Miller, Shari; Lansford, Jennifer E; Costanzo, Philip; Malone, Patrick S; Golonka, Megan; Killeya-Jones, Ley A
This study examined associations among early adolescent romantic relationships, peer standing, problem behaviors, and gender as a moderator of these associations, in a sample of 320 seventh-grade students. Popular and controversial status youth were more likely to have a romantic partner, whereas neglected status youth were less likely to have a romantic partner. Similarly, youth perceived as conventional and unconventional leaders were also more likely to have a romantic partner than were non-leaders. Youth who had a romantic partner drank more alcohol and were more aggressive than were youth who did not have a romantic partner. Among those youth who had romantic partners, those who reported having more deviance-prone partners were themselves more likely to use alcohol and to be more aggressive, and those who engaged in deviant behavior with their partners used more alcohol. However, these associations varied somewhat by gender. These findings underscore the salience of early romantic partner relationships in the adjustment of early adolescents.
Miller, Shari; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Costanzo, Philip; Malone, Patrick S.; Golonka, Megan; Killeya-Jones, Ley A.
This study examined associations among early adolescent romantic relationships, peer standing, problem behaviors, and gender as a moderator of these associations, in a sample of 320 seventh-grade students. Popular and controversial status youth were more likely to have a romantic partner, whereas neglected status youth were less likely to have a…
Tuval-Mashiach, Rivka; Shulman, Shmuel
The study was designed to explore qualitatively developmental differences in disagreement negotiation and resolution skills between adolescent and young adult romantic partners. Twenty adolescent and 20 young adult couples participated in the study. The Knox inventory was used to measure the level of disagreement between partners on ten domains…
Wright, Michelle F
Extensive research has examined face-to-face aggression within adolescents' romantic relationships, but little attention has been given to the role of electronic technologies in adolescents' perpetuation of these behaviors. Thus, this study examined the relationship of anxious and avoidant partner attachments to partner-directed cyber aggression, assessed 1 year later among 600 adolescents (54% female). After accounting for gender and previous behaviors, anxious partner attachment was related to later partner-directed cyber aggression. In addition, insecure parental attachment from adolescents' mothers was related positively to insecure partner attachment and had an indirect effect on their partner-directed cyber aggression through the mediation of anxious partner attachment. This study provides insight into the impact of electronic technologies on adolescents' romantic relationships.
Lonardo, Robert A.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.
Adolescent networks include parents, friends, and romantic partners, but research on the social learning mechanisms related to delinquency has not typically examined the characteristics of all three domains simultaneously. Analyses draw on data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (n = 957), and our analytic sample contains 51% male and…
Scharf, Miri; Mayseless, Ofra
The distinct role of mothers and fathers in shaping the quality of relationships with romantic partner was explored. One hundred and twenty 17-year old girls were observed during their senior year in high school with each of their parents during a Revealed differences task [Allen, J. P., Hauser, S. T., Bell, K. L., Boykin, K. A., & Tate, D. C. (1994). Autonomy and relatedness coding system manual, version 2.01. Unpublished manual] and filled out questionnaires pertaining to their relationships with romantic partners. A year and a half later (7 months after conscription to compulsory military service) they again filled out questionnaires. Whereas self-reports did not distinguish between relations with mothers and fathers observational data revealed that relationships with each parent are associated with somewhat different aspects of the romantic relationship. Better quality of relationship with mother was associated with delays in the girl's entrance into sexual romantic relationships, and with better quality of romantic relationship concurrently whereas better quality of relationship with father was associated with better quality of romantic relationship once they are formed concurrently and longitudinally. The findings highlight the central role that mothers and fathers play in shaping the quality of the romantic relationships that late adolescent girls form and underscore the importance of using observational data as well as questionnaire data.
Weber, Marco; Ruch, Willibald
The present study investigated the role of 24 character strengths in 87 adolescent romantic relationships focusing on their role in partner selection and their role in mates' life satisfaction. Measures included the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths for Youth, the Students' Life Satisfaction Scale, and an Ideal Partner Profiler for the…
Reese-Weber, M.; Kahn, J.H.
The present study examined whether predictors of romantic-partner conflict may vary as a function of family structure. Using a cross-sectional design, we tested a mediation model of conflict resolution behaviours among late adolescents from intact (n=185) and divorced (n=87) families. Adolescents rated conflict resolution behaviours in five dyadic…
Norona, Jerika C; Roberson, Patricia N E; Welsh, Deborah P
The present study utilizes the actor-partner interdependence model to examine the longitudinal relationship between rejection sensitivity and one's own and one's partner's depressive symptoms. The sample included adolescent romantic couples from the U.S. (N = 198 adolescents; 50% girls; 90.2% Caucasian) whose rejection sensitivity at Time 1 and depressive symptoms approximately one year later (Time 2) were assessed. Additionally, aggressive behaviors and maintenance behaviors that commonly associated with rejection sensitivity (e.g., self-silencing) are explored as mediators. Results indicate that boyfriends' rejection sensitivity at Time 1 predicted girlfriends' depressive symptoms at Time 2. Additionally, girls' rejection sensitivity predicted their own and their boyfriends' self-silencing. Developmental and clinical implications are discussed.
La Greca, Annette M.; Mackey, Eleanor Race
This study examined adolescents' interpersonal functioning, including the qualities of their closest friendships and romantic relationships, as predictors of dating/heterosocial anxiety. An ethnically diverse sample of 781 adolescents (57% girls; ages 15-19 years) completed measures that assessed the number and type of close friends, the presence…
Tuval-Mashiach, Rivka; Walsh, Sophie; Harel, Shirley; Shulman, Shmuel
Findings of this study, conducted on 142 adolescents (67 ninth graders and 75 eleventh graders), show that romantic experiences among adolescents are manifested in different forms: romantic fantasies, cross-gender friendships, and sustained interactions with a romantic partner. These three forms of experience are manifested differently across age…
Furman, Wyndol; Shomaker, Lauren B.
This study examined the similarities and differences between adolescents' interactions with romantic partners and those with friends and mothers. Thirty-two adolescents were observed interacting with a romantic partner, a close friend, and their mother. Adolescents and romantic partners engaged in more conflict than adolescents and friends.…
Darling, Nancy; Clarke, Sara A.
Fifty-three college-aged same- and mixed-sex romantic couples (83% White, 63% female, mean age, 20.8) engaged in a video recall task in which they rated their own and their partners' behaviors and emotions. Females reported feeling more connected to partners and reported fewer negative behaviors than males. Females with male partners reported the…
Daddis, Christopher; Randolph, Danielle
Voluntary disclosure regarding romantic involvement was examined in a sample of 222 middle and late adolescents (124 female adolescents, M = 16.19 years). Disclosure was described with three empirically derived, conceptually meaningful composites that pertained to identity/choice of romantic partner, everyday expression of romantic relationship,…
Darling, Nancy; Clarke, Sara A
Fifty-three college-aged same- and mixed-sex romantic couples (83% White, 63% female, mean age, 20.8) engaged in a video recall task in which they rated their own and their partners' behaviors and emotions. Females reported feeling more connected to partners and reported fewer negative behaviors than males. Females with male partners reported the highest feelings of connection and the fewest negative behaviors. Males with male partners reported the lowest connection and most negative behaviors. Behavioral mirroring and empathic accuracy did not vary by sex of the actor or of their partner. Partners' self-reported connection and negative behaviors were similar and they accurately perceived each others' average behavioral and emotional states. The data showed little evidence that partners' behaviors mirrored one another temporally across time segments, however. Results suggest that college-aged same and mixed-sex romantic couples show greater similarities than differences in functioning.
Royer, Heather R.; Keller, Mary L.; Heidrich, Susan M.
The purpose of this article is to describe young adolescents' perceptions of romantic relationships, ratings of important romantic partner characteristics, and acceptability of sexual activity with romantic relationships. Fifty-seven eighth-grade participants (average age = 13.8 years) from one urban US public middle school completed an anonymous…
Moosmann, Danyel A.V.; Roosa, Mark W.
Although Mexican Americans are the largest ethnic minority group in the nation, knowledge is limited regarding this population's adolescent romantic relationships. This study explored whether 12th grade Mexican Americans’ (N = 218; 54% female) romantic relationship characteristics, cultural values, and gender created unique latent classes and if so, whether they were linked to adjustment. Latent class analyses suggested three profiles including, relatively speaking, higher, satisfactory, and lower quality romantic relationships. Regression analyses indicated these profiles had distinct associations with adjustment. Specifically, adolescents with higher and satisfactory quality romantic relationships reported greater future family expectations, higher self-esteem, and fewer externalizing symptoms than those with lower quality romantic relationships. Similarly, adolescents with higher quality romantic relationships reported greater academic self-efficacy and fewer sexual partners than those with lower quality romantic relationships. Overall, results suggested higher quality romantic relationships were most optimal for adjustment. Future research directions and implications are discussed. PMID:26141198
Dinero, Rachel E; Conger, Rand D; Shaver, Phillip R; Widaman, Keith F; Larsen-Rife, Dannelle
According to attachment theory, attachment style derives from social experiences throughout the life span. The authors tested this expectation by examining associations between the quality of observed interaction patterns in the family of origin during adolescence and self-reported romantic attachment style and observed romantic relationship behaviors in adulthood (ages 25 and 27). Family and romantic relationship interactions were rated by trained observers from video recordings of structured conversation tasks. Attachment style was assessed with items from D. W. Griffin and K. Bartholomew's (1994a) Relationship Scales Questionnaire. Observational ratings of warmth and sensitivity in family interactions were positively related to similar behaviors by romantic partners and to attachment security. In addition, romantic interactions characterized by high warmth and low hostility at age 25 predicted greater attachment security at 27, after controlling for attachment security at age 25. However, attachment security at age 25 did not predict later romantic relationship interactions after controlling for earlier interactions. These findings underscore the importance of close relationships in the development of romantic attachment security but do not indicate that attachment security predicts the quality of interactions in romantic relationships.
Dinero, Rachel E.; Conger, Rand D.; Shaver, Phillip R.; Widaman, Keith F.; Larsen-Rife, Dannelle
According to attachment theory, attachment security or attachment style derives from social experiences that begin early in life and continue into the adult years. In this study we examined these expectations by examining associations between the quality of observed interaction patterns in the family of origin during adolescence and self-reported romantic attachment style and observed romantic relationship behaviors in adulthood (at ages 25 and 27). Family and romantic relationship interactions were rated by trained observers from video recordings of structured conversation tasks. Attachment style was assessed with items from Griffin and Bartholomew's (1994) Relationship Scales Questionnaire. Observational ratings of warmth and sensitivity in family interactions were positively related to similar behaviors by romantic partners and to self-reported attachment security. In addition, romantic interactions characterized by high warmth and low hostility at age 25 predicted greater attachment security at 27, after controlling for attachment security at age 25. However, attachment security at age 25 did not predict later romantic relationship interactions after controlling for earlier interactions. These findings underscore the importance of social experiences in close relationships for the development of romantic attachment security but they are inconsistent with the theoretical expectation that attachment security will predict the quality of interactions in romantic unions. PMID:18729676
Examined the developmental changes in romantic relationships of both healthy and diabetic adolescents. Found that, whereas healthy adolescents were increasingly able to balance both intimacy and conflict in their relationships with romantic partners, diabetic adolescents were unable to experience both positive and negative romantic qualities.…
Miga, Erin M.; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P.; Manning, Nell
The relation of attachment states of mind and self reported attachment relationship styles to romantic partner aggression was examined in a community sample of 93 adolescents. Higher levels of insecure-preoccupied and insecure-dismissing states of mind, as assessed by the Adolescent Attachment Interview at age 14, were predictive, respectively, of perpetration and victimization of psychological aggression in romantic relationships four years later. Partners’ romantic attachment anxiety was linked to both psychological and physical aggression perpetration in romantic relationships. Results are interpreted as suggesting the value of assessing aggression in adolescent romantic relationships in the context of broader patterns of regulation of affect and behavior via the attachment system. PMID:20730640
Thomas, Jennifer J
Although researchers have investigated how adolescents' friendships affect their romantic relationships, the influence of romantic relationships on friendships is unexamined. As a first step, 9th- (n = 198) and 11th grade students (n = 152) reported on their conceptions of friendship when one friend had a romantic relationship and when neither friend had a romantic relationship. As predicted, adolescents believed friendships in which a friend was dating would be characterized by less positive features and more negative features than friendships in which neither friend was dating. Additionally, older adolescents thought romantic relationships were more damaging to companionship and corumination than did younger adolescents. The closer nature of older adolescents' romantic relationships may result in lower quality friendships or older adolescents may be more aware of the potential negative consequences of romantic relationships for friendships. Girls viewed friendships as higher in conflict-rivalry and lower in corumination when one friend was dating while boys did not. And although girls and boys viewed friendships as lower in intimacy and companionship when a friend has a romantic partner, the difference was greater for girls than boys. Girls may be more sensitive to the effects of a friend's romantic relationship on their friendship than are boys. Findings necessitate theories of close relationships that incorporate age and gender as important variables.
Investigated similarities and differences between close friendships and romantic relationships among 95 adolescents, who were either diabetic or healthy. Among healthy adolescents, found demonstrated time-dependent links between intimacy in both relationship types. Among diabetic adolescents, found a preference for romantic partners who offered…
DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M.; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan
This study tests the hypothesis that adolescents with romantic partners are less similar to their friends on rates of alcohol abuse than adolescents without romantic partners. Participants (662 girls, 574 boys) ranging in age from 12 to 19 years nominated friends and romantic partners, and completed a measure of alcohol abuse. In hierarchical…
Simon, Valerie A.; Furman, Wyndol
This study examined associations between interparental conflict and adolescents' romantic relationship conflict. High school seniors (N = 183) who lived with married parents completed questionnaires about their parents' marriage and their own romantic relationships. A subset of 88 adolescents was also observed interacting with their romantic…
Furman, Wyndol; Collibee, Charlene
This study examined how representations of parent-child relationships, friendships, and past romantic relationships are related to subsequent romantic representations. Two-hundred 10th graders (100 female; Mage = 15.87 years) from diverse neighborhoods in a Western U.S. city were administered questionnaires and were interviewed to assess avoidant and anxious representations of their relationships with parents, friends, and romantic partners. Participants then completed similar questionnaires and interviews about their romantic representations six more times over the next 7.5 years. Growth curve analyses revealed that representations of relationships with parents, friends, and romantic partners each uniquely predicted subsequent romantic representations across development. Consistent with attachment and behavioral systems theory, representations of romantic relationships are revised by representations and experiences in other relationships.
Gudonis-Miller, Lauren C; Lewis, Lisa; Tong, Yan; Tu, Wanzhu; Aalsma, Matthew C
Research has demonstrated that adolescent peer group affiliations are consistent predictors of substance use initiation and maintenance; it is less clear how adolescent romantic relationships influence substance use behavior. Data were drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Participants in the final dataset for the current study included adolescents (321 males and 321 females) who were identified in reciprocated romantic relationships at Wave 1 (1994-1995; mean age 16.7 years) that were followed into young adulthood and reassessed at two different time points (Wave 2 in 1996, mean age 17.7, and Wave 3 in 2001-2002, mean age 23.1). Data were gathered from both partners, and included demographic variables, longitudinal measures of substance use (alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana), and relationship seriousness. Hierarchical linear modeling using SAS PROC MIXED were utilized to test for individual versus partner influences. Results revealed individual and partner effects for the prediction of alcohol and tobacco, although individual effects were generally greater than partner influences. For marijuana use, as self-reported relationship seriousness increased, future marijuana use decreased. These findings suggest the developmental significance of adolescent romantic relationships on the prediction of future substance use behavior during young adulthood.
Burt, Isaac; Lewis, Sally V.; Beverly, Monifa G.; Patel, Samir H.
Research indicates that highly educated individuals endure hardships in finding suitable romantic partners. Romantic hardships affect social and emotional adjustment levels, leading to low self-efficacy in relationship decision making. To address the need for research pertaining to this topic, the authors explored the experiences of eight…
Chatel-Goldman, Jonas; Congedo, Marco; Jutten, Christian; Schwartz, Jean-Luc
Interpersonal touch is of paramount importance in human social bonding and close relationships, allowing a unique channel for affect communication. So far the effect of touch on human physiology has been studied at an individual level. The present study aims at extending the study of affective touch from isolated individuals to truly interacting dyads. We have designed an ecological paradigm where romantic partners interact only via touch and we manipulate their empathic states. Simultaneously, we collected their autonomic activity (skin conductance, pulse, respiration). Fourteen couples participated to the experiment. We found that interpersonal touch increased coupling of electrodermal activity between the interacting partners, regardless the intensity and valence of the emotion felt. In addition, physical touch induced strong and reliable changes in physiological states within individuals. These results support an instrumental role of interpersonal touch for affective support in close relationships. Furthermore, they suggest that touch alone allows the emergence of a somatovisceral resonance between interacting individuals, which in turn is likely to form the prerequisites for emotional contagion and empathy. PMID:24734009
Chatel-Goldman, Jonas; Congedo, Marco; Jutten, Christian; Schwartz, Jean-Luc
Interpersonal touch is of paramount importance in human social bonding and close relationships, allowing a unique channel for affect communication. So far the effect of touch on human physiology has been studied at an individual level. The present study aims at extending the study of affective touch from isolated individuals to truly interacting dyads. We have designed an ecological paradigm where romantic partners interact only via touch and we manipulate their empathic states. Simultaneously, we collected their autonomic activity (skin conductance, pulse, respiration). Fourteen couples participated to the experiment. We found that interpersonal touch increased coupling of electrodermal activity between the interacting partners, regardless the intensity and valence of the emotion felt. In addition, physical touch induced strong and reliable changes in physiological states within individuals. These results support an instrumental role of interpersonal touch for affective support in close relationships. Furthermore, they suggest that touch alone allows the emergence of a somatovisceral resonance between interacting individuals, which in turn is likely to form the prerequisites for emotional contagion and empathy.
Gudonis, Lauren C.; Lewis, Lisa; Tong, Yan; Tu, Wanzhu; Aalsma, Matthew C.
Research has demonstrated that adolescent peer group affiliations are consistent predictors ofsubstance use initiation and maintenance; it is less clear how adolescent romantic relationships influence substance use behavior. Data were drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Participants in the final dataset for the current study includedadolescents (321 males and 321 females) who were identified in reciprocated romantic relationships at Wave 1 (1994-1995; mean age 16.7 years) that were followed into young adulthood and reassessed at two different time points (Wave 2 in 1996, mean age 17.7, and Wave 3 in 2001-2002, mean age 23.1). Data were gathered from both partners, and included demographic variables, longitudinal measures of substance use (alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana), and relationship seriousness. Hierarchical linear modeling using SAS PROC MIXED were utilized to test for individual versus partner influences. Results revealed individual and partner effects for the prediction of alcohol and tobacco, although individual effects were generally greater than partner influences. For marijuana use, as self-reported relationship seriousness increased, future marijuana use decreased. These findings suggest the developmental significance of adolescent romantic relationships on the prediction of future substance use behavior during young adulthood. PMID:21907401
DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan
This study tests the hypothesis that adolescents with romantic partners are less similar to their friends on rates of alcohol abuse than adolescents without romantic partners. Participants (662 girls, 574 boys) ranging in age from 12 to 19 years nominated friends and romantic partners, and completed a measure of alcohol abuse. In hierarchical linear models, friends with romantic partners were less similar on rates of alcohol abuse than friends without romantic partners, especially if they were older and less accepted. Follow-up longitudinal analyses were conducted on a subsample (266 boys, 374 girls) of adolescents who reported friendships that were stable across 2 consecutive years. Associations between friend reports of alcohol abuse declined after adolescents became involved in a romantic relationship, to the point at which they became more similar to their romantic partners than to their friends. (PsycINFO Database Record
DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M.; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan
This study tests the hypothesis that adolescents with romantic partners are less similar to their friend on rates of alcohol abuse than adolescents without romantic partners. Participants (662 girls, 574 boys) ranging in age from 12 to 19 years, nominated friends and romantic partners, and completed a measure of alcohol abuse. In hierarchical linear models, friends with romantic partners were less similar on rates of alcohol abuse than friends without romantic partners, especially if they were older and less accepted. Follow-up longitudinal analyses were conducted on a subsample (266 boys, 374 girls) of adolescents who reported friendships that were stable across two consecutive years. Associations between friend reports of alcohol abuse declined after adolescents became involved in a romantic relationship, to the point where they became more similar to their romantic partners than to their friends. PMID:26595356
Boisvert, Stéphanie; Poulin, François
The present study identifies and describes romantic relationship patterns from adolescence to adulthood and examines their associations with family and peer experiences in early adolescence. In a 13-year longitudinal study, 281 youth (58 % girls) identified all their romantic partners each year from the ages of 16-24. Dimensions of family relationships (family cohesion, parent-child conflict) and peer relationships (peer likeability, social withdrawal, close friendships, other-sex friendships) were assessed at age 12. Latent class analyses brought out five distinct romantic relationship patterns and significant associations were found with family and peer relationships in early adolescence. These five romantic relationship patterns appeared to follow a continuum of romantic involvement, with romantic relationship patterns situated a both ends of this continuum (later involvement pattern and intense involvement pattern) being associated with more interpersonal experiences in early adolescence.
Lesch, Elmien; Furphy, Claire
Localized understandings of adolescent romantic relationships are needed to expand our knowledge of the diversity of adolescent romantic experiences and to challenge negative discourses of adolescent heterosexual relationships. This study explored the constructions of intimacy of 20 adolescent men and women in romantic relationships from one…
Schad, Megan M; Szwedo, David E; Antonishak, Jill; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P
The broader context of relational aggression in adolescent romantic relationships was assessed by considering the ways such aggression emerged from prior experiences of peer pressure and was linked to concurrent difficulties in psychosocial functioning. Longitudinal, multi-reporter data were obtained from 97 adolescents and their best friends at age 15 and from adolescents and their romantic partners at age 18. Teens' relational aggression and romantic partners' victimization were predicted from levels of best friends' pressuring behaviors toward teens in an observed interaction as well as from best friends' ratings of how much pressure teens experienced from their peer group. Romantic partner relational aggression and teen victimization were predicted by pressure from teens' peer group only. Adolescents' romantic relational aggression and victimization were also associated with elevated levels of depressive symptoms and increased alcohol use. Results are discussed in terms of the connection of relational aggression in romantic relationships to the broader task of establishing autonomy with peers in psychosocial development.
Miga, Erin M.; Gdula, Julie Ann; Allen, Joseph P.
This study examined the associations between reasoning during interparental conflict and autonomous adolescent conflict negotiation with peers over time. Participants included 133 adolescents and their parents, peers, and romantic partners in a multi-method, multiple reporter, longitudinal study. Interparental reasoning at adolescent age 13 predicted greater autonomy and relatedness in observed adolescent-peer conflict one year later and lower levels of autonomy undermining during observed romantic partner conflict five years later. Interparental reasoning also predicted greater satisfaction and affection in adolescent romantic relationships seven years later. Findings suggest that autonomy promoting behaviors exhibited in the interparental context may influence adolescents’ own more autonomous approaches to subsequent peer and romantic conflict. Possible explanatory models are discussed, including social learning theory and attachment theory. PMID:23087547
Miga, Erin M.; Gdula, Julie Ann; Allen, Joseph P.
This study examined the associations between reasoning during inter-parental conflict and autonomous adolescent conflict negotiation with peers over time. Participants included 133 adolescents and their parents, peers, and romantic partners in a multimethod, multiple reporter, longitudinal study. Inter-parental reasoning at adolescent age of 13…
Pollard, Michael S; Tucker, Joan S; Green, Harold D; Kennedy, David P; Go, Myong-Hyun
Research on sexual orientation and substance use has established that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals are more likely to smoke than heterosexuals. This analysis furthers the examination of smoking behaviors across sexual orientation groups by describing how same- and opposite-sex romantic attraction, and changes in romantic attraction, are associated with distinct six-year developmental trajectories of smoking. The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health dataset is used to test our hypotheses. Multinomial logistic regressions predicting smoking trajectory membership as a function of romantic attraction were separately estimated for men and women. Romantic attraction effects were found only for women. The change from self-reported heterosexual attraction to lesbian or bisexual attraction was more predictive of higher smoking trajectories than was a consistent lesbian or bisexual attraction, with potentially important differences between the smoking patterns of these two groups.
Power, Charmaine; Koch, Tina; Kralik, Debbie; Jackson, Debra
Intimate Partner Violence remains a significant problem globally despite health promotion aimed at raising awareness. In particular, there is a current trend for many young women to view some abusive/violent behaviours as acceptable in their relationships. Intimate Partner Violence has serious implications for its short and long term impacts on the health of women and children. Health workers may find working with women a challenging and sometimes frustrating experience. A way forward is to develop clearer understandings of the complexities of Intimate Partner Violence and to better understand women's investments in romantic relationships. In this paper a secondary analysis of data from a narrative study of women's recovery from IPV relationships is presented in order to illustrate discourses that inform underpinnings of romantic relationships. Transcriptions of audio-taped interviews were analysed using a feminist post-structural approach in order to make visible the ways in which the women negotiated their identities in the discourses of femininity. A critical review of current literature was also undertaken to develop the construct of romantic love. Women revealed that cues for Intimate Partner Violence were present early in the relationship but were not recognised at the time. Two positions within the discourse of romantic love were identified that underpinned their desires to establish and invest in the relationship despite the presence of cues for Intimate Partner Violence. These were 'Desperate for a man' and interpreting jealousy as a sign of love. Romantic love may be desirable for the sharing of warmth, safety and protection, and yet can mask behaviours that are cues for domestic violence. Understanding the complex nature of the ways that women's desires are located in the discourse of romantic love has implications for all nurses working to prevent and reduce the incidence of Intimate Partner Violence.
Murnen, Sarah K; Poinsatte, Katherine; Huntsman, Karen; Goldfarb, Jesse; Glaser, Daniel
In the present study, heterosexual college women (N=327) and men (N=160) were asked about their body type preferences for (hypothetical) romantic partners. Participants chose a particular silhouette value as ideal for a romantic partner, and rated how important it was to them for their partner to have this ideal body type. Men placed more importance on the body silhouette they chose for a partner than women did, and men's importance ratings were positively associated with the rated sexual permissiveness of their peer group and their total media use. Consuming sports media and watching reality television were the best media predictors of men's judgments about women's bodies. Less variability was explained in women's preferences for men partners' bodies, but endorsing adversarial sexual attitudes was positively related to judging the ideals chosen for men's bodies as important. Results were interpreted within both evolutionary and sociocultural theoretical frameworks.
Hafen, Christopher A.; Spilker, Ann; Chango, Joanna; Marston, Emily S.; Allen, Joseph P.
Successfully navigating entry into romantic relationships is a key task in adolescence, which sensitivity to rejection can make difficult to accomplish. This study uses multi-informant data from a community sample of 180 adolescents assessed repeatedly from age 16 to 22. Individuals with elevated levels of rejection sensitivity at age 16 were less likely to have a romantic partner at age 22, reported more anxiety and avoidance when they did have relationships, and were observed to be more negative in their interactions with romantic partners. In addition, females whose rejection sensitivity increased during late adolescence were more likely to adopt a submissive pattern within adult romantic relationships, further suggesting a pattern in which rejection sensitivity forecasts difficulties. PMID:24729668
Carmalt, Julie H.; Cawley, John; Joyner, Kara; Sobal, Jeffery
Matching and attribute trade are two perspectives used to explain mate selection. We investigated patterns of matching and trade, focusing on obesity, using Add Health Romantic Pair data (N = 1,405 couples). Obese individuals, relative to healthy weight individuals, were less likely to have physically attractive partners, with this disadvantage…
Helm, Jonathan L; Sbarra, David A; Ferrer, Emilio
Questions surrounding physiological interdependence in romantic relationships are gaining increased attention in the research literature. One specific form of interdependence, coregulation, can be defined as the bidirectional linkage of oscillating signals within optimal bounds. Conceptual and theoretical work suggests that physiological coregulation should be instantiated in romantic couples. Although these ideas are appealing, the central tenets of most coregulatory models await empirical evaluation. In the current study, we evaluate the covariation of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) in 32 romantic couples during a series of laboratory tasks using a cross-lagged panel model. During the tasks, men's and women's RSA were associated with their partners' previous RSA responses, and this pattern was stronger for those couples with higher relationship satisfaction. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for attachment theory, as well as the association between relationships and health.
Shulman, Shmuel; Zlotnik, Aynat; Shachar-Shapira, Lital; Connolly, Jennifer; Bohr, Yvonne
This study examined the links between parental divorce, quality of maternal parenting, spousal relationships and middle adolescent romantic competence in 80 mother-adolescent daughter pairs (40 divorced). Mothers were asked to describe their attitudes and behaviors with regard to their daughters' romantic behavior. In addition, mothers were interviewed about their own romantic experiences when they were at the age of their daughters. Adolescent girls (mean age = 16.98 years; range 16-18) were administered a comprehensive interview about romantic competence. Findings indicated that adolescent girls from divorced families showed lower levels of romantic competence, which were expressed in their behavior, attitudes toward relationships and skill in handling those relationships. Divorce was found to have had an adverse effect on girls' romantic competence, whereas continued adaptive parenting and spousal relationships alleviated the effect of divorce. Mothers' coherent representation of their own adolescent romantic experiences also alleviated the effect of divorce on daughters' romantic behavior. Results show the important role of family relationships in fostering romantic competence among adolescent girls.
Shulman, Shmuel; Zlotnik, Aynat; Shachar-Shapira, Lital; Connolly, Jennifer; Bohr, Yvonne
This study examined the links between parental divorce, quality of maternal parenting, spousal relationships and middle adolescent romantic competence in 80 mother-adolescent daughter pairs (40 divorced). Mothers were asked to describe their attitudes and behaviors with regard to their daughters' romantic behavior. In addition, mothers were…
Thomas, Jennifer J.
Although researchers have investigated how adolescents' friendships affect their romantic relationships, the influence of romantic relationships on friendships is unexamined. As a first step, 9th- (n = 198) and 11th grade students (n = 152) reported on their conceptions of friendship when one friend had a romantic relationship and when neither…
Korchmaros, Josephine D; Ybarra, Michele L; Mitchell, Kimberly J
Data from the national Teen Health and Technology Study of adolescents 13-18 years old (N = 5091) were used to examine online formation of romantic relationships. Results show that lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) and non-LGBTQ adolescents similarly were most likely to have met their most recent boy/girlfriend in the past 12 months at school. However, they differed on many characteristics of romantic relationship initiation, including the extent to which they initiated romantic relationships online. LGBTQ and non-LGBTQ adolescents also differed on level of offline access to potential partners, offline popularity, and numerous other factors possibly related to online relationship initiation (e.g., Internet use and demographic factors). Even after adjusting for differences in these factors, LGBTQ adolescents were more likely than non-LGBTQ adolescents to find boy/girlfriends online in the past 12 months. The results support the rich-get-richer hypothesis as well as the social compensation hypothesis.
