Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Thompson, Elaine Adams; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne
We examined multi-system influences on risky sexual behavior measured by cumulative sexual risk index and number of nonromantic sexual partners among 4,465 single, sexually experienced adolescents. Hierarchical Poisson regression analyses were conducted with Wave I-II data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Individual and family factors predicted both outcome measures. Neighborhood set predicted cumulative sexual risk index only, and peer factors predicted the number of nonromantic sexual partners only. School set did not predict either outcome. There were significant associations among risky sexual behavior, drug use, and delinquent behaviors. The results highlight the need for multifaceted prevention programs that address relevant factors related to family, peer and neighborhood influence as well as individual factors among sexually active adolescents.
Novilla, M. Lelinneth B.; Dearden, Kirk A.; Crookston, Benjamin T.; De La Cruz, Natalie; Hill, Susan; Torres, Scott B.
This study describes the prevalence of risky sexual activities among Bolivian adolescents within the context of other behavioral factors that contribute to compromised health outcomes, unintended pregnancies, and sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS. Data was collected from 576 adolescents, 13-18 years of age, from six schools in La…
Castillo Mezzich, A; Tarter, R E; Giancola, P R; Lu, S; Kirisci, L; Parks, S
The purpose of this study was to elucidate the etiological pathways towards substance use and risky sexual behavior in female adolescent substance abusers. The study had three aims: (1) to determine the relations between behavioral dysregulation, negative affectivity, and childhood victimization with substance use and risky sexual behavior, (2) to determine whether these relations are mediated by internalizing symptomatology, antisocial behavior, and affiliating with an adult boyfriend; and (3) to determine whether age of menarche moderates the relation between the mediating variables and substance use and risky sexual behavior. Multiple behavioral, psychiatric interview, and self-report measures were used to index behavioral dysregulation, negative affectivity, childhood victimization, internalizing symptomatology, antisocial behavior, affiliation with adult boyfriends, substance use, and risky sexual behavior in 125 substance abusing female adolescents and 78 controls between the ages of 14-18 years. Structural equation modeling was used to determine the etiological pathways. Results indicated that behavioral dysregulation, negative affectivity, and childhood victimization were related to substance use and risky sexual behavior. Age of menarche was significantly correlated with affiliation with an older boyfriend and risky sexual behavior. Antisocial behavior mediated the associations between behavioral dysregulation, negative affectivity and childhood victimization with substance use and risky sexual behavior. Affiliation with an adult boyfriend was directly associated with substance use involvement and accounted for the relationship between chronological age and risky sexual behavior. Finally, late menarche enhanced the association between internalizing symptomatology and substance use involvement. The results highlight the importance of behavioral dysregulation, negative affectivity, and childhood victimization in predicting substance use and risky sexual
Zapata, Lauren B.; Hillis, Susan D.; Marchbanks; Polly A.; Curtis, Kathryn M.; Lowry, Richard
Background: Lifetime methamphetamine use among adolescents is estimated to be between 5% and 10%. Youth substance use in general is known to be associated with risky sexual behaviors, but the effect of methamphetamine use on recent risky sexual behaviors and adolescent pregnancy has received little attention. The purpose of this analysis was to…
Lohman, Brenda J.; Billings, Amanda
Protective and risk factors associated with rates of early sexual debut and risky sexual behaviors for a sample of low-income adolescent boys were examined using bioecological theory framed by a resiliency perspective. Protective processes examined include a close mother-son and father-son relationship, parental monitoring and family routines, as…
Kerpelman, Jennifer L.; McElwain, Alyssa D.; Pittman, Joe F.; Adler-Baeder, Francesca M.
The current study examined associations among parenting practices, adolescents' self-esteem and dating identity exploration, and adolescents' sexual behaviors. Participants were 680 African American and European American sexually experienced adolescents attending public high schools in the southeast. Results indicated that risky sexual behavior…
Lepusić, Dubravko; Radović-Radovcić, Sandra
Alcohol use has been linked to risky sexual practices among adolescents. However, limited research on alcohol use and risky sexual behavior has been conducted among female adolescents. This study examined a high quantity of alcohol as a longitudinal predictor of risky sexual behavior and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among female adolescents. Three hundred ninety-three adolescent females aged 15-21 were assessed for alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors. Participants also provided 2 swab specimens that were assayed for STDs. Use of high alcohol quantity was defined as > or = 3 drinks in 1 sitting. Binary generalized estimating equation models were conducted assessing the impact of alcohol use at baseline on risky sexual behavior and STDs over a 12-month period. Age, intervention group and baseline outcome measures were entered as covariates. The results indicated that use of high alcohol quantity predicted inconsistent condom use, high sexual sensation seeking, multiple sexual partners, sex while high on alcohol or drugs, and having anal sex during 12-month follow-up period. These findings suggest that STD-related behavioral interventions for adolescents should discuss the link between alcohol and STD-risk behavior. Deeper understanding of alcohol as a predictor of risky sexual behavior among female adolescents is of paramount importance for development of efficient prevention programs at individual and community levels. The risk of acquiring an STD is higher among teenagers than among adults.
Shneyderman, Yuliya; Schwartz, Seth J.
The present study was designed to test a model of contextual and intrapersonal predictors of adolescent risky sexual behaviors and of sexually transmitted infection diagnoses. Using Waves I and II from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the authors estimated a structural model in which intrapersonal factors such as adolescents'…
Shorey, Ryan C; Fite, Paula J; Choi, HyeJeong; Cohen, Joseph R; Stuart, Gregory L; Temple, Jeff R
The objectives of this study is to examine dating violence perpetration and victimization (physical, psychological, and sexual) and lifetime substance use (alcohol, marijuana, and hard drugs) as longitudinal predictors of adolescents' risky sexual behavior across 1 year and to determine whether predictors varied across adolescents' gender and ethnicity. A sample of Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic male and female adolescents from seven public high schools in Texas (N = 882) participated. Adolescents completed self-report measures of dating violence, lifetime substance use, and risky sexual behavior at baseline and, 1-year later, completed a second assessment of their risky sexual behavior. Path analysis demonstrated that greater physical dating violence victimization, lifetime alcohol use, lifetime marijuana use, and age (being older) were all significant predictors of risky sexual behavior at the 1-year follow-up. These results did not vary across gender or the three ethnic groups (Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic). Overall, substance use was a longitudinal predictor of risky sexual behavior across the three ethnic groups, with physical dating violence victimization being the only type of dating violence longitudinally predicting risky sexual behavior. Prevention efforts should consider the roles of physical dating violence and substance use in preventing risky sexual behavior.
Niehaus, Ashley F; Jackson, Joan; Davies, Stephanie
Childhood sexual trauma has been demonstrated to increase survivors' risk for engaging in unrestricted sexual behaviors and experiencing adolescent sexual assault. The current study used the sexual self-schema construct to examine cognitive representations of sexuality that might drive these behavioral patterns. In Study 1 (N = 774), we attempted to improve the content validity of the Sexual Self Schema Scale for child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors, introducing a fourth sexual self-schema factor titled the "immoral/irresponsible" factor. In Study 2 (N = 1150), the potential differences in sexual self-views, as assessed by the four sexual self-schema factors, between CSA survivors and non-victims were explored. In addition, Study 2 evaluated how these sexual self-schema differences may contribute to participation in unrestricted sexual behaviors and risk for sexual assault in adolescence. Results indicated that a history of CSA impacted the way women viewed themselves as a sexual person on each of the four factors. CSA survivors were found to view themselves as more open and possessing more immoral/irresponsible cognitions about sexuality as compared to women who did not have a CSA history. In addition, the CSA survivors endorsed less embarrassment and passionate/romantic views of their sexual selves. The interaction of CSA severity and the sexual self-schemas explained variance in adolescent sexual assault experiences above and beyond the severity of CSA history and participation in risky sexual behaviors. The findings suggest that sexual self-views may serve to moderate the relationship between CSA and adolescent sexual assault. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.
Landor, Antoinette; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.; Brody, Gene H.; Gibbons, Frederick X.
Research has documented a negative relationship between religion and risky sexual behavior. Few studies, however, have examined the processes whereby religion exerts this effect. The present study develops and tests a model of various mechanisms whereby parental religiosity reduces the likelihood of adolescents' participation in risky sexual…
Simons, Leslie Gordon; Sutton, Tara E; Simons, Ronald L; Gibbons, Frederick X; Murry, Velma McBride
Risky sexual behavior, particularly among adolescents, continues to be a major source of concern. In order to develop effective education and prevention programs, there is a need for research that identifies the antecedents of such behavior. This study investigated the mediators that link parenting experiences during early adolescence to subsequent risky sexual behaviors among a diverse sample of African American youth (N = 629, 55 % female). While there is ample evidence that parenting practices (e.g., supportive parenting, harsh parenting, parental management) are antecedent to risky sexual behavior, few studies have examined whether one approach to parenting is more strongly related to risky sex than others. Using a developmental approach, the current study focused on factors associated with six theories of risky sexual behavior. While past research has provided support for all of the theories, few studies have assessed the relative contribution of each while controlling for the processes proposed by the others. The current study addresses these gaps in the literature and reports results separately by gender. Longitudinal analyses using structural equation modeling revealed that the mediating mechanisms associated with social learning and attachment theories were significantly related to the risky sexual behavior of males and females. Additionally, there was support for social control and self-control theories only for females and for life history theory only for males. We did not find support for problem behavior theory, a perspective that dominates the risky sex literature, after controlling for the factors associated with the other theories. Finally, supportive parenting emerged as the parenting behavior most influential with regard to adolescents' risky sexual behavior. These results provide insight regarding efficacious approaches to education and preventative programs designed to reduce risky sexual behaviors among adolescents.
Kahn, Rachel E.; Holmes, Christopher; Farley, Julee P.; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen
Parent-adolescent relationship quality and delay discounting may play important roles in adolescents’ sexual decision making processes, and levels of self-control during adolescence could act as a buffer within these factors. This longitudinal study included 219 adolescent (55% male; mean age = 12.66 years at Wave 1; mean age = 15.10 years at Wave 2) and primary caregiver dyads. Structural equation modeling was utilized to determine whether delay discounting mediated the association between parent-adolescent relationship quality and adolescents’ risky sexual behavior and how this mediated association may differ between those with high versus low self-control. The results revealed parent-adolescent relationship quality plays a role in the development of risky sexual behavior indirectly through levels of delay discounting, but only for adolescents with low self-control. These findings could inform sex education policies and health prevention programs that address adolescent risky sexual behavior. PMID:26202153
Juma, Milka; Alaii, Jane; Bartholomew, L Kay; Askew, Ian; Van den Borne, Bart
A household survey of male and female adolescents was conducted to establish whether orphanhood or other factors contribute to risky sexual behavior. Results show that orphanhood was not associated with risky sexual behavior. Sleeping in a different house from the household head and attending social activities at night were positively associated with sexual activity and transactional sex among boys and girls. Older adolescents were more likely to be sexually active while urban residents, and those who perceived their caregivers as able to provide for their basic needs, were less likely to have ever engaged in sex. Condom use at last sex was associated with older age and having talked with parents/caregivers about sexual risks. Interventions should address these predictors, promote risk reduction among all adolescents irrespective of orphan status, and strengthen parents'/guardians' capacity to discuss sexuality with adolescents and to provide for their basic needs.
Averett, Susan; Corman, Hope; Reichman, Nancy
We use data from The National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health to estimate effects of adolescent girls' overweight on their propensity to engage in risky sexual behavior. We estimate single equation, two-stage, and sibling fixed-effects models and find that overweight or obese teenage girls are more likely than their recommended-weight…
Cortés Alfaro, A; García Roche, R G; Hernández Sánchez, M; Monterrey Gutiérrez, P; Fuentes Abreu, J
The observed increase of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in Cuba aroused the interest of carrying out a study aimed at exploring risky sexual behaviours and attitudes, and histories of STD. A crosswise descriptive study was undertaken using a randomized sample taken from the universe of adolescent students in the City of Havana during 1995-96 school year. The sample was made up by 2,793 teenagers aged 11-19 years (1,370 females and 1,423 males). Previously trained experts linked to this field collected data by means of a structured interview which had been drawn up for this end. It was confirmed that more than half of adolescent students did not use condom in their sexual intercourse 57% had more than one sexual partner along the year, 40% believed it was difficult to keep only one partner whereas 35% had more than one sexual partner at the same time. Risk and protected sexual habits were noticed, with 39% for oral-genital and 21.4% for genital-anal. 22% for the interviewed adolescent said they had histories of STD.
Seth, Puja; Patel, Shilpa N; Sales, Jessica M; DiClemente, Ralph J; Wingood, Gina M; Rose, Eve S
Adolescents, particularly African American adolescents, are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The association between psychosocial factors and risky sexual behavior has been well established. However, only a small number of studies have examined the relationship between depressive symptomatology among African American female adolescents, specifically over time. The present study examined depressive symptoms as a predictor of risky sexual behavior, sexual communication, and STIs longitudinally among African American female adolescents between the ages 15 and 21. Binary generalized estimating equation models were conducted assessing the impact of depressive symptoms at baseline on risky sexual behavior and STIs over six- and 12-months follow-up. Age, intervention group, and baseline outcome measures were entered as covariates. The results indicated that high levels of depressive symptoms predicted no condom use during last sexual encounter and multiple sexual partners over six-months follow-up. Depressive symptoms also predicted having a main partner with concurrent partners, high fear of communication about condoms, and sex while high on alcohol or drugs over six- and 12-months follow-up. These findings could be used to inform HIV/STI prevention intervention programs and clinicians providing regular health care maintenance to African American female adolescents engaging in risky sexual behavior.
Ritchwood, Tiarney D; Ford, Haley; DeCoster, Jamie; Sutton, Marnie; Lochman, John E
This study presents the results of a meta-analysis of the association between substance use and risky sexual behavior among adolescents. 87 studies fit the inclusion criteria, containing a total of 104 independent effect sizes that incorporated more than 120,000 participants. The overall effect size for the relationship between substance use and risky sexual behavior was in the small to moderate range (r = .22, CI = .18, .26). Further analyses indicated that the effect sizes did not substantially vary across the type of substance use, but did substantially vary across the type of risky sexual behavior being assessed. Specifically, mean effect sizes were smallest for studies examining unprotected sex (r = .15, CI = .10, .20), followed by studies examining number of sexual partners (r = .25, CI = .21, .30), those examining composite measures of risky sexual behavior (r = .38, CI = .27, .48), and those examining sex with an intravenous drug user (r = .53, CI = .45, .60). Furthermore, our results revealed that the relationship between drug use and risky sexual behavior is moderated by several variables, including sex, ethnicity, sexuality, age, sample type, and level of measurement. Implications and future directions are discussed.
Ritchwood, Tiarney D.; Ford, Haley; DeCoster, Jamie; Sutton, Marnie; Lochman, John E.
This study presents the results of a meta-analysis of the association between substance use and risky sexual behavior among adolescents. 87 studies fit the inclusion criteria, containing a total of 104 independent effect sizes that incorporated more than 120,000 participants. The overall effect size for the relationship between substance use and risky sexual behavior was in the small to moderate range (r = .22, CI = .18, .26). Further analyses indicated that the effect sizes did not substantially vary across the type of substance use, but did substantially vary across the type of risky sexual behavior being assessed. Specifically, mean effect sizes were smallest for studies examining unprotected sex (r = .15, CI = .10, .20), followed by studies examining number of sexual partners (r = .25, CI = .21, .30), those examining composite measures of risky sexual behavior (r = .38, CI = .27, .48), and those examining sex with an intravenous drug user (r = .53, CI = .45, .60). Furthermore, our results revealed that the relationship between drug use and risky sexual behavior is moderated by several variables, including sex, ethnicity, sexuality, age, sample type, and level of measurement. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:25825550
Shneyderman, Yuliya; Schwartz, Seth J
The present study was designed to test a model of contextual and intrapersonal predictors of adolescent risky sexual behaviors and of sexually transmitted infection diagnoses. Using Waves I and II from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the authors estimated a structural model in which intrapersonal factors such as adolescents' attitudes about sex, perceived parental norms, knowledge about sexual health, and birth-control self-efficacy partially mediated the effects of contextual factors such as parent-adolescent relationship quality, school connectedness, and exposure to AIDS and pregnancy education on a number of risky sexual behaviors and outcomes: early sex initiation, sex under the influence of substances, condom use at last intercourse, and having been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection. Different patterns of direct and mediated effects emerged for each sexual outcome. Results are discussed in terms of the complex interplay between environment and individual and in terms of how, when, and with whom to intervene in order to improve adolescent sexual health outcomes.
Tsutsumi, Atsuro; Izutsu, Takashi; Matsumoto, Toshihiko
Although it seems evident that attention should be paid to risky sexual behaviors and their association with mental health among young people, this topic has not been thoroughly investigated. The present study aims to explore the relationship between sexual risk behaviors and mental health among adolescents. The participants were 251 adolescents in a juvenile detention facility (221 males and 31 females) as the "delinquent" group and 367 high school students (167 males and 200 females) as the "non-delinquent" group. A questionnaire including the Kessler 10, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, and the Adolescent Dissociative Experience Scale was employed to measure mental health status as well as sexual risk behaviors, suicidal ideation/attempts, and abuse history. Having a history of sexual abuse or of physical abuse was associated with age when one first had sex among males with delinquent behaviors, while same tendency was observed among males without delinquent behaviors. Among the female with delinquent behaviors group, past abuse history was significantly associated with higher number of sex partners. In the non-delinquent group, better mental health among males and, contrarily, worse mental health among females were associated with having more sex partners. The results highlight the importance of addressing abuse history among females and males. Given that poor mental health status in the adolescents was associated with risky sexual behaviors, adolescents are a vulnerable group that requires attention in terms of sexual and reproductive health that integrates mental health and psychosocial components.
Kahn, Rachel E; Holmes, Christopher; Farley, Julee P; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen
Parent-adolescent relationship quality and delay discounting may play important roles in adolescents' sexual decision making processes, and levels of self-control during adolescence could act as a buffer within these factors. This longitudinal study included 219 adolescent (55 % male; mean age = 12.66 years at Wave 1; mean age = 15.10 years at Wave 2) and primary caregiver dyads. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was utilized to determine whether delay discounting mediated the association between parent-adolescent relationship quality and adolescents' risky sexual behavior and how this mediated association may differ between those with high versus low self-control. The results revealed parent-adolescent relationship quality plays a role in the development of risky sexual behavior indirectly through levels of delay discounting, but only for adolescents with low self-control. These findings could inform sex education policies and health prevention programs that address adolescent risky sexual behavior.
Ahmadian, Maryam; Hamsan, Hanina H.; Abdullah, Haslinda; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu; Noor, Amna Md
Purpose: This paper presents the findings of a cross-sectional survey on the risk and protective factors of premarital sexual behavior among rural female adolescents in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods: We investigated data on 770 female respondents aged 13-17 years in rural areas to identify predictive factors for premarital sexual intercourse. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate regression. Specific socio-demographic factors, psychological and family domains, peer delinquency, and knowledge and attitudes about sexuality were considered in risky sexual behaviors in rural Malay girls. The effects of other covariates for premarital sexual intercourse were controlled by logistic regression model. Results: Of the 770 rural female students, about 3.2% of respondents reported experience of sexual intercourse in the past three months. Out of those sexually active girls, 36% were 17 years old and 20% stated having sexual intercourse with more than one partner, and 72% did not use contraception during the most recent sexual intercourse. Midnight activities, peer-sexual disorder, self-evaluation, and attitude toward sexual health were significant predictors of sexual intercourse in rural girls in Malaysia. Conclusion: The finding highlights the impact of psychological factors and peer group influences on the challenges of premarital sexual behavior among rural girls and the notion of school-based sexual health education for adolescents. This study triggers other researchers take into account a comprehensive view of protective factors operating in adolescents’ risky sexual behaviors in Asian culture seeing that family domain variables, unexpectedly, exerted no predicting influence on sexually active female teens in rural areas in Malaysia. PMID:24762359
Timmermans, Maartje; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Koot, Hans M.
Background: Health risk behaviors like substance use (alcohol, tobacco, soft/hard drugs) and risky sexual behavior become more prevalent in adolescence. Children with behavior problems are thought to be prone to engage in health risk behaviors later in life. It is, however, unclear which problems within the externalizing spectrum account for these…
Duncan, S C; Strycker, L A; Duncan, T E
This study examined associations between the development of adolescent alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use and risky sexual behavior, over time, using latent growth modeling methodology. Gender differences in the development and relationships between use of substances and risky sexual behavior were also examined. Participants were 257 adolescents (mean age = 15.96 years) assessed at three time points over an 18-month period. The intercepts of marijuana with cigarettes and alcohol, and all three substances with risky sexual behavior were significantly related. Development of the three substances showed similar patterns and development of cigarette use covaried with development of risky sexual behavior. There were no significant differences for boys and girls in these relationships. Results are discussed in relation to the need for greater understanding of nonsexual and sex-related problem behaviors and for analyses examining development and change in these behaviors during adolescence.
Lester, Patricia; Stein, Judith A.; Bursch, Brenda; Rice, Eric; Green, Sara; Penniman, Typhanye; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane
The present study investigated how maternal HIV and mediating family processes are associated with adolescent distress, substance use, and risky sexual behavior. Mother-adolescent (ages 12-21) dyads (N = 264) were recruited from neighborhoods where the HIV-affected families resided (161 had mothers with HIV). Mediating family processes were youth…
Braje, Sopagna Eap; Eddy, J Mark; Hall, Gordon C N
Two models of risky sexual behavior (RSB) were compared in a community sample of late adolescents (N = 223). For the traumagenic model, early negative sexual experiences were posited to lead to an association between negative affect with sexual relationships. For the cognitive escape model, depressive affect was posited to lead to engagement in RSB as a way to avoid negative emotions. The current study examined whether depression explained the relationship between sexual trauma and RSB, supporting the cognitive escape model, or whether it was sexual trauma that led specifically to RSB, supporting the traumagenic model. Physical trauma experiences were also examined to disentangle the effects of sexual trauma compared to other emotionally distressing events. The study examined whether the results would be moderated by participant sex. For males, support was found for the cognitive escape model but not the traumagenic model. Among males, physical trauma and depression predicted engagement in RSB but sexual trauma did not. For females, support was found for the traumagenic and cognitive escape model. Among females, depression and sexual trauma both uniquely predicted RSB. There was an additional suppressor effect of socioeconomic status in predicting RSB among females. Results suggest that the association of trauma type with RSB depends on participant sex. Implications of the current study for RSB prevention efforts are discussed.
Schuster, Randi Melissa; Mermelstein, Robin; Wakschlag, Laurie
A large body of research has identified correlates of risky sexual behavior, with depressive symptoms and marijuana use among the most consistent psychosocial predictors of sexual risk. However, substantially less research has examined the relationship between these risk variables and adolescent risky sexual behavior over time as well as the interaction of these individual-level predictors with family-level variables such as parenting factors. Additionally, most studies have been restricted to one index of risky sexual behavior, have not taken into account the complex role of gender, and have not controlled for several of the factors that independently confer risk for risky sexual behavior. Therefore, the current study investigated the association between depressive symptoms and parameters of parenting on marijuana use, number of sexual partners and condom usage measured 9 months later for both boys and girls. Participants were 9th and 10th grade adolescents (N = 1,145; 57.7% female). We found that depressive symptoms may be a gender-specific risk factor for certain indices of risky sexual behavior. For boys only, marijuana use at Time 2 accounted for the variance in the relationship between depressive symptoms at Time 1 and number of partners at Time 2. Additionally, strictness of family rules at Time 1 was associated with the number of partners with whom girls engaged in sex at Time 2, but only among those with lower levels of depressive symptoms at Time 1. Results from the current investigation speak to the utility of examining the complex, gender-specific pathways to sexual risk in adolescents. Findings suggest that treatment of mental health and substance use problems may have important implications in rates of risky sexual behavior and, conceivably, controlling the high rates of serious individual and public health repercussions.
Enejoh, Victor; Pharr, Jennifer; Mavegam, Bertille Octavie; Olutola, Ayodotun; Karick, Haruna; Ezeanolue, Echezona E
Although improved knowledge is often the first approach in HIV prevention for adolescents, studies have shown that despite being well informed, adolescents still engage in risky sexual behavior (RSB). Low self-esteem has been considered to be a psychological explanation for behavioral problems, but little is known about the impact of self-esteem on RSB among adolescents in Nigeria. The purpose of this study was to determine whether adolescents with high self-esteem demonstrate lower RSB compared to those with low self-esteem. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 361 adolescents in 9 secondary schools in Jos Plateau, Nigeria. The Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale was used to measure self-esteem and the Brief HIV Screener (BHS) was used to measure RSB. All data were analyzed using SPSS 21. Chi square and odds ratios were calculated to determine differences in BHS questions based on predetermined low or high self-esteem categories. Independent t-test were utilized to determine difference in mean BHS scores based on self-esteem categories. Participants were 169 male (46.8%) and 192 female (53.2%) with a mean age of 16.9. Mean self-esteem score was 27.6 with no significant difference in self-esteem scores by gender. Adolescents with low self-esteem were 1.7 times more likely to be sexually active and had a higher mean BHS scores compared to adolescents with high self-esteem. Programs aimed at reducing RSB and in-turn HIV/AIDS should consider interventions to raise adolescents' self-esteem.
Baumgartner, Susanne E.; Valkenburg, Patti M.; Peter, Jochen
The main aim of this study was to investigate the causal nature of the relationship between adolescents' risky sexual behavior on the internet and their perceptions of this behavior. Engagement in the following online behaviors was assessed: searching online for someone to talk about sex, searching online for someone to have sex, sending intimate…
Vukovic, Dejana S.; Bjegovic, Vesna M.
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between socioeconomic status and family structure with risky sexual behaviors in adolescents. Methods: A total of 1782 15-year-old Belgrade schoolchildren (47.5% boys and 52.5% girls) completed a questionnaire from the WHO study, "Health behavior of schoolchildren."…
Madise, Nyovani; Zulu, Eliya; Ciera, James
This paper contributes to conflicting evidence on the link between poverty and risky sexual behaviour by examining the effect of wealth status on age at first sex, condom use, and multiple partners using nationally representative adolescents' data from Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi, and Uganda. The results show that the wealthiest girls in Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Malawi had later sexual debut compared with their poorer counterparts but this association was not significant for Uganda. Wealth status was weaker among males and significant only in Malawi, where those in the middle quintile had earlier sexual debut. Wealthier adolescents were most likely to use condoms at the last sexual act, but wealth status was not associated with number of sexual partners. Although the link between wealth status and sexual behaviour is not consistent, there is evidence that poor females are vulnerable to infection because of earlier sexual debut and non-use of condoms.
Bryan, Angela D; Schmiege, Sarah J; Magnan, Renee E
Adolescents involved with the juvenile justice system have a high incidence of risky sexual behaviors resulting in unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Substance use may be particularly important as a risk factor for unsafe sexual behavior for this group, and recent evidence suggests a possible association between marijuana use and risky sexual behavior. Adolescents (n = 728; 33% female) on probation were followed for 2 years, at intervals of 6 months, to explore the association of marijuana use and condom use longitudinally and at a specific intercourse occasion. Latent growth curve modeling indicated that greater marijuana use at baseline was associated with a steeper decline in condom use over the 2-year period of the study. In-depth analysis of the most recent intercourse occasion suggested that condom use was less likely if marijuana was being used by the participant or his/her partner and that this association was more pronounced if intercourse occurred with someone the participant had just met. Implications for the prevention of risky sexual behavior in this population are discussed.
Klosky, James L.; Foster, Rebecca H.; Li, Zhenghong; Peasant, Courtney; Howell, Carrie; Mertens, Ann C.; Robison, Leslie L.; Ness, Kirsten K.
Objective To identify correlates of risky sexual behavior among adolescents surviving childhood cancer. Methods The Child Health and Illness Profile - Adolescent Edition (CHIP-AE) was completed by 307 survivors of childhood cancer aged 15–20 years (M age at diagnosis 1.53 years; range 0–3.76). Univariate analyses were performed using Chi-square and Fischer’s exact tests, and multivariable logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals for risky sexual behaviors. Results Diagnosis of central nervous system cancer (OR =.13, 95% CI: .02–.96, p<.05), no history of beer/wine consumption (OR =.20, CI: .06–.68, p =.01), and fewer negative peer influences (OR =.28, CI: .09–.84, p =.02) associated with decreased likelihood of sexual intercourse. Good psychological health (scores ≥ −1.5 SD on the CHIP-AE Emotional Discomfort scale) associated with decreased risk of early intercourse (OR =.19, CI: .05–.77, p= .02), whereas high parental education (≥ college degree) associated with decreased risk of multiple lifetime sexual partners (OR =.25, CI: .09–.72, p =.01). Increased time from diagnosis (OR =.27, CI: .10–.78, p = .02) and psychological health (OR =.09, CI: .02–.36, p < .01) associated with decreased risk of unprotected sex at last intercourse, whereas high parent education associated with increased risk (OR = 4.27, CI: 1.46–12.52, p =.01). Conclusions Risky sexual behavior in adolescents surviving childhood cancer is associated with cancer type, time since diagnosis, psychological health, alcohol use, and peer influences. Consideration of these factors may provide direction for future interventions designed to reduce adolescent sexual risk-taking. PMID:24364376
Spitalnick, Joshua S; DiClemente, Ralph J; Wingood, Gina M; Crosby, Richard A; Milhausen, Robin R; Sales, Jessica M; McCarty, Frances; Rose, Eve; Younge, Sinead N
The relationship between sexual sensation seeking and sexual risk taking has been investigated among adult populations. There are limited data, however, regarding this relationship for adolescents. Since African-American adolescent females continue to be disproportionately diagnosed with STDs, including HIV, we examined this association among a clinic-based sample of African-American adolescent females (N=715) enrolled in an STD/HIV prevention intervention. Participants (ages 15-21) endorsing higher levels of sexual sensation seeking reported higher levels of sexual risk-taking behaviours (e.g. frequency of vaginal intercourse, number of sexual partners, and poorer condom use). Results remained significant after controlling for known covariates associated with sexual risk-taking behaviours. Results are consistent with the adult literature and highlight the need for future investigations examining sexual sensation seeking among adolescents. These results, though preliminary, could be used to better inform prevention interventions and clinicians/health educators who provide direct services to adolescents.
Mrug, Sylvie; Borch, Casey; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.
Adolescents' friendships with other-sex peers serve important developmental functions, but they may also facilitate engagement in problem behavior. This study examines the unique contributions of other-sex friendships and friends' behavior to alcohol use, smoking, and initiation of sexual intercourse among late adolescent girls and boys. A total…
Spitalnick, Joshua S.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Crosby, Richard A.; Milhausen, Robin R.; Sales, Jessica M.; McCarty, Frances; Rose, Eve; Younge, Sinead N.
The relationship between sexual sensation seeking and sexual risk taking has been investigated among adult populations. There are limited data, however, regarding this relationship for adolescents. Since African-American adolescent females continue to be disproportionately diagnosed with STDs, including HIV, we examined this association among a…
Mrug, Sylvie; Borch, Casey; Cillessen, Antonius H N
Adolescents' friendships with other-sex peers serve important developmental functions, but they may also facilitate engagement in problem behavior. This study examines the unique contributions of other-sex friendships and friends' behavior to alcohol use, smoking, and initiation of sexual intercourse among late adolescent girls and boys. A total of 320 adolescents (53% girls; 33% racial/ethnic minorities) provided sociometric nominations of friendships annually in grades 10-12. Friendship networks were derived using social network analysis in each grade. Adolescents and their friends also reported on their alcohol use, smoking, and sexual debut at each assessment. After controlling for demographics, previous problem behavior, and friends' behavior, other-sex friendships in 10th grade were associated with initiation of smoking among girls over the following year, and other-sex friendships in 11th grade were linked with lower levels of subsequent alcohol use among boys. Additionally, friends' smoking and sexual experience in 10th grade predicted the same behaviors for all adolescents over the following year. Other-sex friendships thus appear to serve as a risk context for adolescent girls' smoking and a protective context for adolescent boys' drinking. Promoting mixed-gender activities and friendships among older high school students may be helpful in reducing males' alcohol use, but may need to incorporate additional components to prevent increases in females' smoking.
Conradt, Elisabeth; Lagasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Hammond, Jane A.; Lester, Barry M.
Physiological correlates of behavioral and emotional problems, substance use onset and initiation of risky sexual behavior have not been studied in adolescents with prenatal drug exposure. We studied the concordance between baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) at age 3 and baseline Cortisol levels at age 11. We hypothesized that children who showed concordance between RSA and Cortisol would have lower neurobehavioral disinhibition scores which would in turn predict age of substance use onset and first sexual intercourse. The sample included 860 children aged 16 years participating in the Maternal Lifestyle Study, a multisite longitudinal study of children with prenatal exposure to cocaine and other substances. Structural equation modeling was used to test pathways between prenatal substance exposure, early adversity, baseline RSA, baseline Cortisol, neurobehavioral disinhibition, drug use, and sexual behavior outcomes. Concordance was studied by examining separate male and female models in which there were statistically significant interactions between baseline RSA and Cortisol. Prenatal substance exposure was operationalized as the number of substances to which the child was exposed. An adversity score was computed based on caregiver postnatal substance use, depression and psychological distress, number of caregiver changes, socioeconomic and poverty status, quality of the home environment, and child history of protective service involvement, abuse and neglect. RSA and Cortisol were measured during a baseline period prior to the beginning of a task. Neurobehavioral disinhibition, based on composite scores of behavioral dysregulation and executive dysfunction, substance use and sexual behavior were derived from questionnaires and cognitive tests administered to the child. Findings were sex specific. In females, those with discordance between RSA and Cortisol (high RSA and low Cortisol or low RSA and high Cortisol) had the most executive dysfunction which, in
Conradt, Elisabeth; Lagasse, Linda L; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R; Whitaker, Toni M; Hammond, Jane A; Lester, Barry M
Physiological correlates of behavioral and emotional problems, substance use onset and initiation of risky sexual behavior have not been studied in adolescents with prenatal drug exposure. We studied the concordance between baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) at age 3 and baseline cortisol levels at age 11. We hypothesized that children who showed concordance between RSA and cortisol would have lower neurobehavioral disinhibition scores which would in turn predict age of substance use onset and first sexual intercourse. The sample included 860 children aged 16 years participating in the Maternal Lifestyle Study, a multisite longitudinal study of children with prenatal exposure to cocaine and other substances. Structural equation modeling was used to test pathways between prenatal substance exposure, early adversity, baseline RSA, baseline cortisol, neurobehavioral disinhibition, drug use, and sexual behavior outcomes. Concordance was studied by examining separate male and female models in which there were statistically significant interactions between baseline RSA and cortisol. Prenatal substance exposure was operationalized as the number of substances to which the child was exposed. An adversity score was computed based on caregiver postnatal substance use, depression and psychological distress, number of caregiver changes, socioeconomic and poverty status, quality of the home environment, and child history of protective service involvement, abuse and neglect. RSA and cortisol were measured during a baseline period prior to the beginning of a task. Neurobehavioral disinhibition, based on composite scores of behavioral dysregulation and executive dysfunction, substance use and sexual behavior were derived from questionnaires and cognitive tests administered to the child. Findings were sex specific. In females, those with discordance between RSA and cortisol (high RSA and low cortisol or low RSA and high cortisol) had the most executive dysfunction which, in
Harris, Allyssa L
Risky sexual behavior among adolescents is a major public health concern with potentially long-lasting consequences, including pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and HIV/AIDS. Researchers have demonstrated that parent-adolescent sexual communication can mitigate adolescent risky sexual behaviors; the development of interventions that support this process are vital. This column examines a recent study that evaluated a parent-adolescent sexual communication intervention.
Boislard P., Marie-Aude; Poulin, François; Kiesner, Jeff; Dishion, Thomas J.
In this study, two longitudinal models of early adolescent risky sexual behaviors (RSB) were compared using a pooled sample of 267 Canadian and Italian adolescents (55% females; 53% Canadians) assessed yearly from grade 8 to 10. We focused on parenting practices (monitoring, control, limit setting), adolescent problem behaviors (antisocial behaviors, substance use) and their friends’ deviance (antisocial behaviors, substance use) as predictors of condom use frequency and lifetime number of sexual partners. The socialization model postulates that youths’ problem behaviors and RSB are behaviors learned within the friendship network where deviancy training can occur. The selection model posits that delinquent youth tend to affiliate with each other, and that RSB is one of many behaviors that can form the basis of selection. Using structural equation modeling, this study showed that the socialization model was the most accurate to explain the emergence of RSB. A full mediation of parenting practices, passing through deviant friends and youths’ problem behavior, was observed for condom use. The same process applied to number of sexual partners, but a direct effect for parenting practices was also found. PMID:21857759
Samari, Goleen; Seltzer, Judith A
Parents' influence on young adult sexual behavior receives little attention compared to influence on adolescent behavior. Yet effective parenting should have lasting effects. Even fewer studies examine parents' influence on sexual behavior of both foreign and native-born young adults. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) Waves I (1994-95) and III (2001-02), we examine longitudinal associations among mother-daughter relationship quality and nativity during adolescence and young adults' risky sexual behaviors of condom use at last intercourse, number of sexual partners, and STI diagnoses (N = 4460). Women, 18-26 years old, who had good mother-adolescent daughter relationships have fewer partners and STIs in the past year. Second generation women have worse mother-adolescent daughter relationships, compared to third generation. Relationship quality does not explain associations between nativity and risky behavior. Lasting associations between relationship quality and risk behaviors suggest that reproductive health interventions should enhance mother-adolescent relationships.
Donenberg, Geri R.; Wilson, Helen W.; Emerson, Erin; Bryant, Fred B.
Adolescents in psychiatric care are at increased risk of HIV, yet little is known about the family factors related to sexual risk taking among these youth. We explored whether perceived parental monitoring and perceived parental permissiveness were linked to high-risk sexual behavior in 169 ethnically diverse urban youth seeking mental health services in Chicago, and we tested whether adolescent gender moderated these associations. We evaluated sexual risk taking at a global level and for specific risk behaviors (e.g., sex without a condom, sex while using drugs and alcohol). Girls reported more risky sex overall than boys, and girls were more likely than boys to report having sex without a condom. At low levels of parental permissiveness, rates of risky sex among boys and girls’ did not differ, but at high levels of permissiveness girls reported more sexual risk taking than boys, and girls were more likely than boys to report having sex while using drugs and alcohol and having sex without a condom. Findings highlight the complexity of adolescent sexual behavior and the need for multilevel assessment of risk taking. Results suggest that parental monitoring and permissiveness are more strongly associated with sexual risk taking in troubled girls than troubled boys, and they underscore a need for gender-sensitive, family-focused HIV-prevention programs. PMID:12000232
Nydegger, Liesl A; DiFranceisco, Wayne; Quinn, Katherine; Dickson-Gomez, Julia
public health practitioners to create programs for female adolescents to reduce or avoid risky situations, such as inability to negotiate condom use with older sex partners. Additionally, programs must be developed for both female and male gang members to help them understand and identify unequal gender norms, and interpersonal and sexual coercion/violence. Early intervention will also be necessary as these adolescent gang members are already engaged in extremely high-risk, coercive, and violent behaviors.
Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Hessel, Elenda T.; Szwedo, David E.; Spilker, Ann
Maternal and paternal psychological control, peer attitudes, and the interaction of psychological control and peer attitudes at age 13 were examined as predictors of risky sexual behavior before age 16 in a community sample of 181 youth followed from age 13 to 16. Maternal psychological control moderated the link between peer attitudes and sexual…
Seth, Puja; Raiji, Paulomi T; DiClemente, Ralph J; Wingood, Gina M; Rose, Eve
Previous research has established the association between psychosocial factors and risky sexual behaviour. However, few studies have examined the relationship between psychological distress and sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV-associated behaviours in African-American youth. The present study examined the association of psychological distress with STI/HIV-risk behaviour and psycho-social mediators of HIV-preventive behaviours. A sample of 715 African-American female adolescents, 15-21 years old, completed an audio computer assisted self-interviewing (ACASI) assessing sociodemographics, psychological distress, self-efficacy, communication and STI/HIV-associated sexual behaviours. Participants also provided self-collected vaginal swab specimens, which were assayed for STIs. High levels of psychological distress were defined as having a score of > or =7 on the eight-item Centre for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale. The overall prevalence of high levels of psychological distress was 44.5%. Logistic regression analyses revealed that adolescents with high psychological distress, relative to those with low psychological distress, were more likely to have a biologically confirmed STI (adjusted odd ratio (AOR) = 1.40), use condoms inconsistently (AOR = 1.50), not use condoms during their last casual sexual encounter (AOR = 1.89), have sex while high on alcohol or drugs (AOR = 1.47), have male sexual partners with concurrent female sexual partners (AOR = 1.98), have low condom use self-efficacy (AOR = 1.54), partner sexual communication self-efficacy (AOR = 1.77), refusal self-efficacy (AOR = 2.05) and be more fearful of communicating with their partners (AOR = 1.98). These findings, although preliminary, could be used to inform HIV intervention programs and physicians/clinicians providing regular health care maintenance to African-American female adolescents engaging in risky sexual behaviour.
Gordon, Lonna P.; Diaz, Angela; Soghomonian, Christine; Nucci-Sack, Anne T.; Weiss, Jocelyn M.; Strickler, Howard D.; Burk, Robert D.; Schlecht, Nicolas F.; Ochner, Christopher N.
Study Objective The increasing prevalence of adolescent obesity has led to consideration of the potential effect of obesity on risky sexual behaviors. The current study examined whether body mass index (BMI) was related to age at sexual debut, type of sexual behavior, partner number, and condom use in a population of adolescent women at high risk for obesity and risky sexual behaviors. Study Design Cross-sectional examination of 860 sexually active, predominantly minority, adolescent women who received medical care at an urban health center from 2007 – 2013. Intervention Self-reported age at sexual debut, types of sexual intercourse, number of partners and condom use was compared to clinically – assessed BMI. Results Body mass index was positively associated with number of sexual partners (p = 0.001) and history of attempted anal intercourse (p = 0.002). An inverse association was observed with age at first anal intercourse (p = 0.040). Conclusions In this sample of adolescent women, increased BMI was associated with riskier sexual practices at a younger age. This study suggests that overweight and obese adolescents are a vulnerable population who may need targeted sexual health counseling. PMID:26358938
Thompson, Richard; Lewis, Terri; Neilson, Elizabeth C; English, Diana J; Litrownik, Alan J; Margolis, Benyamin; Proctor, Laura; Dubowitz, Howard
Risky sexual behavior is a serious public health problem. Child sexual abuse is an established risk factor, but other forms of maltreatment appear to elevate risky behavior. The mechanisms by which child maltreatment influence risk are not well understood. This study used data from 859 high-risk youth, followed through age 18. Official reports of each form of maltreatment were coded. At age 16, potential mediators (trauma symptoms and substance use) were assessed. At age 18, risky sexual behavior (more than four partners, unprotected sex, unassertiveness in sexual refusal) was assessed. Neglect significantly predicted unprotected sex. Substance use predicted unprotected sex and four or more partners but did not mediate the effects of maltreatment. Trauma symptoms predicted unprotected sex and mediated effects of emotional maltreatment on unprotected sex and on assertiveness in sexual refusal and the effects of sexual abuse on unprotected sex. Both neglect and emotional maltreatment emerged as important factors in risky sexual behavior. Trauma symptoms appear to be an important pathway by which maltreatment confers risk for risky sexual behavior. Interventions to reduce risky sexual behavior should include assessment and treatment for trauma symptoms and for history of child maltreatment in all its forms.
De Genna, Natacha M; Cornelius, Marie D
Teenage mothers are more likely to use drugs, and their children are more likely to use substances and become pregnant during adolescence. Teenage mothers' substance use may play a role in the intergenerational risk for adolescent pregnancy. Pregnant adolescents (12-18 years) were seen during pregnancy and postnatal years 6, 10, 14, and 16 (n = 332). Teenage mothers reported on substance use and family characteristics. The offspring reported substance use (starting at age 10) and sexual behavior (ages 14 and 16). Prenatal alcohol exposure was associated with offspring (a) having a risky first sex partner and (b) multiple sex partners in the past year. Heavy maternal drinking during childhood was associated with offspring reports of a risky first sex partner and early teenage pregnancy. Findings from this unique birth cohort have implications for alcohol prevention efforts with girls during and after a teenage pregnancy and interventions to prevent risky sex in high-risk youth.
Baumgartner, Susanne E.; Valkenburg, Patti M.; Peter, Jochen
There are widespread concerns that on the internet, adolescents are especially vulnerable and take more risks than adults. However, research supporting this concern is still missing. The aim of this study was to explore whether (a) unwanted online sexual solicitation, (b) risky sexual online behavior, and (c) the perception of risks and benefits…
Lansford, Jennifer E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Fontaine, Reid Griffith; Bates, John E; Pettit, Gregory S
Risky sexual behavior poses significant health risks by increasing sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies. Previous research has documented many factors related to risky sexual behavior. This study adds to the literature by proposing a prospective, developmental model of peer factors related to risky sexual behavior. Developmental pathways to risky sexual behavior were examined in a sample of 517 individuals (51% female; 82% European American, 16% African American, 2% other) followed from age 5-27. Structural equation models examined direct and indirect effects of peer rejection (assessed via peer nominations at ages 5, 6, 7, and 8), affiliation with deviant peers (assessed via self-report at ages 11 and 12), and delinquency (assessed via maternal report at ages 10 and 16) on risky sexual behavior (assessed via self-report at age 27). More peer rejection during childhood, affiliation with deviant peers during pre- adolescence, and delinquency in childhood and adolescence predicted more risky sexual behavior through age 27, although delinquency at age 16 was the only risk factor that had a significant direct effect on risky sexual behavior through age 27 above and beyond the other risk factors. Peer rejection was related to subsequent risk factors for girls but not boys. Peer risk factors as early as age 5 shape developmental pathways through childhood and adolescence and have implications for risky sexual behavior into adulthood.
Lansford, Jennifer E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Fontaine, Reid Griffith; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.
Risky sexual behavior poses significant health risks by increasing sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies. Previous research has documented many factors related to risky sexual behavior. This study adds to the literature by proposing a prospective, developmental model of peer factors related to risky sexual behavior. Developmental pathways to risky sexual behavior were examined in a sample of 517 individuals (51% female; 82% European American, 16% African American, 2% other) followed from age 5 to 27. Structural equation models examined direct and indirect effects of peer rejection (assessed via peer nominations at ages 5, 6, 7, and 8), affiliation with deviant peers (assessed via self-report at ages 11 and 12), and delinquency (assessed via maternal report at ages 10 and 16) on risky sexual behavior (assessed via self-report at age 27). More peer rejection during childhood, affiliation with deviant peers during pre- adolescence, and delinquency in childhood and adolescence predicted more risky sexual behavior through age 27, although delinquency at age 16 was the only risk factor that had a significant direct effect on risky sexual behavior through age 27 above and beyond the other risk factors. Peer rejection was related to subsequent risk factors for girls but not boys. Peer risk factors as early as age 5 shape developmental pathways through childhood and adolescence and have implications for risky sexual behavior into adulthood. PMID:25150986
Leech, Tamara G. J.; Dias, Janice Johnson
Scant attention has been given to the consequence of actual weight status for adolescents' sexual wellbeing. In this article, we investigate the race-specific connection between obesity and risky sexual behavior among adolescent girls. Propensity scores and radius matching are used to analyze a sample of 340 adolescents aged 16-17 who participated…
Cunningham, Michael R.; van Zyl, Michiel A.; Antle, Becky F.; Langley, Cheri N.
Objectives. To test the efficacy of Reducing the Risk (RTR) and Love Notes (LN) on reducing risky sexual behavior among youths yet to experience or cause a pregnancy. Methods. The four dependent variables were ever had sex, condom use, birth control use, and number of sexual partners at 3- and 6-month follow-up in a 3-arm cluster randomized controlled trial of 1448 impoverished youths, aged 14 to 19 years, in 23 community-based organizations in Louisville, Kentucky, from September 2011 through March 2014. Results. At 3 and 6 months, compared with the control condition, youths in RTR reported fewer sexual partners and greater use of birth control. At 6 months, LN participants reported greater use of birth control and condoms, fewer sexual partners, and were less likely to have ever had sex compared with the control condition. Conclusions. We provided additional evidence for the continued efficacy of RTR and the first rigorous study of LN, which embeds sex education into a larger curriculum on healthy relationships and violence prevention. PMID:27689500
Jones, Krista; Eathington, Patricia; Baldwin, Kathleen; Sipsma, Heather
Despite the increased use of social media and text messaging among adolescents, it is unclear how effective education transmitted via these mechanisms is for reducing sexual risk behavior. Accordingly, we conducted a systematic review of the literature to examine the effectiveness of social media and text messaging interventions designed to increase sexually transmitted disease (STD) knowledge, increase screening/testing, decrease risky sexual behaviors, and reduce the incidence of STDs among young adults aged 15 through 24 years. Eleven studies met our inclusion criteria. Most of the included studies used a control group to explore intervention effects and included both young men and women. Sample sizes ranged from 32 to 7606 participants, and follow-up periods ranged between 4 weeks and 12 months. These studies provide preliminary evidence indicating that social media and text messaging can increase knowledge regarding the prevention of STDs. These interventions may also affect behavior, such as screening/testing for STDs, sexual risk behaviors, and STD acquisition, but the evidence for effect is weak. Many of these studies had several limitations that future research should address, including a reliance on self-reported data, small sample sizes, poor retention, low generalizability, and low analytic rigor. Additional research is needed to determine the most effective and engaging approaches for young men and women.
Grant, L M; Demetriou, E
The consequences of adolescent sexual behavior are an enormous burden both for the adolescent and society. The problem is not that teens are sexually active but rather that they have little preparation and guidance in developing responsible sexual behavior. Developmentally, adolescents reach physical maturity before they are cognitively able to appreciate the consequences of their behavior. A teenager's primary source of information regarding sexuality is his or her peer group, all of whom are experiencing and reinforcing the same behaviors. The family, the major socializer of other behaviors, is not as powerful a force in shaping responsible sexual behavior because of parental discomfort with sex education and sexual discussions. This is the result of a social milieu in which sex is frequently portrayed but rarely linked with responsible behavior or accurate, nonjudgmental information. The pediatric practitioner is in an ideal position to intervene in these dynamics. In the office, the practitioner can provide accurate sexual information to both parents and adolescents, support parental-child communication on sexual issues, and provide appropriate services or referral. In the community, the practitioner can advocate for school-based sex education as well as act as an information resource. Finally, the practitioner can advocate for the health care needs for adolescents on a national level, supporting legislation that provides adolescents with information and access to services necessary to make responsible sexual decisions.
Brakefield, Tiffany; Wilson, Helen; Donenberg, Geri
African American (AA) adolescent girls are at heightened risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and thus knowledge of factors related to risky sexual behavior in this population is crucial. Using Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1977), this paper examines pathways from female caregivers' risky sexual behavior and substance use to…
Broman, Clifford L.
