, (3) condom use amongst adolescents, (4) pregnancy and (5) homosexuality. (6) Sex as a regular and important activity among adolescents and (7) group sex practices among adolescents emerged as themes from adolescent and counselor FGDs. Lastly, (8) the role of the media as an influence on adolescent sexuality was common to adolescent and parent groups. Risky sexual behaviors continue among adolescents, with group sex parties a concerning emergent phenomenon that necessitates further study. HIV, other STIs and pregnancy prevention interventions should address multiple levels of influence to address context-specific influences. PMID:22844344

  13. Pattern of risky sexual behavior and associated factors among undergraduate students of the University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Imaledo, John Abdulrahman; Peter-Kio, Opirite Boma; Asuquo, Eme Olukemi

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Age at sexual debut had decreased in the developing countries recently. Few documented studies have looked into the pattern of risky sexual behaviour and associated factors among undergraduate students in Rivers state of recent. This study examined the pattern of sexual risky behaviour of undergraduate in University of Port-Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Methods A descriptive cross sectional survey was adopted and three hundred students were purposively recruited. Data were collected by a self –administered semi-structured questionnaire and analysed using descriptive and chi-square statistics at 0.05 significant level. Results The mean age of respondents was 21.3±2.8years; more than half (57.4%) were females. Almost a quarter (24.5%) was each in 200 and 300 level of study respectively and more than a quarter (26.7%) lives alone. Sixty-one percent of the respondents had ever taken alcohol beverage with 36.1% of them were current users. More than half (52.0%) the respondents had either boy/girlfriend and a total of 144 (52.0%) had ever had sexual intercourse; of these 13% reportedly had only one sexual partner in their lifetime; girl/boy friend topped the list of their sexual partner; 48.6% respondents were currently sexually active and 32% used a form of protection during their last sexual activity. The mean age at sexual debut was 17.0± 4.5years. Few (13.4%) have had sex in exchange for gifts and 5.1% of these was with a friend. Higher proportions of respondents who reported lifetime use of alcohol were sexually active (p<0.005). Conclusion Respondents exhibits risky sexual behavior as more had sex without any form of protection. Public enlightenment programmes and targeted behavioral change interventions are therefore recommended. PMID:23133697

  14. US adolescents' friendship networks and health risk behaviors: a systematic review of studies using social network analysis and Add Health data.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Kwon Chan; Goodson, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Background. Documented trends in health-related risk behaviors among US adolescents have remained high over time. Studies indicate relationships among mutual friends are a major influence on adolescents' risky behaviors. Social Network Analysis (SNA) can help understand friendship ties affecting individual adolescents' engagement in these behaviors. Moreover, a systematic literature review can synthesize findings from a range of studies using SNA, as well as assess these studies' methodological quality. Review findings also can help health educators and promoters develop more effective programs. Objective. This review systematically examined studies of the influence of friendship networks on adolescents' risk behaviors, which utilized SNA and the Add Health data (a nationally representative sample). Methods. We employed the Matrix Method to synthesize and evaluate 15 published studies that met our inclusion and exclusion criteria, retrieved from the Add Health website and 3 major databases (Medline, Eric, and PsycINFO). Moreover, we assigned each study a methodological quality score (MQS). Results. In all studies, friendship networks among adolescents promoted their risky behaviors, including drinking alcohol, smoking, sexual intercourse, and marijuana use. The average MQS was 4.6, an indicator of methodological rigor (scale: 1-9). Conclusion. Better understanding of risky behaviors influenced by friends can be useful for health educators and promoters, as programs targeting friendships might be more effective. Additionally, the overall MQ of these reviewed studies was good, as average scores fell above the scale's mid-point.

  15. Relations among weight control behaviors and eating attitudes, social physique anxiety, and fruit and vegetable consumption in Turkish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Baş, Murat; Kiziltan, Gül

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among dieting, eating attitudes, social physique anxiety, and fruit and vegetable consumption among Turkish adolescents. Abnormal eating behavior (EAT-26 > or =20) was found in 32.8% of the total sample; this included 26.4% of the males and 38.7% of the females. Weight-control and weight-related behaviors are associated with high fruit and vegetable consumption in adolescents. Dieting was significantly associated with types of consumption in female adolescents. In addition, EAT-26 scores were significantly positively correlated with high fruit and vegetable consumption, but this association was not observed in SPAS scores among adolescents. Adolescents who engage in dieting behaviors seem to consume more fruit and vegetables than do other adolescents. Female adolescents may be more likely to display abnormal eating attitudes and dieting behaviors than do males. Although some weight-control behaviors may be risky, adolescents who were practicing dieting behaviors engaged in the positive dietary behavior of consuming more servings of fruit and vegetables than did non-dieters.

  16. Effects of adverts from a drug and alcohol prevention campaign on willingness to engage in alcohol-related risky behaviors.

    PubMed

    Comello, Maria Leonora G; Slater, Michael D

    2011-11-01

    Behavioral willingness is conceptualized as a pathway to behavior that is non-deliberative, yet traditional measures require thoughtful deliberation to complete. This study explored non-deliberative measures of alcohol-related willingness to complement recent work on marijuana-related willingness. The study also examined whether adverts from a field-tested drug and alcohol prevention campaign may have operated by influencing alcohol-related willingness. Participants viewed campaign adverts or consumer adverts (control). Outcomes were reaction times to make speeded judgments about whether one would engage in risky alcohol-related behaviors. Results showed that campaign advertisements lowered willingness to play drinking games and (for males) to drive while intoxicated. PMID:21646292

  17. Violent Behaviors among African-American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Darhyl

    1995-01-01

    Explores the development of behaviors by using Erik Erikson's psychosocial developmental theory, with emphasis on adolescents. Examines factors, such as identity versus identity diffusion, that may be contributing to increasing acts of violence by African American adolescents. Other factors are examined that may contribute to increased violence.…

  18. Mass Media Influence on Adolescent Consumer Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Roy L.; And Others

    Questionnaires completed by 607 middle school and high school students provided data about the learning of selected advertising-related cognitions among adolescents and on the short-term effect of these cognitions and other communication variables on adolescent consumption behavior. Among the findings were the following: susceptibility to…

  19. Delinquent Behavior of Dutch Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weenink, Don

    2011-01-01

    This article compares Dutch rural and non-rural adolescents' delinquent behavior and examines two social correlates of rural delinquency: communal social control and traditional rural culture. The analyses are based on cross-sectional data, containing 3,797 participants aged 13-18 (48.7% females). The analyses show that rural adolescents are only…

  20. Differences in adolescent dietary behaviors by SES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about how socioeconomic status (SES) affects dietary intake among adolescents. This study assessed whether dietary behaviors of 12- to 17-year-old adolescents differed by SES, using eligibility for free or reduced price (FRP) school meals as a measure of SES. After parental consent w...

  1. Adolescent Work Experiences and Family Formation Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staff, Jeremy; VanEseltine, Matthew; Woolnough, April; Silver, Eric; Burrington, Lori

    2012-01-01

    A long-standing critique of adolescent employment is that it engenders a precocious maturity of more adult-like roles and behaviors, including school disengagement, substance use, sexual activity, inadequate sleep and exercise, and work-related stress. Though negative effects of high-intensity work on adolescent adjustment have been found, little…

  2. The Effect of Individual Differences on Adolescents' Impulsive Buying Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chien-Huang; Chuang, Shin-Chieh

    2005-01-01

    This study posits a relationship between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and Impulsive Buying Tendency (IBT). A survey of 574 adolescents found that high-EI adolescents manifested less impulsive behavior than did low-EI adolescents, and high-IBT adolescents were more likely to engage in more impulsive buying behavior than were low-IBT adolescents.…

  3. Is a Risky Lifestyle Always "Risky"? The Interaction between Individual Propensity and Lifestyle Risk in Adolescent Offending: A Test in Two Urban Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Robert; Pauwels, Lieven

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effects on adolescent offending of lifestyle risk and the individual propensity to offend. It is assumed that lifestyle risk will have a more important effect on offending for those individuals with high levels of individual propensity, whereas for individuals with low levels of individual propensity it is assumed that a…

  4. Epidemiology of internet behaviors and addiction among adolescents in six Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Mak, Kwok-Kei; Lai, Ching-Man; Watanabe, Hiroko; Kim, Dong-Il; Bahar, Norharlina; Ramos, Milen; Young, Kimberly S; Ho, Roger C M; Aum, Na-Rae; Cheng, Cecilia

    2014-11-01

    Internet addiction has become a serious behavioral health problem in Asia. However, there are no up-to-date country comparisons. The Asian Adolescent Risk Behavior Survey (AARBS) screens and compares the prevalence of Internet behaviors and addiction in adolescents in six Asian countries. A total of 5,366 adolescents aged 12-18 years were recruited from six Asian countries: China, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, and the Philippines. Participants completed a structured questionnaire on their Internet use in the 2012-2013 school year. Internet addiction was assessed using the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R). The variations in Internet behaviors and addiction across countries were examined. The overall prevalence of smartphone ownership is 62%, ranging from 41% in China to 84% in South Korea. Moreover, participation in online gaming ranges from 11% in China to 39% in Japan. Hong Kong has the highest number of adolescents reporting daily or above Internet use (68%). Internet addiction is highest in the Philippines, according to both the IAT (5%) and the CIAS-R (21%). Internet addictive behavior is common among adolescents in Asian countries. Problematic Internet use is prevalent and characterized by risky cyberbehaviors.

  5. Epidemiology of internet behaviors and addiction among adolescents in six Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Mak, Kwok-Kei; Lai, Ching-Man; Watanabe, Hiroko; Kim, Dong-Il; Bahar, Norharlina; Ramos, Milen; Young, Kimberly S; Ho, Roger C M; Aum, Na-Rae; Cheng, Cecilia

    2014-11-01

    Internet addiction has become a serious behavioral health problem in Asia. However, there are no up-to-date country comparisons. The Asian Adolescent Risk Behavior Survey (AARBS) screens and compares the prevalence of Internet behaviors and addiction in adolescents in six Asian countries. A total of 5,366 adolescents aged 12-18 years were recruited from six Asian countries: China, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, and the Philippines. Participants completed a structured questionnaire on their Internet use in the 2012-2013 school year. Internet addiction was assessed using the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R). The variations in Internet behaviors and addiction across countries were examined. The overall prevalence of smartphone ownership is 62%, ranging from 41% in China to 84% in South Korea. Moreover, participation in online gaming ranges from 11% in China to 39% in Japan. Hong Kong has the highest number of adolescents reporting daily or above Internet use (68%). Internet addiction is highest in the Philippines, according to both the IAT (5%) and the CIAS-R (21%). Internet addictive behavior is common among adolescents in Asian countries. Problematic Internet use is prevalent and characterized by risky cyberbehaviors. PMID:25405785

  6. Evolving Science in Adolescence: Comment on Ellis et al. (2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Kenneth A.; Albert, Dustin

    2012-01-01

    Ellis et al. (2012) bring an evolutionary perspective to bear on adolescent risky behavioral development, clinical practice, and public policy. The authors offer important insights that (a) some risky behaviors may be adaptive for the individual and the species by being hard-wired due to fitness benefits and (b) interventions might be more…

  7. Anticipating early fatality: friends', schoolmates' and individual perceptions of fatality on adolescent risk behaviors.

    PubMed

    Haynie, Dana L; Soller, Brian; Williams, Kristi

    2014-02-01

    Past research indicates that anticipating adverse outcomes, such as early death (fatalism), is associated positively with adolescents' likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors. Health researchers and criminologists have argued that fatalism influences present risk taking in part by informing individuals' motivation for delaying gratification for the promise of future benefits. While past findings highlight the association between the anticipation of early death and a number of developmental outcomes, no known research has assessed the impact of location in a context characterized by high perceptions of fatality. Using data from Add Health and a sample of 9,584 adolescents (51% female and 71% white) nested in 113 schools, our study builds upon prior research by examining the association between friends', school mates', and individual perceptions of early fatality and adolescent risk behaviors. We test whether friends' anticipation of being killed prior to age 21 or location in a school where a high proportion of the student body subscribes to attitudes of high fatality, is associated with risky behaviors. Results indicate that friends' fatalism is positively associated with engaging in violent delinquency, non-violent delinquency, and drug use after controlling for individual covariates and prior individual risk-taking. Although friends' delinquency accounts for much of the effect of friends' fatalism on violence, none of the potential intervening variables fully explain the effect of friends' fatalism on youth involvement in non-violent delinquency and drug use. Our results underscore the importance of friendship contextual effects in shaping adolescent risk-taking behavior and the very serious consequences perceptions of fatality have for adolescents' involvement in delinquency and drug use.

  8. Anticipating Early Fatality: Friends', Schoolmates' and Individual Perceptions of Fatality on Adolescent Risk Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Soller, Brian; Williams, Kristi

    2015-01-01

    Past research indicates that anticipating adverse outcomes, such as early death (fatalism), is associated positively with adolescents' likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors. Health researchers and criminologists have argued that fatalism influences present risk taking in part by informing individuals' motivation for delaying gratification for the promise of future benefits. While past findings highlight the association between the anticipation of early death and a number of developmental outcomes, no known research has assessed the impact of location in a context characterized by high perceptions of fatality. Using data from Add Health and a sample of 9,584 adolescents (51 % female and 71 % white) nested in 113 schools, our study builds upon prior research by examining the association between friends', school mates', and individual perceptions of early fatality and adolescent risk behaviors. We test whether friends' anticipation of being killed prior to age 21 or location in a school where a high proportion of the student body subscribes to attitudes of high fatality, is associated with risky behaviors. Results indicate that friends' fatalism is positively associated with engaging in violent delinquency, non-violent delinquency, and drug use after controlling for individual covariates and prior individual risk-taking. Although friends' delinquency accounts for much of the effect of friends' fatalism on violence, none of the potential intervening variables fully explain the effect of friends' fatalism on youth involvement in nonviolent delinquency and drug use. Our results underscore the importance of friendship contextual effects in shaping adolescent risk-taking behavior and the very serious consequences perceptions of fatality have for adolescents' involvement in delinquency and drug use. PMID:23828725

  9. Adolescent cigarette smoking and health risk behavior.

    PubMed

    Busen, N H; Modeland, V; Kouzekanani, K

    2001-06-01

    During the past 30 years, tobacco use among adolescents has substantially increased, resulting in major health problems associated with tobacco consumption. The purpose of this study was to identify adolescent smoking behaviors and to determine the relationship among smoking, specific demographic variables, and health risk behaviors. The sample consisted of 93 self-selecting adolescents. An ex post facto design was used for this study and data were analyzed by using nonparametric statistics. Findings included a statistically significant relationship between lifetime cigarette use and ethnicity. Statistically significant relationships were also found among current cigarette use and ethnicity, alcohol use, marijuana use, suicidal thoughts, and age at first sexual intercourse. Nurses and other providers must recognize that cigarette smoking may indicate other risk behaviors common among adolescents.

  10. Behavioral Genetic Analyses of Prosocial Behavior in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Alice M.; Light-Hausermann, Jade H.; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Eley, Thalia C.

    2009-01-01

    Prosocial behavior is an important aspect of normal social and psychological development. Adult and child twin studies typically estimate the heritability of prosocial behavior to be between 30 and 50%, although relatively little is known about genetic and environmental influences upon prosocial behavior in adolescence. We therefore examined…

  11. Is accuracy of weight perception associated with health risk behaviors in a diverse sample of obese adolescents?

    PubMed

    Lenhart, Clare M; Daly, Brian P; Eichen, Dawn M

    2011-12-01

    Current evidence is equivocal as to whether adolescent's perception of weight status is linked to both healthy and risky behaviors. This study examined the association between accurate and inaccurate perception of weight and self-reported health and risk behaviors among a diverse sample of obese, urban adolescents. Data were analyzed from 1,180 participants in the 2009 Philadelphia Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Health behaviors of obese students self-identifying as very or slightly overweight were compared to obese students who underestimated their weight status. Accurate self-identifiers of weight status were significantly more likely to report trying to lose weight, bullying victimization, and suicide attempts as compared to obese students underestimating their weight status. Findings suggest that it is important for school nurses to understand that perceived weight status confers distinct risk profiles and differing needs for health-related services related to the physical, mental, and social health of adolescents. PMID:21976189

  12. Expanding our lens: female pathways to antisocial behavior in adolescence and adulthood.

    PubMed

    Javdani, Shabnam; Sadeh, Naomi; Verona, Edelyn

    2011-12-01

    Women and girls' engagement in antisocial behavior represents a psychological issue of great concern given the radiating impact that women's antisociality can have on individuals, families, and communities. Despite its importance and relevance for psychological science, this topic has received limited attention to date and no systematic review of risk factors exists. The present paper aims to systematically review the empirical literature informing risk factors relevant to women's antisocial behavior, with a focus on adolescence and adulthood. Primary aims are to 1) review empirical literatures on risk factors for female antisocial behavior across multiple levels of influence (e.g., person-level characteristics, risky family factors, and gender-salient contexts) and fields of study (e.g., psychology, sociology); 2) evaluate the relevance of each factor for female antisocial behavior; and 3) incorporate an analysis of how gender at both the individual and ecological levels shapes pathways to antisocial behavior in women and girls. We conclude that women's antisocial behavior is best-understood as being influenced by person-level or individual vulnerabilities, risky family factors, and exposure to gender-salient interpersonal contexts, and underscore the importance of examining women's antisocial behavior through an expanded lens that views gender as an individual level attribute as well as a social category that organizes the social context in ways that may promote engagement in antisocial behavior. Based on the present systematic review, an integrative pathway model is proposed toward the goal of synthesizing current knowledge and generating testable hypotheses for future research.

  13. Substance Use and Sexual Behaviors of Adolescents in Multicultural Families in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the substance use and sexual behavior of adolescents in multicultural families compared with adolescents in Korean families in South Korea. Methods Data from the 2013 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey collected from 66,591 adolescents aged 12-18 years (mean age 14.89±1.76 years) were analyzed. We classified the adolescents into four groups: those whose father and mother were born in South Korea, those whose father was born in South Korea but whose mother was not, those whose mother was born in South Korea but whose father was not, and those whose father and mother were not born in South Korea. Experiences with alcohol, cigarette, and drug use and sexual relations were investigated. Results Compared with adolescents whose fathers and mothers were born in Korea, adolescents whose fathers were born in Korea but whose mothers were not were less likely to use alcohol and cigarettes. Adolescents whose mothers were born in Korea but whose fathers were not and adolescents whose fathers and mothers were both born outside Korea were more likely to use cigarettes and drugs and to have sexual relations. Conclusion These results indicate that adolescents whose fathers were not born in Korea and whose fathers and mothers were both born outside Korea are at greater risk for cigarette and drug use and risky sexual behaviors. For these high risk groups, health education should include dependency prevention program, safety issue, and health screening as well as programs aimed at preventing substance use and sexual activity. PMID:26508957

  14. The Willingness to Change Risky Health Behaviors among Chinese Rural Residents: What We Learned from a Population-Based Esophageal Cancer Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mengfei; Zhang, Chanyuan; Cai, Hong; Liu, Fangfang; Liu, Ying; Li, Jingjing; Pan, Yaqi; Guo, Chuanhai; He, Zhonghu; Ke, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of health interventions can be impaired by low socio-economic status and poor living conditions of the target population. However, the specifics of this problem in rural China are still unclear, and appropriate strategies should be explored. Methods In 2013, we conducted a questionnaire-based investigation among 410 participants from a population-based esophageal cancer cohort study in rural Anyang, China. Information regarding their demographic characteristics, levels of exposure to four health-risk behaviors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, risky dietary behaviors and poor hygiene, as well as willingness to change these behaviors, and data on potential predictors of willingness to change behaviors were collected. Results In this study, 33.3% (23/69), 25.0% (13/52), 60.7% (68/112) and 62.2% (237/381) of respondents reported that they were willing to change smoking, alcohol consumption, risky dietary behaviors and poor hygiene, respectively. Older people had higher exposure levels and less willingness to change these four health-risk behaviors. The levels of these four health-risk behaviors were negatively associated with willingness to change, while faith in people and behavioral change in surrounding people increased willingness to change risky behaviors. Conclusions In behavior-intervention-based health-promotion programs in rural China, the elderly and highly exposed populations should be the most difficult part and community- or household-based intervention would be more efficient. PMID:27575990

  15. Dialectical Behavior Therapy with Suicidal Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Alec L.; Rathus, Jill H.; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2006-01-01

    Filling a tremendous need, this highly practical book adapts the proven techniques of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) to treatment of multiproblem adolescents at highest risk for suicidal behavior and self-injury. The authors are master clinicians who take the reader step by step through understanding and assessing severe emotional…

  16. Adolescent Risk Behavior Subgroups: An Empirical Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Christopher J.; Childs, Kristina K.; O'Connell, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Theories and prior research have outlined a constellation of adolescent risk behaviors that tend to co-occur, reflecting a general pattern. Although their generality has largely been supported, there is some question about how to best study and portray the relationship among these behaviors. This study used data from a survey administered to high…

  17. Protective factors in adolescent health behavior.

    PubMed

    Jessor, R; Turbin, M S; Costa, F M

    1998-09-01

    The role of psychosocial protective factors in adolescent health-enhancing behaviors--healthy diet, regular exercise, adequate sleep, good dental hygiene, and seatbelt use--was investigated among 1,493 Hispanic, White, and Black high school students in a large, urban school district. Both proximal (health-related) and distal (conventionality-related) protective factors have significant positive relations with health-enhancing behavior and with the development of health-enhancing behavior. In addition, in cross-sectional analyses, protection was shown to moderate risk. Key proximal protective factors are value on health, perceived effects of health-compromising behavior, and parents who model health behavior. Key distal protective factors are positive orientation to school, friends who model conventional behavior, involvement in prosocial activities, and church attendance. The findings suggest the importance of individual differences on a dimension of conventionality-unconventionality. Strengthening both proximal and distal protective factors may help to promote healthful behaviors in adolescence. PMID:9781412

  18. Predicting Adolescent Deviant Behaviors through Data Mining Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yu-Chin; Hsu, Yung-Chieh

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is the time during which people develop and form their crucial values, personality traits, and beliefs. Hence, as deviant behaviors occur during adolescence, it is important to guide adolescents away from such behaviors and back to normal behaviors. Moreover, although there are various kinds of deviant behavior, most of them would…

  19. School-Based HIV/AIDS Education Is Associated with Reduced Risky Sexual Behaviors and Better Grades with Gender and Race/Ethnicity Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Zhen-qiang; Fisher, Monica A.; Kuller, Lewis H.