Chen, Zhiyan; Guo, Fei; Yang, Xiaodong; Li, Xinying; Duan, Qing; Zhang, Jie; Ge, Xiaojia
Adolescents' romantic relationships have been associated with higher levels of depression, although their links with externalizing behavioral problems remain unclear. The present study examined the impact of adolescent romantic relationships on depression and externalizing behaviors in a large sample of 10,509 Chinese secondary school students…
Connolly, Jennifer; McIsaac, Caroline
Our objective was to examine the prevalence and developmental significance of romantic break-ups in adolescence, a relatively unexplored area of study. We examined their occurrence in a sample of 910 adolescents, first noting the frequency of these events across age, gender, and romantic experience, and then analyzing the dissolution explanations…
Ha, Thao; Dishion, Thomas J; Overbeek, Geertjan; Burk, William J; Engels, Rutger C M E
We examined the associations between observed expressions of positive and negative emotions during conflict discussions and depressive symptoms during a 2-year period in a sample of 160 adolescents in 80 romantic relationships (M age = 15.48, SD = 1.16). Conflict discussions were coded using the 10-code Specific Affect Coding System. Depressive symptoms were assessed at the time of the observed conflict discussions (Time 1) and 2 years later (Time 2). Data were analyzed using actor-partner interdependence models. Girls' expression of both positive and negative emotions at T1 was related to their own depressive symptoms at T2 (actor effect). Boys' positive emotions and negative emotions (actor effect) and girls' negative emotions (partner effect) were related to boys' depressive symptoms at T2. Contrary to expectation, relationship break-up and relationship satisfaction were unrelated to changes in depressive symptoms or expression of negative or positive emotion during conflict discussion. These findings underscore the unique quality of adolescent romantic relationships and suggest new directions in the study of the link between mental health and romantic involvement in adolescence.
Szwedo, David E; Hessel, Elenda T; Allen, Joseph P
Negativity in parent-child relationships during adolescence has been viewed as a risk factor for teens' future personal and interpersonal adjustment. This study examined support from romantic partners and close friends during late adolescence as protective against maternal negativity experienced during early adolescence. A combination of observational, self-report, and peer-report measures were obtained from a community sample of 97 youth (58 % female), their mothers, closest friends, and romantic partners assessed at ages 13, 18, and 20. Moderating effects suggested a protective effect of romantic support against maternal negativity across a variety of psychosocial outcomes, including depressive symptoms, self-worth, social withdrawal, and externalizing behavior. Protective effects were found even after controlling for initial levels of outcome behavior and observed support from close friends throughout adolescence. Receiving support from a romantic partner may provide teens with new, positive ways of coping with adversity and help them avoid more serious distress that may be predicted from maternal negativity when such support is not available.
Fox, Jesse; Warber, Katie M
Social networking sites serve as both a source of information and a source of tension between romantic partners. Previous studies have investigated the use of Facebook for monitoring former and current romantic partners, but why certain individuals engage in this behavior has not been fully explained. College students (N=328) participated in an online survey that examined two potential explanatory variables for interpersonal electronic surveillance (IES) of romantic partners: attachment style and relational uncertainty. Attachment style predicted both uncertainty and IES, with preoccupieds and fearfuls reporting the highest levels. Uncertainty did not predict IES, however. Future directions for research on romantic relationships and online surveillance are explored.
Furman, Wyndol; Stephenson, J Claire; Rhoades, Galena K
We examined associations between positive interactions and avoidant and anxious representations in relationships with parents, friends, and romantic partners. Two hundred adolescents completed questionnaires, observations, and attachment interviews. From a between-person perspective, those adolescents with more positive interactions overall had less avoidant representations. Within persons, more positive interactions were relative to one's own average level in relationships, the less avoidant representations were for that type of relationship. Adolescents were less anxious about a particular type of relationship if they have positive interactions in their other types of relationships. Finally, representations were primarily predicted by interactions in the same type of relationship; interactions in other relationships contributed little. The findings underscore the importance of examining representations of particular types of relationships.
Volpe, Ellen M; Morales-Alemán, Mercedes M; Teitelman, Anne M
The purpose of this paper was to describe romantic relationships from the perspective of urban, adolescent girls, to address gaps in our understanding of their relationship dimensions. Minority adolescent girls (n = 17) participated in private semi-structured interviews aimed to elicit the understanding of the adolescents' perspectives on their own relationship experiences and dynamics. The research team conducted conventional content analysis of the interview transcripts. Four major themes emerged about romantic relationships: (1) influence of male pursuit and social norms on relationship initiation factors; (2) a romantic partner is a confidant, friend, and companion; (3) negotiating intimacy respectfully; and (4) relationship conflict through control and abuse. Adolescents described sub-themes of social norms of male pursuit and relationship pressures that dictated relationship initiation. Relationships were depicted by emotional support, caring, and companionship. Adolescents described positive negotiation skills. However, relationship conflict, including controlling behaviors and violence, was illustrated in these same relationships. This study provides a rich description of romantic relationships from the perspectives of urban, adolescent girls. Most salient findings included social pressures and a combination of both positive and negative attributes. Implications include the need for intervention development at the community level to address social pressures, recognition of positive adolescent relationship attributes, and facilitation of skills to identify and address low-quality relationship characteristics.
Furman, Wyndol; Low, Sabina; Ho, Martin J.
Concurrent and longitudinal relations between the amount of romantic experience and psychosocial adjustment were examined in a 1-year study of a community based sample of 200 tenth graders. Adolescents, parents, and friends completed measures of psychosocial adjustment. The amount of romantic experience was associated with higher reports of social…
Eyre, Stephen L.; Milbrath, Constance; Peacock, Ben
The interview study reported here sought to identify the perceived trajectory of romantic relationships of a cohort of Oakland African American gay/bisexual adolescents. Biographical interviews were used to identify cultural models of romantic relationships in the study sample and discovered a trajectory of four phases. In the antecedent to the…
Volpe, Ellen M.; Morales-Alemán, Mercedes M.; Teitelman, Anne M.
The purpose of this paper was to describe romantic relationships from the perspective of urban, adolescent girls, to address gaps in our understanding of their relationship dimensions. Minority adolescent girls (n = 17) participated in private semi-structured interviews aimed to elicit the understanding of the adolescents’ perspectives on their own relationship experiences and dynamics. The research team conducted conventional content analysis of the interview transcripts. Four major themes emerged about romantic relationships: (1) influence of male pursuit and social norms on relationship initiation factors; (2) a romantic partner is a confidant, friend, and companion; (3) negotiating intimacy respectfully; and (4) relationship conflict through control and abuse. Adolescents described sub-themes of social norms of male pursuit and relationship pressures that dictated relationship initiation. Relationships were depicted by emotional support, caring, and companionship. Adolescents described positive negotiation skills. However, relationship conflict, including controlling behaviors and violence, was illustrated in these same relationships. This study provides a rich description of romantic relationships from the perspectives of urban, adolescent girls. Most salient findings included social pressures and a combination of both positive and negative attributes. Implications include the need for intervention development at the community level to address social pressures, recognition of positive adolescent relationship attributes, and facilitation of skills to identify and address low-quality relationship characteristics. PMID:25259641
Milbrath, Constance; Ohlson, Brightstar; Eyre, Stephen L.
Research on academic achievement has led the way in demonstrating how culturally constructed meanings shape adolescent scholastic behavior. The aim of this research is to move this standpoint of analysis more centrally into the area of adolescent dating and sexuality by focusing on the cultural components of adolescent romantic relationships. This…
Gudonis-Miller, Lauren C.; Lewis, Lisa; Tong, Yan; Tu, Wanzhu; Aalsma, Matthew C.
Research has demonstrated that adolescent peer group affiliations are consistent predictors of substance use initiation and maintenance; it is less clear how adolescent "romantic" relationships influence substance use behavior. Data were drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Participants in the final dataset…
Li, Zhi Hong; Connolly, Jennifer; Jiang, Depeng; Pepler, Debra; Craig, Wendy
This study compared the romantic involvements of Canadian and Chinese adolescents as well as linkages with friend and parental relationships. Participants were 496 Chinese adolescents and 395 Canadian adolescents, aged 16-17 years. Chinese adolescents were less likely to have any form of romantic involvement, including a romantic relationship,…
Bell, David L; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Ott, Mary A
There is a need to understand better the complex interrelationship between the adoption of masculinity during adolescence and the development of early romantic and sexual relationships. The purpose of this study was to describe features of adolescent masculinity and how it is expressed in the contexts of early to middle adolescent males' romantic and sexual relationships. Thirty-three 14- to 16-year-old males were recruited from an adolescent clinic serving a community with high sexually transmitted infection rates and were asked open-ended questions about their relationships-how they developed, progressed, and ended. Participants described a high degree of relationally oriented beliefs and behaviors related to romantic and sexual relationships, such as a desire for intimacy and trust. The males also described a more limited degree of conventionally masculine beliefs and behaviors. These beliefs and behaviors often coexisted or overlapped. Implications for the clinical care of similar groups of adolescents are described.
Lehmiller, Justin J; Vanderdrift, Laura E; Kelly, Janice R
Although "friends with benefits" relationships (FWBRs) are common and have been the subject of significant media and research attention, relatively little is known about them, especially in terms of how they differ from other types of relationships. The present research sought to compare the sexual outcomes of FWBRs to those of traditional romantic relationships via an online survey. Results revealed that FWBR partners were less likely to be sexually exclusive, had a lower frequency of sexual interaction, were less sexually satisfied, and generally communicated less about sex than romantic partners did. However, compared to romantic partners, FWBR partners devoted relatively more of the time spent together to sexual activity, practiced safe sex more frequently, communicated more often about extradyadic sexual experiences, and reported a greater number of lifetime casual sex partners. These findings indicate that the sexual outcomes of FWBRs and romantic relationships are quite distinct and provide evidence of the potential public health implications associated with both casual and committed sexual relationships.
Florsheim, Paul; Moore, David R
Previous research on adolescent romantic relationships has been largely based on self-reports and interview data; as a result, relatively little is known about the interpersonal-behavioral dynamics of adolescent couples. In an attempt to address this gap in the previous literature on young couples, the present study used observational methods to differentiate between healthy and dysfunctional adolescent romantic relationships. Two groups of adolescent couples were recruited to participate in this study: (1) a high-risk group (n=18 couples) in which one or both partners had a substance use disorder (SUD) and (2) a low-risk group (n=12 couples) in which neither partner had a history of psychopathology. Self-report and observational data on couples' relationships were collected from both groups. Couples' observed conflict interactions were coded using the structural analysis of social behavior [Florsheim, P., & Benjamin, L. S. (2001). The structural analysis of social behavior observational coding scheme. In P. K. Kerig, & M. Lindahl (Eds.), Family observational coding schemes: Resources for systemic research (pp. 127-150). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates]. Findings indicated that, compared to couples with no psychopathology, couples in the SUD group engaged in significantly more hostile and less warm behavior, as well as more complex communication involving a mix of hostility and warmth. Self-reported relational quality did not differentiate the two groups, highlighting the unique contributions of observational data for understanding the clinically relevant dynamics of adolescent romantic relationships.
LeJeune, Brenna C; Zimet, Gregory D; Azzouz, Faouzi; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Aalsma, Matthew C
The impact of religiosity in adolescent romantic partnerships on sexual behavior was assessed. Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health reciprocated couples database using religious- and relationship-oriented variables to predict sexual involvement in 374 couples (748 participants). We found that individual- and couple-based religiosity impacted sexual behavior. These findings provide evidence for dyad religiosity as a component involved in the expression of sexual behavior in romantic relationships. The current results highlight the importance of incorporating a broad social perspective in order to understand the expression of adolescent sexual behavior.
Kan, Marni L.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.
This study examined dimensions of mothers' and fathers' involvement in adolescents' romantic relationships when offspring were age 17. Using cluster analysis, parents from 105 White, working and middle class families were classified as positively involved, negatively involved, or autonomy-oriented with respect to their adolescents' romantic…
Wisnieski, Deborah; Sieving, Renee E.; Garwick, Ann W.
Background: Initiation of sexual intercourse during early adolescence is a known risk factor for teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Purpose: To examine young women's stories describing peer in?uences on their romantic and sexual decisions and behavior during early adolescence. Methods: Semistructured ethnographic interviews were…
Madsen, Stephanie D.; Collins, W. Andrew
Conceptual links between aspects of adolescents' dating experiences (i.e., involvement and quality; ages 15-17.5) and qualities of their romantic relationships in young adulthood (ages 20-21) were examined in a prospective longitudinal design. Even after accounting for earlier relationship experiences with parents and peers, aspects of adolescent…
Stroud, Catherine B.; Davila, Joanne
In spite of the large literature supporting the link between early pubertal timing and depression in adolescent girls, there are some exceptions. This suggests that there may be factors that interact with pubertal timing, increasing risk for depression in some girls, but not others. This study examined two such factors, romantic competence and…
Carriere, Lucille J; Kluck, Annette S
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Verbal Commentary on Physical Appearance Scale (VCOPAS; Herbozo & Thompson, 2006b) after modifying it to capture appearance feedback given by romantic partners (VCOPAS-P). Women participants (N=248) completed the VCOPAS-P, as well as measures of disordered eating, body image dissatisfaction, relationship quality, and socially desirable responding. Exploratory factor analysis identified the best factor structure for the VCOPAS-P, which contained three factors similar to the VCOPAS. Correlations between the VCOPAS-P subscales and measures of disordered eating, body image dissatisfaction, relationship quality, and social desirability responding demonstrated convergent and discriminant validity of the VCOPAS-P. There was a significant positive correlation between the negative comments subscale of the VCOPAS-P and the measures of body dissatisfaction and weight concern (measured by the EDE-Q). Additionally, VCOPAS-P subscales reflecting positive comments about appearance and weight were associated with greater relationship satisfaction.
Korchmaros, Josephine D.; Ybarra, Michele L.; Mitchell, Kimberly J.
Data from the national Teen Health and Technology Study of adolescents 13-18 years old (N = 5,091) were used to examine online formation of romantic relationships. Results show that lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) and non-LGBTQ adolescents similarly were most likely to have met their most recent boy/girlfriend in the past 12 months at school. However, they differed on many characteristics of romantic relationship initiation, including the extent to which they initiated romantic relationships online. LGBTQ and non-LGBTQ adolescents also differed on level of offline access to potential partners, offline popularity, and numerous other factors possibly related to online relationship initiation (e.g., Internet use and demographic factors). Even after adjusting for differences in these factors, LGBTQ adolescents were more likely than non-LGBTQ adolescents to find boy/girlfriends online in the past 12 months. The results support the rich-get-richer hypothesis as well as the social compensation hypothesis. PMID:25625753
Castro, Felipe N; Hattori, Wallisen T; Yamamoto, Maria Emília; Lopes, Fívia A
This study used the biological market perspective and influential statistical models from the marketing field to investigate males' and females' expectations regarding which combination of characteristics are most relevant in ensuring desirable partnerships for same-sex individuals. Thus, 358 Brazilian undergraduates assessed eight descriptions of same-gender stimulus targets (formulated with different levels of physical attractiveness, social skills, and current or prospective social status) and evaluated the overall desirability of the targets' expected or probable partners. From the possible combinations, three groups emerged: for one group, mainly composed of men, status characteristics were the most important attributes; for the others, mostly composed of women, social skills or physical characteristics were identified as most important in appealing to a desirable partner. This work expands the understanding of variability in male and female romantic expectations, and its implications are discussed from an evolutionary perspective.
Bentley, Charles G; Galliher, Renee V; Ferguson, Tamara J
This study used a multidimensional assessment of interpersonal power to examine associations between indices of relationship power and relationship functioning in 92 adolescent romantic couples recruited from rural communities in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States. Significant differences emerged between girlfriends and boyfriends in their reports of decision making authority, perceptions of humiliating behaviors by the partner, and ratings of themselves giving-in to their partners in a videotaped interaction task. In addition, indices of interpersonal power were associated with dating aggression and relationship satisfaction for both girlfriends and boyfriends, although gender differences emerged in the patterns of association between power and outcomes. Results are discussed in light of current developmental, feminist, and social psychological theories of interpersonal power in romantic relationships. PMID:18776943
Burton, Linda M; Hardaway, Cecily R
In this article, we investigated low-income mothers' involvement in multiple partner fertility (MPF) relationships and their experiences as "othermothers" to their romantic partners' children from previous and concurrent intimate unions. Othermothering, as somewhat distinct from stepmothering, involves culturally-scripted practices of sharing parenting responsibilities with children's biological parents. We framed this investigation using this concept because previous research suggests that many low-income women practice this form of coparenting in their friend and kin networks. What is not apparent in this literature, however, is whether women unilaterally othermother their romantic partners' children from different women. How often and under what circumstances do women in nonmarital MPF intimate unions with men coparent their partners' children from other relationships? We explored this question using a modified grounded theory approach and secondary longitudinal ethnographic data on 256 low-income mostly unmarried mothers from the Three-City Study. Results indicated that 78% of the mothers had been or were involved in MPF unions and while most had othermothered the children of their friends and relatives, 89% indicated that they did not coparent their partners' children from any MPF relationship. Mothers' reasons for not doing so were embedded in: (a) gendered scripts around second families, or "casa chicas"; (b) the tenuous nature of pass-through MPF relationships; and (c) mothers' own desires for their romantic partners to child-swap. Implications of this research for family science and practice are discussed.
Ha, Thao; Overbeek, Geertjan; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.
Numerous studies have shown that being able to resolve and recover from conflicts is of key importance for relationship satisfaction and stability in adults. Less is known about the importance of these relationship dynamics in adolescent romantic relationships. Therefore, this study investigated whether conflict resolution and recovery predict breakups in middle adolescent couples. Couples who are able to resolve and recover from conflict were expected to demonstrate a lower probability of breaking up. In total, 80 adolescent couples (M age = 15.48, SD = 1.16) participated in a 4-wave prospective questionnaire and observational study, with one year between measurements. In addition to self-report measures, adolescents were observed in real-time during conflicts with their partners. Multilevel Proportional Hazard analyses revealed that, contrary to the hypothesis, conflict resolution and conflict recovery did not predict the likelihood of breakup. Survival differences were not attributable to conflict resolution or conflict recovery. More research is needed to consider the unique relationship factors of adolescent romantic relationships to determine why some relationships survive while others do not. PMID:23613960
Del Castillo, Darren; Wright, Margaret O'Dougherty
This study sought to understand the long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in adulthood by interviewing seven women about their experiences of disclosing CSA to romantic partners. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis, an in-depth, qualitative research approach, was used to analyze the transcripts. The analysis produced 10 themes that were grouped into three domains: (a) Struggling in Private about Disclosure: prior to disclosing, participants described concerns that arose in the context of their romantic relationships; (b) The Experience of Disclosing: participants described when and how they disclosed and the thoughts and feelings accompanying disclosure; and (c) The Aftereffects of Disclosure: after disclosing, participants described the impact it had on the self as well as on the relationship with their romantic partner.
Zurbriggen, Eileen L; Ramsey, Laura R; Jaworski, Beth K
Few studies have examined objectification in the context of romantic relationships, even though strong theoretical arguments have often made this connection. This study addresses this gap in the literature by examining whether exposure to mass media is related to self-objectification and objectification of one's partner, which in turn is hypothesized to be related to relationship and sexual satisfaction. A sample of undergraduate students (91 women and 68 men) enrolled in a university on the west coast of the United States completed self-report measures of the following variables: self-objectification, objectification of one's romantic partner, relationship satisfaction, sexual satisfaction, and exposure to objectifying media. Men reported higher levels of partner objectification than did women; there was no gender difference in self-objectification. Self- and partner-objectification were positively correlated; this correlation was especially strong for men. In regression analyses, partner-objectification was predictive of lower levels of relationship satisfaction. Furthermore, a path model revealed that consuming objectifying media is related to lowered relationship satisfaction through the variable of partner-objectification. Finally, self- and partner-objectification were related to lower levels of sexual satisfaction among men. This study provides evidence for the negative effects of objectification in the context of romantic relationships among young adults.
Doss, Brian D.; Christensen, Andrew
Despite the recent emphasis on acceptance in romantic relationships, no validated measure of relationship acceptance presently exists. To fill this gap, the 20-item Frequency and Acceptability of Partner Behavior Inventory (FAPBI; A. Christensen & N. S. Jacobson, 1997) was created to assess separately the acceptability and frequency of both…
Manning, Wendy D.; Cohen, Jessica A.; Smock, Pamela J.
Emerging adults are increasingly cohabiting, but few studies have considered the role of social context in the formation of their views of cohabitation. Drawing on 40 semistructured interviews with dating couples, we explored the role of romantic partners, family, and peers on evaluations of cohabitation. In couples where each member had a…
Del Castillo, Darren; O'Dougherty Wright, Margaret
This study sought to understand the long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in adulthood by interviewing seven women about their experiences of disclosing CSA to romantic partners. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis, an in-depth, qualitative research approach, was used to analyze the transcripts. The analysis produced 10 themes…
Fleming, Charles B.; White, Helene R.; Catalano, Richard F.
This study used longitudinal data from 909 young adults to examine associations between substance use and romantic relationship status and quality. Heavy alcohol use, marijuana use, and cigarette smoking, as well as relationship status, relationship quality, partner substance use, and other salient life circumstances were assessed at four time points in the two years after high school. Marriage, cohabiting relationships, and noncohabiting dating relationships were associated with reductions in heavy drinking and marijuana use relative to non-dating after adjusting for adolescent substance use; marriage compared to not dating was associated with reductions in cigarette smoking. For those in romantic relationships, partner substance use moderated the associations between relationship quality and substance use for heavy drinking and marijuana use, supporting the hypothesis derived from the Social Development Model that the protective effect of stronger social bonds depends on the use patterns of the partner to whom an individual is bonded. PMID:20617756
Millings, Abigail; Walsh, Judi; Hepper, Erica; O'Brien, Margaret
This cross-sectional, dyadic questionnaire study examined the contribution of romantic attachment and responsive caregiving to parenting style, investigating both gender and partner effects. One hundred and twenty-five couples with children aged 7 to 8 years completed measures of attachment styles, responsive caregiving toward partner, and parenting styles. Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine the intra- and interpersonal associations between romantic attachment, caregiving responsiveness, and parenting styles. Attachment avoidance and anxiety were both negatively associated with responsive caregiving to partner, which in turn was positively associated with authoritative (optimal) parenting styles and negatively associated with authoritarian and permissive (nonoptimal) parenting styles. Responsive caregiving mediated all links between attachment and parenting, with an additional direct association between attachment anxiety and nonoptimal parenting styles that was not explained by caregiving responsiveness. Findings are discussed with reference to attachment theory.
Rivera, Angelic; Watnick, Dana; Bauman, Laurie J
BACKGROUND: There is considerable literature on effective engagement strategies for recruiting adolescents individually for health research studies, but literature on recruiting adolescent couples is new and minimal. PURPOSE: This paper describes the recruitment strategies used for Teen Connections, a longitudinal study that recruited 139 mainly African American and Latino adolescent couples in romantic relationships living in New York City. METHOD: We collected data in Microsoft Access and documented the date each recruitment strategy was implemented, date each partner was enrolled, and amount of effort required to enroll participants. We identified individual and relationship characteristics from each partner's baseline survey. RESULTS: We found that relationship type and characteristics, language used in printed materials, parental consent, implementing a screener questionnaire, and gender of partner had implications for enrollment in TC. DISCUSSION: Couples studies are highly demanding but achievable with dedicated staff and access to a large number of youth. TRANSLATION TO HEALTH EDUCATION PRACTICE: Research on sexual health and risk often relies on individual reports of dyadic events. Adolescent couples' studies may not be pursued because of recruitment limitations, but they can provide invaluable insight into relationship dynamics, characteristics etc. that may help design better health education interventions, and should be pursued nonetheless.
Rivera, Angelic; Watnick, Dana; Bauman, Laurie J.
Background There is considerable literature on effective engagement strategies for recruiting adolescents individually for health research studies, but literature on recruiting adolescent couples is new and minimal. Purpose This paper describes the recruitment strategies used for Teen Connections, a longitudinal study that recruited 139 mainly African American and Latino adolescent couples in romantic relationships living in New York City. Method We collected data in Microsoft Access and documented the date each recruitment strategy was implemented, date each partner was enrolled, and amount of effort required to enroll participants. We identified individual and relationship characteristics from each partner's baseline survey. Results We found that relationship type and characteristics, language used in printed materials, parental consent, implementing a screener questionnaire, and gender of partner had implications for enrollment in TC. Discussion Couples studies are highly demanding but achievable with dedicated staff and access to a large number of youth. Translation to Health Education Practice Research on sexual health and risk often relies on individual reports of dyadic events. Adolescent couples' studies may not be pursued because of recruitment limitations, but they can provide invaluable insight into relationship dynamics, characteristics etc. that may help design better health education interventions, and should be pursued nonetheless. PMID:23326814
Eklund, Jenny M.; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Hakan
There is some evidence that adolescent romantic involvement is associated with delinquent behaviour. One aim of this longitudinal study was to determine whether this holds for romantic relationships deemed important by the participants. A second aim was to test whether this association was stronger for adolescents with pre-existing delinquent…
Vujeva, Hana M.; Furman, Wyndol
Research has consistently demonstrated the negative consequences of depression on adolescents' functioning in peer and family relationships, but little work has examined how depressive symptoms affect the quality of adolescents' and emerging adults' romantic relationships. Five waves of data on depressive symptoms, romantic relationship conflict,…
Selterman, Dylan; Apetroaia, Adela; Waters, Everett
Recent research has demonstrated parallels between romantic attachment styles and general dream content. The current study examined partner-specific attachment representations alongside dreams that contained significant others. The general prediction was that dreams would follow the "secure base script," and a general correspondence would emerge between secure attachment cognitions in waking life and in dreams. Sixty-one undergraduate student participants in committed dating relationships of six months duration or longer completed the Secure Base Script Narrative Assessment at Time 1, and then completed a dream diary for 14 consecutive days. Blind coders scored dreams that contained significant others using the same criteria for secure base content in laboratory narratives. Results revealed a significant association between relationship-specific attachment security and the degree to which dreams about romantic partners followed the secure base script. The findings illuminate our understanding of mental representations with regards to specific attachment figures. Implications for attachment theory and clinical applications are discussed.
Towner, Senna L.; Dolcini, M. Margaret; Harper, Gary W.
Relationship dynamics develop early in life and are influenced by social environments. STI/HIV prevention programs need to consider romantic relationship dynamics that contribute to sexual health. The aim of this study was to examine monogamous patterns, commitment, and trust in African American adolescent romantic relationships. The authors also focused on the differences in these dynamics between and within gender. The way that such dynamics interplay in romantic relationships has the potential to influence STI/HIV acquisition risk. In-depth interviews were conducted with 28 African American adolescents aged 14 to 21 living in San Francisco. Our results discuss data related to monogamous behaviors, expectations, and values; trust and respect in romantic relationships; commitment to romantic relationships; and outcomes of mismatched relationship expectations. Incorporating gender-specific romantic relationships dynamics can enhance the effectiveness of prevention programs. PMID:26691404
Bauermeister, José A
Structural changes in the acceptability of same-sex relationships may provide young gay and bisexual men (YGBM) with opportunities to develop expectations about their ideal future relationships. Expectations about the future may act as a promotive factor in youths' lives and reduce HIV risk-taking behaviors; however, few studies have examined the relationship between ideation of a future relationship and sexual behaviors of YGBM. In this study, we examined the relationship between romantic ideation (i.e., intimacy, passion, and commitment) and number of sexual partners in a sample of young men (N = 431; M age = 21.49 years; 88% self-identified as gay) who reported using the Internet to meet other men. Using multivariate Poisson regressions, we found a negative association between commitment and number of partners for unprotected sex, both receptive and insertive, in the past two months. We found similar results when we examined the association between relationship exclusivity and number of partners. These associations persisted after accounting for age, race/ethnicity, sexual identity, and hours spent seeking casual and romantic partners online. We found no significant association between number of partners and ideation of an intimate or passionate relationship, respectively. We discuss the implications of our findings and conclude that there is a need to consider and include YGBM's expectations about the future in on-going HIV prevention programs.
De Goede, Irene H. A.; Branje, Susan; van Duin, Jet; VanderValk, Inge E.; Meeus, Wim
This five-wave longitudinal study examines linkages between adolescents' perceptions of romantic relationship commitment and the development of adolescents' perceptions of commitment to parents and friends. A total of 218 early-to-middle adolescents (39.0 percent boys) and 185 middle-to-late adolescents (30.8 percent boys) participated.…
Barbaro, Nicole; Shackelford, Todd K
Human life history theory describes how resources are allocated among conflicting life tasks, including trade-offs concerning reproduction. The current research investigates the unique importance of environmental unpredictability in childhood in association with romantic attachment, and explores whether objective or subjective measures of environmental risk are more informative for testing life history hypotheses. We hypothesize that (1) unpredictability in childhood will be associated with greater anxious attachment, (2) anxious attachment will be associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration, and (3) anxious attachment will mediate the relationship between unpredictability in childhood and IPV perpetration. In two studies (totaln= 391), participants in a heterosexual, romantic relationship completed self-report measures of childhood experiences, romantic attachment, and IPV perpetration. Study 1 provides support for Hypothesis 1. Hypothesis 1 is replicated only for men, but not women, in Study 2. Results of Study 2 provide support for Hypothesis 2 for men and women, and Hypothesis 3 was supported for men but not women. The findings contribute to the literature addressing the association of environmental risk in childhood on adult romantic relationship outcomes.
Farley, Julee P.; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen
Self-regulation plays an important role in adolescent development, predicting success in multiple domains including school and social relationships. While researchers have paid increasing attention to the influence of parents on the development of adolescent self-regulation, we know little about the influence of peers and friends and even less about the influence of romantic partners on adolescent development of self-regulation. Extant studies examined a unidirectional model of self-regulation development rather than a bidirectional model of self-regulation development. Given that relationships and self-regulation develop in tandem, a model of bidirectional development between relationship context and adolescent self-regulation may be relevant. This review summarizes extant literature and proposes that in order to understand how adolescent behavioral and emotional self-regulation develops in the context of social relationships one must consider that each relationship builds upon previous relationships and that self-regulation and relationship context develop bidirectionally. PMID:24793391
Farley, Julee P; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen
Self-regulation plays an important role in adolescent development, predicting success in multiple domains including school and social relationships. While researchers have paid increasing attention to the influence of parents on the development of adolescent self-regulation, we know little about the influence of peers and friends and even less about the influence of romantic partners on adolescent development of self-regulation. Extant studies examined a unidirectional model of self-regulation development rather than a bidirectional model of self-regulation development. Given that relationships and self-regulation develop in tandem, a model of bidirectional development between relationship context and adolescent self-regulation may be relevant. This review summarizes extant literature and proposes that in order to understand how adolescent behavioral and emotional self-regulation develops in the context of social relationships one must consider that each relationship builds upon previous relationships and that self-regulation and relationship context develop bidirectionally.
Fincham, Frank D; Beach, Steven R H
Partner-focused petitionary prayer (PFPP) has received little attention in the prayer literature. In two studies, we examine PFPP to see whether it is uniquely important in conveying relationship benefits, whether its benefits are transmitted through an effect on relationship satisfaction, and whether one's own or the partner's PFPP is central to beneficial effects. In Study 1, we examined PFPP in a sample of 316 undergraduate students who were in an "exclusive" romantic relationship, finding that PFPP was related to later level of commitment and that this relationship was partially mediated through enhanced relationship satisfaction. Study 2 examined PFPP in a sample of 205, married African American couples, finding that both partners' PFPP was consequential for commitment, with actor effects partially mediated through relationship quality, and partner effects fully mediated. Together the studies suggest the value of continued investigation of PFPP as a potentially important vehicle for enhancing relationship outcomes.
Integrating insights from cultural sociology and identity theory, I explore the mental health consequences of adolescent romantic relationship inauthenticity--incongruence between thoughts/feelings and actions within romantic contexts. Applying sequence analysis to National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data, I measure relationship inauthenticity by quantifying the extent to which the ordering of events of actual romantic relationships (e.g., holding hands, saying "I love you") diverges from the sequence of events within idealized relationship scripts among 5,316 adolescents. I then test its association with severe depression, suicide ideation, and suicide attempt. I find that romantic relationship inauthenticity is positively associated with the risk of all three markers of poor mental health, but only for girls. This study highlights the importance of gender and culture in determining how early romantic involvement influences psychological well-being.