This study examines drug use, including alcohol, as a factor in risky sexual behavior while considering patterns across sex and race. Both factors have been given insufficient attention in prior research. The data for this study come from a survey of 1,052 college students from a Midwestern state. Findings indicate that drug use is associated with…
Forster, Alice; Wardle, Jane; Stephenson, Judith; Waller, Jo
A significant minority of parents are concerned about adolescents engaging in risky sexual behavior following human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. The way the HPV vaccine is reported in the media has the potential to influence public understanding and vaccination decisions. The present study examined the content of articles published between 2003 and 2008 in British national newspapers that addressed the issue of adolescents engaging in risky sexual behavior following HPV vaccination. We used mixed methods to analyze 92 articles in which the issue was mentioned. Qualitative framework analysis highlighted three main types of discussion: news stories proposing that adolescents will engage in risky sexual behavior following HPV vaccination, counterarguments insisting that adolescents will not engage in risky sexual behavior after HPV vaccination, and parents' views of the issue of risky sexual behavior. The results indicated that newspapers provide parents with broadly positive descriptive norms about vaccination; however, the issue that adolescents will engage in risky sexual behaviors following HPV vaccination is regularly discussed in the national press and has the potential to increase parents' concerns about vaccination.
Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert
The role of peer harassment in the association between sexual minority status and adolescent risky behavior was examined for 15-year-olds in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (n = 957). The findings, although exploratory, suggest the importance of gender. For girls, peer harassment was best viewed as a moderator of the link between sexual minority status and increased risky behavior. It intensified an existing association, reflecting the gendered nature of the impact of sexual minority status on the adolescent social context. For boys, peer harassment was primarily a mediator, such that sexual minority status was associated with more risky behavior via elevated harassment, although sexual minority status itself was associated with lower risky behavior overall.
Brakefield, Tiffany; Wilson, Helen; Donenberg, Geri
African American (AA) adolescent girls are at heightened risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and thus knowledge of factors related to risky sexual behavior in this population is crucial. Using Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1977), this paper examines pathways from female caregivers' risky sexual behavior and substance use to adolescent girls' risky sexual behavior and substance use in a sample of 214 low-income, urban AA female caregivers and daughters recruited from outpatient mental health clinics in Chicago. Structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed that sexual risk reported by female caregivers was associated with adolescent sexual risk, and illicit drug use reported by female caregivers was related to adolescent-reported substance use, which was in turn associated with adolescent-reported sexual risk behavior. These findings suggest that female caregivers' sexual behavior and substance use both relate to girls' sexual risk. Thus, results emphasize the role of female caregivers in transmitting risk.
Shorey, Ryan C.; Fite, Paula J.; Choi, HyeJeong; Cohen, Joseph R.; Stuart, Gregory L.; Temple, Jeff R.
Objective To examine dating violence perpetration and victimization (physical, psychological, and sexual) and lifetime substance use (alcohol, marijuana, and hard drugs) as longitudinal predictors of adolescents’ risky sexual behavior across one year, and to determine whether predictors varied across adolescents’ gender and ethnicity. Methods A sample of Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic male and female adolescents from 7 public high schools in Texas (N = 882) participated. Adolescents completed self-report measures of dating violence, lifetime substance use, and risky sexual behavior at baseline and, 1-year later, completed a second assessment of their risky sexual behavior. Results Path analysis demonstrated that greater physical dating violence victimization, lifetime alcohol use, lifetime marijuana use, and age (being older) were all significant predictors of risky sexual behavior at the 1-year follow-up. These results did not vary across gender or the three ethnic groups (Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic). Conclusions Overall, substance use was a longitudinal predictor of risky sexual behavior across the three ethnic groups, with physical dating violence victimization being the only type of dating violence longitudinally predicting risky sexual behavior. Prevention efforts should consider the roles of physical dating violence and substance use in preventing risky sexual behavior. PMID:25797949
Bina, Manuela; Graziano, Federica; Bonino, Silvia
Several studies have shown that risky driving is especially prevalent among young drivers and recent research has pointed out that driving in adolescence should be investigated in the more general context of adolescent development. The first aim of this contribution was to analyze involvement in risky driving in a normative sample of 645 Italian adolescents, boys and girls, aged 14-17, through a self-report questionnaire. A second aim was to evaluate the association between risky driving and lifestyle, defined as involvement in other health risk behaviors and leisure activities. The main results showed that many adolescents drove cars and motorcycles without the required driving license and the most frequent offences were speeding and failure to maintain a safe braking distance. Gender and age differences were also investigated. Results concerning the association between risky driving and lifestyle showed that risky driving was not an isolated behavior. Boys who displayed risky driving practices were more likely to adopt a lifestyle characterized by high involvement in antisocial behaviors, tobacco smoking, comfort eating and time spent in non-organized activities with friends. Girls involved in risky driving were more likely to be involved in other risk-taking behaviors, antisocial behaviors and drug use.
Downs, Julie S; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Fischhoff, Baruch; Murray, Pamela J
Although adolescents are at disproportionate risk for sexually transmitted infections, most sex education programs have shown little effect on sexual behavior. An interactive video intervention developed by our team has been identified as one of a few programs that have been documented to reduce sexually transmitted infections in this population. Building on behavioral decision research, we used a mental models approach to interview young women about their sexual decisions, finding, among other things, the strong role of perceived social norms. We based our intervention on these results, aiming to help young women identify and implement personally and socially acceptable decision strategies. A randomized controlled trial found that the video reduced risky sexual behavior and the acquisition of chlamydia infection. We recently revised the video to suit more diverse audiences, and upgraded it to modern standards of cinematography and interactivity. It is now in field trial.
Houlihan, Amy E.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gerrard, Meg; Yeh, Hsiu-Chen; Reimer, Rachel A.; Murry, Velma M.
A 5-year longitudinal study of African American adolescents, aged 10 to 12 at Time 1, used the prototype/willingness (prototype) model to examine the (social) cognitive effects of the onset of sexual behavior on self-concept. Structural equation modeling (SEM) showed that becoming sexually active was related to favorable changes in adolescents'…
Kao, Tsui-Sui; Gibbs, Marilyn Beth; Clemen-Stone, Susan; Duffy, Sonia
The purpose of this integrative review is to describe, compare, and synthesize traditional and computer-based family interventions that aim to change adolescents' risky sexual behaviors and substance abuse. Family interventions have been shown to generate protective effects for preventing adolescents from risky behaviors. It is not clear, however, whether there are significant differences or similarities in the designs and effects of traditional and computer-based family interventions. An integrative literature review was conducted to describe and compare the designs and effects of traditional and computer-based family interventions. Both interventions have generated significant effects on reducing risky behavior among adolescents. Interventions guided by theory, tailored to participants' culture/gender, and which included sufficient boosting dosages in their designs demonstrated significant short- or long-term effects in terms of reducing adolescents' risky behaviors. Regardless of delivery method, well-designed family interventions are noted to maximize familial protective effects and reduce risky behaviors.
Braverman, P K; Strasburger, V C
Adolescents are becoming sexually active at younger ages. One half of the adolescents in the United States are sexually active. This article reviews adolescent sexual activity, including rates of sexual activity, sexual practices, gay and lesbian youth, and factors affecting the initiation of sexual activity. In addition, adolescent pregnancy, with possible outcomes and effects on teen parents and their offspring, is discussed.
modification program aimed at c hanging adolescents’ s e lf-s tatements and increasing their l evels o f self - esteem . Sub j ec ts in this study...who become parents, low educational achievements and aspirations, high levels of anxiety I low powerlessness, self - esteem , and alienation and...Knowledge Questionnaire AIDS Attitude Questionnaire STD Attitude Scale Attitudes Toward Contraceptive Methods Sexual Self - Esteem Scale· Sexual
Crowley, Thomas J.; Dalwani, Manish S.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; Young, Susan E.; Sakai, Joseph T.; Raymond, Kristen M.; McWilliams, Shannon K.; Roark, Melissa J.; Banich, Marie T.
Background Accidental injury and homicide, relatively common among adolescents, often follow risky behaviors; those are done more by boys and by adolescents with greater behavioral disinhibition (BD). Hypothesis Neural processing during adolescents' risky decision-making will differ in youths with greater BD severity, and in males vs. females, both before cautious behaviors and before risky behaviors. Methodology/Principal Findings 81 adolescents (Patients with substance and conduct problems, and comparison youths (Comparisons)), assessed in a 2 x 2 design (Patients:Comparisons x Male:Female) repeatedly decided between doing a cautious behavior that earned 1 cent, or a risky one that either won 5 or lost 10 cents. Odds of winning after risky responses gradually decreased. Functional magnetic resonance imaging captured brain activity during 4-sec deliberation periods preceding responses. Most neural activation appeared in known decision-making structures. Patients, who had more severe BD scores and clinical problems than Comparisons, also had extensive neural hypoactivity. Comparisons' greater activation before cautious responses included frontal pole, medial prefrontal cortex, striatum, and other regions; and before risky responses, insula, temporal, and parietal regions. Males made more risky and fewer cautious responses than females, but before cautious responses males activated numerous regions more than females. Before risky behaviors female-greater activation was more posterior, and male-greater more anterior. Conclusions/Significance Neural processing differences during risky-cautious decision-making may underlie group differences in adolescents' substance-related and antisocial risk-taking. Patients reported harmful real-life decisions and showed extensive neural hypoactivity during risky-or-cautious decision-making. Males made more risky responses than females; apparently biased toward risky decisions, males (compared with females) utilized many more neural
Neppl, Tricia K; Dhalewadikar, Jui; Lohman, Brenda J
Although research supports the influence of parents and peers on adolescent risky behavior, less is known about mechanisms proposed to explain this relation. This study examined the influence of adolescent attitudes and intentions about such behaviors. Prospective, longitudinal data came from rural youth who participated throughout adolescence (n= 451). Observed harsh parenting and relationship with deviant peers was assessed in early adolescence, attitudes and intentions were measured during middle adolescence, and risky behavior was assessed in late adolescence. Results indicated that parenting and deviant peers was related to engagement in tobacco use, alcohol use, and risky sexual behaviors. Moreover, attitudes and intentions mediated this relationship even after parent use and adolescent early involvement in these behaviors were taken into account.
Boden, Joseph M; Horwood, L John
This study examined the relationship between self-esteem in adolescence and later risky sexual behavior and pregnancy in late adolescence and early adulthood. The investigation analyzed data from a birth cohort of over 1,000 New Zealand young adults studied to the age of 25. Lower levels of self-esteem at age 15 were associated with greater risks of engaging in unprotected sex (sexual intercourse with either an opposite- or same-sex partner without using a condom), a greater number of sexual partners, and a greater risk of pregnancy at ages 15-25. Adjustment for potentially confounding factors, including family socioeconomic background, family functioning, child abuse, and individual characteristics and behavior, reduced the strength of these associations to statistically non-significant levels. It was concluded that the effects of self-esteem during adolescence on later risky sexual behavior and pregnancy were weak and largely explained by the psychosocial context within which self-esteem develops.
Lynch, Joseph F.; Mowrey, Rebecca J.; Nesbitt, Gordon M.; O'Neill, Daniel F.
Do students accurately perceive the sexual behavior of their peers? The results of this study indicate a dramatic difference between students' self-reported sexual behavior and their perceptions of peer sexual behavior. Specifically, students tend to overestimate the potentially risky sexual activity of their peers. The data also challenge popular…
Bryan, Angela D; Gillman, Arielle S; Hansen, Natasha S
Starting school later, keeping adolescents busy with structured programming, and making free condoms available, as Steinberg (2015) suggests, are important and necessary steps, but they are simply not sufficient if the goal is reducing sexually transmitted infections and unplanned pregnancy. We agree that the current state of affairs, which in many schools involves sexuality education using programs that are not empirically supported, is unacceptable. However, abandoning sexuality education entirely would leave adolescents ill equipped to protect themselves. Despite the fact that current intervention technology is neither perfect nor optimally effective, there are empirically supported, school-based sexual risk reduction interventions that teach these skills and are readily available. In addition, even though we agree that structured afternoon programs for school-aged adolescents would reduce the opportunity for sexual risk behavior during the school years, such programs would not address the demographic reality of sexual risk that continues for adolescents and emerging adults far past the end of traditional secondary education. We believe Steinberg's suggestions are an excellent start and ought to be implemented. But complementary to this approach should be the use of existing empirically supported sexual risk reduction interventions and research into the development of even more effective interventions.
Han, Wen-Jui; Miller, Daniel P.; Waldfogel, Jane
Using a large contemporary data set, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Supplement (NLSY-CS), this paper examines the effects of parental work schedules on adolescent risky behaviors at age 13 or 14 and the mechanisms that might explain them. Structural equation modeling suggests mothers who worked more often at night spent significantly less time with children and had lower quality home environments, and these mediators were significantly linked to adolescent risky behaviors. Similar effects were not found for evening work schedules, while other types of maternal and paternal nonstandard work schedules were linked to higher parental knowledge of children’s whereabouts, which led to lower levels of adolescent risky behaviors. Subgroup analyses revealed that males, those in families with low incomes, and those whose mothers never worked at professional jobs may particularly be affected by mothers working at nights, due to spending less time together, having a lower degree of maternal closeness, and experiencing lower quality home environments. In addition, the effects of maternal night shifts were particularly pronounced if children were in the preschool or middle-childhood years when their mothers worked those schedules. Implications and avenues for future research are discussed. PMID:20822236
Crockett, Lisa J.; Raffaelli, Marcela; Shen, Yuh-Ling
The linkages between self-regulation in childhood, risk proneness in early adolescence, and risky sexual behavior in mid-adolescence were examined in a cohort of children (N=518) from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The possible mediating role of two early adolescent variables (substance use and negative peer pressure) was also…
Johnson, Regina Jones; Rew, Lynn; Sternglanz, R. Weylin
This study explored the gender differences in sexual self-concept, personal resources for sexual health, safe sex behaviors, and risky sexual behaviors among homeless adolescents with and without histories of sexual abuse. Data for this secondary analysis were collected in 2003 to 2004 in the first phase of a larger repeated-measures sexual health…
Odimegwu, Clifford O; De Wet, Nicole; Banda, Pamela C
The link between economic empowerment and high risky sexual behaviour has been debated by different scholars in various settings. However, no consistently clear connection between poverty and lack of education has been found regarding engagement in risky sexual behaviour. Also, not much research has been done to examine the strength of these relationships for adolescents and women. The objectives of this study were to assess the relationship between female economic empowerment and risky sexual behaviour in Africa. Using the latest Demographic and Health Surveys Data (DHS 2011-2014) from Gabon, Mozambique, Sierra Leone and Zambia, univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis was done on women aged 15 to 49 to examine the patterns of and differences in the association between women's economic empowerment and risky sexual behaviour. The findings both at community and individual level indicate that empowered women (higher education and wealth household) and adolescents aged 15 to 19 are highly significantly associated with engagement in high risky behaviour. The result of this study stresses the need to look further than individual factors in the quest to resolve risky sexual behaviour in Africa. The interrelations between female economic empowerment and engagement in risky sexual behaviour are more complicated and less straightforward than usually presumed.
Zapolski, Tamika C. B.; Cyders, Melissa A.; Smith, Gregory T.
There are several different personality traits that dispose individuals to engage in rash action. One such trait is positive urgency: the tendency to act rashly when experiencing extremely positive affect. This trait may be relevant for college student risky behavior, because it appears that a great deal of college student risky behavior is undertaken during periods of intensely positive mood states. To test this possibility, the authors conducted a longitudinal study designed to predict increases in risky sexual behavior and illegal drug use over the course of the first year of college (n = 407). In a well-fitting structural model, positive urgency predicted increases in illegal drug use and risky sexual behavior, even after controlling for time 1 (T1) involvement in both risky behaviors, biological sex, and T1 scores on four other personality dispositions to rash action. The authors discuss the theoretical and practical implications of this finding. PMID:19586152
Fortenberry, J Dennis
This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Sexuality emerges as a major developmental element of puberty and the adolescent years that follow. However, connecting the sexuality that emerges with puberty and elements of adult sexuality is difficult because much adolescent sexuality research addresses the transition to partnered sexual behaviors (primarily coitus) and consequences such as unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. This review proposes a framework of an expanded understanding of puberty and adolescent sexuality from the perspective of four hallmarks of adult sexuality: sexual desire; sexual arousal; sexual behaviors; and, sexual function. This approach thus addresses important gaps in understanding of the ontogeny of sex and the continuum of sexuality development from adolescence through the adult lifespan.
Voisin, Dexter R; King, Kelly; Schneider, John; Diclemente, Ralph J; Tan, Kevin
Sexual sensation seeking has been correlated with drug use and risky sex in a number of populations. However, these relationships have had limited examination among adolescents, and to date, have not been explored among detained youth, a group with some of the highest rates of illicit drug use and STIs. To better understand these relationships we utilized A-CASI to collect data on sociodemographics, sexual sensation seeking, drug use and risky sexual behaviors among a sample of 550 detained youth. A series of multivariable regression models controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status and risky peer networks indicated that sexual sensation seeking was associated with alcohol and ecstasy use. Additionally, sexual sensation seeking was associated with having sex while high on drugs; having sex with a partner who was high on drugs; exchanging sex for drugs; exchanging sex for money; having more sexual partners in the last two months; having engaged in unprotected vaginal sex; and a less condom use during oral sex. These data have important implications for STI/drug use prevention interventions among detained adolescents.
Wu, Johnny; Witkiewitz, Katie; McMahon, Robert J; Dodge, Kenneth A
Conduct problems, substance use, and risky sexual behavior have been shown to coexist among adolescents, which may lead to significant health problems. The current study was designed to examine relations among these problem behaviors in a community sample of children at high risk for conduct disorder. A latent growth model of childhood conduct problems showed a decreasing trend from grades K to 5. During adolescence, four concurrent conduct problem and substance use trajectory classes were identified (high conduct problems and high substance use, increasing conduct problems and increasing substance use, minimal conduct problems and increasing substance use, and minimal conduct problems and minimal substance use) using a parallel process growth mixture model. Across all substances (tobacco, binge drinking, and marijuana use), higher levels of childhood conduct problems during kindergarten predicted a greater probability of classification into more problematic adolescent trajectory classes relative to less problematic classes. For tobacco and binge drinking models, increases in childhood conduct problems over time also predicted a greater probability of classification into more problematic classes. For all models, individuals classified into more problematic classes showed higher proportions of early sexual intercourse, infrequent condom use, receiving money for sexual services, and ever contracting an STD. Specifically, tobacco use and binge drinking during early adolescence predicted higher levels of sexual risk taking into late adolescence. Results highlight the importance of studying the conjoint relations among conduct problems, substance use, and risky sexual behavior in a unified model.
Marcus, David K; Fulton, Jessica J; Turchik, Jessica A
Risky sexual behaviors are behaviors that involve the possibility of an adverse outcome, such as contracting a sexually transmitted infection or unwanted pregnancy. The question of whether risky sexual behavior exists as a discrete class (i.e., taxon) or as a dimensional construct has not previously been explored. The authors performed a set of taxometric analyses on 4 factor scales derived from the Sexual Risk Survey (Turchik & Garske, 2009) with data from 1,103 college students. The results provided consistent support for a dimensional latent structure in which variations in reported risky sexual behavior reflect differences in degree and not differences in kind. The implications of these findings for the assessment of risky sexual behavior are discussed.
Wayment, Heidi A; Aronson, Bethany
Ninety-five sexually active White American female college students participated in a questionnaire study about their sexual behavior in the past 12 months. A path model was tested in order to assess specific hypothesized predictors of risky sexual behavior. As predicted, participants with greater sex guilt reported using condoms more and having had fewer sexual partners. The findings of this study suggest that White American female college students are at some degree of risk due to risky sexual behavior. Taking into account attitudes about sexuality and past sexual abuse along with the requisite training in condom use self-efficacy may enhance the success of interventions designed to reduce risky sexual behavior among White American female college students.
Flory, Kate; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Gnagy, Elizabeth; Smith, Bradley
This study compared young adults (ages 18 to 26) with and without childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on self-reported risky sexual behaviors. Participants were 175 men with childhood ADHD and 111 demographically similar men without ADHD in the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS). Childhood ADHD predicted earlier…
Background Given the higher prevalence of risky sexual behaviors and substance use, adolescents and youths are at risk for HIV. Despite its importance, however, to the best of our knowledge, there are only a few researches on risky behaviors in Chinese adolescents/youths. The present study aimed to describe the prevalence of sexual and substance use behaviors among a Chinese sample of senior high school students. And more specifically, the associations of socio-demographic factors and substance use with risky sexual behaviors were examined in the sample. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 senior high schools. A total of 2668 senior high school students aged 15.17 to 23.42 years participated in the survey. A self-administrated questionnaire was used to collect information on sexual and substance use behaviors. Results The percentages of students who ever had sexual intercourse in lifetime or during last three months were 7.0% and 5.1%, respectively. Among the participants with sexual intercourse during last three months, 42.1% ever had unprotected sexual intercourse and 49.4% had intercourse with two or more partners. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that cigarette smoke and illicit drug use were related to unprotected sexual intercourse (defined as “sexual intercourse without condom use”) and younger age of first sexual intercourse was related to multiple-partner sexual intercourse. Conclusions HIV/sexual transmitted infection (STI) health education and prevention are necessary among the Chinese adolescents, particularly among those adolescents with experience of sexual intercourse and/or substance use, which has a long-term beneficial to the control of HIV/STI in China. PMID:23557462
Johnson, Nicole L.; Johnson, Dawn M.
While the relationship between sexual trauma and risky sexual behavior (RSB) has received much attention, only a handful of studies have investigated the factors that protect victims of sexual trauma from developing this maladaptive pattern of behavior. The current study investigated the protective role of social support, quality and quantity, in…
Cowan, Benjamin W
This paper analyzes the effect of college costs on teenagers' engagement in risky behaviors before they are old enough to attend college. Individuals with brighter prospects for future schooling attainment may engage in less drug and alcohol use and risky sexual activity because they have more to lose if such behaviors have harmful effects in their lives. If teens correctly predict that higher college costs make future college enrollment less likely, then adolescents facing different expected costs may choose different levels of risky behavior. I find that lower college costs in teenagers' states of residence raise their subjective expectations regarding college attendance and deter teenage substance use and sexual partnership. Specifically, a $1,000 reduction in tuition and fees at two-year colleges in a youth's state of residence (roughly a 50% difference at the mean) is associated with a decline in the number of sexual partners the youth had in the past year (by 26%), the number of days in the past month the youth smoked (by 14%), and the number of days in the past month the youth used marijuana (by 23%). These findings suggest that the often-studied correlation between schooling and health habits emerges in adolescence because teenagers with brighter college prospects curb their risky behavior in accordance with their expectations. The results also imply that policies that improve teenagers' educational prospects may be effective tools for reducing youthful involvement in such behaviors.
Green, Bonnie L; Krupnick, Janice L; Stockton, Patricia; Goodman, Lisa; Corcoran, Carole; Petty, Rachel
Individuals with sexual assault or abuse histories are likely to engage in risky sexual and other self-destructive behaviors. Studies of these behaviors, however, have focused on target traumatic events without accounting for other events in the participant's history, recency of the events, and/or developmental level at time of occurrence. The present study addressed some of these confounds by creating groups with unique and non-overlapping trauma histories among adolescent participants whose first trauma occurred at age 12 or older. Sophomore women from six regional campuses were screened in a two-stage procedure, and 209 of 363 final interviewees were included in the present report. These were assigned to a no trauma group, or to one of five groups with a unique trauma history: a single traumatic loss, a single physical assault, a single sexual assault, ongoing sexual or physical abuse, or multiple single traumas. Risky sexual behavior, suicidal ideation, and elevated perpetration of violence were most prominent among those with ongoing abuse exposure, although a single exposure to interpersonal violence during adolescence was sufficient for some risky behaviors. Major depression (MDD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were associated with many of the behaviors, and may serve to heighten risk.
Scott-Sheldon, Lori A J; Carey, Michael P; Carey, Kate B
Multiple event-level methodology was used to examine the relation between risky sexual behavior and alcohol use among sexually active, heavy drinking college students (N = 221). Using a structured timeline follow-back interview, participants reported their sexual, alcohol, and drug use behaviors over a 3-month period. Over 2,700 vaginal or anal sexual events were reported from 177 participants. Overall, condom use was not associated with heavy or non-heavy alcohol consumption among those reporting both sexual events concurrent with heavy drinking and when no alcohol was consumed. Results from multilevel regression analyses revealed a more complex pattern. Among women, but not men, less condom use was associated with steady versus casual sexual partners, but partner type interacted with alcohol consumption such that less condom use occurred when heavy drinking preceded sex with steady partners. At the event-level, alcohol consumption among heavy drinking college students leads to risky sexual behavior but the relation differs by gender and partner type.
Quinn, Patrick D; Fromme, Kim
Prior research suggests that high dispositional self-regulation leads to decreased levels of risky drinking and sexual behavior in adolescence and the early years of college. Self-regulation may be especially important when individuals have easy access to alcohol and freedom to pursue sexual opportunities. In the current 1-year longitudinal study, we followed a sample of N = 1,136 college students who had recently reached the legal age to purchase alcohol and enter bars and clubs to test whether self-regulation protected against heavy episodic drinking, alcohol-related problems, and unprotected sex. We tested main effects of self-regulation and interactions among self-regulation and established risk factors (e.g., sensation seeking) on risky drinking and sexual behavior. High self-regulation inversely predicted heavy episodic drinking, alcohol-related problems, and unprotected sex, even when taking into account gender and risk factors. Moreover, in predicting unprotected sex, we found three-way interactions among self-regulation, sensation seeking, and heavy episodic drinking. Self-regulation buffered against risk associated with heavy drinking but only among those low in sensation seeking. The protective effects of self-regulation for risky drinking and sexual behavior make it a promising target for intervention, with the caveat that self-regulation may be less protective among those who are more drawn to socially and emotionally rewarding stimuli.
Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate
Most studies of the association between family structure and risky sexual behaviour among adolescents and young adults have employed a risk perspective which assumes that, compared with other types, two-parent families are protective. Drawing from a positive-oriented approach in this study, it is hypothesized that within each family type some influential factors may mitigate such anticipated deleterious effects of non-intact families and decrease sexual risk-taking. The paper examines specifically the effects of risk and protective factors with an emphasis on family processes associated with resilience, using data from a pooled sample of 1025 females and males aged 12-24 years from Bandjoun (West Cameroon). Findings show that the quality of parent/guardian-youth relationships significantly decreases the odds of risky sexual behaviour by 36%, 65% and 50% in neither-, one- and two-parent families, respectively. For two-parent families only, parental control acts as a significant protective factor; it decreased by 41% the odds of risky sexual behaviour. Programmatically, protective family factors such as parent/guardian-youth interactions need to be promoted to improve the efficiency of reproductive health and HIV interventions in sub-Saharan Africa.
Vassallo, Suzanne; Smart, Diana; Spiteri, Melinda; Cockfield, Samantha; Harris, Anne; Harrison, Warren
This study examined the stability of risky driving behaviour from late adolescence to early adulthood among 823 young Australian drivers participating in an ongoing longitudinal study. This issue was explored by examining the stability of risky driving between the ages of 19-20 and 23-24 years (1) across the cohort and (2) among individuals. Focusing on cohort-wide trends, a modest reduction in the occurrence of speeding was observed across the sample between 19-20 and 23-24 years. However, drink-driving increased markedly over this period, and driving without a seatbelt or helmet for part of a trip also rose. Rates of other risky driving behaviours remained relatively unchanged. With regard to trends among individuals, while a decrease was evident in the risky driving propensities of many who had been classified as moderate or high risky drivers at age 19-20, 48% of the former group, and 77% of the latter group, still exhibited risky driving tendencies at 23-24 years. Together, these findings suggest a fair degree of stability in risky driving from late adolescence to early adulthood among this sample of Australian youth, highlighting the continuing need for road safety initiatives targeting young drivers beyond their first years of licensure.
Spigarelli, Michael G
Sexual orientation has been defined as the patterns of sexual thoughts, fantasies, and attractions that an individual has toward other persons of the same or opposite gender. Throughout childhood and approaching adolescence, children try to understand their own sexuality and sexual orientation in the context of the society in which they live. Typically, this attempt to understand first occurs in thoughts of a sexual nature and later through actions, usually before sexual orientation is clearly defined. How these experiences are handled, by the individual and close friends and relatives, helps to define how an individual views and accepts their sexual orientation ultimately as an adult.
Stayton, W R
The health professional can be helpful to the adolescent, the adolescent's family, and the community through participating in and initiating local sex education programs. Religious settings provide a great potential for sexuality education within a value framework. A helpful curriculum will include the meaning of sexuality; developing a positive concept of sexuality, and a healthy sexual identity; present the issues of adolescent sexuality, including the various health issues; and an understanding of quality relationships within the family and among peers. If health professions and the community religious institutions can joint together, they can reach the goals of most programs in human sexuality, namely, "learning to appreciate our sexuality as a positive potential for self-expression, fulfillment and intimacy; respect for the personhood and well-being of others; and responsible decision-making."
Smith, Scott James
A sexual health disparity exists among U.S. Latinas, who have rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that are more than double their peers. Previous research has identified acculturation and religiosity as key social determinants of sexual health, but such findings have been inconsistent, with some researchers identifying protective benefits and other researchers noting increased risk. The purpose of this study was to explain how intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity as well as acculturation predict risky sexual behavior using Structural Equation Modeling of a nationally representative sample of self-identified Latinas (N=1,168) from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health. Results indicated that intrinsic religiosity and acculturation assert protective effects while extrinsic religiosity increases risk. Recommendations for policy, intervention, and future research are offered.
Valkenburg, Patti M.; Peter, Jochen
The main aim of this study was to investigate the causal nature of the relationship between adolescents’ risky sexual behavior on the internet and their perceptions of this behavior. Engagement in the following online behaviors was assessed: searching online for someone to talk about sex, searching online for someone to have sex, sending intimate photos or videos to someone online, and sending one’s telephone number and address to someone exclusively known online. The relationship between these behaviors and adolescents’ perceptions of peer involvement, personal invulnerability, and risks and benefits was investigated. A two-wave longitudinal study among a representative sample of 1,445 Dutch adolescents aged 12–17 was conducted (49% females). Autoregressive cross-lagged structural equation models revealed that perceived peer involvement, perceived vulnerability, and perceived risks were all significant predictors of risky sexual online behavior 6 months later. No reverse causal paths were found. When the relationships between perceptions and risky sexual online behavior were modeled simultaneously, only perceived peer involvement was a determinant of risky sexual online behavior. Findings highlight the importance of addressing peer involvement in future interventions to reduce adolescents’ risky sexual online behavior. PMID:20177962
Anderson, Sarah L; Zheng, Yao; McMahon, Robert J
Conduct disorder (CD) symptoms and callous-unemotional (CU) traits have been shown to be uniquely associated with risky sexual behavior (RSB) in adolescence and early adulthood, yet their interactive role in predicting RSB remains largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the predictive value of CD symptoms and CU traits, as well as their interaction, on several RSB outcomes in adolescence and early adulthood. A total of 683 participants (41.7 % female, 47.4 % African American) were followed annually and self-reported age of first sexual intercourse, frequency of condom use, pregnancy, contraction of sexually transmitted infections, and engagement in sexual solicitation from grade 7 to 2-years post-high school. CD symptoms predicted age of first sexual intercourse, condom use, and sexual solicitation. CU traits predicted age of first sexual intercourse and pregnancy. Their interaction predicted a composite score of these RSBs such that CD symptoms positively predicted the composite score among those with high levels of CU traits but not among those with low levels of CU traits. The current findings provide information regarding the importance of both CD symptoms and CU traits in understanding adolescent and early adulthood RSB, as well as the benefits of examining multiple RSB outcomes during this developmental period. These findings have implications for the development and implementation of preventive efforts to target these risky behaviors among adolescents and young adults.
Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Davis, Kelly Cue; George, William H.; Norris, Jeanette
Objective: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among boys has been associated with a variety of subsequent maladaptive behaviors. This study explored a potential connection between CSA and an increased likelihood of risky sexual behavior in adulthood. Further, the study examined whether or not alcohol use may contribute to this relationship. Method: As…
In Sweden, society's attitudes towards teenage sexual relationships are liberal, and sexual and reproductive health issues are given high priority. Family and sex education has been taught in schools since the 1950s. The age of sexual consent is 15 years. Since 1975, abortion has been free on demand. Contraceptive counselling is free, easily available at family planning and youth health clinics. Screening for genital chlamydial infection is performed at these clinics, thus providing a "one stop shop" service. Condoms and oral contraception are available at low cost, emergency contraception is sold over the counter. Teenage childbearing is uncommon. However, sexual and reproductive health problems are on the increase among young people. During the 1990s, a period of economic stagnation in Sweden, schools have suffered budget cut backs. Sex education is taught less. Social segregation, school non-attendance, smoking, and drug use have increased. Teenage abortion rates have gone up, from 17/1000 in 1995 to 22.5/1000 in 2001. Genital chlamydial infections have increased from 14,000 cases in 1994 to 22,263 cases in 2001, 60% occurring among young people, and with the steepest increase among teenagers. Thus, a question of major concern is whether and how adolescent sexual behaviour has shifted towards more risky practices during the late 1990s.
Roemmele, Melissa; Messman-Moore, Terri L.
Previous research suggests that individuals abused as children are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior during adulthood. The present study examined early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the child abuse-risky sexual behavior relationship among 653 college women. Self-report surveys assessed three forms of child abuse: Sexual,…
Wilson, Helen W.; Donenberg, Geri
Background: The number of HIV infections among adolescents is increasing, and youth in psychiatric care are at particular risk because of their high rates of risky sexual behavior. Methods: As part of a larger longitudinal study examining AIDS-risk behavior among adolescents in psychiatric care, this pilot study investigated the relationship…
Hessler, Danielle M.; Katz, Lynn Fainsilber
The current study examines associations between emotional competence (i.e., awareness, regulation, comfort with expression) and adolescent risky behavior. Children from a longitudinal study participated at age 9 and 16 (N = 88). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with children about their emotional experiences and coded for areas of…
Vogel, Ineke; Brug, Johannes; Van Der Ploeg, Catharina P. B.; Raat, Hein
Analogue to occupational noise-induced hearing loss, MP3-induced hearing loss may be evolving into a significant social and public health problem. To inform prevention strategies and interventions, this study investigated correlates of adolescents' risky MP3-player listening behavior primarily informed by protection motivation theory. We invited…
Vasilenko, Sara A; Kugler, Kari C; Butera, Nicole M; Lanza, Stephanie T
Adolescent sexual behavior is multidimensional, yet most studies of the topic use variable-oriented methods that reduce behaviors to a single dimension. In this study, we used a person-oriented approach to model adolescent sexual behavior comprehensively, using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. We identified five latent classes of adolescent sexual behavior: Abstinent (39%), Oral Sex (10%), Low-Risk (25%), Multi-Partner Normative (12%), and Multi-Partner Early (13%). Membership in riskier classes of sexual behavior was predicted by substance use and depressive symptoms. Class membership was also associated with young adult STI outcomes although these associations differed by gender. Male adolescents' STI rates increased with membership in classes with more risky behaviors whereas females' rates were consistent among all sexually active classes. These findings demonstrate the advantages of examining adolescent sexuality in a way that emphasizes its complexity.
Deardorff, Julianna; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Flores, Elena; Ozer, Emily J.
CONTEXT Understanding Latino youths’ sexual values is key to informing HIV prevention efforts. Few studies have examined associations between culturally based sexual values and behaviors among Latinos. METHODS A sample of 839 sexually active Latinos aged 16–22 residing in San Francisco were interviewed in 2003–2006. Multiple regression and multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between sexual values and behaviors, while adjusting for language use (a proxy for acculturation) and other covariates. RESULTS The importance attached to female virginity was negatively associated with the number of sexual partners women had had in their lifetime (odds ratio, 0.8) and in the past year (0.9), and was positively associated with women’s nonuse of condoms, rather than consistent use, during the first month of their current relationships (1.8). For men, the importance of satisfying sexual needs increased with the numbers of lifetime and recent sexual partners (1.4 and 1.1, respectively), and with inconsistent condom use in the first month of their relationships (1.9). Comfort with sexual communication was positively associated with inconsistent use or nonuse of condoms in the last month of both men’s and women’s current relationships (2.0–2.2). For women, considering satisfaction of sexual needs important was associated with more sexual partners only among those who attached little value to female virginity. CONCLUSIONS It is important to integrate themes of virginity and sexual desire into intervention curricula so youth can better understand how these sexual norms influence their developing sexual identities and behaviors. PMID:20415881
Confined to discussion of heterosexual activities, this article examines adolescent sexual behavior in terms of promiscuity; the search for a sexual behavior code; the impact of the media; and the influence of peer groups, religious identification, and the adult double standard. (JC)
Brown, J D; Childers, K W; Waszak, C S
Existing studies of the sexual content of television programming and advertising and the effects of this content on adolescent viewers are reviewed. Content studies show that the frequency of sexual references have increased in the past decade and are increasingly explicit. Studies of the effects of this content, while scarce, suggest that adolescents who rely heavily on television for information about sexuality will have high standards of female beauty and will believe that premarital and extramarital intercourse with multiple partners is acceptable. They are unlikely to learn about the need for contraceptives as a form of protection against pregnancy or disease. Suggestions for future research and trends in television programming policies are explored.
Simons, Leslie Gordon; Burt, Callie Harbin; Tambling, Rachel Blyskal
Participation in risky sexual behaviors has many deleterious consequences and is a source of concern for parents as well as practitioners, researchers, and public policy makers. Past research has examined the effect of family structure and supportive parenting on risky sexual behaviors among emerging adults. In the present study, we attempt to…
Mutinta, Given; Govender, Kaymarlin; Gow, Jeff; George, Gavin
University environments are fertile grounds for risky sexual behaviors. This study investigated students' risky sexual practices at the University of KwaZulu-Natal in Durban, South Africa. Data were collected using quantitative and qualitative methods. A total of 1,405 questionnaires were administered, and 80 in-depth interviews and four focus…
Lepusić, Dubravko; Radović-Radovcić, Sandra
Significant numbers of adolescents are initiating sexual activity at age 17 and younger. Little is known about this younger population of adolescents. This includes risk or protective factors for sexual activity and sexually transmitted infection (STI) acquisition. To safeguard all adolescents from the consequences of risky sexual behaviors, and to insure age appropriate and effective interventions, further study is critical to address risky behaviors specific to early adolescents. This study was a retrospective chart review of 155 sexually active adolescent girls. Students were divided into those who never had a documented STI and those who had 1 or more STIs. Data were collected from a sexual history questionnaire. These data were grouped into risk or protective domains. Domains were made up of 5 items of protective factors, 3 items of peer risks, 2 items of family risks, and 7 items of individual risks. STI outcomes were compared to these characteristics. One hundred fifty-five sexually active adolescents were studied. A univariate and multivariate analysis of risk and protective factors for testing positive for an STI demonstrated that high levels of protective factors reduced the risk of STIs. This suggests that STI prevention programs should focus on increasing protective factors among young adolescents in addition to reducing risk factors.
Bersamin, Melina; Todd, Michael; Fisher, Deborah A.; Hill, Douglas L.; Grube, Joel W.; Walker, Samantha
The effects of parental attitudes, practices, and television mediation on adolescent sexual behaviors were investigated in a study of adolescent sexuality and media (N=887). Confirmatory factor analyses supported an eight-factor parenting model with television mediation factors as constructs distinct from general parenting practices. Logistic regressions indicated that adolescents reporting greater parental disapproval and limits on viewing at Wave 1 were less likely to initiate oral sex between Waves 1 and 2. Adolescents who reported more sexual communication with parents were more likely to initiate oral sex. Results for vaginal intercourse were similar to those for oral sex. Co-viewing was a significant negative predictor of initiation of sexual behavior. Parental attitudes and television mediation can delay potentially risky adolescent sexual behaviors. PMID:19750131
Vogel, Ineke; Brug, Johannes; Van der Ploeg, Catharina P B; Raat, Hein
Analogue to occupational noise-induced hearing loss, MP3-induced hearing loss may be evolving into a significant social and public health problem. To inform prevention strategies and interventions, this study investigated correlates of adolescents' risky MP3-player listening behavior primarily informed by protection motivation theory. We invited 1687 adolescents (12- to 19-year old) of Dutch secondary schools to complete questionnaires about their MP3-player listening, sociodemographic characteristics and presumed psychosocial determinants of MP3-player listening. Of all participants, 90% reported listening to music through earphones on MP3 players; 28.6% were categorized as listeners at risk for hearing loss due to estimated exposure of 89 dBA for ≥1 hour per day. Compared with listeners not at risk for hearing loss, listeners at risk were more likely not to live with both parents, to experience rewards of listening to high-volume levels, to report a high habit strength related to risky MP3 listening, and were less likely to be motivated to protect their hearing. Habit strength was the strongest correlate of risky listening behavior, suggesting that voluntary behavior change among adolescents might be difficult to achieve and that a multiple strategy approach may be needed to prevent MP3-induced hearing loss.
Ellis, Bruce J.; Del Giudice, Marco; Dishion, Thomas J.; Figueredo, Aurelio Jose; Gray, Peter; Griskevicius, Vladas; Hawley, Patricia H.; Jacobs, W. Jake; James, Jenee; Volk, Anthony A.; Wilson, David Sloan
This article proposes an evolutionary model of risky behavior in adolescence and contrasts it with the prevailing developmental psychopathology model. The evolutionary model contends that understanding the evolutionary functions of adolescence is critical to explaining why adolescents engage in risky behavior and that successful intervention…
Alexander, Kamila A.; Fannin, Ehriel F.; Baker, Jillian L.; Davis, Zupenda M.
“Risky sexual behavior” accounts for the majority of new HIV infections regardless of gender, age, geographic location, or ethnicity. The phrase, however, refers to a relatively nebulous concept that hampers development of effective sexual health communication strategies. The purpose of this paper is to propose development of a shared conceptual understanding of “risky sexual behavior.” We reviewed multidisciplinary HIV/AIDS literature to identify definitions of risky sexual behavior. Both the linguistic components and the social mechanisms that contribute to the concept of risky sexual behaviors were noted. Risky sexual behavior was often defined in a subjective manner in the literature, even in the scientific research. We urge a paradigm shift to focus on explicit behaviors and the social context of those behaviors in determining HIV risk. We also propose a new definition that reduces individual biases and promotes a broader discussion of the degree of sexual risk across a diversity of behavioral contexts. Sexual health professionals can strengthen practice and research initiatives by operating from a concise working definition of risky sexual behavior that is broadly transferable and expands beyond a traditional focus on identity-based groups. PMID:26184496
Vézina, Johanne; Hébert, Martine; Poulin, François; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E
Few studies have explored the possible contribution of the peer group to dating violence victimization. The current study tested the hypothesis that a risky lifestyle would mediate the relationship between deviant peer affiliation and dating violence victimization among adolescent girls. The proposed mediation model was derived from lifestyles and routine activities theories. A sample of 550 girls (mean age = 15) drawn from a larger representative community sample in Quebec, Canada, completed a questionnaire on three forms of dating violence victimization (psychological, physical, and sexual). Results revealed that girls with a higher level of affiliation with deviant peers were more likely to endorse a risky lifestyle and reported higher rates of all forms of dating violence victimization. Further analyses showed that, while deviant peer affiliation is associated with dating violence victimization, this relationship may be explained, at least partially for psychological violence, and completely for physical/sexual violence, by the girls' own risky lifestyle. Future preventive interventions for adolescent dating violence victimization should target deviant peer groups, as well as adolescent girls who display a risky lifestyle.
Rugigana, Etienne; Birungi, Francine; Nzayirambaho, Manassé
Introduction New infections of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) remain a big problem in many countries. Different interventions have been implemented to improve the general knowledge of HIV, with the hypothesis that increasing HIV knowledge will reduce risky sexual behavior (RSB). However, HIV knowledge may not necessarily reduce RSB. This study explores HIV knowledge and its effect on RSB. Methods The study used data from the 2005 and 2010 Rwanda Demographic and Health Surveys to analyze the association between HIV risk factors and two types of RSB (having two or more partners in the past 12 months; and among those with two or more partners, not using a condom at last sex) and the association between HIV knowledge and those RSB. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine predictors of RSB. Results Among 2,773 men in 2005 and 3,772 men in 2010, 5% and 7% respectively reported having two or more sexual partners. Among them, 93% in 2005 and 74% in 2010 did not use a condom at the last sex. Between 2005 and 2010, knowledge of the protective effect of having just one uninfected faithful partner, and basic knowledge of HIV decreased. Knowledge of the protective effect of using condoms increased from 90% to 94%. However, HIV knowledge was not associated with either type of RSB. Conclusion In setting up policies and strategies related to HIV prevention, policymakers should consider that focusing on HIV knowledge is not sufficient in itself. PMID:27047620
Poulson, R L; Eppler, M A; Satterwhite, T N; Wuensch, K L; Bass, L A
Relationships among alcohol use, strength of religious convictions, and unsafe sexual practices of 210 students at a large public university in the "bible belt" were examined. The women with strong religious beliefs consumed less alcohol and were less likely to engage in risky sexual behavior than were female participants with weaker religious convictions. Among the men, religious conviction was not significantly correlated with alcohol consumption or risky sexual behavior, but alcohol consumption and inconsistent use of condoms and multiple sexual partners were significantly correlated. Men had higher rates of alcohol consumption and unprotected sexual activity than women did, yet the two groups did not differ in overall frequency of sexual activity. Future research is needed to (a) provide greater understanding of gender differences in alcohol use, risky sexual behavior, and religious beliefs of college students in the region and (b) determine whether similar correlations exist in other areas of the country.
Besides its emotional, hormonal and physical components, sexuality has also an important social function. Analyzing these interactions in immigrant adolescents who are challenged at the same time by developmental changes and modified cultural and social rules--especially if they differ from the rules assimilated during childhood--might help professionals to access better comprehension. Personal experience, individual and external resources, whether they are family oriented or professional, are prone to influence on behavior, perception and outcome related to sexual health. The subject is discussed on the base of scientific literature and medical practice.
Wong, Janet Yuen-Ha; Choi, Edmond Pui-Hang; Chan, Claudia Kor-Yee; Fong, Daniel Yee-Tak
Relatively little research has assessed the exposure-response relationship of childhood adversities on engaging in risky sexual behaviors. Also, no previous research has examined the interrelationship among childhood adversities, adult anxiety and depressive symptoms, and risky sexual behaviors. This study aimed to investigate their interrelationships. We used data from a multisite survey of emerging adults aged 18 to 29 studying at four universities in Hong Kong between September and December 2015. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to examine the pathways from childhood adversities to risky sexual behaviors. Participants who had higher childhood adversity scores reported more severe adult anxiety symptoms (β = 0.20, p = 0.002); and adult anxiety symptoms were associated with significantly more risky sexual behaviors (β = 0.46, p < 0.0001). The model with adult anxiety symptoms as the mediator between childhood adversities and risky sexual behaviors showed good fit (root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = 0.04, comparative fit index [CFI] = 0.96, Tucker-Lewis index [TLI] = 0.94 and standardized root mean square residual [SRMSR] = 0.04). However, adult depressive symptoms failed to mediate between childhood adversities and risky sexual behaviors. This study demonstrates the link between childhood adversities and risky sexual behaviors via adult anxiety but not adult depressive symptoms. It is essential to reduce anxious symptoms in dealing with emerging adults who have risky sexual behaviors to prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancy.
Roemmele, Melissa; Messman-Moore, Terri L
Previous research suggests that individuals abused as children are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior during adulthood. The present study examined early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the child abuse-risky sexual behavior relationship among 653 college women. Self-report surveys assessed three forms of child abuse: Sexual, physical, and emotional, and assessed early maladaptive schemas within two domains: Disconnection/rejection and Other-Directedness. Disconnection/rejection schemas fully mediated the relation between child emotional abuse and number of sexual partners and partially mediated the relationship for sexual and physical abuse. However, when frequency of specific risky sexual acts (e.g., sex without contraception) was examined in the previous six months, only abandonment was a partial mediator. Implications for intervention and future research are discussed.
Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Kisely, Steve; Maravilla, Joemer Calderon; Williams, Gail; Najman, Jake Moses
This meta-analytic review examines the association between childhood sexual abuse and risky sexual behaviours with sub-group analyses by gender. Systematic searches of electronic databases including MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO were performed using key terms. We used a priori criteria to include high quality studies and control for heterogeneities across eligible studies. The review was registered with PROSPERO and used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The final meta-analysis applied fixed-effects model to generate pooled odds ratio (OR). Subgroup analyses were conducted to identify potential methodological moderators. The meta-analysis included 8 eligible studies (N=38,989, females=53.1%). The overall syndemic of risky sexual behaviors at adulthood was 1.59 times more common in childhood sexual abuse victims. There was a similar association between childhood sexual abuse in general and subsequent risky sexual behaviors in both females and males. However, in cases of substantiated childhood sexual abuse, there was a greater odds of risky sexual behaviors in females (OR=2.72) than males (OR=1.69). The magnitude of association of childhood sexual abuse and risky sexual behaviors was similar for males and females regardless of study time, study quality score and method of childhood sexual abuse measurement. There were nonsignificant overall and subgroup differences between males and females. Childhood sexual abuse is a significant risk factor for a syndemic of risky sexual behaviors and the magnitude is similar both in females and males. More research is needed to explore possible mechanisms of association.
Krahé, Barbara; Berger, Anja
This study aimed to examine the pathways from child sexual abuse to sexual assault victimization and perpetration in adolescence and early adulthood, considering risky sexual behavior and lowered sexual self-esteem as mediator variables. In a two-wave longitudinal study with 2251 college students in Germany, male and female participants provided reports of sexual aggression victimization and perpetration since age 14 (T1) and again a year later (T2), covering the last 12 months. In addition, child sexual abuse (CSA; before the age of 14), risky sexual behavior, and sexual self-esteem were assessed at T1, and risky sexual behavior and sexual-self-esteem were assessed again at T2. Experience of CSA was significantly associated with greater likelihood of sexual aggression victimization and perpetration, lower sexual self-esteem, and more risky sexual behavior in both gender groups at T1 and was directly related to victimization at T2 among male participants. In both gender groups, CSA indirectly contributed to a higher probability of sexual victimization at T2 via its impact on victimization T1. In males, the indirect path from CSA to T2 perpetration via T1 perpetration was also significant. Through its negative impact on sexual self-esteem, CSA indirectly increased the probability of sexual victimization among women and the probability of sexual aggression perpetration among men. Risky sexual behavior mediated the pathway from CSA to sexual victimization at T2 for men and women and the pathway from CSA to sexual aggression perpetration for women. The findings contribute to the understanding of gendered effects of CSA on revictimization and the victim-to-perpetrator cycle.