    2014-01-01

    Although studies indicate school-based HIV/AIDS education programs effectively reduce risky behaviors, only 33 states and the District of Columbia in US mandate HIV/AIDS education. Ideally, school-based HIV/AIDS education should begin before puberty, or at the latest before first sexual intercourse. In 2011, 20% US states had fewer schools…

  20. Inter-Personal Perceptions Within Families Containing Behavior Problem Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faw, Terry T.; Goldsmith, Douglas F.

    Little research has examined the relationships between parents' perceptions of their adolescent children, the adolescents' self-perceptions and the congruence of those perceptions to adolescent behavior problems. Two parent families (N=64) with an adolescent member completed a Behavior Adjustment Scale. Based on these scores 42 families were…

  1. Maternal and Adolescent Temperament as Predictors of Maternal Affective Behavior during Mother-Adolescent Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Emily; Yap, Marie B. H.; Simmons, Julian G.; Sheeber, Lisa B.; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined maternal and early adolescent temperament dimensions as predictors of maternal emotional behavior during mother-adolescent interactions. The sample comprised 151 early adolescents (aged 11-13) and their mothers (aged 29-57). Adolescent- and mother-reports of adolescent temperament and self-reports of maternal temperament were…

  2. Risky Internet Behaviors: A Case Study of Online and Offline Stalking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowdell, Elizabeth Burgess; Bradley, Patricia K.

    2010-01-01

    Today's youth are more technologically savvy than any other generation possessing the ability to go online anytime. This increase in use of and access to technology has also provided adolescents with increasing opportunities to experience online relationships, which can place them in a vulnerable position and risk for harassment, bullying,…

  3. The Power of the Like in Adolescence: Effects of Peer Influence on Neural and Behavioral Responses to Social Media.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Lauren E; Payton, Ashley A; Hernandez, Leanna M; Greenfield, Patricia M; Dapretto, Mirella

    2016-07-01

    We investigated a unique way in which adolescent peer influence occurs on social media. We developed a novel functional MRI (fMRI) paradigm to simulate Instagram, a popular social photo-sharing tool, and measured adolescents' behavioral and neural responses to likes, a quantifiable form of social endorsement and potential source of peer influence. Adolescents underwent fMRI while viewing photos ostensibly submitted to Instagram. They were more likely to like photos depicted with many likes than photos with few likes; this finding showed the influence of virtual peer endorsement and held for both neutral photos and photos of risky behaviors (e.g., drinking, smoking). Viewing photos with many (compared with few) likes was associated with greater activity in neural regions implicated in reward processing, social cognition, imitation, and attention. Furthermore, when adolescents viewed risky photos (as opposed to neutral photos), activation in the cognitive-control network decreased. These findings highlight possible mechanisms underlying peer influence during adolescence. PMID:27247125

  4. Parent-Adolescent Relations and Adolescent Functioning: Self-Esteem, Substance Abuse, and Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jennifer S.; Benson, Mark J.

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined parental support and monitoring as they relate to adolescent outcomes. It was hypothesized that support and monitoring would be associated with higher self-esteem and less risky behavior during adolescence. The diverse sample included 16,749 adolescents assessed as part of the National Educational Longitudinal Study.…

  5. Longitudinal relations between adolescent and parental behaviors, parental knowledge, and internalizing behaviors among urban adolescents.

    PubMed

    Garthe, Rachel C; Sullivan, Terri; Kliewer, Wendy

    2015-04-01

    High prevalence rates of depression and anxiety among adolescents underscore the importance of identifying parental and adolescent behaviors that may lessen the risk for these outcomes. Previous research has shown that parental acceptance, parental knowledge, and child disclosure are negatively associated with internalizing behaviors. It is also important to explore the impact of internalizing behaviors on these parental and child constructs. The current study examined longitudinal relationships between parental acceptance, parental knowledge, child disclosure, and internalizing symptoms across a one-year time period. Participants were 358 adolescents (54 % female) and their primary caregivers, who were primarily African American (92 %). Parents and adolescents provided data through face-to-face interviews. Results showed that parental knowledge and parental acceptance predicted child disclosure, and child disclosure predicted parental knowledge one year later. Higher levels of parental acceptance predicted lower levels of adolescent-reported depressive symptoms, while higher levels of parental report of adolescents' internalizing symptoms predicted lower levels of parental knowledge. No differences in the strength of these relationships were found across grade or gender. These findings highlight the role of the adolescent's perceived acceptance by parents in promoting children's disclosure, and the benefits of parental acceptance in decreasing depressive symptoms over time. Overall, these results show the impact that both adolescent and parental behaviors and internalizing behaviors have on each other across time.

  6. Moderators of the relationship between internalized homophobia and risky sexual behavior in men who have sex with men: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Newcomb, Michael E; Mustanski, Brian

    2011-02-01

    Research on internalized homophobia (IH) has consistently linked it to both mental and physical health outcomes, while research on its relationships with other variables has been inconsistent. Some research and theory support the association between IH and risky sexual behavior, but much of this research has been plagued by methodological issues, varying measures, and has produced inconsistent findings. Coming to a better understanding of the utility of IH as a potential mechanism or predictor of risky sex in men who have sex with men (MSM) may help to inform future studies of HIV risk in this population as well as the development of prevention interventions. The current study used hierarchical linear modeling to perform meta-analysis combining effect sizes across multiple studies of the relationships between IH and risky sexual behavior. Additionally, the use of multilevel modeling techniques allowed for the evaluation of the moderating effects of age, year of data collection, and publication type on this relationship. Sixteen studies were meta-analyzed for the relationship between IH and risky sexual behavior (N = 2,837), revealing a small overall effect size for this relationship. However, a significant moderating effect was found for the year of data collection, such that the correlation between these two variables has decreased over time. The current utility of this construct for understanding sexual risk taking of MSM is called into question.

  7. Food Safety Knowledge and Practices among Older Adults: Identifying Causes and Solutions for Risky Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Cates, Sheryl C; Kosa, Katherine M; Karns, Shawn; Godwin, Sandria L; Speller-Henderson, Leslie; Harrison, Robert; Ann Draughon, F

    2009-04-01

    Adults aged 60 years and older are more likely than younger adults to experience complications, hospitalization, and death because of food-borne infections. Recognizing this risk, we conducted a nationally representative survey (n = 1,140) to characterize older adults' food safety knowledge, attitudes, and practices as well as the demographic characteristics of older adults with risky food handling practices. The survey was conducted using a Web-enabled panel. We found that although older adults consider themselves to be knowledgeable about food safety, many are not following recommended food safety practices. Areas for improvement include the following: reheating deli meats to steaming hot, not eating store-bought deli salads, cooking eggs properly, monitoring refrigerator temperature using a thermometer, using a food thermometer to check doneness of meat/poultry/egg dishes, and storing leftovers properly. The survey results also suggest that food safety education targeting older adults is needed and that such initiatives should emphasize practices to prevent listeriosis, a potentially fatal illness among older adults. Our findings suggest that, in particular, men, individuals with higher incomes, and college-educated individuals would benefit from food safety education.

  8. Adolescence: booze, brains, and behavior.

    PubMed

    Monti, Peter M; Miranda, Robert; Nixon, Kimberly; Sher, Kenneth J; Swartzwelder, H Scott; Tapert, Susan F; White, Aaron; Crews, Fulton T

    2005-02-01

    This article represents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2004 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, organized and chaired by Peter M. Monti and Fulton T. Crews. The presentations and presenters were (1) Introduction, by Peter M. Monti; (2) Adolescent Binge Drinking Causes Life-Long Changes in Brain, by Fulton T. Crews and Kim Nixon; (3) Functional Neuroimaging Studies in Human Adolescent Drinkers, by Susan F. Tapert; (4) Abnormal Emotional Reactivity as a Risk Factor for Alcoholism, by Robert Miranda, Jr.; (5) Alcohol-Induced Memory Impairments, Including Blackouts, and the Changing Adolescent Brain, by Aaron M. White and H. Scott Swartzwelder; and (6) Discussion, by Kenneth Sher. PMID:15714044

  9. Increased substance use and risky sexual behavior among migratory homeless youth: exploring the role of social network composition.

    PubMed

    Martino, Steven C; Tucker, Joan S; Ryan, Gery; Wenzel, Suzanne L; Golinelli, Daniela; Munjas, Brett

    2011-12-01

    Travelers are a migratory subgroup of homeless youth who may be especially prone to engaging in risky behavior. This study compared the substance use and sexual behavior of young homeless travelers and non-travelers to evaluate the extent and possible sources of travelers' increased risk. Data came from face-to-face interviews with 419 homeless youth (36.6% female, 34.0% white, 23.9% African American, and 20.0% Hispanic) between the ages of 13 and 24 years (M = 20.1 years, SD = 2.5) who were randomly sampled from 41 shelters, drop-in centers, and street sites in Los Angeles. Travelers were almost twice as likely as non-travelers to exhibit recent heavy drinking, 37% more likely to exhibit recent marijuana use, and five times as likely to have injected drugs. Travelers also had more recent sex partners and were more likely to report having casual or need-based sexual partners and combining sex with substance use. Mediation analyses suggest that travelers' deviant peer associations and disconnection to conventional individuals and institutions may drive their elevated substance use. Differences in sexual risk behaviors are likely attributable to demographic differences between the two groups. Overall, these differences between travelers and non-travelers suggest different service needs and the need for different service approaches.

  10. A Systematic Review of Effective Interventions for Reducing Multiple Health Risk Behaviors in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald-Yau, Natasha; Viner, Russell Mark

    2014-01-01

    We systematically searched 9 biomedical and social science databases (1980–2012) for primary and secondary interventions that prevented or reduced 2 or more adolescent health risk behaviors (tobacco use, alcohol use, illicit drug use, risky sexual behavior, aggressive acts). We identified 44 randomized controlled trials of universal or selective interventions and were effective for multiple health risk behaviors. Most were school based, conducted in the United States, and effective for multiple forms of substance use. Effects were small, in line with findings for other universal prevention programs. In some studies, effects for more than 1 health risk behavior only emerged at long-term follow-up. Integrated prevention programs are feasible and effective and may be more efficient than discrete prevention strategies. PMID:24625172

  11. A systematic review of effective interventions for reducing multiple health risk behaviors in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Hale, Daniel R; Fitzgerald-Yau, Natasha; Viner, Russell Mark

    2014-05-01

    We systematically searched 9 biomedical and social science databases (1980-2012) for primary and secondary interventions that prevented or reduced 2 or more adolescent health risk behaviors (tobacco use, alcohol use, illicit drug use, risky sexual behavior, aggressive acts). We identified 44 randomized controlled trials of universal or selective interventions and were effective for multiple health risk behaviors. Most were school based, conducted in the United States, and effective for multiple forms of substance use. Effects were small, in line with findings for other universal prevention programs. In some studies, effects for more than 1 health risk behavior only emerged at long-term follow-up. Integrated prevention programs are feasible and effective and may be more efficient than discrete prevention strategies. PMID:24625172

  12. Adolescent Temperament: Childhood Problem Precursors and Problem Behavior Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windle, Michael

    Interrelations between childhood behavior problems and adolescent temperament, and between adolescent temperament and problem behaviors, were studied. A sample of 311 adolescents with an average age of 15.7 years completed self-report measures regarding behavior problems before age 13, temperament, alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems,…

  13. Adolescent Health Issues: State Actions 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Melissa Hough; Ourada, Joanne

    Many adolescents need basic health care and other services that address risky behaviors such as sexual activity, violence, alcohol and other drug abuse, and the consequences of those behaviors. This publication summarizes approximately 250 laws and resolutions concerning adolescent health and related issues passed by the 50 states and the District…

  14. Adolescent Health Issues: State Actions 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendell, Nicole

    Many adolescents need basic health care and other services that address risky behaviors such as sexual activity, violence, alcohol and drug abuse, and the consequences of these behaviors. This publication summarizes laws and resolutions on adolescent health issues passed in 1997 state and territory legislative sessions. No 1997 legislative session…

  15. A risky occupation? (Un)healthy lifestyle behaviors among Danish seafarers.

    PubMed

    Hjarnoe, Lulu; Leppin, Anja

    2014-12-01

    Sedentary working conditions, smoking, unhealthy eating habits and lack of exercise are some of the lifestyle risk factors that form a potentially growing problem for seafarers within certain parts of the maritime sector creating a heightened risk for chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Health promotion initiatives to combat this negative development requires as a first step identifying the magnitude of the different risk factors. A survey was conducted in 2007-08 with two Danish shipping companies on seafarers' health, wellbeing, diet, smoking and physical activity. In addition, a health profile was offered to the respondents, consisting of physiological measurements, such as fitness rating, body mass index (BMI), cholesterol measurement and blood pressure. The response rate in the questionnaire study was 57% (n = 360) of which 76% (n = 272) of the respondents received a health profile. Results (males) showed 44% daily smokers compared with 32% in the general Danish adult male population. Twenty-five percent of the seafarers were obese with a BMI > 30 compared with 12% of the Danish adult male population. Fifty-one percent of the respondents were defined as having metabolic syndrome, compared with 20% of the Danish adult male population. Seafaring is a risky occupation when looking at the seafarers' health and wellbeing. The results of this survey confirm the need for health promotion interventions such as smoking cessation courses, healthy cooking courses and physical exercise programs, etc. that can enable healthier lifestyle. The challenge will be to take into account the special seafaring conditions when implementing the interventions. PMID:23630132

  16. A risky occupation? (Un)healthy lifestyle behaviors among Danish seafarers.

    PubMed

    Hjarnoe, Lulu; Leppin, Anja

    2014-12-01

    Sedentary working conditions, smoking, unhealthy eating habits and lack of exercise are some of the lifestyle risk factors that form a potentially growing problem for seafarers within certain parts of the maritime sector creating a heightened risk for chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Health promotion initiatives to combat this negative development requires as a first step identifying the magnitude of the different risk factors. A survey was conducted in 2007-08 with two Danish shipping companies on seafarers' health, wellbeing, diet, smoking and physical activity. In addition, a health profile was offered to the respondents, consisting of physiological measurements, such as fitness rating, body mass index (BMI), cholesterol measurement and blood pressure. The response rate in the questionnaire study was 57% (n = 360) of which 76% (n = 272) of the respondents received a health profile. Results (males) showed 44% daily smokers compared with 32% in the general Danish adult male population. Twenty-five percent of the seafarers were obese with a BMI > 30 compared with 12% of the Danish adult male population. Fifty-one percent of the respondents were defined as having metabolic syndrome, compared with 20% of the Danish adult male population. Seafaring is a risky occupation when looking at the seafarers' health and wellbeing. The results of this survey confirm the need for health promotion interventions such as smoking cessation courses, healthy cooking courses and physical exercise programs, etc. that can enable healthier lifestyle. The challenge will be to take into account the special seafaring conditions when implementing the interventions.

  17. Driver training interests of a Spanish sample of young drivers and its relationship with their self-assessment skills concerning risky driving behavior.

    PubMed

    Molina, J Gabriel; Sanmartín, Jaime; Keskinen, Esko

    2013-03-01

    Poor driving self-assessment skills (e.g., over-confidence) have been pointed out as an important explanatory factor behind young drivers' accident involvement. This paper explores (1) what young drivers miss in their training as drivers in order to analyze whether an assessment of one's own driving skills plays an important role in their desire to improve as drivers, and (2) how these training interests are related to an estimate of their self-assessment skills concerning risky driving behavior. For this purpose, a study was conducted using a survey with a blocked sampling design of novice drivers. The survey solicited respondents' self-report about (1) the contents of training courses that they feel would improve their driving, (2) their risky driving behavior, and (3) their likelihood of being involved in a risky driving situation. From the initial sample invited to participate, of nearly 1300 people, we finally obtained complete data from 321 young Spanish drivers. Two main results were apparent from our data analysis: (1) the novice drivers were mainly interested in improving their ability to recognize their strengths and weaknesses as drivers (i.e., self-assessment skills); (2) a significant relationship was found between novice drivers' interests and their current self-assessment skills concerning risky driving behavior. Specifically, there was greater general interest expressed in post-license training by the under-confident self-assessors than the over-confident ones. These results provide a relevant input which should be taken into account when designing driver training programs for novice drivers. Moreover, the relationship between their training interests and their risky driving self-assessment skills introduces an additional factor to be considered in the implementation of these training programs.

  18. HIV Risky Sexual Behaviors and HIV Infection Among Immigrants: A Cross-Sectional Study in Lisbon, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Sónia; Marques, Adilson; Gama, Ana; Martins, Maria O.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to examine risky sexual behavior, its associated factors and HIV infection among immigrants. A participatory cross-sectional survey was conducted with 1187 immigrants at the National Immigrant Support Centre, in Lisbon (52.2% female; 34.0% Africans, 33.8% Brazilians, 32.2% Eastern Europeans). About 38% of participants reported ≥2 sexual partners in the previous year, 16.2% both regular and occasional sexual partners (last 12 months), 33.1% inconsistent condom use with occasional partners, and 64% no condom use in the last sexual intercourse. Unprotected sex in the last sexual intercourse was more likely among women, Africans, those older, with elementary education, those married and those who didn’t receive free condoms in the previous year. No condom use was less likely among those having only occasional sexual partners and both regular and occasional sexual partners. One third of participants had never been tested for HIV. Those never tested reported more frequently inconsistent condom use than those ever tested. Overall, 2.0% reported being HIV positive (2.5% of men; 4.4% of Africans); 4.3% admitted having a STI in previous year. HIV-positive immigrants reported high-risk sexual behaviors. Tailored interventions to promote awareness of HIV serostatus among immigrants as well as culturally adapted risk reduction strategies should be strengthened. PMID:25141001

  19. The role of deliberative decision making, parenting, and friends in adolescent risk behaviors.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Jennifer M; Crockett, Lisa J

    2011-12-01

    Adolescents may engage in risk behaviors that jeopardize their futures. Although adolescent risk-taking has long been attributed to faulty decision making, surprisingly little research has directly examined this link. This study examined the role of deliberative decision making (the tendency to consider options and consequences before making a decision) and social contextual variables (parenting and friend influences) in alcohol and drug use, risky sex, and delinquency. Participants were 7,748 adolescents (50% female) in grades 7-11 from the Add Health dataset (M age = 14.87, SD = 1.54). Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that deliberative decision making and contextual variables were associated with risk behavior concurrently and 1 year later. Furthermore, deliberative decision making interacted with social contextual variables in some models, indicating that deliberative decision making may be especially important in certain contexts. These findings suggest that both cognitive and social factors need to be considered to explain adolescents' decisions to engage in risk behavior.