Welsh, Deborah P; Shulman, Shmuel
Review and conceptual analysis of the papers in this special issue calls attention to several important methodological and conceptual issues surrounding the direct observation of adolescent romantic couples. It also provides an important new foundation of knowledge about the nature of adolescents' romantic relationships. Connections with previous family relationships, new understandings of the distinctive nature of adolescent romantic relationships, and gender issues are clarified by this body of papers. Together, these papers move the scholarly field forward and generate new lines of questions for future investigators. PMID:18986697
Towner, Senna L.; Dolcini, M. Margaret; Harper, Gary W.
Relationship dynamics develop early in life and are influenced by social environments. STI/HIV prevention programs need to consider romantic relationship dynamics that contribute to sexual health. The aim of this study was to examine monogamous patterns, commitment, and trust in African American adolescent romantic relationships. The authors also…
Gowen, L. Kris; Catania, Joseph A.; Dolcini, M. Margaret; Harper, Gary W.
Although interpersonal respect is considered an important quality in successful romantic relationships, limited attention has been paid to this concept. We examined the meaning of respect in romantic relationships as conceptualized by low-income, sexually active, heterosexually identified, African American adolescents aged 15 to 17 (N = 50).…
Simon, Valerie A.; Kobielski, Sarah J.; Martin, Sarah
Little is known about social cognition regarding conflict in romantic relationships during late adolescence. The current study examined beliefs, social goals, and behavioral strategies for conflict in romantic relationships and their associations with relationship quality among a sample of 494 college students. Two dimensions of conflict beliefs,…
Kerpelman, Jennifer L.; Pittman, Joe F.; Cadely, Hans Saint-Eloi; Tuggle, Felicia J.; Harrell-Levy, Marinda K.; Adler-Baeder, Francesca M.
Integration of adult attachment and psychosocial development theories suggests that adolescence is a time when capacities for romantic intimacy and identity formation are co-evolving. The current study addressed direct, indirect and moderated associations among identity and romantic attachment constructs with a diverse sample of 2178 middle…
Manning, Wendy D.; Cohen, Jessica A.; Smock, Pamela J.
Emerging adults are increasingly cohabiting, but few studies have considered the role of social context in the formation of their views of cohabitation. Drawing on 40 semi-structured interviews with dating couples, we explored the role of romantic partners, family, and peers on evaluations of cohabitation. In couples where each member had a differing view about cohabitation, one romantic partner’s desire to not cohabit trumped their partner’s more ambivalent feelings about cohabitation. The influence of family in the formation of cohabitation views was evident through a variety of mechanisms, including parental advice, social modeling, religious values, and economic control. Peers also played a key role, with couples using the vicarious trials of their peer networks to judge how cohabitation would affect their own relationship. By using a couple perspective, assessing reports from both members of each couple, this study showcases how beliefs about cohabitation are formed within an intimate dyad. PMID:23087542
Focusing on romantic relationships, which are often seen as a barometer of social distance, this analysis investigates how adolescents from different racial-ethnic and gender groups respond when they attend diverse schools with many opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating. Which groups respond by forming inter-racial-ethnic relationships, and which groups appear to “work around” opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating by forming more same-race-ethnicity relationships outside of school boundaries? Most prior studies have analyzed only relationships within schools and, therefore, cannot capture a potentially important way that adolescents express preferences for same-race-ethnicity relationships and/or work around constraints from other groups’ preferences. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, I find that, when adolescents are in schools with many opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating, black females and white males are most likely to form same-race-ethnicity relationships outside of the school; whereas Hispanic males and females are most likely to date across racial-ethnic boundaries within the school. PMID:25848670
Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Øverup, Camilla S; Overup, Camilla S; Neighbors, Clayton
Alcohol use is prevalent among college students, including those who are in committed romantic relationships. Individuals' perceptions of their partner's alcohol use may have significant effects on how they view both their partner and their relationship. The current study examines the effect of one's perception of one's romantic partner's drinking as problematic on one's relationship satisfaction and commitment, and whether this varies as a function of one's partner's drinking. Both partners in romantic heterosexual relationships (N = 78 dyads) completed an online survey assessing alcohol use and problems, relationship satisfaction and commitment, and the perception that their partner's drinking was problematic. Analyses using Actor-Partner Interdependence Models (APIMs) revealed a partner-moderated actor interaction, such that partner self-reported drinking significantly moderated the association between the actor's perception of their partner's drinking as problematic and actor relationship outcomes. Results indicated that when partners drank at higher levels, perceiving their drinking as problematic did not have an effect. These individuals were less satisfied regardless of their perceptions. However, when partners drank at lower levels, perceiving their drinking as problematic was negatively associated with relationship outcomes. Furthermore, for alcohol consumption, three-way interactions with gender emerged, indicating that this effect was stronger for males. Results extend the literature on drinking in relationships and on interpersonal perception. Implications and future directions are discussed.
Kindelberger, Cécile; Tsao, Raphaële
The authors present the initial validation of a romantic relationship motivation scale, enabling the level of self-determined involvement in romantic relationships during adolescence to be examined. The inclusion of Self-Determination Theory (E. L. Deci & R. M. Ryan, 2000) in the motivational constructs enhances the developmental perspective regarding adolescent romantic involvement. The scale was administered to 284 adolescents (163 girls and 121 boys, age 14-19 years) with a self-esteem scale and some questions about their romantic experiences to provide some elements of external validation. The results confirmed the 4-factor structure: intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, external regulation, and amotivation, which follow the self-determination continuum, previously highlighted in friendship motivation. As hypothesized, adolescents became more self-determined with age and girls were more self-determined than boys. Other findings show specific links between motivation for romantic relationships, self-esteem and romantic experiences. It highlights the importance of considering adolescents' motivations when exploring their romantic relationships.
Overstreet, Nicole M; Quinn, Diane M; Marsh, Kerry L
The current study examined whether exposure to sexually objectifying images in a potential romantic partner's virtual apartment affects discrepancies between people's perception of their own appearance (i.e., self-perceptions) and their perception of the body ideal that is considered desirable to a romantic partner (i.e., partner-ideals). Participants were 114 heterosexual undergraduate students (57 women and 57 men) from a northeastern U.S. university. The study used a 2 (Participant Gender) x 2 (Virtual Environment: Sexualized vs. Non-Sexualized) between-subjects design. We predicted that women exposed to sexually objectifying images in a virtual environment would report greater discrepancies between their self-perceptions and partner-ideals than men, which in turn would contribute to women's body consciousness. Findings support this hypothesis and show that perceived discrepancies account for the relationship between exposure to sexually objectifying images and body consciousness for women but not men. We also found gender asymmetries in objectification responses when each component of perceived discrepancies, i.e., self-perceptions versus perceptions of a romantic partner's body ideal, were examined separately. For men, exposure to muscular sexualized images was significantly associated with their self-perceptions but not their perceptions of the body size that is considered desirable to a romantic partner. For women, exposure to thin sexualized images was significantly associated with their perceptions that a romantic partner preferred a woman with a smaller body size. However, exposure to these images did not affect women's self-perceptions. Implications for gender asymmetries in objectification responses and perceived discrepancies that include a romantic partner's perceptions are discussed.
Overstreet, Nicole M.; Quinn, Diane M.; Marsh, Kerry L.
The current study examined whether exposure to sexually objectifying images in a potential romantic partner's virtual apartment affects discrepancies between people's perception of their own appearance (i.e., self-perceptions) and their perception of the body ideal that is considered desirable to a romantic partner (i.e., partner-ideals). Participants were 114 heterosexual undergraduate students (57 women and 57 men) from a northeastern U.S. university. The study used a 2 (Participant Gender) x 2 (Virtual Environment: Sexualized vs. Non-Sexualized) between-subjects design. We predicted that women exposed to sexually objectifying images in a virtual environment would report greater discrepancies between their self-perceptions and partner-ideals than men, which in turn would contribute to women's body consciousness. Findings support this hypothesis and show that perceived discrepancies account for the relationship between exposure to sexually objectifying images and body consciousness for women but not men. We also found gender asymmetries in objectification responses when each component of perceived discrepancies, i.e., self-perceptions versus perceptions of a romantic partner's body ideal, were examined separately. For men, exposure to muscular sexualized images was significantly associated with their self-perceptions but not their perceptions of the body size that is considered desirable to a romantic partner. For women, exposure to thin sexualized images was significantly associated with their perceptions that a romantic partner preferred a woman with a smaller body size. However, exposure to these images did not affect women's self-perceptions. Implications for gender asymmetries in objectification responses and perceived discrepancies that include a romantic partner's perceptions are discussed. PMID:26594085
Marshall, Tara C
Previous research has found that continuing offline contact with an ex-romantic partner following a breakup may disrupt emotional recovery. The present study examined whether continuing online contact with an ex-partner through remaining Facebook friends and/or engaging in surveillance of the ex-partner's Facebook page inhibited postbreakup adjustment and growth above and beyond offline contact. Analysis of the data provided by 464 participants revealed that Facebook surveillance was associated with greater current distress over the breakup, more negative feelings, sexual desire, and longing for the ex-partner, and lower personal growth. Participants who remained Facebook friends with the ex-partner, relative to those who did not remain Facebook friends, reported less negative feelings, sexual desire, and longing for the former partner, but lower personal growth. All of these results emerged after controlling for offline contact, personality traits, and characteristics of the former relationship and breakup that tend to predict postbreakup adjustment. Overall, these findings suggest that exposure to an ex-partner through Facebook may obstruct the process of healing and moving on from a past relationship.
Abstract Previous research has found that continuing offline contact with an ex-romantic partner following a breakup may disrupt emotional recovery. The present study examined whether continuing online contact with an ex-partner through remaining Facebook friends and/or engaging in surveillance of the ex-partner's Facebook page inhibited postbreakup adjustment and growth above and beyond offline contact. Analysis of the data provided by 464 participants revealed that Facebook surveillance was associated with greater current distress over the breakup, more negative feelings, sexual desire, and longing for the ex-partner, and lower personal growth. Participants who remained Facebook friends with the ex-partner, relative to those who did not remain Facebook friends, reported less negative feelings, sexual desire, and longing for the former partner, but lower personal growth. All of these results emerged after controlling for offline contact, personality traits, and characteristics of the former relationship and breakup that tend to predict postbreakup adjustment. Overall, these findings suggest that exposure to an ex-partner through Facebook may obstruct the process of healing and moving on from a past relationship. PMID:22946958
Furman, Wyndol; Collibee, Charlene
The present study examined whether positive or negative links occur between psychosocial adjustment and sexual activity with four types of partners-romantic partners, friends, acquaintances, and friends with benefits. We examined longitudinal associations and concurrent between-person and within-person associations. A representative sample of 185 participants (93 males, 92 females), their friends, and mothers completed questionnaires when the participants were 2.5, 4, and 5.5 years out of high school. Regardless of the type of partner, more frequent sexual activity relative to the sexual activity of other young adults was associated with more substance use and risky sexual behavior (i.e., between-person effects). Similarly, for all types of nonromantic partners, more frequrent sexual activity relative to one's own typical sexual activity was associated with more substance use and risky sexual behavior (i.e., within-person effects). Differences in frequency of sexual activity with friends and acquaintances were associated with greater internalizing and externalizing symptoms as well as lower self-esteem. Follow-up analyses revealed the associations were particularly strong for friends with benefits. Women's sexual activity frequency with a nonromantic partner was more commonly associated with poorer psychosocial adjustment than such activity by men. More frequent sexual activity with a romantic partner was associated with higher self-esteem and lower internalizing symptoms. Few long-term effects were found for any type of sexual activity. The findings underscore the importance of examining relationship context and illustrate the value of using multiple analytic strategies for identifying the precise nature of associations.
Feinstein, Brian A; Dyar, Christina; Bhatia, Vickie; Latack, Jessica A; Davila, Joanne
Negative attitudes toward bisexuals have been documented among heterosexuals as well as lesbians/gay men, and a common theme is that bisexuals would not be suitable romantic or sexual partners. While gender, sexual orientation, and attitudes toward bisexuality influence people's willingness to engage in romantic or sexual activities with a bisexual partner, there are other individual differences that may contribute. The current study examined the associations between four types of conservative beliefs and willingness to engage in romantic/sexual activities with a bisexual partner in a sample of heterosexuals and lesbians/gay men (N = 438). Attitudes toward bisexuality were examined as a mediator of these associations. In general, results indicated that higher social dominance orientation, political conservatism, and essentialist beliefs about the discreteness of homosexuality were associated with lower willingness to engage in romantic/sexual activities with a bisexual partner. Further, more negative attitudes toward bisexuality mediated these associations. There were several meaningful differences in these associations between heterosexual women, heterosexual men, lesbian women, and gay men, suggesting that influences on people's willingness to be romantically or sexually involved with a bisexual partner may differ for different gender and sexual orientation groups. Implications for reducing stigma and discrimination against bisexual individuals are addressed.
Giordano, Peggy C.; Manning, Wendy D.; Longmore, Monica A.
We know more about parent and peer influences than about the ways in which specific qualities of adolescent romantic relationships may influence sexual decision-making. Using data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study, we focus on communication processes and emotional feelings, as well as more basic contours of adolescent romantic…
Stokes, Mark; Newton, Naomi; Kaur, Archana
We examine the nature and predictors of social and romantic functioning in adolescents and adults with ASD. Parental reports were obtained for 25 ASD adolescents and adults (13-36 years), and 38 typical adolescents and adults (13-30 years). The ASD group relied less upon peers and friends for social (OR = 52.16, p less than 0.01) and romantic…
Anderson, Samantha F; Salk, Rachel H; Hyde, Janet S
It is well known that stressful life events can play a role in the development of adolescent depressive symptoms; however, there has been little research on romantic stress specifically. The relationship between romantic stress and depressive symptoms is particularly salient in adolescence, as adolescence often involves the onset of dating. This and other stressors are often dealt with in the context of the family. The present study examined the relationship between romantic stress and depressive symptoms both concurrently and prospectively, controlling for preexisting depressive symptoms. We then explored whether support from parents buffers the negative effects of romantic stress on depressive symptoms. In addition, the study sought to determine whether the benefits of support vary by parent and child gender. A community sample of 375 adolescents completed self-report measures of parental support (both maternal and paternal), romantic stress, and depressive symptoms. A behavioral measure of maternal support was also obtained. For boys and girls, romantic stress at age 15 predicted depressive symptoms at ages 15 and 18, even when controlling for age 13 depressive symptoms. Perceived maternal support buffered the stress-depressive symptom relationship for both genders at age 15, even when controlling for age 13 depressive symptoms. Higher perceived paternal support was associated with lower adolescent depressive symptoms; however, it did not have a buffering effect. These results have implications for the development of effective family-centered methods to prevent the development of depressive symptoms in adolescents.
Hammett, Julia F; Ulloa, Emilio C; Castañeda, Donna M; Hokoda, Audrey
This study examined the association between intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and romantic relationship distress in a sample of 100 heterosexual White and Mexican American couples. Data were collected during the first and during the third year of marriage. In the overall sample, wives' own IPV victimization was associated with wives' increased distress and husbands' IPV victimization was associated with wives' decreased distress. Among Mexican Americans, wives' IPV victimization was related to husbands' increased distress, whereas among White Americans, wives' IPV victimization was related to husbands' decreased distress. These results indicate that the association between IPV victimization and relationship distress may not only differ by gender but also by ethnicity.
Liu, Ting; Fuller, Jeffrey; Hutton, Alison; Grant, Julian
Chinese adolescents are increasingly engaging in romantic experiences and high-risk sexual behaviors within a rapidly-changing cultural and socio-economic context. Parental communication about sexuality has been recognized as protective for adolescents to make informed decisions about sexual practice. In this study, we explored what was discussed about adolescent romantic experience between parents and adolescents in China. Twenty-seven parents and 38 adolescents from a northern-eastern city of China were interviewed. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematically analyzed using a social constructionism framework. Four themes were identified: (i) detriments of romantic experience to education and future prospect; (ii) health and sociocultural risks of romantic and sexual engagement; (iii) ways of handling romantic experience; and (iv) marriage and family building. The messages were mainly prohibitive and consequence oriented in nature, and lacked specific romantic and sexual information. These messages reflected sociocultural beliefs in education, sexuality, marriage, and family in China, but did not meet the needs of current adolescents. External support from health professionals, such as nurses, is important for parents and adolescents to improve their sexual knowledge and communication skills.
Laurent, Heidemarie K; Hertz, Robin; Nelson, Benjamin; Laurent, Sean M
This study was designed to test whether romantic partners' mindfulness-present moment, nonjudgmental awareness-during a conflict discussion could buffer the effects of negative partner behaviors on neuroendocrine stress responses. Heterosexual couples (n=88 dyads) provided 5 saliva samples for cortisol assay during a laboratory session involving a conflict discussion task. Conflict behaviors were coded by outside observers using the System for Coding Interactions in Dyads, and partners rated their mindfulness during the task using the Toronto Mindfulness Scale. Interactions tested using multilevel modeling revealed that participants with higher levels of mindfulness during the conflict showed either quicker cortisol recovery or an absence of slowed recovery in the presence of more negative partner behaviors. Whereas the attitudinal component of mindfulness (curiosity) moderated effects of negative partner engagement in the conflict (i.e., attempts to control, coerciveness, negativity and conflict), the attentional component of mindfulness (decentering) moderated the effect of partner disengagement (i.e., withdrawal). These findings lend support to the idea that mindfulness during a stressful interaction can mitigate the physiological impacts of negative behaviors.
Winterheld, Heike A; Simpson, Jeffry A
Guided by regulatory focus theory, we examined how romantic partners' chronic concerns with promotion (advancement) and prevention (security) shape the interpersonal dynamics of couples' conversations about different types of personal goals. Members of 95 couples (N = 190) first completed chronic regulatory focus measures and then engaged in videotaped discussions of two types of goals that were differentially relevant to promotion and prevention concerns. Participants also completed measures of goal- and partner-relevant perceptions. Independent observers rated the discussions for support-related behaviors. Highly promotion-focused people approached their partners more, perceived greater partner responsiveness, and received more support when discussing goals that were promotion-relevant and that they perceived as less attainable. When partners' responsiveness to promotion-relevant goals was low, highly promotion-focused people reported greater self-efficacy regarding these goals. Highly prevention-focused people perceived more responsiveness when partners were less distancing during discussions of their prevention-relevant goals, and greater responsiveness perceptions reassured them that these goals are less disruptive to the relationship. These findings suggest that chronic concerns with promotion and prevention orient people to their relationship environment in ways that are consistent with these distinct motivational needs, especially when discussing goals that increase the salience of these needs.
Meacham, Meredith C.; Bailey, Jennifer A.; Hill, Karl G.; Epstein, Marina; Hawkins, J. David
Background Although there is considerable evidence that the development of tobacco dependence (TD) and that of alcohol use disorder (AUD) are intertwined, less is known about the comorbid development of these disorders. The present study examines tobacco dependence and alcohol use disorder comorbidity in young adulthood within the context of romantic partner relationships. Methods Data were drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project, a contemporary, ethnically diverse, and gender balanced longitudinal panel including 808 participants. A typological person-centered approach was used to assign participants to four outcome groups: no disorder, tobacco dependence (TD) only, alcohol use disorder (AUD) only, and comorbid (both). Multinomial logistic regression was used to determine the association between partner general and substance-specific environments and single or dual alcohol and tobacco use disorder diagnosis in young adulthood (ages 24–33, n = 628). Previous heavy alcohol and tobacco use were controlled for, as were dispositional characteristics, gender, ethnicity, adult SES, and adult depression. Results Greater partner conflict increased the likelihood of being comorbid compared to having TD only or AUD only. Having a smoking partner increased the likelihood of being comorbid compared to having AUD only, but having a drinking partner did not significantly distinguish being comorbid from having TD only. Conclusions Findings demonstrated the utility of a comorbidity-based, person-centered approach and the influence of general and tobacco-specific, but not alcohol-specific, partner environments on comorbid alcohol and tobacco use disorders in young adulthood. PMID:23428316
Carcedo, Rodrigo J; Perlman, Daniel; Orgaz, M Begoña; López, Félix; Fernández-Rouco, Noelia; Faldowski, Richard A
This study investigated the differences in loneliness, sexual satisfaction, and quality of life among three groups of prison inmates: inmates in a heterosexual romantic relationship with a fellow prisoner, inmates with a partner outside the prison, and inmates without a partner. In-person interviews with 70 male and 70 female inmates from the Topas Penitentiary (Spain) were conducted. These inmates lived in the same facility but in gender-segregated modules. After controlling for age, nationality, total time in prison, actual sentence time served, and estimated time to parole, the results showed a lower level of romantic loneliness, and a higher level of sexual satisfaction and global, psychological, and environment quality of life for the group of inmates with a heterosexual partner inside prison. These findings highlight the positive attributes associated with heterosexual romantic relationships between inmates inside the same prison.
Swami, Viren; Allum, Lucy
This study examined ratings of physical attractiveness of the self and former and current partners. A total of 304 participants completed measures of attractiveness, relationship satisfaction, love dimensions, self-esteem and sociosexual orientation. Consistent with previous work, results showed that participants rated their current partners as more attractive than themselves and their former partners. However, results also showed that former partners were rated as more attractive than the self on a number of bodily characteristics. Finally, results showed that ratings of former partner physical attractiveness were associated with passion for the former partner, self-esteem, sociosexual orientation, and attributions of relationship termination. These results are discussed in relation to the available literature on positive illusions in intimate relationships.
Doughty, Susan E.; Lam, Chun Bun; Stanik, Christine E.; McHale, Susan M.
Although previous research has linked sibling relationship experiences to youth’s social competencies with peers, we know little about the role of siblings in youth’s romantic relationship experiences. Drawing on data from a longitudinal sample of 190 families, this study examined the links between sibling experiences and the development of perceived romantic competence from early adolescence into young adulthood (ages 12 to 20). The data were collected from 373 youth (50.7% female) in home interviews on up to 5 annual occasions. Multi-level models tested the moderating role of sibling gender constellation in romantic competence development and the links between (changes in) sibling intimacy and conflict, and romantic competence. The results revealed that youth with same-sex siblings showed no change in their perceived romantic competence, but those with opposite-sex siblings exhibited increases in romantic competence over time. Controlling for parent-child intimacy, at times when youth reported more sibling intimacy, they also reported greater romantic competence, and youth with higher cross-time average sibling conflict were lower in romantic competence, on average. This study illustrates that sibling experiences remain important in social development into early adulthood and suggests directions for application and future research. PMID:25183625
La Greca, Annette M.; Harrison, Hannah Moore
This study examined multiple levels of adolescents' interpersonal functioning, including general peer relations (peer crowd affiliations, peer victimization), and qualities of best friendships and romantic relationships as predictors of symptoms of depression and social anxiety. An ethnically diverse sample of 421 adolescents (57% girls; 14 to 19…
Florsheim, Paul; Moore, David R.
Previous research on adolescent romantic relationships has been largely based on self-reports and interview data; as a result, relatively little is known about the interpersonal-behavioral dynamics of adolescent couples. In an attempt to address this gap in the previous literature on young couples, the present study used observational methods to…
Jouriles, Ernest N.; McDonald, Renee; Garrido, Edward; Rosenfield, David; Brown, Alan S.
Almost all research on aggression in adolescent romantic relationships makes use of 1-time, retrospective assessment methods. In the present research, the authors compared data on the experience of adolescent relationship aggression (physical aggression and threatening behavior) collected from 125 high school students via 2 methods: (a) a 1-time,…
Fox, Jesse; Tokunaga, Robert S
Romantic relationship dissolution can be stressful, and social networking sites make it difficult to separate from a romantic partner online as well as offline. An online survey (N = 431) tested a model synthesizing attachment, investment model variables, and post-dissolution emotional distress as predictors of interpersonal surveillance (i.e., "Facebook stalking") of one's ex-partner on Facebook after a breakup. Results indicated that anxious attachment predicted relational investment but also seeking relationship alternatives; avoidant attachment was negatively related to investment but positively related to seeking alternatives. Investment predicted commitment, whereas seeking alternatives was negatively related to commitment. Commitment predicted emotional distress after the breakup. Distress predicted partner monitoring immediately following the breakup, particularly for those who did not initiate the breakup, as well as current partner monitoring. Given their affordances, social media are discussed as potentially unhealthy enablers for online surveillance after relationship termination.
Levesque, Christine; Lafontaine, Marie-France; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Cloutier, Paula; Dandurand, Cathy
Several theoretical models for non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) have been proposed. Despite an abundance of theoretical speculation, few empirical studies have examined the impact of intimate relationship functioning on NSSI. The present study examines the influence of romantic attachment and received intimate partner violence (physical,…
Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Doyle, Anna Beth; Markiewicz, Dorothy; Bukowski, William M.
Examined the relationship between early adolescents' involvement in romantic relationships and their emotional, behavioral, and academic adjustment, depending on same-sex peer relationships. Found a negative relationship between romantic involvement and emotional and behavioral adjustment for adolescents who were unpopular with same-sex peers.…
Herrera, Veronica M.; Wiersma, Jacquelyn D.; Cleveland, H. Harrington
Using data drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), this study examined males' and females' criminality in young adulthood with models that considered the associations of both their own past delinquency and their current partners' criminality. Specific models considered the main effects of both previous…
Wu, Pai-Lu; Chiou, Wen-Bin
It is not surprising that the Internet has become a means by which people expand their social networks and form close relationships. Almost every online-dating Web site provides members with search tools. However, do users truly benefit from more complete searches of a large pool of possibilities? The present study, based on the cognitive perspective, examined whether more search options triggered excessive searching, leading to worse choices and poorer selectivity. We argue that more search options lead to less selective processing by reducing users' cognitive resources, distracting them with irrelevant information, and reducing their ability to screen out inferior options. A total of 128 Taiwanese late adolescents and adults with experience in online romantic relationships participated in an experimental study. After entering the characteristics they found desirable in a partner in such a relationship, participants were randomly assigned to receive one of three levels of available profiles. The dependent measures consisted of the number of profiles searched, the average preference difference for all profiles viewed, the preference difference for the chosen profile, and the degree of selectivity. These measures were used to determine whether more attention was devoted to better alternatives and less attention to worse alternatives. The data supported the predictions. Implications and directions for further research are discussed.
Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Sasaki, Akihiro T; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Yoshihara, Kazufumi; Takahashi, Haruka K; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Sadato, Norihiro
The reputation of others influences partner selection in human cooperative behaviors through verbal reputation representation. Although the way in which humans represent the verbal reputations of others is a pivotal issue for social neuroscience, the neural correlates underlying the representation of verbal reputations of others are unclear. Humans primarily depend on self-evaluation when assessing reputation of self. Likewise, humans might primarily depend on self-evaluation of others when representing their reputation. As interaction promotes the formation of more nuanced, individualized impressions of an interaction partner, humans tend to form self-evaluations of persons with whom they are intimate in their daily life. Thus, we hypothesized that the representation of reputation of others is modulated by intimacy due to one's own evaluation formation of that person. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment with 11 pairs of romantic partners while they viewed an evaluation of a target person (self, partner [intimate other], or stranger [non-intimate other]), made by other evaluators. When compared with strangers, viewing evaluations of self and partner activated overlapping regions in the medial prefrontal cortex. Verbal reputation of self-specific activation was found in the precuneus, which represents self-related processing. The data suggest that midline structures represent reputation of self. In addition, intimacy-modulated activation in the medial prefrontal cortex suggests that the verbal reputation of intimate others is represented similarly to reputation of self. These results suggest that the reputation representation in the medial prefrontal cortex is engaged by verbal reputation of self and intimate others stemming from both own and other evaluators' judgments.
Schneiderman, Inna; Kanat-Maymon, Yaniv; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna; Feldman, Ruth
Early-stage romantic love involves reorganization of neurohormonal systems and behavioral patterns marked by mutual influences between the partners' physiology and behavior. Guided by the biobehavioral synchrony conceptual frame, we tested bidirectional influences between the partners' hormones and conflict behavior at the initiation of romantic love. Participants included 120 new lovers (60 couples) and 40 singles. Plasma levels of five affiliation and stress-related hormones were assessed: oxytocin (OT), prolactin (PRL), testosterone (T), cortisol (CT), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). Couples were observed in conflict interaction coded for empathy and hostility. CT and DHEAS showed direct actor effects: higher CT and DHEAS predicted greater hostility. OT showed direct partner effects: individuals whose partners had higher OT showed greater empathy. T and CT showed combined actor-partner effects. High T predicted greater hostility only when partner also had high T, but lower hostility when partner had low T. Similarly, CT predicted low empathy only in the context of high partner's CT. Mediational analysis indicated that combined high CT in both partners was associated with relationship breakup as mediated by decrease in empathy. Findings demonstrate the mutual influences between hormones and behavior within an attachment bond and underscore the dynamic, co-regulated, and systemic nature of pair-bond formation in humans.
Kashdan, Todd B.; Ferssizidis, Patty; Farmer, Antonina S.; Adams, Leah M.; McKnight, Patrick E.
Extending prior work on social anxiety and positivity deficits, we examined whether individual differences in social anxiety alter the ability to share and respond to the good news of romantic partners (i.e., capitalization support) and how this influences romantic relationship satisfaction and commitment. In this study of 174 heterosexual couples (average age of 21.5 with 58.3% identifying as Caucasian), greater social anxiety was associated with the provision and receipt of less supportive responses to shared positive events as measured by trait questionnaires, partner reports, and behavioral observations in the laboratory. In longitudinal analyses, individuals in romantic relationships with socially anxious partners who experienced inadequate capitalization support were more likely to terminate their relationship and report a decline in relationship quality six months later. As evidence of construct specificity, social anxiety effects were independent of depressive symptoms. Taken together, social anxiety influenced a person's ability to receive and provide support for shared positive events; these deficits had adverse romantic consequences. Researchers and clinicians may better understand social anxiety by exploring a wider range of interpersonal contexts and positive constructs. The addition of capitalization support to the social anxiety literature offers new insights into interpersonal approaches and treatments. PMID:23916635
Kashdan, Todd B; Ferssizidis, Patty; Farmer, Antonina S; Adams, Leah M; McKnight, Patrick E
Extending prior work on social anxiety and positivity deficits, we examined whether individual differences in social anxiety alter the ability to share and respond to the good news of romantic partners (i.e., capitalization support) and how this influences romantic relationship satisfaction and commitment. In this study of 174 heterosexual couples (average age of 21.5 with 58.3% identifying as Caucasian), greater social anxiety was associated with the provision and receipt of less supportive responses to shared positive events as measured by trait questionnaires, partner reports, and behavioral observations in the laboratory. In longitudinal analyses, individuals in romantic relationships with socially anxious partners who experienced inadequate capitalization support were more likely to terminate their relationship and report a decline in relationship quality six months later. As evidence of construct specificity, social anxiety effects were independent of depressive symptoms. Taken together, social anxiety influenced a person's ability to receive and provide support for shared positive events; these deficits had adverse romantic consequences. Researchers and clinicians may better understand social anxiety by exploring a wider range of interpersonal contexts and positive constructs. The addition of capitalization support to the social anxiety literature offers new insights into interpersonal approaches and treatments.
Smith, Carolyn A; Greenman, Sarah J; Thornberry, Terence P; Henry, Kimberly L; Ireland, Timothy O
The prevention of intimate partner violence is a desirable individual and public health goal for society. The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive assessment of adolescent risk factors for partner violence in order to inform the development of evidence-based prevention strategies. We utilize data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, a two decade long prospective study of a representative community sample of 1000 participants that has extensive measures of adolescent characteristics, contexts, and behaviors that are potential precursors of partner violence. Using a developmental psychopathology framework, we assess self-reported partner violence perpetration in emerging adulthood (ages 20-22) and in adulthood (ages 29-30) utilizing the Conflict Tactics Scale. Our results indicate that risk factors for intimate partner violence span several developmental domains and are substantially similar for both genders. Internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors as well as early intimate relationships are especially salient for both genders. Additionally, cumulative risk across a number of developmental domains places adolescents at particularly high risk of perpetrating partner violence. Implications for prevention include extending existing prevention programs that focus on high risk groups with multiple risks for developmental disruption, as well as focusing on preventing or mitigating identified risk factors across both genders.