Blythe, M J; Rosenthal, S L
Health care providers must recognize the specific challenges and rewards of providing services for adolescents. Quality care begins with the establishment of trust, respect, and confidentiality between the health care provider and the adolescent. Data suggest that the normal age for beginning puberty is decreasing, which has important clinical, educational, and social implications. The health care provider should be aware of the broad range of potential sexual behaviors involving adolescents, as well as the teen's acceptance of such behaviors, often dictated by age, gender, culture, and education. When providing gynecologic care to adolescent girls, the physician should not only provide contraception and screen for sexually transmitted diseases but should contribute to the development of the patient's sexual health. Especially when providing care for the younger teen, the health care provider must focus on involving a member of the family or another significant adult to provide needed support and guidance. Anticipatory guidance for parents should focus on assessing their parenting styles and promoting supervision. Although parents should strive to maintain open communication with their adolescents, they may not accurately estimate the sexual activity of and the sexual risk for their teenage children. Parents need to be encouraged to consider the implications of their own sexual behaviors. The provider should attempt to foster a comfortable environment in which youth may seek help and support for appropriate medical care while reserving the right to disclose their sexual identity when ready. Health care professionals cannot exclude heterosexual behavior on the basis that a young woman self-identifies as homosexual. Her reported sexual behaviors may not indicate her sexual orientation. Self-definition of sexual orientation is a dynamic process including factors such as fantasies, desires, and behaviors. Self-definition of sexual identity is affected by individual
Existing studies suggest that individual and household level economic shocks affect the demand for and supply of risky sex. However, little evidence exists on the effects of an aggregate shock on equilibrium risky sexual behavior. This paper examines the effects of the early twenty-first century copper boom on risky sexual behavior in Zambian copper mining cities. The results suggest that the copper boom substantially reduced rates of transactional sex and multiple partnerships in copper mining cities. These effects were partly concentrated among young adults and copper boom induced in-migration to mining cities appears to have contributed to these reductions.
Hipwell, Alison E.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Keenan, Kate; Chung, Tammy; Loeber, Rolf
Clusters of pre-sexual and sexual behaviors were identified in an urban US sample of 546 mid-adolescent girls. No distinct group of girls engaging in sexually risky behavior was revealed. Sexually active girls were older, lived with a single parent, and reported more substance use and depression, but similar levels of conduct problems, impulsivity…
Wyatt, Tammy Jordan; Peterson, Fred L.
Ongoing behavioral research has documented the growing prevalence of adolescent health risk behaviors, such as tobacco use, sexual activity, alcohol and other substance use, nutritional behavior, physical inactivity, and intentional injury. Newer youth risk behaviors, such as pathological gambling, are emerging as threats to public health. Risk,…
Baams, Laura; Overbeek, Geertjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; van Aken, Marcel A G
Little is known about the relationship between personality and sexual development among mid-adolescents. In the current study, we used a person-centered approach to investigate the relation between personality types and the development of sexual behavior. We hypothesized that undercontrolling adolescents would engage in more advanced, casual, and risky sexual behavior compared to their resilient and overcontrolling peers. Data were used from 407 mid-adolescents (Mage = 14.5) followed across four measurement waves spanning 18 months. Results from latent class analyses (LCA) identified the three classical personality types: resilients, undercontrollers, and overcontrollers. Controlling for perceived pubertal timing and biological sex, latent growth curve analyses in Mplus showed that, at baseline, undercontrollers were more sexually experienced and engaged in more casual and risky sexual behavior than resilients and overcontrollers. Although initial levels of sexual behavior differed by personality types, over time increases in sexual behavior occurred at a similar rate across the types. Overall, the current study showed that undercontrolling adolescents are early sexual developers who engage in more advanced, casual, and risky sexual behavior than other adolescents. The implications of these findings for longer-term differences in sexual behavior between personality types in later adolescence are discussed.
Janssen, Erick; Goodrich, David; Petrocelli, John V; Bancroft, John
The past few years have seen an increased awareness of the relevance of studying the role of sexual response, emotion, and traits such as sensation seeking and the propensity for sexual inhibition in risky sexual behavior. The current study examined the association between self-reported sexual risk taking and psychophysiological response patterns in 76 heterosexual and homosexual men. Measures included genital, electrodermal, startle eyeblink, and cardiovascular responses, and stimuli included threatening (depicting coercive sexual interactions) and nonthreatening (depicting consensual sexual interactions) sexual film excerpts. Sexual risk taking was hypothesized to be associated with decreased inhibition of sexual arousal and hyporeactive affective and autonomic responses to threatening sexual stimuli. Controlling for age and number of sexual partners in the past year, sexual risk taking (number of partners during the past 3 years with whom no condoms were used) was found to be associated with stronger genital responses and smaller eyeblink responses to both threatening and nonthreatening sexual stimuli. Correlations between genital and subjective sexual arousal were relatively low. Sexual risk taking was related to sensation seeking but not to the propensity for sexual inhibition. The findings suggest that risky sexual behavior may involve a role for psychophysiological mechanisms that are specific to sex as well as for ones that are associated with more general approach/avoidance response tendencies.
Kastbom, Åsa A; Sydsjö, Gunilla; Bladh, Marie; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl-Göran
Aim This study investigated the relationship between sexual debut before 14 years of age and socio-demographics, sexual experience, health, experience of child abuse and behaviour at 18 years of age. Methods A sample of 3432 Swedish high school seniors completed a survey about sexuality, health and abuse at the age of 18. Results Early debut was positively correlated with risky behaviours, such as the number of partners, experience of oral and anal sex, health behaviours, such as smoking, drug and alcohol use, and antisocial behaviour, such as being violent, lying, stealing and running away from home. Girls with an early sexual debut had significantly more experience of sexual abuse. Boys with an early sexual debut were more likely to have a weak sense of coherence, low self-esteem and poor mental health, together with experience of sexual abuse, selling sex and physical abuse. A multiple logistic regression model showed that a number of antisocial acts and health behaviours remained significant, but early sexual debut did not increase the risk of psychiatric symptoms, low self-esteem or low sense of coherence at 18 years of age. Conclusion Early sexual debut was associated with problematic behaviours during later adolescence, and this vulnerability requires attention from parents and healthcare providers. PMID:25213099
Dembo, Richard; Belenko, Steven; Childs, Kristina; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Wareham, Jennifer
Data were collected on arrested youths processed at a centralized intake facility, including youths released back to the community and those placed in secure detention. This paper reports the results of a test of a structural model involving newly arrested male and female youths’ sexually transmitted diseases (STD) test results, urine analysis results for recent cocaine and marijuana use, and self-reported engaging in risky sexual behavior. The across gender, multiple group model involved: (1) a confirmatory factor analysis of these variables, reflecting a latent variable labeled Risk, (2) a regression of Risk on the youths’ age, and (3) an examination of the covariance between Risk and the youths’ race and seriousness of arrest charge. Results indicate the youths’ STD status, drug use, and reported risky sexual behavior are interrelated phenomena, similarly experienced across gender. Age was the only correlate of Risk status that demonstrated a significant gender group difference. The youths’ race and seriousness of arrest charges did not significantly affect Risk, regardless of gender. Research and policy implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:21221415
Jaser, Sarah S.; Yates, Heather; Dumser, Susan; Whittemore, Robin
Purpose The purpose of this article is to review risk behaviors and their health consequences in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. The existing literature on common risk behaviors in adolescents is examined, with a focus on illicit drug use, alcohol use, smoking, unprotected sexual activity, and disordered eating behaviors. Conclusions A review of the literature highlights the lack of studies of risk behaviors in this population. Much of what is known comes from studies with adolescents in the general population or from studies of adults with type 1 diabetes. Known risk and protective factors for risk behaviors and health outcomes are noted. Based on these findings, suggestions are provided for diabetes educators and health care providers to assess for and prevent risk behaviors in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Directions for future research in this population are indicated, including the need to develop and test standardized prevention programs. PMID:22002971
Kershaw, Trace S.; Ethier, Kathleen A.; Milan, Stephanie; Lewis, Jessica B.; Niccolai, Linda M.; Meade, Christina; Ickovics, Jeannette R.
Risky sexual behavior can lead to pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Our study of 300 adolescent females takes an integrative approach by incorporating these multiple outcomes to assess the influence of risk perceptions on sexual behavior by (1) identifying subgroups of perceived susceptibility…
Yarber, W L; Parrillo, A V
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are a serious health problem for adolescents, occurring in an estimated one-quarter of sexually active teen-agers. Many of the health problems--including STDs--result from specific risk-taking behaviors. Determinants of STD risks among adolescents include behavioral, psychological, social, biological, institutional factors. Education is an important component in STD control in adolescents. The goal of education is to increase adolescent self-efficiency in practicing STD prevention and risk-reduction. A comprehensive approach including quality, theory-based education, accessible and effective health clinics, and improved social and economic conditions has the most promise of controlling STDs in adolescents.
Kashubeck-West, Susan; Szymanski, Dawn M.
This study investigated risky sexual behavior in a sample of 209 gay and bisexual men. Using structural equation modeling, the mediating relations of substance use factors (expectations about the sexually enhancing effects of substance use and substance use during sex) between internalized heterosexism (IH) and sensation seeking and unprotected…
Gillen, Meghan M.; Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Shearer, Cindy L.
Body image and sexuality, both physically-oriented domains of the self, are likely linked, but few studies have examined their associations. In the present investigation, we studied emerging adult undergraduates (ages 17-19), focusing specifically on risky sexual behaviors and attitudes. Participants (N=434) completed a survey on body image,…
Hines, A M; Snowden, L R; Graves, K L
The present study examined the relationship between acculturation, alcohol consumption and AIDS-related risky sexual behavior in a national probability sample of 533 African American women. Results indicated that women who were the heaviest drinkers were also the least acculturated. However, women most likely to engage in risky sexual behavior, including having multiple partners, being nonmonogamous or in a nonmonogamous relationship, and being nonmonogamous or in a nonmonogamous relationship and not using a condom consistently, were high in acculturation rather than low. Alcohol use proved related to risky sexual behavior when considered in conjunction with respondents' level of acculturation. Women at risk for contracting AIDS were not low acculturated African American women who drank heavily, but high acculturated African American women. Findings from this study extend our understanding of risk and contain implications for research and prevention efforts in the area of alcohol use and AIDS-related sexual behavior among African American women.
Cowan, Benjamin W.
This paper analyzes the effect of college costs on teenagers' engagement in risky behaviors before they are old enough to attend college. Individuals with brighter prospects for future schooling attainment may engage in less drug and alcohol use and risky sexual activity because they have more to lose if such behaviors have harmful effects in…
Auerbach, Randy P.; McWhinnie, Chad M.; Goldfinger, Marc; Abela, John R. Z.; Zhu, Xiongzhao; Yao, Shuqiao
The goals of the current study were to examine whether (a) negative events mediate the relationship between materialism and risky behavior engagement and (b) materialism moderates the relationship between stress and engagement in risky behaviors in Chinese youth. At Time 1, 406 adolescents (ages 14-19) from Yue Yang, China, completed measures…
Ybarra, Michele L.; Rosario, Margaret; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Goodenow, Carol
Purpose Data suggest that lesbian and bisexual adolescents engage in risky sexual behaviors at higher rates than heterosexual girls. Whether these findings also apply to girls of other sexual identities is less well understood. Potential differences in risky sexual behaviors reported by lesbian versus bisexual adolescents are also underreported in the literature. Methods Data were collected online in 2010–2011 among 2,823 girls, aged 13 to 18 years, in the U.S. Multinomial logistic regression was used to quantify comparisons of sexual behaviors between (1) lesbian, (2) bisexual, and (3) questioning, unsure, or other (QUO) identity and (0) heterosexual girls. Logistic regression compared lesbian and bisexual adolescents. Results Lesbian and bisexual adolescents reported significantly more lifetime and past-year sexual partners than heterosexual girls. Bisexual girls were also more likely to report penile-anal and penile-vaginal sex, whereas lesbians were more likely to report earlier sexual debut for almost all types of sex, as compared to heterosexual girls. Lesbians also were more likely to report infrequent condom use and less likely to have conversations with partners about the use of barriers (e.g., dental dams) before first sex. Relative to lesbians, bisexual girls reported older age at first sex for almost all sexual behaviors and higher lifetime prevalence of recent male partners, penile-vaginal, and penile-anal sex. Few differences were noted between QUO and heterosexual girls. Conclusions Sexual minority adolescents are not identical in terms of sexual risk. Providers need to be sensitive to these differences and their implications for health and counseling of patients. PMID:26903429
Cruzeiro, Ana Laura Sica; Souza, Luciano Dias de Mattos; Silva, Ricardo Azevedo da; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares; Rocha, Clarissa Lisbôa Arla da; Horta, Bernardo Lessa
The objective of this article is to evaluate the number of sexual partners in the last twelve months and the use of condom in the last three sexual relations of adolescents aged between 15 and 18 years old. It was a cross-sectional study with 960 adolescents. Two dichotomized variables were considered as risk sexual behaviors: two or more sexual partners in the last twelve months, and occasional use of condom in the last three sexual relations. We assessed whether these behaviors were associated with socioeconomic status, gender, adolescent and parental schooling, age, living with the parents, remunerated work, religiosity, drugs use, tobacco, alcohol consumption, alcoholic beverages consume before the last sexual relation. The Poisson regression was used for each outcome. The adolescent gender, schooling, the use of illicit drugs and tobacco in the last month as well as alcoholic beverages consume before the last sexual relation indicates greater risk of keeping sexual relations with two or more partners in the last 12 months. With regard to the occasional use of condom in the last three sexual relations, females and those whose mothers have low schooling presented increased risk. Our study suggests that there is a strong relation between risky behaviors.
Odeyemi, Kofoworola; Onajole, Adebayo; Ogunowo, Babatunde
High rates of adolescent pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and unsafe abortions in Nigeria indicate the need for a greater understanding of factors that affect adolescent sexuality. The sexual health needs of adolescents remain poorly known and addressed particularly among vulnerable subpopulations like out-of-school adolescents. The objective of this study was to examine the sexual behavior of female out-of-school adolescents and to identify factors that influence their sexual behavior. This cross-sectional study was conducted among a representative sample of unmarried, out-of-school female adolescents (n = 332, mean age 17 y), selected using cluster sampling, who were working in a major market (Mushin) in Lagos, Nigeria. Data were collected using interviewer administered questionnaires. Many girls (43.7%) have had sexual intercourse. The mean age at initiation was 16 years. The main reason for initiation was curiosity. Risky sexual behavior and transactional sex was common. Nonconsensual sex was also reported. Sexual health knowledge was poor, and friends served as their main source of information on sexual health issues. Factors associated with the initiation of sexual activity were friends sexual behavior, the person adolescents reside with, parents marital status, availability of funds to meet basic needs, and watching pornography (p < .05). Out-of-school female adolescents engaging in risky sexual behavior are exposed to sexual abuse, lack skills to resist pressure, and have limited access to credible reproductive health information. Appropriate interventions including provision of sexuality education and a supportive environment must be instituted to address their needs.
Shehadeh, Nancy; McCoy, H Virginia
Migrant workers have been shown to be at a heightened level of risk for HIV, and ethnic identity has been posited to have an impact on engagement in risky sexual behaviors. Our longitudinal study examined associations between baseline and short-term changes in ethnic identity and high-risk sexual behaviors. Baseline (n = 431) and 6-month assessment (n = 270) data were obtained from a larger HIV prevention study conducted among African American and Hispanic migrant workers. Repeated-measures multivariate analysis of covariance and multiple linear regressions were used. Ethnic identity explore, a subscale of ethnic identity, was a significant predictor of overall sexual risk [F(8, 422) = 6.953, p < .001] and unprotected vaginal acts [F(8, 422) = 8.444, p < .001] at baseline. However, ethnic identity had no bearing on changes in risky sexual behaviors. Ethnic identity explore was associated with safer sexual behaviors.
Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey; Sanchez, Monica; Montoya, Jorge; Plant, Aaron; Kordic, Timothy
OBJECTIVES: Sexting (sending/receiving sexually explicit texts and images via cell phone) may be associated with sexual health consequences among adolescents. However, to date, no published data from a probability-based sample has examined associations between sexting and sexual activity. METHODS: A probability sample of 1839 students was collected alongside the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey in Los Angeles high schools. Logistic regressions were used to assess the correlates of sexting behavior and associations between sexting and sexual risk-taking. RESULTS: Fifteen percent of adolescents with cell phone access reported sexting, and 54% reported knowing someone who had sent a sext. Adolescents whose peers sexted were more likely to sext themselves (odds ratio [OR] = 16.87, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.62–29.59). Adolescents who themselves sexted were more likely to report being sexually active (OR = 7.17, 95% CI: 5.01–10.25). Nonheterosexual students were more likely to report sexting (OR = 2.74, 95% CI: 1.86–4.04), sexual activity (OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.07–2.15), and unprotected sex at last sexual encounter (OR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.17–2.89). CONCLUSIONS: Sexting, rather than functioning as an alternative to “real world” sexual risk behavior, appears to be part of a cluster of risky sexual behaviors among adolescents. We recommend that clinicians discuss sexting as an adolescent-friendly way of engaging patients in conversations about sexual activity, prevention of sexually transmitted infections, and unwanted pregnancy. We further recommend that discussion about sexting and its associated risk behavior be included in school-based sexual health curricula. PMID:22987882
Delavande, Adeline; Sampaio, Mafalda; Sood, Neeraj
Although most countries state that fighting social intolerance against persons with HIV is part of their national HIV strategy, the impact of reducing intolerance on risky sexual behavior is largely unknown. In this paper, we estimate the effect of social intolerance against HIV+ persons on risky sexual behavior in rural Malawi using data from roughly 2000 respondents from the 2004 and 2006 waves of the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH). The effect of social intolerance on risky behavior is a priori ambiguous. On the one hand, higher social intolerance or stigma can lead people to disassociate from the stigmatized group and hence promote risky behavior. On the other hand, intolerance can be viewed as a social tax on being HIV+ and thus higher intolerance may reduce risky behavior. We find that a decrease in social intolerance is associated with a decrease in risky behavior, including fewer partners and a lower likelihood of having extra-marital relations. This effect is mainly driven by the impact of social intolerance on men. Overall the results suggests that reducing social intolerance might not only benefit the HIV positive but might also forestall the spread of HIV.
King, Richard B.
The Clackamas Adolescent Sexual Offender Intervention program is designed to interrupt and change behavior of clients who are juvenile sexual offenders at risk to re-offend. Intervention is scheduled for each offender over a 52-week period with groups meeting each week for 2 hours, and an all day session each 6-week period on Saturday. The…
Longmore, Monica A.; Eng, Abbey L.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Manning, Wendy D.
This study draws on social control and social learning theories to examine the role of dating-specific attitudes and practices as predictors of adolescents' sexual initiation. We include attention to the adolescent's reaction to control attempts as a further means of assessing family dynamics (i.e., frequency of dating disagreements). The study…
Crandall, AliceAnn; Magnusson, Brianna M; Novilla, M Lelinneth B; Novilla, Lynneth Kirsten B; Dyer, W Justin
The ability to control one's emotions, thoughts, and behaviors is known as self-regulation. Family stress and low adolescent self-regulation have been linked with increased engagement in risky sexual behaviors, which peak in late adolescence and early adulthood. The purpose of this study was to assess whether adolescent self-regulation, measured by parent and adolescent self-report and respiratory sinus arrhythmia, mediates or moderates the relationship between family financial stress and risky sexual behaviors. We assessed these relationships in a 4-year longitudinal sample of 450 adolescents (52 % female; 70 % white) and their parents using structural equation modeling. Results indicated that high family financial stress predicts engagement in risky sexual behaviors as mediated, but not moderated, by adolescent self-regulation. The results suggest that adolescent self-regulatory capacities are a mechanism through which proximal external forces influence adolescent risk-taking. Promoting adolescent self-regulation, especially in the face of external stressors, may be an important method to reduce risk-taking behaviors as adolescents transition to adulthood.
De Genna, Natacha M.; Cornelius, Marie D.
Teenage mothers are more likely to use drugs, and their children are more likely to use substances and become pregnant during adolescence. Teenage mothers' substance use may play a role in the intergenerational risk for adolescent pregnancy. Pregnant adolescents (12-18 years) were seen during pregnancy and postnatal years 6, 10, 14, and 16 (n =…
The current series of studies was conducted to explore the interplay between death awareness, fear of intimacy, and unsafe sex. In Study 1 (n=73), making mortality salient led to higher willingness to engage in risky sexual behaviors, in comparison to a control condition. In addition, only in the mortality salience condition, lower fear of…
Carswell, Steven B.; Hanlon, Thomas E.; Watts, Amy M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.
This study examined the link between developmental risk and protective factors and risky sexual activity among 222 urban African American youth attending an alternative education program (AEP) because of problematic behavior. Self-report information provided by these AEP participants revealed that, for the risk and protective factors examined, the…
Moreno, Jhon Alexander; McKerral, Michelle
Little is known about the long-term consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI) regarding risky sexual behaviour. The objectives of the study were (1) to compare risky sexual behaviour in a sample of individuals with TBI having received interdisciplinary rehabilitation with that of healthy controls, and (2) to explore the relationships between risky sexual behaviour, executive functions, and mental health in individuals with TBI. The study group consisted of 42 individuals with TBI with a mean age of 37.9 years (SD = 9.7), 12.8 years of education (SD = 3.3), and 3.3 years post-injury (SD = 4.3). Healthy controls consisted of 47 participants, with a mean age of 37.6 years (SD = 10.7), and 13 years of education (SD = 3). Risky sexual behaviour was measured with the Sexual Risk Survey and executive function with the Dysexecutive Questionnaire. Mental health measures included the Generalised Anxiety Disorder Scale, and the Patient Health Questionnaire for depression. Compared to healthy controls, individuals with TBI reported more dysexecutive and mental health problems, without differences in risky sexual behaviour. In individuals with TBI, risky sexual behaviour was associated with behavioural, cognitive and emotional dysexecutive problems, but not with anxiety or depression. It was concluded that special attention should be given to individuals with TBI showing difficulties in executive functions given their association with risky sexual behaviour.
Broaddus, Michelle; Owczarzak, Jill; Pacella, Maria; Pinkerton, Steven; Wright, Cassandra
The majority of research on risky sexual behavior in African American women has examined global associations between individual-level predictors and behavior. However, this method obscures the potentially significant impact of the specific relationship or relationship partner on risky sexual behavior. To address this gap, we conducted partnership-level analysis of risky sexual behavior among 718 African American women recruited from HIV counseling, testing, and referral sites in four states. Using mixed model regressions, we tested relationships between condomless vaginal intercourse with men and variables drawn from the Theory of Planned Behavior, Theory of Gender and Power, and previous research specifically on sexual risks among African American women. Significant associations with risky sexual behavior indicate the need for continued emphasis on condom attitudes, condom negotiation behaviors, and overcoming partner resistance to condoms within both main and non-main partnerships when implementing interventions designed to address HIV and sexually transmitted infection risks among African American women.
Rodgers, Kathleen Boyce; McGuire, Jenifer K
In this study we estimated the combined effects of violence experiences, parenting processes, and community poverty on sexual onset, alcohol or other drug (AOD) use at last sex, multiple sex partners, and prior pregnancy in a sample of 7th-, 9th-, and 11th-grade adolescents (n = 7,891), and the subsample of sexually experienced adolescents (n = 2,108). Multilevel multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that having experienced any interpersonal violence, and low levels of perceived parental warmth and parental knowledge predicted sexual onset. Adult sexual abuse or peer sexual coercion increased the odds for AOD use at last sex and having multiple sexual partners. When demographic, violence experiences and parenting behaviors were accounted for, poverty was not associated with sexual onset, AOD use at last sex, or multiple sex partners. Results suggest prevention efforts to reduce teen dating violence may be especially important to diminish sexually risky behaviors among adolescents.
May, David C.; Nichols, Joe D.; Eltzroth, Patricia L.
The present study was a cross-sectional examination of the causes of adolescent participation in risky behaviors, using a diverse sample of adolescents from a Midwestern state. This research compared the relative effects of a traditional explanation of deviant behavior, differential association theory, with a modern derivative, nonsocial…
Chilman, Catherine S.
All aspects of adolescent sexuality may be viewed as primarily sexual. The primary fact about adolescence is that the young person becomes capable of reproduction. Biological changes interact with psychological ones; the cognitive, motivational, social and emotional aspects are all directed toward becoming a sexual human being. In adolescence,…
Solmeyer, Anna R.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.
This study examined the associations between sibling intimacy and conflict and youths' reports of risky behavior in a sample of adolescents aged 11 to 20. Participants were mothers, fathers, and sibling dyads in 393 families who were interviewed annually for 3, 4, or 5 years. Multivariate multilevel models tested longitudinal links between sibling intimacy and conflict and youths' risky behavior and whether these associations were moderated by birth order, sex, or dyad sex constellation. Controlling for parent-youth conflict, the results showed positive within-person covariation between sibling conflict and risky behavior for all youths except firstborns with younger brothers. Controlling for parent-youth intimacy, sibling intimacy was positively linked with risky behavior at the between-person level, but only in brother-brother pairs. The discussion focuses on sibling relationships as a context for adolescents' individual development and the roles of birth order, sex, and dyad sex constellation. PMID:23772819
Seth, Puja; Lang, Delia L.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Braxton, Nikia D.; Crosby, Richard A.; Brown, Larry K.; Hadley, Wendy; Donenberg, Geri R.
Background Adolescents with a history of psychiatric disorder(s) are particularly vulnerable to contracting sexually transmissible infections (STIs) as a result of psychological and emotional states associated with higher rates of risky sexual behaviour. The present study examined gender differences in sexual risk behaviours and STI among adolescents in mental health treatment. Methods Three hundred and seventy nine sexually active adolescents, aged 13–18 years, from a larger multisite study, who received mental health treatment during the past year, completed an audio computer-assisted self interview assessing sociodemographics, psychiatric symptomatology and HIV/STI risk behaviours, and provided urine specimens tested for STI. Results After controlling for covariates, multivariate logistic regression models indicated that female adolescents were more likely to have had an HIV test (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.2, P = 0.0001), obtain their HIV test results (AOR = 2.9, P = 0.03), refuse sex out of fear for STI acquisition (AOR = 1.7, P = 0.04), or avoid a situation that might lead to sex (AOR = 2.4, P = 0.001), and were less likely to have a casual sex partner (AOR = 0.40, P = 0.002). Additionally, females were more likely to report inconsistent condom use (AOR = 2.60, P = 0.001) and have a STI (AOR = 9.1, P = 0.0001) than their male counterparts. Conclusions Female adolescents receiving mental health treatment were more than nine times as likely to have an STI and more likely to use condoms inconsistently. The standard of care for mental health practice for adolescents should include referrals for STI screening and treatment as well as assessment and discussion of risky sexual behaviours as part of the treatment plan when indicated. Effective programs should address gender-specific communication and behavioural skills. PMID:22697141
Pharo, Henry; Sim, Clark; Graham, Mikala; Gross, Julien; Hayne, Harlene
Adolescence is a risky business. Despite outstanding physical health, the risk of injury or death during adolescence is 2-3 times that of childhood. The primary cause of this increase in morbidity and mortality is heightened risky behavior including drinking, driving, drug-taking, smoking, and unprotected sex. Why is it that some adolescents take big risks, while others do not? One potential source of individual differences in risk-taking behavior may lie in individual differences in executive function including judgment, impulse control, self-monitoring, and planning. Researchers have hypothesized that limited brain system integration and efficiency, particularly in the prefrontal cortex and related structures, may be involved in the range and degree of risky behavior commonly exhibited by teens. In the present study, we examined the relation between risky behavior, personality factors, and performance on neuropsychological tests of executive function. The community sample of 136 adolescents aged 13- to 17-years-old and 57 emerging adults aged 18- to 22-years-old exhibited marked individual differences in risk-taking behavior; participants' scores on a alcohol, smoking, drugs, sex, driving, and antisocial behavior questionnaire ranged from 0 to near the maximum value possible. We found that risky personality and performance on the neuropsychological tests were both significant predictors of real-world risk-taking. These data have important implications for current public policies involving adolescents and emerging adults.
Brion-Meisels, Steven; And Others
This teacher's manual is one volume in a six volume curriculum for the secondary level, designed to provide a systematic, group-oriented approach to decision-making in areas crucial to adolescent development: sexuality and social relationships, drug (substance) use and abuse, work, juvenile law, and people and government. An introductory section…
Noroozi, Mahnaz; Merghati Khoei, Effat-al-Sadat; Taleghani, Fariba; Tavakoli, Mahgol; Gholami, Ali
Background: There are restrictions as well as lawful and religious prohibition for sexual relationships in Iranian society. Objectives: This study explores the varied experiential reality of Iranian youth and their risky sexual experiences. Patients and Methods: Data collection is based on semi-structured interviews with 30 single young men and women. Observation of interactions of youth in different settings has been another source of information. Interviews were microscopically content analyzed. Results: The accounts of risky sexual experiences included gendered behavioral, cultural, and cognitive factors. In the re-contextualizing process, these accounts were categorized by two main themes: “gendered sexual script” and “cultural scenarios of interpersonal interactions”. The notion of “male power” was evident in the responses provided by the participants. Women seldom asked for condom use due to limited knowledge about STIs-HIV/AIDS and unpleasant experiences with condoms. Men had limited knowledge about various sexual modes of HIV and STIs transmission and did not use condoms consistently because they had not seen themselves at risk of STIs or HIV as well as their belief about the decrease of sexual pleasure. Conclusions: Rising youth awareness, creating a positive attitude, and appropriate knowledge about safe sex practices are seminal. It is also vital to ensure access to gender specific sexual and reproductive health services for youths, empower women, and strengthen their sexual assertiveness as well as the elimination of all forms of gender-based inequalities. PMID:25838931
Adolescent sexual activity is increasing globally. Abstinence and a delay in the start of sexual intercourse may be the most effective methods in preventing the consequences of teenage sexual activity. However, these goals are seldom met. With the change in social norms, peer pressure and media influences; teenagers are engaging in premarital sex earlier. Family life education in countries like Sweden and Finland reduces teenage pregnancy and abortion. It is unrealistic to expect sexually active adolescents to stop their sexual activity. An effective contraceptive method will provide an alternative to prevent teenage pregnancy. Issues on compliance of contraceptive use, especially at the very outset of sexual activity should be addressed. Most of the problems associated with teenage pregnancy are now thought to be related to the social circumstances of the mother, the poor nutritional status before pregnancy and poor attendance at antenatal clinics. Risk-taking behaviour in this age group will also make them more prone to contracting sexually transmitted diseases. High risk groups should be screened and treated early. Contraceptive methods with protection against sexually transmitted diseases should be advised.
Auerbach, Randy P; McWhinnie, Chad M; Goldfinger, Marc; Abela, John R Z; Zhu, Xiongzhao; Yao, Shuqiao
The goals of the current study were to examine whether (a) negative events mediate the relationship between materialism and risky behavior engagement and (b) materialism moderates the relationship between stress and engagement in risky behaviors in Chinese youth. At Time 1, 406 adolescents (ages 14-19) from Yue Yang, China, completed measures assessing engagement in risky behaviors and the occurrence of negative events. Follow-up assessments occurred once a month for 6 months. In line with our hypotheses, results of hierarchical linear modeling analyses indicated that higher levels of negative events mediated the relationship higher levels of materialism and greater risky behavior engagement. In addition, adolescents who exhibited higher levels of materialism were more likely than adolescents possessing lower levels of materialism to report increased engagement in risky behaviors in response to negative life events. At the same time, the effect was only present in boys. Unexpectedly, girls who reported lower levels of materialism also exhibited increased engagement in risky behaviors in response to negative events.
Lutfi, Khaleeq; Trepka, Mary Jo; Fennie, Kristopher P; Ibanez, Gladys; Gladwin, Hugh
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have disproportionately affected the non-Hispanic black population in the United States. A person's community can affect his or her STI risk by the community's underlying prevalence of STIs, sexual networks, and social influences on individual behaviors. Racial residential segregation-the separation of racial groups in a residential context across physical environments-is a community factor that has been associated with negative health outcomes. The objective of this study was to examine if non-Hispanic blacks living in highly segregated areas were more likely to have risky sexual behavior. Demographic and sexual risk behavior data from non-Hispanic blacks aged 15-44 years participating in the National Survey of Family Growth were linked to Core-Based Statistical Area segregation data from the U.S. Census Bureau. Five dimensions measured racial residential segregation, each covering a different concept of spatial variation. Multilevel logistic regressions were performed to test the effect of each dimension on sexual risk behavior controlling for demographics and community poverty. Of the 3643 participants, 588 (14.5%) reported risky sexual behavior as defined as two or more partners in the last 12 months and no consistent condom use. Multilevel analysis results show that racial residential segregation was associated with risky sexual behavior with the association being stronger for the centralization [aOR (95% CI)][2.07 (2.05-2.08)] and concentration [2.05 (2.03-2.07)] dimensions. This suggests risky sexual behavior is more strongly associated with neighborhoods with high concentrations of non-Hispanic blacks and an accumulation of non-Hispanic blacks in an urban core. Findings suggest racial residential segregation is associated with risky sexual behavior in non-Hispanic blacks 15-44 years of age with magnitudes varying by dimension. Incorporating additional contextual factors may
Obeng Gyimah, Stephen; Kodzi, Ivy; Emina, Jacques; Adjei, Jones; Ezeh, Alex
Young people in sub-Saharan Africa are at the centre of the global HIV epidemic as they account for a disproportionate share of new infections. Their vulnerability to HIV has been attributed to a myriad of factors, in particular, risky sexual behaviours. While economic factors are important, increasing attention has been devoted to religion on the discourse on sexual decision-making because religious values provide a perspective on life that often conflicts with risky sexual behaviours. Given the centrality of religion in the African social fabric, this study assesses the relationship between adolescent religiousness and involvement in risky sexual behaviours using data from the informal settlements of Nairobi. Guided by social control theory, the paper explores if and how religion and religiosity affect sexual risk-taking among adolescents.
Schmiege, Sarah J; Bryan, Angela D
Justice-involved adolescents engage in high levels of risky sexual behavior and substance use, and understanding potential relationships among these constructs is important for effective HIV/STI prevention. A regression mixture modeling approach was used to determine whether subgroups could be identified based on the regression of two indicators of sexual risk (condom use and frequency of intercourse) on three measures of substance use (alcohol, marijuana and hard drugs). Three classes were observed among n = 596 adolescents on probation: none of the substances predicted outcomes for approximately 18 % of the sample; alcohol and marijuana use were predictive for approximately 59 % of the sample, and marijuana use and hard drug use were predictive in approximately 23 % of the sample. Demographic, individual difference, and additional sexual and substance use risk variables were examined in relation to class membership. Findings are discussed in terms of understanding profiles of risk behavior among at-risk youth.
Lama, Tsering Pema; Kumoji, E 'Kuor; Ketlogetswe, Ditsotlhe; Anderson, Marina; Brahmbhatt, Heena
Alcohol use is a known key risk factor associated with risky sexual behavior that contributes to HIV transmission. This cross-sectional study used time location sampling to investigate alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors that occurred after ingesting alcohol among 609 patrons of alcohol venues in Gaborone, Botswana. Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores were categorized as low (1-7), medium (8-15), and high (16+) for analysis. Logistic regression models stratified by gender assessed the association between alcohol use and condom use at last sex after drinking alcohol. Among females, the odds of condom use during last sex after drinking alcohol were significantly lower for high compared to low AUDIT scores (AOR = 0.17, 95% CI 0.06-0.54). Among males, factors significantly associated with condom use at last sex after alcohol use were low levels of education (primary level compared to university and above AOR = 0.13; 95% CI 0.03-0.55) and beliefs that alcohol use did not increase risky sexual behaviors (AOR = 0.26; 95% CI 0.11-0.62). HIV prevention interventions should target females and emphasize sexual risks associated with alcohol use.
Kaushik, Ashlesha; Pineda, Carol; Kest, Helen
Background. Sexual behaviors and knowledge among PHIV-infected (PHIV(+)) adolescents in comparison with HIV-uninfected youths are not well understood and continue to be studied actively. Objective. To compare sexual behavior and sexual knowledge of PHIV(+) and HIV-uninfected adolescents at an urban, tertiary-care center in New Jersey. Study Design. Modified Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance questionnaire was administered to PHIV(+) and HIV-uninfected adolescents to assess and compare sexual behavior and knowledge over a 1-year-period. Results. Twenty-seven PHIV(+) and 100 HIV-uninfected adolescents were studied; 59% PHIV(+) and 52% HIV-uninfected adolescents were sexually active. A significantly higher proportion of PHIV(+) adolescents compared to HIV-uninfected adolescents reported ≥1 occasion of unprotected penetrative sex (p < 0.0001) and reported multiple (>4) sexual partners (p = 0.037). Significantly more PHIV(+) males reported receptive anal intercourse (p < 0.001). About 1/3 of adolescents in both groups were unaware that sexual abstinence can prevent HIV transmission and >80% adolescents in both groups did not consider multiple sexual partners a risk factor for HIV transmission. Only 25% PHIV(+) adolescents reported disclosing their seropositive status to their first sexual partners. Conclusions. High risk sexual behaviors were significantly more prevalent among PHIV(+) youths; however both groups demonstrated considerable gaps in sexual knowledge. There is an urgent need for heightening awareness about risky behaviors, interventions for prevention, and reproductive health promotion among adolescents.
Van Campen, Kali S.; Romero, Andrea J.
The current study investigates the protective influences of family involvement (i.e., parental monitoring, communication, closeness, and family proximity) and sexual self-efficacy on the risky sexual behavior of ethnic minority (predominantly Mexican-origin) adolescents in the southwestern United States (N = 122). Results indicate that whereas…
Sommers, Marilyn S.; Fargo, Jamison D.
Background Health-compromising behaviors in adolescents and adults co-occur. Because motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death and disability for these age groups, understanding the association between risky driving and other health compromising behaviors is critical. Methods We performed a secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial of an intervention for participants who screened positive for risky driving and problem drinking. Using baseline data, we examined relationships among conduct behavior problems before and after age 15, depressive symptoms, sleep, problem drinking, and risky driving (hostile, reckless and drinking and driving) in late adolescents ages 18–24 (n= 110) and adults ages 25–44 (n= 202). We developed a measurement model for the entire sample using confirmatory factor analysis, which was then specified as a multi-group structural equation model. Results Late adolescents and adults had some similar associations for pathways through problem drinking to drinking and driving; depression to reckless driving; and conduct behavior problems after 15 to hostile driving. Late adolescents, however, had more complex relationships: depressive symptoms and conduct behavior problems before 15 were associated with more risky driving behaviors through multiple pathways and males reported more risky driving. Conclusions Risky driving is associated with other health-compromising behaviors and mental health factors. It is a multidimensional phenomenon more pronounced in late adolescence than adulthood. In order to promote safe driving, the findings support the need to consider behaviors that are a health threat in the late adolescent population during driving training and licensure. PMID:24814717
Manning, Wendy D.; Longmore, Monica A.; Copp, Jennifer; Giordano, Peggy C.
The complexity of adolescents' dating and sexual lives is not easily operationalized with simple indicators of dating or sexual activity. While building on prior work that emphasizes the "risky" nature of adolescents' intimate relationships, we assess whether a variety of indicators reflecting the complexity of…
Brawner, Bridgette M; Alexander, Kamila A; Fannin, Ehriel F; Baker, Jillian L; Davis, Zupenda M
"Risky sexual behavior" accounts for the majority of new HIV infections regardless of gender, age, geographic location, or ethnicity. The phrase, however, refers to a relatively nebulous concept that hampers development of effective sexual health communication strategies. The purpose of this paper was to propose development of a shared conceptual understanding of "risky sexual behavior." We reviewed multidisciplinary HIV/AIDS literature to identify definitions of risky sexual behavior. Both the linguistic components and the social mechanisms that contribute to the concept of risky sexual behaviors were noted. Risky sexual behavior was often defined in a subjective manner in the literature, even in the scientific research. We urge a paradigm shift to focus on explicit behaviors and the social context of those behaviors in determining HIV risk. We also propose a new definition that reduces individual biases and promotes a broader discussion of the degree of sexual risk across a diversity of behavioral contexts. Sexual health professionals can strengthen practice and research initiatives by operating from a concise working definition of risky sexual behavior that is broadly transferable and expands beyond a traditional focus on identity-based groups.
Baams, Laura; Dubas, Judith Semon; Overbeek, Geertjan; van Aken, Marcel A G
The present meta-analysis studies the relations of pubertal timing and status with sexual behavior and sexual risk behavior among youth aged 10.5-22.4 years. We included biological sex, age, and ethnicity as potential moderators. Four databases were searched for studies (published between 1980 and 2012) on the relation between pubertal timing or status and sexual behavior. The outcomes were (1) sexual intercourse; (2) combined sexual behavior; and (3) risky sexual behavior. Earlier pubertal timing or more advanced pubertal status was related to earlier and more sexual behavior, and earlier pubertal timing was related to more risky sexual behavior. Further, the links between (1) pubertal status and combined sexual behavior and (2) pubertal timing and sexual intercourse status, combined sexual behavior, and risky sexual behavior were stronger for girls than boys. Most links between pubertal status, timing, and sexual behavior and sexual risk behavior were stronger for younger adolescents. Moderation by ethnicity did not yield consistent results. There was significant variation in results among studies that was not fully explained by differences in biological sex, age, and ethnicity. Future research is needed to identify moderators that explain the variation in effects and to design sexual health interventions for young adolescents.
Kogan, Steven M.; Brody, Gene H.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Murry, Velma McBride; Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Simons, Ronald L.; Wingood, Gina; DiClemente, Ralph
Little research has examined the links between role status changes during the transition to adulthood and sexual behaviors that place African Americans at risk for sexually transmitted infections. Moreover, the mediating processes that explain these links, or protective factors that may buffer young adults from risky sexual behavior, are unknown.…
Ali, Mir M; Dwyer, Debra S; Vanner, Elizabeth A; Lopez, Alexander
In this paper we create indices of resilience to identify adolescents at risk of smoking, drinking alcohol, and using illegal drugs. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, three manifestations of resilience were identified: overall-resilience, self/family-resilience, and self-resilience. Our analysis reveals that the overall-resilient were less likely to engage in risky behaviors. The self/family resilient were more likely to engage in risky behaviors, but consumed less. The self-resilient had reduced risk for smoking and drinking alcohol but elevated risk for using illegal drugs and being in an addictive stage of smoking and drinking, if participating.
Rice, Eric; Winetrobe, Hailey; Holloway, Ian W; Montoya, Jorge; Plant, Aaron; Kordic, Timothy
Online partner seeking is associated with sexual risk behavior among young adults (specifically men who have sex with men), but this association has yet to be explored among a probability sample of adolescents. Moreover, cell phone internet access and sexual risk taking online and offline have not been explored. A probability sample (N = 1,831) of Los Angeles Unified School District high school students was collected in 2011. Logistic regression models assessed relationships between specific sexual risk behaviors (online sexual solicitation, seeking partners online, sex with internet-met partners, condom use) and frequency of internet use, internet access points, and demographics. Students with cell phone internet access were more likely to report being solicited online for sex, being sexually active, and having sex with an internet-met partner. Bisexual-identifying students reported higher rates of being approached online for sex, being sexually active, and not using condoms at last sex. Gay, lesbian, and questioning (GLQ) students were more likely to report online partner seeking and unprotected sex at last sex with an internet-met partner. Additionally, having sex with an internet-met partner was associated with being male, online sexual solicitation, and online partner seeking. Internet- and school-based sexual health programs should incorporate safety messages regarding online sexual solicitation, seeking sex partners online, and engaging in safer sex practices with all partners. Programs must target adolescents of all sexual identities, as adolescents may not yet be "out," and bisexual and GLQ adolescents are more likely to engage in risky sex behaviors.
Rice, Eric; Winetrobe, Hailey; Holloway, Ian W.; Montoya, Jorge; Plant, Aaron; Kordic, Timothy
Online partner seeking is associated with sexual risk behavior among young adults (specifically men who have sex with men), but this association has yet to be explored among a probability sample of adolescents. Moreover, cell phone internet access and sexual risk taking online and offline have not been explored. A probability sample (N = 1,831) of Los Angeles Unified School District high school students was collected in 2011. Logistic regression models assessed relationships between specific sexual risk behaviors (online sexual solicitation, seeking partners online, sex with internet-met partners, condom use) and frequency of internet use, internet access points, and demographics. Students with cell phone internet access were more likely to report being solicited online for sex, being sexually active, and having sex with an internet-met partner. Bisexual-identifying students reported higher rates of being approached online for sex, being sexually active, and not using condoms at last sex. Gay, lesbian, and questioning (GLQ) students were more likely to report online partner seeking and unprotected sex at last sex with an internet-met partner. Additionally, having sex with an internet-met partner was associated with being male, online sexual solicitation, and online partner seeking. Internet- and school-based sexual health programs should incorporate safety messages regarding online sexual solicitation, seeking sex partners online, and engaging in safer sex practices with all partners. Programs must target adolescents of all sexual identities, as adolescents may not yet be “out,” and bisexual and GLQ adolescents are more likely to engage in risky sex behaviors. PMID:25344027
Harris, Allyssa L
Adolescents spend an inordinate amount of time engaged with media, which is highly sexualized. Sexualized material can be found in music, on television and the Internet, as well as in magazines and books. Adolescents engaged with media are often influenced by this sexualized content, leading them to engage in risky sexual behavior. Urban literature (urban lit) is extremely popular among African-American female adolescents due to its portrayal of urban life and hip-hop culture. The purpose of this survey was to ascertain the extent to which African-American adolescent females are reading urban literature and to document whether this genre of literature had an effect on their sexual risk behaviors.
Mena, Maite P.; Dillon, Frank R.; Mason, Craig A.; Santisteban, Daniel A.
Hispanic adolescents have been shown to have high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and HIV, and substance abuse has been linked to risky sexual behaviors. The literature indicates that good parent-adolescent communication about sexual risk and safe sexual behaviors may help protect youth, yet little is known about this type of communication in Hispanic families. This article reports data on adolescent and parent factors associated with communication about moral and birth control talk between 108 Hispanic substance abusing adolescents and their parents. Results indicate that Hispanic parents who had older adolescents, reported more involvement, were less concerned of possible negative reactions from their child, and felt more knowledgeable and confident regarding sex and birth control also reported greater frequency of birth control talk. Hispanic parents with a daughter, who reported more involvement, or whose child reported more communication were more likely to report greater frequency of talking about moral issues. PMID:25411479
Bojorquez, Ietza; Saucedo-Molina, Teresita de Jesús; Juárez-García, Francisco; Unikel-Santoncini, Claudia
The objectives of the current study were to explore: (1) the association between the social environment at the city and family levels and risky eating behaviors in adolescent females and (2) the interaction between the social and cultural environment and body mass index (BMI). The data were obtained from a representative survey of female high school students in Mexico State, Mexico (15-19 years). A questionnaire was applied on risky eating behaviors and socio-demographic data. The municipal social and cultural environment was evaluated using the municipal marginalization index. Data analysis used multivariate regression. Prevalence of risky eating behaviors was 4.23%. BMI and family socioeconomic status were directly associated with risky eating behaviors. The municipal marginalization index was not associated with risky eating behaviors. Possible explanations for the latter are that the relevant components of the social and cultural environment were not measured, or that the municipal level does not exert a contextual effect on risky eating behaviors. The effect of BMI on risky eating behaviors was greater in more marginalized municipalities.
Hart, Trevor; Peterson, John L.
This study examined the prevalence and correlates of unprotected anal intercourse among 758 young African American men who have sex with men. A quarter of the sample reported unprotected anal intercourse in the past 3 months; nonsupportive peer norms and not carrying condoms predicted risky sexual behavior. Effective interventions are needed that promote the use of condoms by changing peer norms and encouraging carrying condoms. PMID:15226130
Derevensky, Jeffrey L; St-Pierre, Renee A; Temcheff, Caroline E; Gupta, Rina
Despite legislative prohibitions, there is empirical evidence that youth gamble on both regulated and unregulated activities. The current survey was designed to assess teachers' awareness and attitudes regarding adolescent gambling and other high-risk behaviours. Three-hundred and ninety teachers from Ontario and Quebec, with experience teaching students aged 12-18, completed an online survey. Results suggest that teachers are aware of the fact that youth gamble. Furthermore, they recognized the addictive nature of gambling and their subsequent consequences. Despite overestimating the proportion of youth experiencing gambling problems, gambling was viewed as being the least serious of issues affecting youth, with drug use and school violence topping the list. Almost half of respondents indicated that gambling in school can constitute a good learning activity. In regards to prevention, all other risky behaviours and academic problems were perceived as issues needing greater attention than gambling. These results, which are largely consistent with findings from a previous study examining parental perceptions of adolescent risky behaviours, suggest a need for greater awareness and teacher education.
Ybarra, Michele L.; Mitchell, Kimberly J.
Objective To examine the relation between “sexting,” (sending and sharing sexual photos online via text messaging and in-person) with sexual risk behaviors and psychosocial challenge in adolescence. Methods Data were collected online between 2010 and 2011 with 3,715 randomly selected 13- to 18-year-old youth across the United States. Results Seven percent of youth reported sending or showing someone sexual pictures of themselves, where they were nude or nearly nude, online, via text messaging, or in-person, during the past year. Although females and older youth were more likely to share sexual photos than males and younger youth, the profile of psychosocial challenge and sexual behavior was similar for all youth. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, sharing sexual photos was associated with all types of sexual behaviors assessed (e.g., oral sex, vaginal sex) as well as some of the risky sexual behaviors examined—particularly having concurrent sexual partners and having more past-year sexual partners. Adolescents who shared sexual photos also were more likely to use substances and less likely to have high self-esteem than their demographically similar peers. Conclusions While the media has portrayed “sexting” as a problem caused by new technology, health professionals may be more effective by approaching it as an aspect of adolescent sexual development and exploration and, in some cases, risk-taking and psychosocial challenge. PMID:25266148
Wekerle, Christine; Goldstein, Abby L; Tanaka, Masako; Tonmyr, Lil
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with multiple negative outcomes, including increased risky sexual behavior. To date, the majority of research on the relationship between CSA and risky sex in adolescence has been limited, with a lack of focus on males and youth receiving child welfare services. Participants in the current study were 297 youth (mean age=15.98; SD=1.01, 57.6% female) from the child welfare system who reported being sexually active at the time of the survey. CSA was associated with severity of other types of maltreatment for both genders, and exposure to intimate partner violence for females only. In general, males engaged in more sexual risk behaviors than females. Males with CSA had stronger motives to have sex for: (1) coping, (2) peer approval and (3) partner approval, as compared to non-CSA males; as well as (4) greater motives for partner and peer approval compared to females with CSA. Males with no CSA had stronger sexual motives for enhancement (e.g., feeling pleasure) compared to females with no CSA. Mediation analyses revealed a significant indirect effect for coping motives for males: CSA was associated with increased motives to use sex for coping which was associated with increased sexual risk-taking. These findings provide important information regarding the relationship between CSA and sexual risk-taking for child welfare sample and highlight coping with negative affect as a potential mechanism that underlies the CSA-risky sex relationship. It also encourages further consideration of motives for risk and resilience behaviors among youth.