  20. Adolescents' Sedentary Behaviors in Two European Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aibar Solana, Alberto; Bois, Julien E.; Zaragoza, Javier; Bru, Noëlle; Paillard, Thierry; Generelo, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine and compare the correlates of objective sedentary behavior (SB) and nonschool self-reported SB in adolescents from 2 midsized cities, 1 in France (Tarbes) and 1 in Spain (Huesca). Stability of objective SB and nonschool self-reported SB were also assessed at different time points during 1 academic…

  1. Treating Depression and Oppositional Behavior in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Rachel H.; Becker-Weidman, Emily G.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Jordan, Neil; Silva, Susan G.; Rohde, Paul; March, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Adolescents with depression and high levels of oppositionality often are particularly difficult to treat. Few studies, however, have examined treatment outcomes among youth with both externalizing and internalizing problems. This study examines the effect of fluoxetine, cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), the combination of fluoxetine and CBT, and…

  2. Adolescents' Behavior and Attitudes toward AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salehi, Saeed; And Others

    The need for effective programs to delay sexual activity and to educate adolescents regarding the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has never been greater. Statistics point out that a significant number of teenagers throughout the United States engage in behavior that increases their risks of becoming infected with HIV. This study examined…

  3. Emotional intelligence and prosocial behaviors in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Charbonneau, Danielle; Nicol, Adelheid A M

    2002-04-01

    The relationship between emotional intelligence and prosocial behaviors and sex differences in 134 adolescents involved in a 6-wk. training camp run by the military was investigated. They were asked to evaluate themselves on emotional intelligence and randomly chosen peers evaluated them on prosocial behaviors, indicated by organizational citizenship behaviors, a measure used in work organizations. Ratings of emotional intelligence significantly correlated with scores on two of the five organizational citizenship behavior factors: Altruism (r = .25, p < .01) and Civic virtue (r = .24, p < .01). The girls scored somewhat, but not significantly, higher than the boys on Emotional Intelligence, Altruism, Conscientiousness, and Civic virtue, an observation which might be explored further. PMID:12061571

  4. [Self-destructive behavior in African adolescents].

    PubMed

    Sylla, A; Ndiaye, M; Sylla, O; Gueye, M

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze self-destructive behavior in adolescents in Senegal. Based on four case reports the authors stress the central importance of family breakdown in the process leading to this behavior as opposed to the first descriptions implicating an offense against the honor of the group. The vulnerability of teenagers in the absence of structural initiation is also advanced. Systematic intervention may be recommended in such cases.

  5. Adolescent Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors: A Developmental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.; Reznik, Yana

    2009-01-01

    Understanding adolescents' attitudes regarding sexual behavior is key to understanding why they choose to engage or not engage in sex, which sexual behavior(s) they initiate and continue, and the outcomes experienced during and following sexual behavior. This article briefly explores adolescent sexual behavior, positive and negative outcomes…

  6. Ratings of Behavior Problems in Adolescents Hospitalized for Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Carolyn L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examined usefulness of Devereux Adolescent Behavior Rating Scale (DAB) for assessing behavior problems in adolescents (n=404) hospitalized in inpatient substance abuse treatment units. From 15 original DAB scales, developed 4 scales measuring acting out behaviors, psychotic behaviors, attention-seeking/expressive behaviors, and inner…

  7. Risky Sexual Behaviors in First and Second Generation Hispanic Immigrant Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trejos-Castillo, Elizabeth; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.

    2009-01-01

    Though official data document that Hispanic youth are at a great risk for early sexual intercourse, STDs, and teen pregnancy, only few etiological studies have been conducted on Hispanic youth; almost no work has examined potential generational differences in these behaviors, and thus, these behaviors may have been mistakenly attributed to…

  8. Emotion Skills as a Protective Factor for Risky Behaviors among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivers, Susan E.; Brackett, Marc A.; Omori, Mika; Sickler, Cole; Bertoli, Michelle C.; Salovey, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Involvement in health-endangering behaviors is considered a reflection of college students' psychosocial development; however, not all students participate in these activities. Emotion skills, such as the ability to interpret and manage emotions, may serve as a protective factor against risk-taking behavior among emerging adults. We compared the…

  9. The Role of Family, Religiosity, and Behavior in Adolescent Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, David M.; Williams, Robert J.; Mossiere, Annik M.; Schopflocher, Donald P.; el-Guebaly, Nady; Hodgins, David C.; Smith, Garry J.; Wood, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    Predictors of adolescent gambling behavior were examined in a sample of 436 males and females (ages 13-16). A biopsychosocial model was used to identify key variables that differentiate between non-gambling and gambling adolescents. Logistic regression found that, as compared to adolescent male non-gamblers, adolescent male gamblers were older,…

  10. Acute behavioral interventions and outpatient treatment strategies with suicidal adolescents

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Kimberly H. McManama; Singer, Jonathan B.; LeCloux, Mary; Duarté-Vélez, Yovanska; Spirito, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors among adolescents, there is limited knowledge of effective interventions to use with this population. This paper reviews the findings of studies on behavioral interventions for adolescents who are at acute suicide risk, as well as outpatient treatment and risk management strategies with suicidal adolescents. The importance of addressing comorbid behaviors and enhancing protective factors are discussed. Cultural considerations in working with suicidal adolescents and strategies for conducting culturally competent treatment are explored. PMID:26279646

  11. Adolescent Suicide and Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Goldstein, Tina R.; Brent, David A.

    2006-01-01

    This review examines the descriptive epidemiology, and risk and protective factors for youth suicide and suicidal behavior. A model of youth suicidal behavior is articulated, whereby suicidal behavior ensues as a result of an interaction of socio-cultural, developmental, psychiatric, psychological, and family-environmental factors. On the basis of…

  12. Neural correlates of adolescents’ viewing of parents’ and peers’ emotions: Associations with risk-taking behavior and risky peer affiliations

    PubMed Central

    Saxbe, Darby; Del Piero, Larissa; Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Kaplan, Jonas; Margolin, Gayla

    2015-01-01

    Social reorientation from parents to same-age peers is normative in adolescence, but the neural correlates of youths’ socioemotional processing of parents and peers have not been explored. In the current study, twenty-two adolescents (average age 16.98) underwent neuroimaging (fMRI) while viewing and rating emotions shown in brief video clips featuring themselves, their parents, or an unfamiliar peer. Viewing self vs. other and parents vs. the peer activated regions in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), replicating prior findings that this area responds to self-relevant stimuli, including familiar and not just similar others (Kreinen, Tu, & Buckner, 2010). Viewing the peer compared with parents elicited activation in posterior ‘mentalizing’ structures, the precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), bilateral pSTS and right TPJ, as well as the ventral striatum and bilateral amygdala and hippocampus. Relative activations in the PCC and precuneus to the peer vs. the parent were related both to reported risk-taking behavior and to affiliations with more risk-taking peers. The results suggest neural correlates of the adolescent social reorientation towards peers and away from parents that may be associated with adolescents’ real-life risk-taking behaviors and social relationships. PMID:25874749

  13. Risky sexual behaviors among sexually active first-year students matriculating at a historically Black college: Is a positive self-image an instigator?

    PubMed

    Ellis, Walter L

    2016-01-01

    A sample of 498 sexually active first-year students matriculating at a historically Black college in North Carolina was used to determine correlates of risky sexual behaviors. In an Ordinary Least Squares regression, the self-esteem element "I take a positive attitude toward myself" (B = 1.12, p = .05), non-condom use because of partner issues (B = .53, p = .05) and being drunk or high (B = 1.20, p = .001), oral sex (B = 1.74, p = .001), anal sex (B = .61, p = .04), and bisexuality (B = .85, p = .03) all increased the number of these behaviors. Higher scores on the condom usage scale (B = -.38, p = .002) were found to decrease the number of risky sexual behaviors. Illicit drug use was an underpinning of the surprisingly positive relationship between positive self-image and risky sexual behaviors. It was concluded that school-based social workers, mental health care professionals, and community-based prevention providers can play a critical role in the training of peer facilitators, development, and supervision of peer-driven risk-reduction programs to address the complex interplay among self-esteem, sex, and substances.

  14. Developmental Trajectories of Acculturation in Hispanic Adolescents: Associations With Family Functioning and Adolescent Risk Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Rosiers, Sabrina Des; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Knight, George P.; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, José

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined longitudinal acculturation patterns, and their associations with family functioning and adolescent risk behaviors, in Hispanic immigrant families. A sample of 266 Hispanic adolescents (mean age 13.4) and their primary parents completed measures of acculturation, family functioning, and adolescent conduct problems, substance use, and sexual behavior at five timepoints. Mixture models yielded three trajectory classes apiece for adolescent and parent acculturation. Assimilated adolescents reported the poorest family functioning, but adolescent assimilation negatively predicted adolescent cigarette smoking, sexual activity, and unprotected sex indirectly through family functioning. Follow-up analyses indicated that discrepancies between adolescent and parent family functioning reports predicted these adolescent outcomes. Results are discussed regarding acculturation trajectories, adolescent risk behavior, and the mediating role of family functioning. PMID:23848416

  15. Online sex-seeking, substance use, and risky behaviors in Taiwan: results from the 2010 Asia Internet MSM Sex Survey.

    PubMed

    Ko, Nai-Ying; Koe, Stuart; Lee, Hsin-Chun; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Ko, Wen-Chien; Hsu, Su-Ting

    2012-10-01

    We conducted an online behavioral survey to estimate the prevalence of online sex-seeking and substance use behaviors and to compare risky behaviors among men using different venues to seek sex with men. A cross-sectional online survey, the Asia Internet MSM Sex Survey, was conducted online from January 1 to February 28, 2010. Of the 1,645 participants enrolled from Taiwan, 72.4% reported the Internet as the main way of seeking sexual partners, 73.9% had had sex with partners found online, and 16% had used recreational drugs in the previous 6 months. There was no evidence to suggest that men who looked for sex through the Internet were more likely to engage in unprotected anal intercourse with their casual partners than those using other gay venues. Having had online sex partners in the previous 6 months was significantly associated with being young [adjusted odd ratio (AOR) = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.95-0.99], having had no steady partners in the previous year (AOR = 0.24, 95% CI: 0.15-0.39), having had more than five partners in the previous 6 months (AOR = 4.57, 95% CI: 2.95-7.11), having used recreational drugs in the previous 6 months (AOR = 2.24, 95% CI: 1.30-3.87), and having had an STI in the previous 6 months (AOR = 4.24, 95% CI: 1.59-11.30). In conclusion, because the Internet is a popular meeting place for MSM in Taiwan, effective and targeted prevention programs should be developed to minimize the HIV transmission risk in the Internet era.

  16. Environmental Change, Risky Sexual Behavior, and the HIV/AIDS Pandemic: Linkages Through Livelihoods in Rural Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Lori M.; Reid-Hresko, John; Dickinson, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Local natural resources are central to rural livelihoods across much of the developing world. Such “natural capital” represents one of several types of assets available to households as they craft livelihood strategies. In order to explore the potential for environmental scarcity and change to contribute to perpetuation of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, we examine the association between declining natural capital and engaging in risky sexual behaviors, as potentially another livelihood strategy. Such association has been demonstrated in Kenya and Tanzania, through the fish-for-sex trade. To explore the possibility of this connection within rural Haitian livelihoods we use Demographic and Health Survey data, with a focus on rural women, combined with vegetation measures generated from satellite imagery. We find that lack of condom use in recent sexual encounters is associated with local environmental scarcity – controlling for respondent age, education, religion and knowledge of AIDS preventive measures. The results suggest that explicit consideration of the environmental dimensions of HIV/AIDS may be of relevance in scholarship examining factors shaping the pandemic. PMID:22416143

  17. How the risky features of previous selection affect subsequent decision-making: evidence from behavioral and fMRI measures

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Guangheng; Zhang, Yifen; Xu, Jiaojing; Lin, Xiao; Du, Xiaoxia

    2015-01-01

    Human decision making is rarely conducted in temporal isolation. It is often biased and affected by environmental variables, particularly prior selections. In this study, we used a task that simulates a real gambling process to explore the effect of the risky features of a previous selection on subsequent decision making. Compared with decision making after an advantageous risk-taking situation (Risk_Adv), that after a disadvantageous risk-taking situation (Risk_Disadv) is associated with a longer response time (RT, the time spent in making decisions) and higher brain activations in the caudate and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Compared with decisions after Risk_Adv, those after Risk_Disadv in loss trials are associated with higher brain activations in the left superior temporal gyrus (STG) and the precuneus. Brain activity and relevant RTs significantly correlated. Overall, people who experience disadvantageous risk-taking selections tend to focus on current decision making and engage cognitive endeavors in value evaluation and in the regulation of their risk-taking behaviors during decision making. PMID:26500486

  18. Environmental Change, Risky Sexual Behavior, and the HIV/AIDS Pandemic: Linkages Through Livelihoods in Rural Haiti.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Lori M; Reid-Hresko, John; Dickinson, Tom

    2011-10-01

    Local natural resources are central to rural livelihoods across much of the developing world. Such "natural capital" represents one of several types of assets available to households as they craft livelihood strategies. In order to explore the potential for environmental scarcity and change to contribute to perpetuation of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, we examine the association between declining natural capital and engaging in risky sexual behaviors, as potentially another livelihood strategy. Such association has been demonstrated in Kenya and Tanzania, through the fish-for-sex trade. To explore the possibility of this connection within rural Haitian livelihoods we use Demographic and Health Survey data, with a focus on rural women, combined with vegetation measures generated from satellite imagery. We find that lack of condom use in recent sexual encounters is associated with local environmental scarcity - controlling for respondent age, education, religion and knowledge of AIDS preventive measures. The results suggest that explicit consideration of the environmental dimensions of HIV/AIDS may be of relevance in scholarship examining factors shaping the pandemic.

  19. Health Promotion and Risk Behaviors among Adolescents in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortabag, Tulay; Ozdemir, Serpil; Bakir, Bilal; Tosun, Nuran

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents experience the onset and development of several health-related behaviors. The purpose of this study is to determine health risk and promotion behaviors of adolescents between the ages of 11 and 19 who were attending and to test the reliability and validity analysis of the Turkish version of Adolescent Health Promotion Scale (AHPS). The…

  20. Gender-specific profiles of self-reported adolescent HIV risk behaviors.

    PubMed

    Krantz, Steven R; Lynch, Daryl A; Russell, Jan M

    2002-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to (a) identify behaviors that put adolescents at risk for HIV infection by retrospectively comparing a cohort of HIV positive and negative young adults and (b) determine gender-specific high-risk profiles. HIV-positive (n = 61) and HIV-negative (n = 124) individuals from two midwestern cities completed a survey tool prepared by the investigators examining six areas of behavior and activity identified in the literature as high risk. Alcohol use, drug use, and gang-related behaviors were not associated with HIV status in these young adults. Early, frequent, and unprotected sex with large numbers of partners were the predictive risk factors for HIV-seropositive status. Gender profiles, however, differed. Whereas the female profile suggested that early and unprotected sex were the only reliable predictors, HIV-positive male subjects had larger numbers of partners, engaged in more risky sexual behaviors, were more likely to have experienced sexual abuse before and during adolescence, and were more likely to have used cocaine during their adolescence. Conclusions include the confirmation of a resurgence of HIV among young males having sex with males and confirmation of females as the largest growing group of HIV-positive young adults. PMID:12469541

  1. Brief Report: Sexual Sensation Seeking and Its Relationship to Risky Sexual Behaviour among African-American Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitalnick, Joshua S.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Crosby, Richard A.; Milhausen, Robin R.; Sales, Jessica M.; McCarty, Frances; Rose, Eve; Younge, Sinead N.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between sexual sensation seeking and sexual risk taking has been investigated among adult populations. There are limited data, however, regarding this relationship for adolescents. Since African-American adolescent females continue to be disproportionately diagnosed with STDs, including HIV, we examined this association among a…

  2. Is Growing up Affluent Risky for Adolescents or Is the Problem Growing up in an Affluent Neighborhood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Terese J.; Dearing, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Community studies indicating that affluence has social-emotional consequences for youth have conflated family and neighborhood wealth. We examined adolescent boys' delinquency and adolescent girls' anxiety-depression as a function of family, neighborhood, and cumulative affluence in a sample that is primarily of European-American…

  3. Impulsivity and Its Relationship to Risky Sexual Behaviors and Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Ken C.; Botzet, Andria M.; Fahnhorst, Tamara; Baumel, Lindsey; Lee, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    We examined a mediational model of the interrelationship of drug use, sexual risk, and impulsivity in a sample of young adults (N = 89), of which almost half displayed highly disruptive behaviors as children. We chose a mediational model given the emerging evidence that impulsivity is an underlying risk factor for many youth health risk problems,…

  4. Behavioral Health Emergencies Managed by School Nurses Working with Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Mary M.; Greenberg, Cynthia; Sapien, Robert; Bauer-Creegan, Judith; Hine, Beverly; Geary, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    Background: As members of interdisciplinary teams, school nurses provide behavioral health services. Studies indicate that school nurses may lack sufficient continuing education in adolescent behavioral health and in the management of behavioral health emergencies, specifically. We conducted this study to describe the adolescent behavioral health…

  5. Risky Sexual Behavior, Bleeding Caused by Intimate Partner Violence, and Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Patients of a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Meng-Jinn; Nochajski, Thomas H.; Testa, Maria; Zimmerman, Scott J.; Hughes, Patricia S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to investigate independent contributions of risky sexual behaviors and bleeding caused by intimate partner violence to prediction of HCV infection. Methods. We conducted a case–control study of risk factors among patients of a sexually transmitted disease clinic with and without HCV antibodies, group-matched by age. Results. Multivariate analyses indicated that Black race (odds ratio [OR] = 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3, 4.4), injection drug use (OR = 20.3; 95% CI = 10.8, 37.8), sharing straws to snort drugs (OR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.01, 3.0), sharing razors (OR = 7.8; 95% CI = 2.0, 31.0), and exposure to bleeding caused by intimate partner violence (OR = 5.5; 95% CI = 1.4, 22.8) contributed significantly to the prediction of HCV infection; risky sexual behavior and exposure to blood or sores during sexual intercourse did not. Conclusions. HCV risk among patients of a sexually transmitted disease clinic can be explained by direct blood exposure, primarily through injection drug use. Exposure to bleeding caused by intimate partner violence may be a previously unrecognized mechanism for HCV transmission associated with risky sexual behavior. PMID:19218181

  6. Substance use and risky sexual behavior for exposure to HIV: Issues in methodology, interpretation, and prevention

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, Barbara C.; Stall, Ron

    2008-01-01

    Recent reports have suggested that the use of alcohol or drugs is related to sexual behavior that is high-risk for HIV infection. If substance use leads to unsafe sexual activity, understanding the dynamics of this relationship can contribute to research, preventive and education efforts to contain the spread of AIDS. In this paper, we review research on the relationship between substance use and high-risk sexual behavior. We then consider the inherent limitations of the research designs used to study this relationship, outline some methodological concerns including measurement and sampling issues, and comment on causal interpretations of correlational research findings. We end with a consideration of potential avenues for avenues for future research and a discussion of implications of these findings for current AIDS prevention policies. PMID:8256876

  7. Prediction of individual differences in risky behavior in young adults via variations in local brain structure

    PubMed Central

    Nasiriavanaki, Zahra; ArianNik, Mohsen; Abbassian, Abdolhosein; Mahmoudi, Elham; Roufigari, Neda; Shahzadi, Sohrab; Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza; Bahrami, Bahador

    2015-01-01

    In recent years the problem of how inter-individual differences play a role in risk-taking behavior has become a much debated issue. We investigated this problem based on the well-known balloon analog risk task (BART) in 48 healthy subjects in which participants inflate a virtual balloon opting for a higher score in the face of a riskier chance of the balloon explosion. In this study, based on a structural Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM) technique we demonstrate a significant positive correlation between BART score and size of the gray matter volume in the anterior insula in riskier subjects. Although the anterior insula is among the candidate brain areas that were involved in the risk taking behavior in fMRI studies, here based on our structural data it is the only area that was significantly related to structural variation among different subjects. PMID:26500482

  8. Cultural measures associated with risky sexual behaviors among Latino youth in Southern California: A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Thing, James P.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Schwartz, Seth J.; Soto, Daniel W.; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2014-01-01