Raley, R Kelly; Sullivan, M Kate
This research explores white-black differences in adolescent heterosexual romantic involvement and how these differences are shaped by social context. We find that, parallel to patterns of marriage in adulthood, Non-Hispanic white girls are more likely to be in a romantic relationship than African American girls. This is particularly true when we focus on heterosexual romantic relationships formed with schoolmates. Among boys, African Americans are more likely to be romantically involved than Non-Hispanic whites. We investigate the contribution of two broad types of social-demographic factors to these race-ethnic differences, population composition and normative climate. We develop theory about why being a numerical minority should lead to lower levels of relationship formation, especially when interracial relationships are rare. Results support the population composition hypotheses but not the idea that race-ethnic differences arise because of differences in normative climate.
Hegna, Kristinn; Mossige, Svein; Wichstrom, Lars
The prevalence of older adolescents' positive attitudes toward younger sexual partners was investigated through three measures of self-reported hypothetical likelihood of having sex with preadolescents and younger adolescents (LSA), using a school-based cluster sample of 710 Norwegian 18- to 19-year-olds attending nonvocational high schools in…
Carter, Rona; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Matusko, Niki; Jackson, James S
Research has accumulated to demonstrate that depressive symptoms are associated with heterosexual romantic involvement during adolescence, but relatively little work has linked this body of literature to the existing literature on associations between early pubertal timing and adolescent depressive symptoms. This study extends prior research by examining whether early menarche and heterosexual romantic involvement interact to predict depressive symptoms in a national sample of Black adolescent girls (N = 607; M age = 15 years; 32 % Caribbean Black and 68 % African American). We further examined whether the adverse effects of heterosexual romantic involvement and early menarche would be mediated by perceived social support from mothers, fathers, and peers. Path analysis results indicated that girls who report current involvement in a heterosexual romantic relationship also reported high levels of perceived peer support than girls with no romantic involvement. High levels of perceived peer support, in turn, predicted low levels of depressive symptoms. Romantically involved girls with an early menarche also reported significantly less depressive symptoms than girls not romantically involved with an early menarche. Neither perceived maternal support nor perceived paternal support mediated associations between heterosexual romantic involvement, menarche, and depressive symptoms. The findings suggest that individual and social factors can impede heterosexual romantic involvement effects on depressive symptoms in Black adolescent girls.
Bauermeister, José A; Leslie-Santana, Matthew; Johns, Michelle Marie; Pingel, Emily; Eisenberg, Anna
Dating is a normative behavior for youth, yet few studies have examined the relationship between romantic partner-seeking and sexual behavior among young men who have sex with men (YMSM). This omission is most notable across studies examining YMSM's partner-seeking behaviors online. In this study, we examined the relationship between sexual behaviors and online partner-seeking behaviors for casual and romantic partners in a sample of YMSM (N = 431; M = 21.49 years old, SD = 1.94) who reported using the Internet to meet other men. Using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), we found YMSM in the High Romantic/High Casual group had more unprotected partners than YMSM in other categories. YMSM in the High Romantic/Low Casual group had fewer unprotected partners than the High Romantic/High Casual group. We discuss the implications of our findings and conclude that there is a need to further examine romantic partner-seeking among YMSM.
Weisz, Arlene N.; Tolman, Richard M.; Callahan, Michelle R.; Saunders, Daniel G.; Black, Beverly M.
This study examines the responses of informal helpers to adolescents who disclose dating violence or upsetting but non-violent experiences in their romantic relationships. Based on a survey of 224 Midwestern high school students, the study found that youths were more likely to disclose problems to friends rather than others. A factor analysis of…
Levesque, Christine; Lafontaine, Marie-France; Bureau, Jean-François; Cloutier, Paula; Dandurand, Cathy
Several theoretical models for non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) have been proposed. Despite an abundance of theoretical speculation, few empirical studies have examined the impact of intimate relationship functioning on NSSI. The present study examines the influence of romantic attachment and received intimate partner violence (physical, psychological and sexual) on recent reports of NSSI behaviors and thoughts. The sample was composed of 537 (79.9% female) primarily Caucasian university students between the ages of 18 and 25 years and currently involved in a romantic relationship. The results reveal that anxiety over abandonment was a significant predictor of NSSI thoughts and behaviors in women and a significant predictor of NSSI thoughts in men. Moreover, the experience of intimate partner violence emerged as a significant predictor of NSSI behaviors in both men and women. Continued empirical investigations into the influence of intimate relationship functioning on NSSI will facilitate the development of psychological interventions for young adults dealing with self-harm.
Price, Megan; Hides, Leanne; Cockshaw, Wendell; Staneva, Aleksandra A; Stoyanov, Stoyan R
Over 50% of young people have dated by age 15. While romantic relationship concerns are a major reason for adolescent help-seeking from counselling services, we have a limited understanding of what types of relationship issues are most strongly related to mental health issues and suicide risk. This paper used records of 4019 counselling sessions with adolescents (10-18 years) seeking help from a national youth counselling service for a romantic relationship concern to: (i) explore what types and stage (pre, during, post) of romantic concerns adolescents seek help for; (ii) how they are associated with mental health problems, self-harm and suicide risk; and (iii) whether these associations differ by age and gender. In line with developmental-contextual theory, results suggest that concerns about the initiation of relationships are common in early adolescence, while concerns about maintaining and repairing relationships increase with age. Relationship breakups were the most common concern for both male and female adolescents and for all age groups (early, mid, late adolescence). Data relating to a range of mental health issues were available for approximately half of the sample. Post-relationship concerns (including breakups) were also more likely than pre- or during-relationship concerns to be associated with concurrent mental health issues (36.8%), self-harm (22.6%) and suicide (9.9%). Results draw on a staged developmental theory of adolescent romantic relationships to provide a comprehensive assessment of relationship stressors, highlighting post-relationship as a particularly vulnerable time for all stages of adolescence. These findings contribute to the development of targeted intervention and support programs.
Price, Megan; Hides, Leanne; Cockshaw, Wendell; Staneva, Aleksandra A.; Stoyanov, Stoyan R.
Over 50% of young people have dated by age 15. While romantic relationship concerns are a major reason for adolescent help-seeking from counselling services, we have a limited understanding of what types of relationship issues are most strongly related to mental health issues and suicide risk. This paper used records of 4019 counselling sessions with adolescents (10–18 years) seeking help from a national youth counselling service for a romantic relationship concern to: (i) explore what types and stage (pre, during, post) of romantic concerns adolescents seek help for; (ii) how they are associated with mental health problems, self-harm and suicide risk; and (iii) whether these associations differ by age and gender. In line with developmental-contextual theory, results suggest that concerns about the initiation of relationships are common in early adolescence, while concerns about maintaining and repairing relationships increase with age. Relationship breakups were the most common concern for both male and female adolescents and for all age groups (early, mid, late adolescence). Data relating to a range of mental health issues were available for approximately half of the sample. Post-relationship concerns (including breakups) were also more likely than pre- or during-relationship concerns to be associated with concurrent mental health issues (36.8%), self-harm (22.6%) and suicide (9.9%). Results draw on a staged developmental theory of adolescent romantic relationships to provide a comprehensive assessment of relationship stressors, highlighting post-relationship as a particularly vulnerable time for all stages of adolescence. These findings contribute to the development of targeted intervention and support programs. PMID:27164149
Nomaguchi, Kei M.
Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (N = 4,190), this study examined adolescents' reports of primary confidants. Results showed that nearly 30% of adolescents aged 16-18 nominated mothers as primary confidants, 25% nominated romantic partners, and 20% nominated friends. Nominating romantic partners or friends was related…
Giordano, Peggy C; Johnson, Wendi L; Manning, Wendy D; Longmore, Monica A
Most prior studies of intimate partner violence (IPV) have relied on traditional indices of parental support, control or coercion to examine the nature and extent of parental influences. We explore whether parents' more general attitudes toward their child's dating and associated parenting practices are related to the young adult child's report of IPV, once traditional parent factors and other covariates are introduced. Using data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (n = 625), results indicate that net of other parenting dimensions and controls for child and neighborhood characteristics, parental negativity about their child's dating and related parenting practices are associated with later reports of IPV during young adulthood. Parent-child conflict and the child's own feelings of gender mistrust were considered as potential mediators. Results suggest the importance of widening the lens beyond support, control and even the parents' own use of violence to include a range of parental attitudes and behaviors that influence the child's approach to and conduct within the romantic realm.
Giordano, Peggy C.; Johnson, Wendi L.; Manning, Wendy D.; Longmore, Monica A.
Most prior studies of intimate partner violence (IPV) have relied on traditional indices of parental support, control or coercion to examine the nature and extent of parental influences. We explore whether parents’ more general attitudes toward their child’s dating and associated parenting practices are related to the young adult child’s report of IPV, once traditional parent factors and other covariates are introduced. Using data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (n = 625), results indicate that net of other parenting dimensions and controls for child and neighborhood characteristics, parental negativity about their child’s dating and related parenting practices are associated with later reports of IPV during young adulthood. Parent-child conflict and the child’s own feelings of gender mistrust were considered as potential mediators. Results suggest the importance of widening the lens beyond support, control and even the parents’ own use of violence to include a range of parental attitudes and behaviors that influence the child’s approach to and conduct within the romantic realm. PMID:26903688
Waylen, Andrea E.; Ness, Andrew; McGovern, Phil; Wolke, Dieter; Low, Nicola
Adverse outcomes of teenage sexual activity are common in the United Kingdom. The authors used a computer-assisted interview to ask young adolescents aged 11 to 12 years (N = 6,856) and 12 to 13 years (N = 6,801) who were part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children about romantic and intimate behaviors. A total of 24% of 11- to…
Weiss, Jonathan A.; MacMullin, Jennifer; Waechter, Randall; Wekerle, Christine
One of the most salient developmental tasks of adolescence is the entry into romantic relationship, which often involves developing attachments to partners. Adolescents with a history of maltreatment have been found to be at greater risk of insecure attachments to romantic partners than non-maltreated adolescents, and the interaction of…
Ha, Thao; Overbeek, Geertjan; de Greef, Marieke; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.
This study examined how the quality of relationships with parents and friends were related to intimacy, commitment, and passion in adolescents' romantic relationships for indigenous Dutch and ethnic Dutch adolescents. Self-report survey data were used from 444 (88.9%) indigenous Dutch and 55 (11.1%) ethnic Dutch adolescents between 12 and 18 years…
Schad, Megan M.; Szwedo, David E.; Antonishak, Jill; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P.
The broader context of relational aggression in adolescent romantic relationships was assessed by considering the ways such aggression emerged from prior experiences of peer pressure and was linked to concurrent difficulties in psychosocial functioning. Longitudinal, multi-reporter data were obtained from 97 adolescents and their best friends at…
Hirsch, Kelly A.; Schlegel, Rebecca J.
The psychological state of love is difficult to define, and we often rely on metaphors to communicate about this state and its constituent experiences. Commonly, these metaphors liken love to a physical force—it sweeps us off our feet, causes sparks to fly, and ignites flames of passion. Even the use of “attraction” to refer to romantic interest, commonplace in both popular and scholarly discourse, implies a force propelling two objects together. The present research examined the effects of exposing participants to a physical force (magnetism) on subsequent judgments of romantic outcomes. Across two studies, participants exposed to magnets reported greater levels of satisfaction, attraction, intimacy, and commitment. PMID:27227965
Felix, Steven A M; Hooker, Christine I
Background: Receiving emotional support from a romantic partner often leads to emotional costs via negative appraisals about the self and one's relationship, but it is unclear whether certain individuals are more susceptible to these costs. We evaluate whether the presence of perfectionistic and dependent dysfunctional attitudes leads to more negative effects of receiving emotional support from a romantic partner. Methods: Twenty-nine couples (27 men, 31 women; mean age 24.5) completed the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale and then a daily online questionnaire by recording their mood, appraisals, and received emotional support. Mixed-effects regressions were used to evaluate whether perfectionistic and dependent dysfunctional attitudes moderated the relationship between emotional support receipt and subsequent mood and appraisals. Results: Perfectionism did not interact with emotional support but exerted a main effect of increasing negative moods and appraisals. Dependency interacted with emotional support such that those with more dependent attitudes reported greater negative next-day moods and appraisals as a function of emotional support. Conclusions: Individuals with dependent, but not perfectionistic, dysfunctional attitudes are more likely to experience emotional and cognitive costs after receiving emotional support. These costs may stem from activation or exacerbation of the attitudes specific to dependency, including need for acceptance, support, and approval of others.
Felix, Steven A. M.; Hooker, Christine I.
Background: Receiving emotional support from a romantic partner often leads to emotional costs via negative appraisals about the self and one's relationship, but it is unclear whether certain individuals are more susceptible to these costs. We evaluate whether the presence of perfectionistic and dependent dysfunctional attitudes leads to more negative effects of receiving emotional support from a romantic partner. Methods: Twenty-nine couples (27 men, 31 women; mean age 24.5) completed the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale and then a daily online questionnaire by recording their mood, appraisals, and received emotional support. Mixed-effects regressions were used to evaluate whether perfectionistic and dependent dysfunctional attitudes moderated the relationship between emotional support receipt and subsequent mood and appraisals. Results: Perfectionism did not interact with emotional support but exerted a main effect of increasing negative moods and appraisals. Dependency interacted with emotional support such that those with more dependent attitudes reported greater negative next-day moods and appraisals as a function of emotional support. Conclusions: Individuals with dependent, but not perfectionistic, dysfunctional attitudes are more likely to experience emotional and cognitive costs after receiving emotional support. These costs may stem from activation or exacerbation of the attitudes specific to dependency, including need for acceptance, support, and approval of others. PMID:27790161
Øverup, Camilla S; Neighbors, Clayton
Self-presentation represents behaviors used in establishing an identity with others; such behaviors may differ across various interpersonal relationships. The current article presents two studies examining differences in self-presentation to acquaintances, friends, and romantic partners among college students in relationships. Study 1 was an experiment, and Study 2 utilized a within-subject design. Results showed that individuals engaged in more self-presentation in more established types of relationships. Additionally, both closeness and trust served as moderators, such that those lower in closeness/trust reported more self-presentation in more established types of relationships than in less established types of relationships. At higher levels of closeness/trust, the results were somewhat inconsistent, with Study 1 finding no differences between relationship types and Study 2 finding more self-presentation to romantic partners than to friends and acquaintances. These results are among the first to suggest that individuals engage in differing levels of self-presentation, depending on the type of relationship and the extent to which they feel close to and trust the person.
Byers, E Sandra; O'Sullivan, Lucia F; Brotto, Lori A
Researchers have given significant attention to abstinence among adolescents, but far less is known about purposeful avoidance of sexual activity (and relationship involvement). Typically, it is assumed that, once adolescents have initiated sexual activity, they will thereafter engage in sexual activity if given the opportunity. However, it is unclear whether that is true as some research indicates that many adolescents engage in sexual activity intermittently. Sexually experienced adolescents may purposefully avoid engaging in sexual activity for a period of time and, if so, this has implications for understanding their sexual decision-making. We used a mixed methods approach to investigate sexually experienced adolescents' decisions to purposefully avoid further sexual activity and/or romantic relationships with a focus on how common these decisions are and factors influencing them. Participants were 411 (56 % female) adolescents (16-21 years old) who completed an on-line survey that assessed reasons for each type of avoidance, religiosity, sexual esteem, sexual distress, sexual coercion, and dysfunctional sexual beliefs. Overall, 27 % of participants had engaged in sexual avoidance and 47 % had engaged in romantic avoidance. Significantly more female than male adolescents reported sexual and romantic avoidance. Adolescents' reasons for sexual avoidance included: lack of sexual pleasure or enjoyment, relationship reasons, negative emotions, values, fear of negative outcomes, negative physical experience, and other priorities. Reasons for romantic avoidance included: effects of previous relationship, not interested in commitment, wrong time, other priorities, negative emotions, no one was good enough, and sexual concerns. Logistical regressions were used to assess associations between age, religiosity, sexual esteem, sexual distress, experience of sexual coercion, and dysfunctional sexual beliefs and having engaged in romantic and/or sexual avoidance. The
Starr, Lisa R.; Davila, Joanne; Stroud, Catherine B.; Li, Po Ching Clara; Yoneda, Athena; Hershenberg, Rachel; Miller, Melissa Ramsay
Objective Research has linked adolescent romantic and sexual activities to depressive symptoms. The current study examines whether such activities are uniquely linked to depressive symptoms versus symptoms of other disorders (including anxiety, externalizing, and eating disorders), and whether co-occurring symptoms more precisely account for the association between depressive symptoms and romantic involvement. Method Early adolescent girls (N = 83; mean age = 13.45) participated in baseline and 1-year follow up data collection. Results Romantic (i.e., dating and sexual) activities were longitudinally related to numerous types of symptoms. The association between depressive symptoms and romantic variables remained when considering co-occurring symptoms. Girls with more comorbid disorders reported more romantic activities. Conclusions Results suggest that the maladaptive consequences and precipitants of adolescent romantic activities extend beyond depression, but also imply that this association is not secondary to comorbid symptoms. Future work should clarify causal pathways. PMID:22307747
Leaper, Campbell; Anderson, Kristin J.
Examines same-gender and cross-gender friendships as potential contexts for development of preferences and skills that may influence the quality of adolescent dating relationships and adult marriages. Considers how children's traditionally gender-segregated peer relationships contribute to miscommunications and power asymmetries in later…
Luft, Toupey; Jenkins, Melissa; Cameron, Catherine Ann
The focused discussions of adolescent girls were analyzed to explore the processes of managing healthy and unhealthy aspects of dating relationships. Grounded theory methods were used to generate an outline of these processes. The core category elicited from discussions with participants was "wrestling with gender expectations". This category…
Carpentier, Melissa Y; Fortenberry, J Dennis
This review presents a summary of existing knowledge regarding the effect of testicular cancer along four broad domains, including romantic and sexual relationships, body image, and fertility. A total of 37 studies were reviewed. Of note, most research consists of older adult testicular cancer survivors, with very little research attention afforded to adolescent and young adult survivorship. Relationship status (i.e., partnered versus unpartnered) appears to play an important role as it relates to adjustment outcomes in testicular cancer survivors. In addition, sexual function (and thereby fertility) and body image are also frequently compromised. Implications regarding a lack of developmentally focused research on adolescent and young adult testicular cancer survivorship are discussed, along with recommendations for new research.
Giordano, Peggy C.; Manning, Wendy D.; Longmore, Monica A.
We know more about parent and peer influences than about the ways in which specific qualities of adolescent romantic relationships may influence sexual decision-making. Using data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study, we focus on communication processes and emotional feelings, as well as more basic contours of adolescent romantic relationships, including power and influence dynamics. Controlling for traditional predictors and duration of the relationship, results suggest that subjectively experienced relationship qualities matter for understanding teens’ sexual behavior choices. Further, findings indicate a similar effect of most relationship qualities on male and female reports of sexual behavior. However, influence and power dynamics within the relationship were not related to the likelihood that boys reported sexual intercourse in a focal relationship. In contrast, girls who perceived a more favorable power balance were less likely to report sexual intercourse than their female counterparts who perceived a less favorable power balance. Recognizing that the results capture reciprocal influence processes, longitudinal and qualitative data are used to further explore the complex nature of these associations. PMID:21170165
Chiou, Wen-Bin; Yang, Mu-Li
Using online-dating websites to expand social networks and form close relationships is popular for people in information technology era. Wu and Chiou (2009) demonstrated that more options triggered excessive searching, leading to poorer decision-making and reduced selectivity. They proposed that the more-means-worse effect refers to more searching leads to worse choices by reducing users' cognitive resources, distracting them with irrelevant information and reducing their ability to screen out inferior options. A 2 by 2 experimental study was conducted to investigate the moderating effect of individual differences in need for cognition (NFC) and number of available options on excessive searching and decision quality. A total of 120 undergraduates with experiences of online romantic relationships participated in the experiment. After participants were administrated their need for cognition, they were assigned to review either a small or a large number of options to search for their most desirable romantic partners via a popular online-dating website in Taiwan. Results indicated that high-NFC participants showed more excessive searching than did low-NFC participants. Moreover, the more-means-worse effect was more salient for high-NFC participants than high-NFC participants. The findings suggest that users with high NFC may be more vulnerable to the negative effect of excessive searching.
The, Natalie S; Gordon-Larsen, Penny
BMI is highly correlated between spouses; however, less is understood about the underlying mechanism(s) by which the development of obesity in one individual increases the risk of obesity in his/her spouse. The objective of this study is to investigate whether romantic partnership and duration of cohabitation are related to incident obesity and obesity-promoting behaviors. We used two data sets from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health: (i) 6,949 US adolescents (wave II, 1996) followed into adulthood (wave III, 2001-2002) and (ii) 1,293 dating, cohabiting, and married romantic couples from wave III, including measured anthropometry and self-report behavior data. In the longitudinal cohort, we used sex-stratified logistic regression models to examine the risk of incident obesity by longitudinal romantic relationship status and duration of time spent living with a romantic partner. In the Couples Sample, we used multinomial logistic regression to predict concordance in outcomes: obesity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and screen time by romantic partnership and duration of time living with a romantic partner. Individuals who transitioned from single/dating to cohabiting or married were more likely to become obese than those who were dating at both waves. Partner concordance for negative, obesity-related behaviors was strongest for married couples and couples who lived together > or =2 years. The shared household environment may increase the likelihood of becoming obese, influence partner concordance, and may be an important target for obesity intervention.
Overall, Nickola C; Fletcher, Garth J O; Simpson, Jeffry A; Fillo, Jennifer
In the current research, we tested the extent to which attachment insecurity produces inaccurate and biased perceptions of intimate partners' emotions and whether more negative perceptions of partners' emotions elicit the damaging behavior often associated with attachment insecurity. Perceptions of partners' emotions as well as partners' actual emotions were assessed multiple times in couples' conflict discussions (Study 1) and daily during a 3-week period in 2 independent samples (Study 2). Using partners' reports of their own emotional experiences as the accuracy benchmark, we simultaneously tested whether attachment insecurity was associated with the degree to which individuals (a) accurately detected shifts in their partners' negative emotions (tracking accuracy), and (b) perceived their partners were feeling more negative relationship-related emotions than they actually experienced (directional bias). Highly avoidant perceivers were equally accurate at tracking their partners' changing emotions compared to less avoidant individuals (tracking accuracy), but they overestimated the intensity of their partners' negative emotions to a greater extent than less avoidant individuals (directional bias). In addition, more negative perceptions of partners' emotions triggered more hostile and defensive behavior in highly avoidant perceivers both during conflict discussions (Study 1) and in daily life (Study 2). In contrast, attachment anxiety was not associated with tracking accuracy, directional bias, or hostile reactions to perceptions of their partners' negative emotions. These findings demonstrate the importance of assessing biased perceptions in actual relationship interactions and reveal that biased perceptions play an important role in activating the defenses of avoidantly attached people.
Fosco, Gregory M.; Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Xia, Mengya; Feinberg, Mark E.
The formation and maintenance of young adult romantic relationships that are free from violence and are characterized by love, connection, and effective problem-solving have important implications for later well-being and family functioning. In this study, we examined adolescent hostile-aggressive behavior (HAB) and family relationship quality as…
Overbeek, Geertjan; Ha, Thao; Scholte, Ron; de Kemp, Raymond; Engels, Rutger C M E
This study examined the psychometric properties of an adolescent version of the 'triangular love scale' (TLS), which assesses three components of romantic relationships: intimacy, passion, and commitment. Using data from 435 Dutch adolescents aged 12-18 years, we found evidence for convergent validity, showing that dimensions of intimacy, passion, and commitment were all positively correlated with relationship satisfaction and duration. Evidence was also found for divergent validity, as adolescents' perceptions of the main (dis)advantages of being involved in romantic relationships showed a specific pattern of associations with intimacy, passion, and commitment. Finally, CFA analyses in LISREL showed that a model in which all separate questionnaire items were specified to load on three underlying, correlated factors (intimacy, passion, commitment) fit the data adequately. Overall, this measure seems appropriate for use with adolescents.
Flisher, Alan J.; Myer, Landon; Merais, Adele; Lombard, Carl; Reddy, Priscilla
Background: Little is known about the prevalence of partner violence among adolescents, nor of the factors with which it is associated. The objectives of this study were to document prevalence rates for partner violence among high school students in Cape Town, and to explore factors that are associated with such violence. Method: The sample…
McIntosh, William D.; Locker, Lawrence; Briley, Katherine; Ryan, Rebecca; Scott, Alison J.
Because of the dearth of available partners, older women looking to date may have to relax their dating standards to find a dating partner, perhaps accepting a life situation that is not what they had hoped for. However older women may be reluctant to sacrifice an often recently-gained lifestyle free of caregiving obligations. Older men, on the…
Backus, Faedra R.; Mahalik, James R.
Our study explored the relationship between feminist identity and women's report of an ideal male partner's conformity to masculine gender role norms. Heterosexual, mostly White, college women (N = 183) completed measures assessing feminist beliefs and the masculinity characteristics of an ideal male partner. Results indicated that feminist…
Sibley, Chris G.; Overall, Nickola C.
We tested a dual process motivational model of ambivalent sexism and gender differences in intimate partner preferences. Meta-analysis of 32 samples (16 with men, 16 with women; N = 5,459) indicated that Benevolent Sexism (BS) in women was associated with greater preferences for high-resource partners (r = 0.24), whereas Hostile Sexism (HS) in men…
William, D McIntosh; Locker, Lawrence; Briley, Katherine; Ryan, Rebecca; Scott, Alison J
Because of the dearth of available partners, older women looking to date may have to relax their dating standards to find a dating partner, perhaps accepting a life situation that is not what they had hoped for. However older women may be reluctant to sacrifice an often recently-gained lifestyle free of caregiving obligations. Older men, on the other hand, have a large pool of potential dating partners and do not face the same dilemma. We compared Internet dating profiles for 100 older adults and 100 younger adults, and found that older adults (and especially older women) were more selective than younger adults when it came to the age, race, religion, income, and height of a prospective dating partner. However, older adults were willing to travel substantially farther than younger adults to meet the right partner. These findings paint a clear picture of older Internet daters as eager to meet the right person, but not desperate to meet just anyone.
Newman, Bernie Sue; Campbell, Caroline
The purpose of this study was to examine the nature and extent of mutual violence among a sample of pregnant and parenting Latina adolescent females and their partners. The sample consisted of 73 Latina adolescent females between the ages of 14 and 20 who were referred to a community-based organization for case management, education, and…
Lewis, Dinah A.; Martins, Summer L.; Gilliam, Melissa L.
Study Objective To examine the role of sexual partners in adolescent mothers’ use of non-coital dependent contraceptive methods in the postpartum period. Design/Setting/Participants 40 African American adolescent mothers completed surveys and qualitative interviews during the first postpartum year as part of a larger longitudinal study in Chicago, Illinois. Themes related to contraception and sexual partners were analyzed. Main Outcome Measures Adolescent mothers’ reports of partners’ roles in the use of non-coital dependent contraceptive methods (i.e., oral contraceptives, intrauterine contraception, and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate). Results Partners largely supported the use of non-coital dependent contraceptive methods, yet mechanisms of support varied greatly, from advocating for specific methods to facilitating participants’ continuation of their chosen method. Unsupportive partners either expressed concerns about the safety and side effects of specific methods or desired another child in the near future. Participants valued these preferences to different degrees when making their contraceptive decisions. Conclusions Partners of adolescent mothers play varying roles in postpartum contraceptive decisions. They thus have the potential to both inhibit and facilitate the use of non-coital dependent contraception. Quantitative research is needed to further evaluate how partner attitudes and support behaviors, among other factors, affect contraceptive initiation and continuation among adolescent mothers. PMID:23089574
Joel, Samantha; Gordon, Amie M; Impett, Emily A; Macdonald, Geoff; Keltner, Dacher
Although a great deal of attention has been paid to the role of people's own investment in promoting relationship commitment, less research has considered the possible role of the partner's investments. An experiment (Study 1) and two combined daily experience and longitudinal studies (Studies 2 and 3) documented that perceived investments from one partner motivate the other partner to further commit to the relationship. All three studies provided support for gratitude as a mechanism of this effect. These effects held even for individuals who were relatively less satisfied with their relationships. Together, these results suggest that people feel particularly grateful for partners who they perceive to have invested into the relationship, which, in turn, motivates them to further commit to the relationship. Implications for research and theory on gratitude and relationship commitment are discussed.
Hammond, Matthew D; Overall, Nickola C
The current research demonstrates how benevolent sexism functions to undermine women's competence while facilitating men's access to heterosexual intimacy by prompting different support behaviors by men and women. Objective coders rated the support provision exhibited during heterosexual couples' (N = 100) video-recorded discussions of each other's personal goals. Men who endorsed benevolent sexism provided more dependency-oriented support, including directly providing plans and solutions and neglecting the recipient's own abilities, which led to their female partners feeling less competent and less positively regarded. In contrast, women who endorsed benevolent sexism provided greater relationship-oriented support, characterized by affection and emphasizing the positive relationship outcomes associated with their partner's goals, which led their male partners to perceive greater regard and intimacy in their relationship. This study is the first to investigate how benevolent sexism prompts naturalistic support behaviors that can impede women's capacity for independent success while supporting the fulfillment of men's intimacy needs.
Collins, Jennifer L; Champion, Jane Dimmitt
Ethnic minority males experience a disproportionate prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and HIV. Few studies have explored the beliefs that frame romantic relationships in which sexual behavior occurs. The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of romantic relationships for young ethnic minority men who partner with adolescent women with high-risk sexual histories and the beliefs about romantic relationships that underlie these relationship choices. A phenomenologic approach was used. Two semi-structured interviews were completed with six Mexican American and two African American young adult males 19 to 26 years of age. Participants struggled to balance a desire to maintain physical and psychological closeness with partners with a desire to distance from partners in the face of unmet psychological needs. Recognition of how males struggle to balance getting needs met in romantic relationships will be necessary for the provision of culturally relevant care for males and their partners.
Umemura, Tomo; Lacinová, Lenka; Macek, Petr; Kunnen, E. Saskia
Only a few studies have longitudinally explored to whom emerging adults prefer to turn to seek closeness, comfort, and security (called "attachment preferences"), and previous studies on attachment preferences in emerging adults have focused only on the beginning of romantic relationships but not on the end of relationships. Czech…
Sue Newman, Bernie; Campbell, Caroline
The purpose of this study was to examine the nature and extent of mutual violence among a sample of pregnant and parenting Latina adolescent females and their partners. The sample consisted of 73 Latina adolescent females between the ages of 14 and 20 who were referred to a community-based organization for case management, education, and psychosocial support for pregnant and parenting adolescents. They completed the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS-2) as part of a pretest to evaluate this intervention program. A small number (12 out of 73; 16%) reported no use of aggressive conflict tactics. Eighty-four percent (61 out of 73) of the study respondents reported using at least one form of minor psychological aggression and 62% (45 out of 73) reported using at least one form of minor physical assault over the past 6 months. Mutuality of conflict was high, especially in cases of minor assault by partner. There was no difference in severity or chronicity of conflict between those who were pregnant and those who were not. Female respondents reported that they and their partners engaged in comparable levels of sexual coercion. Discussion of the context of psychological, physical, and sexual aggression in adolescent relationships suggests alternative approaches to prevention of intimate partner violence among adolescents.
Theobald, Delphine; Farrington, David P.