Boislard, Marie-Aude; van de Bongardt, Daphne; Blais, Martin
Youth sexuality has been primarily studied with a focus on its potential public health issues, such as sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancies, and its comorbidity with other risky behaviors. More recently, it has been studied as a normative step in romantic partnerships, either pre- or post-marital, as well as outside the context of romantic involvement. In this paper, we review the extensive literature on sexuality in adolescence and early adulthood both within and outside romantic relationships (i.e., casual sexual relationships and experiences; CSREs). Furthermore, the recent recognition of youth sexuality as a developmental task has led to a renewed interest from scholars in youth who abstain from sexual encounters, whether deliberately or not. A brief overview of the literature on cultural differences in sexuality, and sexual-minority youth sexual development is also provided. This paper concludes by suggesting future directions to bring the field of youth sexuality and romantic relationships forward.
Boislard, Marie-Aude; van de Bongardt, Daphne; Blais, Martin
Youth sexuality has been primarily studied with a focus on its potential public health issues, such as sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancies, and its comorbidity with other risky behaviors. More recently, it has been studied as a normative step in romantic partnerships, either pre- or post-marital, as well as outside the context of romantic involvement. In this paper, we review the extensive literature on sexuality in adolescence and early adulthood both within and outside romantic relationships (i.e., casual sexual relationships and experiences; CSREs). Furthermore, the recent recognition of youth sexuality as a developmental task has led to a renewed interest from scholars in youth who abstain from sexual encounters, whether deliberately or not. A brief overview of the literature on cultural differences in sexuality, and sexual-minority youth sexual development is also provided. This paper concludes by suggesting future directions to bring the field of youth sexuality and romantic relationships forward. PMID:26999225
Hawes, Starlyn M.; Berkley-Patton, Jannette Y.
African Americans are disproportionately burdened by STDs and HIV in the US. This study examined the relationships between demographics, religiosity, and sexual risk behaviors among 255 adult African American church-based participants. Although participants were highly religious, they reported an average of seven lifetime sex partners and most inconsistently used condoms. Several demographic variables and religiosity significantly predicted lifetime HIV-related risk factors. Taken together, findings indicated that this population is at risk for HIV. Future research should continue to identify correlates of risky sexual behavior among African American parishioners to facilitate the development of HIV risk reduction interventions in their church settings. PMID:23054481
Wohl, David A.; Weir, Sharon S.; Adimora, Adaora A.; Moseley, Caroline; Norcott, Kathy; Duncan, Jesse; Kaufman, Jay S.; Miller, William C.
Incarceration is strongly associated with HIV infection and may contribute to viral transmission by disrupting stable partnerships and promoting high-risk partnerships. We investigated incarceration and STI/HIV-related partnerships among a community-based sample recruited for a sexual behavior interview while frequenting venues where people meet sexual partners in a North Carolina city (N = 373). Men reporting incarceration in the past 12 months were more likely than men without recent incarceration to experience multiple new sexual partnerships (unadjusted prevalence ratio [PR] 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1–3.1) and transactional sex defined as trading sex for money, goods, or services (unadjusted PR: 4.0, 95% CI: 2.3–7.1) in the past 4 weeks. Likewise, women who were ever incarcerated were more likely than never-incarcerated women to experience recent multiple new partnerships (unadjusted PR: 3.1, 95% CI: 1.8–5.4) and transactional sex (unadjusted PR: 5.3, 95% CI: 2.6–10.9). Sexual partnership in the past 12 months with someone who had ever been incarcerated versus with partners with no known incarceration history was associated with recent multiple new partnerships (men: unadjusted PR 2.0, 95% CI 1.4–2.9, women: unadjusted PR 4.8, 95% CI 2.3–10.1) and transactional sex (men: unadjusted PR 3.3, 95% CI 1.7–6.6, women: unadjusted PR 6.1, 95% CI 2.4–15.4). Adjustment for demographic and socioeconomic variables had minimal effect on estimates. However, the strong overlap between incarceration, partner incarceration, and substance abuse had substantial effects in multivariable models. Correctional-facility and community-based HIV prevention, with substance abuse treatment, should reach currently and formerly incarcerated individuals and their sexual partners. PMID:18027088
Brown, Monique J; Pugsley, River; Cohen, Steven A
The Internet has now become a popular venue to meet sex partners. People who use the Internet to meet sex partners may be at a higher risk for contracting HIV and STIs. This study examined the association between meeting sex partners from the Internet, and HIV testing, STI history, and risky sexual behavior. Data were obtained from the Virginia Department of Health STD Surveillance Network. Logistic regression models were used to obtain crude and adjusted odds ratios, and 95 % confidence intervals for the associations between meeting sex partners through the Internet and ever tested for HIV, HIV testing in the past 12 months, STI history, and risky sexual behavior. Logistic regression was also used to determine if gender and men who have sex with men interaction terms significantly improved the model. Women who met a sex partner from the Internet were more likely to have had an HIV test in the past 12 months than women who did not meet a partner in this way. On the other hand, men who met a sex partner through the Internet were more likely to have ever had an HIV test than other men, but this was only seen for heterosexual men. All populations who met a sex partner from the Internet were more likely to take part in risky sexual behavior. HIV prevention strategies should emphasize annual testing for all populations.
Varker, Tracey; Devilly, Grant J.
The purpose of this study was to examine general empathy, general victim empathy and own victim empathy in adolescent sexual offenders. Sixteen adolescent sexual offenders completed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), the Personal Reaction Inventory, a "general sexual abuse victim" form of the Victim Empathy Distortions Scale…
Alleyne-Green, Binta; Grinnell-Davis, Claudette; Clark, Trenette T; Quinn, Camille R; Cryer-Coupet, Qiana R
This study explored the relationship between the involvement of biological fathers and the sexual risk behaviors and dating violence/victimization and/or perpetration of adolescent girls. The data used in this cross-sectional analysis were drawn from the second wave of the public release of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Only adolescents who reported their biological sex as female, reported a history of being sexually active, and reported having a romantic partner in the previous 18 months were selected (N = 879). This study focused on overall positive sexual behaviors and use of contraception. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to best utilize capacity for dealing with latent variables and to test for possible mediation effects. The analysis demonstrated main effects of dating violence and father involvement on sexual behaviors. The more dating violence an adolescent girl experiences, the less likely she is to engage in healthy sexual behaviors. Likewise, the more involvement the biological father has in a woman's life, the more likely she is to engage in positive sexual behaviors. Perceived father involvement was associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls. Dating violence was directly associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls, particularly non-White girls. Future studies should use longitudinal models and test theoretically and empirically guided potential mediators. Future studies should also consider father figures such as step-fathers and grandfathers in addition to biological fathers, as having a father figure may be a stronger predictor of adolescent sexual behaviors than having a biological connection.
Alleyne-Green, Binta; Grinnell-Davis, Claudette; Clark, Trenette T.; Quinn, Camille R.; Cryer, Qiana R.
This study explored the relationship between the involvement of biological fathers and the sexual risk behaviors and dating violence/victimization and/ or perpetration of adolescent girls. The data used in this cross-sectional analysis were drawn from the second wave of the public release of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Only adolescents who reported their biological sex as female, reported a history of being sexually active, and reported having a romantic partner in the previous 18 months were selected (N = 879). This study focused on overall positive sexual behaviors and use of contraception. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to best utilize capacity for dealing with latent variables and to test for possible mediation effects. The analysis demonstrated main effects of dating violence and father involvement on sexual behaviors. The more dating violence an adolescent girl experiences, the less likely she is to engage in healthy sexual behaviors. Likewise, the more involvement the biological father has in a woman’s life, the more likely she is to engage in positive sexual behaviors. Perceived father involvement was associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls. Dating violence was directly associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls, particularly non-White girls. Future studies should use longitudinal models and test theoretically and empirically guided potential mediators. Future studies should also consider father figures such as step-fathers and grandfathers in addition to biological fathers, as having a father figure may be a stronger predictor of adolescent sexual behaviors than having a biological connection. PMID:25475102
The Risky Business of Adolescence: How To Help Teens Stay Safe--Part II. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session (June 18, 1991).
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.
This document, comprising the second of two parts, contains testimony examing the vulnerability of today's youth to health problems because of risky sexual behaviors and substance abuse, and how adolescents may be encouraged to make healthy choices. An opening statement by Representative Patricia Schroeder is presented. Testimony from these…
The Risky Business of Adolescence: How To Help Teens Stay Safe--Part I. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session (June 17, 1991).
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.
This document, comprising the first of two parts, contains testimony examining the vulnerability of today's youth to health problems because of risky sexual behaviors and substance abuse, and how adolescents may be encouraged to make healthy choices. An opening statement by Representative Patricia Schroeder is presented. Testimony from these…
SHAHNAZI, Ashkan; FOROUZAN, Ameneh Setareh; NEDJAT, Saharnaz; ASGARI, Soheila; MAJDZADEH, Reza
Background: This study was conducted to identify the determinants of protective behavior in relation to HIV transmission. Since the risk of transmission is higher among those who have extramarital intercourse, the study sample constituted of such people. Methods: We started this study in 2010 and finished it in 2011. Participants were divided into low-risk and high-risk groups. High-risk people included sex workers and those who presented at drop-in centers. Interviewees were 18 men and women in the low-risk group and 12 men and women in the high-risk group. Data were collected through in-depth interviews and were analyzed using the thematic framework method. Results: In both groups, protective behavior was influenced by willingness to protect, intention or decision to protect, and personal, social, and environmental barriers and facilitators. In terms of willingness, behavior was influenced to preserve sexual pleasure by avoiding condoms. In terms of barriers and facilitators, trust in partner, misperceptions, condom inaccessibility, unplanned sex, fear of contracting the disease, partner’s wish, ethical commitments were mentioned by both groups, stigma of condom possession by the low-risk group, and partner’s force was mentioned by the high-risk group. Conclusion: Educational programs need to focus on changing the concept that “condoms reduce sexual pleasure”. In addition, interventional programs to strengthen factors such as self-efficacy, ethical commitments, faithfulness, and correct beliefs such as undue trust in partner, misconception of being safe, unplanned sex, and the stigma of possessing condoms can be very effective in changing high-risk sexual behavior. PMID:26056638
Neufeld, Jacob A; Klingbeil, Fred; Bryen, Diane Nelson; Silverman, Brett; Thomas, Anila
Regardless of what our beliefs about sex and disability may be, as health care providers we can promote the health and well being of our patients with disabilities in several ways. First and perhaps foremost, physical and programmatic barriers to accessing general health care including routine gynecologic care must be dramatically reduced. The promise of Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act must be aggressively extended to our health care system to ensure equal access to routine health care for all. Second, knowledge of community resources that can support the healthy development and exercise of responsible and satisfying sexuality is critical. For example, health care providers should know about adaptive and assistive technologies as well as the use of personal care assistants to support the healthy although sometimes nontypical expression of one's sexuality. Centers for Independent Living are community resources that are often underutilized by the medical profession. These centers--run by and for people with disabilities--are likely resources and allies for providing education, role models, and peer mentoring around relationships, intimacy, sexuality, sexual expression, and parenting with a disability. Finally, sex education is a must and should include the following: Basic facts of life, reproduction, and sexual intercourse; Human growth and development Human reproduction and anatomy Self-pleasuring/masturbation and the use of sexual aids Intimacy and privacy Pregnancy and child birth Contraception and abortion Family life and parenthood Sexual response and consensual sex Sexual orientation Sexual abuse HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. The question should not be whether sex education is provided to persons with disabilities, but rather how it is most effectively provided. Health sex education must include the development of effective communication skills, decision-making skills, assertiveness, and the ability to say "no." It must
Beullens, Kathleen; Roe, Keith; Van den Bulck, Jan
Traffic crashes remain an important cause of injury and death among young people. The aim of the current study was to examine whether adolescents' viewing of particular television genres predicted later risky driving. Data were collected with a two-wave panel survey (N = 426); structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationships…
Kang, Piljoo P.; Romo, Laura F.
Structural equation modeling was used to test a theoretical path model of church engagement, personal spirituality, and mentoring relationships on depressive symptoms, involvement in risky behaviors, and self-reported grades among Korean American adolescents. It was hypothesized that personal spirituality and mentoring relationship quality would…
Solmeyer, Anna R.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.
This study examined the associations between sibling intimacy and conflict and youths' reports of risky behavior in a sample of adolescents ages 11-20. Participants were mothers, fathers, and sibling dyads in 393 families who were interviewed annually for 3, 4, or 5 years. Multivariate multilevel models tested longitudinal links between sibling…
Schutter, Dennis J. L. G.; van Bokhoven, Irene; Vanderschuren, Louk J. M. J.; Lochman, John E.; Matthys, Walter
Of all psychiatric disorders, the disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) are the most likely to predispose to substance dependence (SD). One possible underlying mechanism for this increased vulnerability is risky decision making. The aim of this study was to examine decision making in DBD adolescents with and without SD. Twenty-five DBD adolescents…
Chikovani, Ivdity; Goguadze, Ketevan; Bozicevic, Ivana; Rukhadze, Natia; Gotsadze, George
Injection risk practices and risky sexual behaviors place injection drug users (IDUs) and their sexual partners particularly vulnerable to HIV. The purpose of the study was to describe and understand determinants of high-risk sexual behavior among IDUs in Georgia. A cross-sectional, anonymous survey assessed knowledge, behavior and HIV status in IDUs in five Georgian cities (Tbilisi, Gori, Telavi, Zugdidi, Batumi) in 2009. The study enrolled in total 1,127 (1,112 males, 15 females) IDUs. Results indicate that occasional sexual relationships are common among male IDUs, including married ones. A subsample of 661 male IDUs who reported having occasional and paid sex partners during the last 12 months was analyzed. Multivariate analysis shows that not having a regular partner in the last 12 month (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.57, 95 % CI 1.04 2.37), and using previously used needles/syringes at last injecting (aOR 2.37, 95 % I 1.10-5.11) are independent correlates of inconsistent condom use with occasional and paid sexual partners among IDUs. Buprenorphine injectors have lower odds of inconsistent condom use with occasional and paid sexual partners compared to heroin injectors (aOR 0.47, 95 % CI 0.27-0.80), and IDUs who live in Telavi are twice more likely to engage in such risky sexual behavior than capital city residents (aOR 2.55, 95 % CI 1.46-4.48). More effective programs focused on sexual risk behavior reduction strategies should be designed and implemented.
Strasburger, V C
Teenagers spend more time with the media than they do in any other activity except sleeping. Is it mere coincidence that the rises in rates of adolescent sexual intercourse during the past 30 years have coincided with the new era of electronic media? Do the media merely reflect society's changes, or do they have the capacity to influence human behavior as well? Although currently part of the problem of teenage pregnancy, the media could become part of the solution, if they were to portray human sexuality responsibly and allow the advertising of contraception.
The influence of adolescents' exposure to sexual health content of mass media in their sexual health behaviour in Nigeria is still not clear. Data were gathered through a survey conducted among adolescents aged 12-19 years in Lagos metropolis between November 2009 and February 2010. A multistage sampling strategy was adopted in selecting respondents. Logistic regression technique was utilised in the analysis. The results indicate that the respondents were most frequently exposed to TV (male = 92.2; female = 94.9) and radio (male = 88.2; female = 91.7) media. The odds ratios indicate that sexual health content of mass media significantly predicted condom use, multiple sexual relationship, sexual intercourse and self reported occurrence of abortion in the study sample. The findings imply that positive media sexual health content is likely to promote sexual health among adolescents but negative contents can put adolescents' sexual health in danger. In addition, safe sex can be advanced among adolescents if the media provide accurate information on sexuality, emphasising the dangers of risky sexual practices. Finally, this study posits that accurate portrayal of sexuality in the media would contribute immensely to improving public health in the metropolis.
Akanni, Oluyemi O; Koleoso, Olaide N; Olashore, Anthony A; Adayonfo, Ehigiator O; Osundina, Adeagbo F; Ayilara, Olaniyi O
Risky behaviours in adolescents, apart from substance use, and their associate factors, have not been thoroughly investigated in Nigeria. Hence, there is a need to study the prevalence of risky behaviours and their relationship with gender and other potential risk factors. Data comprising socio-demographic, risky behaviours, personality traits, religious orientation and substance use were obtained from 300 randomly selected secondary school students. Two risk groups (low and high) based on the number of risky behaviours were determined. Male was a risk factor for theft (OR = 2.1; 95%CI = 1.17-3.95), bullying (OR = 2.76; 95%CI = 1.37-5.56) and fighting (OR = 2.14; 95%CI = 1.35-3.40). Fifty-two (17.3%) of the students were of high-risk behaviour group. Furthermore, private school (β = 1.05; P = 0.010), poor perceived relationship with teachers (β = 1.21; P = 0.002), polygamy (β = 1.20; P = 0.002) and lifetime cigarette use (β = 1.07; P = 0.027) were predictors of high-risk behaviour group. Substantial proportion of adolescents in Nigeria exhibit risky behaviours of which gender and other factors play a significant role.
Derefinko, Karen J; Peters, Jessica R; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A; Walsh, Erin C; Adams, Zachary W; Lynam, Donald R
The current study examined how impulsivity-related traits (negative urgency, sensation seeking, and positive urgency), behavioral measures of risk taking and reward seeking, and physiological reactivity related to three different risky sexual behaviors in sexually active undergraduate men (N = 135). Regression analyses indicated that sensation seeking and behavioral risk-taking predicted unique variance in number of sexual partners. These findings suggest that, for young men, acquisition of new partners is associated with need for excitement and reward and willingness to take risks to meet those needs. Sensation seeking, behavioral risk-taking, and skin conductance reactivity to arousing stimuli was related to ever having engaged in sex with a stranger, indicating that, for men, willingness to have sex with a stranger is related not only to the need for excitement and risk-taking but also with innate responsiveness to arousing environmental triggers. In contrast, regression analyses indicated that young men who were impulsive in the context of negative emotions were less likely to use condoms, suggesting that emotion-based impulsivity may be an important factor in negligent prophylactic use. This study adds to the current understanding of the divergence between the correlates of risky sexual behaviors and may lend utility to the development of individualized HIV prevention programming.
Derefinko, Karen J.; Peters, Jessica R.; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A.; Walsh, Erin C.; Adams, Zachary W.; Lynam, Donald R.
The current study examined how impulsivity-related traits (negative urgency, sensation seeking, and positive urgency), behavioral measures of risk taking and reward seeking, and physiological reactivity related to three different risky sexual behaviors in sexually active undergraduate men (N = 135). Regression analyses indicated that sensation seeking and behavioral risk-taking predicted unique variance in number of sexual partners. These findings suggest that, for young men, acquisition of new partners is associated with need for excitement and reward and willingness to take risks to meet those needs. Sensation seeking, behavioral risk-taking, and skin conductance reactivity to arousing stimuli was related to ever having engaged in sex with a stranger, indicating that, for men, willingness to have sex with a stranger is related not only to the need for excitement and risk-taking but also with innate responsiveness to arousing environmental triggers. In contrast, regression analyses indicated that young men who were impulsive in the context of negative emotions were less likely to use condoms, suggesting that emotion-based impulsivity may be an important factor in negligent prophylactic use. This study adds to the current understanding of the divergence between the correlates of risky sexual behaviors and may lend utility to the development of individualized HIV prevention programming. PMID:24958252
Armour, Stacy; Haynie, Dana L.
Does sexual debut (i.e., experiencing sexual intercourse for the first time) increase the risks of participating in later delinquent behavior? Does this risk increase if adolescents experience early sexual debut relative to the timing experienced by one's peers? Although many factors have been linked to sexual debut, little research has examined…
Kassa, Getachew Mullu; Degu, Genet; Yitayew, Meseret; Misganaw, Worku; Muche, Mikiyas; Demelash, Tiguaded; Mesele, Meless; Ayehu, Melat
Background. Young people constitute a large number of population worldwide, and majority of this population group lives in developing countries. They are at high risk of engaging in risky sexual behaviors. These risk sexual behaviors predispose youths to several sexual and reproductive health problems like STIs, HIV, unwanted pregnancy, and abortion. So, this study was conducted to assess the magnitude of risky sexual behaviors and associated factors among Jiga high school and preparatory school students, northwest Ethiopia. Methodology. Institutional based cross-sectional study design was conducted among Jiga town high school and preparatory school students. A total of 311 students were included in the study. Systematic random sampling method was used to select study participants. Data was entered using EpiData version 3.1 and it was exported to SPSS version 22 for further analysis. Descriptive analysis and bivariate and multivariate analysis were also calculated to determine factors associated with risky sexual behavior. Result. Forty-eight (16%) of respondents reported that they had sexual intercourse. From those who start sex, 44 (14.7%) were involved in risky sexual behavior which could predispose them to sexual and reproductive health problems. More than half, 27 (56.3%), of respondents first sexual intercourse was before their eighteenth birthday. The mean age and SD of fist sexual initiation were 17.2 years old and 1.35 years, respectively. Factors associated with risky sexual behavior include respondents between the ages of 20 and 23 (AOR: 5, 95%, CI: 1.59–15.98), drinking alcohol (AOR: 2.48, 95% CI: 1.13–5.41), and having poor knowledge towards HIV/AIDS (AOR: 4.53, 95%, CI: 2.06–9.94). Conclusion. A large number of in-school youths are involved in risky sexual behaviors like early sexual initiation, having multiple sexual partners, inconsistence use of condom, and having sex with high risk partner (CSWs). Age of respondents, alcohol drinking, and
Boots, Michael; Knell, Robert J
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are widespread in nature, often sterilizing their hosts or causing other pathogenic effects. Despite this, there is a widespread occurrence of behaviours that are likely to increase the risk to an individual of contracting an STD. Here, we examine the evolution of behaviours such as promiscuity or mate choice that increase the risk of contracting an STD, but also provide a fitness benefit. As might be expected, the balance between risk and fitness benefit defines the optimal strategy, but this relationship is not straightforward. In particular, we often predict the coexistence of highly risky and highly risk-averse individuals. Surprisingly, very safe strategists that only suffer a small cost will tend to coexist with highly risky strategists rather than outcompete them as might have been expected. Rather than selecting for monogamy or for reduced mate choice, therefore, the presence of an STD may often lead to variability in either promiscuity or mate choice. PMID:11916474
Messman-Moore, Terri L; Ward, Rose Marie; DeNardi, Kathleen A
A structural equation model examined sexual enhancement alcohol expectancies, heavy episodic drinking (HED), and risky sexual behavior as correlates of alcohol-involved rape in a sample of 353 college women. Prevalence of alcohol-involved rape was 15.6%. Sexual enhancement alcohol expectancies were indirectly associated with alcohol-involved rape via increased levels of HED, greater likelihood of sex while intoxicated, and number of sex partners. All forms of risky behavior were associated with alcohol-involved rape although HED had the strongest relationship. Findings suggest continued focus on women's positive alcohol expectancies and HED as risk factors for alcohol-involved rape. Implications for intervention will be discussed.
Wagner, Zachary; Gong, Erick; de Walque, Damien; Dow, William H
In this paper, we exploit a lottery in Tanzania, which randomly assigned eligible participants to receive $100 cash grants. The randomized nature of the lottery allows us to estimate the causal impact of positive income shocks on risky sexual behavior. We found that winning the lottery led men to have 0.28 (95 % CI 0.14, 0.55) more sexual partners and to a 0.21 (95 % CI 0.01-0.4) increase in the probability of unprotected sex with a non-primary partner relative to a control group of eligible non-winners. We found no significant effect of winning the lottery on the sexual behavior of women.
O'Hara, Ross E; Gibbons, Frederick X; Li, Zhigang; Gerrard, Meg; Sargent, James D
Adolescents' movie sex exposure (MSE) and movie alcohol exposure (MAE) have been shown to influence later sexual behavior and drinking, respectively. No study to date, however, has tested whether these effects generalize across behaviors. This study examined the concurrent influences of early (i.e., before age 16) MSE and MAE on subsequent risky sex and alcohol use among a national sample of 1228 U.S. adolescents. Participants reported their health behaviors and movie viewing up to six times between 2003 and 2009 in telephone interviews. The Beach method was used to create a population-based estimate of each participant's MSE and MAE, which were then entered into a structural equation model (SEM) to predict lifetime risky sex and past month alcohol use at ages 18-21. For both men and women, MAE predicted alcohol use, mediated by age of initiation of heavy episodic drinking (HED) and age of sexual debut; MAE also predicted risky sex via age of sexual debut. Among men only, MSE indirectly predicted risky sex and alcohol use. Findings indicated that early exposure to risk content from movies had both specific and general effects on later risk-taking, but gender differences were evident: for men, MSE was a stronger predictor than MAE, but for women, only MAE predicted later risk behavior. These results have implications for future media research, prevention programs for adolescent sex and alcohol use, and movie ratings that can guide parents' decisions as to which movies are appropriate for their children.
Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Kahn, Rachel; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Chiu, Pearl; Steinberg, Laurence; King-Casas, Brooks
Adolescence is characterized by increasing incidence of health risk behaviors, including experimentation with drugs and alcohol. To fill the gap in our understanding of the associations between risky decision-making and health risk behaviors, we investigated associations between laboratory-based risky decision-making using the Stoplight task and…
Fuertes Martín, Antonio; Orgaz Baz, M Begoña; Vicario-Molina, Isabel; Martínez Alvarez, José Luis; Fernández Fuertes, Andrés; Carcedo González, Rodrigo J
This study's focus is to evaluate a sexual coercion prevention program in adolescents. Using a before-and-after design with both a treatment group (n = 93) and a control group (n = 76), an intervention of seven sessions was completed. Said sessions included such content as conceptualizing sexual freedom, sexual coercion and voluntary consent, analyzing different sexual coercion tactics and the contexts in which they occur, empathy toward the victim, and developing abilities to avoid risky situations. Other risk factors for coercive behavior and sexual victimization are explored as well, such as alcohol use, sexist attitudes and inadequate communication, among others. The intervention's results include a decrease in stereotypical beliefs about the opposite sex and increased empathy toward victims of sexual coercion. These changes were maintained with the passage of time. Also, in the treatment group, a more acute decline was observed in the proportion of young people engaging in sexually coercive behaviors, This article emphasizes the importance, necessity and efficacy of such interventions, and discusses and analyzes possible improvements to the program for its future implementation.
Rojas, Patria; Huang, Hui; Li, Tan; Ravelo, Gira J; Sanchez, Mariana; Dawson, Christyl; Brook, Judith; Kanamori, Mariano; De La Rosa, Mario
Few studies have examined the sociocultural determinants of risky sexual behavior trajectories among adult Latinas. To longitudinally examine the link between sociocultural determinants of risky sexual behaviors, we followed a sample of adult Latina mother-daughter dyads (n = 267) across a 10-year span through four waves of data collection. The present study investigates how risky sexual behavior (operationalized as sex under the influence of alcohol or other drugs, sex without a condom, or multiple sex partners) is affected by: (a) socioeconomic conditions; (b) mental health; (c) medical health; (d) acculturation to U.S. culture; (e) interpersonal support; (f) relationship stress; (g) mother-daughter attachment; (h) intimate partner violence; (i) religious involvement; and (j) criminal justice involvement. Results indicate the following factors are negatively associated with risky sexual behavior: drug and alcohol use, treating a physical problem with prescription drugs, religious involvement, and mother-daughter attachment. The following factors are positively associated with risky sexual behavior: higher number of mental health symptoms, being U.S.-born, and criminal justice involvement. We discuss implications for the future development of culturally relevant interventions based on the study findings.
Rojas, Patria; Huang, Hui; Li, Tan; Ravelo, Gira J.; Sanchez, Mariana; Dawson, Christyl; Brook, Judith; Kanamori, Mariano; De La Rosa, Mario
Few studies have examined the sociocultural determinants of risky sexual behavior trajectories among adult Latinas. To longitudinally examine the link between sociocultural determinants of risky sexual behaviors, we followed a sample of adult Latina mother-daughter dyads (n = 267) across a 10-year span through four waves of data collection. The present study investigates how risky sexual behavior (operationalized as sex under the influence of alcohol or other drugs, sex without a condom, or multiple sex partners) is affected by: (a) socioeconomic conditions; (b) mental health; (c) medical health; (d) acculturation to U.S. culture; (e) interpersonal support; (f) relationship stress; (g) mother-daughter attachment; (h) intimate partner violence; (i) religious involvement; and (j) criminal justice involvement. Results indicate the following factors are negatively associated with risky sexual behavior: drug and alcohol use, treating a physical problem with prescription drugs, religious involvement, and mother–daughter attachment. The following factors are positively associated with risky sexual behavior: higher number of mental health symptoms, being U.S.-born, and criminal justice involvement. We discuss implications for the future development of culturally relevant interventions based on the study findings. PMID:27886095
Orgilés, Mireia; Carratalá, Elena; Espada, José P
Parental divorce has been linked to some risky sexual behaviour in previous studies. Here we examine whether the sexual behaviour of adolescents is related more to the perceived quality of the interparental relationship or to the parents' divorce in a sample from Spain, the country that has experienced the greatest recent increase in marital break-ups in the European Union. Participants were 801 adolescents aged between 14 and 17, who completed questionnaires anonymously. Adolescents who perceive high conflict in their parents' marriages have more sexual activity and engage in more risk practices in some sexual behaviours compared to adolescents with divorced parents and low interparental conflict. When adolescents perceive low conflict, those with divorced parents are more sexually active than adolescents with married parents, but they do not engage in more risk practices. The perceived quality of the parental relationship has a greater negative impact on adolescents than does the type of family structure. The study highlights the need to address the parents' marital relationship in the implementation of prevention programmes of sexual risk behaviours in Spanish adolescents.
Livingston, Jennifer A.; Hequembourg, Amy; Testa, Maria; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol
This study explored females' adolescent experiences with sexual aggression using event-level data. A community sample of women, ages 18 to 30 years (N = 319), were interviewed regarding their most recent unwanted sexual experience. Incidents were categorized as occurring during adolescence (ages 14 to 17) or adulthood (after age 18). Preliminary…
Williams, Javonda; Nelson-Gardell, Debra
This research examined factors that predicted resilience in sexually abused adolescents. Using Bronfenbrenner's Process-Person-Context-Time (PPCT) ecological model, this study considered the proximal and distal factors that would contribute to adolescents' reactions to sexual victimization. This correlational study used hierarchical regression…
Johnson, Katherine A.; Tyler, Kimberly A.
Adolescents have begun to initiate sexual activity at increasingly early ages in the past few decades. Using a sample of 2,494 adolescents from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97), structural and parental process variables were examined in the prediction of sexual onset. Results indicated that the age at which youth initiate sexual…
Which moral principles should guide us in evaluating sexual contacts of adolescents? This paper tries to answer this question by taking two steps. First, the implications of a liberal sexual ethics for adolescence are spelled out, assessed and refuted. The core principle of the liberal ethical view, the principle of valid consent, takes competence…
Levonyan-Radloff, Kristine; Parks, Kathleen A; Collins, R Lorraine
This study evaluated how birth control discussions prior to sexual activity affected condom use in a sample of 225 young women bar drinkers. The use of alcohol and other drugs (AOD) and partner type also were assessed. Data were collected through daily reports and qualitative interviews over 12 weeks. A total of 1671 sexual events were reported (M = 7.4 events per participant), of which 64.7% (n = 1081) did not involve condom use. Discussions of birth control occurred prior to 10.9% (n = 183) of all sexual events. These discussions were more likely to be initiated by the woman and to occur when AOD had been used. Thematic analysis revealed four common themes: confirmation of the need to use condoms, confirmation of oral/hormonal contraceptive use, use of sufficient birth control, and discrepant condom use. The discussions reduced rates of risky sex when the sexual partner was more intimate (i.e., boyfriend/dating partner), regardless of AOD use and when the sexual partner was a friend or ex-partner and no AOD were used. The thematic analysis suggested that pregnancy prevention was a stronger motivation for discussing condom use, rather than risk of contracting an STI. Given the substantial rate of high risk partners, history of STIs, and limited amount of time women reported knowing "regular" partners, we suggest that interventions designed to reduce risky sex should be tailored to increase women's awareness of STI and pregnancy risk when under the influence of AOD, and promote condom use regardless of partner type.
Livingston, Jennifer A.; Testa, Maria; Windle, Michael; Bay-Cheng, Laina Y.
This study examines whether use of alcohol at first coitus is associated with increased sexual risk for young women. First coitus is the focus of the investigation because it is a memorable, formative experience that has implications for subsequent sexual health. A community sample of young women ages 18 – 19 years (N = 227) completed retrospective interviews. Characteristics and perceptions of the first coital event were examined using chi squares and one-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) to determine if there were differences based on alcohol-involvement. Alcohol-involved first coitus events occurred in social settings with risky partners, were rated less positively, and were non-consensual relative to those that did not involve alcohol. Alcohol use was not related to condom use. Alcohol-involvement was associated with subsequent pairing of alcohol with sex and incapacitated rape. Adolescent alcohol use occurs in contexts that increases young women’s sexual risk through exposure to risky partners. PMID:26121927
Althoff, Meghan D.; Grayson, Cary T.; Witt, Lucy; Holden, Julie; Reid, Daniel; Kissinger, Patricia
The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of behavioral interventions in reducing risky sexual behavior and incident sexually transmitted infections (STI) among Latina women living in the United States. Studies were found by systematically searching the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsychInfo databases without language restriction.…
Moreno, Megan A; Brockman, Libby N; Wasserheit, Judith N; Christakis, Dimitri A
Many older adolescents display sexual references on their social networking site profiles; this study investigated whether these references were associated with self-reported sexual intention, sexual experience, or risky sexual behavior. Public Facebook profiles of undergraduate freshmen were identified within 1 large U.S. university Facebook network. Profile owners who displayed sexual references (Displayers) and did not display references (Non-Displayers) were invited to complete surveys. Surveys measured sexual intention, using the Postponing Sexual Intercourse (PSI) scale, and sexual experiences. A higher PSI score was inversely related to intention to initiate sexual intercourse. Of the 118 profiles that met inclusion criteria, 85 profile owners completed surveys. Profile owners were mostly female (56.5%) and Caucasian (67.1%). The mean PSI score for Displayers was 6.5 ± 1.6, and the mean PSI score for Non-Displayers was 10.2 ± 0.6 (p = .02). There were no differences between Displayers and Non-Displayers regarding lifetime prevalence of sexual behavior, number of sexual partners, or frequency of condom use. Display of sexual references on college freshmen's Facebook profiles was positively associated with reporting intention to initiate sexual intercourse. Facebook profiles may present an innovative cultural venue to identify adolescents who are considering sexual activity and may benefit from targeted educational messages.
Clark, Jeffrey K.; Brey, Rebecca A.; Banter, Amy E.; Khubchandani, Jagdish
Background: Risky sexual behavior among adolescents is one of the leading health behaviors most associated with mortality, morbidity, and social problems. Adolescents need reliable sources of information to help them promote healthy sexual behaviors. Physicians in the United States are often seen by adolescents as a reliable and trustworthy source of accurate sexual information. However, many physicians feel uncomfortable or ill-prepared to deal with sexuality issues among their adolescent patients. Purpose: This study examined the impact of family resident physicians’ sexual attitudes, knowledge, and comfort, on the delivery of sexuality-related patient education to their adolescent patients. Materials and Methods: Pre-post-test scales were administered to 21 physicians. Data were also collected for patient (n=644) charts. Factors that determined the delivery of sexuality-related patient education were analyzed. Results: Results indicate that sexuality-related patient education was rarely provided to adolescent patients. Conclusions: Adolescent sexuality education is not a high priority for physicians. Professional medical organizations should play a leadership role in training physicians on delivering sexuality education to adolescent patients. PMID:24478998
Luder, Marie-Thérèse; Pittet, Isabelle; Berchtold, André; Akré, Christina; Michaud, Pierre-André; Surís, Joan-Carles
This study aimed to compare the sexual behavior of adolescents who were or were not exposed to online pornography, to assess to what extent the willingness of exposure changed these possible associations, and to determine the profiles of youths who were exposed to online pornography. Data were drawn from the 2002 Swiss Multicenter Adolescent Survey on Health, a self-administered cross-sectional, paper and pencil questionnaire. From the 7529 adolescents aged 16-20 years, 6054 (3283 males) used the Internet during the previous month and were eligible for our study. Males were divided into three groups (wanted exposure, 29.2%; unwanted exposure, 46.7%; no exposure, 24.1%) whereas females were divided into two groups (exposure, 35.9%; no exposure, 64.1%). The principal outcome measures were demographic characteristics, Internet use parameters and risky sexual behaviors. Risky sexual behaviors were not associated with online pornography exposure in any of the groups, except that males who were exposed (deliberately or not) had higher odds of not having used a condom at last intercourse. Bi/homosexual orientation and Internet use parameters were not associated either. Additionally, males in the wanted exposure group were more likely to be sensation-seekers. On the other hand, exposed girls were more likely to be students, higher sensation-seekers, early maturers, and to have a highly educated father. We conclude that pornography exposure is not associated with risky sexual behaviors and that the willingness of exposure does not seem to have an impact on risky sexual behaviors among adolescents.
This paper reports baseline behavioral and biological data collected from a cohort of 535 African American HIV serodiscordant couples enrolled in the Eban study across four urban metro areas. Data were collected on (1) the prevalence of risky sexual behaviors that occur within a couple and with concurrent sexual partners, (2) the STD prevalence for each member of the couple and (3) the correlates of STDs in the male partner as well as in the female partner. Presentation of the sociodemographic characterization and HIV risk behavior profiles of African American HIV serodiscordant couples represents an important initial description of a hidden, vulnerable population. Future research should be conducted with diverse samples of African American couples (i.e., younger couples, non-stable couples) to explore other potential correlates of STD prevalence. PMID:20499152
This paper reports baseline behavioral and biological data collected from a cohort of 535 African American HIV serodiscordant couples enrolled in the Eban study across four urban metro areas. Data were collected on (1) the prevalence of risky sexual behaviors that occur within a couple and with concurrent sexual partners, (2) the STD prevalence for each member of the couple and (3) the correlates of STDs in the male partner as well as in the female partner. Presentation of the sociodemographic characterization and HIV risk behavior profiles of African American HIV serodiscordant couples represents an important initial description of a hidden, vulnerable population. Future research should be conducted with diverse samples of African American couples (i.e., younger couples, non-stable couples) to explore other potential correlates of STD prevalence.
Jeffrey, T B; Jeffrey, L K
This paper reviews psychologic aspects of sexual abuse in female adolescents. It documents that sexual abuse is widespread, occurring at an alarming rate at all socioeconomic levels of society. It is perpetrated principally by adult men in the victim's family. Often its effects are tragic. Adolescent female sexual abuse victims are at high risk for subsequent acting out behavior, sexual promiscuity, physical and sexual abuse, anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, alcohol and drug abuse or dependence, chronic sleep disturbance, dissociative disorders, eating disorders, emotional numbing, dissociation, guilt, shame, hyperalertness, suicidal ideation, and multiple associated psychiatric disorders. Although it may appear at a surface level that sexual abuse victims recover from such abuse, follow-up studies suggest that many remain disabled long after the abuse has ended. Health care professionals should be especially cognizant of the magnitude of the impact of sexual abuse on adolescent girls and recognize the need of these patients for psychologic and medical services.
Sun, Xinying; Liu, Xiaona; Shi, Yuhui; Wang, Yanling; Wang, Peiyu; Chang, Chun
The purposes of this study were to assess sexual behavior and condom use among Chinese college students, and to explore social-environmental and social-cognitive determinants associated with risky sexual behaviors within this population. A survey was conducted among 19,123 Chinese college students recruited through stratified cluster sampling. About 9% of the students reported having had sex (male=13.3%, female=5.0%, OR=2.918), 3.6% had multiple sexual partners (male=5.7%, female=1.6%, OR=3.624), and 0.9% had commercialized sex (male=1.6%, female=0.3%, OR=6.169). Only 24.8% of sexually active students had used a condom for every sexual encounter, and there was no significant difference in condom use between male students and female students. Logistic regression showed that sex (female, OR=0.769), age (older, OR=1.263), exposure to pornographic information (higher, OR=1.751), drinking (intoxication, OR=1.437), and smoking (OR=2.123-5.112) were all determinants of sexual behaviors. Path analysis showed that exposure to pornographic information, level of consumption, and sex education were important social-environmental factors of condom use. Condom use was more common among those who had greater HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes toward high-risk behavior, self-efficacy, and intent to use a condom. Intentions were the most important and direct factor influencing condom use. The study concluded that college students are vulnerable to sexually transmitted diseases - including HIV/AIDS infection - through sexual contact. Therefore, future HIV/AIDS prevention and safer sex interventions should focus on self-protection skills and target behavior change.
Juhasz, Anne McCreary; Sonnenshein-Schneider, Mary
Analyzed adolescents' (N=500) evaluations of factors which would influence their sexual decisions. Results idetified six factors (family establishment competence, external morality, consequences of childbearing, self-enhancement through sexual intercourse, intimacy considerations regarding sexual intercourse, consequence of marriage) which were…
Lacasse, Anne; Mendelson, Morton J.
Adolescence is a transitional period when the pressure to engage in romantic and sexual relationships can leave teenagers feeling confused and at risk for sexual coercion. Our studies investigated characteristics of male and female perpetrators and victims of peer sexual coercion, focusing on self-esteem, sexist attitudes, and involvement in…
Quincy, Michael L.
The purpose of this review paper, "Adolescent Sexual Education: Designing Curriculum That Works", is to present some basic curriculum necessities for developing an in-school sexual education program that results in decreasing the number of teenagers initiating sex, thus reducing the number of teen pregnancies and cases of sexually transmitted…
Sambisa, William; Curtis, Sian L; Stokes, C Shannon
Understanding the social and cultural contextual determinants of sexual behaviour of adolescents and young adults is an essential step towards curtailing the spread of HIV. This study examined the effects of one cultural factor, ethnicity, on sexual abstinence, faithfulness, condom use at last sex, and risky sex among young people in Zimbabwe. Data from the cross-sectional, population-based 2005-06 Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey were used. Net of the effect of sociodemographic and social-cognitive factors, and using multinomial logistic regression, ethnicity was found to have a strong and consistent effect on sexual behaviour among youth. In addition, the study found that there were ethnic-specific and within-gender differences in sexual behaviour, for both men and women. Shona youth were more likely to be abstinent than Ndebele youth. Compared with Shona youth, Ndebele youth were more likely to have engaged in risky sex. However, Ndebele men were more likely have used condoms at last sex, compared with Shona men. For both men and women, sexual behaviour was more socially controlled. School attendance and religion exerted protective effects on sexual abstinence. For men only, those living in rural areas were less likely to be faithful and more likely to have engaged in risky sexual behaviour than those living in urban areas. The study attests to the fact that ethnic norms and ideologies of sexuality need to be identified and more thoroughly understood. In addition, the study provides evidence that in order to promote safe and healthy sexuality among young people in Zimbabwe, cultural, social and gender-specific approaches to the development of HIV prevention strategies should be seriously considered. Current success in the Abstinence, Being faithful and Condom use (ABC) approach could be strengthened by recognizing and responding to cultural forces that reproduce and perpetuate risky sexual behaviours.
Alimoradi, Zainab; Kariman, Nourossadat; Simbar, Masoumeh; Ahmadi, Fazlollah
ABSTRACT Background: Adolescence is a period of overwhelming changes and challenges, which expose the adolescents to high-risk behaviors. Risky sexual relationship is one of these behaviors that entails physical risks and psychosocial harms. Various factors have been recognized to shape sexual behaviors in adolescents. This paper is an attempt to investigate the factors contributing to high-risk sexual behaviors in Iranian adolescent girls. Methods: A literature review of the research published by Iranian authors, in Farsi or English language in local and foreign journals, was conducted using PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Scientific Information Database (SID), IranMedex, IranDoc, and Google Scholar. The search in each database included all the years covered at that time using keywords such as “sexual, adolescents, and Iran”, and continued using other keywords such as “sexual behavior, high-risk behavior, sexual risk and reproductive behavior” individually and in combination Results: Sixteen published articles were identified. Factors contributing to high-risk sexual behaviors in girls can be divided into four general groups including personal, family, peer, school and community. Conclusion: Regarding the identified risk and protective factors, appropriate individual, family and school-based interventions can be designed and implemented to strengthen protective factors. While individual and family factors are considered more in research, factors related to peers, school and community have received less attention. Since social values, beliefs and norms are important factors in formation of sexual behaviors, further research regarding these factors is suggested. PMID:28097173
Alexander, Stewart C.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Pollak, Kathryn I.; Bravender, Terrill; Davis, J. Kelly; Østbye, Truls; Tulsky, James A.; Dolor, Rowena J.; Shields, Cleveland G.
Importance Physicians may be important sources of sexuality information and preventive services, and one-on-one confidential time during health maintenance visits is recommended to allow discussions of sexual development, behavior, and risk reduction. However, little is known about the occurrence and characteristics of physician-adolescent discussions about sexuality. Objective To examine predictors of time spent discussing sexuality, level of adolescent participation, and physician and patient characteristics associated with sexuality discussions during health maintenance visits by early and middle adolescents. Design, Setting, and Participants Observational study of audio-recorded conversations between 253 adolescents (mean age, 14.3 years; 53% female; 40% white; 47% African American) and 49 physicians (82% pediatricians; 84% white; 65% female; mean age, 40.9 years; mean [SD] duration in practice, 11.8 [8.7] years) coded for sexuality content at 11 clinics (3 academic and 8 community-based practices) located throughout the Raleigh/Durham, North Carolina, area. Main Outcomes and Measures Total time per visit during which sexuality issues were discussed. Results One hundred sixty-five (65%) of all visits had some sexual content within it. The average time of sexuality talk was 36 seconds (35% 0 seconds; 30% 1-35 seconds; and 35% ≥36 seconds). Ordinal logistic regression (outcome of duration: 0, 1-35, or ≥36 seconds), adjusted for clustering of patients within physicians, found that female patients (odds ratio [OR] = 2.58; 95% CI, 1.53-4.36), older patients (OR = 1.37; 95% CI, 1.13-1.65), conversations with explicit confidentiality discussions (OR = 4.33; 95% CI, 2.58-7.28), African American adolescents (OR = 1.58; 95% CI, 1.01-2.48), and longer overall visit (OR = 1.07; 95% CI, 1.03-1.11) were associated with more sexuality talk, and Asian physicians were associated with less sexuality talk (OR = 0.13; 95% CI, 0.08-0.20). In addition, the same significant
Widman, Laura; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Helms, Sarah W.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.
Purpose One consistent predictor of adolescents’ engagement in sexual risk behavior is their belief that peers are engaging in similar behavior; however, not all youth are equally susceptible to these peer influence effects. Understanding individual differences in susceptibility to peer influence is critical to identifying adolescents at risk for negative health outcomes. The purpose of this project was to identify predictors of susceptibility to peer influence using a novel performance-based measure of sexual risk-taking. Methods Participants were 300 early adolescents (Mage=12.6; 53% female; 44% Caucasian) who completed 1) a pretest assessment of demographics, sexual attitudes, and hypothetical scenarios measuring the likelihood of engaging in sexual risk behavior, and 2) a subsequent experimental procedure that simulated an internet chat room in which youth believed they were communicating with peers regarding these same hypothetical scenarios. In reality, these “peers” were computer-programmed e-confederates. Changes in responses to the sexual scenarios in the private pretest versus during the public chat room provided a performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility. Results In total, 78% of youth provided more risky responses in the chat room than in pretest. The most robust predictor of this change was gender, with boys significantly more susceptible to peer influence than girls. Significant interactions also were noted, with greater susceptibility among boys with later pubertal development and African American boys. Conclusion Results confirm that not all youth are equally susceptible to peer influence. Consistent with sexual script theory, boys evidence greater susceptibility to social pressure regarding sexual behavior than girls. PMID:26794431
Dryfoos, Joy G.
The primary job of parents is to ensure safe passage for their children from infancy through adolescence to adulthood. Research has indicated many things schools can do to turn the privilege of safe passage into a right. Three research-based programs that work to achieve safe passage are described. The first is Caring Connection, a "one-stop-shop"…
Jere, Diana L; Norr, Kathleen F; Bell, Carl C; Corte, Colleen; Dancy, Barbara L; Kaponda, Chrissie P N; Levy, Judith A
Using an ecological model, we describe substance use and sexual risk behaviors of young male laborers at a roadside market in Malawi. Data included observations and interviews with 18 key market leaders and 15 laborers (ages 18-25 years). Alcohol, marijuana, and commercial sex workers (CSWs) were widely available. We identified three patterns of substance use: 6 young men currently used, 6 formerly used, and 3 never used. Substance use was linked to risky sex, including sex with CSWs. The market supported risky behaviors through availability of resources; supportive norms, including beliefs that substance use enhanced strength; and lack of restraints. Community-level poverty, cultural support for alcohol, interpersonal family/peer influences, early substance use, and school dropout also contributed to risky behaviors. Parental guidance was protective but not often reported. Local programs addressing substance use and risky sex simultaneously and better national substance use policies and mental health services are needed.
Kang, Piljoo P; Romo, Laura F
Structural equation modeling was used to test a theoretical path model of church engagement, personal spirituality, and mentoring relationships on depressive symptoms, involvement in risky behaviors, and self-reported grades among Korean American adolescents. It was hypothesized that personal spirituality and mentoring relationship quality would mediate the relation between church engagement and adolescent outcomes. Data were obtained through a self-report survey from 248 Korean American adolescents in grades 7 through 12. High levels of church engagement, as characterized by years of attendance, choice to attend, and participation in activities, predicted deeper personal spirituality and better mentoring relationships. Personal spirituality, as measured by one's daily religious experiences, beliefs, and private spiritual practices, was a mediator of the relationship between church engagement and adolescent outcomes. Specifically, higher levels of church engagement was linked to stronger personal spirituality, which in turn predicted less depressive symptoms for girls and higher grades for boys.
Manning, Wendy D; Longmore, Monica A; Copp, Jennifer; Giordano, Peggy C
The complexity of adolescents' dating and sexual lives is not easily operationalized with simple indicators of dating or sexual activity. While building on prior work that emphasizes the "risky" nature of adolescents' intimate relationships, we assess whether a variety of indicators reflecting the complexity of adolescents' relationships influence early adult well-being (i.e., depressive symptoms, self-esteem, gainful activity, intimate partner violence, and relationship quality). Our analysis of longitudinal data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study showed that the number of adolescent dating and sexual partners does not uniformly influence indicators of young adult well-being, which is at odds with a risk framework. The number of dating partners with whom the individual was sexually active, and not the number of "casual" sex partners, increased the odds of intimate partner violence during young adulthood. Relationship churning and sexual nonexclusivity during adolescence were associated with lower relationship quality during young adulthood. Sexual nonexclusivity during adolescence influenced self-reports of depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem among young adults. Future research should develop more nuanced conceptualizations of adolescent dating and sexual relationships and integrate adolescent dating and sexual experiences into research on early adult well-being.