    Context Cultural variables have been associated with sexual risk behaviors among Latino youth, but findings across studies are inconsistent. Methods We analyzed data from a longitudinal study of Latino youth in Southern California followed from 2005–2012 to test whether cultural variables measured in high school were associated with sexual risk behaviors in emerging adulthood, and whether gender moderated these associations. We conducted logistic and ordinal regression analyses. Participants were 995 Latino youth. Results The cultural value of respect for parents was negatively associated with an earlier age at sexual debut (odds ratio, 0.8) and not using a condom at most recent sexual intercourse (0.8). U.S. cultural practices (a measure of acculturation) was positively associated with being sexually active (1.2), having concurrent sexual partners (1.5), and among males only, with a higher number of sexual partners (1.3). Second- and third- generation immigrant youth had lower odds of not using a condom at most recent sexual intercourse when compared to first-generation youth (0.6 and 0.5, respectively). Among females, a stronger endorsement of Latino cultural practices was associated with lower odds of more sexual partners (0.8). By contrast, among males, a stronger endorsement of Latino cultural practices was associated with higher odds of more sexual partners (1.4). Conclusions The cultural measures associated with Latino youth’s sexual behaviors differed across outcomes and by gender. Understanding how culture is related to the sexual behaviors of Latino youth may help inform the development of culturally-sensitive sexual health interventions. PMID:24786352

  9. Adolescent gambling and coping within a generalized high-risk behavior framework.

    PubMed

    van Hamel, Anton; Derevensky, Jeffrey; Takane, Yoshio; Dickson, Laurie; Gupta, Rina

    2007-12-01

    Data were collected for 1998 middle/high-school students in Ontario to assess involvement in gambling, substance use, and generalized risky behavior. To predict these outcomes, measures for anxiety, family cohesion, and coping style were also administered. Three a-priori models were posited to account for the impact of risk factors, protective factors, and combined risk/protective factors on the development of risky behaviors. A high-risk cohort composed of subjects endorsing at least one risky behavior (gambling, substance use, or generalized risky behavior) within the clinical range was created to test an unobserved outcome variable created from all three measures of risky behavior, which was successfully predicted by two of the three a-priori models. Implications for the inclusion of gambling within a constellation of high-risk behaviors and recommendations for future prevention efforts are discussed. PMID:17577646

  10. Behavioral sleep problems in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Moore, Melisa

    2012-03-01

    Sleep problems in children and adolescents are common, and they impact multiple domains of child and family functioning. Psychologists have a critical role in the assessment and treatment of sleep problems and are integral to interdisciplinary sleep teams. Certain sleep problems may be related to co-morbid psychological or developmental conditions, and others are considered to be primarily medical, yet behavioral approaches may be applicable. There are also sleep problems considered to be behavioral in etiology (e.g. inadequate sleep hygiene, behavioral insomnia of childhood, nightmares/bad dreams/nighttime fears, delayed sleep phase syndrome, and psychophysiological insomnia). In this article, the assessment of behavioral sleep problems, as well as specific behavioral sleep disorders, and their treatments will be discussed. PMID:22389163

  11. Risky riding: Naturalistic methods comparing safety behavior from conventional bicycle riders and electric bike riders.

    PubMed

    Langford, Brian Casey; Chen, Jiaoli; Cherry, Christopher R

    2015-09-01

    As electric bicycles (e-bikes) have emerged as a new transportation mode, their role in transportation systems and their impact on users have become important issues for policy makers and engineers. Little safety-related research has been conducted in North America or Europe because of their relatively small numbers. This work describes the results of a naturalistic GPS-based safety study between regular bicycle (i.e., standard bicycle) and e-bike riders in the context of a unique bikesharing system that allows comparisons between instrumented bike technologies. We focus on rider safety behavior under four situations: (1) riding in the correct direction on directional roadway segments, (2) speed on on-road and shared use paths, (3) stopping behavior at stop-controlled intersections, and (4) stopping behavior at signalized intersections. We find that, with few exceptions, riders of e-bike behave very similarly to riders of bicycles. Violation rates were very high for both vehicles. Riders of regular bicycles and e-bikes both ride wrong-way on 45% and 44% of segments, respectively. We find that average on-road speeds of e-bike riders (13.3kph) were higher than regular bicyclists (10.4kph) but shared use path (greenway) speeds of e-bike riders (11.0kph) were lower than regular bicyclists (12.6kph); both significantly different at >95% confidence. At stop control intersections, both bicycle and e-bike riders violate the stop signs at the similar rate with bicycles violating stop signs at a slightly higher rate at low speed thresholds (∼80% violations at 6kph, 40% violations at 11kph). Bicycles and e-bikes violate traffic signals at similar rates (70% violation rate). These findings suggest that, among the same population of users, e-bike riders exhibit nearly identical safety behavior as regular bike riders and should be regulated in similar ways. Users of both technologies have very high violation rates of traffic control devices and interventions should occur to

  12. Risky riding: Naturalistic methods comparing safety behavior from conventional bicycle riders and electric bike riders.

    PubMed

    Langford, Brian Casey; Chen, Jiaoli; Cherry, Christopher R

    2015-09-01

    As electric bicycles (e-bikes) have emerged as a new transportation mode, their role in transportation systems and their impact on users have become important issues for policy makers and engineers. Little safety-related research has been conducted in North America or Europe because of their relatively small numbers. This work describes the results of a naturalistic GPS-based safety study between regular bicycle (i.e., standard bicycle) and e-bike riders in the context of a unique bikesharing system that allows comparisons between instrumented bike technologies. We focus on rider safety behavior under four situations: (1) riding in the correct direction on directional roadway segments, (2) speed on on-road and shared use paths, (3) stopping behavior at stop-controlled intersections, and (4) stopping behavior at signalized intersections. We find that, with few exceptions, riders of e-bike behave very similarly to riders of bicycles. Violation rates were very high for both vehicles. Riders of regular bicycles and e-bikes both ride wrong-way on 45% and 44% of segments, respectively. We find that average on-road speeds of e-bike riders (13.3kph) were higher than regular bicyclists (10.4kph) but shared use path (greenway) speeds of e-bike riders (11.0kph) were lower than regular bicyclists (12.6kph); both significantly different at >95% confidence. At stop control intersections, both bicycle and e-bike riders violate the stop signs at the similar rate with bicycles violating stop signs at a slightly higher rate at low speed thresholds (∼80% violations at 6kph, 40% violations at 11kph). Bicycles and e-bikes violate traffic signals at similar rates (70% violation rate). These findings suggest that, among the same population of users, e-bike riders exhibit nearly identical safety behavior as regular bike riders and should be regulated in similar ways. Users of both technologies have very high violation rates of traffic control devices and interventions should occur to

  13. Acculturative Stress and Risky Sexual Behavior: The Roles of Sexual Compulsivity and Negative Affect.

    PubMed

    Jardin, Charles; Garey, Lorra; Sharp, Carla; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Recent syndemic models of sexual health disparities affecting racial/ethnic minorities have highlighted the role of discrimination. Yet no previous work has examined how acculturative stress (distress at the transition from one's original culture toward a new culture) associates with sexual HIV-risk behavior (SHRB). Work among other minority populations suggests sexual compulsivity (SC) may contribute to syndemic sexual health disparities as a means of coping with distress. With this in mind, the present study examined whether SC explained the relation between acculturative stress and SHRB. Separate analyses were conducted for males and females within a sample of 758 sexually initiated racial/ethnic minority college students. Among males and females, acculturative stress had an indirect effect on SHRB via SC. As the first study to examine SHRB in relation to acculturative stress, findings provide preliminary evidence that targeting SC among racial/ethnic minorities may help reduce sexual health disparities. PMID:26584611

  14. When, where, why and with whom homeless women engage in risky sexual behaviors: A framework for understanding complex and varied decision-making processes

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Gery W.; Stern, Stefanie A.; Hilton, Lara; Tucker, Joan S.; Kennedy, David P.; Golinelli, Daniela; Wenzel, Suzanne L.

    2010-01-01

    Impoverished women worldwide are at high risk for contracting HIV/AIDS. This study explores how homeless women make risky sex decisions and the role that alcohol and drugs play in this process. We analyze 56 in-depth qualitative descriptions of recent sexual episodes among 28 women living in shelters in Los Angeles, California, USA. The sample (age 18–63) was 46% African American, 21% Hispanic/Latina, and 21% white. Findings suggest that: (1) homeless women engage in multiple types of relationships and sexual behaviors; (2) emotion and attachment play critical roles in women’s risky sex choices; and (3) the role of alcohol and drugs on such choices varies across relationship commitment. Understanding the complexity of sexual decision-making among this population has implications for developing successful risk reduction interventions. PMID:20485467

  15. Australian Adolescents' Perceptions of Health-Related Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Susan M.; Rosenthal, Doreen A.

    1992-01-01

    Evaluates the perceptions of adolescents (n=189) of their risks and ascertains the relationship between risk perception and actual risky behavior in five areas: AIDS, STDs, serious car accidents, lung cancer, and skin cancer. Results indicated that although late-adolescent students underestimated risk behavior, they were able to make judgments…

  16. Expanding our Lens: Female Pathways to Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence and Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Javdani, Shabnam; Sadeh, Naomi; Verona, Edelyn

    2012-01-01

    Women and girls’ engagement in antisocial behavior represents a psychological issue of great concern given the radiating impact that women’s antisociality can have on individuals, families, and communities. Despite its importance and relevance for psychological science, this topic has received limited attention to date and no systematic review of risk factors exists. The present paper aims to systematically review the empirical literature informing risk factors relevant to women’s antisocial behavior, with a focus on adolescence and adulthood. Primary aims are to 1) review empirical literatures on risk factors for female antisocial behavior across multiple levels of influence (e.g., person-level characteristics, risky family factors, and gender-salient contexts) and fields of study (e.g., psychology, sociology); 2) evaluate the relevance of each factor for female antisocial behavior; and 3) incorporate an analysis of how gender at both the individual and ecological level shapes pathways to antisocial behavior in women and girls. We conclude that women’s antisocial behavior is best-understood as being influenced by person-level or individual vulnerabilities, risky family factors, and exposure to gender-salient interpersonal contexts, and underscore the importance of examining women’s antisocial behavior through an expanded lens that views gender as an individual level attribute as well as a social category that organizes the social context in ways that may promote engagement in antisocial behavior. Based on the present systematic review, an integrative pathway model is proposed toward the goal of synthesizing current knowledge and generating testable hypotheses for future research. PMID:22001339

  17. Environmental Correlates of Gambling Behavior in Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickwire, Emerson M.; Whelan, James P.; Meyers, Andrew W.; Murray, David M.

    2007-01-01

    The present study considered the relation between adolescent gambling behavior and the perceived environment, the component of Jessor and Jessor's (1977) Problem Behavior Theory that assesses the ways that adolescents perceive the attitudes and behaviors of parents and peers. The predominantly African-American sample included 188 sophomores from…

  18. Factors Associated with Physician Discussion of Health Behaviors with Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Won S.; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Kaur, Harsohena; Nazir, Niaman; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2006-01-01

    Behaviors developed in adolescence influence health later in life. The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of health care provider's discussion of health behaviors with overweight and non-overweight adolescents and identify demographic and health behaviors related to exercise, hours of television viewing, and weight issues…

  19. Co-variability in Three Dimensions of Teenage Driving Risk Behavior: Impaired Driving, Risky and Unsafe Driving Behavior, and Secondary Task Engagement

    PubMed Central

    Simons-Morton, Bruce; Li, Kaigang; Ehsani, Johnathon; Vaca, Federico E.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This research examined the extent to which teenagers who engaged in one form of risky driving also engaged in other forms and if risky driving measures were reciprocally associated over time. METHODS The data were from waves 1, 2 and 3 (W1, W2 and W3) of the NEXT Generation study, with longitudinal assessment of a nationally representative sample starting with 10th graders starting in 2009–2010. Three measures of risky driving were assessed in autoregressive and cross-lagged analyses: driving while alcohol/drug impaired, Checkpoints Risky Driving Scale (risky and unsafe driving), and secondary task engagement while driving. RESULTS In adjusted auto-regression models the risk variables, demonstrated high levels of stability, with significant associations observed across the three waves. However, associations between variables were inconsistent. DWI at W2 was associated with risky and unsafe driving at W3 (β = 0.21, p < 0.01); risky and unsafe driving at W1 was associated with DWI at W2 (β = 0.20, p <.01); and risky and unsafe driving at W2 is associated with secondary task engagement at W3 (β = 0.19, p <.01). Overtime associations between DWI and secondary task engagement were not significant. CONCLUSIONS Our findings provide modest evidence for the co-variability of risky driving, with prospective associations between the Risky Driving Scale and the other measures, and reciprocal associations between all three variables at some time points. Secondary task engagement, however, appears largely to be an independent measure of risky driving. The findings suggest the importance of implementing interventions that addresses each of these driving risks. PMID:26514232

  20. CDC Grand Rounds: Adolescence - Preparing for Lifelong Health and Wellness.

    PubMed

    Banspach, Stephen; Zaza, Stephanie; Dittus, Patricia; Michael, Shannon; Brindis, Claire D; Thorpe, Phoebe

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 42 million adolescents aged 10-19 years, representing 13% of the population, resided in the United States in 2014 (1). Adolescence is characterized by rapid and profound physical, intellectual, emotional, and psychological changes (2), as well as development of healthy or risky behaviors that can last a lifetime. Parents have strong influence on their adolescent children's lives, and family-based programs can help parents support healthy adolescent development. Because schools are natural learning environments, implementing and improving school-based policies and programs are strategic ways to reinforce healthy behaviors and educate adolescents about reducing risky behaviors. Health care during adolescence should be tailored to meet the changing developmental needs of the adolescent while providing welcoming, safe, and confidential care. Parents, educators, care providers, public health officials, and communities should collaborate in fostering healthy environments for all adolescents, now and into the future. PMID:27491062

  1. Characteristics of sexual behavior in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Teva, Inmaculada; Paz Bermúdez, Ma; Buela-Casal, Gualberto

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study is to describe some characteristics of the sexual behavior of adolescents in Spain and to compare these characteristics according to gender, using a cross-sectional survey. Participants were 1.279 male and female adolescents who reported having had sexual intercourse. A questionnaire about sexual behavior was applied at their high schools and during school hours. Data were collected between 2006 and 2007. Mean age at the onset of sexual intercourse was 14.8 years in males and 15.0 years in females. Males and females were different according to the type of partner at the last sexual intercourse: 63.0% of males had a steady partner compared to 90.5% of females (p < 0.01). The mean number of sexual partners during the last 12 months was higher in males than in females (M = 2.1 and M = 1.5 partners, for males and females, respectively, p < 0.01). 50.0% of males had sexual intercourse under the effects of drugs versus 39.3% of females (p < 0.01). STD and HIV prevention programs should be designed considering the differences according to adolescents' sex.

  2. Analysis of sexual behavior in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Teva, Inmaculada; Bermudez, M Paz; Ramiro, Maria T; Ramiro-Sanchez, Tamara

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to describe some characteristics of vaginal, anal and oral sexual behavior in Spanish adolescents. It was a cross-sectional descriptive population study conducted using a probabilistic sample survey. The sample was composed of 4,612 male and female adolescents, of whom 1,686 reported having penetrative sexual experience. Sample size was established with a 97% confidence level and a 3% estimation error. Data collection took place in secondary education schools. Mean age of vaginal sex initiation was 15 years. Compared to females, males reported an earlier age of anal and oral sex initiation and a larger number of vaginal and anal sexual partners. Males also reported a higher frequency of penetrative sexual relations under the influence of alcohol or other drugs. A higher percentage of females than males reported not using a condom in their first anal sexual experience. This study provides a current overview of the sexual behavior of adolescents that can be useful for the design of future programs aimed at preventing HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

  3. Place-Based Social Network Quality and Correlates of Substance Use among Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Michael J.; Valente, Thomas W.; Coatsworth, J. Douglas; Mennis, Jeremy; Lawrence, Frank; Zelenak, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    A sample of 301 Philadelphia adolescents were assessed for substance use and place-based social network quality, a weighted variable based upon risky and protective behaviors of alters. The network measure was anchored in routine locations identified as safe, risky, important, or favorite. Results show young females' (13-16) substance use was…

  4. Adolescent Gambling: A Narrative Review of Behavior and Its Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariyabuddhiphongs, Vanchai

    2013-01-01

    This narrative review summarizes current knowledge on adolescent gambling for the period 1990-2010, assesses adolescent gambling behavior and person and environment predictors, and suggests directions for future research. The review includes 99 studies that identified their subjects as adolescents, children, youth, and students, and discusses…

  5. Parental Power and Behaviors as Antecedents of Adolescent Conformity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Carolyn S.; And Others

    Several authorities have observed that a moderate degree of conformity by the young may be necessary for a society to function effectively. In order to examine the relationship between adolescents' perceptions of parental power and behavior and adolescent conformity, adolescents (N=368) in 184 families completed questionnaires concerning aspects…

  6. Behavioral Disorder amongst Adolescents Attending Secondary School in Southeast Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Chinawa, J. M.; Manyike, P. C.; Obu, H. A.; Odetunde, O. I.; Aniwada, E. C.; Ndu, I. K.; Chinawa, A. T.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Adolescents are prone to various forms of behavioral problems. These behavioral issues in adolescents can have serious consequences for the adolescents. Objectives. The objectives of the study are to determine the causative factors of adolescent problems and specific manifestations. Methods. Behavioral problems were investigated using a random sampling of adolescents from secondary schools in southeast Nigeria from February to April, 2014. A self-administered questionnaire was developed from Health Kids Colorado Questionnaire. Results. A total of 763 subjects completed the questionnaire. Adolescents who reported to have used tobacco 3 to 5 and 6 to 9 times during the last 30 days are just 3.14% and 3.4%, respectively. Nineteen (2.49%) adolescents claimed that they have had sex before but not in the last 3 months. Adolescents who attempted suicide are from 15 years and peaked at 18. Eighty-three (11%) adolescents who are 15 years old attempted suicide in a year; this peaks at 17 years where 235 (30.8%) committed suicide. Majority of adolescents with behavioral disorder are from the upper class family. Conclusion. This study revealed that adolescents exhibit several forms of behavioral problems. PMID:25276048

  7. Sexual risk behaviors increasing among adolescents over time: comparison of two cohorts in Spain.

    PubMed

    Espada, José P; Escribano, Silvia; Orgilés, Mireia; Morales, Alexandra; Guillén-Riquelme, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in treatment and prevention, HIV/AIDS remains a serious health and social problem. This study's objective is to examine sexual behavior, levels of knowledge, and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS between two cohorts in Spanish adolescents, and to analyze gender differences in these cohorts. Participants were 2132 adolescents between 15 and 18 years of age: 1222 in 2006 (43.2% boys) and 910 in 2012 (54.1% boys). The results indicate lower HIV knowledge and less favorable attitudes about HIV/AIDS in the 2012 cohort. In addition, adolescents from the 2012 cohort had their first sexual intercourse at an earlier age and have more sexual partners than those from the 2006 cohort. Compared to boys, girls engage in fewer risky behaviors, although they did not use condoms with their stable partner; girls tended to use condom less when they were in a stable relationship than boys. This study confirms the insufficiency of prevention campaigns as well as the need to improve the impact from programs that promote healthy sexual habits. Assuming comparability of cohorts, this study suggests increased risk of HIV/AIDS over time.

  8. The Relationships of Sexual Identity, Hazardous Drinking, and Drinking Expectancies with Risky Sexual Behaviors in a Community Sample of Lesbian and Bisexual Women

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Alicia K.; Cho, Young Ik; Hughes, Tonda; Wilsnack, Sharon C.; Johnson, Timothy; Martin, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of demographic characteristics, sexual identity, hazardous drinking, and sexuality/intimacy enhancement alcohol expectancies on rates of risky sexual behaviors in a community sample of women who self-identified as lesbian, mostly lesbian and bisexual (N = 349). Structured interview data were collected as part of a larger longitudinal study of sexual minority women’s health, the Chicago Health and Life Experiences of Women study. We used structural equation modeling, controlling for demographic characteristics, to evaluate the influence of sexual identity, hazardous drinking, and alcohol-related sexuality/intimacy enhancement expectancies on sexual risk behaviors. Controlling for demographic characteristics and for sexual identity, higher levels of both hazardous drinking and sexuality/intimacy enhancement alcohol expectancies were associated with higher sexual risk scores. The final model predicted 36% of the variance in risky sexual behavior scores. Our findings regarding the central role of alcohol use and sexuality/intimacy enhancement expectancies in sexual risk behaviors among sexual minority women (SMW) are consistent with previous research focusing on predominantly heterosexual women. Future efforts at sexual risk reduction in SMW will need to address the influences of alcohol use and drinking-related expectancies on sexual behaviors and decision-making. PMID:24071822

  9. Puerto Rican Adolescents' Disclosure and Lying to Parents about Peer and Risky Activities: Associations with Teens' Perceptions of Latino Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villalobos, Myriam; Smetana, Judith G.