Background: This study addresses to what extent child and adolescent explanatory factors predict male perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV) in adulthood. Methods: We use prospective longitudinal data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (CSDD). The CSDD is a survey of 411 male born in the 1950s in an inner London area. The men…
Messinger, Adam M.; Rickert, Vaughn I.; Fry, Deborah A.; Lessel, Harriet; Davidson, Leslie L.
A growing literature suggests that communication strategies can promote or inhibit intimate partner violence (IPV). Research on communication is still needed on a group ripe for early IPV intervention: high school-aged adolescents. This article revisits our previous analyses of young female reproductive clinic patients (Messinger, Davidson, &…
Wheeler, Lorey A; Killoren, Sarah E; Whiteman, Shawn D; Updegraff, Kimberly A; McHale, Susan M; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J
Youth's experiences with romantic relationships during adolescence and young adulthood have far reaching implications for future relationships, health, and well-being; yet, although scholars have examined potential peer and parent influences, we know little about the role of siblings in youth's romantic relationships. Accordingly, this study examined the prospective longitudinal links between Mexican-origin older and younger siblings' romantic relationship experiences and variation by sibling structural and relationship characteristics (i.e., sibling age and gender similarity, younger siblings' modeling) and cultural values (i.e., younger siblings' familism values). Data from 246 Mexican-origin families with older (M = 20.65 years; SD = 1.57; 50 % female) and younger (M = 17.72 years; SD = .57; 51 % female) siblings were used to examine the likelihood of younger siblings' involvement in dating relationships, sexual relations, cohabitation, and engagement/marriage with probit path analyses. Findings revealed older siblings' reports of involvement in a dating relationship, cohabitation, and engagement/marriage predicted younger siblings' relationship experiences over a 2-year period. These links were moderated by sibling age spacing, younger siblings' reports of modeling and familism values. Our findings suggest the significance of social learning dynamics as well as relational and cultural contexts in understanding the links between older and younger siblings' romantic relationship experiences among Mexican-origin youth.
Rauer, Amy J; Pettit, Gregory S; Samek, Diana R; Lansford, Jennifer E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Bates, John E
This study considers the developmental origins of alcohol use in young adulthood. Despite substantial evidence linking committed romantic relationships to less problematic alcohol use in adulthood, the uniformity of these protective benefits across different romantic relationships is unclear. Further, the extent to which the establishment and maintenance of these romantic relationships is preceded by earlier adolescence alcohol use remains unknown. To address these gaps in the literature, the current study utilized multitiple-dimensional, multiple-informant data spanning 20 years on 585 individuals in the Child Development Project. Findings from both variable- and person-centered analyses support a progression of associations predicting adolescent alcohol use (ages 15-16), drinking, and romantic relationships in early adulthood (ages 18-25), and then problematic young adult alcohol use (age 27). Although adolescent alcohol use predicted greater romantic involvement and turnover in early adulthood, romantic involvement, but not turnover, appeared to reduce the likelihood of later problematic drinking. These findings remained robust even after accounting for a wide array of selection and socialization factors. Moreover, characteristics of the individuals (e.g., gender) and of their romantic relationships (e.g., partner substance use problems and romantic relationship satisfaction) did not moderate these findings. Findings underscore the importance of using a developmental-relational perspective to consider the antecedents and consequences of alcohol use early in the life span.
Swart, Lu-Anne; Seedat, Mohamed; Stevens, Garth; Ricardo, Izabel
This paper reports on a study of heterosexual adolescent dating violence among secondary school students in a South African community. Approximately half of the surveyed males, and just over half of the surveyed females reported involvement in a physically violent dating relationship either as a perpetrator and/or victim. The study found significant associations between the beliefs about violence in a romantic relationship, the witnessing of physical violence in friendship contexts, the use of alcohol and adolescent dating violence. A significant association between familial variables and adolescent dating violence was only found for male participants. No significant association was found between religious participation and adolescent dating violence. The implications for prevention are discussed in an attempt to demonstrate the potential of local information that identifies risk factors for the development of appropriate community- and schools-based intervention programmes.
Surjadi, Florensia F; Lorenz, Frederick O; Conger, Rand D; Wickrama, K A S
According to the Development of Early Adult Romantic Relationships (DEARR) model (Bryant, C. M., & Conger, R. D. . Conger, R. D., Cui, M., Bryant, C. M., & Elder, G. H., Jr.  interactional characteristics in the family of origin influence early adult romantic relationships by promoting or inhibiting the development of interpersonal competencies that contribute to relationship success in young adulthood. The present study uses the DEARR model as a general framework to help examine the long-term link between parental discipline practices in adolescence and young adult's interactions in the early years of marriage or cohabitation. Using prospective data from 288 target participants, their families, and their romantic partner, beginning when the targets were adolescents and continuing up to the fifth year of their marital or cohabiting relationships, we found empirical support for the DEARR model. Parental discipline practices in adolescence were associated with romantic relationship quality during the early years of marriage or cohabitation through processes in late adolescence and young adulthood. Specifically, harsh and inconsistent discipline practices were associated with greater attitudinal ambivalence toward parents in adolescence. Inconsistent discipline was also associated with higher risks of externalizing problems during late adolescence years. Externalizing problems and ambivalence toward parents predicted poorer relationship quality through aggressive behaviors and ambivalence toward a romantic partner during the early years of marriage or cohabitation. Implications for practitioners working with couples and families are discussed.
Besser, Avi; Priel, Beatriz
These studies tested the associations between responses to an induced imaginary romantic rejection and individual differences on dimensions of attachment and covert narcissism. In Study 1 (N=125), we examined the associations between attachment dimensions and emotional responses to a vignette depicting a scenario of romantic rejection, as measured by self-reported negative mood states, expressions of anger, somatic symptoms, and self-evaluation. Higher scores on attachment anxiety, but not on attachment avoidance, were associated with stronger reactions to the induced rejection. Moreover, decreased self-evaluation scores (self-esteem and pride) were found to mediate these associations. In Study 2 (N=88), the relative contributions of covert narcissism and attachment anxiety to the emotional responses to romantic rejection were explored. Higher scores on covert narcissism were associated with stronger reactions to the induced rejection. Moreover, covert narcissism seemed to constitute a specific aspect of attachment anxiety.
Nelson, LaRon E; Thach, Chia T; Shelton, Melissa M; Boyer, Cherrie B
We conducted an interpretive description of co-parenting relationship experiences of romantically involved Black adolescent mothers and fathers with shared biological children. The study was conducted in Brooklyn, New York, using data from individual in-depth interviews with adolescent mothers and fathers (n = 10). Four themes were identified: (a) putting our heads together; (b) balancing childhood and parenthood; (c) less money, more problems; and (d) if we use condoms, it is for contraception. The co-parenting couples managed very complex relationships, but their mutual interest in the welfare of their children was a relational asset. Co-parents had sparse financial resources but used a moral economy strategy to provide mutual support. Future research is needed that focuses on identifying other co-parent relationship assets and integrating and evaluating their utility for enhancing interventions for adolescent families.
Childs, Gwendolyn D.; White, Reashanda; Hataway, Connie; Moneyham, Linda; Gaioso, Vanessa
Background Nationally, African American (AA) girls aged 15 to 19 have the highest incidence of Chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis compared to White and Hispanic girls of the same age group. To address this STI epidemic, it is imperative to target AA girls during early adolescence and before sexual debut. According to the 2011 National Youth Risk Behavior Survey, approximately 7% of AA girls initiate sex prior to age 13. The purpose of this descriptive, qualitative study was to explore AA girls’, aged 12 to 14, perceptions about virginity and relationships and how those perceptions influence their decisions to engage in or abstain from sexual activity. Methods A convenience sample of 64 participants was recruited through community-based organizations in Alabama. Data were collected using individual interviews and focus groups. Individual interview focused on (1) values and beliefs about being a virgin, (2) choosing boyfriends, and (3) perceptions about good and bad relationships. Focus groups were held to validate findings from interviews. Verbatim transcripts of audiotapes, observation notes, and demographic data were primary data for analysis. Content analysis was used in analysis and interpretation of qualitative data to formulate meaningful categories, themes, and patterns. The qualitative research software, QSR N-Vivo®, was used to code and sort data into categories. The SPSS statistical software was used to conduct descriptive analyses to describe the study sample. Results Mean age of study sample was 12.9 years. Out of 64participants, 5 reported having engaged in sexual activity. Mean age of sexual debut was 13 years. Common themes that emerged included: respecting myself, ideal boyfriend, characteristics of a romantic relationship. Conclusions Findings from this study suggest STI prevention programs should build upon the values related to virginity to promote delaying sexual activity. Furthermore, findings suggest the need for education about healthy
Little is known about the effect of sexual coercion on romantic relationship quality and dating experiences. The current study aimed to address this dearth in the literature and test the hypothesis that sexual coercion has a negative impact on victims’ subsequent romantic experiences. Using a sample of 94 youth (44 males and 50 females), the current study addressed the impact of sexual coercion on romantic relationship quality and dating experiences. Tracking youth for 8.5 years (M age at Wave 1 = 15.10 years, SD = .49), the current study used piecewise growth curve modeling to account for shifts in the intercept and slope of romantic experiences following sexual coercion. Negative interactions immediately increased following coercion and continued to have an accelerated rate of growth (i.e., a slope change). Jealousy in romantic relationships increased in slope. Serious dating decelerated following the coercive incident. Results were largely consistent across gender and severity of the coercive incident. Contrary to hypotheses, relational support, relationship satisfaction, and casual dating did not significantly change following sexual coercion. Consistent with hypotheses, sexual coercion had a negative impact on romantic experiences. These findings have clinical implications for both prevention and intervention around sexual violence. In addition, the consistency of findings across gender and severity suggests that increased focus should be directed toward both male sexual coercion and less severe sexual coercion. PMID:24519107
Collibee, Charlene; Furman, Wyndol
Little is known about the effect of sexual coercion on romantic relationship quality and dating experiences. The current study aimed to address this dearth in the literature and test the hypothesis that sexual coercion has a negative impact on victims' subsequent romantic experiences. Using a sample of 94 youth (44 males and 50 females), the current study addressed the impact of sexual coercion on romantic relationship quality and dating experiences. Tracking youth for 8.5 years (M age at Wave 1 = 15.10 years, SD = .49), the current study used piecewise growth curve modeling to account for shifts in the intercept and slope of romantic experiences following sexual coercion. Negative interactions immediately increased following coercion and continued to have an accelerated rate of growth (i.e., a slope change). Jealousy in romantic relationships increased in slope. Serious dating decelerated following the coercive incident. Results were largely consistent across gender and severity of the coercive incident. Contrary to hypotheses, relational support, relationship satisfaction, and casual dating did not significantly change following sexual coercion. Consistent with hypotheses, sexual coercion had a negative impact on romantic experiences. These findings have clinical implications for both prevention and intervention around sexual violence. In addition, the consistency of findings across gender and severity suggests that increased focus should be directed toward both male sexual coercion and less severe sexual coercion.
Larson, Matthew; Sweeten, Gary; Piquero, Alex R
The decline and delay of marriage has prolonged adolescence and the transition to adulthood, and consequently fostered greater romantic relationship fluidity during a stage of the life course that is pivotal for both development and offending. Yet, despite a growing literature of the consequences of romantic relationships breakup, little is known about its connection with crime, especially among youth enmeshed in the criminal justice system. This article addresses this gap by examining the effects of relationship breakup on crime among justice-involved youth-a key policy-relevant group. We refer to data from the Pathways to Desistance Study, a longitudinal study of 1354 (14% female) adjudicated youth from the juvenile and adult court systems in Phoenix and Philadelphia, to assess the nature and complexity of this association. In general, our results support prior evidence of breakup's criminogenic influence. Specifically, they suggest that relationship breakup's effect on crime is particularly acute among this at-risk sample, contingent upon post-breakup relationship transitions, and more pronounced for relationships that involve cohabitation. Our results also extend prior work by demonstrating that breakup is attenuated by changes in psychosocial characteristics and peer associations/exposure. We close with a discussion of our findings, their policy implications, and what they mean for research on relationships and crime among serious adolescent offenders moving forward.
Stonard, Karlie E; Bowen, Erica; Walker, Kate; Price, Shelley A
Electronic communication technology (ECT), such as mobile phones and online communication tools, is widely used by adolescents; however, the availability of such tools may have both positive and negative impacts within the context of romantic relationships. While an established literature has documented the nature, prevalence, and impact of traditional forms of adolescent dating violence and abuse (ADVA), limited empirical investigation has focused on the role of ECT in ADVA or what shall be termed technology-assisted adolescent dating violence and abuse (TAADVA) and how adolescents perceive the impact of TAADVA relative to ADVA. In this article, the authors explore the role ECT plays in adolescent romantic relationships and psychologically abusive and controlling ADVA behaviors and its perceived impact. An opportunity sample of 52 adolescents (22 males and 30 females) between the ages of 12 and 18 years participated in the study. One all-female and seven mixed-gendered semi-structured focus groups were conducted. Thematic analysis was used to identify three superordinate themes, including (a) perceived healthy versus unhealthy communication, (b) perceived monitoring and controlling communication, and (c) perceived impact of technology-assisted abuse compared with that in person. While ECTs had a positive impact on the development and maintenance of adolescent romantic relationships, such tools also provided a new avenue for unhealthy, harassment, monitoring, and controlling behaviors within these relationships. ECT was also perceived to provide unique impacts in terms of making TAADVA seem both less harmful and more harmful than ADVA experienced in person. Adolescents' perceptions and experiences of ECT in romantic relationships and TAADVA may also vary be gender. Implications of the findings are discussed, and recommendations are made for future research.
Novak, Jamie; Furman, Wyndol
Violence within romantic relationships is a significant public health concern. Previous research largely explores partner violence at one or two time points, and often examines a limited set of risk factors. The present study explored both individual and relationship-level risk factors and their associations with physical victimization and perpetration across more than 10 years using a community sample of 200 participants (50 % female; M age Wave 1 = 15.8). Additionally, we explored the effects of previous partner violence on the likelihood of future partner violence. Survival analysis indicated that externalizing symptoms and negative interactions (e.g., relationship conflict) were associated with both perpetration and victimization. Reporting an experience of partner violence did not significantly alter an individual's risk of future partner violence. Overall, men were significantly more likely to report victimization; perpetration rates did not vary by gender. The results highlight the importance of examining multiple levels of risk.
Nosko, Amanda; Tieu, Thanh-Thanh; Lawford, Heather; Pratt, Michael W
In this longitudinal study, a quantitative and qualitative examination of the associations among parent-child relations, adult attachment styles, and relationship quality and theme in romantic narratives was conducted. Parenting and adult attachment style were assessed through questionnaires, whereas overall quality of romantic relationships (regard and importance), intimacy, and romantic story theme were examined with a life story approach (McAdams, 1993). At ages 17 and 26 years, 100 participants completed a series of questionnaires and also, at age 26, told a story about a "relationship-defining moment" with a romantic partner. Parent-child relations when participants were 17 years old were related predictably to all three attachment styles. About 70% of the sample told romantic stories with a "true love" type of theme. Associations between parent-child relations when the child was 17 and this type of theme in the story told when the participant was 26 were mediated by a more secure (and a less avoidant) attachment style when the participant was 26, as predicted. The implications of these findings for links between attachment models and the life story are discussed.
Nelson, LaRon E.; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne; Kearney, Margaret H.; Dozier, Ann
Purpose Research on sexual-partner type focuses mostly on “main” and “casual” partner categories. The literature indicates that adolescent girls are less likely to use condoms with main partners, and more likely to use condoms with casual partners. Adolescent mothers may have different types of sexual partners than other adolescent girls. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the range of male sexual partner types reported by Black adolescent mothers. Design and Sample This study was a qualitative description of the perspectives of Black, predominantly African-American, mothers (n=31). Data were generated using focus groups and interviews. The participants' ages ranged from 15–19 years. Measures A semi-structured qualitative questioning guide was used to stimulate focused discussions. Transcribed data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results The range of sexual partner types of the women were reflected in three themes (1) All main partners are not created equal; (2) They're not casual partners because there are strings attached; (3) “Wham, bam, thank you ma'am:” No strings attached. Nine partner types were identified under these three themes, including a “baby daddy” partner. Conclusion The partner-types of Black adolescent mothers are more robust than the “main” and “casual” partner categories typically referenced in the research literature. The range of sex partners includes the birth fathers of their children. Clinicians and researchers must consider how co-parenthood status is used in the construction of the “baby daddy” partner and what implications this unique sexual partner type may have on risk reduction behaviors such as condom use. PMID:25382990
Hodges, Travis E; McCormick, Cheryl M
We investigated whether adolescent male rats show less habituation of corticosterone release than adult male rats to acute vs repeated (16) daily one hour episodes of isolation stress, as well as the role of partner familiarity during recovery on social behavior, plasma corticosterone, and Zif268 expression in brain regions. Adolescents spent more time in social contact than did adults during the initial days of the repeated stress procedures, but both adolescents and adults that returned to an unfamiliar peer after isolation had higher social activity than rats returned to a familiar peer (p=0.002) or undisturbed control rats (p<0.001). Both ages showed evidence of habituation, with reduced corticosterone response to repeated than acute isolation (p=0.01). Adolescents, however, showed sensitized corticosterone release to repeated compared with an acute pairing with an unfamiliar peer during recovery (p=0.03), a difference not found in adults. Consistent with habituation of corticosterone release, the repeated isolation groups had lower Zif268 immunoreactive cell counts in the paraventricular nucleus (p<0.001) and in the arcuate nucleus (p=0.002) than did the acute groups, and adolescents had higher Zif268 immunoreactive cell counts in the paraventricular nucleus than did adults during the recovery period (p<0.001), irrespective of stress history and partner familiarity. Partner familiarity had only modest effects on Zif268 immunoreactivity, and experimental effects on plasma testosterone concentrations were only in adults. The results highlight social and endocrine factors that may underlie the greater vulnerability of the adolescent period of development.
Derby, Kelly; Knox, David; Easterling, Beth
A 42 item Internet questionnaire was completed by 268 undergraduates at a large southeastern university to assess the frequency, motivations, and outcome of snooping in romantic relationships. Almost two thirds (66%) reported that they had engaged in snooping behavior, most often when the partner was taking a shower. Primary motives were…
Russell, Marcia; Cupp, Pamela K; Jewkes, Rachel K; Gevers, Anik; Mathews, Catherine; LeFleur-Bellerose, Chantel; Small, Jeon
This study aimed to describe potentially preventable factors in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and victimization among South African 8th grade students. Data were collected during a pilot evaluation of a classroom 8th grade curriculum on gender-based violence prevention in nine public schools in Cape Town through self-completed interviews with 549 8th grade students, 238 boys and 311 girls. Structural equation models (SEM) predicting IPV were constructed with variables a priori hypothesized to be associated. The majority of students (78.5 %) had had a partner in the past 3 months, and they reported high rates of IPV during that period (e.g., over 10 % of boys reported forcing a partner to have sex, and 39 % of girls reported physical IPV victimization). A trimmed version of the hypothesized SEM (CFI = .966; RMSEA = .051) indicated that disagreement with the ideology of male superiority and violence predicted lower risk of IPV (p < .001), whereas the frequency of using negative conflict resolution styles (e.g., walking off angrily, sending angry text messages, or refusing to talk to them) predicted high IPV risk (p < .001) and mediated the impact of heavy alcohol drinking on IPV (Sobel test, z = 3.16; p < .001). The model fit both girls and boys, but heavy drinking influenced negative styles of resolving conflict more strongly among girls than boys. Findings suggest that interventions to reduce IPV among South African adolescents should challenge attitudes supportive of male superiority and violence; encourage use of positive conflict resolution styles; and discourage heavy alcohol use among both boys and girls.
Russell, Marcia; Cupp, Pamela K.; Jewkes, Rachel K.; Gevers, Anik; Mathews, Catherine; LeFleur-Bellerose, Chantel; Small, Jeon
GOAL To describe potentially preventable factors in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and victimization among South African 8th grade students. METHOD Data were collected during a pilot evaluation of a classroom 8th grade curriculum on gender-based violence prevention in 9 public schools in Cape Town through self-completed interviews with 549 8th grade students, 238 boys and 311 girls. Structural equation models (SEM) predicting IPV were constructed with variables a priori hypothesized to be associated. RESULTS The majority of students (78.5%) had had a partner in the past three months, and they reported high rates of IPV during that period (e.g., over 10% of boys reported forcing a partner to have sex, and 39% of girls reported physical IPV victimization). A trimmed version of the hypothesized SEM (CFI =.966; RMSEA=.051) indicated that disagreement with the ideology of male superiority and violence predicted lower risk of IPV (p<.001), whereas the frequency of using negative conflict resolution styles (e.g., walking off angrily, sending angry text messages, or refusing to talk to them) predicted high IPV risk (p<.001) and mediated the impact of heavy alcohol drinking on IPV (Sobel test, z=3.16; p<.001). The model fit both girls and boys, but heavy drinking influenced negative styles of resolving conflict more strongly among girls than boys. CONCLUSIONS Findings suggest that interventions to reduce IPV among South African adolescents should challenge attitudes supportive of male superiority and violence; encourage use of positive conflict resolution styles; and discourage heavy alcohol use among both boys and girls. PMID:23743796
Hand, Laura Shaffer; Furman, Wyndol
This study used a social exchange framework to examine the features of non-romantic other-sex (OS) friendships compared with same-sex (SS) friendships and romantic relationships. High school seniors (N = 141) completed open-ended interviews about the benefits and costs of having OS friendships, SS friendships, and romantic relationships in…
Considers the emergence of English Romanticism in the early 19th century as the advent of new ways of thinking and knowing. Compares the cognitive skills of romanticism with the development of adolescent cognition. Shows how English teachers can tailor literature instruction to foster the insights of romantic understanding. (HB)
Rhule-Louie, Dana M; McMahon, Robert J
Antisocial behavior and substance misuse are forms of problem behavior demonstrating considerable continuity over time. Accordingly, problem behavior influences interpersonal contexts across the life course, which may result in the replication of coercive interactions and a problem behavior lifestyle within romantic relationships. Furthermore, theories of self-selection, and associated research, suggest that individuals pick companions compatible with, and supportive of, their behavior, leading to high levels of similarity between romantic partners and the potential reinforcement of problem behavior over time. However, some research suggests that romantic relationships may play a positive role and facilitate desistance from problem behavior. The purpose of this paper is to explore how antisocial behavior and substance use both influence and are influenced by romantic relationships in late adolescence and early adulthood. We first review research regarding the extent of, and processes underlying, partner similarity in problem behavior. Next, we examine how romantic relationships may promote the desistance of problem behavior. Finally, we discuss possible moderators of the association between problem behavior and romantic relationships, as well as limitations, intergenerational implications, and recommended future directions of the reviewed research.
Furman, Wyndol; Collibee, Charlene
The present study compared two theories of the association between romantic involvement and adjustment: a social timetable theory and a developmental task theory. We examined seven waves of longitudinal data on a community based sample of 200 participants (Wave 1 mean age = 15 years, 10 months). In each wave, multiple measures of substance use, externalizing symptoms, and internalizing symptoms were gathered, typically from multiple reporters. Multilevel modeling revealed that greater levels of romantic involvement in adolescence were associated with higher levels of substance use and externalizing symptoms but became associated with lower levels in adulthood. Having a romantic partner was associated with greater levels of substance use, externalizing symptoms, and internalizing symptoms in adolescence but was associated with lower levels in young adulthood. The findings were not consistent with a social timetable theory, which predicts that nonnormative involvement is associated with poor adjustment. Instead, the findings are consistent with a developmental task theory, which predicts that precocious romantic involvement undermines development and adaptation, but when romantic involvement becomes a salient developmental task in adulthood, it is associated with positive adjustment. Discussion focuses on the processes that may underlie the changing nature of the association between romantic involvement and adjustment.
Adam, Emma K.; Chyu, Laura; Hoyt, Lindsay; Doane, Leah D.; Boisjoly, Johanne; Duncan, Greg; Chase-Lansdale, Lindsay; McDade, Thomas W.
Purpose To examine the associations between adverse interpersonal relationship histories experienced during adolescence and health in young adulthood in a large, nationally representative sample. Methods Using data from Waves I, II and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, multiple adverse relationship experiences are examined, including high loneliness, low perceived parental support, frequent transitions in romantic relationships (relationship instability), exposure to intimate partner violence, and loss by death of important relationship figures. These histories are assessed, both individually and in a relationship risk index, as predictors of self-reported general health and depressive symptoms at Wave III (ages 18 to 27), controlling for baseline (Wave I) health and for demographic and health behavior covariates. Results Net of baseline health and covariates, each type of relationship risk (experienced between Wave I and Wave III) was related to either depression or general health at Wave III, with the strongest effects seen for exposure to intimate partner violence. In addition, a cumulative relationship risk index examining the extent to which youth experienced high levels of multiple relationship risk factors revealed that each additional adverse relationship experience increased the odds of reporting poor mental and general health at Wave III, with increases occurring in an additive manner. Conclusions Multiple types of adverse relationship experiences predicted increases in poor general health and depressive symptoms from adolescence to early adulthood. Consistent with a cumulative risk hypothesis, the more types of adverse relationship experiences a youth experienced, the worse their young adult health outcomes. PMID:21856520
Mikami, Amori Yee; Schad, Megan M; Teachman, Bethany A; Chango, Joanna M; Allen, Joseph P
We investigated associations between implicit and explicit self-perceptions of rejection with interpersonal functioning in close relationships. Adolescents (N=124) reported their explicit rejection self-perceptions on a questionnaire and completed the Implicit Association Test to assess their implicit rejection self-perceptions. After controlling for implicit self-perceptions, adolescents' explicit rejection self-perceptions were associated with the adolescents self-reporting more negative relationship quality with close friends and self-reporting more negative behaviors with romantic partners. After controlling for explicit self-perceptions, adolescents' implicit rejection self-perceptions were associated with their romantic partners reporting more negative relationship quality with them, and observations of adolescents displaying more negative behaviors with romantic partners. Implicit and explicit rejection self-perceptions uniquely explain individual differences in interpersonal behaviors.
Tschann, Jeanne M.; Adler, Nancy E.
Examined relationships among sexual self-acceptance, communication with sexual partners about sex and contraception, and contraceptive use in 201 adolescent females, ages 14 to 19. Found that females with greater sexual self-acceptance communicated more with partners about sex and contraception. Discussion about contraception, but not about sex,…
Rivera, Angelic; Watnick, Dana; Bauman, Laurie J.
Background: There is considerable literature on effective engagement strategies for recruiting adolescents individually for health research studies, but literature on recruiting adolescent couples is new an minimal. Purpose: This paper describes the recruitment strategies used for Teen Connections (TC), a longitudinal study that recruited 139…
Masarik, April S; Conger, Rand D; Donnellan, M Brent; Stallings, Michael C; Martin, Monica J; Schofield, Thomas J; Neppl, Tricia K; Scaramella, Laura V; Smolen, Andrew; Widaman, Keith F
We tested the differential susceptibility hypothesis with respect to connections between interactions in the family of origin and subsequent behaviors with romantic partners. Focal or target participants (G2) in an ongoing longitudinal study (N = 352) were observed interacting with their parents (G1) during adolescence and again with their romantic partners in adulthood. Independent observers rated positive engagement and hostility by G1 and G2 during structured interaction tasks. We created an index for hypothesized genetic plasticity by summing G2's allelic variation for polymorphisms in 5 genes (serotonin transporter gene [linked polymorphism], 5-HTT; ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 gene/dopamine receptor D2 gene, ANKK1/DRD2; dopamine receptor D4 gene, DRD4; dopamine active transporter gene, DAT; and catechol-O-methyltransferase gene, COMT). Consistent with the differential susceptibility hypothesis, G2s exposed to more hostile and positively engaged parenting behaviors during adolescence were more hostile or positively engaged toward a romantic partner if they had higher scores on the genetic plasticity index. In short, genetic factors moderated the connection between earlier experiences in the family of origin and future romantic relationship behaviors, for better and for worse.
Goldsmith, Kaitlyn M; Byers, E Sandra
This study investigated the messages individuals receive from their partners about their bodies and their perceived impact on body image and sexual well-being. Young adult men (n=35) and women (n=57) completed open-ended questions identifying messages they had received from partners and the impact of these messages on their body image and sexual well-being. Content coding revealed three verbal (expressions of approval and pride, challenging negative beliefs, expressions of sexual attraction/arousal/desire) and two nonverbal (physical affection, physical expressions of sexual attraction/arousal/desire) positive messages as well as one verbal (disapproval/disgust) and two nonverbal (rejection, humiliation) negative messages. Some participants reported gender-related messages (muscularity/strength, genital appearance, breast appearance, weight, and comparison to others). Positive messages were seen to increase confidence, self-acceptance, and sexual empowerment/fulfillment, whereas negative messages decreased these feelings. Our findings suggest that even everyday, seemingly neutral messages are perceived to have an important impact on young adults.
Fair, Cynthia; Albright, Jamie
Individuals with perinatally-acquired HIV (PHIV) are surviving into young adulthood. Previous literature has explored the sexual behavior of those with PHIV. However, their perspectives on navigating romantic relationships are not well understood. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 35 young adults living with PHIV recruited from two pediatric infectious disease clinics in the southeast United States. The majority of participants were African American (n=27, 77.2%), female (n=23, 65.7%), and the mean age was 20.7 (range 15-30) years. Questions focused on experiences with dating and romantic relationships as well as relationship advice for others living with HIV. Transcribed interviews were coded for emergent themes. Qualitative analyses revealed that the majority of participants have dated and struggled with their HIV status in their intimate relationships. The majority of those who disclosed their HIV status to past partners had experienced some form of rejection. However, several participants reported receiving support upon disclosure. Some individuals had never disclosed to a romantic partner, but carefully managed intimacy by delaying dating, terminating relationships, and "taking it slow." Advice fell into two broad categories: "be safe" which referred to the physical protection of self and partners, as well as emotional protection from possible rejection. The second advice category was basic encouragement which stressed the importance for young adults living with HIV to have hope that they would find a supportive partner and to be patient. The focus of education must include not only transmission risk factors, but also developing and maintaining healthy relationships in the context of a highly stigmatized illness.
Collibee, Charlene; Furman, Wyndol
Few studies have examined the associations of sexual activity with romantic cognitions, particularly longitudinally. We used a multi-analytic approach to examine the longitudinal, between-person, and within-person associations between sexual activity and romantic cognitions. We distinguished among sexual activity with four different types of partners-romantic partners, friends, acquaintances, and friends with benefits. An ethnically/racially representative sample of 185 participants (94 males & 91 females) completed questionnaires when they were 2.5, 4, and 5.5 years out of high school. Frequent sexual activity with a romantic partner was associated with positive romantic cognitions, including less avoidant and anxious relational styles, greater romantic life satisfaction, and romantic appeal. Frequent sexual activity with various nonromantic partners was often associated with more negative romantic cognitions, including avoidant styles, lower romantic life satisfaction, and lower romantic appeal. Few longitudinal effects were found. Findings contribute to a developmental task theory concepualization of sexual behavior.
Jouriles, Ernest N.; Garrido, Edward; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee
Objective: This research examined links between adolescents' experiences of psychological and physical relationship aggression and their psychological distress. Experiences of psychological and physical aggression were expected to correlate positively with symptoms of psychological distress, but experiences of psychological aggression were…
Swartzendruber, Andrea; Zenilman, Jonathan M.; Niccolai, Linda M.; Kershaw, Trace S.; Brown, Jennifer L.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Sales, Jessica M.