Ip, Eric J; Yadao, Michael A; Shah, Bijal M; Lau, Bonnie
Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) and other performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) are commonly misused to increase muscle size and strength, as well as improve physical appearance. Many AAS and certain PEDs are administered via injection and therefore pose a risk for transmission of infectious diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). Further, AAS users may be more likely to take part in high-risk sexual behaviors than non-AAS users. This review explores the prevalence of infectious diseases as well as risky injection practices and sexual behaviors of AAS users in the current literature. A comprehensive MEDLINE search (1984-17 April 2015) for English language reports was performed on AAS users. Ten studies analyzed the prevalence of HIV infection, 6 studies analyzed HBV infection, and 6 studies analyzed HCV infection; 20 studies analyzed injection practices and 7 studies analyzed high-risk sexual behaviors of AAS users. HIV, HBV, HCV, and SSTIs have been associated with AAS users. In particular, HIV infection seems much higher among homosexual male AAS users. AAS users also take part in high-risk injection practices but to a much lower extent than intravenous drug users. AAS users are also more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behaviors than the general population. Clinicians and health-policy leaders may utilize these findings to implement strategies to decrease the spread of infectious diseases.
Winandy, Laurane; Denoël, Mathieu
The introduction of alien species is one of the major causes of current and global biodiversity loss. The introduction of fish can be a particular threat to native amphibian populations, which are declining worldwide. One way for amphibians to persist in such altered environments is to adopt anti-predator strategies especially at the behavioural level. However, although it has been shown that avoidance behaviour may decrease the probability of being detected by a potential predator, little is known on the consequences on sexual behaviour. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that adult Alpine newts (Ichthyosaura alpestris) use shelters more often and exhibit less sexual activity in the presence of goldfish (Carassius auratus) and that they reduce sexual activity more in risky micro-habitats than in safe environments. To this end, we assessed behavioural patterns of adult newts in a replicated laboratory design. Goldfish were present in direct contact with newts in half of the tanks. Consistently throughout the study period, significantly more newts used shelter in the presence of fish than in their absence. Newts also significantly decreased their sexual activity level overall, but specially outside the shelter when they were in direct contact with fish. These results show that fish presence can affect newts in complex ways, such as through inhibition of their reproduction. Our work highlights that integrating behaviour in conservation studies is essential to understanding the patterns of coexistence and exclusion between introduced fish and amphibians. PMID:24312432
Winandy, Laurane; Denoël, Mathieu
The introduction of alien species is one of the major causes of current and global biodiversity loss. The introduction of fish can be a particular threat to native amphibian populations, which are declining worldwide. One way for amphibians to persist in such altered environments is to adopt anti-predator strategies especially at the behavioural level. However, although it has been shown that avoidance behaviour may decrease the probability of being detected by a potential predator, little is known on the consequences on sexual behaviour. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that adult Alpine newts (Ichthyosaura alpestris) use shelters more often and exhibit less sexual activity in the presence of goldfish (Carassius auratus) and that they reduce sexual activity more in risky micro-habitats than in safe environments. To this end, we assessed behavioural patterns of adult newts in a replicated laboratory design. Goldfish were present in direct contact with newts in half of the tanks. Consistently throughout the study period, significantly more newts used shelter in the presence of fish than in their absence. Newts also significantly decreased their sexual activity level overall, but specially outside the shelter when they were in direct contact with fish. These results show that fish presence can affect newts in complex ways, such as through inhibition of their reproduction. Our work highlights that integrating behaviour in conservation studies is essential to understanding the patterns of coexistence and exclusion between introduced fish and amphibians.
Fischer, Gloria; Brunner, Romuald; Parzer, Peter; Klug, Katja; Durkee, Tony; Carli, Vladimi; Wasserman, Danuta; Vonderlin, Eva; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael
To investigate associations between risky and pathologic internet use with depression, deliberate self-harm and suicidal behaviour among a representative sample of German adolescents. A total of 1,435 students (48% boys, 52% girls) from the area of Heidelberg/Germany were recruited during the SEYLE study, a European school-based intervention study and completed an assessment of different questionnaires, including the Young Diagnostic Questionnaire for the assessment of risky and pathological internet use, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Deliberate Self Harm Inventory, and the Paykel Suicide Scale. 80.7% of the students reported regular, 14.5% risky, and 4.8% pathological internet use. The risky and the pathological internet users showed significant higher rates of depression, deliberate self-harm and suicidal behaviour compared to students with regular internet use. Remarkably, there were no significant differences of levels of depression and suicidal behaviour between risky and pathological users. These results suggest that not only pathologic internet use but also risky internet use is associated with symptoms of depression, self-harm and suicidal behaviour. Therefore, more attention should be paid to adolescents with risky internet use for the early recognition of depression, self-harm and suicidality in adolescence.
Santelli, John S.; And Others
Special edition discusses adolescent sexuality, focusing on pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, and prevention. The articles focus on demographics, risk factors, school-based risk reduction programs, contraception, early intervention, options, school-based prenatal and postpartum care programs, teenage parenting, abortion, HIV and AIDS,…
Fortenberry, J. Dennis
This chapter is organized around the question "How do adolescents learn to have healthy sex?" The chapter assumes that sexual learning derives from a broad range of both informal and formal sources that contribute to learning within the context of neurocognitive brain systems that modulate sexual motivations and self-regulation. The…
Jardin, Charles; Garey, Lorra; Sharp, Carla; Zvolensky, Michael J
Recent syndemic models of sexual health disparities affecting racial/ethnic minorities have highlighted the role of discrimination. Yet no previous work has examined how acculturative stress (distress at the transition from one's original culture toward a new culture) associates with sexual HIV-risk behavior (SHRB). Work among other minority populations suggests sexual compulsivity (SC) may contribute to syndemic sexual health disparities as a means of coping with distress. With this in mind, the present study examined whether SC explained the relation between acculturative stress and SHRB. Separate analyses were conducted for males and females within a sample of 758 sexually initiated racial/ethnic minority college students. Among males and females, acculturative stress had an indirect effect on SHRB via SC. As the first study to examine SHRB in relation to acculturative stress, findings provide preliminary evidence that targeting SC among racial/ethnic minorities may help reduce sexual health disparities.
Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Reio, Thomas G; Stipanovic, Natalie; Taylor, Jennifer E
This study examines the mediating role of student-teacher relationship quality (conflict and closeness) in grades 4, 5, and 6 on the relation between background characteristics, difficult temperament at age 4 1/2 and risky behavior in 6th grade. The longitudinal sample of participants (N=1156) was from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate paths from (a) background characteristics to student-teacher relationship quality and risky behavior, (b) temperament to student-teacher relationship quality and risky behavior, and (c) student-teacher relationship quality to risky behavior. Findings indicate that students' family income, gender, receipt of special services, and more difficult temperament were associated with risky behavior. In addition, student-teacher conflict was a mediator. Students with more difficult temperaments were more likely to report risky behavior and to have conflict in their relationships with teachers. More conflict predicted more risky behavior. Closer student-teacher relationships were associated with less risky behavior. Results suggest negative relationships, specifically student-teacher relationships, may increase the risk that certain adolescents will engage in risky behavior.
Werner-Wilson, Ronald Jay; Fitzharris, Jennifer Lynn; Morrissey, Kathleen M
Empirical evidence suggests that television and other media influence adolescents' attitudes and behaviors. Much of the research in this area is based on surveys in which adolescents are asked to rank the relative importance of a fixed set of factors such as parents, peers, and media. We reviewed data from focus groups conducted with adolescents and their parents to examine the extent to which adolescents identify--without prompting--media as a source of influence on sexual behavior. Adolescents seemed indifferent to media influence (e.g., media influence was mentioned in only one adolescent focus group), but their parents expressed significant concern about media influence. Future research should investigate the extent to which influences exist outside of adolescents' consciousness. For now, parents and sexuality educators may need to convince adolescents that concerns about the media are valid before trying to change media-influenced behavior.
Anatale, Katharine; Kelly, Sarah
Adolescence is a tumultuous and challenging time period in life. Sexual risk behavior among adolescents is a widespread topic of interest in the current literature. Two common factors that influence increased sexual risk behavior are symptoms of depression and negative body image. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of body image and symptoms of depression upon sexual risk-taking in an adolescent female population. A secondary data analysis of the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) was used to explore girls' sexual activity, body image, and mental health. There were 7,708 high-school girls who participated in this study. Three questions were used to represent the constructs under investigation. There were significant correlations between sexual activity, body image, and symptoms of depression; only symptoms of depression were significant predictors of both sexual activity and condom usage. Body image was a predictor of sexual activity, but not condom use. Our findings support previous studies that suggested that people with depressive symptoms were more likely to engage in risky sexual behaviors. Our study also supports the idea that a negative body image decreases sexual activity; however, other researchers have reported that negative body image leads to an increase in sexual activity.
Parents of preteens need to be aware of the rapidly increasing incidence of sexually transmitted diseases among teenagers and to begin talking to their preteens to help prevent or modify risky sexual experimentation during middle adolescence. (MT)
Ross, J. Megan; Coxe, Stefany; Schuster, Randi M.; Rojas, Angelica; Gonzalez, Raul
Risky sexual behavior (RSB) is a current public health concern affecting adolescents and young adults. Conduct disorder, cannabis use and decision making (DM) ability are interrelated constructs that are relevant to RSB; however, there is little research on the association of DM and RSB. Participants were 79 cannabis users assessed through self-report measures of RSB and mental health, and a timeline follow-back procedure for substance use. DM ability was assessed via the Iowa Gambling Task. We found that more conduct disorder symptoms accounted for unique variance in measures of overall RSB and an earlier initiation of oral sex, even when taking into account DM and cannabis use. Amount of cannabis use and DM ability moderated the relationships between number of conduct disorder symptoms and number of oral sex partners and age of initiation for vaginal sex. An increase in conduct disorder symptoms was associated with more oral sex partners when DM was poor and fewer partners when DM was better, however this relationship was only present at higher levels of cannabis use. Furthermore, when DM was poor, more conduct disorder symptoms predicted a younger age of initiation of vaginal sex, with the age decreasing as amount of cannabis use increased. Determining how DM influences RSB may assist in the identification of novel treatment approaches to reduce engagement in RSB. PMID:25832553
Ross, J Megan; Coxe, Stefany; Schuster, Randi M; Rojas, Angelica; Gonzalez, Raul
Risky sexual behavior (RSB) is a current public health concern affecting adolescents and young adults. Conduct disorder, cannabis use, and decision-making (DM) ability are interrelated constructs that are relevant to RSB; however, there is little research on the association of DM and RSB. Participants were 79 cannabis users assessed through self-report measures of RSB and mental health and a timeline follow-back procedure for substance use. DM ability was assessed via the Iowa Gambling Task. We found that more conduct disorder symptoms accounted for unique variance in measures of overall RSB and an earlier initiation of oral sex, even when taking into account DM and cannabis use. Amount of cannabis use and DM ability moderated the relationships between number of conduct disorder symptoms and number of oral sex partners and age of initiation for vaginal sex. An increase in conduct disorder symptoms was associated with more oral sex partners when DM was poor and fewer partners when DM was better; however, this relationship was only present at higher levels of cannabis use. Furthermore, when DM was poor, more conduct disorder symptoms predicted a younger age of initiation of vaginal sex, with the age decreasing as amount of cannabis use increased. Determining how DM influences RSB may assist in the identification of novel treatment approaches to reduce engagement in RSB.
McCormick, Ethan M; Telzer, Eva H
Decision-making processes rarely occur in isolation. Rather, representations are updated constantly based on feedback to past decisions and actions. However, previous research has focused on the reaction to feedback receipt itself, instead of examining how feedback information is integrated into future decisions. In the current study, we examined differential neural sensitivity during risk decisions following positive versus negative feedback in a risk-taking context, and how this differential sensitivity is linked to adolescent risk behavior. Fifty-eight adolescents (ages 13-17 years) completed the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) during an fMRI session and reported on their levels of risk-taking behavior. Results show that reduced medial PFC (mPFC) response following negative versus positive feedback is associated with fewer reductions in task-based risky decisions following negative feedback, as well as increased self-reported risk-taking behavior. These results suggest that reduced neural integration of negative feedback into during future decisions supports risky behavior, perhaps by discounting negative relative to positive feedback information when making subsequent risky decisions.
Mehra, Devika; Kyagaba, Emmanuel; Ostergren, Per-Olof; Agardh, Anette
Little is known about the association between self-reported academic performance and risky sexual behaviors and if this differs by gender, among university students. Academic performance can create psychological pressure in young students. Poor academic performance might thus potentially contribute to risky sexual behavior among university students. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between self-reported academic performance and risky sexual behaviors, and whether gender affects this relationship among Ugandan university students. In 2010, 1,954 students participated in a cross-sectional survey, conducted at Mbarara University of Science and Technology in southwestern Uganda (72% response rate). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used for the analysis. 1,179 (60.3%) students in our study sample reported having debuted sexually. Of these 440 (42.2%) used condoms inconsistently with new sexual partners, and 344 (33.6%) had had multiple sexual partners. We found a statistically significant association between poor academic performance and inconsistent condom use with a new sex partner and this association remained significant even after adjusting for all the potential confounders. There was no such association detected regarding multiple sexual partners. We also found that gender modified the effect of poor academic performance on inconsistent condom use. Females, who were poor academic performers, were found to be at a higher risk of inconsistent condom use than their male counterparts. Interventions should be designed to provide extra support to poor academic performers, which may improve their performance and self-esteem, which in turn might reduce their risky sexual behaviors.
Martino, Steven C.; Tucker, Joan S.; Ryan, Gery; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Golinelli, Daniela; Munjas, Brett
Travelers are a migratory subgroup of homeless youth who may be especially prone to engaging in risky behavior. This study compared the substance use and sexual behavior of young homeless travelers and non-travelers to evaluate the extent and possible sources of travelers' increased risk. Data came from face-to-face interviews with 419 homeless…
Gilchrist, Heidi; Smith, Kylie; Magee, Christopher A.; Jones, Sandra
Excessive alcohol consumption and heavy episodic drinking is increasingly common among female university students. This trend is concerning given that excessive alcohol consumption and binge drinking have several adverse effects, including increased levels of risky sexual behaviour. The findings presented here are the first step in establishing an…
Afolabi, Olukayode Ayooluwa; Adesina, Ayobami Adekunle
The study observed the influence of neuroticism, agreeableness, extraversion and HIV awareness on risky sexual behaviour of Nigerian undergraduates. Two hundred (215) undergraduates in the Faculties of Engineering and Social sciences, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria, took part in the research. They consisted of 135 (62.7%) males and 80…
Euser, Anja S.; Evans, Brittany E.; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin; Huizink, Anja C.; Franken, Ingmar H. A.
The present study examined the role of parental rearing behavior in adolescents' risky decision-making and the brain's feedback processing mechanisms. Healthy adolescent participants ("n" = 110) completed the EMBU-C, a self-report questionnaire on perceived parental rearing behaviors between 2006 and 2008 (T1). Subsequently, after an…
Cardoza, Vicky J.; Documét, Patricia I.; Fryer, Craig S.; Gold, Melanie A.; Butler, James
Study Objective To identify sexual health behavior interventions targeting U.S. Latino adolescents. Design A systematic literature review. Setting Peer-reviewed articles published between 1993 and 2011, conducted in any type of setting. Participants Male and female Latino adolescents ages 11–21 years. Interventions Interventions promoting sexual abstinence, pregnancy prevention, sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention, and/or HIV/AIDS prevention. Main Outcome Measures Changes in knowledge, attitudes, engagement in risky sexual behaviors, rates of STIs, and/or pregnancy. Results Sixty-eight articles were identified. Fifteen were included in this review that specifically addressed Latino adolescent sexual health behavior. Among the reviewed interventions, most aimed to prevent or reduce STI and HIV/AIDS incidence by focusing on behavior change at two levels of the social ecological model: individual and interpersonal. Major strengths of the articles included addressing the most critical issues of sexual health; using social ecological approaches; employing different strategies to deliver sexual health messages; and employing different intervention designs in diverse geographical locations with the largest population of Latino communities. Most of the interventions targeted female adolescents, stressing the need for additional interventions that target Latino adolescent males. Conclusions Latino adolescent sexual health is a new research field with gaps that need to be addressed in reducing negative sexual health outcomes among this population. More research is needed to produce new or validate existing, age-specific, and culturally-sensitive sexual health interventions for Latino male and female adolescents. Further, this research should also be conducted in areas of the U.S. with the newest Latino migration (e.g., North Carolina). PMID:22206687
Littleton, Heather L; Grills, Amie E; Drum, Katherine B
Although having a sexual victimization history is associated with engaging in sexual risk behavior, the mechanisms whereby sexual victimization increases risk behavior are unclear. This study examined use of sex as an affect regulation strategy as a mediator of the relationship between depressive symptoms and sexual risk behavior among 1,616 sexually active college women as well as examined having a history of child sexual abuse (CSA), adolescent/adult sexual assault (ASA), or both (CSA/ASA) as moderators. Results supported the mediated model as well as moderated mediation, where depressive symptoms were more strongly associated with use of sex as an affect regulation strategy among ASA victims, and sex as an affect regulation strategy was more strongly related to sexual risk behavior for CSA/ASA victims.
Romeo, Felicia F.
Suggests that the high incidence of anorexia nervosa in adolescent girls may be related to developmental sexual pressure. Symptoms appear with the onset of puberty and are related to physiological and psychological changes. (JAC)
Hoza, Betsy; McQuade, Julia D.; Murray-Close, Dianna; Shoulberg, Erin; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Swanson, James; Hechtman, Lily
Objective This study’s primary aim was to examine whether the positive self-perceptual bias present in many youth with ADHD (Hoza et al., 2004; Hoza, Pelham, Dobbs, Owens, & Pillow, 2002) mediates the relation of childhood ADHD status to later risky behaviors. Method Using a subset of children with ADHD and comparison children (n = 645) from the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD, we predicted that a positive bias in childhood would partially or fully mediate the relation between having ADHD and risky driving and sexual behaviors eight years later. Results Results strongly supported this hypothesis for risky driving behavior, but only provided limited support for risky sexual behavior. Conclusions Taken together, findings suggest that future research should explore whether self-perceptual bias may be a useful target of intervention for children with ADHD. PMID:23834228
Althoff, Meghan D; Grayson, Cary T; Witt, Lucy; Holden, Julie; Reid, Daniel; Kissinger, Patricia
The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of behavioral interventions in reducing risky sexual behavior and incident sexually transmitted infections (STI) among Latina women living in the United States. Studies were found by systematically searching the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsychInfo databases without language restriction. Two independent reviewers screened abstracts and full texts of articles to find randomized control trials testing the effects of behavioral interventions aimed at changing risky sexual behavior among Latinas. Articles were selected using prespecified inclusion criteria. Two independent reviewers extracted data from the included trials in duplicate using a standardized data extraction form. Six randomized control trials met the inclusion criteria for a total of 2,909 participants. Using random effects models with inverse variance weighting, we found a protective effect of the behavioral intervention on reported risky sexual behavior (odds ratio = 0.52; 95% confidence interval = 0.42, 0.64) and on incident nonviral STI (odds ratio = 0.65; 95% confidence interval = 0.46, 0.93). Behavioral interventions targeted toward Latina populations are effective in reducing risky sexual behaviors and incident STI and should be considered by policymakers as a potential tool for HIV/STI prevention in this population.
Foo, Jerome C.; Nagase, Kohei; Naramura-Ohno, Sawako; Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu; Morita, Kenji
It has been shown that adolescents take more risks when they are with peers than when they are alone, presumably because the presence of peers can be a social reward/punishment that can bias decision making. Competition is inherent in peer interactions, and recent work has demonstrated that winning/losing is an intrinsic social reward/punishment. Taken together, it can be hypothesized that competition amongst peers affects adolescents’ risky behavior. While there is much evidence that status amongst peers can relate to antisocial/aggressive behavior, it remains unclear whether risky behavior is affected. Moreover, the degree to which ‘temporary status,’ such as ranking in a short-term competitive game, affects behavior is uncertain, an important issue because adolescents might be sensitive to situations or factors which potentially destabilize existing hierarchies. In this experiment, these issues were directly explored in the classroom environment using smartphone technology and Wi-Fi setup. Male junior high school students (aged 14–15) performed a roulette game task on smartphones, playing either independently or against five classmates. In the latter case, the students’ current ranks within the group of six were constantly presented on smartphone screens. To dissociate the effects of the students’ reactions to ranks from their actual performances, unknown to the students, the ranks presented were actually predetermined so that about half of the students were continuously presented with high ranks whereas the other half were continuously presented with low ranks. We found that the students presented with low ranks made more risky plays than those not presented with ranks or those presented with high ranks. This result suggests that even temporary status significantly affects adolescents’ risky behavior, and also demonstrates the usefulness of smartphones in examining and manipulating peer interactions in classroom experiments. PMID:28174543
Hartley, Jane E K
Within the contemporary culture of consumption, school-aged adolescents, though neither waged nor salaried producers, are nevertheless treated by the media and the advertisers as if they are active consumers who are engaged in the project of the self. For those adolescents who lack the financial resources to 'buy into' this culture, anxiety may ensue. In order to ease this anxiety, and to acquire social status, some - not all - may make the 'rational' 'consumer' choice to engage in risky health-related behaviour. In situ ethnographic research is needed in order to complement and inform the existing survey-based evidence on the relationship between economic status and health-related behaviour among school-aged adolescents as they deal with the pressures of consumerism.
O'Hara, Ross E; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D
Early sexual debut is associated with risky sexual behavior and an increased risk of unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections later in life. The relations among early movie sexual exposure (MSE), sexual debut, and risky sexual behavior in adulthood (i.e., multiple sexual partners and inconsistent condom use) were examined in a longitudinal study of U.S. adolescents. MSE was measured using the Beach method, a comprehensive procedure for media content coding. Controlling for characteristics of adolescents and their families, analyses showed that MSE predicted age of sexual debut, both directly and indirectly through changes in sensation seeking. MSE also predicted engagement in risky sexual behaviors both directly and indirectly via early sexual debut. These results suggest that MSE may promote sexual risk taking both by modifying sexual behavior and by accelerating the normal rise in sensation seeking during adolescence.
Adjei, Jones K; Saewyc, Elizabeth M
Research on youth sexual exploitation in Africa has largely neglected the experiences of exploited boys. To date, much of the research in sub-Saharan Africa continues to consider boys mainly as exploiters but not as exploited. Using the only publicly available population-based surveys from the National Survey of Adolescents, conducted in four sub-Saharan African countries - Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi, and Uganda-we assessed factors associated with transactional sexual behaviour among never-married adolescent boys and girls. We also examined whether boys' reported sexual exploitation was linked to similar risky sexual behaviours as has been noted among girls in sub-Saharan Africa. Results from our analyses indicated that even though adolescent girls have a somewhat higher likelihood of reporting sexual abuse and exploitation, the odds of trading sex were significantly elevated for previously traumatized boys (that is those with a history of sexual and physical abuse) but not for their female counterparts. Just like adolescent girls, transactional sexual behaviour was associated with the risk of having concurrent multiple sexual partners for boys. These findings support the reality of boys' sexual exploitation within the African context, and further highlight the importance of including males in general and boys in particular in population-based studies on sexual health, risk, and protective factors in the sub-Saharan African region. Understanding the factors linked to sexual exploitation for both boys and girls will help in developing policies and programs that could improve the overall sexual and reproductive health outcomes among adolescents and youth in sub-Saharan Africa.
Tadesse, Gojjam; Yakob, Bereket
Background Little is known about sexual risks and associated factors about female youths in semi-urban areas of Ethiopia. This study aimed to describe the nature and magnitude of risky sexual behaviors, and the socio-demographic and behavioral determinants among female youths in Tiss Abay, a semi-urban area on the outskirts of Bahir Dar City of the Amhara Region in northern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional census type study was conducted among female youths who were unmarried and aged 15–29 years in September 2011. Results 711 female youths participated in the study, with the mean age of initiation of sex of 78.6% being16.73±2.53 years. Only 52(9.3%) used condom during the first sex. Within the last 12 months, 509(71.6%) had sexual intercourse and 278(54.6%) had two or more sex partners, and 316(62.1%) did not use condom during their last sex. Sex under the influence of substances was reported by 350(68.8%), and a third of the recent sexes were against the will of participants. One or more risky sexual practices were reported by 503(70.3%) participants, including: multiple sexual partnerships, inconsistently using or not using condoms, sex under the influence of alcohol and/or sex immediately after watching pornography. Age group, current marital status, drinking homemade alcohol, chewing ‘khat’, watching pornography and using any form of stimulant substances were the predictors of risky sexual behavior. Watching pornography before sex and sex for transaction were the predicators of not using condom during most recent sex. Conclusions Risky sexual behaviors were very common among the female youths in Tiss Abay. Initiation of context-based interventions, such as raising awareness about the risks, safer sex practices, condom promotion and integration of gender issues in the programs are recommended. PMID:25738508
This paper reviews the literature and case law related to the issue of sexual harassment of females and specifically focuses on the adolescent female in the public middle school setting. The controversial thesis statement the researcher explored was: "sexual harassment is a manifestation of the ubiquitous power imbalance between men and women…
Brookmeyer, Kathryn A.; Henrich, Christopher C.
Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the authors aimed to describe the pathways of risk within sexual risk taking, alcohol use, and delinquency, and then identify how the trajectory of sexual risk is linked to alcohol use and delinquency. Risk trajectories were measured with adolescents aged 15-24 years (N = 1,778). Using…
Ryu, Eunjung; Kim, Kyunghee; Kwon, Hyejin
Background: The proportion of adolescents experiencing unwanted pregnancy and abortion caused by the premature initiation of sexual intercourse is increasing at an alarming rate in Korea. This study aimed at developing a theoretical model for identifying individual and environmental risk factors affecting the initiation of sexual intercourse by…
Banyard, Victoria L.; Williams, Linda M.
Using an ecological model as a guiding framework, this article reviews key factors which put adolescent survivors of sexual abuse at risk for negative outcomes, as well as resources which might enhance positive outcomes and recovery. Throughout the article, quotes from women who experienced sexual abuse during their youth highlight opportunities…
McCabe, Kira O; Modecki, Kathryn L; Barber, Bonnie L
Adolescents are at a significant risk for binge drinking and illicit drug use. One way to protect against these behaviors is through participation in extracurricular activities. However, there is a debate about whether highly conscientious adolescents are more likely to participate in activities, which raises the concern of a confound. To disentangle these relationships, we tested the latent trajectories of substance use and personality across 3 years, with participation in activities and sports as time-varying predictors. We surveyed 687 adolescents (55 % female, 85.4 % Caucasian) in Western Australia schools across 3 years. At Time 1, the students were in Year 10 1 (mean age 15 years). The results showed that participation in activities and conscientiousness are related, but each uniquely predicts slower growth in substance use. Across waves, participation in activities predicted less risky substance use a year later, over and above conscientiousness development. These results suggest that there may be unique benefits of participation in activities that protect against risky substance use.
Friedman, Mark S; Silvestre, Anthony J; Gold, Melanie A; Markovic, Nina; Savin-Williams, Ritch C; Huggins, James; Sell, Randal L
Researchers disagree on how to assess adolescent sexual orientation. The relative importance of various dimensions (e.g. attraction, relationships, behavior, self-labeling) is unknown, which calls into question the validity of studies assessing adolescent sexual orientation. To address this issue, 50 male and female adolescents of varied sexual orientations participated in focus groups and interviews. Two types of sexual attraction-one a physiologic reaction and the other a cognitive response-were central to adolescent sexual orientation. Participants did not perceive sexual behavior and self-identification as necessarily relevant. Preliminary items to measure sexual attraction were developed based on these adolescents' perceptions.
Moilanen, Kristin L.; Crockett, Lisa J.; Raffaelli, Marcela; Jones, Bobby L.
Developmental trajectories of risky sexual behavior were identified in a multiethnic sample of 1,121 youth drawn from the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data set (NLSY79). Group-based trajectory modeling of a composite index of sexual risk taking revealed four sexual risk groups from ages 16 to 22: low risk, decreasing risk,…
McCormick, Ethan M; Telzer, Eva H
Research on adolescence has largely focused on the particular biological and neural changes that place teens at risk for negative outcomes linked to increases in sensation-seeking and risky behavior. However, there is a growing interest in the adaptive function of adolescence, with work highlighting the dual nature of adolescence as a period of potential risk and opportunity. We examined how behavioral and neural sensitivity to risk and reward varies as a function of age using the Balloon Analog Risk Task. Seventy-seven children and adolescents (ages 8-17 years) completed the Balloon Analog Risk Task during an fMRI session. Results indicate that adolescents show greater learning throughout the task. Furthermore, older participants showed increased neural responses to reward in the OFC and ventral striatum, increased activation to risk in the mid-cingulate cortex, as well as increased functional OFC-medial PFC coupling in both risk and reward contexts. Age-related changes in regional activity and interregional connectivity explain the link between age and increases in flexible learning. These results support the idea that adolescents' sensitivity to risk and reward supports adaptive learning and behavioral approaches for reward acquisition.
Background Cellular phone use (CPU) is an important part of life for many adolescents. However, problematic CPU may complicate physiological and psychological problems. The aim of our study was to examine the associations between problematic CPU and a series of risky behaviors and low self-esteem in Taiwanese adolescents. Methods A total of 11,111 adolescent students in Southern Taiwan were randomly selected into this study. We used the Problematic Cellular Phone Use Questionnaire to identify the adolescents with problematic CPU. Meanwhile, a series of risky behaviors and self-esteem were evaluated. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were employed to examine the associations between problematic CPU and risky behaviors and low self-esteem regarding gender and age. Results The results indicated that positive associations were found between problematic CPU and aggression, insomnia, smoking cigarettes, suicidal tendencies, and low self-esteem in all groups with different sexes and ages. However, gender and age differences existed in the associations between problematic CPU and suspension from school, criminal records, tattooing, short nocturnal sleep duration, unprotected sex, illicit drugs use, drinking alcohol and chewing betel nuts. Conclusions There were positive associations between problematic CPU and a series of risky behaviors and low self-esteem in Taiwanese adolescents. It is worthy for parents and mental health professionals to pay attention to adolescents' problematic CPU. PMID:20426807
Hegna, Kristinn; Mossige, Svein; Wichstrom, Lars
The prevalence of older adolescents' positive attitudes toward younger sexual partners was investigated through three measures of self-reported hypothetical likelihood of having sex with preadolescents and younger adolescents (LSA), using a school-based cluster sample of 710 Norwegian 18- to 19-year-olds attending nonvocational high schools in…
Macedo, Senei da Rocha Henrique; Miranda, Francisco Arnoldo Nunes de; Pessoa Júnior, João Mário; Nóbrega, Vannucia Karla de Medeiros
This study aimed to identify the social representations of adolescents about sexuality, from their personal experiences. The research, of a qualitative and representational nature, was carried out with thirteen teenagers in a unit of education for young and adults. It has, as instrument for data collection, a semi-structured interview and focus group meetings. It was observed the coexistence of questions regarding sexuality and its relation to the sexual act itself; absence of dialogue between parents and children about this theme; and incipient school approach, with limitations of the contents about condom use. In this study, the social representations are anchored in sexuality as sexual act, objectified through social and sexual scripts, which gives teens a practical knowledge about themselves.
Dembo, Richard; Belenko, Steven; Childs, Kristina; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Wareham, Jennifer
Data was collected on arrested youths processed at a centralized intake facility, including youths released back to the community and those placed in secure detention. This article reports the results of a test of a structural model involving newly arrested male and female youths' sexually transmitted diseases (STD) test results, urine analysis…
Lara, Lúcia A S; Abdo, Carmita H N
Adolescence is characterized by marked changes in the body, psychology, and sexual behavior due to increasing production of hormones. In this review we aimed to assess the effect of age at the time of first sexual intercourse (sexarche) on the health of adolescent girls, and identify factors that might protect against early initiation of sexual relations in girls. The PubMed, Lilacs, and Google Scholar databases were searched for clinical trials, comparative studies, case-control studies, cross-sectional studies, cohort studies, multicenter studies, observational studies, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews published up to December 2014 on this theme. The search terms were: "sexual debut," "coitarche," "sexarche," and "young people," "adolescent," "unplanned pregnancy," "adolescent contraception," and "STDs." Data were extracted from 28 studies and 41 references were used to introduce the theme and to support the discussion. Sexarche has been occurring in increasingly younger girls. A young age at sexarche can lead to subsequent risky sexual behavior. Girls who have sexarche when they are 14 years old or younger are less likely to use contraception on this occasion, take more time before they start using contraception in subsequent sexual relations, are more likely to have several sex partners, have a higher risk for depression, have lower self-esteem and more episodes of repentance, and have a higher risk for a sexually transmitted disease and cervical cancer. Girls with low educational, socioeconomic, and cultural status, little parental monitoring, parental separation, and absence of religiosity tend to experience sexarche at a younger age. Adolescent girls who postpone sexarche until they are 16 years old are physically and psychologically healthier than those who have sexarche at a younger age. This suggests that providing adolescent girls with appropriate education about sexual relations might reduce the negative effect of sexual relations at a young age.
Zhang, Huiping; Wong, William C W; Ip, Patrick; Fan, Susan; Yip, Paul S F
This study aimed to examine the association between sexual orientation and health disparities among a stratified random sample of 3776 secondary students in Hong Kong. The prevalence of homosexuality and bisexuality were 1.5% and 2.6% in boys and 1.8% and 3.7% in girls, respectively. A total of 10.7% of boys and 8.8% of girls were unsure of their sexual orientation. Homosexual and bisexual boys reported poorer physical and mental health than their heterosexual peers. Homosexual and bisexual boys were more likely to engage in smoking, frequent drinking, and vaginal sex and be subjected to sexually transmitted disease and sexual victimization. However, lesbian and bisexual girls were less likely to engage in risky health behaviors except for smoking and being subjected to sexual victimization. There is a gender-specific problem that may warrant prevention and intervention programs to address the unique health issues facing homosexual and bisexual adolescents in Hong Kong.
van Roode, Thea; Dickson, Nigel; Herbison, Peter; Paul, Charlotte
Objectives: To determine the impact of child sexual abuse (CSA) on adult sexual behaviors and outcomes over three age periods. Methods: A longitudinal study of a birth cohort born in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1972/1973 was used. Information on CSA was sought at age 26, and on sexual behaviors and outcomes at ages 21, 26, and 32. Comparisons were…
McCormick, Ethan M.; Telzer, Eva H.
Research on adolescence has largely focused on the particular biological and neural changes that place teens at risk for negative outcomes linked to increases in sensation-seeking and risky behavior. However, there is a growing interest in the adaptive function of adolescence, with work highlighting the dual nature of adolescence as a period of potential risk and opportunity. We examined how behavioral and neural sensitivity to risk and reward varies as a function of age using the Balloon Analog Risk Task. Seventy-seven children and adolescents (ages 8–17 years) completed the Balloon Analog Risk Task during an fMRI session. Results indicate that adolescents show greater learning throughout the task. Furthermore, older participants showed increased neural responses to reward in the OFC and ventral striatum, increased activation to risk in the mid-cingulate cortex, as well as increased functional OFC–medial PFC coupling in both risk and reward contexts. Age-related changes in regional activity and interregional connectivity explain the link between age and increases in flexible learning. These results support the idea that adolescents’ sensitivity to risk and reward supports adaptive learning and behavioral approaches for reward acquisition. PMID:28129057
Emmerink, Peggy M. J.; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; van den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.
Endorsement and enactment of the (hetero)sexual double standard (SDS), prescribing sexual modesty for girls and sexual prowess for boys, has been shown to be negatively related to sexual and mental health. To be able to challenge the SDS, more insight is needed into the conditions that shape gendered sexual attitudes. A survey was conducted among 465 heterosexual adolescents (aged 16–20 years), examining the relationship between a number of relevant demographic and psychosexual variables and SDS endorsement. SDS endorsement was assessed using a newly developed instrument, the Scale for the Assessment of Sexual Standards Among Youth (SASSY). Gender (being male) and religiousness were significantly associated with increased SDS endorsement. For both boys and girls, increased feelings of entitlement to self-induced sexual pleasure (e.g., masturbation) were significantly associated with reduced SDS endorsement, whereas higher gender investment was significantly associated with increased SDS endorsement. Furthermore, increased feelings of entitlement to partner-induced sexual pleasure and more frequent talking about sexuality with peers were associated with increased SDS endorsement among boys but not among girls. We conclude that future research should explore peer influence processes through peer communication about sex, gender investment, and feelings of entitlement to both self and partner-induced sexual pleasure. PMID:26327361
Emmerink, Peggy M J; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Ter Bogt, Tom F M
Endorsement and enactment of the (hetero)sexual double standard (SDS), prescribing sexual modesty for girls and sexual prowess for boys, has been shown to be negatively related to sexual and mental health. To be able to challenge the SDS, more insight is needed into the conditions that shape gendered sexual attitudes. A survey was conducted among 465 heterosexual adolescents (aged 16-20 years), examining the relationship between a number of relevant demographic and psychosexual variables and SDS endorsement. SDS endorsement was assessed using a newly developed instrument, the Scale for the Assessment of Sexual Standards Among Youth (SASSY). Gender (being male) and religiousness were significantly associated with increased SDS endorsement. For both boys and girls, increased feelings of entitlement to self-induced sexual pleasure (e.g., masturbation) were significantly associated with reduced SDS endorsement, whereas higher gender investment was significantly associated with increased SDS endorsement. Furthermore, increased feelings of entitlement to partner-induced sexual pleasure and more frequent talking about sexuality with peers were associated with increased SDS endorsement among boys but not among girls. We conclude that future research should explore peer influence processes through peer communication about sex, gender investment, and feelings of entitlement to both self and partner-induced sexual pleasure.
Gabster, Amanda; Mohammed, Debbie Y.; Arteaga, Griselda B.; Castillero, Omar; Mojica, Nataly; Dyamond, José; Varela, Maria; Pascale, Juan Miguel
Background Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are common in adolescents worldwide. Vulnerability to STIs increases with risky sexual practices. This study described the sexual practices, estimated the prevalence of STIs, and identified correlates associated with STIs among participants, enrolled in public high schools, in the District of Panama, Panama. Methods A cross sectional study, using multistage cluster sampling, was conducted among participants, aged 14–18 years, enrolled in public high schools, in the District of Panama, Panama City, Panama, from August to November, 2015. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire and provided biological samples. The samples of those reporting sexual activity (oral, vaginal, and/or anal intercourse) were tested for STIs. Odds ratios were used to identify correlates of STIs in this population. Results A total of 592 participants were included, of whom, 60.8% reported a history of sexual activity, and 24.4% tested positive for least one STI. STIs were more common in female participants, (33.5%). Compared to those without STIs, higher proportions of those with at least one STI reported ≥3 sexual partners in their lifetime (60.0%) and current sexual activity (76.3%). In the multivariable model, correlates of STI included female participants (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 5.8, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 2.3–14.6) and those who engaged in sexual intercourse with casual partners (AOR = 3.0, 95% CI: 1.2–7.5). Conclusions We report a high STI prevalence among adolescents attending public high schools, in the District of Panama. Reported risky sexual practices were common and correlated with STIs. Female participants and those reporting sexual intercourse with casual partners were more likely test positive for at least one STI. Our study identified a need for effective interventions to curb future infections in this population. PMID:27657700
Primack, Brian A.; Douglas, Erika L.; Fine, Michael J.; Dalton, Madeline A.
Background Two thirds of all sexual references in music are degrading in nature, yet it remains uncertain whether these references promote earlier sexual activity. The purpose of this study was to determine if exposure to lyrics describing degrading sex in popular music is independently associated with sexual behavior in a cohort of urban adolescents. Methods All ninth-grade health students at three large urban high schools completed in-school surveys in 2006 and 2007. Participants’ exposure to lyrics describing degrading sex was computed with overall music exposure and content analyses of their favorite artists’ songs. Outcomes included sexual intercourse and progression along a noncoital sexual continuum. Multivariable regression was used to assess independent associations between exposure to lyrics describing degrading sex and outcomes. Results The 711 participants were exposed to 14.7 hours each week of songs with lyrics describing degrading sex (SD=17.0). Almost one third of participants (n=216) had previously been sexually active. Compared to those with the least exposure to lyrics describing degrading sex, those with the most exposure were more than twice as likely to have had sexual intercourse (OR=2.07; 95% CI=1.26, 3.41), even after adjusting for all covariates. Similarly, among those who had not had sexual intercourse, those in the highest tertile of exposure to lyrics describing degrading sex were nearly twice as likely to have progressed along a noncoital sexual continuum (OR=1.88; 95% CI=1.23, 2.88) compared to those in the lowest tertile. Finally, the relationships between exposure to lyrics describing nondegrading sex and sexual outcomes were not significant. Conclusions This study supports an association between exposure to lyrics describing degrading sex in popular music and early sexual experience among adolescents. PMID:19285196
Negriff, Sonya; Brensilver, Matthew; Trickett, Penelope K.
Purpose To test models linking pubertal timing, peer substance use, sexual behavior, and substance use for maltreated versus comparison adolescents. Three theoretical mechanisms were tested: 1) peer influence links early pubertal timing to later sexual behavior and substance use, 2) early maturers engage in substance use on their own and then select substance-using friends, or 3) early maturers initiate sexual behaviors which leads them to substance-using peers. Methods The data came from a longitudinal study of the effects of child maltreatment on adolescent development (303 maltreated and 151 comparison adolescents; age: 9–13 years at initial wave). Multiple-group structural equation models tested the hypotheses across three timepoints including variables of pubertal timing, perception of peer substance use, sexual behavior, and self-reported substance use. Results Early pubertal timing was associated with substance-using peers only for maltreated adolescents, indicating the mediation path from early pubertal timing through substance-using peers to subsequent adolescent substance use and sexual behavior only holds for maltreated adolescents. Mediation via sexual behavior was significant for both maltreated and comparison adolescents. This indicates that sexual behavior may be a more universal mechanism linking early maturation with risky friends regardless of adverse life experiences. Conclusions The findings are a step toward elucidating the developmental pathways from early puberty to risk behavior and identifying early experiences that may alter mediation effects. PMID:26003577
Dietrich, Janan; Khunwane, Mamakiri; Laher, Fatima; de Bruyn, Guy; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Gray, Glenda
This study explored perceptions about sexual behaviors and attitudes of adolescents living in Soweto, Johannesburg, South Africa, from the perspective of parents, counselors and adolescents. A qualitative methodology was applied. Nine focus group discussions (FGDs) were held; three with parents of adolescents, two with counselors who work with adolescents, two with female adolescents aged 16-18 years and two with male adolescents aged 16-18 years. In total, 80 participants were recruited from in and around Soweto. FGDs were guided by a semi-structured interview guide, audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and translated into English. Data were analyzed using Maxqda, a qualitative software analysis program. There were eight key themes related to adolescent sexuality and perceived attitudes towards relationships. Five themes were common to all participant groupings (parents, counselors and adolescents): (1) dating during adolescence, (2) adolescent females dating older males, (3) condom use amongst adolescents, (4) pregnancy and (5) homosexuality. (6) Sex as a regular and important activity among adolescents and (7) group sex practices among adolescents emerged as themes from adolescent and counselor FGDs. Lastly, (8) the role of the media as an influence on adolescent sexuality was common to adolescent and parent groups. Risky sexual behaviors continue among adolescents, with group sex parties a concerning emergent phenomenon that necessitates further study. HIV, other STIs and pregnancy prevention interventions should address multiple levels of influence to address context-specific influences. PMID:22844344
Wu, Z Helen; Tennen, Howard; Hosain, G M Monawar; Coman, Emil; Cullum, Jerry; Berenson, Abbey B
This study examined the role of stress as a mediator of the relationship between prior drug addiction and current high-risk sexual behaviour. Eight hundred twenty women aged 18 to 30 years, who received care at community-based family planning clinics, were interviewed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and the Sexual Risk Behavior Assessment Schedule. They also completed the brief version of the Self-Control Scale as a measure of problem-solving strategies and measures of recent stressful events, daily hassles and ongoing chronic stress. Regardless of addiction history, stress exposure during the previous 12 months was associated with risky sexual behaviour during the previous 12 months. Structural equation modelling revealed that 12-month stress levels mediated the relationship between past drug addiction and 12-month high-risk sexual behaviours, as well as the negative relationship between problem-solving strategies and high-risk sexual behaviours. Problem-solving strategies did not moderate the relationship between drug addiction and high-risk sexual behaviours. These findings suggest that stress management training may help reduce risky behaviour among young, low-income women.
Teva, Inmaculada; Bermudez, M Paz; Ramiro, Maria T; Ramiro-Sanchez, Tamara
The aim of this study was to describe some characteristics of vaginal, anal and oral sexual behavior in Spanish adolescents. It was a cross-sectional descriptive population study conducted using a probabilistic sample survey. The sample was composed of 4,612 male and female adolescents, of whom 1,686 reported having penetrative sexual experience. Sample size was established with a 97% confidence level and a 3% estimation error. Data collection took place in secondary education schools. Mean age of vaginal sex initiation was 15 years. Compared to females, males reported an earlier age of anal and oral sex initiation and a larger number of vaginal and anal sexual partners. Males also reported a higher frequency of penetrative sexual relations under the influence of alcohol or other drugs. A higher percentage of females than males reported not using a condom in their first anal sexual experience. This study provides a current overview of the sexual behavior of adolescents that can be useful for the design of future programs aimed at preventing HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
Teva, Inmaculada; Paz Bermúdez, Ma; Buela-Casal, Gualberto
The aim of this study is to describe some characteristics of the sexual behavior of adolescents in Spain and to compare these characteristics according to gender, using a cross-sectional survey. Participants were 1.279 male and female adolescents who reported having had sexual intercourse. A questionnaire about sexual behavior was applied at their high schools and during school hours. Data were collected between 2006 and 2007. Mean age at the onset of sexual intercourse was 14.8 years in males and 15.0 years in females. Males and females were different according to the type of partner at the last sexual intercourse: 63.0% of males had a steady partner compared to 90.5% of females (p < 0.01). The mean number of sexual partners during the last 12 months was higher in males than in females (M = 2.1 and M = 1.5 partners, for males and females, respectively, p < 0.01). 50.0% of males had sexual intercourse under the effects of drugs versus 39.3% of females (p < 0.01). STD and HIV prevention programs should be designed considering the differences according to adolescents' sex.
Rodríguez García de Cortázar, Ainhoa; Hernán García, Mariano; Cabrera León, Andrés; García Calleja, José María; Romo Avilés, Nuria
The objective of this article is to analyse the opinions of adolescents and young people, from gypsy and non-gypsy populations, on the relationship between recreational drug use and sexual practices that increase the risk of HIV infection. A descriptive qualitative research was undertaken. 14 focus groups were conducted with 98 adolescents and young people, and 7 semi-structured interviews with young recreational drug users. Both sort of results were triangulated. Two major discursive lines emerge in the analysis. The first one defends the notion that moderate consumption of alcohol facilitates the sexual encounter, but it does not imply risky behaviours. However, polydrug use or an elevated use of recreational drugs is related to a lack of concern for sexual risks, and in men with the loss of sexual sensitivity that sometimes justifies not using a condom. The second line argues other reasons for the non-use of condoms, such as their lack of availability, confidence in one's sexual partner, a concept of desire as something uncontrollable, infatuation and the state of mind or self-esteem. Some recommendations to prevent sexual transmission of HIV are derived from the results, such as the distribution of condoms in places where alcohol and other drugs are consumed, publicising the use of condoms and other latex barriers for oral genital sexual practices, working with young males on the optimisation of pleasure, designing preventive interventions targeting stable partners, and training adolescent girls in the social skills needed to negotiate the use of condoms.
DeSantis, L; Thomas, J T
The problem of teenage pregnancy continues to impact private and public resources, affecting all socioeconomic and cultural groups. A key factor for nurse practitioners to consider when planning sex education programs is the differing parental attitudes toward teenage sexuality. These attitudes are especially important to keep in mind when dealing with parents from minority cultural groups, as these groups are often highly influential in determining the nature of adolescent sexual behavior and attitudes toward reproduction. A study of Cuban and Haitian child-rearing practices clearly demonstrates two divergent parental views of adolescent sexuality. Nurse practitioners must recognize these differing views, and individualize their approach, in order to develop culturally sensitive sex education programs for adolescents and their parents. Suggestions are provided for development of such programs for Cuban and Haitian parents and children.
Morrissey, Gabrielle; Higgs, Joy
This paper presents research in female first sexual intercourse in Australia. Previous research in adolescent sexual behavior, particularly issues around first sexual intercourse behavior, has mainly utilized quantitative methodology. Our research adopted a qualitative approach to provide unique insight into adolescent sexual behavior, attitudes,…
Kraus, Cornelia; Eberle, Manfred; Kappeler, Peter M
Male excess mortality is widespread among mammals and frequently interpreted as a cost of sexually selected traits that enhance male reproductive success. Sex differences in the propensity to engage in risky behaviours are often invoked to explain the sex gap in survival. Here, we aim to isolate and quantify the survival consequences of two potentially risky male behavioural strategies in a small sexually monomorphic primate, the grey mouse lemur Microcebus murinus: (i) most females hibernate during a large part of the austral winter, whereas most males remain active and (ii) during the brief annual mating season males roam widely in search of receptive females. Using a 10-year capture–mark–recapture dataset from a population of M. murinus in Kirindy Forest, western Madagascar, we statistically modelled sex-specific seasonal survival probabilities. Surprisingly, we did not find any evidence for direct survival benefits of hibernation—winter survival did not differ between males and females. By contrast, during the breeding season males survived less well than females (sex gap: 16%). Consistent with the ‘risky male behaviour’ hypothesis, the period for lowered male survival was restricted to the short mating season. Thus, sex differences in survival in a promiscuous mammal can be substantial even in the absence of sexual dimorphism. PMID:18426751
Objective To investigate the substance use and sexual behavior of adolescents in multicultural families compared with adolescents in Korean families in South Korea. Methods Data from the 2013 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey collected from 66,591 adolescents aged 12-18 years (mean age 14.89±1.76 years) were analyzed. We classified the adolescents into four groups: those whose father and mother were born in South Korea, those whose father was born in South Korea but whose mother was not, those whose mother was born in South Korea but whose father was not, and those whose father and mother were not born in South Korea. Experiences with alcohol, cigarette, and drug use and sexual relations were investigated. Results Compared with adolescents whose fathers and mothers were born in Korea, adolescents whose fathers were born in Korea but whose mothers were not were less likely to use alcohol and cigarettes. Adolescents whose mothers were born in Korea but whose fathers were not and adolescents whose fathers and mothers were both born outside Korea were more likely to use cigarettes and drugs and to have sexual relations. Conclusion These results indicate that adolescents whose fathers were not born in Korea and whose fathers and mothers were both born outside Korea are at greater risk for cigarette and drug use and risky sexual behaviors. For these high risk groups, health education should include dependency prevention program, safety issue, and health screening as well as programs aimed at preventing substance use and sexual activity. PMID:26508957
de la Haye, Kayla; Green, Harold D; Pollard, Michael S; Kennedy, David P; Tucker, Joan S
Adolescents often befriend peers who are similar to themselves on a range of demographic, behavioral, and social characteristics, including substance use. Similarities in lifetime history of marijuana use have even been found to predict adolescent friendships, and we examine whether this finding is explained by youth's selection of friends who are similar on a range of more proximate, observable characteristics that are risk factors for marijuana use. Using two waves of individual and social network data from two high schools that participated in Add Health (N = 1,612; 52.7% male), we apply longitudinal models for social networks to test whether or not several observable risky attributes (psychological, behavioral, and social) predict adolescent friendship choices, and if these preferences explain friend's similarities on lifetime marijuana use. Findings show that similarities on several risk factors predict friendship choices, however controlling for this, the preference to befriend peers with a similar history of marijuana use largely persists. The results highlight the range of social selection processes that lead to similarities in marijuana use among friends and larger peer groups, and that also give rise to friendship groups whose members share similar risk factors for substance use. Friends with high "collective risk" are likely to be important targets for preventing the onset and social diffusion of substance use in adolescents.
Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa
There are limited studies on the prevalence and correlates of sexual risk behavior among adolescents in Pacific Island countries. In order to inform public sexual and reproductive health interventions, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of various sexual risk behaviors among in-school adolescents in 4 Pacific Island countries using data from the Global School-Based Health Survey. In a cross-sectional study, 6792 school-going adolescents (49.7% boys and 50.3% girls; 13-16 years old) from Fiji, Kiribati, Samoa, and Vanuatu were surveyed with a self-administered questionnaire. Overall, 18.9% of students reported to ever had sex (ranging from 12.9% in Vanuatu to 57.5% in Samoa), and of those sexually active, 38.0% had an early sexual debut (<14 years), 38.1% had 2 or more sexual partners during their lifetime, 39.5% had not used a condom at last sex, 50.9% had not used birth control at last sex, and 77.8% engaged in sexually risky behavior using a composite measure. Multivariate logistic regression found that male sex, older age, tobacco use, alcohol use, mental distress, having no close friends, and truancy were associated with several of 5 or all 5 sexual risk behaviors. Sexual and reproductive health promotion programs are indicated to address the high risk of sexually transmitted infection, HIV, and pregnancy in this adolescent population.
Gardner, Margo; Steinberg, Laurence
In this study, 306 individuals in 3 age groups--adolescents (13-16), youths (18-22), and adults (24 and older)--completed 2 questionnaire measures assessing risk preference and risky decision making, and 1 behavioral task measuring risk taking. Participants in each age group were randomly assigned to complete the measures either alone or with 2…
Vezina, Johanne; Hebert, Martine; Poulin, Francois; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.
Few studies have explored the possible contribution of the peer group to dating violence victimization. The current study tested the hypothesis that a risky lifestyle would mediate the relationship between deviant peer affiliation and dating violence victimization among adolescent girls. The proposed mediation model was derived from lifestyles and…
Goldner, Jonathan; Peters, Tracy L.; Richards, Maryse H.; Pearce, Steven
This study examined protective and risky companionship and locations for exposure to community violence among African American young adolescents living in high crime, urban areas. The Experience Sampling Method (ESM), an in vivo data collection method, was employed to gather information from 233 students (62% female) over 3 years, beginning in the…
Ellis, Bruce J; Schlomer, Gabriel L; Tilley, Elizabeth H; Butler, Emily A
Girls receiving lower quality paternal investment tend to engage in more risky sexual behavior (RSB) than peers. Whereas paternal investment theory posits that this effect is causal, it could arise from environmental or genetic confounds. To distinguish between these competing explanations, the current authors employed a genetically and environmentally controlled sibling design (N = 101 sister pairs; ages 18-36), which retrospectively examined the effects of differential sibling exposure to family disruption/father absence and quality of fathering. Consistent with a causal explanation, differences between older and younger sisters in the effects of quality of fathering on RSB were greatest in biologically disrupted families when there was a large age gap between the sisters (thus maximizing differential exposure to fathers), with greater exposure within families to higher quality fathering serving as a protective factor against RSB. Further, variation around the lower end of fathering quality appeared to have the most influence on RSB. In contrast, differential sibling exposure to family disruption/father absence (irrespective of quality of fathering) was not associated with RSB. The differential sibling-exposure design affords a new quasi-experimental method for evaluating the causal effects of fathers within families.
Lindgren, Kristen P.; Schacht, Rebecca L.; Pantalone, David W.; Blayney, Jessica A.; George, William H.
A qualitative study was conducted to understand college students' experiences and perceptions of sexual communication and sexual goals, and how they were affected by the transition from high school to college. Participants were heterosexual college students (N = 29). Single-sex focus groups were conducted and analyzed for themes. Major themes…
Baams, Laura; Overbeek, Geertjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; Doornwaard, Suzan M; Rommes, Els; van Aken, Marcel A G
This study examined whether the development of sexualized media consumption and permissive sexual attitudes would be more strongly interrelated when adolescents perceived sexualized media images as highly realistic. We used data from a three-wave longitudinal sample of 444 Dutch adolescents aged 13-16 years at baseline. Results from parallel process latent growth modeling multigroup analyses showed that higher initial levels of sexualized media consumption were associated with higher initial level of permissive sexual attitudes. Moreover, increases of sexualized media consumption over time were associated with increases of permissive sexual attitudes over time. Considering the moderation by perceived realism, we found these effects only for those who perceived sexualized media as more realistic. Findings for male and female adolescents were similar except for the relations between initial levels and subsequent development. Among male adolescents who perceived sexualized media images to be realistic, higher initial levels of permissive sexual attitudes were related to subsequent less rapid development of sexualized media consumption. For male adolescents who perceived sexualized media to be less realistic, higher initial levels of sexualized media consumption were related to a subsequent less rapid development of permissive sexual attitudes. These relations were not found for female adolescents. Overall, our results suggest that, in male and female adolescents, those with a high level of perceived realism showed a correlated development of sexualized media consumption and permissive sexual attitudes. These findings point to a need for extended information on how to guide adolescents in interpreting and handling sexualized media in everyday life.
Kao, Tsui-Sui Annie; Loveland-Cherry, Carol; Guthrie, Barbara; Caldwell, Cleopatra H
The purpose of this secondary analysis of data is to examine relationships among Asian American Pacific Islanders (AAPI) adolescents' level of acculturation, maternal influences, and age of sexual initiation. Selected predictive variables are based on the theoretical frameworks and literature review. The results indicate that for these adolescents speaking English at home was positively associated with maternal sexual discussion, mothers' perceptions of connectedness with their adolescents, adolescents' perceived maternal sexual expectations, and later sexual initiation at Wave 1. Adolescents' years of U.S. residency are positively associated with adolescents' level of perceived connectedness with their mothers and later sexual initiation at Wave 2. Adolescents' level of acculturation influence how they interacted with their mothers, perceived their mothers' sexual expectations, and when they decided to initiate sexual intercourse. Interventions to delay AAPI adolescents' sexual debut should consider factors related to AAPI adolescents' and their mothers' levels of acculturation.
Alleyne-Green, Binta; Coleman-Cowger, Victoria H.; Henry, David B.
The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of physical and psychological dating violence victimization and perpetration reported by inner-city African American and Hispanic adolescent girls as well as associated risky sexual behaviors among this population. Participants in this study were 10th- and 11th-grade female students from seven…
Starr, Lisa R; Donenberg, Geri R; Emerson, Erin
The current study examines longitudinal associations between light and heavy sexual experiences and psychiatric symptoms in African American adolescent girls receiving mental health care. Research supports bidirectional associations between adolescent romantic and sexual behaviors and depression and other mental health problems, but this finding has not been examined among African American youth or in clinical samples. African American girls in psychiatric treatment suffer disparities in HIV/AIDS vulnerability, and understanding the context of girls' risk-taking (and how psychological symptoms contribute) may aid prevention efforts. Two-hundred-sixty-five African American girls seeking psychiatric care were assessed for mental health symptoms and light and heavy sexual behaviors. Participants completed a 6-month follow-up. Baseline light sexual activity predicted increased internalizing and externalizing symptoms and substance use at follow-up. Internalizing and externalizing symptoms predicted increased heavy sexual behaviors over time, including HIV-risk behaviors. Results support the association between romantic involvement and depression. Psychological symptoms may play a key role in the emergence of risky sexual behaviors among African American adolescent girls in psychiatric care and should be considered in prevention program development.
Somers, Cheryl L.; Tynan, Joshua J.
The purposes of this study were to examine group differences in sexual media consumption and to explore how well adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavior can be explained by viewing of sexually suggestive dialogue (SD) and explicit sexual content (SC) in television media. Participants were 473 male and female high school adolescents who were…
Buckley, Lisa; Chapman, Rebekah L
Adolescents value protecting friends from harm and report that they do intervene as bystanders in friends' risky and dangerous behavior. Moreover intervention can be effective in reducing such behaviors. The Protection-Risk Framework was used to explain bystander intervention. There were 962 students from 13 Australian high schools (mean age at time 1=13.44 years) surveyed in their 9th grade and again 1-year later when students were in 10th grade. We found that protective factors of self-efficacy, support, prosocial models, social control, and ease of opportunity related to greater intervening behavior after 12-months. Among those who reported that they had intervened in a 3-month period, a cumulative measure of protective factors was associated with their reports of intervening. Risk factors were non-significant predictors after accounting for earlier, time 1, bystander intervening behavior and demographic factors. The findings highlight potential mechanisms to promote adolescents' looking out for their friends and provide an assessment over time of bystander behavior. The theory-guided inquiry into such behavior provides a foundation on which to better develop our understanding of benefits to adolescent friendship in the injury field.
Dias, Sónia; Marques, Adilson; Gama, Ana; Martins, Maria O.
This study aimed to examine risky sexual behavior, its associated factors and HIV infection among immigrants. A participatory cross-sectional survey was conducted with 1187 immigrants at the National Immigrant Support Centre, in Lisbon (52.2% female; 34.0% Africans, 33.8% Brazilians, 32.2% Eastern Europeans). About 38% of participants reported ≥2 sexual partners in the previous year, 16.2% both regular and occasional sexual partners (last 12 months), 33.1% inconsistent condom use with occasional partners, and 64% no condom use in the last sexual intercourse. Unprotected sex in the last sexual intercourse was more likely among women, Africans, those older, with elementary education, those married and those who didn’t receive free condoms in the previous year. No condom use was less likely among those having only occasional sexual partners and both regular and occasional sexual partners. One third of participants had never been tested for HIV. Those never tested reported more frequently inconsistent condom use than those ever tested. Overall, 2.0% reported being HIV positive (2.5% of men; 4.4% of Africans); 4.3% admitted having a STI in previous year. HIV-positive immigrants reported high-risk sexual behaviors. Tailored interventions to promote awareness of HIV serostatus among immigrants as well as culturally adapted risk reduction strategies should be strengthened. PMID:25141001
This study was conducted to examine the list of identifying factors and predictors of childhood physical abuse, extrafamilial sexual abuse, and incest among male and female adolescents in the general population. In 1989, a survey was administered to 6,224 9th and 12th grade students in public schools in Minnesota. The findings revealed that more…
Cates, Jim A.
Describes dynamics and interventions in relation to adolescents who express concern about gay and lesbian issues. Advocates therapeutic intervention based on psychological and emotional aspects of sexual preference, and cultural and social expectations of those who identify themselves as gay or lesbian. Describes three case studies. (Author/BB)
Kahn, Lauren E; Peake, Shannon J; Dishion, Thomas J; Stormshak, Elizabeth A; Pfeifer, Jennifer H
Adolescent decision-making is a topic of great public and scientific interest. However, much of the neuroimaging research in this area contrasts only one facet of decision-making (e.g., neural responses to anticipation or receipt of monetary rewards). Few studies have directly examined the processes that occur immediately before making a decision between two options that have varied and unpredictable potential rewards and penalties. Understanding adolescent decision-making from this vantage point may prove critical to ameliorating risky behavior and improving developmental outcomes. In this study, participants aged 14-16 years engaged in a driving simulation game while undergoing fMRI. Results indicated activity in ventral striatum preceded risky decisions and activity in right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) preceded safe decisions. Furthermore, participants who reported higher sensation-seeking and sensitivity to reward and punishment demonstrated lower rIFG activity during safe decisions. Finally, over successive games, rIFG activity preceding risky decisions decreased, whereas thalamus and caudate activity increased during positive feedback (taking a risk without crashing). These results indicate that regions traditionally associated with reward processing and inhibition not only drive risky decision-making in the moment but also contribute to learning about risk tradeoffs during adolescence.
Gámez-Guadix, Manuel; Borrajo, Erika; Almendros, Carmen
Background and aims This study aims to analyze the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationship between three major risky online behaviors during adolescence: problematic Internet use, cyberbullying perpetration, and meeting strangers online. An additional objective was to study the role of impulsivity-irresponsibility as a possible explanatory variable of the relationships between these risky online behaviors. Methods The study sample was 888 adolescents that completed self-report measures at time 1 and time 2 with an interval of 6 months. Results The findings showed a significant cross-sectional relationship between the risky online behaviors analyzed. At the longitudinal level, problematic Internet use at time 1 predicted an increase in the perpetration of cyberbullying and meeting strangers online at time 2. Furthermore, meeting strangers online increased the likelihood of cyberbullying perpetration at time 2. Finally, when impulsivity-irresponsibility was included in the model as an explanatory variable, the relationships previously found remained significant. Discussion These results extend traditional problem behavior theory during adolescence, also supporting a relationship between different risky behaviors in cyberspace. In addition, findings highlighted the role of problematic Internet use, which increased the chances of developing cyberbullying perpetration and meeting strangers online over time. However, the results suggest a limited role of impulsivity-irresponsibility as an explicative mechanism. Conclusions The findings suggest that various online risk activities ought to be addressed together when planning assessment, prevention and intervention efforts.
Gámez-Guadix, Manuel; Borrajo, Erika; Almendros, Carmen
Background and aims This study aims to analyze the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationship between three major risky online behaviors during adolescence: problematic Internet use, cyberbullying perpetration, and meeting strangers online. An additional objective was to study the role of impulsivity–irresponsibility as a possible explanatory variable of the relationships between these risky online behaviors. Methods The study sample was 888 adolescents that completed self-report measures at time 1 and time 2 with an interval of 6 months. Results The findings showed a significant cross-sectional relationship between the risky online behaviors analyzed. At the longitudinal level, problematic Internet use at time 1 predicted an increase in the perpetration of cyberbullying and meeting strangers online at time 2. Furthermore, meeting strangers online increased the likelihood of cyberbullying perpetration at time 2. Finally, when impulsivity–irresponsibility was included in the model as an explanatory variable, the relationships previously found remained significant. Discussion These results extend traditional problem behavior theory during adolescence, also supporting a relationship between different risky behaviors in cyberspace. In addition, findings highlighted the role of problematic Internet use, which increased the chances of developing cyberbullying perpetration and meeting strangers online over time. However, the results suggest a limited role of impulsivity–irresponsibility as an explicative mechanism. Conclusions The findings suggest that various online risk activities ought to be addressed together when planning assessment, prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:28092196
Moore, Susan; Rosenthal, Doreen
Examined sexual worlds of 153 adolescents aged 15 to 18 years through content analysis of interviews on topics of love, romance, relationships between sexes, sexual values, and sexual behaviors. Seven themes emerged: permissiveness, double standards, belief about sexual control, romance, regrets about permissiveness, sexual aggression, and…
The pediatrician is often expected by families to deal with sexual problems of children and adolescents. The physician should be able to identify problems and to guide parents in more meaningful communication and education of their children. Hopefully, he will be able to identify family conflicts and make the appropriate intervention or referral. He should be aware of his own sexual attitudes so as to avoid having his bias interfere with treatment. The childs behavior should not be isolated, but considered in the context of his family, his peers, and his own growth and development. Often, it is more useful to advise the family than to work with a young child. Adolescents present particular problems because of their conflicts over sexual identity, their reluctance to admit to problems, and frequently a mistrust of adults. They often feel a need for a trusting relationship with an adult, however, and are able to relate to a sensitive, non-judgmental professional.
Wu, Jun-Qing; Wang, Ke-Wei; Zhao, Rui; Li, Yu-Yan; Zhou, Ying; Li, Yi-Ran; Ji, Hong-Lei; Ji, Ming
This study examined the prevalence and the determinants of risky sexual behavior (defined as having multiple sex partners and paying for sex) among male rural-to-urban migrants in China. An anonymous questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographics, knowledge, attitudes, and behavior associated with increased risk of risky sexual behavior from 4,069 subjects. In total 1,132 (27.8%) participants reported two or more sex partners and 802 (19.7%) participants paid for sex. A considerable proportion (29.6%–41.5%) did not use a condom during risky sexual behavior. Logistic regression analysis revealed that unmarried status (OR: 0.62, CI: 0.42–0.85 for married), earlier age at first sexual experience (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.31–0.91 for ≥22 years old), poor perception of risk of acquiring HIV/AIDS (OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.33–1.96 for unlikely; OR: 2.38, 95% CI: 1.61–3.70 for impossible), frequent exposure to pornography (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.60–0.81 for sometimes; OR: 0.31, 95% CI: 0.11–0.43 for never), attitudes toward legalization of commercial sex (OR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.21–0.59 for no), peer influence (OR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.27–0.88 for no), and not knowing someone who had/had died from HIV/AIDS (OR: 0.35, 95% CI: 0.20–0.53 for yes) were all significantly associated with having multiple sex partners. Those who paid for sex showed similar findings. PMID:24619119
Wu, Jun-Qing; Wang, Ke-Wei; Zhao, Rui; Li, Yu-Yan; Zhou, Ying; Li, Yi-Ran; Ji, Hong-Lei; Ji, Ming
This study examined the prevalence and the determinants of risky sexual behavior (defined as having multiple sex partners and paying for sex) among male rural-to-urban migrants in China. An anonymous questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographics, knowledge, attitudes, and behavior associated with increased risk of risky sexual behavior from 4,069 subjects. In total 1,132 (27.8%) participants reported two or more sex partners and 802 (19.7%) participants paid for sex. A considerable proportion (29.6%-41.5%) did not use a condom during risky sexual behavior. Logistic regression analysis revealed that unmarried status (OR: 0.62, CI: 0.42-0.85 for married), earlier age at first sexual experience (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.31-0.91 for ≥ 22 years old), poor perception of risk of acquiring HIV/AIDS (OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.33-1.96 for unlikely; OR: 2.38, 95% CI: 1.61-3.70 for impossible), frequent exposure to pornography (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.60-0.81 for sometimes; OR: 0.31, 95% CI: 0.11-0.43 for never), attitudes toward legalization of commercial sex (OR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.21-0.59 for no), peer influence (OR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.27-0.88 for no), and not knowing someone who had/had died from HIV/AIDS (OR: 0.35, 95% CI: 0.20-0.53 for yes) were all significantly associated with having multiple sex partners. Those who paid for sex showed similar findings.
Aalsma, Matthew C; Woodrome, Stacy E; Downs, Sarah M; Hensel, Devon J; Zimet, Gregory D; Orr, Don P; Fortenberry, J Dennis
Understanding the role of socio-sexual cognitions and religiosity on adolescent sexual behavior could guide adolescent sexual health efforts. The present study utilized longitudinal data from 328 young women to assess the role of religion and socio-sexual cognitions on sexual behavior accrual (measuring both coital and non-coital sexual behavior). In the final triple conditional trajectory structural equation model, religiosity declined over time and then increased to baseline levels. Additionally, religiosity predicted decreased sexual conservatism and decreased sexual conservatism predicted increased sexual behavior. The final models are indicative of young women's increasing accrual of sexual experience, decreasing sexual conservatism and initial decreasing religiosity. The results of this study suggest that decreased religiosity affects the accrual of sexual experience through decreased sexual conservatism. Effective strategies of sexual health promotion should include an understanding of the complex role of socio-sexual attitudes with religiosity.
Sinković, Matija; Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Božić, Jasmina
Among the suggested problems and harms associated with widespread pornography use among young people, risky sexual behaviors have been frequently mentioned. To further explore this public health concern, this article analyzed sexual sensation seeking (SSS) as a potential confounder of the association between pornography use and sexual risks using data collected in 2010 from a population-based sample of young Croatian adults aged 18 to 25 (n = 1,005). Significant, but small, correlations were found between the indicators of pornography use (age at first exposure, frequency of use in the past 12 months, and personal importance of pornography) and sexual risk taking. However, in a multivariate analysis, only age at first exposure to pornography remained a significant, albeit weak, predictor of sexual risk taking among both women and men. SSS, defined as the dispositional tendency toward the impulsive pursuit of sexual arousal and stimulation, neither confounded nor moderated this association. Overall, the findings do not support the notion that pornography use is substantially associated with sexual risk taking among young adults, but suggest that early exposure to sexually explicit material and high SSS are additive risk factors for sexual risk taking.
Mturi, Akim J
This study investigated the knowledge, attitudes and opinions of parents on various aspects of adolescents' sexual and reproductive health in Lesotho. The study used a qualitative methodology. Findings reveal that parents are aware that male and female adolescents engage in sexual relationships. Some parents believe that adolescents are too young to initiate sexual activities while others said they don't mind older unmarried adolescents having sex. In addition, parents felt that adolescents do not face discrimination in obtaining family planning services. In relation to passing sexual and reproductive health knowledge to adolescents, there seems to be a dilemma on who should take the responsibility. A number of policy implications have emerged from this study. There should be awareness campaign for parents who are not aware that adolescents engage in sexual relationships. Parents should be encouraged to communicate with their adolescent children on sex-related matters. Government should carry on with the dialogue on introducing sex education in schools curriculum.
Richards, Jessica M; Patel, Nilam; Daniele-Zegarelli, Teresa; MacPherson, Laura; Lejuez, C W; Ernst, Monique
Risk-taking behavior increases during adolescence, leading to potentially disastrous consequences. Social anxiety emerges in adolescence and may compound risk-taking propensity, particularly during stress and when reward potential is high. However, the manner in which social anxiety, stress, and reward parameters interact to impact adolescent risk-taking is unclear. To clarify this question, a community sample of 35 adolescents (15-18yo), characterized as having high or low social anxiety, participated in a study over two separate days, during each of which they were exposed to either a social stress or a control condition, while performing a risky decision-making task. The task manipulated, orthogonally, reward magnitude and probability across trials. Three findings emerged. First, reward magnitude had a greater impact on the rate of risky decisions in high social anxiety (HSA) than low social anxiety (LSA) adolescents. Second, reaction times (RTs) were similar during the social stress and the control conditions for the HSA group, whereas the LSA group's RTs differed between conditions. Third, HSA adolescents showed the longest RTs on the most negative trials. These findings suggest that risk-taking in adolescents is modulated by context and reward parameters differentially as a function of social anxiety.
Richards, Jessica M.; Patel, Nilam; Daniele, Teresa; MacPherson, Laura; Lejuez, C.W.; Ernst, Monique
Risk-taking behavior increases during adolescence, leading to potentially disastrous consequences. Social anxiety emerges in adolescence and may compound risk-taking propensity, particularly during stress and when reward potential is high. However, the manner in which social anxiety, stress, and reward parameters interact to impact adolescent risk-taking is unclear. To clarify this question, a community sample of 35 adolescents (15 to 18 yo), characterized as having high or low social anxiety, participated in a 2-day study, during each of which they were exposed to either a social stress or a control condition, while performing a risky decision-making task. The task manipulated, orthogonally, reward magnitude and probability across trials. Three findings emerged. First, reward magnitude had a greater impact on the rate of risky decisions in high social anxiety (HSA) than low social anxiety (LSA) adolescents. Second, reaction times (RTs) were similar during the social stress and the control conditions for the HSA group, whereas the LSA group’s RTs differed between conditions. Third, HSA adolescents showed the longest RTs on the most negative trials. These findings suggest that risk-taking in adolescents is modulated by context and reward parameters differentially as a function of social anxiety. PMID:25465884
The role of adolescent sexual behavior in educational attainment has been overlooked. Homosexual and heterosexual men were interviewed to test for a correlation between adolescent sexual activeness and educational attainment, as well as any link between childhood masculine sex roles and early sexual activity. Approximately 1,000 volunteers,…
Martyn, Kristy K.; Darling-Fisher, Cynthia; Pardee, Michelle; Ronis, David L.; Felicetti, Irene L.; Saftner, Melissa A.
This study was conducted to explore the effects of an event history calendar (EHC) approach on adolescent sexual risk communication and sexual activity. Adolescent school-linked health clinic patients (n = 30) who reported sexual activity self-administered the EHC that was used by nurse practitioners (NPs; n = 2) during a clinic visit. Immediately…
Friedman, M. S. Mark S.; Silvestre, Anthony J.; Gold, Melanie A.; Markovic, Nina; Savin-Williams, Ritch C.; Huggins, James; Sell, Randal L.
Researchers disagree on how to assess adolescent sexual orientation. The relative importance of various dimensions (e.g. attraction, relationships, behavior, self-labeling) is unknown, which calls into question the validity of studies assessing adolescent sexual orientation. To address this issue, 50 male and female adolescents of varied sexual…
Ševcíková, Anna; Šerek, Jan; Machácková, Hana; Šmahel, David
Adolescents use media that exposes them to sexual material. This study focused on adolescents in the Czech Republic, a country with relatively high rates of exposure to sexual material (ESM). A sample of adolescents aged 11 to 15 years ("N" = 495) taken from the project EU Kids Online II was examined for predictors of the following:…
Gilson, Kathryn J.; Lancaster, Sandra
Objective: To examine childhood sexual abuse in Australian childbearing adolescents and the contribution of abuse variables (sexual and physical abuse) to antenatal and postpartum depression and anxiety in adolescents. Methods: Seventy-nine adolescents proceeding with a pregnancy for the first time were surveyed about abuse experiences and were…
Meschke, Laurie L.; Peter, Christina R.
Parents play an important role in the promotion of adolescent sexual health, but little is known about parents' attitudes and beliefs in immigrant families. We examine Hmong American parents' attitudes about adolescent sexual health using survey data from 202 parents of adolescents with attention to parental gender differences. Breaking from…
Reed, Jennifer L; Huppert, Jill S
Women under 25 years of age have higher rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) than other populations. Providing follow-up for adolescents with an STI is especially challenging in emergency departments (EDs). In our ED, we discovered that a significant number of adolescents with an STI did not receive adequate treatment, and 25% of those with an STI who were treated remained unaware of their infection. These deviations from ideal care are problematic because adolescents with untreated STIs are at risk for pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility. Those who were treated but unaware of their infection are unable to take steps to avoid re-infection, including partner treatment. We hypothesized that an improved system to handle STI test results would reduce the burden on ED staff and increase the proportion of adolescents receiving appropriate follow-up. This intervention has the potential to significantly address the STI epidemic in our community.
Hensel, Devon J; Fortenberry, J Dennis; O'Sullivan, Lucia F; Orr, Donald P
Developing a sexual self-concept is an important developmental task of adolescence; however, little empirical evidence describes this development, nor how these changes are related to development in sexual behavior. Using longitudinal cohort data from adolescent women, we invoked latent growth curve analysis to: (1) examine reciprocal development in sexual self-concept (sexual openness, sexual esteem and sexual anxiety) over a four year time frame; (2) describe the relationship of these trajectories with changes in sexual behavior. We found significant transactional effects between these dimensions and behavior: sexual self-concept evolved during adolescence in a manner consistent with less reserve, less anxiety and greater personal comfort with sexuality and sexual behavior. Moreover, we found that sexual self-concept results from sexual behavior, as well as regulates future behavior.
Veselska, Zuzana; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Orosova, Olga; Gajdosova, Beata; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A
The aim was to explore the association of self-esteem and resilience with smoking and cannabis use among adolescents, separately for gender. A sample of 3694 adolescents (mean age 14.3 years) from elementary schools in Slovakia filled out the Rosenberg Self-esteem scale, the Resiliency scale and answered questions about cigarette and cannabis use. Logistic regression models showed associations between negative self-esteem and risky behavior, but only among boys. Regarding resilience, structured style and family cohesion were associated with a lower probability of smoking and cannabis use among both boys and girls. In contrast, social competence increased the probability of smoking and cannabis use among both groups. Negative self-esteem seems to play an important role regarding smoking and cannabis use among boys. Resilience seems to have mixed effects, some aspects being protective while other aspects increase the likelihood of smoking and use of cannabis. These results imply that the prevention of substance use should target not only specific individual characteristics, but also the possible risk or protective influences of the social environment, i.e. the family and social network.
Euser, Anja S; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin; Crowley, Michael J; Evans, Brittany E; Huizink, Anja C; Franken, Ingmar H A
Risky decision making, a hallmark phenotype of substance use disorders (SUD), is thought to be associated with deficient feedback processing. Whether these aberrations are present prior to SUD onset or reflect merely a consequence of chronic substance use on the brain remains unclear. The present study investigated whether blunted feedback processing during risky decision making reflects a biological predisposition to SUD. We assessed event-related potentials elicited by positive and negative feedback during performance of a modified version of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) among high-risk adolescents with a parental history of SUD (HR; n = 61) and normal-risk controls (NR; n = 91). HR males made significantly more risky and faster decisions during the BART than did NR controls. Moreover, HR adolescents showed significantly reduced P300 amplitudes in response to both positive and negative feedback as compared to NR controls. These differences were not secondary to prolonged substance use exposure. Results are discussed in terms of feedback-specific processes. Reduced P300 amplitudes in the BART may reflect poor processing of feedback at the level of overall salience, which may keep people from effectively predicting the probability of future gains and losses. Though conclusions are tentative, blunted feedback processing during risky decision making may represent a promising endophenotypic vulnerability marker for SUD.
Idris, Adi; Ghazali, Nur B; Said, Nadzirah M; Steele, Michael; Koh, David; Tuah, Nik A
Early smoking is considered an indicator for risky behaviour in adolescents. Although social indicators predicting adolescent smoking are known, biological indicators have not been defined. This study aimed to establish whether salivary testosterone could be used as a "predictive biomarker" for smoking-associated peer pressure. Saliva samples were collected from Bruneian adolescents (aged 13-17 years) by the passive drool method. Salivary testosterone concentration was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Salivary testosterone concentration and smoking-associated peer pressure indicators were compared between adolescent males and females and statistical significance was determined by an independent samples t-test. A significant positive relationship between smoking-associated peer pressure and salivary testosterone levels in adolescents was found. However, this relationship was not significant when males and females were considered separately. Our data suggest that students who have tried cigarette smoking and have friends who are cigarette smokers have higher salivary testosterone levels.
Jelenchick, Lauren A; Eickhoff, Jens; Christakis, Dimitri A; Brown, Richard L; Zhang, Chong; Benson, Meghan; Moreno, Megan A
Problematic Internet use (PIU) is a growing health concern among adolescents and young adults. The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to develop and refine a theoretically-grounded and psychometrically-validated assessment instrument for PIU specifically tailored to adolescents and young adults. An item pool was developed using concept mapping and a review of the literature, and administered to 714 students from two universities between 18 and 25 years of age. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used in a development subsample (n=500) to construct the scale. A cross-validation sample (n=214) was used to confirm the scale's reliability. The Problematic and Risky Internet Use Screening Scale (PRIUSS) is an 18-item scale with three subscales: Social Impairment, Emotional Impairment, and Risky/Impulsive Internet Use. Based on its strong theoretical foundation and promising psychometric performance, the PRIUSS may be a valuable tool for screening and prevention efforts in this population.
Jelenchick, Lauren A.; Eickhoff, Jens; Christakis, Dimitri A; Brown, Richard L.; Zhang, Chong; Benson, Meghan; Moreno, Megan A.
Problematic Internet use (PIU) is a growing health concern among adolescents and young adults. The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to develop and refine a theoretically-grounded and psychometrically-validated assessment instrument for PIU specifically tailored to adolescents and young adults. An item pool was developed using concept mapping and a review of the literature, and administered to 714 students from two universities between 18 and 25 years of age. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used in a development subsample (n=500) to construct the scale. A cross-validation sample (n=214) was used to confirm the scale’s reliability. The Problematic and Risky Internet Use Screening Scale (PRIUSS) is an 18-item scale with three subscales: Social Impairment, Emotional Impairment, and Risky/Impulsive Internet Use. Based on its strong theoretical foundation and promising psychometric performance, the PRIUSS may be a valuable tool for screening and prevention efforts in this population. PMID:24882938
Coetzee, Jenny; Dietrich, Janan; Otwombe, Kennedy; Nkala, Busi; Khunwane, Mamakiri; van der Watt, Martin; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Gray, Glenda E
In the HIV context, risky sexual behaviours can be reduced through effective parent-adolescent communication. This study used the Parent Adolescent Communication Scale to determine parent-adolescent communication by ethnicity and identify predictors of high parent-adolescent communication amongst South African adolescents post-apartheid. A cross-sectional interviewer-administered survey was administered to 822 adolescents from Johannesburg, South Africa. Backward stepwise multivariate regressions were performed. The sample was predominantly Black African (62%, n = 506) and female (57%, n = 469). Of the participants, 57% (n = 471) reported high parent-adolescent communication. Multivariate regression showed that gender was a significant predictor of high parent-adolescent communication (Black African OR:1.47, CI: 1.0-2.17, Indian OR: 2.67, CI: 1.05-6.77, White OR: 2.96, CI: 1.21-7.18). Female-headed households were predictors of high parent-adolescent communication amongst Black Africans (OR:1.49, CI: 1.01-2.20), but of low parent-adolescent communication amongst Whites (OR:0.36, CI: 0.15-0.89). Overall levels of parent-adolescent communication in South Africa are low. HIV prevention programmes for South African adolescents should include information and skills regarding effective parent-adolescent communication.
Williams, Terrinieka T.; Dodd, Darcy; Campbell, Bettina; Pichon, Latrice C.; Griffith, Derek M.
This study describes the ways in which two African American churches discuss adolescent sexual health topics. Six focus groups were conducted in two churches in Flint, Michigan that reported no formal sexual health programming for their congregants. Three themes emerged to highlight the different perspectives about the role of churches in adolescent sexual decision-making and sexual health education 1) churches as sources of sexual information; 2) churches as complex communities; and 3) recommendations for sexual education in churches. Participant responses suggest that churches can and should serve a resource for sexual health information. Implications for practice and research are discussed. PMID:22814618
During adolescence the central masturbation fantasy that is formulated during childhood takes its final form and paradoxically must now be directed outward for appropriate object finding and pair matching in the service of procreative aims. This is a step in adaptation that requires a further developmental landmark that I have called normalization. The path toward airing these private fantasies is facilitated by chumship relationships as a step toward further exposure to the social surround. Hartmann's structuring application of adaptation within psychoanalysis is used as a framework for understanding the process that simultaneously serves intrapsychic and social demands and permits goals that follow evolutionary principles. Variations in the normalization process from masturbatory isolation to a variety of forms of sexual socialization are examined in sociological data concerning current adolescent sexual behavior and in case examples that indicate some routes to normalized experience and practice.
Parents, relatives, and friends may inflict their passions on children of the same or opposite sex. This is often initiated by sleeping together. Sexual abuse contributes to and causes emotional trauma, although the child's turmoil, confusion, wish for acceptance, and anxiety may be overlooked by the parent and professional. Mutual silence aided by threats adds to the anxiety. Despite the notion that reports of parental sexual exploitation of their children are usually fantasies, there appear to be increasing data that incest and sexual abuse are frequent traumata. At present, there is increased risk of lowering the incest barrier because of increased rates of divorce and step- or surrogate parenthood, since they provide additional potential for being sexually and emotionally traumatized. Sexual abuse seems to be part of a constellation involving neglect and a pathological symbiosis. That sexual abuse is emotionally traumatic is apparent, but it needs emphasizing. Children's defensive reactions may cloud this, and it may be years before such incidents are connected to symptomatic behavior, even when the child is in intensive therapy. In the reported cases, there appears to be a pattern of reactions and defenses related to the traumata that are embedded in imprinting and identification with the aggressor. This leads to sexual abuse being a legacy passed on to the next generation of victims, as the victim becomes the molester through identification. Adolescent self-destructive behavior may stem from guilt about sexually abusing younger children. Therapists may be better able to understand and deal with some of their patients' symptoms if sexual abuse is considered as a possible factor in one or both directions.
Juhasz, Anne McCreary
The author suggests dealing with the problem of adolescent sexual behavior through accurate information and wide knowledge of all aspects of human sexual behavior and skill in problem solving. (Author/BY)
Kourany, R F; Martin, J E; Armstrong, S H
This paper deals with the sexual experiences an adolescent might have as a result of babysitting. The impact of babysitters in our culture has been ignored in the literature, and yet we find it practiced widely by teenagers in the United States. Parents and society in general have few guidelines in sitter selection and in recognizing the potential impact of the sitter on their children.
Mergui, A; Giami, A
The objective of this review was to analyze the scientific literature on the sexuality of HIV-positive adolescents. The first point was to identify how sexuality is addressed and secondly the impact of HIV infection on HIV-positive adolescents. Fifty-four articles were selected for this review. The review demonstrates that sexuality is mainly considered under the angle of sexual and reproductive behavior and preventive practices (condom use and contraception), based on questionnaire studies. Some studies investigated the physiological impact of HIV and its treatment, especially in relation to puberty. On the other hand, the subjective experience of an HIV-positive status among adolescents was rarely studied. Overall, HIV has a negative impact on the sexual life of HIV-positive adolescents. The vast majority of them practice sexual abstinence, notably adolescents infected through mother-to-child contamination, for whom the access to sexuality seems to be delayed. Among those who are sexually active, nearly one-half continue having unprotected sex. The problems related to living with HIV induce a climate of anxiety and dissatisfaction that affects behaviors and sexual practices, and disrupts the quality of sexual life. Some results suggest that the type and mode of contamination has an effect on the general sexual experience of being an HIV-positive adolescent. More research should be developed to study the subjective experience of HIV-positive adolescent sexuality and its impact on sexual experience according to the type of contamination in this population.
Cavanaugh, Courtenay E
While posttraumatic stress (PTS) has been positively associated with risky sexual behavior (RSB) among adult women, there is a paucity of research examining PTS in relation to RSB among adolescent girls and boys. This study aimed to replicate findings among adult women with sexually active adolescents (179 females and 106 males) involved in a national study of children in the United States child welfare system. After controlling for age and the complex study design, sexually active adolescent girls with clinically significant PTS symptoms were more than seven times more likely than those without such symptoms to report unprotected intercourse. In contrast, sexually active adolescent boys with clinically significant PTS symptoms were less likely than those without such symptoms to report unprotected intercourse. Research is needed to 1) understand the mechanisms linking PTS and RSB, 2) further explore gender differences reported here, and 3) inform RSB interventions in this high-risk population.
Chau, Kénora; Kabuth, Bernard; Causin-Brice, Odile; Delacour, Yves; Richoux-Picard, Catherine; Verdin, Monique; Armand, Isabelle; Chau, Nearkasen
Health-related problems and risky behaviours (substance use) are frequent in adolescents, may alter their physical and mental capabilities, and may thus generate school absenteeism, low academic performance, and school dropout ideation. This study assessed their associations and the contribution of socioeconomic factors among 1559 middle-school adolescents (mean age 13.5+1.3) from north-eastern France. They completed a questionnaire including socioeconomic characteristics, health-related problems (poor physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and living environment) assessed with the World Health Organization's quality of life measure (score<25th percentile), risky behaviours, school absences during the present school year, last-trimester academic performance, and school dropout ideation. Data were analysed using logistic regression models. School absenteeism was frequent (12.6% of subjects for 8-14 days, and 6.0% for ≥15 days); 8.2% of subjects had low academic performance (average school-mark <10/20) and 3.9% school dropout ideation. All school difficulties were strongly associated with all health-related problems (gender-age-school-level-adjusted odds ratios gasOR between 1.5 and 4.2), and with risky behaviours (gasOR between 1.4 and 14). Socioeconomic factors differently contributed to these associations (contribution reaching 77%). Policy makers, schools, physicians and parents should be more aware of the problems and help adolescents to reduce health-related problems and risky behaviours and to increase resilience.
LeJeune, Brenna C; Zimet, Gregory D; Azzouz, Faouzi; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Aalsma, Matthew C
The impact of religiosity in adolescent romantic partnerships on sexual behavior was assessed. Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health reciprocated couples database using religious- and relationship-oriented variables to predict sexual involvement in 374 couples (748 participants). We found that individual- and couple-based religiosity impacted sexual behavior. These findings provide evidence for dyad religiosity as a component involved in the expression of sexual behavior in romantic relationships. The current results highlight the importance of incorporating a broad social perspective in order to understand the expression of adolescent sexual behavior.
Gupta, Niodita; Chandak, Aastha; Gilson, Glen; Pelster, Aja Kneip; Schober, Daniel J.; Goldsworthy, Richard; Baldwin, Kathleen; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Fisher, Christopher
Youth development professionals (YDPs), working at community-based organizations are in a unique position to interact with the adolescents as they are neither parents/guardians nor teachers. The objectives of this study were to explore qualitatively what sexual health issues adolescents discuss with YDPs and to describe those issues using the framework of the Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States (SIECUS) comprehensive sexuality education guidelines. YDPs reported conversations with adolescents that included topics related to the SIECUS key concepts of human development, relationships, personal skills, sexual behavior, and sexual health. PMID:27081375
Contraception has been a factor in lowering the age at 1st sexual intercourse, which is now about 15 years in France. At that age, changes of partners are frequent, placing sexually active adolescents at high risk of sexually transmitted diseases. 2 risks predominate, those of condyloma following infection with the papilloma virus which exposes patients to risk of dysplasia and cervical cancer, and that of salpingitis with its risk of sterility. Condyloma has become more frequent in adolescents in France in the past 5 years. A comparative study showed that the average age at diagnosis of intraepithelial epithelioma related to condyloma declined by 5 years between 1960-80. The average age of condyloma diagnosis is about 18 years. Condyloma in adolescents should be treated prudently. If resected too soon after the primary infection before formation of antibodies, there is a risk of propagating the virus. Adolescent condyloma represents the major indication for laser treatment after colposcopy and microhysteroscopy have been used to determine the exact limits of the lesion. Patients should be warned of the possibility of return and the need for regular monitoring. Partners should also be treated. Apart from barrier methods, no contraceptive methods are known to affect development of condyloma. Chronic and acute salpingitis are 2 different entities, but both can cause sterility. Of the 100,000 French women diagnosed with salpingitis each year, 1/2 are under 25 and 1/5 are under 20. Salpingitis multiplies the risk of extrauterine pregnancy by 6 and carries a 15% risk of sterility, which doubles with each new episode. 75% of cases of salpingitis are caused by sexually transmitted diseases, with chlamydia trachomatis responsible for about 1/2. The risk of salpingitis in oral contraceptive (OC) users is .2-.9 in relation to women not using contraception. The seriousness of salpingitis is significantly less for OC than for IUD users. On the other hand , various studies have
Yode, Miangotar; LeGrand, Thomas
This study explores the relationship between age at first sexual intercourse and four indicators of sexual behaviour among adolescents aged 14 to 19 years in Burkina Faso, Malawi and Uganda. Analyses are conducted using data from National Surveys of Adolescents, organized in 2004. Multivariate analyses are performed using dichotomous logistic regression and ordered polychotomic logistic regression. Analyses show that initiation of sexual activity before age 14 is more likely to be associated with having a casual sex partner. It is less likely to be associated with condom use at first sexual relation or with systematic condom use in the past 12 months. These associations vary depending on adolescents' country and gender. Delaying onset of sexuality could be a surer and safer way to protect health during adolescence. However, sexual and reproductive health programs that advocate abstinence only are likely to have few positive effects on young people. To better implement this strategy, sexual education for adolescents should be integrated.
Pedlow, C. Teal; Carey, Michael P.
Context Despite awareness of the need to design developmentally-appropriate sexual risk reduction interventions for adolescents, limited information exists to identify the aspects of intervention design or content that make an intervention “developmentally appropriate.” Objectives (a) To clarify the rationale for designing developmentally-appropriate interventions, (b) to review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of adolescent sexual risk reduction interventions, (c) to identify developmentally-appropriate strategies, (d) to examine the relationship between developmental appropriateness and sexual risk outcomes, and (e) to provide recommendations for research. Study Selection Studies (n = 24) published before 2003 that evaluated a risk reduction intervention, sampled adolescents, used a RCT study design, and evaluated sexual behavior outcomes. Results Content analysis indicated that the interventions tested were often tailored to the cognitive level of adolescents, as indicated by the use of exercises on decision-making, goal-setting and planning, and concrete explanation of abstract concepts. Interventions also addressed the social influences of risky sex such as peer norms and provided communication skills training. Overall, the interventions tested in RCTs were more effective in delaying the onset of sexual activity than in promoting abstinence among sexually-active youth. Interventions with booster sessions were effective in reducing sexual risk behavior. The use of process measures, linked with developmental constructs, was rare. However, improvements in sexual communication skills and perceived norms for safer sex were associated with reductions in sexual risk outcomes. Conclusions Developmental transitions during adolescence influence sexual behavior, and need to be considered when developing and evaluating risk reduction interventions for youth. Future research should assess process measures of key developmental constructs as well as risk behavior and
Rousseau, Ann; Beyens, Ine; Eggermont, Steven; Vandenbosch, Laura
Sexualizing media content is prevalent in various media types. Sexualizing media messages and portrayals emphasize unattainable body and appearance ideals as the primary components of sexual desirability. The internalization of these ideals is positively related to self-objectification and sexual body consciousness. In turn, self-objectification and sexual body consciousness affect adolescents' sexual behavior, albeit in opposing directions. While objectifying self-perceptions are linked to higher levels of sexual behavior, body consciousness during physical intimacy is linked to lower levels of sexual behavior. Based on this knowledge, the present three-wave panel study of 824 Belgian, predominant heterosexual adolescents (M age = 15.33; SD = 1.45) proposes a dual-pathway model that investigates two different pathways through which the internalization of media ideals may impact adolescents' sexual behavior. An inhibitory pathway links media internalization to lower levels of sexual behavior through sexual body consciousness, and a supportive pathway links media internalization to higher levels of sexual behavior through self-objectification. Structural equation analyses supported the proposed dual-pathway, showing that the impact of media internalization on adolescents' sexual behavior proceeds through an inhibitory pathway and a supportive pathway. Regarding the supportive pathway, media internalization (W1) positively predicted sexual behavior (W3), through valuing appearance over competence (W2). Regarding the inhibitory pathway, media internalization (W1) positively predicted body surveillance, which, in turn, positively predicted sexual body consciousness (all W2). Sexual body consciousness (W2) is negatively related to sexual behavior (W3). From a sexual developmental perspective, these findings emphasize the importance of guiding adolescents in interpreting and processing sexualizing media messages.
Somers, Cheryl L.; Canivez, Gary L.
Study reports on the psychometric properties of a brief instrument, the Sexual Communication Scale, used to measure the frequency of communication about sexual matters between parents and adolescents. Instrument addresses sexual topics ranging from dating to sexual intercourse to homosexuality to HIV/AIDS. Analyses showed that the SCS demonstrated…
Burton, David L.; Duty, Kerry Jo; Leibowitz, George S.
This study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers on a number of variables. Self-report measures were administered to 325 male sexually abusive youth (average age 16) in six residential facilities in the Midwest, 55% of whom reported sexual victimization. The results indicate that the sexually…
Huerta-Franco, R; Malacara, J M
This study investigated factors associated with the sexual experiences of 523 underprivileged Mexican adolescents. Approximately 41% of the males and 24% of the females were sexually active, with more than half not using contraceptives. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that sexual activity was strongly associated with age, knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases, and attitudes toward sexuality. Positive affective responsiveness in the family was associated with sexual activity and number of sexual partners. Family problem solving and roles were also associated with sexual activity. The use of contraceptives was negatively related to affective involvement between parents, and being a victim of sexual abuse was negatively associated with number of persons in the family. These findings support the notion that affective environment within the family is a factor in adolescent sexuality.
Osafo, Joseph; Asampong, Emmanuel; Langmagne, Sussan; Ahiedeke, Clement
To understand the role of religion in the sexual behaviours of adolescents, the views of parents who are key agents of socialization were examined from two south-eastern communities in Ghana. Focus Group interviews were conducted with mothers (and female caregivers) of adolescents and one with fathers (and male caregivers) of adolescents. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Findings indicated that parents from one community perceived religion as playing a double-edged role in adolescents' sexual behaviours as on one hand it played a protective role by restraining adolescents from risky sexual behaviours; on the other hand it disparaged the existing traditional measures that regulated adolescents' sexual behaviour. However, parents from the other community found a collaborative interface between the existing social control measures-communal socialization and proscriptive morality with religious ethics. Religious socialization, social capital theory and the concept of social suffering are used to explain some of the findings of this study. Implications for HIV and AIDS education and prevention are also discussed.
Escobar-Chaves, Soledad Liliana; Anderson, Craig A
Liliana Escobar-Chaves and Craig Anderson investigate two important trends among American youth and examine the extent to which the two trends might be related. First, the authors note that U.S. youth are spending increasing amounts of time using electronic media, with the average American youngster now spending one-third of each day with some form of electronic media. Second, the authors demonstrate that American adolescents are engaging in a number of unhealthful behaviors that impose huge societal costs. Escobar-Chaves and Anderson detail the extent of five critical types of adolescent health risk behaviors identified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-obesity, smoking, drinking, sexual risk taking, and violence. Obesity, the authors note, has become an epidemic among America's young people. Cigarette smoking among adolescents is one of the ten leading health indicators of greatest government concern. Alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence are widespread problems among the nation's youth and are the source of the three leading causes of death among youth. More than 20 percent of American high school students have sexual intercourse for the first time before they reach the age of fourteen. And twelve- to twenty-year-olds perpetrated 28 percent of the single-offender and 41 percent of multiple-offender violent crimes in the United States in 2005. Escobar-Chaves and Anderson present and evaluate research findings on the influence of electronic media on these five risk behaviors among adolescents. Researchers, they say, have found modest evidence that media consumption contributes to the problem of obesity, modest to strong evidence that it contributes to drinking and smoking, and strong evidence that it contributes to violence. Research has been insufficient to find links between heavy media exposure and early sexual initiation. The authors note the need for more large-scale longitudinal studies that specifically examine the cumulative effects of
Sharmin, Sonia; Kypri, Kypros; Khanam, Masuma; Wadolowski, Monika; Bruno, Raimondo; Mattick, Richard P.
Whether parental supply of alcohol affects the likelihood of later adolescent risky drinking remains unclear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to synthesize findings from longitudinal studies investigating this association. We searched eight electronic databases up to 10 September 2016 for relevant terms and included only original English language peer-reviewed journal articles with a prospective design. Two reviewers independently screened articles, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Seven articles met inclusion criteria, six of which used analytic methods allowing for meta-analysis. In all seven studies, the follow-up period was ≥12 months and attrition ranged from 3% to 15%. Parental supply of alcohol was associated with subsequent risky drinking (odds ratio = 2.00, 95% confidence interval = 1.72, 2.32); however, there was substantial risk of confounding bias and publication bias. In all studies, measurement of exposure was problematic given the lack of distinction between parental supply of sips of alcohol versus whole drinks. In conclusion, parental supply of alcohol in childhood is associated with an increased likelihood of risky drinking later in adolescence. However, methodological limitations preclude a causal inference. More robust longitudinal studies are needed, with particular attention to distinguishing sips from whole drinks, measurement of likely confounders, and multivariable adjustment. PMID:28282955
Mason, Michael J
The social dimension of urban adolescents' interpretation of their activity space was investigated by examining reasons for attributing place as risky and safe, and analyzing these reasons by social network quality. Activity space and social network data were collected on 301 teens presenting for routine medical check-ups. SPSS Text Analysis for Surveys performed linguistic analyses on open-ended survey responses, applying concept derivation, concept inclusion, semantic networks, and co-occurrence rules. Results produced 13 categories of reasons for locations attributed as risky and safe. Categories were then transformed into dichotomous variables and analyzed with chi-square tests by social network quality. Results indicated two categories of reasons for locations attributed as risky: alcohol and drugs and Illegal activity, which were dependent upon social network quality. Two categories of reasons for locations attributed as safe, namely protective place and Neighborhood, were also dependent upon social network quality. These findings assert that adolescents' social networks influence their interpretations of risk and safety, highlighting a social dimension to the meaning of place.