    2012-01-01

    Disclosure and lying to mothers and fathers about different activities, as defined within social domain theory, were examined as a function of Latino family values in 109 Puerto Rican lower socioeconomic status middle adolescents (M = 15.58 years, SD = 1.18) living in the United States. Questionnaires revealed that teens sometimes disclosed to…

  10. Relationships Between Marijuana Dependence and Condom Use Intentions and Behavior Among Justice-Involved Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell Hooper, Ann E.; Thayer, Rachel E.; Magnan, Renee E.; Bryan, Angela D.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the relationships among marijuana dependence, a theoretical model of condom use intentions, and subsequent condom use behavior in justice-involved adolescents. Participants completed baseline measures of prior sexual and substance use behavior. Of the original 720 participants, 649 (90.13 %) completed follow-up measures 6 months later. There were high levels of marijuana use (58.7 % met criteria for dependence) and risky sexual behavior among participants. Baseline model constructs were associated with condom use intentions, and intentions were a significant predictor of condom use at follow-up. Marijuana dependence did not significantly influence the relationships between model constructs, nor did it moderate the relationship of model constructs with subsequent condom use. Findings suggest that the theoretical model of condom use intentions is equally valid regardless of marijuana dependence status, suggesting that interventions to reduce sexual risk behavior among both marijuana dependent and non-dependent justice-involved adolescents can be appropriately based on the model. PMID:23370834

  11. Measurement and Design Issues in the Study of Adolescent Sexual Behavior and the Evaluation of Adolescent Sexual Health Behavior Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michael; Palacios, Rebecca; Penhollow, Tina M.

    2012-01-01

    To improve the quality of research and commentary concerning adolescent sexuality and evaluation of both comprehensive sexuality education and abstinence education programs, this article aims to help readers (1) select appropriate measures to study adolescent sexual behavior, (2) develop appropriate study designs to evaluate adolescent sexual…

  12. Developmental Trajectories of Acculturation in Hispanic Adolescents: Associations with Family Functioning and Adolescent Risk Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Knight, George P.; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, Jose

    2013-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal acculturation patterns, and their associations with family functioning and adolescent risk behaviors, in Hispanic immigrant families. A sample of 266 Hispanic adolescents (M[subscript age] = 13.4) and their primary parents completed measures of acculturation, family functioning, and adolescent conduct problems,…

  13. Media and Risky Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escobar-Chaves, Soledad Liliana; Anderson, Craig A.

    2008-01-01

    Liliana Escobar-Chaves and Craig Anderson investigate two important trends among American youth and examine the extent to which the two trends might be related. First, the authors note that U.S. youth are spending increasing amounts of time using electronic media, with the average American youngster now spending one-third of each day with some…

  14. Trajectories of Family Management Practices and Early Adolescent Behavioral Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ming-Te; Dishion, Thomas J.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.; Willett, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Stage– environment fit theory was used to examine the reciprocal lagged relations between family management practices and early adolescent problem behavior during the middle school years. In addition, the potential moderating roles of family structure and of gender were explored. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to describe patterns of growth in family management practices and adolescents’ behavioral outcomes and to detect predictors of interindividual differences in initial status and rate of change. The sample comprised approximately 1,000 adolescents between ages 11 years and 15 years. The results indicated that adolescents’ antisocial behaviors and substance use increased and their positive behavioral engagement decreased over time. As adolescent age increased, parental knowledge of their adolescent’s activities decreased, as did parental rule making and support. The level and rate of change in family management and adolescent behavioral outcomes varied by family structure and by gender. Reciprocal longitudinal associations between parenting practices and adolescent problem behavior were found. Specifically, parenting practices predicted subsequent adolescent behavior, and adolescent behavior predicted subsequent parenting practices. In addition, parental warmth moderated the effects of parental knowledge and rule making on adolescent antisocial behavior and substance use over time. PMID:21688899

  15. Reducing risky relationships: a multisite randomized trial of a prison-based intervention for reducing HIV sexual risk behaviors among women with a history of drug use.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Hannah K; Staton-Tindall, Michele; Oser, Carrie B; Havens, Jennifer R; Leukefeld, Carl G

    2014-01-01

    Women involved in the criminal justice system, particularly those with a history of drug use, are at elevated risk of HIV infection, yet few HIV prevention interventions have been tailored for delivery to incarcerated women. Drawing on the Relational Model, the Reducing Risky Relationships for HIV (RRR-HIV) intervention was developed and evaluated in a multisite randomized clinical trial. Women with weekly drug use prior to incarceration (n = 444) who were incarcerated within correctional institutions in four states were randomized to (1) the RRR-HIV intervention consisting of an HIV educational video, five group sessions, and one postrelease booster session or (2) a control condition consisting of the HIV educational video. The RRR-HIV intervention combined didactic and interactive content regarding seven "thinking myths" about intimate relationships that may result in decisions to engage in risky sexual behaviors. Data were collected while women were still incarcerated and approximately 90 days following release from prison by trained interviewers. A negative binomial regression (NBR) model of unprotected sexual behaviors at the 90-day follow-up indicated that RRR-HIV participants reported fewer unprotected sexual behaviors than women in the control condition once the analysis was adjusted for study site. Future studies should examine the sustainability of the RRR-HIV intervention's effect on risk reduction. Implementation research is needed to determine whether delivery of this intervention by correctional staff or peers, rather than research staff, yields similar reductions in unprotected sexual behaviors. PMID:24410251

  16. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescent depression and suicidality

    PubMed Central

    Spirito, Anthony; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Wolff, Jennifer; Uhl, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    Synopsis CBT has emerged as a well-established treatment for depression in children and adolescents but treatment trials for adolescents with suicidality are few in number, and their efficacy to date is rather limited. Although a definitive treatment for adolescent suicide attempters has yet to be established, the limited literature suggests that suicidal thoughts and behavior should be directly addressed for optimal treatment outcome. This chapter reviews the rationale underlying the use of CBT for the treatment of depression and suicidality in adolescents, the literature supporting the efficacy of CBT for depressed adolescents, and whether CBT for depression reduces suicidal thoughts and behavior. A description of some of the core cognitive, affective, and behavioral techniques used in CBT treatments of suicidal ideation and behavior in depressed adolescents is included. PMID:21440850

  17. Associations of Medically Documented Psychiatric Diagnoses and Risky Health Behaviors in Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy-Experienced Perinatally HIV-Infected Youth

    PubMed Central

    Wiegand, Ryan E.; Dominguez, Ken; Blumberg, Dean; Bohannon, Beverly; Wheeling, John; Rutstein, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The Longitudinal Epidemiologic Study to Gain Insight into HIV/AIDS in Children and Youth (LEGACY) study is a prospective, multisite, longitudinal cohort of U.S. HIV-infected youth. This analysis was limited to perinatally HIV-infected youth (n=197), 13 years and older, with selected variables completely abstracted from HIV diagnosis through 2006. We evaluated relationships between ever having one or more nonsubstance related medically documented psychiatric diagnoses and three risky health behaviors (substance abuse, preadult sexual activity, and treatment adherence problems) recorded between 2001 and 2006. Logistic regression was used for all binary outcomes and participant age was included as a covariate when possible. All 197 participants included in the analysis were prescribed antiretroviral therapy during the study period; 110 (56%) were female, 100 (51%) were black non-Hispanic, and 86 (44%) were Hispanic; mean age at the last visit was 16.8 years, ranging from 13 to 24 years. One hundred forty-six (74%) participants had a history of at least one risky health behavior. There were 108 (55%) participants with at least one medically documented psychiatric diagnosis, 17 (9%) with at least one record of substance abuse, 12 (6%) with documented preadult sexual activity, and 142 (72%) participants with reported adherence problems. In the final model, a history of at least one psychiatric diagnosis was associated with having at least one of the three risky behaviors (odds ratio [OR]=2.33, p=0.015). There is a need for a continued close partnership between HIV specialty care providers and mental health services treating perinatally HIV-infected youth with an added focus on improving treatment adherence. PMID:21745118

  18. Externalizing Behavior Problems during Adolescence: An Ecological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Rachel; Renk, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Given the ramifications of difficulties related to externalizing behavior problems, the present study examined the relationships among adolescents' externalizing behavior problems, characteristics of adolescents' families, their perceived neighborhood support, and their acculturation. As part of this study, a culturally diverse sample of…

  19. Rural Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors: Age, Gender, and Ethnic Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salzman, Stephanie A.; Girvan, James T.

    A survey of health risk behaviors was administered to a representative sample of 7,776 Idaho students in grades 8-12. Respondents were 86% White, 6% Hispanic, 4% American Indian, 3% Asian, and 2% Black. These rural adolescents reported that they had engaged in some health risk behaviors at rates comparable to those of other U.S. adolescents: 57%…

  20. Informed-Consent Issues with Adolescent Health Behavior Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olds, R. Scott

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To identify the informed-consent issues when conducting adolescent health behavior research. Methods: A literature review was conducted across diverse academic fields about the informed-consent issues that were relevant to adolescent health behavior research. Results: Issues included defining consent, assent and permission, minimal…

  1. Negative Affect, Risk Perception, and Adolescent Risk Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Laura A.; Youngblade, Lise M.

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence, etiology, and consequences of adolescent risk behavior have stimulated much research. The current study examined relationships among anger and depressive symptomatology (DS), risk perception, self-restraint, and adolescent risk behavior. Telephone surveys were conducted with 290 14- to 20-year-olds (173 females; M = 15.98 years).…

  2. Adolescent Health Problems: Behavioral Perspectives. Advances in Pediatric Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallander, Jan L., Ed.; Siegel, Lawrence J., Ed.

    This book examines the relationship between adolescent risk-taking behaviors and health. The health-related problems of adolescents frequently are manifestations of social, economic, or behavioral factors. Following an overview (Siegal), the chapters in the first section of the book explore general and conceptual issues: (1) "Epidemiology of…

  3. A Brief Screening Measure of Adolescent Risk Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lescano, Celia M.; Hadley, Wendy S.; Beausoleil, Nancy I.; Brown, Larry K.; D'eramo, Domenic; Zimskind, Abigail

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure and reliability of a brief but comprehensive measure, the adolescent risk inventory (ARI), designed to assess adolescent risk behaviors and attitudes. Measures assessing demographics and risk behaviors were administered to 134 youth (ages 12-19) in psychiatric treatment. A confirmatory factor analysis of…

  4. Longitudinal Bidirectional Relations between Adolescents' Sympathy and Prosocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlo, Gustavo; Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Nielson, Matthew G.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the importance of understanding sympathy and prosocial behaviors, research on the development of these tendencies in adolescence remains relatively sparse. In the present study, we examined age trends and bidirectional longitudinal relations in sympathy and prosocial behaviors across early to middle adolescents. Participants were 500…

  5. Gender Differences in Delinquent Behavior among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hun-Soo; Kim, Hyun-Sil

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined gender differences in the rate, type, and relevant variables underlying delinquent behavior among South Korean adolescents. Although female delinquency is increasing and becoming more violent in South Korea, the rate of delinquent behavior was found to be much lower among female than among male adolescents and female…

  6. Resiliency-Based Research and Adolescent Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rink, Elizabeth; Tricker, Ray

    2003-01-01

    Over the past fifty years, research on adolescents' behavior has focused primarily on risk factors. The study of resiliency and what buffers adolescents from engaging in harmful health behaviors has received much less attention. This risk-focused approach has included examining what is lacking in a youth's life that may contribute to that youth's…

  7. Sun Safety Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors among Beachgoing Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merten, Julie Williams; Higgins, Sue; Rowan, Alan; Pragle, Aimee

    2014-01-01

    Background: Skin cancer rates are rising and could be reduced with better sun protection behaviors. Adolescent exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is damaging because it can lead to skin cancer. This descriptive study extends understanding of adolescent sun exposure attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors. Methods: A sample of 423 beachgoing…

  8. Risk and Protective Factors Affecting Sexual Risk Behavior Among School-Aged Adolescents in Fiji, Kiribati, Samoa, and Vanuatu.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2016-07-01

    There are limited studies on the prevalence and correlates of sexual risk behavior among adolescents in Pacific Island countries. In order to inform public sexual and reproductive health interventions, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of various sexual risk behaviors among in-school adolescents in 4 Pacific Island countries using data from the Global School-Based Health Survey. In a cross-sectional study, 6792 school-going adolescents (49.7% boys and 50.3% girls; 13-16 years old) from Fiji, Kiribati, Samoa, and Vanuatu were surveyed with a self-administered questionnaire. Overall, 18.9% of students reported to ever had sex (ranging from 12.9% in Vanuatu to 57.5% in Samoa), and of those sexually active, 38.0% had an early sexual debut (<14 years), 38.1% had 2 or more sexual partners during their lifetime, 39.5% had not used a condom at last sex, 50.9% had not used birth control at last sex, and 77.8% engaged in sexually risky behavior using a composite measure. Multivariate logistic regression found that male sex, older age, tobacco use, alcohol use, mental distress, having no close friends, and truancy were associated with several of 5 or all 5 sexual risk behaviors. Sexual and reproductive health promotion programs are indicated to address the high risk of sexually transmitted infection, HIV, and pregnancy in this adolescent population. PMID:27242369

  9. School-based HIV/AIDS education is associated with reduced risky sexual behaviors and better grades with gender and race/ethnicity differences.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhen-qiang; Fisher, Monica A; Kuller, Lewis H

    2014-04-01

    Although studies indicate school-based HIV/AIDS education programs effectively reduce risky behaviors, only 33 states and the District of Columbia in US mandate HIV/AIDS education. Ideally, school-based HIV/AIDS education should begin before puberty, or at the latest before first sexual intercourse. In 2011, 20% US states had fewer schools teaching HIV/AIDS prevention than during 2008; this is worrisome, especially for more vulnerable minorities. A nationally representative sample of 16 410 US high-school students participating in 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey was analyzed. Multiple regression models assessed the association between HIV/AIDS education and risky sexual behaviors, and academic grades. HIV/AIDS education was associated with delayed age at first sexual intercourse, reduced number of sex partners, reduced likelihood to have forced sexual intercourse and better academic grades, for sexually active male students, but not for female students. Both male and female students who had HIV/AIDS education were less likely to inject drugs, drink alcohol or use drugs before last sexual intercourse, and more likely to use condoms. Minority ethnic female students were more likely to have HIV testing. The positive effect of HIV/AIDS education and different gender and race/ethnicity effects support scaling up HIV/AIDS education and further research on the effectiveness of gender-race/ethnicity-specific HIV/AIDS curriculum.

  10. Cell Phone Internet Access, Online Sexual Solicitation, Partner Seeking, and Sexual Risk Behavior among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Eric; Winetrobe, Hailey; Holloway, Ian W.; Montoya, Jorge; Plant, Aaron; Kordic, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Online partner seeking is associated with sexual risk behavior among young adults (specifically men who have sex with men), but this association has yet to be explored among a probability sample of adolescents. Moreover, cell phone internet access and sexual risk taking online and offline have not been explored. A probability sample (N = 1,831) of Los Angeles Unified School District high school students was collected in 2011. Logistic regression models assessed relationships between specific sexual risk behaviors (online sexual solicitation, seeking partners online, sex with internet-met partners, condom use) and frequency of internet use, internet access points, and demographics. Students with cell phone internet access were more likely to report being solicited online for sex, being sexually active, and having sex with an internet-met partner. Bisexual-identifying students reported higher rates of being approached online for sex, being sexually active, and not using condoms at last sex. Gay, lesbian, and questioning (GLQ) students were more likely to report online partner seeking and unprotected sex at last sex with an internet-met partner. Additionally, having sex with an internet-met partner was associated with being male, online sexual solicitation, and online partner seeking. Internet- and school-based sexual health programs should incorporate safety messages regarding online sexual solicitation, seeking sex partners online, and engaging in safer sex practices with all partners. Programs must target adolescents of all sexual identities, as adolescents may not yet be “out,” and bisexual and GLQ adolescents are more likely to engage in risky sex behaviors. PMID:25344027

  11. Cell phone internet access, online sexual solicitation, partner seeking, and sexual risk behavior among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rice, Eric; Winetrobe, Hailey; Holloway, Ian W; Montoya, Jorge; Plant, Aaron; Kordic, Timothy

    2015-04-01

    Online partner seeking is associated with sexual risk behavior among young adults (specifically men who have sex with men), but this association has yet to be explored among a probability sample of adolescents. Moreover, cell phone internet access and sexual risk taking online and offline have not been explored. A probability sample (N = 1,831) of Los Angeles Unified School District high school students was collected in 2011. Logistic regression models assessed relationships between specific sexual risk behaviors (online sexual solicitation, seeking partners online, sex with internet-met partners, condom use) and frequency of internet use, internet access points, and demographics. Students with cell phone internet access were more likely to report being solicited online for sex, being sexually active, and having sex with an internet-met partner. Bisexual-identifying students reported higher rates of being approached online for sex, being sexually active, and not using condoms at last sex. Gay, lesbian, and questioning (GLQ) students were more likely to report online partner seeking and unprotected sex at last sex with an internet-met partner. Additionally, having sex with an internet-met partner was associated with being male, online sexual solicitation, and online partner seeking. Internet- and school-based sexual health programs should incorporate safety messages regarding online sexual solicitation, seeking sex partners online, and engaging in safer sex practices with all partners. Programs must target adolescents of all sexual identities, as adolescents may not yet be "out," and bisexual and GLQ adolescents are more likely to engage in risky sex behaviors.

  12. Individual and environmental influences on adolescent eating behaviors.

    PubMed

    Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; French, Simone

    2002-03-01

    Food choices of adolescents are not consistent with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Food intakes tend to be low in fruits, vegetables, and calcium-rich foods and high in fat. Skipping meals is also a concern among adolescents, especially girls. Factors influencing eating behaviors of adolescents need to be better understood to develop effective nutrition interventions to change eating behaviors. This article presents a conceptual model based on social cognitive theory and an ecological perspective for understanding factors that influence adolescent eating behaviors and food choices. In this model, adolescent eating behavior is conceptualized as a function of individual and environmental influences. Four levels of influence are described: individual or intrapersonal influences (eg, psychosocial, biological); social environmental or interpersonal (eg, family and peers); physical environmental or community settings (eg, schools, fast food outlets, convenience stores); and macrosystem or societal (eg, mass media, marketing and advertising, social and cultural norms).