Objectives To identify partner attributes associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among adolescents and summarize implications for research and prevention. Design Systematic review. Methods We identified peer-reviewed studies published 1990–2010 which assessed ≥1 partner attribute in relation to a biologically-confirmed STI among adolescents (15–24 years) by searching MEDLINE and included articles. Studies which included adolescents but >50% of the sample or with mean or median age ≥25 years were excluded. Results Sixty-four studies met eligibility criteria; 59% were conducted in high-income countries; 80% were cross-sectional; 91% enrolled females and 42% males. There was no standard “partner” definition. Partner attributes assessed most frequently included: age, race/ethnicity, multiple sex partners and STI symptoms. Older partners were associated with prevalent STIs but largely unrelated to incidence. Black race was associated with STIs but not uniformly. Partners with multiple partners and STI symptoms appear to be associated with STIs predominantly among females. Although significant associations were reported, weaker evidence exists for: other partner sociodemographics; sexual and other behaviors (sexual concurrency, sex worker, intimate partner violence, substance use, travel) and STI history. There were no apparent differences by STI. Conclusions Partner attributes are independently associated with STIs among male and female adolescents worldwide. These findings reinforce the importance of assessing partner attributes when determining STI risk. Prevention efforts should continue to promote and address barriers to condom use. Increased efforts are needed to screen and treat STIs and reduce risky behavior among men. A standard “partner” definition would facilitate interpretation of findings in future studies. PMID:23588126
Hou, Jinqin; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Zhang, Jianxin; Guo, Fei; Huang, Zheng; Wang, Mianbo; Chen, Zhiyan
Theoretical and empirical research has shown that adolescent romantic relationships are associated with a wide range of developmental outcomes, including adverse consequences. The present study used a hierarchical linear model to examine the moderating effect of classroom romantic context on the association between adolescent romantic…
Dhariwal, Amrit; Connolly, Jennifer; Paciello, Marinella; Caprara, Gian Vittorio
This study extends understanding of romantic development in the emerging adult years by using an 8-year longitudinal design in Italy. Peer groups at age 13, interpersonal functioning and emotion regulation at age 17, and romantic styles at age 21 were measured in 388 youth. Early peer groups were shown to be indirectly associated with two romantic…
Rice, Eric; Winetrobe, Hailey; Holloway, Ian W; Montoya, Jorge; Plant, Aaron; Kordic, Timothy
Online partner seeking is associated with sexual risk behavior among young adults (specifically men who have sex with men), but this association has yet to be explored among a probability sample of adolescents. Moreover, cell phone internet access and sexual risk taking online and offline have not been explored. A probability sample (N = 1,831) of Los Angeles Unified School District high school students was collected in 2011. Logistic regression models assessed relationships between specific sexual risk behaviors (online sexual solicitation, seeking partners online, sex with internet-met partners, condom use) and frequency of internet use, internet access points, and demographics. Students with cell phone internet access were more likely to report being solicited online for sex, being sexually active, and having sex with an internet-met partner. Bisexual-identifying students reported higher rates of being approached online for sex, being sexually active, and not using condoms at last sex. Gay, lesbian, and questioning (GLQ) students were more likely to report online partner seeking and unprotected sex at last sex with an internet-met partner. Additionally, having sex with an internet-met partner was associated with being male, online sexual solicitation, and online partner seeking. Internet- and school-based sexual health programs should incorporate safety messages regarding online sexual solicitation, seeking sex partners online, and engaging in safer sex practices with all partners. Programs must target adolescents of all sexual identities, as adolescents may not yet be "out," and bisexual and GLQ adolescents are more likely to engage in risky sex behaviors.
Rice, Eric; Winetrobe, Hailey; Holloway, Ian W.; Montoya, Jorge; Plant, Aaron; Kordic, Timothy
Online partner seeking is associated with sexual risk behavior among young adults (specifically men who have sex with men), but this association has yet to be explored among a probability sample of adolescents. Moreover, cell phone internet access and sexual risk taking online and offline have not been explored. A probability sample (N = 1,831) of Los Angeles Unified School District high school students was collected in 2011. Logistic regression models assessed relationships between specific sexual risk behaviors (online sexual solicitation, seeking partners online, sex with internet-met partners, condom use) and frequency of internet use, internet access points, and demographics. Students with cell phone internet access were more likely to report being solicited online for sex, being sexually active, and having sex with an internet-met partner. Bisexual-identifying students reported higher rates of being approached online for sex, being sexually active, and not using condoms at last sex. Gay, lesbian, and questioning (GLQ) students were more likely to report online partner seeking and unprotected sex at last sex with an internet-met partner. Additionally, having sex with an internet-met partner was associated with being male, online sexual solicitation, and online partner seeking. Internet- and school-based sexual health programs should incorporate safety messages regarding online sexual solicitation, seeking sex partners online, and engaging in safer sex practices with all partners. Programs must target adolescents of all sexual identities, as adolescents may not yet be “out,” and bisexual and GLQ adolescents are more likely to engage in risky sex behaviors. PMID:25344027
Linder, Jennifer Ruh; Collins, W Andrew
Violence between romantic partners is widespread, but developmental precursors of perpetration and victimization are little understood. Among participants followed from birth to 23 years of age, familial and extrafamilial childhood and adolescent relationships were examined in connection with couple violence in early adulthood. Predictors included early childhood physical abuse and witnessing of parental partner violence, features of parent-child interactions at the age of 13 years, and close friendship quality at the age of 16 years. Controlling for early familial violence, intrusive or overly familiar behavior in videotaped parent-child collaborations at 13 years of age consistently predicted violence perpetration and victimization in early adulthood. Friendship quality at the age of 16 years contributed over and above familial predictors. Understanding the role of both familial and extrafamilial close relationship precursors may lead to effective strategies for ameliorating the problem of romantic partner violence.
Madsen, Stephanie D.
This study examined parents' rules concerning their late adolescents' dating activities. Participants were mostly European-American, including 165 mothers or fathers and 103 of their children (ages 17-19; 28 sons and 75 daughters). Parents provided information regarding their use of dating rules; rules were coded by type (i.e., supervision,…
Dmytro, Dana; Luft, Toupey; Jenkins, Melissa; Hoard, Ryan; Cameron, Catherine Ann
Twenty-four adolescent boys in Grades 9 to 12 in a rural New Brunswick high school engaged in focused discussions that were analyzed using grounded theory to determine their heterosexual dating relationship processes. A theory was created from exchange transcriptions. The core category was "wrestling with gendered expectations,"…
Seth, Puja; DiClemente, Ralph J; Lovvorn, Amy E
This paper provides a critical narrative review of the scientific literature on intimate partner violence (IPV) and risky sexual behavior as well as sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among adolescents, aged 14-24 years. Intimate partner violence has been associated with a number of high risk sexual behavior, including inconsistent condom use, multiple sexual partners, earlier sexual debut, consuming substances while engaging in sexual behavior, and sexually transmitted infections among adolescents. An electronic search of the literature was performed using PubMed/MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science and articles from January 2000 - June 2013 were reviewed. Search terms included a combination of keywords for IPV, HIV/STI risk, and adolescents. The findings from the review indicated that IPV was associated with inconsistent condom use, STIs, early sexual debut, multiple sexual partners, and other HIV/STI-associated risk factors among adolescents. HIV/STI interventions for female adolescents often focus on increasing behavioral and cognitive skills, specifically condom negotiation. However, within the context of an abusive relationship, it becomes challenging for adolescents to enact these skills, where this behavior could potentially place them at greater risk. Components that address violence are necessary within HIV prevention programming. Additionally, integration of IPV screening within healthcare settings is important along with a combined approach that merges resources from healthcare, social, and community-level settings.
Few studies have examined the associations of sexual activity with romantic cognitions, particularly longitudinally. We used a multi-analytic approach to examine the longitudinal, between-person, and within-person associations between sexual activity and romantic cognitions. We distinguished among sexual activity with four different types of partners—romantic partners, friends, acquaintances, and friends with benefits. An ethnically/racially representative sample of 185 participants (94 males & 91 females) completed questionnaires when they were 2.5, 4, and 5.5 years out of high school. Frequent sexual activity with a romantic partner was associated with positive romantic cognitions, including less avoidant and anxious relational styles, greater romantic life satisfaction, and romantic appeal. Frequent sexual activity with various nonromantic partners was often associated with more negative romantic cognitions, including avoidant styles, lower romantic life satisfaction, and lower romantic appeal. Few longitudinal effects were found. Findings contribute to a developmental task theory concepualization of sexual behavior. PMID:27242952
Rauer, Amy J.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.
The delayed entry into marriage that characterizes modern society raises questions about young adults' romantic relationship trajectories and whether patterns found to characterize adolescent romantic relationships persist into young adulthood. The current study traced developmental transitions into and out of romantic relationships from age…
Lohman, Brenda J; Neppl, Tricia K; Senia, Jennifer M; Schofield, Thomas J
The intergenerational transmission of violence directed toward intimate partners has been documented for the past three decades. Overall, the literature shows that violence in the family of origin leads to violence in the family of destination. However, this predominately cross-sectional or retrospective literature is limited by self-selection, endogeneity, and reporter biases as it has not been able to assess how individual and family behaviors simultaneously experienced during adolescence influence intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. The present study used data from the Iowa Youth and Families Project (IYFP; N = 392; 52 % Female), a multi-method, multi-trait prospective approach, to overcome this limitation. We focused on psychological intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood (19-23 years) and adulthood (27-31 years), and include self and partner ratings of violence as well as observational data in a sample of rural non-Hispanic white families. Controlling for a host of individual risk factors as well as interparental psychological violence from adolescence (14-15 years), the results show that exposure to parent-to-child psychological violence during adolescence is a key predictor of intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. In addition, negative emotionality and the number of sexual partners in adolescence predicted intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood and adulthood. Exposure to family stress was associated positively with intimate partner violence in adulthood but not in emerging adulthood, whereas academic difficulties were found to increase violence in emerging adulthood only. Unlike previous research, results did not support a direct effect of interparental psychological violence on psychological violence in the next generation. Gender differences were found only in emerging adulthood. Implications of these findings are discussed in light of the current literature and future directions.
Lohman, Brenda J.; Neppl, Tricia K.; Senia, Jennifer M.; Schofield, Thomas J.
The intergenerational transmission of violence directed toward intimate partners has been documented for the past three decades. Overall, the literature shows that violence in the family of origin leads to violence in the family of destination. However, this predominately cross–sectional or retrospective literature is limited by self–selection, endogeneity, and reporter biases as it has not been able to assess how individual and family behaviors simultaneously experienced during adolescence influence intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. The present study used data from the Iowa Youth and Families Project (IYFP; N = 392; 52 % Female), a multi–method, multi–trait prospective approach, to overcome this limitation. We focused on psychological intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood (19 – 23 years) and adulthood (27 – 31 years), and include self and partner ratings of violence as well as observational data in a sample of rural non-Hispanic white families. Controlling for a host of individual risk factors as well as interparental psychological violence from adolescence (14 – 15 years), the results show that exposure to parent–to–child psychological violence during adolescence is a key predictor of intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. In addition, negative emotionality and the number of sexual partners in adolescence predicted intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood and adulthood. Exposure to family stress was associated positively with intimate partner violence in adulthood but not in emerging adulthood, whereas academic difficulties were found to increase violence in emerging adulthood only. Unlike previous research, results did not support a direct effect of interparental psychological violence on psychological violence in the next generation. Gender differences were found only in emerging adulthood. Implications of these findings are discussed in light of the current literature and future directions
Eastwick, Paul W; Richeson, Jennifer A; Son, Deborah; Finkel, Eli J
The present research examined the association of political orientation with ingroup favoritism in two live romantic contexts. In Study 1, White participants had sequential interactions with both a White and Black confederate and reported their romantic desire for each. In Study 2, both White and Black participants speed-dated multiple potential romantic partners and reported whether they would be interested in meeting each speed-dating partner again. In both studies, White participants' political conservatism positively predicted the strength of the ingroup-favoring bias: White conservatives were less likely than White liberals to desire Black (interracial) relative to White potential romantic partners. In contrast, Black participants' political conservatism negatively predicted the strength of the ingroup-favoring bias: Consistent with system-justification theory, Black conservatives were more likely than Black liberals to desire White (interracial) relative to Black potential romantic partners. Political orientation may be a key factor that influences the initiation of interracial romantic relationships.
Rosenberg, Molly; Pettifor, Audrey; Thirumurthy, Harsha; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Handa, Sudhanshu
Cash transfer programs have the potential to prevent the spread of HIV, particularly among adolescents. One mechanism through which these programs may work is by influencing the characteristics of the people adolescents choose as sex partners. We examined the four-year impact of a Kenyan cash transfer program on partner age, partner enrollment in school, and transactional sex-based relationships among 684 adolescents. We found no significant impact of the program on partner characteristics overall, though estimates varied widely by gender, age, schooling, and economic status. Results highlight the importance of context in exploring the potential HIV preventive effects of cash transfers.
Fritz, Patti A. Timmons; Slep, Amy M. Smith
This study examined the stability of adolescent physical and psychological dating aggression across both time and partners in a sample of 664 high school students using both nonparametric and growth curve (GC) modeling techniques. Nonparametric and GC modeling tests demonstrated moderate levels of stability of all forms of aggression.…
Adams, Adrienne E.; Greeson, Megan R.; Kennedy, Angie C.; Tolman, Richard M.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious, widespread problem that negatively affects women's lives, including their economic status. The current study explored whether the financial harm associated with IPV begins as early as adolescence. With longitudinal data from a sample of 498 women currently or formerly receiving welfare, we used latent…
Forehand, Rex; Parent, Justin; Golub, Andrew; Reid, Megan
Fathers have often been ignored in the parenting literature. The current study focused on male cohabiting partners (MCPs) who can serve as "social stepfathers" and examined the association of coparent support and conflict with their positive parenting behavior (i.e., acceptance, firm control, and monitoring) of adolescents. Participants…
Sunday, Suzanne; Kline, Myriam; Labruna, Victor; Pelcovitz, David; Salzinger, Suzanne; Kaplan, Sandra
This study's primary aims were to examine whether a sample of young adults, aged 23 to 31, who had been documented as physically abused by their parent(s) during adolescence would be more likely to aggress, both physically and verbally, against their intimate partners compared with nonabused young adults and whether abuse history was (along with…
Surjadi, Florensia F.; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Wickrama, K. A. S.; Conger, Rand D.
This study examines the long-term associations among parental support, extra-familial partner support, and the trajectories of sense of mastery from adolescence to the early adulthood years. Ten waves of panel data collected over a 16-year period from the Iowa Family Transitions Project (N = 527) were used to test the hypotheses. Results indicated…
Monahan, Kathryn C.; Dmitrieva, Julia; Cauffman, Elizabeth
The current study investigates how romantic relationships are related to antisocial behavior longitudinally among delinquent males and females (n=354; ages 14-25). While being in a relationship or not is unrelated to antisocial behavior, romantic partner characteristics (antisocial behavior and antisocial influence) are associated with greater antisocial behavior. As males age, they become increasingly resistant to romantic partner characteristics. In contrast, females become increasingly vulnerable to the effects of romantic partner characteristics on antisocial behavior as they age, particularly when these relationships are relatively shorter. Females in shorter romantic relationships with partners who are antisocial or exert antisocial influence are at risk of persisting in antisocial behavior. PMID:25045242
Monahan, Kathryn C; Dmitrieva, Julia; Cauffman, Elizabeth
The current study investigates how romantic relationships are related to antisocial behavior longitudinally among delinquent males and females (n=354; ages 14-25). While being in a relationship or not is unrelated to antisocial behavior, romantic partner characteristics (antisocial behavior and antisocial influence) are associated with greater antisocial behavior. As males age, they become increasingly resistant to romantic partner characteristics. In contrast, females become increasingly vulnerable to the effects of romantic partner characteristics on antisocial behavior as they age, particularly when these relationships are relatively shorter. Females in shorter romantic relationships with partners who are antisocial or exert antisocial influence are at risk of persisting in antisocial behavior.
Tajima, Emiko A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Moylan, Carrie A.; Derr, Amelia S.
We investigate parenting characteristics and adolescent peer support as potential moderators of the effects of childhood exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) on adolescent outcomes. Lehigh Longitudinal Study (N = 416) data include parent and adolescent reports of childhood IPV exposure. Exposure to IPV predicted nearly all adverse outcomes…
to meet the de- successful despite the site challenges and sign intent, business changes during the project. (Groves was acquired by the Torno ...34 Complete the contract without need for America company during construction- litigation. Torno embraced Partnering and continued the process which was
Gonzaga, Gian C; Turner, Rebecca A; Keltner, Dacher; Campos, Belinda; Altemus, Margaret
Drawing on recent claims in the study of relationships, attachment, and emotion, the authors hypothesized that romantic love serves a commitment-related function and sexual desire a reproduction-related function. Consistent with these claims, in Study 1, brief experiences of romantic love and sexual desire observed in a 3-min interaction between romantic partners were related to distinct feeling states, distinct nonverbal displays, and commitment- and reproductive-related relationship outcomes, respectively. In Study 2, the nonverbal display of romantic love was related to the release of oxytocin. Discussion focuses on the place of romantic love and sexual desire in the literature on emotion.
Cruzeiro, Ana Laura Sica; Souza, Luciano Dias de Mattos; Silva, Ricardo Azevedo da; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares; Rocha, Clarissa Lisbôa Arla da; Horta, Bernardo Lessa
The objective of this article is to evaluate the number of sexual partners in the last twelve months and the use of condom in the last three sexual relations of adolescents aged between 15 and 18 years old. It was a cross-sectional study with 960 adolescents. Two dichotomized variables were considered as risk sexual behaviors: two or more sexual partners in the last twelve months, and occasional use of condom in the last three sexual relations. We assessed whether these behaviors were associated with socioeconomic status, gender, adolescent and parental schooling, age, living with the parents, remunerated work, religiosity, drugs use, tobacco, alcohol consumption, alcoholic beverages consume before the last sexual relation. The Poisson regression was used for each outcome. The adolescent gender, schooling, the use of illicit drugs and tobacco in the last month as well as alcoholic beverages consume before the last sexual relation indicates greater risk of keeping sexual relations with two or more partners in the last 12 months. With regard to the occasional use of condom in the last three sexual relations, females and those whose mothers have low schooling presented increased risk. Our study suggests that there is a strong relation between risky behaviors.
Kogan, Steven M; Yu, Tianyi; Allen, Kimberly A; Pocock, Alexandra M; Brody, Gene H
African American male adolescents' involvement with multiple sexual partners has important implications for public health as well as for their development of ideas regarding masculinity and sexuality. The purpose of this study was to test hypotheses regarding the pathways through which racial discrimination affects African American adolescents' involvement with multiple sexual partners. We hypothesized that racial discrimination would engender psychological distress, which would promote attitudes and peer affiliations conducive to multiple sexual partnerships. The study also examined the protective influence of parenting practices in buffering the influence of contextual stressors. Participants were 221 African American male youth who provided data at ages 16 and 18; their parents provided data on family socioeconomic disadvantages. Of these young men, 18.5% reported having 3 or more sexual partners during the past 3 months. Structural equation models indicated that racial discrimination contributed to sexual activity with multiple partners by inducing psychological distress, which in turn affected attitudes and peer affiliations conducive to multiple partners. The experience of protective parenting, which included racial socialization, closeness and harmony in parent-child relationships, and parental monitoring, buffered the influence of racial discrimination on psychological distress. These findings suggest targets for prevention programming and underscore the importance of efforts to reduce young men's experience with racial discrimination.
Kreager, Derek A; Haynie, Dana L
The onset and escalation of alcohol consumption and romantic relationships are hallmarks of adolescence, yet only recently have these domains jointly been the focus of sociological inquiry. We extend this literature by connecting alcohol use, dating and peers to understand the diffusion of drinking behavior in school-based friendship networks. Drawing on Granovetter's classic concept of weak ties, we argue that adolescent romantic partners are likely to be network bridges, or liaisons, connecting daters to new peer contexts which, in turn, promote changes in individual drinking behaviors and allow these behaviors to spread across peer networks. Using longitudinal data of 459 couples from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we estimate Actor-Partner Interdependence Models and identify the unique contributions of partners' drinking, friends' drinking, and friends-of-partners' drinking to daters' own future binge drinking and drinking frequency. Findings support the liaison hypothesis and suggest that friends-of-partners' drinking have net associations with adolescent drinking patterns. Moreover, the coefficient for friends-of-partners drinking is larger than the coefficient for one's own peers and generally immune to prior selection. Our findings suggest that romantic relationships are important mechanisms for understanding the diffusion of emergent problem behaviors in adolescent peer networks.
Parker, Edith A.; Peek-Asa, Corinne
Objectives We examined the interactions between three dopamine gene alleles (DAT1, DRD2, DRD4) previously associated with violent behavior and two components of the adolescent environment (exposure to violence, school social environment) to predict adulthood physical intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration among white men and women. Methods We used data from Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, a cohort study following individuals from adolescence to adulthood. Based on the prior literature, we categorized participants as at risk for each of the three dopamine genes using this coding scheme: two 10-R alleles for DAT1; at least one A-1 allele for DRD2; at least one 7-R or 8-R allele for DRD4. Adolescent exposure to violence and school social environment was measured in 1994 and 1995 when participants were in high school or middle school. Intimate partner violence perpetration was measured in 2008 when participants were 24 to 32 years old. We used simple and multivariable logistic regression models, including interactions of genes and the adolescent environments for the analysis. Results Presence of risk alleles was not independently associated with IPV perpetration but increasing exposure to violence and disconnection from the school social environment was associated with physical IPV perpetration. The effects of these adolescent experiences on physical IPV perpetration varied by dopamine risk allele status. Among individuals with non-risk dopamine alleles, increased exposure to violence during adolescence and perception of disconnection from the school environment were significantly associated with increased odds of physical IPV perpetration, but individuals with high risk alleles, overall, did not experience the same increase. Conclusion Our results suggested the effects of adolescent environment on adulthood physical IPV perpetration varied by genetic factors. This analysis did not find a direct link between risk alleles
Ybarra, Michele L.; Rosario, Margaret; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Goodenow, Carol
Purpose Data suggest that lesbian and bisexual adolescents engage in risky sexual behaviors at higher rates than heterosexual girls. Whether these findings also apply to girls of other sexual identities is less well understood. Potential differences in risky sexual behaviors reported by lesbian versus bisexual adolescents are also underreported in the literature. Methods Data were collected online in 2010–2011 among 2,823 girls, aged 13 to 18 years, in the U.S. Multinomial logistic regression was used to quantify comparisons of sexual behaviors between (1) lesbian, (2) bisexual, and (3) questioning, unsure, or other (QUO) identity and (0) heterosexual girls. Logistic regression compared lesbian and bisexual adolescents. Results Lesbian and bisexual adolescents reported significantly more lifetime and past-year sexual partners than heterosexual girls. Bisexual girls were also more likely to report penile-anal and penile-vaginal sex, whereas lesbians were more likely to report earlier sexual debut for almost all types of sex, as compared to heterosexual girls. Lesbians also were more likely to report infrequent condom use and less likely to have conversations with partners about the use of barriers (e.g., dental dams) before first sex. Relative to lesbians, bisexual girls reported older age at first sex for almost all sexual behaviors and higher lifetime prevalence of recent male partners, penile-vaginal, and penile-anal sex. Few differences were noted between QUO and heterosexual girls. Conclusions Sexual minority adolescents are not identical in terms of sexual risk. Providers need to be sensitive to these differences and their implications for health and counseling of patients. PMID:26903429
Divney, Anna A.; Magriples, Urania; Hansen, Nathan; Gordon, Derrick; Kershaw, Trace
Abstract Background Rates of breastfeeding remain disproportionately low among young mothers in the United States. Although breastfeeding behavior may be most directly related to breastfeeding intention, little is known about breastfeeding intentions among young women who are expecting a baby. Subjects and Methods Pregnant adolescents and young adults (14–21 years old) and their male partners were recruited for participation. Females were asked if they intended to breastfeed, and their partners were asked if they wanted their partners to breastfeed; participants indicated reasons for their responses. Logistic regression modeling was used to determine the associations between breastfeeding intentions and sociodemographic characteristics, relationship characteristics, and partner's intention to breastfeed. Results Approximately 73% of females reported intending to breastfeed, and 80% of males reported wanting his partner to breastfeed, most commonly because it is “healthier for the baby” and “a more natural way to feed the baby.” Sociodemographic and relationship characteristics explained a small amount of variance of breastfeeding intention (15% and 4% among females, respectively, and 8% and 4% among males, respectively). Partner intention explained an additional 23% and 24% of the variance in individual intention for females and males, respectively. Females who had experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) from their current partner had lower odds of intending to breastfeed (odds ratio=0.37; 95% confidence interval=0.16, 0.84). Race/ethnicity modified associations among both genders. Conclusions These findings emphasize the importance of dyadic approaches and suggest strategies for improving breastfeeding intentions and behavior among young couples expecting a baby. These results are also among the first to document the relationship between IPV and breastfeeding intentions among young women. PMID:23611330
Kennedy, Angie C
The federal welfare reforms of 1996 mandated that all minor adolescent mothers receiving cash assistance must attend school and live at home to receive their cash grant. Though this law has been in place for over 8 years, little research has been done that explores the barriers facing adolescent mothers who try to attend school and live at home. Anecdotal and qualitative evidence from welfare reform evaluation studies suggests that violence may be just such a barrier. This article reviews the recent empirical literature on urban adolescent mothers' exposure to multiple forms of violence. The author delineates and critiques the existing research on the prevalence of and outcomes linked with exposure to community violence, witnessed parental violence, physical abuse within the family, and partner violence among this population. The article concludes with recommendations for researchers, practitioners, and policy makers in light of the reviewed findings.
De Grace, Alyssa; Clarke, Angela
To inform practitioners and researchers interested in the prevention of intimate partner violence (IPV) among adolescents, 9 principles of effective prevention programs (Nation et al., 2003) were described and examples of how these principles have been incorporated into existing teen dating violence prevention programs were provided. An investigation of current prevention practices for adolescent IPV resulted in one noteworthy program that has successfully incorporated all 9 principles of effective prevention programming-Safe Dates (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices [SAMHSA-NREPP], 2006). Although Safe Dates serves as a model teen dating violence prevention program, it may not be equally effective across contexts and diverse groups. Therefore, as researchers and practitioners continue to develop and refine programs to reduce adolescent IPV, the principles of effective prevention programs should serve as a guiding framework.
Stefanek, Elisabeth; Strohmeier, Dagmar; Fandrem, Hildegunn; Spiel, Christiane
The present study compared native Austrian, first and second generation immigrant adolescents regarding their level of depressive symptoms, critical live events, and daily hassles. Furthermore, the associations between these constructs were tested in the three groups. The sample comprised 330 native Austrian (52.1% girls), 120 first generation immigrants (49.2% girls and 159 second generation immigrants (54.2% girls) aged 14-19 (M=15.61). Compared with native adolescents, first generation immigrant adolescents reported more depressive symptoms and daily hassles related to parents, the self, leisure, romantic partner, and future, whilst second generation immigrant adolescents reported more daily hassles related to parents, school, and romantic partner. Controlling for gender, multiple group structural equation models revealed that daily hassles fully mediated the path between critical live events and depressive symptoms in all three groups of adolescents. Implications for future research on immigrant adolescents' psychological well-being are discussed.
Cleveland, H. Harrington; Gilson, Michael
Using both individual-level and census-level data, this study predicts the number of sexual partners reported by male and female adolescents from the quality of their mother relationship and neighborhood proportion of single-parent families. Both predictors were associated with number of sexual partners for both males and females in OLS analyses.…
Sylvetsky, Allison C; Nandagopal, Radha; Nguyen, Tammy T; Abegg, Marisa R; Nagarur, Mahathi; Kaplowitz, Paul; Rother, Kristina I
AIM: To investigate whether assigning young, healthy and motivated lay volunteer partners (“buddies”) to adolescents with type 2 diabetes improves hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). METHODS: Adolescents with type 2 diabetes were randomized to partnering with a “buddy” or to conventional treatment. During the initial screening visit, which coincided with a routine outpatient diabetes clinic visit, patients with type 2 diabetes underwent a physical examination, detailed medical history, laboratory measurement of HbA1c, and completed two questionnaires (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory and Children’s Depression Inventory) to assess their overall quality of life and the presence of depressive symptoms. Patients were then randomized to the intervention (the buddy system) or conventional treatment (standard care). All patients were scheduled to return for follow-up at 3- and 6-mo after their initial visit. HbA1c was determined at all visits (i.e., at screening and at the 3- and 6-mo follow-up visits) and quality of life and depressive symptoms were evaluated at the screening visit and were reassessed at the 6-mo visit. RESULTS: Ten adolescents, recruited from a pool of approximately 200 adolescents, enrolled over a two-year time period, leading to premature termination of the study. In contrast, we easily recruited motivated lay volunteers. We found no change in HbA1c from the initial to the 6-mo visit in either group, yet our small sample size limited systematic assessment of this outcome. Participants repeatedly missed clinic appointments, failed to conduct self-glucose-monitoring and rarely brought their glucometers to clinic visits. Total quality of life scores (72.6 ± 6.06) at screening were similar to previously reported scores in adolescents with type 2 diabetes (75.7 ± 15.0) and lower than scores reported in normal-weight (81.2 ± 0.9), overweight (83.5 ± 1.8), and obese youths without diabetes (78.5 ± 1.8) or in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (80.5 ± 13
Simons, Ronald L.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Lei, Man Kit; Landor, Antoinette
The present study tests a developmental model designed to explain the romantic relationship difficulties and reluctance to marry often reported for African Americans. Using longitudinal data from a sample of approximately 400 African American young adults, we examine the manner in which race-related adverse experiences during late childhood and early adolescence give rise to the cynical view of romantic partners and marriage held by many young African Americans. Our results indicate that adverse circumstances disproportionately suffered by African American youth (viz., harsh parenting, family instability, discrimination, criminal victimization, and financial hardship) promote distrustful relational schemas that lead to troubled dating relationships, and that these negative relationship experiences, in turn, encourage a less positive view of marriage. PMID:22328799
Simons, Ronald L; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Lei, Man Kit; Landor, Antoinette
The present study tests a developmental model designed to explain the romantic relationship difficulties and reluctance to marry often reported for African Americans. Using longitudinal data from a sample of approximately 400 African American young adults, we examine the manner in which race-related adverse experiences during late childhood and early adolescence give rise to the cynical view of romantic partners and marriage held by many young African Americans. Our results indicate that adverse circumstances disproportionately suffered by African American youth (viz., harsh parenting, family instability, discrimination, criminal victimization, and financial hardship) promote distrustful relational schemas that lead to troubled dating relationships, and that these negative relationship experiences, in turn, encourage a less positive view of marriage.
Szwedo, David E.; Chango, Joanna M.; Allen, Joseph P.
Objective Youths' ability to positively cope with negative emotions and their self-perceived friendship competence were examined as potential moderators of links between multiple aspects of romantic relationships and residualized increases in depressive symptoms from late adolescence into early adulthood. Method Participants included 184 teens (46% male; 42% non-white) assessed at ages 15-19 and 21, as well as a sub-sample of 62 romantic partners of participants assessed when teens were 18. Results Results of hierarchical linear regressions showed that positive coping served as a buffer against depressive symptoms for romantically involved adolescents and also for teens receiving more intense emotional support from their romantic partners, but not for youth whose relationship had ended and had not been replaced by a new relationship. Higher perceived friendship competence served as a buffer against depressive symptoms for youth enduring the dissolution and non-replacement of their romantic relationship. Conclusions Greater use of positive coping skills and higher perceived friendship competence may help protect adolescents from depressive symptoms in different types of romantic experiences. PMID:24645877
Szwedo, David E; Chango, Joanna M; Allen, Joseph P
Youths' ability to positively cope with negative emotions and their self-perceived friendship competence were examined as potential moderators of links between multiple aspects of romantic relationships and residualized increases in depressive symptoms from late adolescence into early adulthood. Participants included 184 teens (46% male; 42% non-White) assessed at ages 15 to 19 and 21, as well as a subsample of 62 romantic partners of participants assessed when teens were 18. Results of hierarchical linear regressions showed that positive coping served as a buffer against depressive symptoms for romantically involved adolescents and also for teens receiving more intense emotional support from their romantic partners, but not for youth whose relationship had ended and had not been replaced by a new relationship. Higher perceived friendship competence served as a buffer against depressive symptoms for youth enduring the dissolution and nonreplacement of their romantic relationship. Greater use of positive coping skills and higher perceived friendship competence may help protect adolescents from depressive symptoms in different types of romantic experiences.