Rosengard, Cynthia; Tannis, Candace; Dove, David C.; van den Berg, Jacob J.; Lopez, Rosalie; Stein, L. A. R.; Morrow, Kathleen M.
Background: Sources of sexual health information exert strong influence on adolescents' sexual behavior. Purpose: The current study was undertaken to understand how family serve as sexual information sources, the messages adolescents recall from family, and how family learning experiences affect sexual behavior among at-risk adolescents. Methods:…
Selkie, Ellen M.; Benson, Meghan; Moreno, Megan
Background: Adolescents frequently report barriers to obtaining sexual health education. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine adolescents' views regarding how new technologies could be used for sexual health education. Methods: Focus group interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of adolescents between 14 and 19 years old.…
Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Bouris, Alida
Although parents play a vital role in fostering healthy sexuality-related attitudes and behaviors among adolescents, many parents struggle with how to address sexuality-related topics with their adolescent child. This article provides practitioners with evidence-based frameworks and guidelines on how to work with parents in order to improve their…
Furby, Lita; Ochs, Linda M.; Thomas, Catherine W.
Reports on interviews of 48 sexually active adolescents concerning the possible secondary consequences of taking measures to reduce the risk of contracting a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Adolescents generated 134 consequences, suggesting that considering all the relevant consequences for a rational decision about STD prevention is not…
Elfers, John; Carlton, Lidia; Gibson, Paul; Puffer, Maryjane; Smith, Sharla; Todd, Kay
The Adolescent Sexual Health Work Group commissioned the development of core competencies that define the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for all providers of adolescent sexual and reproductive health. This article describes the background and rationale for this set of competencies, the history and use of competencies, and the process…
Way, Ineke; Urbaniak, Danielle
A content analysis of closed case records from family court examined personal and family history variables for adolescents with sexually abusive behaviors who had been adjudicated for criminal sexual conduct and compared sub-groups of adolescents with (n = 72) and without (n = 80) prior other delinquent behavior. The study's findings indicate that…
Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc., New York, NY.
This document consists of three annual issues of a special subject bibliography combining adolescent sexuality, for the years 1988, 1989, and 1990, respectively. Citations for books, journal articles, and reports concerned with adolescent sexuality are grouped under such topics as: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and Human Immunodeficiency…
Ševcíková, Anna; Simon, Laura; Daneback, Kristian; Kvapilík, Tomáš
Prior research suggests that adolescent girls may react more negatively to online sexual content than boys. This study explored the qualitative experiences of adolescent girls who encountered bothersome or disturbing sexual content online. Fourteen girls (aged 15-17 years) were interviewed online about the context in which they saw bothersome…
Bersamin, Melina; Todd, Michael; Fisher, Deborah A.; Hill, Douglas L.; Grube, Joel W.; Walker, Samantha
The effects of parental attitudes, practices, and television mediation on adolescent sexual behaviors were investigated in a study of adolescent sexuality and media (N = 887). Confirmatory factor analyses supported an eight-factor parenting model with television mediation factors as constructs distinct from general parenting practices. Logistic…
Monahan, Kathryn C.; Lee, Joanna M.
Little is known about the impact of the relational context of adolescent sexual activity on depressive symptoms. The present study examined trajectories of depressive symptoms among 6,602 adolescents (44% male, 60% White) taken from a nationally representative study (Add Health). Sexually active youth in romantic and casual relationships were…
Petersen, Jennifer L.; Hyde, Janet Shibley
The current study describes longitudinal trends in sexual harassment by adolescent peers and highlights gender, pubertal status, attractiveness, and power as predictors of harassment victimization. At the end of 5th, 7th, and 9th grades, 242 adolescents completed questionnaires about sexual harassment victimization, pubertal status, and perceived…
The focus of the qualitative study was to explore college student sexual health choices from a 4-year undergraduate institution. The study could be used for future research into why the numbers of sexual risk choices including sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) remain among college campuses, and how they affect academic success. Through…
Vassallo, Suzanne; Lahausse, Julie; Edwards, Ben
The risky driving tendencies of young drivers has been extensively researched, but much less is known about across-time patterns of risky driving behavior and the factors which influence these. This study identified factors associated with stable, increasing and decreasing risky driving trajectories among 751 Australian drivers participating in an ongoing longitudinal study. Five groups were formed on the basis of participants' patterns of risky driving from 19-20 to 27-28 years (i.e., stable low-risk, stable speeding, stable high-risk, increasing and decreasing). Very few participants exhibited a stable high-risk pattern. Characteristics that differentiated the different across-time groups were identified using Multinomial Logistic Regression. The most consistent correlates of risky driving patterns were antisocial behavior, binge drinking and relationship status. Sex, school completion, temperament, civic engagement, and antisocial peer friendships were also correlated with different across-time patterns. The implications of these findings for road safety are discussed.
Numerous studies have documented the determinants of sexual behavior among adolescents in less-developed countries, yet relatively little is known about the influence of social contexts such as school and neighborhood. Using two waves of data from a school-based longitudinal survey conducted in Malawi from 2011-13, this study advances our understanding of the relationship between school-level socioeconomic contexts and adolescents' sexual activity. The results from two-level multinomial logistic regression models suggest that high socioeconomic composition of the student body in school decreases the odds of initiation of sexual activity, independent of other important features of schools and individual-level characteristics. This study also finds that the association between school socioeconomic composition and sexual activity is statistically significant among male adolescents but not female adolescents, suggesting that schools' socioeconomic contexts may be more relevant to male adolescents' initiation of sexual activity.
Villalobos, Myriam; Smetana, Judith G
Disclosure and lying to mothers and fathers about different activities, as defined within social domain theory, were examined as a function of Latino family values in 109 Puerto Rican lower socioeconomic status middle adolescents (M=15.58 years, SD=1.18) living in the United States. Questionnaires revealed that teens sometimes disclosed to parents about their risky prudential (unhealthy or unsafe) and peer activities. Lying was infrequent, although greater for risky than for peer issues. In general, path analyses demonstrated that teens' greater adherence to Latino family values and trust in parents were associated with more disclosure and less lying to mothers. However, these findings were moderated by the type of issue considered and perceptions of parents' Latino family values.
Bleakley, Amy; Hennessy, Michael; Fishbein, Martin; Jordan, Amy
Published research demonstrates an association between exposure to media sexual content and a variety of sex-related outcomes for adolescents. What is not known is the mechanism through which sexual content produces this "media effect" on adolescent beliefs, attitudes, and behavior. Using the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction, this article uses data from a longitudinal study of adolescents ages 16 to 18 (N = 460) to determine how exposure to sexual media content influences sexual behavior. Path analysis and structural equation modeling demonstrated that intention to engage in sexual intercourse is determined by a combination of attitudes, normative pressure, and self-efficacy but that exposure to sexual media content only affects normative pressure beliefs. By applying the Integrative Model, we are able to identify which beliefs are influenced by exposure to media sex and improve the ability of health educators, researchers, and others to design effective messages for health communication campaigns and messages pertaining to adolescents' engaging in sexual intercourse.
Kreager, Derek A; Staff, Jeremy; Gauthier, Robin; Lefkowitz, Eva S; Feinberg, Mark E
A sexual double standard in adolescence has important implications for sexual development and gender inequality. The present study uses longitudinal social network data (N = 914; 11-16 years of age) to test if gender moderates associations between adolescents' sexual behaviors and peer acceptance. Consistent with a traditional sexual double standard, female adolescents who reported having sex had significant decreases in peer acceptance over time, whereas male adolescents reporting the same behavior had significant increases in peer acceptance. This pattern was observed net of respondents' own perceived friendships, further suggesting that the social responses to sex vary by gender of the sexual actor. However, findings for "making out" showed a reverse double standard, such that female adolescents reporting this behavior had increases in peer acceptance and male adolescents reporting the same behavior had decreases in peer acceptance over time. Results thus suggest that peers enforce traditional sexual scripts for both "heavy" and "light" sexual behaviors during adolescence. These findings have important implications for sexual health education, encouraging educators to develop curricula that emphasize the gendered social construction of sexuality and to combat inequitable and stigmatizing peer responses to real or perceived deviations from traditional sexual scripts.
Barbara, Giussy; Collini, Federica; Cattaneo, Cristina; Facchin, Federica; Vercellini, Paolo; Chiappa, Laura; Kustermann, Alessandra
Violence against women is a pervasive complex phenomenon that destroys women's feelings of love, trust, and self-esteem. In this commentary, we specifically focus on sexual violence against adolescent girls, whose impact is particularly harmful since it may lead to impaired mental health, social functioning, and neurodevelopment. Between 12% and 25% of adolescent girls throughout the world experience sexual violence, very often perpetrated by a family member or a friend. Moreover, for an alarming proportion of girls, the first sexual experience is coerced. In this article, we review the multiple negative effects of sexual violence against adolescent girls. We also report data derived from our practice in a public Italian referral Centre for Sexual and Domestic Violence (SVSeD) and address the importance of a multidisciplinary clinical approach with adolescent victims of sexual violence.
Kar, Sujita Kumar; Choudhury, Ananya; Singh, Abhishek Pratap
Adolescence, derived from the Latin word “adolescere” meaning “to grow up” is a critical developmental period. During adolescence, major biological as well as psychological developments take place. Development of sexuality is an important bio-psycho-social development, which takes an adult shape during this period. During adolescence, an individual's thought, perception as well as response gets colored sexually. Puberty is an important landmark of sexuality development that occurs in the adolescence. The myriad of changes that occurs in adolescents puts them under enormous stress, which may have adverse physical, as well as psychological consequences. Understanding adolescent sexuality has important clinical, legal, social, cultural, as well as educational implications. PMID:26157296
Background Sexual violence is considered a serious violation of human rights which affects mainly young women and adolescents. There is little information about the conditions under which sexual offences occur. We evaluated characteristics of sexual violence against adolescent girls and adult women. Method This is a quantitative, retrospective, descriptive study of sexual violence against adolescent girls and adult women. Analyses were carried out on data collected from 1118 women, 546 adolescents (10-19 years) and 572 adults (≥ 20 years), with a complaint of rape treated at Hospital Pérola Byington, São Paulo, between 1994 and 1999. The age limit of the adolescent sample met the World Health Organization’s (WHO) criteria. We analyzed the type of sexual contact, degree of intimidation, perpetrator and activity of the victim during the approach. Results Crimes without penetration were five times more frequent in adolescents and use of threats of death or intimidation was common in both groups. Mental illness was more prevalent in adult victims and the majority of adolescent victims were aged <14 years. Uncle and stepfather perpetrators were more frequent among adolescents and partners or former intimate partners in adult women. In most cases the approach occurred in public places, although sex crimes at the perpetrator’s residence were more frequent amongst adolescents. Conclusions Although children and adolescents require the same intervention measures and legal protection, a considerable proportion of adolescent sex offenders can face conditions similar to those of adult women. PMID:24450307
Ma, Zhen-qiang; Fisher, Monica A.; Kuller, Lewis H.
Although studies indicate school-based HIV/AIDS education programs effectively reduce risky behaviors, only 33 states and the District of Columbia in US mandate HIV/AIDS education. Ideally, school-based HIV/AIDS education should begin before puberty, or at the latest before first sexual intercourse. In 2011, 20% US states had fewer schools…
Kay, L E
As sex, drugs, and rock 'n' roll have given way to STDs, HIV, and AIDS, adolescent sex has become an increasingly high-risk behavior. Dr Kay strongly believes that primary care physicians can have a prominent role in educating teens and their parents about the consequences of premature sexual activity and in promoting healthy living. In this article, he presents the case against adolescent sexual intercourse and outlines a concrete approach to dealing with adolescent patients at risk and their families.
Harris, Allyssa L
Media play an important role in the lives of adolescents, providing them with opportunities for education and socialization. Media content is increasingly permeated with violence and sexual references that can be highly influential as adolescents continue the developmental process. Providing patient education is one of the cornerstones of nursing practice, and nurses are ideally suited to affect adolescent and parental education about the sexual and violent content of media.
Introduction Risky sexual practice among people living with HIV/AIDS is a public health concern because of the risk of transmission of the virus to sero-discordant partner/s. There is also the risk of re-infection with new, drug resistant viral strains between sero-concordant partners. However, there is lack of information on risky sexual practices among HIV positive adults. Therefore, this study aimed to assess risky sexual practice and associated factors among adult HIV positive clients at Gondar University Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia, 2015. Methods An institution based cross sectional study was conducted at Gondar University Referral Hospital from May to June 2015. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. Using systematic random sampling technique, a total of 513 respondents were participated in this study. The data were entered into EPI info version 3.5.3 and transferred to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analyses were done. A P-value <0.05 was considered to determine the statistical significance of the association between factors (independent variables) and risky sexual practice. The Odds ratio was also used to determine the presence and the degree of association between the dependent and independent variables. Results A total of 513 respondents were participated in this study. The prevalence of risky sexual practices in the past three months was 38% (95% CI: 33.3%, 42.3%). Being in the age range of 18–29 years (AOR = 2.63, 95% CI: 1.55, 4.47) and 30–39 years (AOR = 2.29, 95% CI: 1.48, 3.53), being single (AOR = 6.32, 95%CI: 2.43, 16.44),being married (AOR = 6.06, 95% CI: 2.81, 13.07), having no child (AOR = 2.58, 95% CI: 1.17, 5.72), and a CD4 count of greater than 500/mm3 were factors significantly associated with risky sexual practices. Conclusions A considerable number of HIV positive clients had risky sexual practices. It is strongly recommended that the Regional Health Bureau
Tullis, Christopher A.; Zangrillo, Amanda N.
As people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) mature from adolescents into adults, social deficits may become more pronounced and apparent in new areas (e.g., social functioning and sexuality). Like neurotypicals, sexuality may be directly related to quality of life for people with ASD. Current practice for addressing sexuality in the ASD…
Seng, Magnus J.
Explored relationship between sexual abuse and adolescent prostitution by comparing 70 sexually abused children with 35 prostitution-involved children on 22 variables. Findings suggest that relationship is not direct, but involves runaway behavior as intervening variable. Concludes that it is not so much sexual abuse that leads to prostitution, as…
Conroy, Nicole E.
This article provides an integrative review of the literature on adolescent sexual harassment and highlights potential contributions of feminist theory for research. Although developmental theories for studying sexual harassment are useful in their own right, the discussion focuses on how they fail to address the ways in which sexual harassment…
Knittel, Andrea K; Snow, Rachel C; Griffith, Derek M; Morenoff, Jeffrey
In this study, we used data from Add Health Waves II and III to compare men who had been incarcerated to those who had not, and examined whether incarceration was associated with increased numbers of sexual partners and increased odds of concurrent partnerships. We used multivariate regression and propensity-score matching to compare sexual behavior of Wave III male respondents who had been incarcerated with those who had not, and compared sexual behavior at Wave II to identify differences in sexual behavior prior to incarceration. Incarceration was associated with an increased rate of lifetime sexual partnership, but this was attenuated by substance use. Criminal justice involvement was associated with increased odds of having partners who report concurrent partnerships, but no further increase was seen with incarceration. There were no significant sexual behavior differences prior to incarceration. These results suggest that the criminal justice system and substance use may interact to shape sexual behavior.
Eshbaugh, Elaine M.
The relationship between being an adolescent child of a teen mother and sexuality-related outcomes was investigated using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Adolescents whose mothers were teenagers at first birth were more likely to have had sex by age 16 than other adolescents. Gender moderated this effect, as this relationship…
Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Fröjd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri
Sexual harassment has been studies as a mechanism reproducing inequality between sexes, as gender based discrimination, and more recently, as a public health problem. The role of family-related factors for subjection to sexual harassment in adolescent has been little studied. Our aim was to study the role of socio-demographic family factors and parental involvement in adolescent's persona life for experiences of sexual harassment among 14-18-year-old population girls and boys. An anonymous cross-sectional classroom survey was carried out in comprehensive and secondary schools in Finland. 90953 boys and 91746 girls aged 14-18 participated. Sexual harassment was elicited with five questions. Family structure, parental education, parental unemployment and parental involvement as perceived by the adolescent were elicited. The data were analyzed using cross-tabulations with chi-square statistics and logistic regressions. All types of sexual harassment experiences elicited were more common among girls than among boys. Parental unemployment, not living with both parents and low parental education were associated with higher likelihood of reporting experiences of sexual harassment, and parental involvement in the adolescent's personal life was associated with less reported sexual harassment. Parental involvement in an adolescent's life may be protective of perceived sexual harassment. Adolescents from socio-economically disadvantaged families are more vulnerable to sexual harassment than their more advantaged peers.
Thing, James P.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Schwartz, Seth J.; Soto, Daniel W.; Unger, Jennifer B.
Context Cultural variables have been associated with sexual risk behaviors among Latino youth, but findings across studies are inconsistent. Methods We analyzed data from a longitudinal study of Latino youth in Southern California followed from 2005–2012 to test whether cultural variables measured in high school were associated with sexual risk behaviors in emerging adulthood, and whether gender moderated these associations. We conducted logistic and ordinal regression analyses. Participants were 995 Latino youth. Results The cultural value of respect for parents was negatively associated with an earlier age at sexual debut (odds ratio, 0.8) and not using a condom at most recent sexual intercourse (0.8). U.S. cultural practices (a measure of acculturation) was positively associated with being sexually active (1.2), having concurrent sexual partners (1.5), and among males only, with a higher number of sexual partners (1.3). Second- and third- generation immigrant youth had lower odds of not using a condom at most recent sexual intercourse when compared to first-generation youth (0.6 and 0.5, respectively). Among females, a stronger endorsement of Latino cultural practices was associated with lower odds of more sexual partners (0.8). By contrast, among males, a stronger endorsement of Latino cultural practices was associated with higher odds of more sexual partners (1.4). Conclusions The cultural measures associated with Latino youth’s sexual behaviors differed across outcomes and by gender. Understanding how culture is related to the sexual behaviors of Latino youth may help inform the development of culturally-sensitive sexual health interventions. PMID:24786352
Delavande, Adeline; Wagner, Zachary; Sood, Neeraj
A significant proportion of HIV-positive adults in sub-Saharan Africa are in serodiscordant relationships. Identification of such serodiscordant couples through couple HIV testing and counseling (HTC) is thought to promote safe sexual behavior and reduce the probability of within couple seroconversion. However, it is possible HTC benefits are not sustained over time and therefore repeated HTC may be more effective at preventing seroconversion than one time HTC. We tested this theory in Zomba, Malawi by randomly assigning 170 serodiscordant couples to receive repeated HTC and 167 serodiscordant couples to receive one time HTC upon study enrollment (control group). We used linear probability models and probit model with couple fixed effects to assess the impact of the intervention on risky sexual behavior. At one-year follow-up, we found that couples that received repeated HTC reported significantly more condom use. However, we found no difference in rate of seroconversion between groups, nor did we find differences in subjective expectations about seroconversion or false beliefs about HIV, two expected pathways of behavior change. We conclude that repeated HTC may promote safe sexual behavior, but this result should be interpreted with caution, as it is inconsistent with the result from biological and subjective outcomes.
Bahrami, Zahra; Zarani, Fariba
As AIDS is not merely a hygienic problem but a disease that creates a great deal of economic, cultural, and social problems, it is necessary for most of the state and nongovernmental organizations and individuals to participate in both controlling AIDS and preventing it. As no effective vaccine or therapy for this disease exists currently, the only method for avoiding being afflicted by this disease is prevention. The present study aims to examine the Information-Motivation and Behavioral Skills (IMB) model in risky sexual behaviors. For this purpose, a group of 151 male students was sampled using a multistage random sampling method to complete the quality of HIV information questionnaire, national AIDS questionnaire, international AIDS questionnaire and global positive attitude to AIDS questionnaire. The results show that there is a significant relationship between the perception of HIV infection risk and sexual behavior. Thus, the perception of risk is considered the first step toward modifying sexual behaviors from risk-taking behaviors to safer behaviors.
Martino, Steven C.; Tucker, Joan S.; Ryan, Gery; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Golinelli, Daniela; Munjas, Brett
Travelers are a migratory subgroup of homeless youth who may be especially prone to engaging in risky behavior. This study compared the substance use and sexual behavior of young homeless travelers and non-travelers to evaluate the extent and possible sources of travelers' increased risk. Data came from face-to-face interviews with 419 homeless youth (36.6% female, 34.0% white, 23.9% African American, and 20.0% Hispanic) between the ages of 13 and 24 years (M = 20.1 years, SD = 2.5) who were randomly sampled from 41 shelters, drop-in centers, and street sites in Los Angeles. Travelers were almost twice as likely as non-travelers to exhibit recent heavy drinking, 37% more likely to exhibit recent marijuana use, and five times as likely to have injected drugs. Travelers also had more recent sex partners and were more likely to report having casual or need-based sexual partners and combining sex with substance use. Mediation analyses suggest that travelers' deviant peer associations and disconnection to conventional individuals and institutions may drive their elevated substance use. Differences in sexual risk behaviors are likely attributable to demographic differences between the two groups. Overall, these differences between travelers and non-travelers suggest different service needs and the need for different service approaches. PMID:21400037
Bleakley, Amy; Hennessy, Michael; Fishbein, Martin; Jordan, Amy
Published research demonstrates an association between exposure to media sexual content and a variety of sex-related outcomes for adolescents. What is not known is the mechanism through which sexual content produces this "media effect" on adolescent beliefs, attitudes, and behavior. Using the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction, this…
Filomeno, Arlynn H.
Reviews relevant research to identify strengths and weaknesses of parent-adolescent communication patterns relating to adolescent sexual behaviors. Studies show the positive effects of parent-adolescent communication patterns and adolescent sexuality, though man parents fail to address the most critical sexual risks faced by adolescents (sexually…
Golden, Rachel Lynn; Furman, Wyndol; Collibee, Charlene
The sex-positive framework of sexual development hypothesizes that healthy sexual experiences can be developmentally appropriate and rewarding for adolescents despite the risks involved. Research has not examined whether risky behaviors and rewarding cognitions actually change with sexual debut at a normative or late age. This study measured the…
Kreager, Derek A.; Staff, Jeremy; Gauthier, Robin; Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Feinberg, Mark E.
A sexual double standard in adolescence has important implications for sexual development and gender inequality. The present study uses longitudinal social network data (N = 914; 11–16 years of age) to test if gender moderates associations between adolescents’ sexual behaviors and peer acceptance. Consistent with a traditional sexual double standard, female adolescents who reported having sex had significant decreases in peer acceptance over time, whereas male adolescents reporting the same behavior had significant increases in peer acceptance. This pattern was observed net of respondents’ own perceived friendships, further suggesting that the social responses to sex vary by gender of the sexual actor. However, findings for “making out” showed a reverse double standard, such that female adolescents reporting this behavior had increases in peer acceptance and male adolescents reporting the same behavior had decreases in peer acceptance over time. Results thus suggest that peers enforce traditional sexual scripts for both “heavy” and “light” sexual behaviors during adolescence. These findings have important implications for sexual health education, encouraging educators to develop curricula that emphasize the gendered social construction of sexuality and to combat inequitable and stigmatizing peer responses to real or perceived deviations from traditional sexual scripts. PMID:27833252
van Oosten, Johanna M F
Previous research has suggested that adolescents' exposure to sexually explicit internet material (SEIM) may result in sexual uncertainty because the content of SEIM may conflict with what adolescents have learned about sex. However, research on which type of adolescent is most susceptible to the relation between SEIM use and sexual uncertainty is lacking. This study therefore investigated whether the relationship between SEIM use and sexual uncertainty depends on within-gender differences in sexual dispositions (i.e., impersonal sex orientation and hypergendered orientation). Using data from a representative two-wave panel survey among 1765 Dutch adolescents (aged 13-17), I found that SEIM use predicted sexual uncertainty only among girls with a low hypergendered orientation and girls with a relatively high impersonal sex orientation.
Macintyre, Anna K-J; Montero Vega, Adela R; Sagbakken, Mette
Although Chile is a traditionally conservative country, considerable legal advances in sexual and reproductive rights over the past decade have brought discourses on sexuality into mainstream political, social and media agendas. In light of these changes it is important to explore how adolescents conceptualize sexuality, which in turn influences their understanding of sexual rights. This study is based on four focus group discussions and 20 semi-structured interviews with adolescents, and seven interviews with key informants in Santiago, Chile. Findings indicate that adolescent conceptualizations of sexuality are diverse, often expressed as attitudes or observations of their social context, and primarily shaped by peers, parents and teachers. Attitudes towards individuals with non-heterosexual orientations ranged from support to rejection, and conceptualizations of sexual diversity were also influenced by media, medicalization and biological explanations. Gender differences in sexual expression were described through gendered language and behaviour, in particular observations of gender stereotypes, censored female sexuality and discourses highlighting female risk. Many adolescents described social change towards greater equality regarding gender and sexuality. To optimize this change and help bridge the gap between legal and social recognition of sexual rights, adolescents should be encouraged to reflect critically on issues of gender equality and sexual diversity in Chile.
Realmuto, G M; Erickson, W D
Disturbed adolescents confined to inpatient treatment settings present special problems for the management of sexual behaviors. Ego impaired, delinquent, and autonomy-seeking adolescents provoke unique conflicts among their peers and staff. Staff's sexual anxiety caused by societal stereotypes of adolescents, inexperience with the techniques of unbiased observation and limit-setting, ignorance of normal adolescent development, and countertransference may lead to inadequate or inappropriate interventions. The authors describe the goals of a training program to reduce staff sexual anxiety: to develop a body of knowledge about the interaction between normal sexual development and psychopathology; to promote awareness about the staff's own feelings and the ways they influence observation and interaction; to lessen anxiety about self-exposure in the group setting; and to gain mutual support. Specific guidelines regarding effective staff interventions at an individual and group level are described. Alertness to the broad implications of sexuality in staff and patients and the necessity for careful monitoring of ward anxiety is emphasized.
Ott, Mary A.
A careful examination of young men's sexuality by health professionals in pediatrics, primary care and reproductive health is foundational to adolescent male sexual health and healthy development. Through a review of existing literature, this article provides background and a developmental framework for sexual health services for adolescent boys. The article first defines and provides an overview of adolescent boys’ sexual health, and then discusses developmentally focused research on the following topics: (1) early romantic relationships and the evolution of power and influence within these relationships; (2) developmental “readiness” for sex and curiosity; (3) boys’ need for closeness and intimacy; (4) adopting codes of masculinity; (5) boys’ communicating about sex; and (6) contextual influences from peers, families, and providers. This article concludes by examining the implications of these data for sexual health promotion efforts for adolescent males, including HPV vaccination. PMID:20307842
Orgilés, Mireia; Espada, José P; Johnson, Blair T; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Carratalá, Elena
Marital breakup has been associated with numerous behavioral problems in children, such as sexual risk behaviors. This research is the first to examine sexual behaviors of Spanish adolescents related to whether their parents were married or divorced. Participants were 342 boys and girls aged between 14 and 18 years. The sample provided confidential information about their sexual behavior and birth control methods. Significant differences were only found in percentages of adolescents who had engaged in mutual masturbation, intercourse, or oral sex, and who had practiced these sexual relations in the last six months, in both cases, they were higher when the parents had broken their marital relationship. Regarding adolescents of divorced parents, engaging in intercourse is more likely in older teenagers who live with a stepparent. Moreover, older adolescents who were younger when parents divorced and who live in a reconstituted family, have more sexual partners. These and other findings are discussed.
Bell, David L; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Ott, Mary A
There is a need to understand better the complex interrelationship between the adoption of masculinity during adolescence and the development of early romantic and sexual relationships. The purpose of this study was to describe features of adolescent masculinity and how it is expressed in the contexts of early to middle adolescent males' romantic and sexual relationships. Thirty-three 14- to 16-year-old males were recruited from an adolescent clinic serving a community with high sexually transmitted infection rates and were asked open-ended questions about their relationships-how they developed, progressed, and ended. Participants described a high degree of relationally oriented beliefs and behaviors related to romantic and sexual relationships, such as a desire for intimacy and trust. The males also described a more limited degree of conventionally masculine beliefs and behaviors. These beliefs and behaviors often coexisted or overlapped. Implications for the clinical care of similar groups of adolescents are described.
Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Operario, Don; Barnett, Nancy P.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Monti, Peter M.
Background The study aim was to assess the prevalence and co-occurrence of alcohol and sexual risk behaviors among emergency department (ED) patients in community hospitals. Methods Systematic screening of ED patients (N = 6,486; 56.5% female) was conducted in 2 community hospitals in the northeast during times with high patient volume, generally between the hours of 10 AM to 8 PM, Monday through Saturday. Screening occurred from May 2011 through November 2013. Assessment included validated measures of alcohol use and sexual risk behavior. Results Overall results identified high rates of alcohol use, sexual risk behaviors, and their co-occurrence in this sample of ED patients. Specifically, ED patients in between the ages of 18 and 35 were consistently highest in hazardous alcohol use (positive on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test or endorsing heavy episodic drinking [HED]), sexual risk behaviors, and the co-occurrence of alcohol and sex-risk behaviors. Conclusions Findings show a high co-occurrence of hazardous drinking and unprotected sex among ED patients and highlight the role of HED as a factor associated with sexual risk behavior. Efforts to integrate universal screening for the co-occurrence of alcohol and sexual risk behavior in ED settings are warranted; brief interventions delivered to ED patients addressing the co-occurrence of alcohol and sexual risk behaviors have the potential to decrease the risk of sexually transmitted infections and HIV among a large number of patients. PMID:26332359
LaBrie, Joseph W.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Migliuri, Savannah; Lac, Andrew
This study examines the relationship between sexual experience and various drinking measures in 550 incoming first-year college females. During this transition period, sexually experienced participants reported stronger alcohol expectancies and endorsed higher drinking motives, and drank more frequently and in greater quantities than sexually…
Graves, Karen L.
Reports a study that examined the relationship between young adults' alcohol use and sexual activity. Interviews indicated that alcohol use with sex did not necessarily lead directly to lapses in judgment about safe sex. The relationship of drinking to sexual activity was a complex interplay of personality, expectancies, and circumstances. (SM)
Ryan, Gery W.; Stern, Stefanie A.; Hilton, Lara; Tucker, Joan S.; Kennedy, David P.; Golinelli, Daniela; Wenzel, Suzanne L.
Impoverished women worldwide are at high risk for contracting HIV/AIDS. This study explores how homeless women make risky sex decisions and the role that alcohol and drugs play in this process. We analyze 56 in-depth qualitative descriptions of recent sexual episodes among 28 women living in shelters in Los Angeles, California, USA. The sample (age 18–63) was 46% African American, 21% Hispanic/Latina, and 21% white. Findings suggest that: (1) homeless women engage in multiple types of relationships and sexual behaviors; (2) emotion and attachment play critical roles in women’s risky sex choices; and (3) the role of alcohol and drugs on such choices varies across relationship commitment. Understanding the complexity of sexual decision-making among this population has implications for developing successful risk reduction interventions. PMID:20485467
Dunn, Michael S; Bartee, R Todd; Perko, Michael A
Research has demonstrated a relation between alcohol use and engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors. Alcohol use, especially binge drinking, has been linked to a host of problems including high-risk sexual behavior, date rape, and academic problems. As such, the purpose of this study was to provide a descriptive profile of alcohol consumption among adolescents and to examine the relations of alcohol use (lifetime, current, binge) with sexual activity variables (sexual initiation, multiple sex partners, condom use, and pregnancy) among adolescents completing the 1993-1999 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Analysis showed alcohol use was associated with high-risk sexual activity. Binge drinking had stronger relations with sexual activity variables than lifetime use and current use of alcohol. This result is of particular concern, in that binge drinking has been implicated in many problem behaviors. As such, it is of great importance to intervene in the high-risk practices of adolescents before problems occur.
Walcott, Christy M.; Meyers, Adena B.; Landau, Steven
Many adolescents are susceptible to negative outcomes associated with sexual behavior. This is particularly true for those who initiate sexual intercourse at an early age, have many sex partners, or engage in unprotected sex because these behaviors put one at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. This article reviews the…
Friedrich, William N.; Jaworski, Theresa M.; Huxsahl, John E.; Bengtson, Brad S.
Evaluated children (N=350) to assess the degree to which dissociation and sexual behavior discriminated sexually abused children and adolescents from nonpsychiatric and psychiatric comparison groups. Results show that psychiatric and nonpsychiatric samples differed in their reports of sexual concerns and dissociation, whereas psychiatric abused…
Padilla, Amado M.; Baird, Traci L.
Examines sexual knowledge, attitudes and practices of 84 Mexican-American adolescents. Findings show low sexual knowledge for all subgroups. Few sexually active subjects practiced contraception. Majority indicated birth control makes sex seem preplanned. Respondents appeared traditional in sex attitudes, with virginity and birth-control…
Berhan, Yifru; Berhan, Asres
The aim of this analysis was to determine the consistency of higher-risk sex practice among educated and/or wealthy men in different parts of the world. Meta-analysis was done on risky sexual behaviour of men using the recent Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS 2003-2009) data from 26 countries in and outside Africa. DHS data were accessed through electronic databases. In this analysis, since there was significant heterogeneity (I(2)>50%) among surveys findings, random effects analytic model was applied. Mantel-Haenszel statistical method was used to calculate the pooled odds ratios across countries. Out of 79,736 men aged 15-49 years who had sexual intercourse in 12 months preceding the respective survey, 35.7% reported to have higher-risk sex. The proportion of higher-risk sex was found positively correlated with increased wealth index. In 24 countries, higher-risk sex was found to have highly statistically significant association with men living in urban areas, educated to secondary and above, and owned middle to highest wealth index. The overall condom use during the last higher-risk sexual encounter was 47% but condom use was better practiced by educated men. Nearly in two-thirds of countries reported HIV-prevalence, the proportion of HIV infection was highest among better educated. In conclusion, this meta-analysis has shown that risk taking sexual behaviour is invariably associated with high educational attainment, urban residence and better wealth index regardless of geographic location of men participated in the surveys.
Moon, Sang Huy
This study was conducted to explore the effectiveness of a program teaching healthy sexuality values on adolescent sexual awareness and sexual behavior. For this study, the present researcher, along with two other professors, developed a 4-h program on 4 different subjects, and conducted the full education program through four different 4-h…
Wang, Bo; Davidson, Pamela
This paper attempts to understand the sexual behaviors of young, unmarried women living in rural China with a special focus on sexual debut, sexual risk-taking behaviors, and reproductive health consequences. The analysis is based on forty in-depth interviews with young women who had undergone induced abortion as well as information from focus group discussions. Study participants identified pornographic videos and parents' tacit approval and even encouragement as factors instigating their sexual debut. Reasons for unprotected intercourse include spontaneous sexual activity, misconceptions about fertility and the effective use of contraceptives, and the lack of negotiation skills. The results indicate the importance of making reproductive health education more accessible to rural populations in China, a group usually considered to be more traditional and less likely to engage in premarital sex.
Khubchandani, Jagdish; Clark, Jeffrey; Kumar, Raman
Sexuality education for adolescents is one of the most controversial topics in the field of child health. In the past decade, policymakers in India have also struggled with the issue and there has been greater public discourse. However, policymaking and public discussions on adolescent sexuality education are frequently fueled by religious, social, and cultural values, while receiving scant scientific attention. To meet the needs of an expanding young population in India, scientific evidence for best practices must be kept at the core of policymaking in the context of sexuality education for adolescents. PMID:25374847
Golub, Sarit A; Starks, Tyrel J; Kowalczyk, William J; Thompson, Louisa I; Parsons, Jeffrey T
The present investigations applied a theoretical perspective regarding the impact of executive functioning (EF) on sexual risk among substance users, using a methodological approach designed to examine whether EF subtypes differentially predict behavior patterns. Participants included 104 substance-using HIV-negative gay and bisexual men. Participants completed 5 neuropsychological assessment tasks selected to tap discrete EF components, and these data were linked to data on substance dependence and behavioral reports of substance use and sexual risk in the past 30 days. Cluster analysis identified 3 EF subtypes: (a) high performing (good performance across all measures); (b) low performing (poor performance across all measures); and (c) poor IGT performance (impairment on the Iowa Gambling Task [IGT] and its variant, but good performance on all other tasks). The 3 subtypes did not differ in amount of substance use, but the low-performing subtype was associated with greater rates of substance dependence. The low-performing subtype reported the highest rates of sexual behavior and risk, while the poor-IGT-performance subtype reported the lowest rates of sexual risk taking. Global associations between substance use and sexual risk were strongest among the low-performing subtype, but event-level associations appeared strongest among individuals in the high-performing subtype. These data suggest complex associations between EF and sexual risk among substance users, and suggest that the relationship between substance use and sexual risk may vary by EF subtypes.
Byers, E Sandra; O'Sullivan, Lucia F; Brotto, Lori A
Researchers have given significant attention to abstinence among adolescents, but far less is known about purposeful avoidance of sexual activity (and relationship involvement). Typically, it is assumed that, once adolescents have initiated sexual activity, they will thereafter engage in sexual activity if given the opportunity. However, it is unclear whether that is true as some research indicates that many adolescents engage in sexual activity intermittently. Sexually experienced adolescents may purposefully avoid engaging in sexual activity for a period of time and, if so, this has implications for understanding their sexual decision-making. We used a mixed methods approach to investigate sexually experienced adolescents' decisions to purposefully avoid further sexual activity and/or romantic relationships with a focus on how common these decisions are and factors influencing them. Participants were 411 (56 % female) adolescents (16-21 years old) who completed an on-line survey that assessed reasons for each type of avoidance, religiosity, sexual esteem, sexual distress, sexual coercion, and dysfunctional sexual beliefs. Overall, 27 % of participants had engaged in sexual avoidance and 47 % had engaged in romantic avoidance. Significantly more female than male adolescents reported sexual and romantic avoidance. Adolescents' reasons for sexual avoidance included: lack of sexual pleasure or enjoyment, relationship reasons, negative emotions, values, fear of negative outcomes, negative physical experience, and other priorities. Reasons for romantic avoidance included: effects of previous relationship, not interested in commitment, wrong time, other priorities, negative emotions, no one was good enough, and sexual concerns. Logistical regressions were used to assess associations between age, religiosity, sexual esteem, sexual distress, experience of sexual coercion, and dysfunctional sexual beliefs and having engaged in romantic and/or sexual avoidance. The
Singh, S K; Schensul, Jean J; Gupta, Kamla; Maharana, Barsharani; Kremelberg, David; Berg, Marlene
This paper summarizes the main results of the survey component of a mixed methods study of alcohol and sexual risk in a general population of young men 18-29 residing in low income communities in the Greater Mumbai area. The survey included demographic variables, and scales and indices measuring work related stress, social influence, exposure to alcohol in childhood, and currently, hyper masculinity, exposure to media and pornography, risk related leisure time activities and alcohol and alcohol/sex expectancies. Measures of alcohol use included frequency/amount/contextual use of six different types of alcohol, a general estimate of frequency and amount (AUDIT), and an estimate of total ml. alcohol consumed in the past 30 days, based on estimates of alcohol content in all types of alcohol consumed, by unit of consumption (glass, peg, bottle) etc. Sexual outcome measures included types and number of partners ever and in past year with and without alcohol, and a critical event with most recent partner (with or without alcohol) and culturally specific indicators of sexual health related to sexual risk taking. A cluster sampling protocol and the use of a screener produced a sample of 1239 men, 1071 thirty day drinkers and 161 nondrinkers. Logistic regression analysis (binary and multinomial) showed relationships between predictor variables and alcohol consumption and alcohol and sexual risk indicators as well as two of the sexual health indicators associated with extramarital sex. Risk behaviors are associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption in this low risk general population of married and unmarried men. Implications for intervention include: (a) reducing or eliminating home drinking, to reduce early childhood exposure; (b) including alcohol in sexual risk and HIV prevention programs; (c) improving couples (married or unmarried) communication to reduce men's search for sexual alternatives, and (d) treating garmi as an indicator of sexual risk taking rather
Hunter, Lori M.; Reid-Hresko, John; Dickinson, Tom
Local natural resources are central to rural livelihoods across much of the developing world. Such “natural capital” represents one of several types of assets available to households as they craft livelihood strategies. In order to explore the potential for environmental scarcity and change to contribute to perpetuation of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, we examine the association between declining natural capital and engaging in risky sexual behaviors, as potentially another livelihood strategy. Such association has been demonstrated in Kenya and Tanzania, through the fish-for-sex trade. To explore the possibility of this connection within rural Haitian livelihoods we use Demographic and Health Survey data, with a focus on rural women, combined with vegetation measures generated from satellite imagery. We find that lack of condom use in recent sexual encounters is associated with local environmental scarcity – controlling for respondent age, education, religion and knowledge of AIDS preventive measures. The results suggest that explicit consideration of the environmental dimensions of HIV/AIDS may be of relevance in scholarship examining factors shaping the pandemic. PMID:22416143
Mthembu, J C; Khan, G; Mabaso, M L H; Simbayi, L C
Globally intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health problem that can be perpetrated by both males and females, although males are more likely to inflict severe IPV-related injuries on their female partners. In low- and middle-income countries like South Africa, few studies have conducted research to determine whether IPV perpetration by men may be a risk factor for engaging in other risk behaviours. The aim of this study is to determine whether IPV perpetration by men is a risk factor for engaging in other risk behaviours with a particular focus on risky sexual behaviours and alcohol misuse. The data for this study were drawn from a multilevel intervention study, which addressed the nexus of alcohol abuse and HIV prevention among men in South Africa. Men were screened and recruited from informal drinking places within 12 communities situated in one of the oldest, predominantly Xhosa-speaking African townships in Cape Town. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyse the associations between IVP and potential explanatory variables. Of the 975 men included in the survey, 39.9% reported to have been involved in Intimate Partner Violence. IPV perpetration was significantly more likely among men who reported having a child [OR 1.51 (1.07-2.14) p = .019], having a casual sexual partner [OR 1.51 (1.11-2.05) p = .008], and those with possible alcohol dependence [OR 3.46 (1.17-10.20) p = .024]. IPV was significantly less likely among men with matric educational qualification than those with no education [OR 0.30 (95% CI: 0.09-1.02) p = .053] and among those who reported using a condom at last sex [OR 0.69 (0.50-0.97) p = .034]. We therefore recommend that interventions aimed at reducing IPV need to address risky sexual and drinking behaviours amongst men simultaneously, while also focusing on intimate relationship power dynamics and gendered norms amongst couples.
Background This study explored community perceptions of cultural beliefs and practices that may increase sexual risk behaviour of adolescents, to understand more about meaning they hold within the culture and how they expose adolescent orphans and non-orphans to higher risks in a high HIV and teenage pregnancy prevalence context. Methods Using a qualitative descriptive cross-sectional design 14 focus group discussions were conducted with 78 adolescents and 68 parents/guardians purposively selected to represent their communities. Thirteen key informant interviews were also conducted with community leaders, health care and child welfare workers, and adolescents who were also selected purposively. The two methods were used to explore how cultural beliefs and practices predispose adolescent orphans and non- orphans to risky sexual behaviours. Data were analysed through line-by-line coding, grouped into families and retrieved as themes and sub-themes. Results Identified cultural practices that predisposed adolescents orphans and non-orphans to risky sexual behaviours included: adolescent sleeping arrangements, funeral ceremonies, replacing a deceased married daughter with her younger sister in marriage, widow inheritance among boys, early marriage among girls, and preference for boys/sons. Cultural risks perceived to equally affect both orphans and non-orphans were sleeping arrangements, funeral ceremonies, and sister replacement. Factors associated more with orphans than non-orphans were widow inheritance among boys and a preference for boy over girl children. Conclusions Adolescent sexual risk reduction programs should be developed considering the specific cultural context, using strategies that empower communities to challenge the widely accepted cultural norms that may predispose young people in general to sexual risks while targeting those that unequally influence orphans. PMID:24467940
O'Mullan, Cathy; Debattista, Joseph; Browne, Matthew
Issue addressed The fly-in, fly-out (FIFO) and drive-in, drive-out (DIDO) models of mining in Australia have led to concerns about adverse health and psychosocial impacts. Despite speculation that increased levels of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Australia, including HIV, are associated with FIFO/DIDO work, we know little about sexual risk-taking behaviours in mining populations. This study explores differences in sexual risk taking and perceptions of risk between FIFO/DIDO miners and residential miners. Methods A cross-sectional survey was administered to a sample (n=444) of male miners working in Queensland, Australia. The self-completed survey contained 49 questions relating to knowledge, attitudes and behaviour and included demographic information and specific items related to sex and relationships. Results FIFO/DIDO status was not associated with any differential sexual risk-taking behaviours, except for an increased probability of reporting 'ever being diagnosed with an STI'; 10.8% of FIFO/DIDO respondents versus 3.6% of others (x(2) (1)=4.43, P=0.35). Conclusions Our results appear to counter anecdotal evidence that FIFO/DIDO miners engage in higher sexual risk behaviours when compared with residential miners. So what? Anecdotal evidence linking the rise of sexually transmitted infections with the FIFO/DIDO mining workforce could drive costly and unnecessary approaches to prevention. Further research, surveillance and monitoring are required to inform health promotion interventions.
Bien, Cedric H.; Cai, Yong; Emch, Michael E.; Parish, William; Tucker, Joseph D.
Background Thirty-four countries worldwide have abnormally high sex ratios (>102 men per 100 women), resulting in over 100 million missing women. Widespread sex selective abortion, neglect of young girls leading to premature mortality, and gendered migration have contributed to these persistent and increasing distortions. Abnormally high adult sex ratios in communities may drive sexually transmitted disease (STD) spread where women are missing and men cannot find stable partners. We systematically reviewed evidence on the association between high community sex ratios and individual sexual behaviors. Methods and Findings Seven databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Scopus, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Sociological Abstracts, and PopLINE) were searched without restrictions on time or location. We followed PRISMA guidelines and evaluated quality according to STROBE criteria. 1093 citations were identified and six studies describing 57,054 individuals were included for review. All six studies showed an association between high community sex ratios and individual sexual risk behaviors. In high sex ratio communities, women were more likely to have multiple sex partners and men were more likely to delay first sexual intercourse and purchase sex. Only two studies included STD outcomes. Conclusions High community sex ratios were associated with increased individual sexual risk behavior among both men and women. However, none of the studies examined unprotected sex or appropriately adjusted for gendered migration. Further studies are needed to understand the effect of community sex ratios on sexual health and to inform comprehensive STD control interventions. PMID:23967223
Traeen, B; Kvalem, I L
The impact of gender differences in sexual socialization on early sexual experiences among Norwegian adolescents is discussed. The material comprises a stratified sample of 920 adolescents ages 16-20 years in a Norwegian county. Data were collected by means of questionnaires. Of the respondents, 55.5% were girls and 44.5% were boys. 52.3% of girls and 41.4% of the boys had coital experience. The most common reasons for having had the first sexual intercourse were being in love, curiosity or excitement, and sexual arousal. Findings from a discriminant analysis showed that emotional reasons were more important to girls, whereas boys seemed more practical in sexual matters. More boys than girls reported that the reason for having had their most recent intercourse was that the partner wanted it. This indicates that if girls do not want sex, boys seldom use pressure. Girls set the premises for sexual interaction but are not as sexually skilled as boys.
Lusczakoski, Kathryn D; Rue, Lisa A
Typically, clinical evaluations of adolescents' sexual risk is based on inquiring about past sexual activity, which is limited by not including an adolescent's cognitive decision making regarding their past sexual decisions. This study describes the novel OPTIONS framework for assessing adolescent sexual risk including three general categories of risk (e.g., primary, secondary, and tertiary risk), which is designed to overcome the limitation of action-based assessment of risk and improve practitioners' ability to assess the levels of sexual risk. A convenience sample of 201 older adolescents (18-19 years of age) completed an online version of the Relationship Options Survey (ROS), designed to measure the OPTIONS sexual risk assessment. Bivariate correlation among the subscales functioned in the hypothesized manner, with all correlations being statistically significant. Using the OPTIONS model, 22.4% participants were classified as high risk primary, 7.0% participants were classified as high risk secondary, and 27.4% participants were classified as high risk tertiary. The study provided preliminary evidence for OPTIONS model of sexual assessment, which provides a more tailored evaluation by including cognitive decisions regarding an adolescent's sexual actions.
Research has shown that in countries such as Nigeria many urban dwellers live in a state of squalour and lack the basic necessities of food, clothing and shelter. The present study set out to examine the association between forms of basic deprivation--such as food deprivation, high occupancy ratio as a form of shelter deprivation, and inadequate clothing--and two sexual outcomes--timing of onset of penetrative sex and involvement in multiple sexual partnerships. The study used survey data from a sample of 480 girls resident in Iwaya community. A survival analysis of the timing of onset of sex and a regression model for involvement in multiple sexual partnerships reveal that among the forms of deprivation explored, food deprivation is the only significant predictor of the timing of onset of sex and involvement in multiple sexual partnerships. The study concludes that the sexual activities of poor out-of-school girls are partly explained by their desire to overcome food deprivation and recommends that government and non-governmental-organisation programmes working with young people should address the problem of basic deprivation among adolescent girls.
Aronowitz, Teri; Rennells, Rachel E; Todd, Erin
African Americans make up the greater proportion of AIDS cases in adolescent girls but little is understood about the development of sexual risk behaviors during the early adolescent years. This article will explore ecological factors influencing adolescent sexual risk behaviors. In the focus groups, which were conducted using 28 African American mothers and their early adolescent daughters, 2 major themes emerged: exposure and support systems. Mothers described the impact community had on their daughters and how monitoring and support systems worked together to control exposure. The girls detailed the different ways they were impacted by the community. Attitudes the girls adopted from their exposures resulted in risk-taking behaviors or a determination to positively impact the community. Community was shown to be the context of the acquisition of sexual knowledge and attitudes. These findings support the development of interventions to address the impact of community on the participation of sexual risk behaviors.
Katz, Ingrid T; Ybarra, Michele L; Wyatt, Monique A; Kiwanuka, Julius P; Bangsberg, David R; Ware, Norma C
With more than half of new infections occurring among youth, HIV/AIDS remains a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in Uganda. Semi-structured interviews were performed with 48 adolescents and 15 adult key informants in a rural Ugandan community to identify influences on adolescent sexual decision-making. Inductive data analytic methods revealed five thematic influences: (1) social pressure, (2) decline of the Senga (a familial figure who traditionally taught female adolescents about how to run a household), (3) cultural barriers to condom use, (4) knowledge of HIV transmission and modes of prevention, and (5) a moral injunction against sex before marriage. Influences were classified as HIV/AIDS risk and protective factors and organized to form an explanatory framework of adolescent sexual risk-taking. Risk factors pull youth toward risky behavior, while protective factors push them away. Predominance of risk over protective influences explains persistent sexual risk-taking by Ugandan youth. HIV prevention programs designed for Ugandan adolescents should take competing factors and sociocultural and economic influences into account.