  13. Victimization of Peruvian adolescents and health risk behaviors: young lives cohort

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While extensive research has been conducted on bullying and victimization in western countries, research is lacking in low- and middle-income settings. This study focused on bullying victimization in Peru. It explored the relationship between the caregiver’s perception of child victimization and the child’s view of selected negative experiences occurring with other children their age. Also, the study examined the association between victimization and adolescent health risk behaviors. Methods This study used data from 675 children participating in the Peru cohort of the Young Lives study. Children and caregivers were interviewed in 2002 when children were 8 years of age and again in 2009 when children were 15 years of age. Measures of victimization included perceptions from children and caregivers while measures of health risk behaviors included cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and sexual relations among adolescents. Results Caregivers identified 85 (12.6%) children bullied at ages 8 and 15, 235 (34.8%) bullied at age 8 only, 61 (9.0%) bullied at age 15 only, and 294 (43.6%) not bullied at either age. Children who were bullied at both ages compared with all other children were 1.58 (95% CI 1.00-2.50) times more likely to smoke cigarettes, 1.57 (1.04-2.38) times more likely to drink alcohol, and 2.17 (1.41-3.33) times more likely to have ever had a sexual relationship, after adjusting for gender. The caregiver’s assessment of child victimization was significantly associated with child reported bullying from other children their age. Child reported victimization was significantly associated with increased risky behaviors in some cases. Conclusion Long-term victimization from bullying is more strongly associated than less frequent victimization with increased risk of cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and sexual relations at age 15. Hence, programs focused on helping children learn how to mitigate and prevent bullying consistently over time may

  14. Binge Drinking and Risky Sexual Behavior among HIV-Negative and Unknown HIV Status Men who have Sex with Men, 20 U.S. Cities

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Kristen L.; Chavez, Pollyanna R.; Kanny, Dafna; DiNenno, Elizabeth; Lansky, Amy; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) represent over half of new HIV infections in the United States. It is important to understand the factors associated with engaging in risky sexual behavior to develop effective prevention interventions. Binge drinking (≥5 drinks on ≥1 occasion) is the most common form of excessive alcohol consumption. This study examines the relationship between binge drinking and sexual risk behaviors among MSM who are current drinkers and who were either HIV-negative or unaware of their HIV status. Methods Using the 2011 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system and multivariable Poisson models with robust error estimates, we assessed the association between binge drinking and sexual risk behaviors among current drinkers. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) are presented. Results Overall, 85% of MSM were current drinkers, and 59% of MSM who drank reported ≥1 episode of binge drinking in the preceding 30 days. In multivariable models, binge drinking was associated with condomless anal intercourse (CAI) at last sex with an HIV-positive or unknown status partner (receptive: PR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.6; insertive: PR 1.2, 95% CI 1.0-1.4), having exchanged sex for money or drugs at last sex (PR: 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.7), having concurrent partners in the past year (PR: 1.1, 95% CI 1.1-1.2), and having more CAI partners in the past year (PR: 1.2, 95% CI 1.0-1.4) compared to non-binge drinkers. Conclusions Evidence-based strategies for reducing binge drinking could help reduce risky sexual behavior among MSM. PMID:25555622

  15. Intrayear household income dynamics and adolescent school behavior.

    PubMed

    Gennetian, Lisa A; Wolf, Sharon; Hill, Heather D; Morris, Pamela A

    2015-04-01

    Economic life for most American households is quite dynamic. Such income instability is an understudied aspect of households' economic contexts that may have distinct consequences for children. We examine the empirical relationship between household income instability, as measured by intrayear income change, and adolescent school behavior outcomes using a nationally representative sample of households with adolescents from the Survey of Income and Program Participation 2004 panel. We find an unfavorable relationship between income instability and adolescent school behaviors after controlling for income level and a large set of child and family characteristics. Income instability is associated with a lower likelihood of adolescents being highly engaged in school across the income spectrum and predicts adolescent expulsions and suspensions, particularly among low-income, older, and racial minority adolescents.

  16. Affinity for risky behaviors following prenatal and early childhood exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many studies of adults with acute and chronic solvent exposure have shown adverse effects on cognition, behavior and mood. No prior study has investigated the long-term impact of prenatal and early childhood exposure to the solvent tetrachloroethylene (PCE) on the affinity for risky behaviors, defined as smoking, drinking or drug use as a teen or adult. Objectives This retrospective cohort study examined whether early life exposure to PCE-contaminated drinking water influenced the occurrence of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and drug use among adults from Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Methods Eight hundred and thirty-one subjects with prenatal and early childhood PCE exposure and 547 unexposed subjects were studied. Participants completed questionnaires to gather information on risky behaviors as a teenager and young adult, demographic characteristics, other sources of solvent exposure, and residences from birth through 1990. PCE exposure was estimated using the U.S. EPA's water distribution system modeling software (EPANET) that was modified to incorporate a leaching and transport model to estimate PCE exposures from pipe linings. Results Individuals who were highly exposed to PCE-contaminated drinking water during gestation and early childhood experienced 50-60% increases in the risk of using two or more major illicit drugs as a teenager or as an adult (Relative Risk (RR) for teen use = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.2; and RR for adult use = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2-1.9). Specific drugs for which increased risks were observed included crack/cocaine, psychedelics/hallucinogens, club/designer drugs, Ritalin without a prescription, and heroin (RRs:1.4-2.1). Thirty to 60% increases in the risk of certain smoking and drinking behaviors were also seen among highly exposed subjects. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that risky behaviors, particularly drug use, are more frequent among adults with high PCE exposure levels during gestation and early childhood

  17. Adolescent Health Issues: State Actions 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroud, Joanne; Rollins, Kathy

    Many adolescents need basic health care and other services that address risky behaviors such as sexual activity, violence, alcohol and other drug abuse, and the consequences of those behaviors. This publication summarizes approximately 200 child health-related laws and resolutions passed in the 50 states, Puerto Rico, American Samoa, and the U.S.…

  18. Parental Monitoring, Negotiated Unsupervised Time, and Parental Trust: The Role of Perceived Parenting Practices in Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    BORAWSKI, ELAINE A.; IEVERS-LANDIS, CAROLYN E.; LOVEGREEN, LOREN D.; TRAPL, ERIKA S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To compare two different parenting practices (parental monitoring and negotiated unsupervised time) and perceived parental trust in the reporting of health risk behaviors among adolescents. Methods Data were derived from 692 adolescents in 9th and 10th grades (X̄ = 15.7 years) enrolled in health education classes in six urban high schools. Students completed a self-administered paper-based survey that assessed adolescents’ perceptions of the degree to which their parents monitor their whereabouts, are permitted to negotiate unsupervised time with their friends and trust them to make decisions. Using gender-specific multivariate logistic regression analyses, we examined the relative importance of parental monitoring, negotiated unsupervised time with peers, and parental trust in predicting reported sexual activity, sex-related protective actions (e.g., condom use, carrying protection) and substance use (alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana). Results For males and females, increased negotiated unsupervised time was strongly associated with increased risk behavior (e.g., sexual activity, alcohol and marijuana use) but also sex-related protective actions. In males, high parental monitoring was associated with less alcohol use and consistent condom use. Parental monitoring had no affect on female behavior. Perceived parental trust served as a protective factor against sexual activity, tobacco, and marijuana use in females, and alcohol use in males. Conclusions Although monitoring is an important practice for parents of older adolescents, managing their behavior through negotiation of unsupervised time may have mixed results leading to increased experimentation with sexuality and substances, but perhaps in a more responsible way. Trust established between an adolescent female and her parents continues to be a strong deterrent for risky behaviors but appears to have little effect on behaviors of adolescent males. PMID:12890596

  19. Adolescents' Smoking Behavior and Attitudes: The Influence of Mothers' Smoking Communication, Behavior and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbert, Diane F.; Schiaffino, Kathleen M.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated adolescents' and parents' perceptions regarding smoking behavior, attitudes toward smoking, and smoking communication. Instruments were developed to measure multidimensional smoking communication messages and smoking attitudes in 140 mother-adolescent dyads. The prediction of relevant adolescent smoking variables is…

  20. Pathological Internet Use and Risk-Behaviors among European Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Durkee, Tony; Carli, Vladimir; Floderus, Birgitta; Wasserman, Camilla; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit A; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Hoven, Christina W; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Nemes, Bogdan; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar A; Värnik, Peeter; Wasserman, Danuta

    2016-03-01

    Risk-behaviors are a major contributor to the leading causes of morbidity among adolescents and young people; however, their association with pathological Internet use (PIU) is relatively unexplored, particularly within the European context. The main objective of this study is to investigate the association between risk-behaviors and PIU in European adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted within the framework of the FP7 European Union project: Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE). Data on adolescents were collected from randomized schools within study sites across eleven European countries. PIU was measured using Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ). Risk-behaviors were assessed using questions procured from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS). A total of 11,931 adolescents were included in the analyses: 43.4% male and 56.6% female (M/F: 5179/6752), with a mean age of 14.89 ± 0.87 years. Adolescents reporting poor sleeping habits and risk-taking actions showed the strongest associations with PIU, followed by tobacco use, poor nutrition and physical inactivity. Among adolescents in the PIU group, 89.9% were characterized as having multiple risk-behaviors. The significant association observed between PIU and risk-behaviors, combined with a high rate of co-occurrence, underlines the importance of considering PIU when screening, treating or preventing high-risk behaviors among adolescents. PMID:27005644

  1. Pathological Internet Use and Risk-Behaviors among European Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Durkee, Tony; Carli, Vladimir; Floderus, Birgitta; Wasserman, Camilla; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit A; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Hoven, Christina W; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Nemes, Bogdan; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar A; Värnik, Peeter; Wasserman, Danuta

    2016-03-08

    Risk-behaviors are a major contributor to the leading causes of morbidity among adolescents and young people; however, their association with pathological Internet use (PIU) is relatively unexplored, particularly within the European context. The main objective of this study is to investigate the association between risk-behaviors and PIU in European adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted within the framework of the FP7 European Union project: Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE). Data on adolescents were collected from randomized schools within study sites across eleven European countries. PIU was measured using Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ). Risk-behaviors were assessed using questions procured from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS). A total of 11,931 adolescents were included in the analyses: 43.4% male and 56.6% female (M/F: 5179/6752), with a mean age of 14.89 ± 0.87 years. Adolescents reporting poor sleeping habits and risk-taking actions showed the strongest associations with PIU, followed by tobacco use, poor nutrition and physical inactivity. Among adolescents in the PIU group, 89.9% were characterized as having multiple risk-behaviors. The significant association observed between PIU and risk-behaviors, combined with a high rate of co-occurrence, underlines the importance of considering PIU when screening, treating or preventing high-risk behaviors among adolescents.

  2. Pathological Internet Use and Risk-Behaviors among European Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Durkee, Tony; Carli, Vladimir; Floderus, Birgitta; Wasserman, Camilla; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit A.; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Hoven, Christina W.; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Nemes, Bogdan; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar A.; Värnik, Peeter; Wasserman, Danuta

    2016-01-01

    Risk-behaviors are a major contributor to the leading causes of morbidity among adolescents and young people; however, their association with pathological Internet use (PIU) is relatively unexplored, particularly within the European context. The main objective of this study is to investigate the association between risk-behaviors and PIU in European adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted within the framework of the FP7 European Union project: Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE). Data on adolescents were collected from randomized schools within study sites across eleven European countries. PIU was measured using Young’s Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ). Risk-behaviors were assessed using questions procured from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS). A total of 11,931 adolescents were included in the analyses: 43.4% male and 56.6% female (M/F: 5179/6752), with a mean age of 14.89 ± 0.87 years. Adolescents reporting poor sleeping habits and risk-taking actions showed the strongest associations with PIU, followed by tobacco use, poor nutrition and physical inactivity. Among adolescents in the PIU group, 89.9% were characterized as having multiple risk-behaviors. The significant association observed between PIU and risk-behaviors, combined with a high rate of co-occurrence, underlines the importance of considering PIU when screening, treating or preventing high-risk behaviors among adolescents. PMID:27005644

  3. The Effectiveness of an Intervention to Promote Awareness and Reduce Online Risk Behavior in Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Schilder, Janneke D; Brusselaers, Marjolein B J; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2016-02-01

    The current study explored the effect of a school-based intervention on online risk awareness and behavior in order to shed light on a relatively unexplored field with high practical relevance. More than 800 Belgium primary school children (grade 4 and 6) were assessed at two measurements (n T1 = 812, 51.2 % female; n T2 = 819, 51.3 % female) before and after the intervention. Half of them received a 10 min classroom intervention indicating online risks. Children in the control group received a 10 min presentation concerning online applications without any emphasis on risks. Children in the intervention group were more likely to be aware of online risks directly after the intervention; this effect was still noticeable 4 months after. Reporting of online risk behavior in the intervention group was also higher compared to the control group who did not receive the intervention. Overall online risk awareness and online risk behavior were negatively associated and the awareness did not modulate the association between the intervention and online risk behavior. Furthermore, individual differences were assessed. Girls were more likely to be aware of online risks and asserted less online risk behavior than boys were. In line with the imperative in adolescence to become more risk taking, children in a higher grade were more likely to behave in a risky manner when online. The current study provides a valuable starting point for further research on how to decrease online risk behavior in early adolescence.

  4. Assessment of risky sexual behaviors and risk perception among youths in Western Ethiopia: the influences of family and peers: a comparative cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ethiopia is a developing country with a demographic profile dominated by young population with in the ages of 15–24, constituting one third of the total population. Only little has been explored about the role of parenting process and peers in protecting youths from risky sexual behaviors. Thus, this study tried to assess risky sexual behaviors, risk perception and the influences of family and peers for possible interventions among youths in western Ethiopia. Methods The study applied a comparative cross-sectional design triangulated with qualitative study. A pre-tested, structured, interviewer administered questionnaire was used to gather data. SPSS software version 20 was used to perform descriptive statistics, univariate, bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Results Over one third of in-school and 41.4% out-of-school youths reported unprotected sex during the 12 months period prior to interview. More than one third of in-school youths (37.1%) reported to have two and more than two lifetime sexual partners compared to 32.6% of out-of-school youths. Out-of-school youths feel that they are at higher risk of getting HIV than in-school youths (AOR = 2.93; 95% CI: 1.45, 4.35). Youths who had high family connectedness were less likely to commence sexual activity and have multiple sexual partners than their counterparts (AOR = 1.98; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.94) and (AOR = 2.79; 95% CI: 1.24, 4.43) respectively. Having pressure from peer to have sex was significantly associated with having multiple sexual partners (AOR = 2.82; 95% CI: 1.62, 2.49). Conclusion A substantial proportion of out-of-school youths engaged in risky sexual behaviors than in-school youths. Parents and peers play a role in shaping the behavior of youths. Consequently, the dimension of good parental process and positive peer factors has to be strengthened. PMID:24690489

  5. Gender and social rejection as risk factors for engaging in risky sexual behavior among crack/cocaine users

    PubMed Central

    Kopetz, Catalina; Pickover, Alison; Magidson, Jessica F.; Richards, Jessica M.; Iwamoto, Derek; Lejuez, C. W.

    2013-01-01

    Crack/cocaine and engagement in risky sexual behvaior represent important contributors to the escalation of the HIV infection among women. Several lines of research have emphasized the role of social factors in women’s vulnerability for such practices and stressed the importance of understanding such factors to better inform prevention efforts and improve their effectivenes and efficiency. However, few studies have attempted to pinpoint specific social/contextual factors particularly relevant to high risk populations such as female crack/cocaine users. Extensive previous research has related the experience of social rejection to a variety of negative outcomes including, but not limited to, various forms of psychopathology, self-defeating and self-harm behvaior. Motivated by this research, the current study explored the role of laboratory induced social rejection in moderating the relationship between gender and risky sexual behvaior among a sample of crack/cocaine users (n = 211) at high risk for HIV. The results showed that among women, but not among men, experiencing social rejection was significantly associated with a greater number of sexual partners. Further, experiencing social rejection was not related to the frequency of condom use. Implications for future research, prevention, and treatment are discussed. PMID:23761179

  6. Estimating Peer Effects in Sexual Behavior among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Mir M.; Dwyer, Debra S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we seek to empirically quantify the role of peer social networks in influencing sexual behavior among adolescents. Using data of a nationally representative sample of adolescents we utilize a multivariate structural model with school-level fixed effects to account for the problems of contextual effects, correlated effects and peer…

  7. Transition-Marking Behaviors of Adolescent Males at First Intercourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Ann L.; Flanigan, Beverly J.

    1993-01-01

    Examined male transition-marking behaviors from adolescence into adulthood at first intercourse. Findings from 80 adolescent males revealed that alcohol use at first intercourse was unrelated to use of contraceptives at that time but was inversely related to whether first intercourse was planned. Planning was positively related to contraceptive…

  8. Modeling Developmental Complexity in Adolescence: Hormones and Behavior in Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Susman, Elizabeth J.

    1997-01-01

    The links between endocrine physiological processes and adolescent psychological processes are the focus of this article. Presents a brief history of biopsychosocial research in adolescent development. Discusses four models for conceptualizing hormone-behavior research as illustrative of biopsychosocial models. Concludes with challenges and…

  9. Developmental Trajectories of Childhood Obesity and Risk Behaviors in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, David Y. C.; Lanza, H. Isabella; Wright-Volel, Kynna; Anglin, M. Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Using group-based trajectory modeling, this study examined 5156 adolescents from the child sample of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to identify developmental trajectories of obesity from ages 6-18 and evaluate associations of such trajectories with risk behaviors and psychosocial health in adolescence. Four distinctive obesity…

  10. Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence: Typology and Relation to Family Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobotková, Veronika; Blatný, Marek; Jelínek, Martin; Hrdlicka, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The study deals with the relationship between antisocial behavior in early adolescence and family environment. Sample consisted of 2,856 adolescents (53% girls, mean age 13.5 years, SD = 1.1) from urban areas in the Czech Republic. The Social and Health Assessment (SAHA), a school survey, was used to measure sociodemographic characteristics of the…

  11. Acceptance-Enhanced Behavior Therapy for Trichotillomania in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Kathi M.; Walther, Michael R.; Joseph, Jessica M.; Robinson, Jordan; Ricketts, Emily J.; Bowe, William E.; Woods, Douglas W.

    2012-01-01

    Although several studies have examined the efficacy of Acceptance Enhanced Behavior Therapy (AEBT) for the treatment of trichotillomania (TTM) in adults, data are limited with respect to the treatment of adolescents. Our case series illustrates the use of AEBT for TTM in the treatment of two adolescents. The AEBT protocol (Woods & Twohig, 2008) is…

  12. Deviant Friends and Early Adolescents' Emotional and Behavioral Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Bukowski, William M.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated whether friendships with deviant peers would be related negatively to the emotional and behavioral adjustment of 305 adolescents, 13 years of age. Found that adolescents with deviant friends were more delinquent than those with no mutual friends or nondeviant friends, and showed similarly problematic depression levels as friendless…

  13. Feasibility of Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Suicidal Adolescent Inpatients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Laurence Y.; Cox, Brian J.; Gunasekara, Shiny; Miller, Alec L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) implementation in a general child and adolescent psychiatric inpatient unit and to provide preliminary effectiveness data on DBT versus treatment as usual (TAU). Method: Sixty-two adolescents with suicide attempts or suicidal ideation were admitted to one of two…

  14. Parenting Practices and Adolescent Sexual Behavior: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bersamin, Melina; Todd, Michael; Fisher, Deborah A.; Hill, Douglas L.; Grube, Joel W.; Walker, Samantha

    2008-01-01

    The effects of parental attitudes, practices, and television mediation on adolescent sexual behaviors were investigated in a study of adolescent sexuality and media (N = 887). Confirmatory factor analyses supported an eight-factor parenting model with television mediation factors as constructs distinct from general parenting practices. Logistic…

  15. Developing Prosocial Behaviors in Early Adolescence with Reactive Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Annis L. C.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the alarming rise of early adolescence aggression in Hong Kong, it is the pioneer evidence-based outcome study on Anger Coping Training (ACT) program for early adolescence with reactive aggression to develop their prosocial behaviors. This research program involved experimental and control groups with pre- and post-comparison using a …

  16. Bidirectional Relations between Authoritative Parenting and Adolescents' Prosocial Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Carlo, Gustavo; Christensen, Katherine J.; Yorgason, Jeremy B.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the bidirectional relations between authoritative parenting and adolescents' prosocial behavior over a 1-year time period. Data were taken from Time 2 and 3 of the Flourishing Families Project, and included reports from 319 two-parent families with an adolescent child (M age of child at Time 2 = 12.34, SD = 1.06, 52% girls).…

  17. Importance Ratings of Socially Supportive Behaviors by Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick; Malecki, Christine Kerres

    2003-01-01

    The frequency of students' social support has been investigated in the literature, but little research has examined the social validity or social importance of supportive behaviors for children and adolescents. In the present study, data were gathered from 1,688 students in Grades 3 through 12 via the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale…

  18. Gender, Age, and Behavior Differences in Early Adolescent Worry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Stephen L.; Teufel, James A.; Birch, David A.; Kancherla, Vijaya

    2006-01-01

    Early adolescents in the United States are increasingly exposed to a culture of worrisome messages. A degree of adolescent worry is normal, but the likelihood of a young person being anxious or depressed increases with the perceived number of worries. This study examined the effect of age, gender, and worry behavior on frequency of 8 adolescent…

  19. Adolescents' Sleep Behaviors and Perceptions of Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noland, Heather; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph; Telljohann, Susan K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Sleep duration affects the health of children and adolescents. Shorter sleep durations have been associated with poorer academic performance, unintentional injuries, and obesity in adolescents. This study extends our understanding of how adolescents perceive and deal with their sleep issues. Methods: General education classes were…

  20. “Sexting” and its relation to sexual activity and sexual risk behavior in a national survey of adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ybarra, Michele L.; Mitchell, Kimberly J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the relation between “sexting,” (sending and sharing sexual photos online via text messaging and in-person) with sexual risk behaviors and psychosocial challenge in adolescence. Methods Data were collected online between 2010 and 2011 with 3,715 randomly selected 13- to 18-year-old youth across the United States. Results Seven percent of youth reported sending or showing someone sexual pictures of themselves, where they were nude or nearly nude, online, via text messaging, or in-person, during the past year. Although females and older youth were more likely to share sexual photos than males and younger youth, the profile of psychosocial challenge and sexual behavior was similar for all youth. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, sharing sexual photos was associated with all types of sexual behaviors assessed (e.g., oral sex, vaginal sex) as well as some of the risky sexual behaviors examined—particularly having concurrent sexual partners and having more past-year sexual partners. Adolescents who shared sexual photos also were more likely to use substances and less likely to have high self-esteem than their demographically similar peers. Conclusions While the media has portrayed “sexting” as a problem caused by new technology, health professionals may be more effective by approaching it as an aspect of adolescent sexual development and exploration and, in some cases, risk-taking and psychosocial challenge. PMID:25266148

  1. Substance abuse in early adolescents and HIV preventive behaviors: findings from a school-based cross-sectional survey for the period from 2009 to 2013, Bangkok Thailand.