Giordano, Peggy C; Lonardo, Robert A; Manning, Wendy D; Longmore, Monica A
Hirschi argued that delinquent youth tend to form relatively "cold and brittle" relationships with peers, depicting these youths as deficient in their attachments to others. The current analysis explores connections between delinquency and the character of adolescent romantic ties, drawing primarily on the first wave of the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study, and focusing on 957 teens with dating experience. We examine multiple relationship qualities/dynamics in order to explore both the "cold" and "brittle" dimensions of Hirschi's hypothesis. Regarding the "cold" assumption, results suggest that delinquency is not related to perceived importance of the romantic relationship, level of intimate self-disclosure or feelings of romantic love, and more delinquent youth actually report more frequent contact with their romantic partners. Analyses focused on two dimensions tapping the "brittle" description indicate that while durations of a focal relationship do not differ according to level of respondent delinquency, more delinquent youths report higher levels of verbal conflict.
Singleton, Robyn; Picado Araúz, María de la Paz; Trocin, Kathleen; Winskell, Kate
The use of narrative has become increasingly popular in the public health, community development, and education fields. Via emotionally engaging plotlines with authentic, captivating characters, stories provide an opportunity for participants to be carried away imaginatively into the characters' world while connecting the story with their own lived experiences. Stories have been highlighted as valuable tools in transformative learning. However, little published literature exists demonstrating applications of stories in group-based transformative learning curricula. This paper describes the creation of a narrative-based transformative learning tool based on an analysis of Nicaraguan adolescents' meaning-making around intimate partner violence (IPV) in their creative narratives. In collaboration with a Nicaraguan organization, US researchers analyzed a sample of narratives ( n = 55; 16 male-authored, 39 female-authored) on IPV submitted to a 2014 scriptwriting competition by adolescents aged 15-19. The data were particularly timely in that they responded to a new law protecting victims of gender-based violence, Law 779, and contradicted social-conservative claims that the Law 779 destroys family unity. We incorporated results from this analysis into the creation of the transformative learning tool, separated into thematic sections. The tool's sections (which comprise one story and three corresponding activities) aim to facilitate critical reflection, interpersonal dialogue, and self- and collective efficacy for social action around the following themes derived from the analysis: IPV and social support; IPV and romantic love; masculinity; warning signs of IPV; and sexual abuse. As a collaboration between a public health research team based at a US university and a Nicaraguan community-based organization, it demonstrates the potential in the age of increasingly smooth electronic communication for novel community-university partnerships to facilitate the development of
Tschann, J M; Adler, N E
A longitudinal study examined the emotional and interpersonal processes involved in contraceptive behavior among 201 sexually active female adolescents 14-19 years of age recruited from adolescent medicine clinics in San Francisco, California (US). At study entry, adolescents completed questionnaires regarding sociodemographics, sexual and reproductive history, sexual self-acceptance, sexual communication with partners, and current contraceptive use. At a 6-month follow-up interview, participants reported on all sexual activity and contraceptive use since study enrollment. Path analysis indicated greater sexual self-acceptance was significantly related to more sexual communication and more contraceptive communication. Contraceptive communication, in turn, was associated with more frequent and more effective contraceptive use. Higher levels of contraceptive communication predicted both more frequent and more effective contraceptive use at the 6-month follow-up even when the effects of baseline contraceptive use were controlled. When the association between sexual self-acceptance and subsequent contraceptive behavior was examined apart from communication about sexuality and contraception, sexual self-acceptance directly predicted contraceptive effectiveness but not frequency. These findings underscore the importance of interpersonal processes in sexual and contraceptive behavior and suggest the utility of interventions that provide adolescents with skills for discussing contraception.
Pfeiffer, Jens P.; Pinquart, Martin
This study compared control striving with regard to two developmental goals in adolescents with visual impairment and sighted peers. A matched-pair design was used with 158 adolescents with visual impairment and 158 sighted peers by using age, gender, habitation (living with ones' parents vs. other forms of living), and socioeconomic status as…
Leadbeater, Bonnie J.; Banister, Elizabeth M.; Ellis, Wendy E.; Yeung, Rachel
Consistent with the view that adolescent relationships are established in the context of important characteristics of their social networks, we examined the effects of adolescents' experiences of parenting (psychological control and positive monitoring) and of peer aggression and victimization, on their self reports of dating victimization and…
Ha, Thao; Overbeek, Geertjan; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.
This study investigated whether adolescents' conflict resolution styles mediated between depressive symptoms and relationship longevity. Data were used from a sample of 80 couples aged 13-19 years old (Mage = 15.48, SD = 1.16). At Time 1 adolescents reported their depressive symptoms and conflict resolution styles. Additionally, time until…
Maister, Lara; Tsakiris, Manos
Our relationships with romantic partners are often some of the closest and most important relationships that we experience in our adult lives. Interpersonal closeness in romantic relationships is characterised by an increased overlap between cognitive representations of oneself and one's partner. Importantly, this type of self-other overlap also occurs in the bodily domain, whereby we can represent another's embodied experiences in the same way as we represent our own. However, as yet this bodily self-other overlap has only been investigated in individuals unfamiliar to each other. Here, we investigate bodily self-other overlap between romantic partners, using automatic imitation as an example case of bodily overlap in the motor domain. We found that participants automatically imitated romantic partners significantly more than close others with whom they had a platonic relationship. Furthermore, imitation in these relationships was related to key aspects of relationship quality, as indicated by adult attachment style.
Hu, Yueqin; Xu, Yishan; Tornello, Samantha L
This study examined how sexual attraction varied across age, gender of participant, and gender of romantic partner, from adolescence to early adulthood. Comparisons between same-sex and both-sex attracted individuals were of particular interest. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth), we examined the responses of participants who reported experiencing same-sex attractions or both-sex attractions at least once within four waves (n = 1889). Results indicated that same-sex attractions became more stable over time, whereas both-sex attraction remained unstable even into adulthood. Compared with males, females were less stable in same-sex attraction, but more stable in both-sex attraction. The majority of people who reported same-sex attraction did not report having a same-sex romantic partner before they entered adulthood, and those who reported a same-sex romantic partner were more likely to maintain their same-sex attraction than those who did not. As males got older, the gender of their romantic partner tended to become more consistent with their sexual attraction. However, for females, the consistency between the gender of their romantic partner and sexual attraction did not change over time.
Szielasko, Alicia L.; Symons, Douglas K.; Price, E. Lisa
There is considerable interest in relations between sexual behavior and romantic attachment styles in adolescence as attachment needs are increasingly met through intimate partners rather than parents. The objectives of this research were to organize a measure of sexual behavior within an attachment theory framework, and then show that this new…
Bifulco, Antonia; Moran, Patricia; Jacobs, Catherine; Bunn, Amanda
An intergenerational study examined mothers' insecure attachment style using the Attachment Style Interview (ASI; Bifulco et al., 2002a) in relation to her history of partner relationships, her parenting competence, and depression or anxiety disorder in her offspring. The sample comprised 146 high-risk, mother-adolescent offspring pairs in London, who were recruited on the basis of the mothers' psychosocial vulnerability for depression. Retrospective, biographical, and clinical interviews were undertaken independently with mother and offspring. A path model was developed, which showed that mothers' insecure attachment style had no direct link to either recalled child neglect/abuse or currently assessed disorder in their adolescent and young adult offspring. The connections appeared to be indirect, through the quality of relationships in the family system: mothers' insecure attachment and their partners' problem behavior accounted for variance in mothers' incompetent parenting as rated by interviewers. These variables predicted her neglect/abuse of the child, which was the only variable directly associated with internalizing disorder in her offspring. Mother's lifetime depression did not add to the model. It is argued that an ecological approach (emphasizing social adversity and different role domains) and a lifespan approach (emphasizing a history of adverse relationships a different life stages) is important in understanding the mechanisms by which parental insecure attachment style influences transmission of risk to the next generation.
Bauermeister, Jose A; Zimmerman, Marc A; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Xue, Yange; Gee, Gilbert C
Partner age is associated with youth's sex risk behaviors and sexually transmitted infections. At present, however, it is not known whether the co-occurrence of other risk behaviors is associated with having older sex partners during adolescence and young adulthood. Using growth curve modeling, this study first describes the shape of the age difference between participants and their sex partners across adolescence and young adulthood in a sample of African American youth. Second, whether this model varied systematically by sex, mother's education, and high school dropout was tested. Third, whether age differences were associated with youth's self-acceptance, alcohol use, and employment trajectories over these two developmental periods was assessed. Finally, whether these associations had non-proportional effects over both periods was tested. This study modeled sex partners' age differences nonlinearly, with females being more likely to date older partners at baseline and over time. High school dropouts also reported older partners at baseline. Self-acceptance and the number of hours worked were associated with sex partners' age differences over time, with the effect decreasing over young adulthood years. Alcohol use frequency was also associated with having older partners over time. This study discusses the findings from a health perspective on youth's sexual development.
Hertzog, Jodie L; Rowley, Rochelle Lynn
Dating violence in adolescent relationships is a growing social problem in the United States. A majority of adolescents have dated by the time they finish high school and these experiences have an impact on their relationship trajectories as adults. Although more and more prevention efforts are aimed at reducing teen dating violence and/or teaching adolescents about healthy relationships, very few of these efforts investigate discrepancies in descriptive and injunctive norms associated with adolescent dating. This pilot study adds to the existing literature by investigating the dating norms of early and mid-adolescents to aid in tailoring prevention efforts among this population. One hundred eighty-seven middle and high school student leaders from public schools in the Midwest completed an annual relationship survey. Findings suggest that participants did not support unhealthy relationship norms overall. However, two patterns of discrepancies emerged: one between participant attitudes (descriptive norms) and their perceptions of peer attitudes (injunctive norms), and another between perceptions participants hold about their male versus female peers' beliefs. Results imply the development of pluralistic ignorance occurs during adolescence and that perceptions of peer norms are in line with the principles of hegemonic masculinity. Implications for possible prevention initiatives and future research directions are noted.
Nosko, Amanda; Tieu, Thanh-Thanh; Lawford, Heather; Pratt, Michael W.
In this longitudinal study, a quantitative and qualitative examination of the associations among parent-child relations, adult attachment styles, and relationship quality and theme in romantic narratives was conducted. Parenting and adult attachment style were assessed through questionnaires, whereas overall quality of romantic relationships…
Gibson, Crystal; Callands, Tamora A; Magriples, Urania; Divney, Anna; Kershaw, Trace
Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and perpetration and power imbalances in parenting partners may result in poor outcomes for parents and children. Previous work in this area has focused on the maternal experiences, neglecting to examine paternal effects. The present study aimed to elucidate the role of IPV, power, and equity in parenting and child outcomes in an urban sample of adolescent parents. 159 male and 182 female parents in a relationship were recruited through university-affiliated hospitals. Power, equity, and IPV were measured at 6 months post-partum and were used as predictors for parenting and child outcomes 12 months post-partum using general estimating equations. Gender interactions and mediation effects of depression were also assessed. Higher perceived relationship equity was related to better infant temperament (B = 0.052, SE = 0.023, p = 0.02) whereas higher partner power was related to poorer social development (B = -0.201, SE = 0.088, p = 0.02) and fine motor development (B = -0.195, SE = 0.078, p = 0.01). IPV victimization was associated with poor infant temperament (B = -2.925, SE = 1.083, p = 0.007) and lower parenting competence (B = -3.508, SE = 1.142, p = 0.002). Depression mediated the relationship between IPV and parenting and IPV and infant temperament. No gender effects were found. IPV, inequities, and power imbalances were disadvantageous for parenting and child outcomes. Our results suggest that these dynamics may negatively affect both males and females. Interventions to reduce violence in both partners and promote equity in relationships could benefit couples and their children.
Boyle, Andrea M.; O'Sullivan, Lucia F.
Adolescents tend to consume alcohol and find romantic and sexual partners in mixed-group settings that are unmonitored by adults. Relatively little is known about the influence that dating anxiety may have with these social interactions. A sample of 163 high school students (aged 14-17 years) completed online surveys assessing dating, sex, and…
Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Hessel, Elenda T.; Molloy, Lauren E.
We tested a developmental cascade model of autonomy and relatedness in the progression from parent to friend to romantic relationships across ages 13, 18, and 21. Participants included 184 adolescents (53% female, 58% Caucasian, 29% African American) recruited from a public middle school in Virginia. Parental psychological control at age 13 undermined the development of autonomy and relatedness, predicting relative decreases in autonomy and relatedness with friends between ages 13 and 18 and lower levels of autonomy and relatedness with partners at age 18. These cascade effects extended into adult friendships and romantic relationships, with autonomy and relatedness with romantic partners at age 18 being a strong predictor of autonomy and relatedness with both friends and partners at age 21. PMID:25345623
Volpe, Ellen M; Quinn, Camille R; Resch, Kathryn; Sommers, Marilyn S; Wieling, Elizabeth; Cerulli, Catherine
Pregnant and parenting adolescents experience high rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) and its sequelae posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Narrative exposure therapy (NET) is an innovative intervention that has demonstrated strong preliminary evidence in improving mental health. The specific aims of this article are 3-fold: (1) provide a brief background about IPV-related PTSD and depression among pregnant and parenting adolescents; (2) describe NET's theoretical principles, its therapeutic process, and provide a review of existing evidence; and (3) discuss NET as a potential treatment to address the mental health burden among adolescents experiencing IPV-related PTSD and depression.
Teitelman, Anne; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; McDonald, Catherine C.; Brawner, Bridgette M.; Sullivan, Cris M.
Background Little is known about intimate partner violence (IPV) and depression among low income, urban African American and Hispanic adolescent females. Method Interviews with 102 urban African American and Hispanic adolescent females examined physical abuse, emotional/verbal abuse, and threats, and their unique and combined associations with depression. Results One-quarter of the sample experienced all three types of abuse. Non-physical forms of IPV were significantly associated with depression. Conclusions Some urban adolescent females from lower income households experience high rates of IPV. Physical and non-physical forms of IPV are important in understanding and responding to depression in this population. PMID:21617762
Swart, Lu-Anne; Seedat, Mohamed; Stevens, Garth; Ricardo, Izabel
This paper reports on a study of heterosexual adolescent dating violence among secondary school students in a South African community. Approximately half of the surveyed males, and just over half of the surveyed females reported involvement in a physically violent dating relationship either as a perpetrator and/or victim. The study found…
Kreager, Derek A.; Haynie, Dana L.
The onset and escalation of alcohol consumption and romantic relationships are hallmarks of adolescence, yet only recently have these domains jointly been the focus of sociological inquiry. We extend this literature by connecting alcohol use, dating and peers to understand the diffusion of drinking behavior in school-based friendship networks. Drawing on Granovetter’s classic concept of weak ties, we argue that adolescent romantic partners are likely to be network bridges, or liaisons, connecting daters to new peer contexts which, in turn, promote changes in individual drinking behaviors and allow these behaviors to spread across peer networks. Using longitudinal data of 459 couples from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we estimate Actor-Partner Interdependence Models and identify the unique contributions of partners’ drinking, friends’ drinking, and friends-of-partners’ drinking to daters’ own future binge drinking and drinking frequency. Findings support the liaison hypothesis and suggest that friends-of-partners’ drinking have net associations with adolescent drinking patterns. Moreover, the coefficient for friends-of-partners drinking is larger than the coefficient for one’s own peers and generally immune to prior selection. Our findings suggest that romantic relationships are important mechanisms for understanding the diffusion of emergent problem behaviors in adolescent peer networks. PMID:25328162
Lundgren, Rebecka; Amin, Avni
Intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual violence (SV) are widespread among adolescents and place them on a lifelong trajectory of violence, either as victims or perpetrators. The aim of this review was to identify effective approaches to prevent adolescent IPV and SV and to identify critical knowledge gaps. The interventions reviewed in this article reflect the global focus on interventions addressing violence perpetrated by men against women in the context of heterosexual relationships. Interventions for girls and boys (10-19 years) were identified through electronic searches for peer-reviewed and gray literature such as reports and research briefs. Studies were excluded if they were published before 1990 or did not disaggregate participants and results by age. Programs were classified as "effective," "emerging," "ineffective," or "unclear" based on the strength of evidence, generalizability of results to developing country settings, and replication beyond the initial pilot. Programs were considered "effective" if they were evaluated with well-designed studies, which controlled for threats to validity through randomization of participants. A review of 142 articles and documents yielded 61 interventions, which aimed to prevent IPV and SV among adolescents. These were categorized as "parenting" (n = 8), "targeted interventions for children and adolescents subjected to maltreatment" (n = 3), "school based" (n = 31; including 10 interventions to prevent sexual assault among university students), "community based" (n = 16), and "economic empowerment" (n = 2). The rigor of the evaluations varies greatly. A good number have relatively weak research designs, short follow-up periods, and low or unreported retention rates. Overall, there is a lack of robust standardized measures for behavioral outcomes. Three promising approaches emerge. First, school-based dating violence interventions show considerable success. However, they have only been implemented in high
Friedlander, Myrna L.; Kivlighan, Dennis M., Jr.; Shaffer, Katharine S.
Predictions of family therapy outcome consistently vary depending on which client rates the alliance. We used the actor-partner interdependence model (Kenny, Kashy, & Cook, 2006) to test the interdependence of parents' and adolescents' ratings of alliance, session depth/value, and improvement-so-far after Sessions 3, 6, and 9. Initial analyses…
Fagan, Abigail A.; Wright, Emily M.
Objective: This study investigated the long-term effects of exposure to intimate partner violence in the home on adolescent violence and drug use and gender differences in these relationships. Although the general relationship between exposure to IPV and negative outcomes for youth has been demonstrated in past research, gender differences in the…
Starks, Tyrel J; Newcomb, Michael E; Mustanski, Brian
The current study examined the potential for mental health to mediate associations between earlier attachment to parents and peers and later relationship adjustment during adolescence and young adulthood in a sample of sexual minority youth. Secondarily, the study examined associations between peer and parental attachment and relationship/dating milestones. Participants included 219 lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth who participated in six waves of data collection over 3.5 years. Parental attachment was associated with an older age of dating initiation, while peer attachment was associated with longer relationship length. Both peer and parental attachment were significantly associated with mental health in later adolescence and young adulthood. Mental health mediated the association between peer attachment and main partner relationship quality. While the total indirect effect of parental attachment on main partner relationship quality was statistically significant, specific indirect effects were not. Implications for the application of attachment theory and integration of interpersonal factors into mental health intervention with sexual minority youth are discussed.
Starks, Tyrel J.; Newcomb, Michael E.; Mustanski, Brian
The current study examined the potential for mental health to mediate associations between earlier attachment to parents and peers and later relationship adjustment during adolescence and young adulthood in a sample of sexual minority youth. Secondarily, the study examined associations between peer and parental attachment and relationship/dating milestones. Participants included 219 lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth who participated in six waves of data collection over 3.5 years. Parental attachment was associated with an older age of dating initiation, while peer attachment was associated with longer relationship length. Both peer and parental attachment were significantly associated with mental health in later adolescence and young adulthood. Mental health mediated the association between peer attachment and main partner relationship quality. While the total indirect effect of parental attachment on main partner relationship quality was statistically significant, specific indirect effects were not. Implications for the application of attachment theory and integration of interpersonal factors into mental health intervention with sexual minority youth are discussed. PMID:26108898
Hong Le, Minh Thi; Tran, Thach Duc; Nguyen, Huong Thanh; Fisher, Jane
Research about the association between early marriage and intimate partner violence (IPV) in low-income countries has yielded conflicting evidence. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of and associations between early marriage, and IPV among adolescents and young adults in Viet Nam. Secondary analysis of data from the national Survey Assessment of Viet Namese Youth-Round II (SAVY-II) conducted in 2009-2010, which assessed a representative cohort of people aged 14 to 25 years recruited via a systematic household survey was undertaken. Prevalence was established using descriptive statistics. The association between early marriage and IPV was examined using multiple logistic regressions, adjusting for potential risk factors. Of 10,044 participants, 1,701 had ever married and were included in analyses. Early marriage (before age 18), and experiences of verbal, physical, or sexual IPV were more common among females than males. More young married men than women reported experiences of controlling behaviors by their partners. Early marriage, being illiterate, and exposure to sexual abuse were associated with experience of IPV among young females, but not among young males. Poverty and exposure to family violence was associated with IPV in both sexes. Addressing early marriage, low educational opportunities for girls, childhood sexual abuse, family violence, and poverty should be considered in strategies to reduce IPV in Viet Nam.
Bullock, Melinda; Hackathorn, Jana; Clark, Eddie M; Mattingly, Brent A
Although many individuals report being friends with their ex-romantic partners (Wilmot, Carbaugh, & Baxter, 1985), the literature regarding post-romantic friendships is very limited. We investigated whether satisfaction in the dissolved romantic relationship could predict post-romantic friendships and friendship maintenance. We found that the more satisfied individuals were during the dissolved romance, the more likely they were to remain friends and the more likely they were to engage in friendship maintenance behaviors. We also found that friendship maintenance fully mediated the association between past romantic satisfaction and current friendship satisfaction.
Anand, Enu; Unisa, Sayeed; Singh, Jayakant
This study examined the relationship between Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) and unintended pregnancy among young women in South Asia using Demographic and Health Survey data from India (2005-2006), Bangladesh (2007) and Nepal (2011). The respondents were adolescent and young adult married women aged 15-24 years who had at least one childbirth in the five years preceding the survey. Bivariate and stepwise multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relationship between IPV and unintended pregnancy. Thirty-eight per cent of the respondents in India, 52% in Bangladesh and 28% in Nepal reported having experienced physical or sexual IPV. Those who reported physical or sexual IPV had higher odds of unintended pregnancy (1.36 in India and 1.99 in Bangladesh). The findings indicate that IPV is a risk factor for unintended pregnancy among adolescent and young adult married women. Along with violence prevention programmes, a more responsive and youth-friendly health system needs to be in place to provide health care services to young women in these countries.
Johnson, Wendi L.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Manning, Wendy D.; Longmore, Monica A.
Research on intimate partner violence (IPV) has evolved over the last decade with increasing interest in how IPV develops over adolescence and young adulthood. Studies examining patterns of IPV over time have generally focused on victimization with less attention to temporal shifts in perpetration. While it is generally assumed that IPV peaks during young adulthood, this has not been empirically verified and documented. Additionally, prior longitudinal analyses of IPV have focused on identifying trajectories and their accompanying risk factors, with less attention given to within-individual change in IPV experiences across and within relationships. Drawing on five waves of data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS), we examined patterns of the perpetration of IPV among a diverse sample of adolescents and young adults (51.1% female, 63.9% non-Hispanic White, 24.6% non-Hispanic Black, 11.5% Hispanic) spanning the ages of 13–28 years (N = 1,164). Analyses demonstrated that IPV patterns deviate from the age-crime curve, with women’s involvement in IPV increasing, while their involvement in other antisocial behaviors is decreasing. Traditional behavioral and psychological risk factors (delinquency, alcohol and drug use, depressive symptoms) accounted for some of the age variation in IPV for men, but these factors did not account for age variation in IPV among women. Relationship risk factors including frequency of disagreements, trust, jealousy, validation and self-disclosure, however, accounted for substantial portions of the age-IPV perpetration relationship for male and female youth. These findings reinforce recent calls for prevention efforts that focus on the development and maintenance of healthy relationships. PMID:25081024
Lundström, Johan N; Jones-Gotman, Marilyn
Romantic love is one of our most potent and powerful emotions, but very little is known with respect to the hormonal and psychological mechanisms in play. Romantic love is thought to help intimate partners stay committed to each other and two mechanisms have been proposed to mediate this commitment: increased attention towards one's partner or deflected attention away from other potential partners. Both mechanisms find support in the literature. We explored the potential influence of each of these mechanisms by assessing women's ability to identify (ID) body odors originating from their boyfriend, a same-sex friend, and an opposite-sex friend and the relationship between this ability and the degree of romantic love expressed towards their boyfriend. We hypothesized that an increase in attention towards one's partner would render a positive correlation between ID of a boyfriend's body odor and degree of romantic love; conversely, we hypothesized that attention deflected away from other potential partners would render a negative correlation between ID of an opposite-sex friend's body odor and degree of romantic love for the boyfriend. Our results supported the deflection theory as we found a negative correlation between the degree of romantic love for the subjects' boyfriends and their ability to ID the body odor of an opposite-sex friend but not of their boyfriend or same-sex friend. Our results indicate that romantic love deflects attention away from potential new partners rather than towards the present partner. These changes are likely mediated by circulating neuropeptides and a testable model is suggested.
Crosby, Richard A; DiClemente, Ralph J; Wingood, Gina M; Cobb, Brenda K; Harrington, Kathy; Davies, Susan L; Hook, Edward W; Oh, M Kim
This study of 522 African American female adolescents, ages 14 to 18, investigated associations between condom use and infrequently communicating with sex partners about sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and pregnancy prevention. Correlates of infrequent communication were identified. Sexually active adolescents were recruited from schools and adolescent medicine clinics in low-income neighborhoods of Birmingham, Alabama. Adolescents completed a self-administered survey and face-to-face interview. Communication frequency was assessed using a five-item scale. Infrequent communication was significantly associated with lower odds of condom use. Multivariate correlates of infrequent communication were less frequent communication with parents about STD/pregnancy prevention, recent sex with a nonsteady partner, low perceived ability to negotiate condom use and fear of this negotiation, and low motivation to use condoms. Given the importance of partner communication in promoting safer sex behaviors, STD and pregnancy prevention programs may benefit adolescents by addressing the identified psychosocial correlates of infrequent communication with their partners.
Furman, Wyndol; Winkles, Jessica K.
Using a sample of 199 adolescents, the present study examined Furman and Wehner's (1999) hypothesis that the predictors of the degree of romantic involvement and the predictors of romantic relationship cognitions and qualities differ. As hypothesized, physical appearance and friends' normative romantic involvement were related to the degree of…
Dogan, Shannon J; Stockdale, Gary D; Widaman, Keith F; Conger, Rand D
We explored two unanswered questions about the role of alcohol use in sexual behavior. First, we considered whether alcohol use temporally precedes and predicts changes in sexual behavior assessed as the number of sexual partners, whether the reverse pattern holds, or whether the association reflects a common, external cause. Second, we assessed whether associations between these behaviors change as adolescents transition to adulthood. These questions were addressed with a bivariate dual change latent difference score model. Drinking frequency and number of yearly sex partners were assessed 8 times across a 13-year period in a sample of 553 individuals. Assessment began when participants were in the 9th grade (age: M = 15.11 years, SD = 0.43). In addition to an association between the individual growth trajectories of these behaviors, alcohol use was a leading indicator of changes in number of sex partners throughout adolescence, but the reverse pattern was not supported. Of importance, the predictive association could not be explained by individual differences in impulsivity, excitement seeking, conduct problems, hostility/aggression, conventional attitudes, gender, or divorce. Finally, in a developmentally meaningful pattern, alcohol use ceased to significantly predict changes in the number of sexual partners as adolescents transitioned to adulthood.
Giordano, Peggy C.; Soto, Danielle A.; Manning, Wendy D.; Longmore, Monica A.
Studies of teen dating violence have focused heavily on family and peer influences, but little research has been conducted on the relationship contexts within which violence occurs. The present study explores specific features of adolescent romantic relationships associated with the perpetration of physical violence. Relying on personal interviews with a sample of 956 adolescents, results indicate that respondents who self-report violence perpetration are significantly more likely than their non-violent counterparts to report higher levels of other problematic relationship dynamics and behaviors such as jealousy, verbal conflict, and cheating. However, we find no significant differences in levels of love, intimate self-disclosure, or perceived partner caring, and violent relationships are, on average, characterized by longer duration, more frequent contact, sexual intimacy and higher scores on the provision and receipt of instrumental support. Finally, violence is associated with the perception of a relatively less favorable power balance, particularly among male respondents. These findings complicate traditional views of the dynamics within violent relationships, add to our understanding of risk factors, and may also shed light on why some adolescents remain in physically abusive relationships. PMID:21037934
Furman, Wyndol; Winkles, Jessica K
Using a sample of 199 adolescents, the present study examined Furman and Wehner's (1999) hypothesis that the predictors of the degree of romantic involvement and the predictors of romantic relationship cognitions and qualities differ. As hypothesized, physical appearance and friends' normative romantic involvement were related to the degree of casual and serious romantic involvement, whereas relational styles regarding friends and parents were unrelated in almost all cases. On the other hand, relational styles regarding friends and parents were related to supportive and negative romantic interactions and romantic styles. In contrast, physical appearance and friends' normative romantic involvement were generally unrelated to interactions and romantic styles. Physical appearance was also related to romantic appeal and satisfaction.
Theiss, Jennifer A; Carpenter, Amanda M; Leustek, John
Drawing on the logic of the relational turbulence model, this study examined the ways in which romantic partners facilitate and interfere with individuals' weight loss goals. Participants (N = 122) described the ways in which their romantic partner had recently helped or hindered their weight loss at four times over the course of 2 months. We conducted a content analysis of responses to identify themes of partner facilitation (Research Question 1 [RQ1]) and partner interference (RQ2) in individuals' weight loss goals. Results revealed seven themes of partner facilitation: (a) partner enabling diet, (b) motivation and encouragement, (c) emotional support and positive reinforcement, (d) exercising together, (e) partner enabling exercise, (f) dieting together, and (g) relationship influence and priorities. Four themes of partner interference emerged in the data: (a) inability to plan for healthy meals, (b) inability to control the food environment, (c) preventing or discouraging exercise, and (d) emotional or relational discouragement.
Mitchell, Darcy B; Szczerepa, Alexandra; Hauser-Cram, Penny
Family cohesion relates to positive outcomes for both parents and children. Maintaining cohesion may be especially challenging for families of adolescents with developmental disabilities, yet this has been studied infrequently in this group. We investigated cohesion in these families, particularly with respect to partner stress, using the notion of the 'spillover effect' as a model. Adolescents with disabilities and their parents participated. Parents reported on teen adaptive and problem behaviours and on marital satisfaction, parenting stress, and family cohesion. The stress of one partner was tested as a predictor of the quality of family cohesion reported by the other. Adolescent behaviour problems were negative predictors of family cohesion in mothers, and marital satisfaction positively predicted cohesion for both parents. Above other factors, greater partner stress predicted poorer family cohesion for both fathers and mothers. Marital satisfaction acted as a suppressor of this relation. To improve the overall climate of families, care providers should take into consideration individual relationships, including the marital relationship. In addition, the possibility of spillover from one individual to another should be recognized as a factor in family functioning. Family-centred practices are likely to lead to greater feelings of cohesion and overall better individual and family well-being.