Chang, Yu-Ting; Hayter, Mark; Lin, Mei-Ling
This study was designed to explore Taiwanese school students' attitudes toward sexual relationships and premarital sex. This was an exploratory descriptive, qualitative study. Focus groups (N = 8) were conducted with 47 adolescents from three high schools in Taiwan. Transcripts were transcribed and thematically analyzed using Atlas V 5.0. Adolescent attitudes toward sexual relationships and premarital sexual behavior comprise the following three dimensions: (1) external incentives, (2) the developmental process, and (3) internal control. External incentives include the normalization of sexual behavior between peers, the desire to feel included in a group, parental influence, and media influence. The developmental process includes imagining the sexual experience and onset of sexual activity. Internal control includes the fear of pregnancy, the fear of parental rejection, and the fear of being judged. These findings can provide a reference for designing future sex education curricula and counseling programs for adolescents.
Borges, Ana Luiza Vilela
Considering that scientific articles have emphasized the link between the onset of sexual life and peer pressure, the aim of this study was to identify peer pressure in the adolescents' sexual initiation from the point of view of their relationship with the group of friends. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 363 15-19 year-old teens that represented a sample ofthe adolescents enrolled in a family health unit in Sao Paulo City, Brazil. Results showed a relation between sexual initiation and age, being involved in physical experience with someone without wishing, having the majority of friends with sexual experience and dating. Eventually, data show that peers might play some influence on adolescents' option for sexual debut.
Jovanović, Veljko; Gavrilov-Jerković, Vesna
Previous studies have shown that enhanced trait curiosity has positive influence on well-being. It remains an open question, however, whether curiosity has any detrimental effects on behavioral outcomes in adolescence. The main aim of this research was to investigate the role of trait curiosity in the prediction of risky behavior engagement and subjective well-being (SWB) among adolescents. A total of 371 Serbian adolescents (mean age 15.5, SD = 0.57) participated in the 5-month follow up study. The results showed that the embracing component of curiosity (but not stretching) predicted risky behavior engagement, while the stretching component of curiosity (but not embracing) predicted positive affect. In addition, neither embracing nor stretching was a significant predictor of negative affect and life satisfaction. The results of this study call into question the conceptualization of curiosity as a completely positive emotional-motivational system, and suggest that curiosity can contribute to negative outcomes in adolescence.
Ma, Zhen-qiang; Fisher, Monica A; Kuller, Lewis H
Although studies indicate school-based HIV/AIDS education programs effectively reduce risky behaviors, only 33 states and the District of Columbia in US mandate HIV/AIDS education. Ideally, school-based HIV/AIDS education should begin before puberty, or at the latest before first sexual intercourse. In 2011, 20% US states had fewer schools teaching HIV/AIDS prevention than during 2008; this is worrisome, especially for more vulnerable minorities. A nationally representative sample of 16 410 US high-school students participating in 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey was analyzed. Multiple regression models assessed the association between HIV/AIDS education and risky sexual behaviors, and academic grades. HIV/AIDS education was associated with delayed age at first sexual intercourse, reduced number of sex partners, reduced likelihood to have forced sexual intercourse and better academic grades, for sexually active male students, but not for female students. Both male and female students who had HIV/AIDS education were less likely to inject drugs, drink alcohol or use drugs before last sexual intercourse, and more likely to use condoms. Minority ethnic female students were more likely to have HIV testing. The positive effect of HIV/AIDS education and different gender and race/ethnicity effects support scaling up HIV/AIDS education and further research on the effectiveness of gender-race/ethnicity-specific HIV/AIDS curriculum.
Winters, Ken C.; Botzet, Andria M.; Fahnhorst, Tamara; Baumel, Lindsey; Lee, Susanne
We examined a mediational model of the interrelationship of drug use, sexual risk, and impulsivity in a sample of young adults (N = 89), of which almost half displayed highly disruptive behaviors as children. We chose a mediational model given the emerging evidence that impulsivity is an underlying risk factor for many youth health risk problems,…
Trejos-Castillo, Elizabeth; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.
Though official data document that Hispanic youth are at a great risk for early sexual intercourse, STDs, and teen pregnancy, only few etiological studies have been conducted on Hispanic youth; almost no work has examined potential generational differences in these behaviors, and thus, these behaviors may have been mistakenly attributed to…
This experiment examined the effects of alcohol on women's sexual decision making during a laboratory social interaction with a potential dating partner. Participants completed an assessment of sex-related alcohol expectancies, were randomly assigned to consume alcohol, no alcohol, or a placebo, and then interacted with a male confederate.…
Swartzendruber, Andrea; Zenilman, Jonathan M.; Niccolai, Linda M.; Kershaw, Trace S.; Brown, Jennifer L.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Sales, Jessica M.
Objectives To identify partner attributes associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among adolescents and summarize implications for research and prevention. Design Systematic review. Methods We identified peer-reviewed studies published 1990–2010 which assessed ≥1 partner attribute in relation to a biologically-confirmed STI among adolescents (15–24 years) by searching MEDLINE and included articles. Studies which included adolescents but >50% of the sample or with mean or median age ≥25 years were excluded. Results Sixty-four studies met eligibility criteria; 59% were conducted in high-income countries; 80% were cross-sectional; 91% enrolled females and 42% males. There was no standard “partner” definition. Partner attributes assessed most frequently included: age, race/ethnicity, multiple sex partners and STI symptoms. Older partners were associated with prevalent STIs but largely unrelated to incidence. Black race was associated with STIs but not uniformly. Partners with multiple partners and STI symptoms appear to be associated with STIs predominantly among females. Although significant associations were reported, weaker evidence exists for: other partner sociodemographics; sexual and other behaviors (sexual concurrency, sex worker, intimate partner violence, substance use, travel) and STI history. There were no apparent differences by STI. Conclusions Partner attributes are independently associated with STIs among male and female adolescents worldwide. These findings reinforce the importance of assessing partner attributes when determining STI risk. Prevention efforts should continue to promote and address barriers to condom use. Increased efforts are needed to screen and treat STIs and reduce risky behavior among men. A standard “partner” definition would facilitate interpretation of findings in future studies. PMID:23588126
Johnson, Blair T.; Scott-Sheldon, Lori A. J.; Huedo-Medina, Tania B.; Carey, Michael P.
Objective To provide an updated review of the efficacy of behavioral interventions to reduce sexual risk of HIV among adolescents. Data Sources We searched electronic databases, leading public health journals, and the document depository held by the Synthesis of HIV/AIDS Risk Reduction Project. Studies that fulfilled the selection criteria and were available as of December 31, 2008 were included. Study Selection Studies were included if they investigated any behavioral intervention advocating sexual risk reduction for HIV prevention, sampled adolescents (age range, 11–19 years), measured a behavioral outcome relevant to sexual risk, and provided sufficient information to calculate effect sizes. Data from 98 interventions (N = 51,240 participants) were derived from 67 studies, dividing for qualitatively different interventions and gender when reports permitted it. Main Exposure Educational, psychosocial, or behavioral interventions to reduce sexual risk. Main Outcome Measures Condom use, sexual frequency, condom use skills, interpersonal communication skills, condom acquisition, and incident STIs. Results Relative to controls, interventions succeeded at reducing incident STIs, increasing condom use, reducing or delaying penetrative sex, and increasing skills to negotiate safer sex and to acquire prophylactic protection. Initial risk reduction varied depending on sample and intervention characteristics but did not decay over time. Conclusions Comprehensive behavioral interventions reduce risky sexual behavior and prevent transmission of STIs. Interventions are most successful when administered in larger doses. PMID:21199984
Lescano, Celia M.; Brown, Larry K.; Puster, Kristie L.; Miller, Paul M.
Adolescents with a history of sexual abuse are at particular risk for HIV because of difficulties with affect regulation and dysfunctional thinking that are thought to be sequelae of the abuse. These difficulties can lead to impulsivity and failure to assertively set limits in sexual situations. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has frequently been…
Leach, Fiona; Sitaram, Shashikala
This article reports on a small exploratory study of adolescent girls' experiences of sexual harassment and abuse while attending secondary school in Karnataka State, South India. In South Asia, public discussion of sexual matters, especially relating to children, is largely taboo, and the study uncovers a hidden aspect of schooling, which…
Blinn-Pike, Lynn; Berger, Thomas J.; Hewett, John; Oleson, Jacob
This study was a longitudinal follow-up of 697 early adolescents from 20 schools in Missouri, investigating students who, in 1997, indicated on a survey of sexual attitudes and behaviors that they had not had sexual intercourse. They completed the Reasons for Abstinence Scale (RAS) by identifying those items that were reasons why they had not had…
Rinckey, David Jason
Presented is a developmentally sequenced curriculum designed for teaching human sexuality to mentally impaired adolescents. A brief objective is presented, teaching methods are listed, and materials needed are described (in terms of author, title, source, and price) for each of the following topic areas: vocabulary of sexuality; fact vs. myths;…
Sabia, Joseph J.
This study examines whether offering sex education to young teenagers affects several measures of adolescent sexual behavior and health: virginity status, contraceptive use, frequency of intercourse, likelihood of pregnancy, and probability of contracting a sexually transmitted disease. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent…
Bayer, Angela M.; Tsui, Amy O.; Hindin, Michelle J.
While numerous studies have explored adolescent sexual behavior in Peru, to date, none have explored how adolescents situate sexuality within the context of their broader lives. This information is needed to inform policies and programs. Life history interviews were conducted with 20 12–17 year-old females and males from a low-income settlement near Lima, Peru. Data were analyzed using holistic content analysis and grounded theory. Sexuality had a strong presence in adolescents’ lives. However, adolescents viewed the complete expression of their sexuality as a constrained choice. Constraints are due to the belief that sexual intercourse always results in pregnancy; the nature of sex education; the provision of proscriptive advice; and the family tensions, economic problems, racism and violence present in adolescents’ lives. Social and cultural factors seem to surpass and often suppress the physical and psychological dimensions of adolescents’ sexuality. The results of this study can inform policies and programs to support adolescents as they construct their sexuality and make sexuality-related decisions. PMID:20526920
Chandy, Joseph M.; And Others
A study of 370 male and 2,681 female adolescents with a history of sexual abuse found that males were at higher risk than females for poor school performance, delinquent activities, extreme use of alcohol and marijuana, and sexual risk taking. Female victims showed higher risk for suicidal ideation and behavior, frequent use of alcohol, and…
Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Sigman, Marian; Au, Terry Kit-fong
Examined impact of experimentally altering mothers' style when discussing sexuality and AIDS with adolescent children. Found that intervention group mothers reduced their amount of speaking, asked more open-ended questions, acted less judgmental, and discussed dating and sexuality more than did control group mothers. Intervention group adolescents…
Albert, Bill, Ed.; Brown, Sarah, Ed.; Flanigan, Christine M., Ed.
This collection of papers on early adolescent sexual behavior includes seven papers in two parts. Part 1, "Papers from Nationally Representative Data Sets," includes (1) "Dating and Sexual Experiences among Middle School Youth: Analyses of the NLSY97" (Elizabeth Terry-Humen and Jennifer Manlove); "(2) "Dating Behavior…
Deutsch, Arielle R; Crockett, Lisa J
There is little research on how specific parent-adolescent sexual communication topics influence Latino/a youth's sexual behaviors, and how gender and generational status may moderate effects. This study examined effects of three different messages on intercourse and condom use among 1944 Latino/as from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (T1 mean age=15.46; sd=1.50). Results indicated discussing health consequences predicted higher odds of intercourse one year later across gender and generation groups. Birth control recommendation effects on subsequent intercourse and condom use differed by generational status and gender. Results indicated that message content is important for understanding effects of parent-adolescent sex communication on adolescents' behavior, and underscored the need to consider gender and generational status in Latino/a parent-adolescent sexual communication studies.
CUPP, PAMELA K.; ATWOOD, KATHARINE A.; BYRNES, HILARY F.; MILLER, BRENDA A.; FONGKAEW, WARUNEE; CHAMRATRITHIRONG, APHICHAT; RHUCHAROENPORNPANICH, ORRATAI; ROSATI, MICHAEL J.; CHOOKHARE, WARUNEE
This article reports on a combined family-based substance abuse and HIV prevention intervention targeting families with children ages 13-14 in Bangkok, Thailand. Families (n=340) were randomly and proportionally selected from seven districts in Bangkok with half randomly assigned to an experimental or control condition. Families in the intervention condition were exposed to five interactive booklets about adolescent substance use and risky sexual behavior. Trained health educators followed up by phone to encourage completion of each booklet. Primary outcomes reported in this paper include whether the intervention increased the frequency of parent/child communication in general or about sexual risk taking in particular as well as whether the intervention reduced discomfort discussing sexual issues. We also tested to see if booklet completion was associated with communication outcomes at the 6-month follow-up. Multivariate findings indicate that the intervention significantly affected the frequency of general parent/child communication based on child reports. The intervention marginally affected frequency of parent/child communication about sexual issues based on parent reports. Booklet completion was associated with reduced discomfort discussing sex and was marginally associated with frequency of parent/child discussion of sex based on parent reports only. These findings indicate that a family-based program can have an impact on communication patterns. PMID:24094085
Moncloa, Fe; Wilkinson-Lee, Ada M.; Russell, Stephen T.
This study explores perceptions of Mexican mother-adolescent communication about sexuality. Participants interviewed included four mother-expecting son pairs and four mother-pregnant daughter pairs. Our interviews revealed important adolescent gender differences. Pena (shame/embarrassment) played a major role vis-a-vis indirect communication about…
Killoren, Sarah E.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Christopher, F. Scott; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.
Drawing on a symbolic-interaction perspective and a compensation model, the processes linking mother- and father-adolescent relationship qualities, deviant peer affiliations, and adolescents' sexual intentions were investigated for 246 Mexican-origin youths born in the United States and in Mexico using multiple-group structural equation models.…
Martin, P D; Martin, D; Martin, M
Societal trends indicate ambivalent attitudes about marriage. Specifically, there is greater acceptance of divorce and nontraditional living arrangements such as cohabitation, as well as acceptance and prevalence of premarital sex, than in the past. The authors examine adolescent attitudes toward marriage and their association with premarital sexual activity and cohabitation. Recommendations for helping adolescents understand the realities of marriage and family life are shared.
Martin, Paige D.; Martin, Don; Martin, Maggie
Societal trends indicate ambivalent attitudes about marriage, specifically a greater acceptance of divorce and nontraditional living arrangements. This paper examines adolescent attitudes toward marriage and their association with premarital sexual activity and cohabitation. Recommendations for helping adolescents understand the realities of…
Ali, Mir M.; Dwyer, Debra S.
In this paper we seek to empirically quantify the role of peer social networks in influencing sexual behavior among adolescents. Using data of a nationally representative sample of adolescents we utilize a multivariate structural model with school-level fixed effects to account for the problems of contextual effects, correlated effects and peer…
Bell, Carl C.; Bhana, Arvin; Petersen, Inge; McKay, Mary M.; Gibbons, Robert; Bannon, William; Amatya, Anup
Objectives To test the effectiveness of the CHAMP among black South Africans in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Methods A randomized control trial was conducted in KwaDedangendlale, South Africa, among youths (ages 9-13) and their families (245 intervention families rearing 281 children and 233 control families rearing 298 children). The CHAMPSA intervention targeted HIV risk behaviors by strengthening family relationship processes as well as targeting peer influences through enhancing social problem solving and peer negotiation skills for youths. Results Among caregivers in the control and experimental conditions, significant intervention group differences were revealed regarding HIV transmission knowledge, less stigma toward HIV-infected people, caregiver monitoring—family rules, caregiver communication comfort, caregiver communication frequency and social networks. Among youths, data revealed that control and experimental groups were significantly different for children in AIDS transmission knowledge and less stigma toward HIV-infected people. Conclusions CHAMPSA enhances a significant number individual, family and community protective factors that can help youths avoid risky behaviors leading to HIV-positive status. PMID:18717144
Sales, Jessica M.; Spitalnick, Josh; Milhausen, Robin R.; Wingood, Gina M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Salazar, Laura F.; Crosby, Richard A.
This study examined the psychometric properties of a new scale to measure adolescents’ worry regarding outcomes of risky sexual behavior (i.e. sexually transmitted infections, including HIV [STI/HIV], and unintended pregnancy). The 10-item worry about sexual outcomes (WASO) scale, resulting in two subscales STI/HIV worry and pregnancy worry, was administered to a sample of 522 African-American female adolescents ranging in age from 14 to 18, residing in the southeast United States and participating in a sexual risk reduction intervention. The WASO demonstrated internal consistency across multiple administrations and yielded satisfactory construct validity. Worry was found to negatively correlate with sexual communication self-efficacy (with a new male partner and a steady male partner), frequency of sexual communication with male partner, attitudes about condom use and social support; worry was positively correlated with perceived barriers to condom use, condom negotiation, locus of control and depression. Overall, the results indicate that the WASO is a reliable and valid measure of assessing adolescents’ worry about STIs, HIV and pregnancy. The WASO represents a brief self-administered instrument that can be easily integrated into sexual risk reduction assessments and interventions. Future studies employing the WASO might consider testing it with more diverse samples in terms of gender, race/ethnicity, age and sexual orientation. PMID:18353760
Nieto, José A
This article offers a broad perspective on child and adolescent behaviors, which are seen by different Western definitions as associated with sexual/erotic implications. This article also demonstrates that basic definitions or meanings that many modern Western societies consider important are viewed as unimportant in other societies. Topics such as masturbation, child-adult sexual activities or cross-generational marriages, same-sex activities, and sexual indoctrination are viewed differently among many groups.
Cheong, Ji In; Lee, Chang Hun; Park, Jae Hong; Ye, Byeong Jin; Kwon, Kyoung Ah; Lee, Young Seok
Purpose This study examined the relationships between early menarche and sexual behaviors among Korean female adolescents. Methods We analyzed data from the eighth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based survey that was conducted on female high school students in grades 10-12. The survey included 17,867 students, and 974 students were assigned to the early menarche group because they had experienced menarche when they were in grade four or below, and 16,893 students were assigned to the normal menarche group because they had experienced menarche during or after grade five. The characteristics of the sexual behaviors in the early menarche and normal menarche group were analyzed. Results The early menarche group was at a higher risk of intersexual kissing or petting (odds ratio [OR], 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28-1.87), intersexual intercourse (OR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.65-3.36), homosexual kissing or petting (OR, 3.53; 95% CI, 2.22-5.59), homosexual intercourse (OR, 7.70; 95% CI, 4.04-14.66), being the victim (OR, 2.89; 95% CI, 1.98-4.22) or the assailant (OR, 13.55; 95% CI, 6.61-27.78) of sexual assaults, intercourse without any contraception (OR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.06-3.46), and pregnancy (OR, 5.72; 95% CI, 2.31-14.15) than the normal menarche group. Conclusion Early menarche is associated with risky sexual behaviors among adolescent females; therefore, developing comprehensive sexual health education programs and tools for early intervention are required for children who are expected to experience early menarche. PMID:26512348
Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Neilands, Torsten B; Chan, Shu-Min; Lightfoot, Marguerita
This study examined parental, peer, and media influences on Taiwanese adolescents' attitudes toward premarital sex and intent to engage in sexual behavior. Participants included a convenience sample of 186 adolescents aged 13-15 recruited from two middle schools in Taiwan. Parental influence was indicated by perceived parental disapproval toward premarital sex and perceived peer sexual behavior was used to measure peer influence. Media influence was measured by the adolescents' perception of whether the media promotes premarital sex. We conducted structural equation modeling to test a hypothesized model. The findings suggested that the perceived sexual behavior of peers had the strongest effect on Taiwanese adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavioral intent, while parental disapproval and media influence also significantly contributed to adolescents' sexual attitudes and intent to engage in sex. School nurses are in an ideal position to coordinate essential resources and implement evidence-based sexually transmitted infection and HIV/AIDS prevention interventions that address issues associated with the influence of parents, peers, and media.
Martyn, Kristy K.; Darling-Fisher, Cynthia; Pardee, Michelle; Ronis, David L.; Felicetti, Irene L.; Saftner, Melissa A.
This study was conducted to explore the effects of an event history calendar (EHC) approach on adolescent sexual risk communication and sexual activity. Adolescent school-linked health clinic patients (n = 30) who reported sexual activity self-administered the EHC that was used by nurse practitioners (NPs; n = 2) during a clinic visit. Immediately pre- and post-visit, and at 1 and 3 months, adolescents reported sexual risk behaviors and perceptions about EHC communication on questionnaires and by interview. NPs reported their perceptions of EHCs by questionnaire after the visit and poststudy interview. The EHC approach facilitated communication and adolescent awareness of their risk behaviors. Scores increased on Amount of Communication, t(29) = 8.174, p < .001; Satisfaction with Communication, t(29) = 3.112, p = .004; Client Involvement in Decision Making, t(29) = 3.901, p = .001, and Client Satisfaction with Interpersonal Style, t(29) = 3.763, p = .001. Adolescents reported decreased sexual intercourse at 1 month, p = .031. School nurses could use the EHC approach to facilitate adolescent communication and tailoring of interventions. PMID:22071717
Martyn, Kristy K; Darling-Fisher, Cynthia; Pardee, Michelle; Ronis, David L; Felicetti, Irene L; Saftner, Melissa A
This study was conducted to explore the effects of an event history calendar (EHC) approach on adolescent sexual risk communication and sexual activity. Adolescent school-linked health clinic patients (n = 30) who reported sexual activity self-administered the EHC that was used by nurse practitioners (NPs; n = 2) during a clinic visit. Immediately pre- and post-visit, and at 1 and 3 months, adolescents reported sexual risk behaviors and perceptions about EHC communication on questionnaires and by interview. NPs reported their perceptions of EHCs by questionnaire after the visit and poststudy interview. The EHC approach facilitated communication and adolescent awareness of their risk behaviors. Scores increased on Amount of Communication, t(29) = 8.174, p < .001; Satisfaction with Communication, t(29) = 3.112, p = .004; Client Involvement in Decision Making, t(29) = 3.901, p = .001, and Client Satisfaction with Interpersonal Style, t(29) = 3.763, p = .001. Adolescents reported decreased sexual intercourse at 1 month, p = .031. School nurses could use the EHC approach to facilitate adolescent communication and tailoring of interventions.
Williamson, J M; Borduin, C M; Howe, B A
This study examined the individual characteristics, family relations, and stress/social support of 50 maltreated adolescents and their mothers. Dyads were divided into 4 demographically similar groups: neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and nonmaltreatment control. Results show that adolescent neglect was primarily associated with extrafamilial difficulties and social isolation. Adolescent physical abuse was linked more with rigidity in family relations, poorer maternal understanding of child developmental skills, and adolescent externalizing behaviors. In contrast, adolescent sexual abuse was related to maternal emotional problems and adolescent internalizing behaviors. In general, each group of maltreated adolescents experienced lower levels of family cohesion, more attention problems, and more daily stress than did their nonmaltreated counterparts. Findings are consistent with an ecological model of adolescent maltreatment.
Barker, David; Rizzo, Christie; Hancock, Evan; Norton, Alicia; Brown, Larry K.
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the prevalence of sexting behaviors (sexually explicit messages and/or pictures) among an at-risk sample of early adolescents as well as the associations between sexting behaviors and sexual behaviors, risk-related cognitions, and emotional regulation skills. It also aimed to determine whether differences in risk were associated with text-based versus photo-based sexts. METHODS: Seventh-grade adolescents participating in a sexual risk prevention trial for at-risk early adolescents completed a computer-based survey at baseline regarding sexting behavior (having sent sexually explicit messages and/or pictures), sexual activities, intentions to have sex, perceived approval of sexual activity, and emotional regulation skills. RESULTS: Twenty-two percent of the sample reported having sexted in the past 6 months; sexual messages were endorsed by 17% (n = 71), sexual messages and photos by 5% (n = 21). Pictures were endorsed significantly more often by females (χ2 = 7.33, P = .03) and Latinos (χ2 = 7.27, P = .03). Sexting of any kind was associated with higher rates of engaging in a variety of sexual behaviors, and sending photos was associated with higher rates of sexual activity than sending text messages only. This was true for a range of behaviors from touching genitals over clothes (odds ratio [OR] = 1.98, P = .03) to oral sex (OR = 2.66, P < .01) to vaginal sex (OR = 2.23, P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Sexting behavior (both photo and text messages) was not uncommon among middle school youth and co-occurred with sexual behavior. These data suggest that phone behaviors, even flirtatious messages, may be an indicator of risk. Clinicians, parents, and health programs should discuss sexting with early adolescents. PMID:24394678
Norton, Melanie K; Smith, Megan V; Magriples, Urania; Kershaw, Trace S
This study examined the relationship between traditional masculine role norms (status, toughness, anti-femininity) and psychosocial mechanisms of sexual risk (sexual communication, sexual self-efficacy) among young, low-income, and minority parenting couples. Between 2007 and 2011, 296 pregnant adolescent females and their male partners were recruited from urban obstetrics clinics in Connecticut. Data regarding participants' beliefs in masculine role norms, frequency of general sex communication and sexual risk communication, and sexual self-efficacy were collected via computer-assisted self-interviews. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used to test for actor effects (whether a person's masculine role norms at baseline influence the person's own psychosocial variables at 6-month follow-up) and partner effects (whether a partner's masculine role norms at baseline influence an actor's psychosocial variables at 6-month follow-up). Results revealed that higher actor status norms were significantly associated with more sexual self-efficacy, higher actor toughness norms were associated with less sexual self-efficacy, and higher actor anti-femininity norms were significantly associated with less general sex communication, sexual risk communication, and sexual self-efficacy. No partner effects were found. These results indicate a need for redefining masculine role norms through family centered approaches in pregnant or parenting adolescent couples to increase sexual communication and sexual self-efficacy. Further research is needed to understand partner effects in the context of a relationship and on subsequent sexual risk behavior.
Bogenschneider, Karen; Wu, Ming-yeh; Raffaelli, Marcela; Tsay, Jenner C.
Examines white mothers (n=199) and white fathers (n=144) of adolescents reporting regular alcohol use. Less than one third of parents were aware of their adolescents' drinking. Parental awareness of adolescent alcohol use served to protect adolescents by moderating the reaction of parents' responsiveness to episodes of drinking and driving.…
de Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Gomes, Romeu; Pires, Thiago de Oliveira
OBJECTIVE To analyze the relationships between sexual behavior and risk factors to physical and mental health in adolescents. METHODS Study of 3,195 pupils aged 15 to 19 in secondary education, in public and private schools in 10 state capitals in Brazil between 2007 and 2008. Multi-stage (schools and pupils) cluster sampling was used in each city and public and private educational network. All of the students selected completed a questionnaire on the following items: socioeconomic and demographic data; sexual behavior; having sex with those of the same sex, the opposite sex, or both; alcohol and cannabis use; using condoms; traumatic sexual experiences as a child or adolescent; suicidal thoughts. The analysis included describing frequencies, Chi-square test, analysis of multiple and cluster correspondence. Responses to an open ended question in which the adolescent expressed general comments about themselves and their lives were qualitatively analyzed using content analysis. RESULTS Around 3.0% of adolescents reported homosexual or bisexual behavior, with no difference according to sex, age, skin color, social status family structure or educational network. Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior, compared to their heterosexual peers, reported: (p < 0.05): getting drunk (18.7% and 10.5%, respectively), frequent cannabis use (6.1% and 2.1%, respectively), suicidal thoughts (42.5% and 18.7%, respectively), and having been the victim of sexual violence (11.7% and 1.5%; respectively). Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior reported that they used condoms less frequently (74.2%) than their heterosexual peers (48.6%, p < 0.001). In the correspondence analysis, three groups were found, one composed of adolescents with homosexual/bisexual behavior and experiencing risk factors; suffering sexual violence, never using a condom, suicidal thoughts, frequent cannabis use; another composed of occasional cannabis and condom users, who got drunk
Melchert, Tim; Burnett, Kent F.
Examined high-risk sexual behavior in adolescents (N=212) involved in juvenile justice system. Found that youth were at high risk for unintended pregnancy, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome and other sexually transmitted disease. Compared to national norms, sample reported very early mean age at first intercourse and high rate of pregnancy. Most…
Secor-Turner, Molly; Sieving, Renee E.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Skay, Carol
The objective of this study was to describe prevalent informal sources of information about sex and examine associations between informal sources of information about sex and sexual risk outcomes among sexually experienced adolescents. Work involved the secondary analysis of data from the Minnesota Student Survey, a statewide survey to monitor…
Nahar, Papreen; van Reeuwijk, Miranda; Reis, Ria
Violence against women is a social mechanism confirming women's subordination in many societies. Sexual violence and harassment have various negative psychological impacts on girls, including a persistent feeling of insecurity and loss of self-esteem. This article aims to contextualize a particular form of sexual harassment, namely "eve teasing", experienced by Bangladeshi adolescent girls (12-18 years) which emerged from a study of adolescent sexual behaviour carried out by young people. The study used qualitative methods and a participatory approach, including focus group discussions, key informant interviews and observation. Despite taboos, unmarried adolescents actively seek information about sex, erotic pleasure and romance. Information was easily available from videos, mobile phone clips and pornographic magazines, but reinforced gender inequality. "Eve teasing" was one outlet for boys' sexual feelings; they gained pleasure from it and could show their masculinity. The girls disliked it and were afraid of being blamed for provoking it. Thus, "eve teasing" is a result of socio-cultural norms relating to sexuality, as well as a lack of access to sexual and reproductive health information and services in Bangladesh. These findings underscore the importance of comprehensive sexuality education that goes beyond a mere health focus and addresses gender norms and helps youth to gain social-sexual interaction skills.
Dévieux, Jessy G; Jean-Gilles, Michèle; Frankel, Anne; Attonito, Jennifer; Saxena, Anshul; Rosenberg, Rhonda
This study examined the impact of individual, peer, family, school, and neighborhood level variables on sexual activity among 276 Haitian-American adolescents. Differences between those who were sexually active and those who were not were analyzed using Chi square and t tests. Significant factors at p ≤ 0.1 were entered into logistic regression for the full group and for girls-only. Half of males and 36.6 % of females were sexually active. The multivariable model revealed that adolescents were more likely to be sexually active if they reported delinquent behaviors; had sexually active friends; and were living with only one parent, friends or relatives. For girls, living with both parents was protective against sexual activity, while substance use and emotional distress were risk factors. No language or acculturation measures were associated with sexual activity. Haitian-American adolescents may benefit from interventions that focus on gender-specific, contextual and cultural factors to prevent early sexual activity.
O’Leary, Ann; Jemmott, John B.; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Bellamy, Scarlett; Ngwane, Zolani; Icard, Larry
Background “Let Us Protect Our Future” is a sexual risk-reduction intervention for sixth-grade adolescents in South Africa. Tested in a cluster-randomized controlled trial, the intervention significantly reduced self-reported intercourse and unprotected intercourse during a 12-month follow-up period. Purpose The present analyses were conducted to identify moderators of the intervention’s efficacy as well as which theory-based variables mediated the intervention’s effects. Methods: Intervention efficacy over the 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups was tested using generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. Results Living with their father in the home, parental strictness, and religiosity moderated the efficacy of the intervention in reducing unprotected intercourse. Self-efficacy to avoid risky situations and expected parental disapproval of their having intercourse, derived from Social Cognitive Theory, significantly mediated the intervention’s effect on abstinence. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate that Social Cognitive variables mediate the efficacy of a sexual risk-reduction intervention among South African adolescents. PMID:22618963
Igras, Susan M.; Macieira, Marjorie; Murphy, Elaine; Lundgren, Rebecka
Very young adolescents (VYAs) between the ages of 10 and 14 represent about half of the 1.2 billion adolescents aged 10–19 in the world today. In lower- and middle-income countries, where most unwanted pregnancies, unsafe abortions, maternal deaths and sexually transmitted infections occur, investment in positive youth development to promote sexual and reproductive health (SRH) is increasing. Most interventions, though, focus on older adolescents, overlooking VYAs. Since early adolescence marks a critical transition between childhood and older adolescence and adulthood, setting the stage for future SRH and gendered attitudes and behaviours, targeted investment in VYAs is imperative to lay foundations for healthy future relationships and positive SRH. This article advocates for such investments and identifies roles that policy-makers, donors, programme designers and researchers and evaluators can play to address the disparity. PMID:24824757
Herrera, Aubrey V; Benjet, Corina; Méndez, Enrique; Casanova, Leticia; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena
The normative process of autonomy development in adolescence involves changes in adolescents' information management typically characterized by decreasing disclosure and increasing concealment. These changes may have an important impact on the early detection and timely treatment of mental health conditions and risky behavior. Therefore, the objective was to extend our understanding of how these developmental changes in adolescent disclosure might impact adolescent mental health interviews. Specifically, we estimated the effects of third party presence and type of third party presence (adult, child, or both) on adolescents' reports of psychiatric symptoms, substance use, suicidal behavior, and childhood adversity. In this representative sample of 3005 adolescents from Mexico City (52.1 % female), administered the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI-A), adult presence influenced reporting the most; in their presence, adolescents reported more ADHD, parental mental illness and economic adversity, but less panic disorder, PTSD, drug use and disorder, and suicidal behavior. The presence of children was associated with increased odds of reporting conduct disorder, opportunity for drug use, parental criminal behavior, neglect, and the death of a parent. While adolescent information management strategies are normative and even desirable as a means of gaining emotional autonomy, they may also interfere with timely detection and treatment or intervention for mental health conditions and risky behaviors. Research and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
Zhao, Jessie; Lau, May; Vermette, David; Liang, David; Flores, Glenn
Asian American adolescents have been reported to have the lowest amount of communication with health care providers regarding sexual health topics (sexual activity, contraception, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy prevention). This study identified Asian American adolescents' attitudes/beliefs regarding how health care providers can…
Zhang, Heng; Teng, Tao; Lu, Hongyan; Zhao, Yuejuan; Liu, Hongjie; Yin, Lu; Sun, Zheya; He, Xiong; Qian, Han-Zhu; Ruan, Yuhua; Shao, Yiming; Vermund, Sten H.
Background Although poppers are increasingly popular among MSM in China, little is known about the patterns of poppers use. The objectives of this study were to describe the patterns of poppers use and examine its association with sexual behaviors and HIV infection among MSM in Beijing, China. Methods As part of a multi-component HIV intervention trial, 3588 MSM were surveyed between March 2013 and March 2014 in Beijing, China. Blood samples were collected and tested for HIV and syphilis. The questionnaire collected information about socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the correlates of poppers use. Results Over a quarter of men (27.5%) reported having used at least one type of drugs in the past three months. Poppers were the most popular one (26.8%). Poppers use was correlated with a higher HIV prevalence [odds ratio (OR): 1.38, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11–1.70]. Demographic and sexual behavioral factors associated with poppers use included: younger age [adjusted OR (AOR): 1.56, 95% CI: 1.25–1.94], higher education (AOR: 1.61, 95% CI: 1.33–1.96), alcohol use (AOR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.10–1.60), seeking male partners mainly via the internet (AOR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.28–2.00), multiple male sex partnership (AOR: 2.22, 95% CI: 1.90–2.60), and unprotected receptive anal intercourse (AOR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.28–1.81). Conclusions In this study, poppers use was positively associated with HIV infection and unprotected anal intercourse. Intervention efforts should be devoted to promote safer sex and HIV testing and counseling among MSM who use poppers. PMID:26796594
Chandy, J M; Blum, R W; Resnick, M D
This study examined the gender differences in outcomes related to school performance, suicidal involvement, disordered eating behaviors, sexual risk taking, substance use, and delinquent behaviors of male (n = 370) and female teenagers (n = 2,681) who self-reported a history of sexual abuse. It was found that female adolescents, by and large, engaged in internalizing behaviors and males in externalizing behaviors. Male adolescents were found to be at higher risk than females in poor school performance, delinquent activities, and sexual risk taking. Female adolescents, on the other hand, showed higher risk for suicidal ideation and behavior as well as disordered eating. Females showed more frequent use of alcohol. However, male adolescents exhibited more extreme use of alcohol and more frequent and extreme use of marijuana. Among index female adolescents, protective factors against adverse correlates included a higher emotional attachment to family, being religious or spiritual, presence of both parents at home, and a perception of overall health. Factors that augmented adverse correlates for them included a stressful school environment due to perceived high levels of substance use in and around school, worry of sexual abuse, maternal alcohol consumption, and physical abuse. For male adolescents, maternal education and parental concern appeared to be protective factors.
Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai; Guptarak, Marisa; Wichajarn, Monjun; Yungyuankul, Sawang; Khampan, Ratchaneekorn; Grimes, Deanna E; Grimes, Richard M
Early initiation of sexual intercourse has been associated with negative consequences, such as higher rates of unwanted pregnancy and HIV infection. This study examined the attitudes and behavior of rural Thai adolescent students aged 16 to 20 years from northern Thailand regarding sexual intercourse. Differences between participants who previously had sexual intercourse and those who had not were explored. Those who had not previously had sexual intercourse were asked about the reasons why they had not had sex, their future plans for having sex and their dating experiences. More than 70% of participants stated they had not previously had sexual intercourse but one third of this group reported engaging in other sexual behavior. There were significant differences by gender, religion, ethnicity, and household income between those who had previously had sex and those who had not. Among those who had not previously had sexual intercourse, concern for their parents' feelings was the most common reason for delaying intercourse. About two-thirds of this group had plans not to have sexual intercourse until after marriage; nearly half of them reported currently having a boyfriend/girlfriend. Interventions aimed at delaying sexual intercourse should involve adolescents in their design and include their attitudes for delaying intercourse. Because of many gender differences seen in our study, interventions should be designed differently for males and females in rural northern Thailand.
Dewinter, J.; Vermeiren, R.; Vanwesenbeeck, I.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.
Parent report and adolescent self-report data on lifetime sexual experience in adolescents with ASD were compared in 43 parent-adolescent dyads. Parents tended to underestimate the lifetime sexual experience of their sons, particularly solo sexual experiences such as masturbation and experience with orgasm. Parental underestimation and unawareness…
Schofield, Hannah-Lise T.; Bierman, Karen L.; Heinrichs, Brenda; Nix, Robert L.
Youth who initiate sexual intercourse in early adolescence (age 11-14) experience multiple risks, including concurrent adjustment problems and unsafe sexual practices. The current study tested two models describing the links between childhood precursors, early adolescent risk factors, and adolescent sexual activity: a cumulative model and a…
Miller, Brent C.; And Others
Assessed how reports of parental discipline and control were related to adolescent sexual attitudes and behavior. Adolescents' perceptions of parental strictness and rules show a curvilinear relationship to their sexual attitudes and behavior; sexual permissiveness and intercourse experience was highest among adolescents who viewed their parents…
Saewyc, E M; Bearinger, L H; Blum, R W; Resnick, M D
The influence of sexual orientation on adolescents' sexual behaviors and pregnancy histories was investigated in a subsample of 3816 female adolescents, 12-19 years old, who completed the 1987 Minnesota (US) Adolescent Health Survey. 182 identified themselves as bisexual or lesbian, 1753 were unsure of their sexual orientation, and 1881 were heterosexual. Bisexual/lesbian respondents were about as likely as heterosexual respondents ever to have had intercourse (33.0% and 29.3%, respectively), but they had a significantly higher prevalence of childhood physical abuse (19.3% vs. 11.9%) and sexual abuse (22.1% vs. 15.3%) than their heterosexual counterparts. Among sexually experienced respondents, 29.8% of bisexual/lesbian adolescents, 43.5% of those unsure about their identity, and 23.1% of heterosexuals used no contraception and 12.3%, 8.5%, and 14.5%, respectively, of those who used contraception used an ineffective method. 12.3% of bisexual/lesbian women, 6.1% of those unsure about their sexual orientation, and 5.3% of heterosexual adolescents had experienced a pregnancy; 2 or more pregnancies were reported by 23.5%, 15.1%, and 9.8%, respectively, of ever-pregnant teens. Finally, 9.7% of bisexual/lesbian women had engaged in prostitution in the year preceding the survey, compared with 1.9% of heterosexuals and 3.4% of those unsure about their orientation. These findings suggest that adolescents who identify themselves as lesbian or bisexual are at high risk of pregnancy and poor contraceptive practices. Providers of reproductive health care and family planning services should not assume that their pregnant adolescent patients are heterosexual or that lesbian clients or those unsure of their sexual orientation are not in need of contraception.
Forste, R T; Heaton, T B
According to the 1982 National Survey of Family Growth, 46% women aged 15-19 had experienced premarital intercourse. Projections based on this study show that by their 20th birthdays, 70% of all women in the US will have experienced premarital intercourse. This article examines the effects of various factors on the likelihood that teenagers will become sexually active. Data for this study were taken from the National Survey of Family Growth, Cycle III. Fieldwork was done in 1982 and included interviews of 7969 women aged 15-44. Data include background characteristics, measures of fertility and contraception, measures of fecundity and birth expectations, use of family planning services, and the respondent's marital history. The study concludes that family stability (intact families), Hispanic ethnicity, high parental education, religious affiliation, regular church attendance, and reproductive education decrease the occurrence of 1st intercourse. Other factors characterize an environment that is unstable and unstructured and has a liberalizing influence upon 1st intercourse. Teens from broken homes, blacks, and the lower social classes are more likely to initiate intercourse. Geographic factors have a very small influence upon the initiation of sexual activity among teens. Similar patterns of influence appear regarding contraceptive use. The same factors that encourage stability, such as high father's education, Catholic or Jewish religious affiliation, religious attendance, and reproductive instruction shift the odds in favor of contracepted rather than noncontracepted sex. Family instability and low social class increase the risk that 1st intercourse will not be contracepted. Providing too much sex education, such as instruction on birth control, may actually contribute to the leniency of the environment, although the authors find no evidence that school-based birth control instruction increases the chances that contraceptives will be used. Environments that are
Fisher, Colleen M; Lee, Michael G
Assessing sexual risk is critical for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention with adolescents. This article compares sexual risk reports from two self-administered instruments, a standard survey and a sexual health history calendar (SHHC), among racially diverse youth (n = 232) ages 14 to 21 seeking services at a public health clinic. Agreement between methods was assessed using Lin's concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) and Bland-Altman plots. Lin's CCC showed poor to moderate agreement between instruments on reports of sexual partners in the past 3 (0.47), 6 (0.55), and 12 (0.49) months. While individual sexual partner questions were refused a total of 179 times on the survey, youth reported having sexual partners during the same time period on the SHHC in most (77.1%) of these instances. Poor agreement was also found for condom use frequency (CCC = 0.17), with youth's frequency of condom use on the SHHC differing from that reported on the survey for more than half (55.6%) of the months they were sexually active. While lack of objective sexual behavior measures limits conclusions about the accuracy of reports, the ways in which youth's responses varied across instruments may offer insight into the complexity of adolescent sexual risk taking as well as have important implications for development of HIV/STI preventive interventions.
Catrett, Christina D.; Gaultney, Jane F.
This study investigated whether previously reported links between sleep and risk taking among adolescents (E. M. O'Brien & J. A. Mindell, 2005) are associated--concurrently, longitudinally, or both--with sleep or underlying depression. The present study analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of 4,353 adolescents in the United…
Odinokova, Veronika; Rusakova, Maia; Urada, Lianne A; Silverman, Jay G; Raj, Anita
Background Extensive research documents that female sex workers (FSWs) in Russia are very vulnerable to abuses from police, including police sexual coercion. However, despite qualitative data suggesting abusive policing practices are more likely for FSWs contending with substance abuse issues and risky sex work contexts, there is a paucity of quantitative study evaluating these associations specifically in terms of police sexual coercion. Such research is needed to guide structural interventions to improve health and safety for FSWs in Russia and globally. Objective The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of police sexual coercion among FSWs from two Russian cities, St. Petersburg and Orenburg, and to determine whether riskier sex work behaviors and contexts and substance use behaviors, including both IDU and risky alcohol use, are associated with increased risk for sexual coercion from police Method FSWs in St. Petersburg and Orenburg were recruited via time-location and convenience sampling and completed structured surveys on demographics (age, education), sex work risks (e.g., violence during sex work) and substance use. Logistic regression analyses assessed associations of substance use and risky sex work with police sexual coercion, adjusting for demographics. Results Participants (N=896) were aged 15 and older (94% were 20+ years). Most (69%) reported past year binge alcohol use, and 48% reported IDU the day before. Half (56%) reported 4+ clients per day. Rape during sex work ever was reported by 64%. Police sexual coercion in the past 12 months was reported by 38%. In the multivariate model, both current IDU (AOR=2.09, CI=1.45–3.02) and past year binge alcohol use (AOR=1.46, CI=1.03–2.07) were associated with police sexual coercion, as was selling sex on the street (not in venues) (AOR=7.81, CI=4.53–13.48) and rape during sex work (AOR=2.04, CI=1.43–2.92). Conclusion Current findings document the substantial role police sexual violence
Chapman, Erin N; Werner-Wilson, Ronald Jay
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among individual factors, parental factors, involvement in activities, and adolescent attitudes regarding sex (the outcome variable). We suggest that Positive Youth Development (PYD) research and programming should include promoting healthy sexuality as an important developmental outcome for youth. PYD philosophy and theory, bioecological theory (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 1998), and identity development theory (Erikson, 1983, 1968; Marcia, 1980, 1993) provided the foundation for this study and were used to make the connections between PYD, adolescent sexuality (including attitudes and behavior), and aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship. Both self-esteem and sexual experience were significant predictors of attitudes regarding sex, but overall, parents contributed the most influence on the outcome variable. (It should be noted, however, that parental influence was the only factor that was a significant predictor.) Only one of the two involvements in activities variables was a significant predictor of attitudes regarding sex.
Johnson, L S; Rozmus, C; Edmisson, K
This study described rural adolescents' attitudes, beliefs, knowledge, and values with regard to sexuality and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Rotter's Social Learning Theory (1954) provided the theoretical framework for this descriptive, correlational design. The convenience sample consisted of 170 students from one rural high school. Consistent with past studies, results included the following: participants had more correct than incorrect knowledge related to sexual intercourse and STDs; the majority had positive attitudes toward condom use and believed it was OK for peers to have sex with a "steady;" the value of an exciting life correlated positively with attitudes toward sex; knowledge of sexual intercourse correlated positively with attitudes toward condom use; and the value health correlated positively with knowledge of sex and attitudes toward condom use, and negatively with attitudes toward sex. The findings in this study suggest the need for ongoing research with adolescents in the area of sexuality and STDs. Additionally, the findings support past studies, which revealed that knowledge of sexual intercourse and STDs has little impact on attitudes toward sexual intercourse. With the serious nature of some of the undesired consequences of adolescent sexual behavior, current and accurate information on this population is needed to assist health educators in developing interventions in this area.
Bayer, Angela M; Tsui, Amy O; Hindin, Michelle J
While numerous studies have explored young people's sexual behaviour in Peru, to date few have explored how adolescents situate sexuality within the context of their broader lives. This information is needed to inform policies and programmes. Life history interviews were conducted with 20 12-17-year-old young women and men from a low-income settlement near Lima, Peru. Data were analysed using holistic content analysis and grounded theory. Sexuality had a strong presence in respondents' lives. However, interviewees viewed the full expression of their sexuality as a constrained choice. Particular constraints derive from the belief that sexual intercourse always results in pregnancy; the nature of sex education; the provision of proscriptive advice; and the family tensions, economic problems, racism and violence present in young people's lives. The results of this study can inform policies and programmes to support young people as they make sexuality-related decisions.
Zamboni, Brian D.; Silver, Rachel
Parental sex education might promote healthy sexual behavior among adolescents, but some parents assume that family communication about sex will lead to sexual activity. Family sex communication has been studied with a limited range of adolescent sexual behaviors but not sexual fantasy or desire. Two measures of family sex communication were…
Ponzetti, James J., Jr.; Selman, Jan; Munro, Brenda; Esmail, Shaniff; Adams, Gerald
Public concern about adolescent sexuality has garnered considerable interest in recent decades. Most teenagers are either thinking about or acting on their sexual impulses. Yet notable controversy exists regarding sexual education among youth. Adolescents report sexuality education must speak to issues of interest to them and be delivered in a…
Barr, Elissa M.; Moore, Michele J.; Johnson, Tammie; Merten, Julie; Stewart, William P.
Reducing risky sexual behaviors and their negative health outcomes in youth remains a priority for health educators. Years of research have documented media's effect on various adolescent health risks, including sexual behaviors. As technology evolves and youth access to media increases, understanding the role of media in adolescent health risk…
Choi, HyeJeong; Van Ouytsel, Joris; Temple, Jeff R
This study aims to investigate whether experiences of offline sexual coercion are associated with adolescent females' involvement in different types of sexting behaviors. It draws on data from 450 ethnically diverse female adolescents with an average age of 19.02 years (SD = 0.74) who were originally recruited in southeast Texas. The participants were asked about their experiences with sexual coercion, and their engagement in sexting behavior (i.e., sending, requesting, and being asked for a sext, and receiving a sext without giving permission). Logistic regressions were used to analyze these relationships, while controlling for age, ethnicity, education level, living situation, and sexting behaviors in the year prior of the study. Offline sexual coercion was significantly associated with sending and being asked for a naked image, as well as receiving a naked image without giving permission. The results suggest that sexting could function as an online extension of offline forms of sexual coercion.
Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Deveaux, Lynette; Wang, Bo; Lunn, Sonya; Marshall, Sharon; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita
The inclusion of parents in adolescent-targeted interventions is intended to benefit the adolescent. Limited research has explored whether parents participating in these programs also benefit directly. We examined the impact of Caribbean Informed Parents and Children Together, the parenting portion of an adolescent-targeted HIV prevention…
Somers, C L; Paulson, S E
The main goal of this study was to explore how parent-adolescent closeness and communication about sexuality were associated with three aspects of adolescent sexuality (sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviors). Participants were 157 boys and girls in grades 9 to 12 from two suburban high schools in the Midwest. Canonical correlation analyses revealed two significant combinations of variables. First, younger age and less maternal and paternal communication were related to less sexual behavior and less sexual knowledge. Second, being younger and female and receiving less maternal communication was related to less sexual knowledge and more conservative attitudes. Contrary to expectation, higher levels of parental closeness in conjunction with parental communication did not have a significant influence on these adolescents' sexuality. Given the importance of both age and parental communication in predicting adolescent's sexuality in this study, implications concerning the timing of communication become evident.
Sulfridge, Rocky M.
This dissertation explores the website usage of adolescent sexual minorities, examining notions of information seeking and sexual identity development. Sexual information seeking is an important element within human information behavior and is uniquely problematic for young sexual minorities. Utilizing a contemporary gay teen website, this…
Fisher, Terri D.
Used variables of gender and parental sexual attitudes to categorize college students (N=349) and their parents to examine relationship between family communication about sexuality and adolescent sexual behavior, attitudes, knowledge and contraception use. Found sexual behavior of females correlated with parent-child communication; sexual…