    PubMed

    Thepthien, B; Altaf, L; Chuchareon, P; Srivanichakron, S

    2016-10-01

    This study is first of its kind in Bangkok, and is a five-year (2009-2013) cross-sectional web-based survey to examine HIV preventive behaviors related to substance abuse among adolescents (N = 16,913). The questionnaire was self-administered. Logistic regression was used to analyze the data. The relationship between different types of substance abuse with risky and preventive behaviors was assessed. Male participants reported more substance abuse as compared to females. The risk behaviors observed among the substance abusers include increased sexual experience, multiple sex partners, no use of condoms, and injection drug use. The preventive behaviors include having a high self-risk assessment, going for HIV testing (highest in methamphetamine users), and screening for sexually transmitted infection. Logistic regression suggests that risky behaviors (e.g., sexual experience, injection drug use) are more common in substance abusers. Adolescents are clearly at a high risk. Behavioral preventive measures are needed to reduce or delay premature substance exposure to prevent a wide range of health problems and risks such as HIV and AIDS, injection drug use and unprotected sex.

  2. Psychological and behavioral interventions to reduce HIV risk: evidence from a randomized control trial among orphaned and vulnerable adolescents in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Thurman, T R; Kidman, R; Carton, T W; Chiroro, P

    2016-01-01

    Evidence-based approaches are needed to address the high levels of sexual risk behavior and associated HIV infection among orphaned and vulnerable adolescents. This study recruited adolescents from a support program for HIV-affected families and randomly assigned them by cluster to receive one of the following: (1) a structured group-based behavioral health intervention; (2) interpersonal psychotherapy group sessions; (3) both interventions; or (4) no new interventions. With 95% retention, 1014 adolescents were interviewed three times over a 22-month period. Intent-to-treat analyses, applying multivariate difference-in-difference probit regressions, were performed separately for boys and girls to assess intervention impacts on sexual risk behaviors. Exposure to a single intervention did not impact behaviors. Exposure to both interventions was associated with risk-reduction behaviors, but the outcomes varied by gender: boys reported fewer risky sexual partnerships (β = -.48, p = .05) and girls reported more consistent condom (β = 1.37, p = .02). There was no difference in the likelihood of sexual debut for either gender. Providing both psychological and behavioral interventions resulted in long-term changes in sexual behavior that were not present when either intervention was provided in isolation. Multifaceted approaches for reducing sexual risk behaviors among vulnerable adolescents hold significant promise for mitigating the HIV epidemic among this priority population. PMID:26886261

  3. Genome-wide association study of behavioral disinhibition in a selected adolescent sample

    PubMed Central

    Derringer, Jaime; Corley, Robin P.; Haberstick, Brett C.; Young, Susan E.; Demmitt, Brittany; Howrigan, Daniel P.; Kirkpatrick, Robert M.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt; Keller, Matthew; Brown, Sandra; Tapert, Susan; Hopfer, Christian J.; Stallings, Michael C.; Crowley, Thomas J.; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Krauter, Ken; Hewitt, John K.; McQueen, Matthew B.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral disinhibition (BD) is a quantitative measure designed to capture the heritable variation encompassing risky and impulsive behaviors. As a result, BD represents an ideal target for discovering genetic loci that predispose individuals to a wide range of antisocial behaviors and substance misuse that together represent a large cost to society as a whole. Published genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have examined specific phenotypes that fall under the umbrella of BD (e.g. alcohol dependence, conduct disorder); however no GWAS has specifically examined the overall BD construct. We conducted a GWAS of BD using a sample of 1,901 adolescents over-selected for characteristics that define high BD, such as substance and antisocial behavior problems, finding no individual locus that surpassed genome-wide significance. Although no single SNP was significantly associated with BD, restricted maximum likelihood analysis estimated that 49.3% of the variance in BD within the Caucasian sub-sample was accounted for by the genotyped SNPs (p=0.06). Gene-based tests identified seven genes associated with BD (p≤2.0×10−6). Although the current study was unable to identify specific SNPs or pathways with replicable effects on BD, the substantial sample variance that could be explained by all genotyped SNPs suggests that larger studies could successfully identify common variants associated with BD. PMID:25637581

  4. Mother-adolescent conflict as a mediator between adolescent problem behaviors and maternal psychological control.

    PubMed

    Steeger, Christine M; Gondoli, Dawn M

    2013-04-01

    This study examined mother-adolescent conflict as a mediator of longitudinal reciprocal relations between adolescent aggression and depressive symptoms and maternal psychological control. Motivated by family systems theory and the transactions that occur between individual and dyadic levels of the family system, we examined the connections among these variables during a developmental period when children and parents experience significant psychosocial changes. Three years of self-report data were collected from 168 mother-adolescent dyads, beginning when the adolescents (55.4% girls) were in 6th grade. Models were tested using longitudinal path analysis. Results indicated that the connection between adolescent aggression (and depressive symptoms) and maternal psychological control was best characterized as adolescent-driven, indirect, and mediated by mother-adolescent conflict; there were no indications of parent-driven indirect effects. That is, prior adolescent aggression and depressive symptoms were associated with increased conflict. In turn, conflict was associated with increased psychological control. Within our mediation models, reciprocal direct effects between both problem behaviors and conflict and between conflict and psychological control were also found. Additionally, exploratory analyses regarding the role of adolescent gender as a moderator of variable relations were conducted. These analyses revealed no gender-related patterns of moderation, whether moderated mediation or specific path tests for moderation were considered. This study corroborates prior research finding support for child effects on parenting behaviors during early adolescence.

  5. Community structural instability, anomie, imitation and adolescent suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Thorlindsson, Thorolfur; Bernburg, Jón Gunnar

    2009-04-01

    The current study examines the contextual effects of community structural characteristics, as well as the mediating role of key social mechanisms, on youth suicidal behavior in Iceland. We argue that the contextual influence of community structural instability on youth suicidal behavior should be mediated by weak attachment to social norms and values (anomie), and contact with suicidal others (suggestion-imitation). The data comes from a national survey of 14-16 years old adolescents. Valid questionnaires were obtained from 7018 students (response rate about 87%). The findings show that the community level of residential mobility has a positive, contextual effect on adolescent suicidal behavior. The findings also indicate that the contextual effect of residential mobility is mediated by both anomie and suggestion-imitation. The findings offer the possibility to identify communities that carry a substantial risk for adolescent suicide as well as the mechanisms that mediate the influence of community structural characteristics on adolescent risk behavior.

  6. Endorsement of a Personal Responsibility to Adhere to the Minimum Drinking Age Law Predicts Consumption, Risky Behaviors, and Alcohol-Related Harms

    PubMed Central

    Reyna, Valerie F.; Croom, Katherine; Staiano-Coico, Lisa; Lesser, Martin L.; Lewis, Deborah; Frank, Jeremy; Marchell, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Despite minimum drinking age laws, underage college students engage in high levels of risky drinking and reach peak lifetime levels of alcohol dependence. A group of presidents of universities and colleges has argued that these laws promote disrespect for laws in general, and do not prevent drinking or related negative consequences. However, no study has investigated the policy-relevant question of whether students who endorse a personal responsibility to obey drinking laws, regardless of their opinions about the laws, are less likely to drink or to experience negative consequences. Therefore, we compared endorsers to non-endorsers, controlling for race, gender, and baseline outcomes, at two universities (Ns = 2007 and 2027). Neither sample yielded a majority (49% and 38% endorsement), but for both universities, all 17 outcome measures were significantly associated with endorsement across all types of analyses. Endorsers were less likely to drink, drank less, engaged in less high-risk behavior (e.g., heavy/binge drinking), and experienced fewer harms (e.g., physical injury), even when controlling for covariates. Racial/ethnic minority groups were more likely to endorse, compared to White students. By isolating a small window of time between high school and college that produces large changes in drinking behavior, and controlling for covariates, we can begin to hone in on factors that might explain relations among laws, risky behaviors, and harms. Internalization of a social norm to adhere to drinking laws could offer benefits to students and society, but subsequent research is needed to pin down causation and causal mechanisms. PMID:24078780

  7. Adolescence, sexual behavior and risk factors to health

    PubMed Central

    de Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Gomes, Romeu; Pires, Thiago de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the relationships between sexual behavior and risk factors to physical and mental health in adolescents. METHODS Study of 3,195 pupils aged 15 to 19 in secondary education, in public and private schools in 10 state capitals in Brazil between 2007 and 2008. Multi-stage (schools and pupils) cluster sampling was used in each city and public and private educational network. All of the students selected completed a questionnaire on the following items: socioeconomic and demographic data; sexual behavior; having sex with those of the same sex, the opposite sex, or both; alcohol and cannabis use; using condoms; traumatic sexual experiences as a child or adolescent; suicidal thoughts. The analysis included describing frequencies, Chi-square test, analysis of multiple and cluster correspondence. Responses to an open ended question in which the adolescent expressed general comments about themselves and their lives were qualitatively analyzed using content analysis. RESULTS Around 3.0% of adolescents reported homosexual or bisexual behavior, with no difference according to sex, age, skin color, social status family structure or educational network. Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior, compared to their heterosexual peers, reported: (p < 0.05): getting drunk (18.7% and 10.5%, respectively), frequent cannabis use (6.1% and 2.1%, respectively), suicidal thoughts (42.5% and 18.7%, respectively), and having been the victim of sexual violence (11.7% and 1.5%; respectively). Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior reported that they used condoms less frequently (74.2%) than their heterosexual peers (48.6%, p < 0.001). In the correspondence analysis, three groups were found, one composed of adolescents with homosexual/bisexual behavior and experiencing risk factors; suffering sexual violence, never using a condom, suicidal thoughts, frequent cannabis use; another composed of occasional cannabis and condom users, who got drunk

  8. Using a Framework to Explore Associations between Parental Substance Use and the Health Outcomes of Their Adolescent Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Shelley A.

    2011-01-01

    Risk-taking behavior plays a significant role in the lives of adolescents. Adolescents engaging in risk behaviors such as substance use and risky sexual activity are at increased risk for contracting STDs, unplanned pregnancy, and other health problems. Consequently, children of substance abusers are at even greater risk for engaging in…

  9. A Prospective Study of Adolescent Suicidal Behavior Following Hospitalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Cheryl A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Identifies specific predictors of suicidal behavior in 100 adolescents during a 6-month follow-up period after psychiatric hospitalization. Eighteen percent reported suicidal behavior during the follow-up period, and this behavior was associated with suicidal thoughts, family dysfunction, and dysthymia. It was not associated with initial…

  10. Mapping the Academic Problem Behaviors of Adolescents with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Altszuler, Amy R.; Morrow, Anne S.; Merrill, Brittany M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study possessed two aims: (1) to develop and validate aclinician -friendly measure of academic problem behavior that is relevant to the assessment of adolescents with ADHD and (2) to better understand the cross-situational expression of academic problem behaviors displayed by these youth. Method Within a sample of 324 adolescents with DSM-IV-TR diagnosed ADHD (age M=13.07, SD=1.47), parent, teacher, and adolescent self-report versions of the Adolescent Academic Problems Checklist (AAPC) were administered and compared. Item prevalence rates, factorial validity, inter-rater agreement, internal consistency, and concurrent validity were evaluated. Results Findings indicated the value of the parent and teacher AAPC as a psychometrically valid measure of academic problems in adolescents with ADHD. Parents and teachers offered unique perspectives on the academic functioning of adolescents with ADHD, indicating the complementary roles of these informants in the assessment process. According to parent and teacher reports, adolescents with ADHD displayed problematic academic behaviors in multiple daily tasks, with time management and planning deficits appearing most pervasive. Conclusions Adolescents with ADHD display heterogeneous academic problems that warrant detailed assessment prior to treatment. As a result, the AAPC may be a useful tool for clinicians and school staff conducting targeted assessments with these youth. PMID:24933215

  11. Linking Childhood Sexual Abuse and Early Adolescent Risk Behavior: The Intervening Role of Internalizing and Externalizing Problems

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Deborah J.; Lewis, Terri; Litrownik, Alan; Thompson, Richard; Proctor, Laura J.; Isbell, Trish; Dubowitz, Howard; English, Diana; Jones, Bobby; Nagin, Daniel; Runyan, Desmond

    2012-01-01

    A robust literature links childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to later substance use and sexual risk behavior; yet, relatively little empirical attention has been devoted to identifying the mechanisms linking CSA to risky behavior among youth, with even less work examining such processes in boys. With the aim of addressing this gap in the literature, the current study examined the indirect effect of childhood sexual abuse (CSA; from age 2 to 12) trajectory group on risky behavior at age 14 (alcohol use & sexual intercourse) via the intervening role of caregiver-reported internalizing and externalizing problems at age 12. Analyses were conducted with a subsample of youth (n = 657 sexual intercourse; n = 667 alcohol use) from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN), a multisite prospective study of youth at risk for maltreatment. For boys and girls, there was an indirect effect from CSA to sexual intercourse through externalizing problems. The same pattern emerged for alcohol use, but only for girls. Findings did not support an indirect path through internalizing problems for either boys or girls for either outcome. Findings suggest more focal targets for prevention efforts aimed at maintaining the health and safety of maltreated boys and girls during the adolescent transition. PMID:22752719

  12. The Two Faces of Adolescents' Success with Peers: Adolescent Popularity, Social Adaptation, and Deviant Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Joseph P.; Porter, Maryfrances R.; McFarland, F. Christy; Marsh, Penny; McElhaney, Kathleen Boykin

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed the hypothesis that popularity in adolescence takes on a twofold role, marking high levels of concurrent adaptation but predicting increases over time in both positive and negative behaviors sanctioned by peer norms. Multimethod, longitudinal data, on a diverse community sample of 185 adolescents (13 to 14 years), addressed…

  13. Peer relations, adolescent behavior, and public health research and practice.

    PubMed

    Crosnoe, Robert; McNeely, Clea

    2008-01-01

    Peer relations are central to adolescent life and, therefore, are crucial to understanding adolescents' engagement in various behaviors. In recent years, public health research has increasingly devoted attention to the implications of peer relations for the kinds of adolescent behaviors that have a direct impact on health. This article advocates for a continuation of this trend. With this aim, we highlight key themes in the rich literature on the general developmental significance of adolescent-peer relations, provide an overview of how these themes have been incorporated into public health research and practice, and suggest future avenues for peer-focused public health research that can inform adolescent health promotion in the United States.

  14. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure Persistently Impacts Adult Neurobiology and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Vetreno, Ryan P.; Broadwater, Margaret A.; Robinson, Donita L.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period when physical and cognitive abilities are optimized, when social skills are consolidated, and when sexuality, adolescent behaviors, and frontal cortical functions mature to adult levels. Adolescents also have unique responses to alcohol compared with adults, being less sensitive to ethanol sedative–motor responses that most likely contribute to binge drinking and blackouts. Population studies find that an early age of drinking onset correlates with increased lifetime risks for the development of alcohol dependence, violence, and injuries. Brain synapses, myelination, and neural circuits mature in adolescence to adult levels in parallel with increased reflection on the consequence of actions and reduced impulsivity and thrill seeking. Alcohol binge drinking could alter human development, but variations in genetics, peer groups, family structure, early life experiences, and the emergence of psychopathology in humans confound studies. As adolescence is common to mammalian species, preclinical models of binge drinking provide insight into the direct impact of alcohol on adolescent development. This review relates human findings to basic science studies, particularly the preclinical studies of the Neurobiology of Adolescent Drinking in Adulthood (NADIA) Consortium. These studies focus on persistent adult changes in neurobiology and behavior following adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE), a model of underage drinking. NADIA studies and others find that AIE results in the following: increases in adult alcohol drinking, disinhibition, and social anxiety; altered adult synapses, cognition, and sleep; reduced adult neurogenesis, cholinergic, and serotonergic neurons; and increased neuroimmune gene expression and epigenetic modifiers of gene expression. Many of these effects are specific to adolescents and not found in parallel adult studies. AIE can cause a persistence of adolescent-like synaptic physiology, behavior, and sensitivity

  15. Systematic Review of Social Network Analysis in Adolescent Cigarette Smoking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Huang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Social networks are important in adolescent smoking behavior. Previous research indicates that peer context is a major causal factor of adolescent smoking behavior. To date, however, little is known about the influence of peer group structure on adolescent smoking behavior. Methods: Studies that examined adolescent social networks with…

  16. Disclosure and Monitoring as Predictors of Mother-Adolescent Agreement in Reports of Early Adolescent Rule-Breaking Behavior.

    PubMed

    Laird, Robert D; LaFleur, Laura K

    2016-01-01

    The current study tested whether greater monitoring by mothers and greater disclosure by early adolescents was linked to greater agreement in mothers' and adolescents' reports of rule-breaking behavior. In doing so, the article demonstrated how polynomial regression analyses can be used to test hypotheses in which informant discrepancies serve as the dependent variable. Data were obtained from 218 mother-adolescent dyads (M adolescent age = 11.5 years, 51% female, 49% European American, 47% African American). Mothers and early adolescents provided reports of their perceptions of maternal monitoring (i.e., solicitation and control through rules), adolescent disclosure, and adolescent rule-breaking behavior. Polynomial regression models tested monitoring and disclosure as moderators of the association between mothers' and adolescents' reports of the adolescents' rule-breaking behavior. Mothers' reports of rule-breaking behavior were more strongly associated with adolescents' reports of their own rule-breaking behavior when mothers reported engaging in more solicitation or control through rules. There was less agreement in mothers' and adolescents' reports of rule breaking when adolescents reported that their mothers engaged in more solicitation. Adolescent disclosure did not moderate agreement in reported rule-breaking behavior. Greater monitoring by mothers may reduce the discrepancy in mother-adolescent reports of rule-breaking behavior. Findings also demonstrate the greater validity of polynomial regression approaches over difference scores when testing hypotheses with informant agreement as the outcome.

  17. Evolving science in adolescence: comment on Ellis et al. (2012).

    PubMed

    Dodge, Kenneth A; Albert, Dustin

    2012-05-01

    Ellis et al. (2012) bring an evolutionary perspective to bear on adolescent risky behavioral development, clinical practice, and public policy. The authors offer important insights that (a) some risky behaviors may be adaptive for the individual and the species by being hard-wired due to fitness benefits and (b) interventions might be more successful if they move with, rather than against, the natural tendencies of an adolescent. Ellis and colleagues criticize the field of developmental psychopathology, but we see the 2 fields as complementary. Their position would be enhanced by integrating it with contemporary perspectives on dynamic cascades through which normative behavior turns into genuinely maladaptive outcomes, dual processes in adolescent neural development, and adolescent decision making. Finally, they rightly note that innovation is needed in interventions and policies toward adolescent problem behavior.

  18. Police sexual coercion and its association with risky sex work and substance use behaviors among female sex workers in St. Petersburg and Orenburg, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Odinokova, Veronika; Rusakova, Maia; Urada, Lianne A; Silverman, Jay G; Raj, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Background Extensive research documents that female sex workers (FSWs) in Russia are very vulnerable to abuses from police, including police sexual coercion. However, despite qualitative data suggesting abusive policing practices are more likely for FSWs contending with substance abuse issues and risky sex work contexts, there is a paucity of quantitative study evaluating these associations specifically in terms of police sexual coercion. Such research is needed to guide structural interventions to improve health and safety for FSWs in Russia and globally. Objective The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of police sexual coercion among FSWs from two Russian cities, St. Petersburg and Orenburg, and to determine whether riskier sex work behaviors and contexts and substance use behaviors, including both IDU and risky alcohol use, are associated with increased risk for sexual coercion from police Method FSWs in St. Petersburg and Orenburg were recruited via time-location and convenience sampling and completed structured surveys on demographics (age, education), sex work risks (e.g., violence during sex work) and substance use. Logistic regression analyses assessed associations of substance use and risky sex work with police sexual coercion, adjusting for demographics. Results Participants (N=896) were aged 15 and older (94% were 20+ years). Most (69%) reported past year binge alcohol use, and 48% reported IDU the day before. Half (56%) reported 4+ clients per day. Rape during sex work ever was reported by 64%. Police sexual coercion in the past 12 months was reported by 38%. In the multivariate model, both current IDU (AOR=2.09, CI=1.45–3.02) and past year binge alcohol use (AOR=1.46, CI=1.03–2.07) were associated with police sexual coercion, as was selling sex on the street (not in venues) (AOR=7.81, CI=4.53–13.48) and rape during sex work (AOR=2.04, CI=1.43–2.92). Conclusion Current findings document the substantial role police sexual violence

  19. Risk-Taking Behavior in a Computerized Driving Task: Brain Activation Correlates of Decision-Making, Outcome, and Peer Influence in Male Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vorobyev, Victor; Kwon, Myoung Soo; Moe, Dagfinn; Parkkola, Riitta; Hämäläinen, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    Increased propensity for risky behavior in adolescents, particularly in peer groups, is thought to reflect maturational imbalance between reward processing and cognitive control systems that affect decision-making. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate brain functional correlates of risk-taking behavior and effects of peer influence in 18-19-year-old male adolescents. The subjects were divided into low and high risk-taking groups using either personality tests or risk-taking rates in a simulated driving task. The fMRI data were analyzed for decision-making (whether to take a risk at intersections) and outcome (pass or crash) phases, and for the influence of peer competition. Personality test-based groups showed no difference in the amount of risk-taking (similarly increased during peer competition) and brain activation. When groups were defined by actual task performance, risk-taking activated two areas in the left medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) significantly more in low than in high risk-takers. In the entire sample, risky decision-specific activation was found in the anterior and dorsal cingulate, superior parietal cortex, basal ganglia (including the nucleus accumbens), midbrain, thalamus, and hypothalamus. Peer competition increased outcome-related activation in the right caudate head and cerebellar vermis in the entire sample. Our results suggest that the activation of the medial (rather than lateral) PFC and striatum is most specific to risk-taking behavior of male adolescents in a simulated driving situation, and reflect a stronger conflict and thus increased cognitive effort to take risks in low risk-takers, and reward anticipation for risky decisions, respectively. The activation of the caudate nucleus, particularly for the positive outcome (pass) during peer competition, further suggests enhanced reward processing of risk-taking under peer influence. PMID:26052943

  20. Risk-Taking Behavior in a Computerized Driving Task: Brain Activation Correlates of Decision-Making, Outcome, and Peer Influence in Male Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Vorobyev, Victor; Kwon, Myoung Soo; Moe, Dagfinn; Parkkola, Riitta; Hämäläinen, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    Increased propensity for risky behavior in adolescents, particularly in peer groups, is thought to reflect maturational imbalance between reward processing and cognitive control systems that affect decision-making. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate brain functional correlates of risk-taking behavior and effects of peer influence in 18–19-year-old male adolescents. The subjects were divided into low and high risk-taking groups using either personality tests or risk-taking rates in a simulated driving task. The fMRI data were analyzed for decision-making (whether to take a risk at intersections) and outcome (pass or crash) phases, and for the influence of peer competition. Personality test-based groups showed no difference in the amount of risk-taking (similarly increased during peer competition) and brain activation. When groups were defined by actual task performance, risk-taking activated two areas in the left medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) significantly more in low than in high risk-takers. In the entire sample, risky decision-specific activation was found in the anterior and dorsal cingulate, superior parietal cortex, basal ganglia (including the nucleus accumbens), midbrain, thalamus, and hypothalamus. Peer competition increased outcome-related activation in the right caudate head and cerebellar vermis in the entire sample. Our results suggest that the activation of the medial (rather than lateral) PFC and striatum is most specific to risk-taking behavior of male adolescents in a simulated driving situation, and reflect a stronger conflict and thus increased cognitive effort to take risks in low risk-takers, and reward anticipation for risky decisions, respectively. The activation of the caudate nucleus, particularly for the positive outcome (pass) during peer competition, further suggests enhanced reward processing of risk-taking under peer influence. PMID:26052943

  1. Parenting Behavior, Quality of the Parent-Adolescent Relationship, and Adolescent Functioning in Four Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wissink, Inge B.; Dekovic, Maja; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2006-01-01

    The cross-ethnic similarity in the pattern of associations among parenting behavior (support and authoritative and restrictive control), the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship (disclosure and positive and negative quality), and several developmental outcomes (aggressive behavior, delinquent behavior, and global self-esteem) was tested.…

  2. Longitudinal bidirectional relations between adolescents' sympathy and prosocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Carlo, Gustavo; Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Nielson, Matthew G

    2015-12-01

    Despite the importance of understanding sympathy and prosocial behaviors, research on the development of these tendencies in adolescence remains relatively sparse. In the present study, we examined age trends and bidirectional longitudinal relations in sympathy and prosocial behaviors across early to middle adolescents. Participants were 500 12-year-olds at Time 1 (52% girls, 70% European American) who completed measures of sympathy and prosocial behaviors at 5 different time points, each approximately 1 year apart. Results showed significant bidirectional relations between sympathy and prosocial behaviors across all time points, and an initial decrease of prosocial behaviors followed by an increase into middle adolescence. The implications for prosocial developmental theories and research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26414096

  3. Mitigating risky sexual behaviors among Russian narcology hospital patients: the PREVENT (Partnership to Reduce the Epidemic Via Engagement in Narcology Treatment) randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Krupitsky, Evgeny M.; Cheng, Debbie M.; Raj, Anita; Egorova, Valentina Y.; Levenson, Suzette; Meli, Seville; Bridden, Carly; Verbitskaya, Elena V.; Kamb, Mary L.; Zvartau, Edwin E.

    2008-01-01

    Aim To assess the effectiveness of a sexual risk reduction intervention in the Russian narcology hospital setting. Design, setting and participants This was a randomized controlled trial from October 2004 to December 2005 among patients with alcohol and/or heroin dependence from two narcology hospitals in St Petersburg, Russia. Intervention Intervention subjects received two personalized sexual behavior counseling sessions plus three telephone booster sessions. Control subjects received usual addiction treatment, which did not include sexual behavior counseling. All received a research assessment and condoms at baseline. Measurements Primary outcomes were percentage of safe sex episodes (number of times condoms were used ÷ by number of sexual episodes) and no unprotected sex (100% condom use or abstinence) during the previous 3 months, assessed at 6 months. Findings Intervention subjects reported higher median percentage of safe sex episodes (unadjusted median difference 12.7%; P = 0.01; adjusted median difference 23%, P = 0.07); a significant difference was not detected for the outcome no unprotected sex in the past 3 months [unadjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.8-3.1; adjusted OR 1.5, 95% CI 0.7-3.3]. Conclusions Among Russian substance-dependent individuals, sexual behavior counseling during addiction treatment should be considered as one potential component of efforts to decrease risky sexual behaviors in this HIV at-risk population. PMID:18636998

  4. Strategic behavior in adolescent sexual offenses against children: linking modus operandi to sexual behaviors.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Benoit; Tremblay, Pierre

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, the modus operandi of 103 adolescents involved in sexual offenses against children (12 year old or less) is analyzed. Modus operandi strategies were measured by the participants' responses to the Modus Operandi Questionnaire. Findings indicate that the degree of intrusiveness of the sexual behaviors committed by the adolescents is contingent on the participation of their victims during the sexual episodes. Moreover, the more strategic adolescents may be more likely to secure compliance. This study shows the relevance of analyzing adolescent modus operandi as purposeful behavior and discusses some implications of the findings for crime-commission or offending process models. PMID:17235700

  5. The Relationship between Screen Time and Sexual Behaviors among Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Elissa M.; Moore, Michele J.; Johnson, Tammie; Merten, Julie; Stewart, William P.

    2014-01-01

    Reducing risky sexual behaviors and their negative health outcomes in youth remains a priority for health educators. Years of research have documented media's effect on various adolescent health risks, including sexual behaviors. As technology evolves and youth access to media increases, understanding the role of media in adolescent health…

  6. Alcohol Use and Popularity: Social Payoffs from Conforming to Peers' Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsa, Ana I.; Homer, Jenny F.; French, Michael T.; Norton, Edward C.

    2011-01-01

    Although many economic analyses of adolescents have examined the costs of risky behaviors, few have investigated the gains that young people derive from such actions, particularly in terms of social payoffs for complying with peer behavior. This paper studies the relationship between adolescents' use of alcohol (relative to that of their peers)…

  7. Contextualizing Exposures and Experiences of Behaviors That Influence the Risk of Crash Injury in Latino Adolescent Males

    PubMed Central

    Vaca, Federico E.; Trevino, Sandra; Riera, Antonio; Meyer, Emily; Anderson, Craig L.

    2012-01-01

    The largest proportion of mortality burden for U.S. Latino adolescent males is attributed to motor vehicle crashes. In a traffic safety context, relatively little is known about how these youth regularly interface within their own culture and how developmental factors as well as behavior choices influence their risk of crash injury. This complex sociobehavioral interface has implications for how this group perceives, interprets, and navigates the adolescent period that is coupled with passenger and driver experiences. We conducted a mixed method study with triangulation design inclusive of in-depth ethnically concordant interviews. Purposive sampling was used to select Latino adolescent males (15–18 years old). Validated measures of acculturation, sensation and reward seeking, and threat avoidance were administered. Using a standard discussion guide with prompts, we explored respondents’ perceptions of Latino cultural themes, ideas, attitudes, and experiences regarding passenger and driver safety. Codes were created and defined as concepts emerging from the data in an inductive fashion. Using the constant comparative method, we compared coded text to identify novel themes and expand existing themes until thematic saturation was reached. Despite Latino adolescent males expressing a high value of passenger and driver safety, this did not uniformly manifest in their reports of real-life behaviors. Their experiences reflected a dense frequency of exposure to risky behavior modeling and crash injury risk. Opportunities for Latino youth and family-focused risk reduction skill strategies are plentiful. Further research should explore how culture influences parent perceptions of safety and risk and the extent to which family structure shapes the modeling of risk that their adolescent faces. PMID:23169119

  8. Triadic model of the neurobiology of motivated behavior in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    ERNST, MONIQUE; PINE, DANIEL S.; HARDIN, MICHAEL

    2009-01-01

    Background Risk-taking behavior is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in adolescence. In the context of decision theory and motivated (goal-directed) behavior, risk-taking reflects a pattern of decision-making that favors the selection of courses of action with uncertain and possibly harmful consequences. We present a triadic, neuroscience systems-based model of adolescent decision-making. Method We review the functional role and neurodevelopmental findings of three key structures in the control of motivated behavior, i.e. amygdala, nucleus accumbens, and medial/ventral prefrontal cortex. We adopt a cognitive neuroscience approach to motivated behavior that uses a temporal fragmentation of a generic motivated action. Predictions about the relative contributions of the triadic nodes to the three stages of a motivated action during adolescence are proposed. Results The propensity during adolescence for reward/novelty seeking in the face of uncertainty or potential harm might be explained by a strong reward system (nucleus accumbens), a weak harm-avoidant system (amygdala), and/or an inefficient supervisory system (medial/ventral prefrontal cortex). Perturbations in these systems may contribute to the expression of psychopathology, illustrated here with depression and anxiety. Conclusions A triadic model, integrated in a temporally organized map of motivated behavior, can provide a helpful framework that suggests specific hypotheses of neural bases of typical and atypical adolescent behavior. PMID:16472412

  9. Affective decision-making predictive of Chinese adolescent drinking behaviors.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lin; Bechara, Antoine; Grenard, L Jerry; Stacy, W Alan; Palmer, Paula; Wei, Yonglan; Jia, Yong; Fu, Xiaolu; Johnson, C Anderson

    2009-07-01

    The goal of the current investigation was to address whether affective decision making would serve as a unique neuropsychological marker to predict drinking behaviors among adolescents. We conducted a longitudinal study of 181 Chinese adolescents in Chengdu city, China. In their 10th grade (ages 15-16), these adolescents were tested for their affective decision-making ability using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and working memory capacity using the Self-Ordered Pointing Test. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess academic performance and drinking behaviors. At 1-year follow-up, questionnaires were completed to assess drinking behaviors, and the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale was used to examine four dimensions of impulsivity: urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking. Results indicated that those adolescents who progressed to binge drinking or exhibited consistent binge drinking not only performed poorly on the IGT but also scored significantly higher in urgency compared to those who never or occasionally drank. Moreover, better IGT scores predicted fewer drinking problems and fewer drinks 1 year later after controlling for demographic variables, the previous drinking behaviors, working memory, and impulsivity. These findings suggest that deficits in affective decision making may be important independent determinants of compulsive drinking and potentially addictive behavior in adolescents. PMID:19573273

  10. Dating violence perpetration and/or victimization and associated sexual risk behaviors among a sample of inner-city African American and Hispanic adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Alleyne-Green, Binta; Coleman-Cowger, Victoria H; Henry, David B

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of physical and psychological dating violence victimization and perpetration reported by inner-city African American and Hispanic adolescent girls as well as associated risky sexual behaviors among this population. Participants in this study were 10th- and 11th-grade female students from seven inner-city Chicago public high schools. Participants were administered with the Safe Dates measures of physical violence victimization, physical violence perpetration, psychological abuse victimization, and psychological perpetration. Approximately half of the sample reported some psychological dating violence victimization and perpetration, and approximately one third reported some physical victimization and perpetration. Hispanic adolescents were significantly more likely to report psychological victimization, whereas African American adolescents were significantly more likely to report physical dating violence perpetration. Victimization was found to predict perpetration in this population, and adolescents who acknowledged being both victims and perpetrators of dating violence were more likely to report having had vaginal sex and a higher number of past-year sexual partners. Inner-city African American and Hispanic adolescent girls may be particularly vulnerable to dating violence victimization and perpetration, which may be due to a number of other social factors not explored within this study. Furthermore, African American adolescent girls continue to engage in behaviors that increase their risk for negative health outcomes, predominantly STIs, highlighting the need for effective interventions with this population.

  11. What Works for Parent Involvement Programs for Adolescents: Lessons from Experimental Evaluations of Social Interventions. Fact Sheet. Publication #2009-48

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzian, Mary; Mbwana, Kassim

    2009-01-01

    Adopting healthy and positive behaviors and avoiding risky ones are key developmental tasks of adolescence. Parents can play an important role in helping their adolescent children acquire or strengthen the behaviors, skills, attitudes, and motivation that promote physical and mental health and overall well-being. Recognizing this, a variety of…

  12. Modifying Evaluations and Decisions in Risky Situations.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Antonio; Serra, Sara; Catena, Andrés; Cándido, Antonio; Megías, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this research was to investigate the decision making process in risky situations. We studied how different types of feedback on risky driving behaviors modulate risk evaluation and risk-taking. For a set of risky traffic situations, participants had to make evaluative judgments (judge the situation as risky or not) and urgent decisions (brake or not). In Experiment 1, participants received feedback with and without negative emotional content when they made risky behaviors. In Experiment 2 we investigated the independent effects of feedback and negative emotional stimuli. The results showed three important findings: First, urgent decisions were faster [F(1, 92) = 6.76, p = .01] and more cautious [F(1, 92) = 17.16, p < .001] than evaluative judgments. These results suggest that evaluative judgments of risk and actual risk-taking may not always coincide, and that they seem to be controlled by two different processing systems as proposed by dual process theories. Second, feedback made participants' responses even faster [F(1, 111) = 71.53, p < .001], allowing greater risk sensitivity [F(1, 111) = 22.12, p < .001] and skewing towards more cautious responses [F(1, 111) = 14.09, p < .001]. Finally, emotional stimuli had an effect only when they were presented as feedback. The results of this research increase our understanding of the processes involved in risky driving behavior and suggest efficient ways to control risk taking through the use of feedback. PMID:27647040

  13. Modifying Evaluations and Decisions in Risky Situations.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Antonio; Serra, Sara; Catena, Andrés; Cándido, Antonio; Megías, Alberto

    2016-09-20

    The main aim of this research was to investigate the decision making process in risky situations. We studied how different types of feedback on risky driving behaviors modulate risk evaluation and risk-taking. For a set of risky traffic situations, participants had to make evaluative judgments (judge the situation as risky or not) and urgent decisions (brake or not). In Experiment 1, participants received feedback with and without negative emotional content when they made risky behaviors. In Experiment 2 we investigated the independent effects of feedback and negative emotional stimuli. The results showed three important findings: First, urgent decisions were faster [F(1, 92) = 6.76, p = .01] and more cautious [F(1, 92) = 17.16, p < .001] than evaluative judgments. These results suggest that evaluative judgments of risk and actual risk-taking may not always coincide, and that they seem to be controlled by two different processing systems as proposed by dual process theories. Second, feedback made participants' responses even faster [F(1, 111) = 71.53, p < .001], allowing greater risk sensitivity [F(1, 111) = 22.12, p < .001] and skewing towards more cautious responses [F(1, 111) = 14.09, p < .001]. Finally, emotional stimuli had an effect only when they were presented as feedback. The results of this research increase our understanding of the processes involved in risky driving behavior and suggest efficient ways to control risk taking through the use of feedback.

  14. Academic Success Strategy Use among Community-Active Urban Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vick, Rebecca M.; Packard, Becky Wai-Ling

    2008-01-01

    Although much has been written about the "risky" behaviors in which some Hispanic adolescents participate, the predictors of academic success are less understood. Toward this end, predictors of academic self-regulation were investigated in Hispanic adolescents. Specifically, a predictive model incorporating self-efficacy, instrumentality, salience…

  15. Assessing the Awareness of Adolescent Sexual Health among Teachers-in-Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cozzens, Jessica

    2006-01-01

    Adolescent sexuality and its consequences weigh on the minds of adolescents. School environments play an important role in preventing these consequences because students' feelings of a sense of belonging within the school have been linked with decreased risky behavior. Acknowledging this link, the National Education Association Health Information…

  16. Religiosity, Heavy Alcohol Use, and Vicarious Learning Networks among Adolescents in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gryczynski, Jan; Ward, Brian W.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has found that religiosity may protect against risky alcohol and drug use behaviors among adolescents, but the social mechanics underpinning the relationship are not well understood. This study examined the relationship between religiosity, heavy drinking, and social norms among U.S. adolescents aged 12 to 17 years, using the…

  17. Programming for Adolescents with Behavioral Disorders. Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braaten, Sheldon, Ed.; And Others

    The book contains 10 papers concerning programming for adolescents with behavioral disorders. Papers have the following titles and authors: "What You See Is Not Always What You Get" (Richard Neel); "Implications of the Relationship between Observational and Rating Scale Data for the Assessment of Behavioral Disorders" (Russell Skiba and Patrick…

  18. Friends: The Role of Peer Influence across Adolescent Risk Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Kimberly A.

    2002-01-01

    Examined peer influence for 1,969 adolescents across 5 risk behaviors: smoking, alcohol consumption, marijuana use, tobacco chewing, and sexual debut. Results show that a random same-sex peer predicts a teen's risk behavior initiation through influence to initiate cigarette and marijuana use, and influence to initiate and stop alcohol and chewing…

  19. 14 and Younger: The Sexual Behavior of Young Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Bill, Ed.; Brown, Sarah, Ed.; Flanigan, Christine M., Ed.

    This collection of papers on early adolescent sexual behavior includes seven papers in two parts. Part 1, "Papers from Nationally Representative Data Sets," includes (1) "Dating and Sexual Experiences among Middle School Youth: Analyses of the NLSY97" (Elizabeth Terry-Humen and Jennifer Manlove); "(2) "Dating Behavior and Sexual Activity of Young…

  20. Cognitive Behavioral Interventions with Maltreated Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verduyn, Chrissie; Calam, Rachel

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of cognitive behavioral interventions with abused children and adolescents covers use of cognitive therapy with adults, therapeutic processes in cognitive therapy, involvement of parents and carers in cognitive behavioral therapy, and cognitive schema and maltreatment. Application is made to types of abuse (physical, emotional, sexual)…