Weintraub, Amy; Mellins, Claude A; Warne, Patricia; Dolezal, Curtis; Elkington, Katherine; Bucek, Amelia; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Bamji, Mahrukh; Wiznia, Andrew; Abrams, Elaine J
Similar to same-age peers, perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) youth in the US are engaging in sex, including condomless sex. Understanding decisions about serostatus disclosure to sexual partners is important to domestic and global HIV prevention efforts, since large numbers of PHIV+ children are entering adolescence and becoming sexually active. Using Social Action Theory (SAT) to inform variable selection, we examined correlates of disclosure among 98 PHIV+ adolescents/young adults in New York City. Over half of these youth reported not disclosing to any casual partners (59 %) or to any partners when using condoms (55 %). In bivariate analyses, increased disclosure was associated with older age; being female; earlier age of learning one's serostatus; and increased STD knowledge, disclosure intentions, and parent-child communication. Multiple regression analyses revealed a strong fit with the SAT model. As with adults, disclosure to sexual partners is difficult for PHIV+ youth and challenges prevention efforts. Effective interventions that help youth with disclosure decisions are needed to curb the epidemic.
Bleys, Dries; Soenens, Bart; Boone, Liesbet; Claes, Stephan; Vliegen, Nicole; Luyten, Patrick
Research investigating the development of adolescent self-criticism has typically focused on the role of either parental self-criticism or parenting. This study used an actor-partner interdependence model to examine an integrated theoretical model in which achievement-oriented psychological control has an intervening role in the relation between parental and adolescent self-criticism. Additionally, the relative contribution of both parents and the moderating role of adolescent gender were examined. Participants were 284 adolescents (M = 14 years, range = 12-16 years) and their parents (M = 46 years, range = 32-63 years). Results showed that only maternal self-criticism was directly related to adolescent self-criticism. However, both parents' achievement-oriented psychological control had an intervening role in the relation between parent and adolescent self-criticism in both boys and girls. Moreover, one parent's achievement-oriented psychological control was not predicted by the self-criticism of the other parent.
Tajima, Emiko A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Moylan, Carrie A.; Derr, Amelia S.
We investigate parenting characteristics and adolescent peer support as potential moderators of the effects of childhood exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) on adolescent outcomes. Lehigh Longitudinal Study (N=416) data include parent and adolescent reports of childhood IPV exposure. Exposure to IPV predicted nearly all adverse outcomes examined, however after accounting for co-occurring child abuse and early child behavior problems, IPV predicted only one outcome. Several moderator effects were identified. Parental “acceptance” of the child moderated the effects of IPV exposure on the likelihood of teenage pregnancy and running away from home. Both peer communication and peer trust moderated the relationship between exposure to IPV and depression and running from home. Peer communication also moderated the effects of IPV exposure on high school dropout. Interventions that influence parenting practices and strengthen peer support for youth exposed to IPV may increase protection and decrease risk of several tested outcomes. PMID:21765624
Manlove, Jennifer; Ryan, Suzanne; Franzetta, Kerry
By using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we examine how adolescent relationship characteristics, partner attributes, and sexual relationship histories are associated with contraceptive use and consistency, incorporating random effects to control for respondent-level unobserved heterogeneity. Analyses show that teens' contraceptive use patterns vary across relationships. Teens with more-homogamous partners, with more-intimate relationships, and who communicate about contraception before sex have greater odds of contraceptive use and/or consistency. Teens in romantic relationships, and who are older when engaging in sex for the first time, have greater odds of ever using contraceptives but reduced odds of always using contraceptives. Teens continue habits from previous relationships: teens with experience practicing contraceptive consistency and females who previously have used hormonal contraceptive methods are better able to maintain consistency in subsequent relationships. Also, relationship and partner characteristics are less important for females who previously used hormonal methods.
Creasey, Gary; Ladd, Aimee
The goal of this investigation was to specify associations among negative mood regulation expectancies, generalized attachment representations, and conflict tactics in a sample of college students involved in a romantic relationship. It was predicted that attachment representations would moderate associations between negative mood regulation…
Carlson, Wendy; Rose, Amanda J.
Whereas much research addresses relations of youths' heterosexual romantic relationships with sexual and/or delinquent activities, less attention has been paid to youths' more normative, day-to-day activities with romantic partners. This gap in the literature is problematic given that these activities define the substance of the relationships and…
Casey, Erin A.; Beadnell, Blair
Although peer networks have been implicated as influential in a range of adolescent behaviors, little is known about relationships between peer network structures and risk for intimate partner violence (IPV) among youth. This study is a descriptive analysis of how peer network “types” may be related to subsequent risk for IPV perpetration among adolescents using data from 3,030 male respondents to the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Sampled youth were a mean of 16 years of age when surveyed about the nature of their peer networks, and 21.9 when asked to report about IPV perpetration in their adolescent and early adulthood relationships. A latent class analysis of the size, structure, gender composition and delinquency level of friendship groups identified four unique profiles of peer network structures. Men in the group type characterized by small, dense, mostly male peer networks with higher levels of delinquent behavior reported higher rates of subsequent IPV perpetration than men whose adolescent network type was characterized by large, loosely connected groups of less delinquent male and female friends. Other factors known to be antecedents and correlates of IPV perpetration varied in their distribution across the peer group types, suggesting that different configurations of risk for relationship aggression can be found across peer networks. Implications for prevention programming and future research are addressed. PMID:20422351
This paper, which is significantly inspired by and based upon aspects of the writings of particular British nineteenth-century Romantic poets, outlines a positive, necessary even, role for friendship, love and passion in pedagogy.
Shomaker, Lauren B.; Furman, Wyndol
This project examined whether interpersonal pressure to be muscular predicted late adolescents’ pursuit of muscularity. Participants were 199 adolescents (16–19 years), mothers (n=175), and friends (n=159), assessed at two annual times. Pressure to be muscular was assessed with adolescents’, mothers’, and friends’ reports of their relationships. Adolescents reported pressure from fathers and romantic partners, appearance satisfaction, disordered eating, and pursuit of muscularity. Adolescents,’ mothers’, and friends’ reports of pressure related to pursuit of muscularity at both times. Adolescents’ perceptions and mothers’ reports prospectively predicted pursuit of muscularity. Findings highlight the relevance of relationships to pursuit of muscularity in late adolescents. PMID:20348360
Romantic love is the catalyst behind the spread of the human life. The neurobiology of love embraces the hypothesis that what we call "romantic attachment" or "romantic love" may be at least in part the expression of biological factors. A corollary of this hypothesis states that it is possible to learn much about the nature of human love by studying the molecules involved in the expression of social and affiliative behaviours. Under this theoretical framework, we have investigated the changes in plasma neurotrophin levels in subjects with early stage romantic love. A positive association between the intensity of early romantic feelings and serum levels of nerve growth factor (NGF) has been identified. These findings link love with biologically relevant pathways for neuron survival and illuminate the biochemical correlates of such a complex feeling that so deeply affects our own lives. The progresses in the neurobiology of love suggest that this kind of research may open a new window onto our understanding of the very nature of human romantic bonding.
Olsen, James P; Parra, Gilbert R; Bennett, Shira A
For three decades, researchers have sought to gain a greater understanding of the developmental antecedents to later perpetration or victimization of violence in romantic relationships. Whereas the majority of early studies focused on family-of-origin factors, attention in recent years has turned to additional ecologies such as peer relationships. This review highlights accomplishments of both family and peer studies that focus on violent romantic relationships in an effort to summarize the current state of knowledge. Attention is given to epidemiology and developmental family and peer factors, with special attention given to mechanisms that mediate and/or moderate the relation between family and peer factors and later participation in violent relationships. A critical approach is taken throughout the review in order to identify limitations of previous studies, and to highlight key findings. A case is made for viewing these developmental antecedents as a result of multiple developmental ecologies that is perhaps best summarized as a culture of violence.
Whiteley, Laura B; Brown, Larry K; Swenson, Rebecca R; Valois, Robert F; Vanable, Peter A; Carey, Michael P; DiClemente, Ralph; Salazar, Laura F; Romer, Daniel
Minority adolescents are affected disproportionately by HIV and STIs, and the Internet is a popular venue to meet sex partners. Little is known about the risks of this behavior for minority adolescents. The majority of studies that have examined sexual risk behavior online or STI/HIV prevention programs online have been among adult MSM. In this study, data from 1,045 African American youth found that 6% met sex partners online and in chat rooms. Odds ratios, adjusting for gender, found this behavior was associated with alcohol (AOR = 2.33, 95% CI [1.1, 4.7]) and drug use (AOR = 3.45, 95% CI [1.9, 6.1]), unprotected vaginal (AOR = 4.71, 95% CI [1.9, 8.4]) and anal sex (AOR = 4.77, 95% CI [1.3,17.1]) in the last 90 days, more lifetime vaginal (AOR = 3.65, 95% CI [2.0, 6.8]) and anal sex (AOR = 2.74, 95% CI [1.5, 4.8]), greater sexual sensation seeking (AOR = 2.92, 95% CI [1.5, 5.7]) and greater depression (AOR = 2.06, 95% CI [1.2, 3.6]. A final multiple logistic regression analyses found that male gender (AOR = 3.13, 95% CI [1.7, 5.8]), drug use at last sex (AOR = 2.41, 95% CI [1.3, 4.5]), lifetime history of vaginal (AOR = 2.90, 95% CI [1.5, 5.5]) and anal sex (AOR = 2.09, 95% CI [1.2, 3.6]), and cocaine use (AOR = 8.53, 95% CI [2.7, 27.3]) were independently associated with having sex with a partner met online. Meeting sex partners online is associated with a variety of risks among African American youth; however, the Internet may be an opportunity for intervention.
Boone, Melissa R; Cherenack, Emily M; Wilson, Patrick A
Little is known about the correlates of sexual risk behavior among HIV-positive adolescent girls and women in the United States. This study investigates two potential factors related to unprotected vaginal and anal intercourse (UVAI) that have yet to be thoroughly studied in this group: self-efficacy for sexual risk reduction and partner HIV status. Data was analyzed from 331 HIV-positive adolescent girls and women between 12 and 24 years old who reported vaginal and/or anal intercourse with a male partner in the past 3 months at fifteen sites across the United States. Results show that overall self-efficacy (B=-0.15, p=0.01), self-efficacy to discuss safe sex with one's partner (B=-0.14, p=0.01), and self-efficacy to refuse unsafe sex (B=-0.21, p=0.01) are related to UVAI episodes. Participants with only HIV-positive partners or with both HIV-positive and HIV-negative partners showed a trend towards higher percentages of UVAI episodes compared to participants with only HIV-negative partners (F(2, 319)=2.80, p=0.06). These findings point to the importance of including self-efficacy and partner HIV status in risk-reduction research and interventions developed for HIV-positive adolescent girls and young women.
Collibee, Charlene; Furman, Wyndol
The present study assessed a developmental task theory of romantic relationships by examining associations between romantic relationship qualities and adjustment across 9 years using a community-based sample of 100 male and 100 female participants (Mage Wave 1 = 15.83) in a Western U.S. city. Using multilevel modeling, the study examined the moderating effect of age on links between romantic relationship qualities and adjustment. Consistent with developmental task theory, high romantic quality was more negatively associated with internalizing symptoms and dating satisfaction during young adulthood than adolescence. Romantic relationship qualities were also associated with externalizing symptoms and substance use, but the degree of association was consistent across ages. The findings underscore the significance of romantic relationship qualities across development.
Impett, Emily A; Kogan, Aleksandr; English, Tammy; John, Oliver; Oveis, Christopher; Gordon, Amie M; Keltner, Dacher
What happens when people suppress their emotions when they sacrifice for a romantic partner? This multimethod study investigates how suppressing emotions during sacrifice shapes affective and relationship outcomes. In Part 1, dating couples came into the laboratory to discuss important romantic relationship sacrifices. Suppressing emotions was associated with emotional costs for the partner discussing his or her sacrifice. In Part 2, couples participated in a 14-day daily experience study. Within-person increases in emotional suppression during daily sacrifice were associated with decreases in emotional well-being and relationship quality as reported by both members of romantic dyads. In Part 3, suppression predicted decreases in relationship satisfaction and increases in thoughts about breaking up with a romantic partner 3 months later. In the first two parts of the study, authenticity mediated the costly effects of suppression. Implications for research on close relationships and emotion regulation are discussed.
Shackelford, Todd K.; Mouzos, Jenny
Using a national-level U.S. database, T. K. Shackelford (2001) calculated rates of uxoricide (the murder of a woman by her romantic partner) by relationship type (cohabiting or marital), by ages of the partners, and by the age difference between partners. Women in cohabiting relationships were 9 times more likely to be killed by their partner than…
Pelucchi, Sara; Paleari, F Giorgia; Regalia, Camillo; Fincham, Frank D
This study investigates self-forgiveness for real hurts committed against the partner in a romantic relationship (N = 168 couples). Using a dyadic perspective, we evaluated whether offender self-forgiveness, conceived as a bidimensional construct distinct from self-excusing, was uniquely related to both own and partner relationship satisfaction. For both males and females, offending partners were more satisfied with their romantic relationship to the extent that they had more positive and less negative sentiment and thoughts toward themselves, whereas victimized partners were more satisfied with the relationship when the offending partner had less negative sentiment and thoughts (but not more positive ones) toward himself/herself. The implications of these findings for understanding self-forgiveness and its pro-relationship effects in romantic couples are discussed.
Grau, Josefina M; Castellanos, Patricia; Smith, Erin N; Duran, Petra A; Silberman, Stephanie; Wood, Lauren
Adolescent mothers face multiple stressors and are at risk for experiencing high levels of depressive symptoms and parenting stress. This study examined the interplay of Latino cultural orientation and perceived support from romantic partners in protecting the adjustment of young, low-income, Puerto Rican mothers (N = 103; M age = 18.0 yrs; SD = 1.2) during the second year postpartum. In multivariate analyses, perceived partner support was uniquely and negatively associated with both maternal depressive symptoms and parenting stress. However, in the case of parenting stress, this association was moderated by mothers' Latino cultural orientation. Perceived partner support was related to less parenting stress when mothers endorsed a relatively strong Latino cultural orientation; perceived partner support was no longer protective at low levels of Latino orientation. The implications for intervention and for the understanding of the role of culture in social support processes within close relationships are discussed.
Kogan, Steven M.; Yu, Tianyi; Allen, Kimberly A.; Pocock, Alexandra M.; Brody, Gene H.
African American male adolescents’ involvement with multiple sexual partners has important implications for public health as well as for their development of ideas regarding masculinity and sexuality. The purpose of this study was to test hypotheses regarding the pathways through which racial discrimination affects African American adolescents’ involvement with multiple sexual partners. We hypothesized that racial discrimination would engender psychological distress, which would promote attitudes and peer affiliations conducive to multiple sexual partnerships. The study also examined the protective influence of parenting practices in buffering the influence of contextual stressors. Participants were 221 African American male youth who provided data at ages 16 and 18; their parents provided data on family socioeconomic disadvantages. Of these young men, 18.5% reported having 3 or more sexual partners during the past 3 months. Structural equation models indicated that racial discrimination contributed to sexual activity with multiple partners by inducing psychological distress, which in turn affected attitudes and peer affiliations conducive to multiple partners. The experience of protective parenting, which included racial socialization, closeness and harmony in parent-child relationships, and parental monitoring, buffered the influence of racial discrimination on psychological distress. These findings suggest targets for prevention programming and underscore the importance of efforts to reduce young men’s experience with racial discrimination. PMID:25937821
Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Sugawara, Sho K.; Hamano, Yuki H.; Makita, Kai; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Tanabe, Hiroki C.; Ogino, Yuichi; Saito, Shigeru; Sadato, Norihiro
Romantic relationship, a widespread feature of human society, is one of the most influential factors in daily life. Although stimuli related to romantic love or being in a romantic relationship commonly result in enhancement of activation or functional connectivity of the reward system, including the striatum, the structure underlying romantic relationship-related regions remain unclear. Because individual experiences can alter gray matter within the adult human brain, we hypothesized that romantic relationship is associated with structural differences in the striatum related to the positive subjective experience of being in a romantic relationship. Because intimate romantic relationships contribute to perceived subjective happiness, this subjective enhancement of happiness might be accompanied by the experience of positive events related to being in a romantic relationship. To test this hypothesis and elucidate the structure involved, we compared subjective happiness, an indirect measure of the existence of positive experiences caused by being in a romantic relationship, of participants with or without romantic partners (N = 68). Furthermore, we also conducted a voxel-based morphometry study of the effects of being in a romantic relationship (N = 113). Being in a romantic relationship was associated with greater subjective happiness and reduced gray matter density within the right dorsal striatum. These results suggest that being in a romantic relationship enhances perceived subjective happiness via positive experiences. Furthermore, the observed reduction in gray matter density in the right dorsal striatum may reflect an increase in saliency of social reward within a romantic relationship. Thus, being in a romantic relationship is associated with positive experiences and a reduction of gray matter density in the right dorsal striatum, representing a modulation of social reward. PMID:27895606
Leadbeater, Bonnie J; Sukhawathanakul, Paweena; Holfeld, Brett; Temple, Jeffery R
Past research suggests that exposure to parent psychological control and peer relational aggression and victimization experienced during adolescence is associated with relational intimate partner violence (IPV) in young adults (ages 22 to 29). However, the effects of continuities in these concerns across young adulthood have not been assessed. Relational IPV is characterized by behaviors intended to damage partner's emotional well-being and security in a romantic relationship (e.g., threatening to break up, purposefully ignoring, or causing jealousy). Six waves of data were collected biennially across 10 years from 662 participants (342 females) who were 12 to 18 years old in 2003. The 334 youth who were in a current romantic relationship at the sixth wave (T6, 10 years later) are the focus of this research. Tests of hypothesized structural equation models indicated that adolescent experiences of psychological control with fathers (but not mothers) predicted relational IPV at T6, but this association was no longer significant after accounting for continuity in father psychological control in young adulthood. Adolescent experiences of relational aggression and victimization with peers also predicted relational IPV at T6. This association remained significant for males, only, after continuity in experiences of relational aggression and victimization with peers in young adulthood was included in the model. Implications for the prevention of relational IPV in adolescence and young adults are discussed.
Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Burk, William J
Assortative mating is an important issue in explaining antisocial, aggressive behavior. It is yet unclear, whether the similarity paradigm fully explains frequent displays of aggression in adolescents' romantic relationships. In a sample of 194 romantic partner dyads, differences between female and male partners' reports of aggression (psychological and physical) and different measures of relationship functioning (e.g., jealousy, conflicts, and the affiliative and romantic quality of the relationship) were assessed. A hierarchical cluster analysis identified five distinct subgroups of dyads based on male and female reports of psychological and physical aggression: nonaggressive couples, couples with higher perceived aggressiveness (both physical and psychological) by females, couples with higher aggressiveness perceived by males and mutually aggressive couples. A substantial number of non-aggressive dyads emerged. Of note was the high number of females showing one-sided aggression, which was, however, not countered by their partner. The mutually aggressive couples showed the least adaptive relationship functioning, with a lack of supportive, trusting relationship qualities, high conflict rates and high jealousy. The discussion focuses on the different functions of aggression in these early romantic relations, and the aggravating impact of mutual aggression on relationship functioning and its potential antisocial outcomes.
Smith, Erin N.; Grau, Josefina M.; Duran, Petra A.; Castellanos, Patricia
We examined the relations between maternal depressive symptoms and child internalizing and externalizing problems in a sample of 125 adolescent Latina mothers (primarily Puerto Rican) and their toddlers. We also tested the influence of mother-reported partner child care involvement on child behavior problems and explored mother-reported partner…
Gomez, Anu Manchikanti
Child abuse is an important determinant of future violence perpetration and victimization. Past research examining linkages between child abuse and adult intimate partner violence (IPV) has predominantly focused on married individuals and not considered adolescent dating violence. In the present study, data from three waves of the National…
Keenan-Miller, Danielle; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia
The authors examined prospective measures of psychosocial risk factors as predictors of severe intimate partner violence among a community sample of 610 young adults at risk for intergenerational transmission of depression. The hypothesized risk factors were youth history of depression by age 15 and maternal history of depression. Youth social…
Lohman, Brenda J.; Neppl, Tricia K.; Senia, Jennifer M.; Schofield, Thomas J.
The intergenerational transmission of violence directed toward intimate partners has been documented for the past three decades. Overall, the literature shows that violence in the family of origin leads to violence in the family of destination. However, this predominately cross-sectional or retrospective literature is limited by self-selection,…
de Graaf, Hanneke; van de Schoot, Rens; Woertman, Liesbeth; Hawk, Skyler T; Meeus, Wim
Although the relation between family relationships and the timing of sexual debut has been the focus of many studies, research on mediating factors is scarce. This study examines whether low levels of family cohesion result in an earlier onset of romantic and sexual experiences, and whether the link between family cohesion and an early sexual debut is mediated by early romantic initiation. A longitudinal sample of 314 adolescent girls and 222 boys, aged 12-17 at Wave 1, completed questionnaires at three measurement points with three year intervals. The results showed that sexual debut followed romantic initiation for 77% of the participants. For early adolescent females (aged 12-14), high levels of family cohesion resulted in a later sexual debut and this association was fully mediated by a delay of romantic initiation. Among boys and older girls, timing of romantic initiation did not mediate the link between family cohesion and timing of sexual initiation. Early adolescent girls who have negative relationships with their parents turn to romantic relationships for intimacy and support, which subsequently provide the opportunity for an early sexual debut. Low levels of family cohesion thus primarily precipitate romantic initiation and sexual initiation appears to be secondary to this process among girls in this age group.
Kretschmer, Tina; Vollebergh, Wilma; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.
Romantic relationship quality in adolescence and early adulthood has often been linked to earlier parent-child relationship quality but it is possible that these links are nonlinear. Moreover, the role of social skills as mediator of associations between parent-child and romantic relations has been discussed but not rigorously tested. Using data…
Rubin, Marcia A., Ed.; Wooley, Susan F., Ed.
This resource describes how pregnancy prevention efforts can be integrated into the various components of a school health program (the linkages between classroom instruction to prevent adolescent pregnancy and the school's health and mental health services, the necessary administrative policies, the type and extent of faculty and staff…
Drawing on data from a larger research study, this paper explores intersecting and competing social relations that influenced the romantic desires of women who became intimately involved with men who molested children. Through a feminist poststructuralist lens, women's narratives were analysed with the use of feminist interpretations of Foucauldian discourse theory. Analysis informed of a discursive power over participants that made the attainment of romantic desires an imperative for ensuring social respect, worth and credibility as women. When all was not ideal, these same romantic desires compelled women to fix and hold onto their relationships--even when with men that attract damning societal responses towards them. Even upon acknowledgement of their partners' sexual transgressions, the fear of relationship breakdown meant that romantic desires again featured as imperatives for the women. The imagined pleasure of achieving romantic desires is discursive; so powerful that it outweighed women's fears and dangers of precarious intimate life with men who commit abhorrent acts.
Haddad, Eileen; Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen
Previous research has consistently documented the importance of VIPs (mentors or important non-parental adults) in the lives of adolescents. Little is known, however, about whether VIPs play the same important roles across ethnic groups and whether VIPs remain influential when adolescents are older and involved in romantic relationships. The present study compared VIPs of 355 Hispanic, Asian, and European American older adolescents (age range = 17-19 years; M = 18.7 years; 62% female). Results indicated that, despite ethnic differences in their social capital, VIPs' psychological characteristics (e.g., warmth and acceptance, depressive symptoms, and problem behavior) were similar. VIPs were perceived to have more positive psychological profiles than parents and peers, and in some cases, romantic partners. Moreover, with a few exceptions, the associations between VIP characteristics and adolescent adjustment (e.g., self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and problem behavior) were largely similar across ethnic groups. Finally, VIPs made unique contributions to adolescents' self-esteem and problem behaviors even after the effects of romantic partners were considered. Implications of the findings are discussed.
Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Greenfield, Patricia
Over the past decade, technology has become increasingly important in the lives of adolescents. As a group, adolescents are heavy users of newer electronic communication forms such as instant messaging, e-mail, and text messaging, as well as communication-oriented Internet sites such as blogs, social networking, and sites for sharing photos and videos. Kaveri Subrahmanyam and Patricia Greenfield examine adolescents' relationships with friends, romantic partners, strangers, and their families in the context of their online communication activities. The authors show that adolescents are using these communication tools primarily to reinforce existing relationships, both with friends and romantic partners. More and more they are integrating these tools into their "offline" worlds, using, for example, social networking sites to get more information about new entrants into their offline world. Subrahmanyam and Greenfield note that adolescents' online interactions with strangers, while not as common now as during the early years of the Internet, may have benefits, such as relieving social anxiety, as well as costs, such as sexual predation. Likewise, the authors demonstrate that online content itself can be both positive and negative. Although teens find valuable support and information on websites, they can also encounter racism and hate messages. Electronic communication may also be reinforcing peer communication at the expense of communication with parents, who may not be knowledgeable enough about their children's online activities on sites such as the enormously popular MySpace. Although the Internet was once hailed as the savior of education, the authors say that schools today are trying to control the harmful and distracting uses of electronic media while children are at school. The challenge for schools is to eliminate the negative uses of the Internet and cell phones in educational settings while preserving their significant contributions to education and social
Carlson, Wendy; Rose, Amanda J
Whereas much research addresses relations of youths' heterosexual romantic relationships with sexual and/or delinquent activities, less attention has been paid to youths' more normative, day-to-day activities with romantic partners. This gap in the literature is problematic given that these activities define the substance of the relationships and likely are connected to relationship satisfaction. In the current study, 223 youths in fifth (28 boys; 32 girls), eighth (31 boys; 40 girls), and eleventh (36 boys; 56 girls) grades reporting current romantic relationships indicated their engagement in activities with romantic partners and relationship satisfaction. Findings revealed important grade differences in activity involvement, with eighth- and eleventh-graders reporting higher engagement than fifth-graders, especially in out-of-school activities. Additionally, engagement in out-of-school activities was most strongly associated with relationship satisfaction for all grades.
Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.; Landor, Antoinette M.; Bryant, Chalandra M.; Beach, Steven R.H.
It is well known that a high quality relationship with a romantic partner is related to a variety of positive outcomes associated with health and well-being. Establishing such relationships is an important developmental task for young adults and past research indicates that there is a link between experiences in the family of origin and the success of later intimate relationships. It has been suggested that this association can be explained by the acquisition of social competencies (e.g., emotions, schemas, traits) that are acquired during childhood in the family of origin and, in turn, influence interaction with adult romantic partners. The current study builds on this foundation by identifying particular competencies expected to explain the association between childhood exposure to supportive and harsh parenting and later patterns of interaction with romantic partners. Specifically, we examine anger management, attachment style, hostile attribution bias, and self-control as potential mediators using prospective, longitudinal data from a sample of 345 African American young adults. Results from structural equation modeling indicate that each of the mediators in our study accounts for a significant portion of the effect of parenting on the quality of adult romantic relationships although the constructs linking parenting to warm interactions with romantic partners are somewhat different from those that link parenting to hostile interactions with romantic partners. Even after accounting for the effect of the mediators, there is still a direct effect of parenting on both warm/loving and hostile/aggressive interactions with romantic partner. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:24730381
Toska, Elona; Cluver, Lucie D.; Hodes, Rebecca; Kidia, Khameer K.
HIV-positive adolescents who engage in unsafe sex are at heightened risk for transmitting or re-acquiring HIV. Disclosure of HIV-status to sexual partners may impact on condom use, but no study has explored the effects of (i) adolescent knowledge of one's HIV-status, (ii) knowledge of partner status and (iii) disclosure to partners, on safer sex behaviour. This study aimed to identify whether knowledge of HIV-status by HIV-positive adolescents and partners was associated with safer sex. Eight fifty eight HIV-positive adolescents (10–19 years old, 52% female, 68.1% vertically infected) who had ever initiated antiretroviral treatment in 41 health facilities in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, were interviewed using standardised questionnaires. Quantitative analyses used multivariate logistic regressions, controlling for confounders. Qualitative research included interviews, focus group discussions and observations with 43 HIV-positive teenagers and their healthcare workers. N = 128 (14.9%) of the total sample had ever had sex, while N = 109 (85.1%) of sexually active adolescents had boy/girlfriend. In total, 68.1% of the sample knew their status, 41.5% of those who were sexually active and in relationships knew their partner's status, and 35.5% had disclosed to their partners. For adolescents, knowing one's status was associated with safer sex (OR = 4.355, CI 1.085–17.474, p = .038). Neither knowing their partner's status, nor disclosing one's HIV-status to a partner, were associated with safer sex. HIV-positive adolescents feared rejection, stigma and public exposure if disclosing to sexual and romantic partners. Counselling by healthcare workers for HIV-positive adolescents focused on benefits of disclosure, but did not address the fears and risks associated with disclosure. These findings challenge assumptions that disclosure is automatically protective in sexual and romantic relationships for HIV-positive adolescents, who may be ill-equipped to
Rözer, Jesper Jelle; Mollenhorst, Gerald; Volker, Beate
According to the social withdrawal hypothesis, a personal network becomes smaller when a person starts dating, cohabitates and marries. This phenomenon is widely established in the literature. However, these studies were usually done with cross-sectional data. As a consequence, it is still unclear whether or how personal networks actually change after the formation of a romantic relationship (i.e. dating), after starting cohabitation and after getting married. It is also unclear how long and to what extent social withdrawal continues. To overcome these shortcomings, we examine how the size and composition of personal networks change after relationship formation. We use two waves of the PAIRFAM dataset (2008 and 2011), which include information about 6640 Germans who were between 16 and 39 years of age at the time of the second interview in 2008. Results from fixed effects regression models underscore that the association between romantic relationships and changes in personal networks is more dynamic than previous studies suggested. For example, after the formation of a romantic relationship people show a decrease in non-kin contacts, while an increase in non-kin contacts is observed after two years of dating, as well as after two years of cohabitation. These network changes suggest that people adapt their social networks to the demands and constraints of each phase of a romantic relationship. Because the decline in network size after dating is not stable, there is no need to be afraid that those who have a romantic partner remain isolated from other relationships.
This essay outlines the potential role for Kieran Egan's (1990) notion of "romantic understanding" in science education. A summary of conventional approaches to science education is followed by a detailed analysis of the implications that romantic understanding may have for the science curriculum, teaching and student learning. In particular the…
Kramer, D; Moore, M
Three types of myths frequently appearing in contemporary romantic fiction deal with traditional family values, spousal relationships, and love. Several myths belonging to each type are illustrated and analyzed. It is argued that by naturalizing some behaviors and idealizing others, romantic novels not only may indoctrinate their readers with a patriarchal ideology but also may inculcate upon them pathogenic family processes.
Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J
In this review, it is proposed that a systems approach to the study of the development of romantic relationships might enhance our understanding of the nature of social relationships, and the links between social relationships and individual psychosocial functioning. First, a selected literature review is provided on the normative development of romantic relationships during adolescence, antecedents of different romantic involvement pathways, and positive and negative qualities of these relationships. Second, the focus is placed on the how the development of romantic relationships occurs within existing systems of relationships including peer networks and close friendships. It is suggested that the development of romantic relationships may change the peer network and nature of relationships with friends and others, and particular types of transitions in social relationships will likely occur. The timing of these transitions and an understanding of the entire peer system as romantic relationships develop will likely improve our understanding of individual developmental processes such as identity formation and the development of externalizing and internalizing problems. Finally, it is proposed that adolescents are faced with a complicated task that includes developing romantic interests and relationships but managing their changing social networks.
Harrison, Abigail; Smit, Jenni; Hoffman, Susie; Nzama, Thobile; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Mantell, Joanne; Stein, Zena; Exner, Theresa
Background and methods In preparation for a school-based intervention in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, a cross-sectional survey of potential HIV risk factors in youth aged 14–17 (n = 983) was conducted. Results Boys were significantly more likely than girls to report lifetime sexual activity (37.7% v. 13.8%, P < 0.01). Among boys and girls, 46.1% reported condom use at last sex. Discussion of condom use with a partner was the strongest predictor of condom use (boys, odds ratio (OR) = 7.39; girls, OR = 5.58, P < 0.0001). Age was independently associated with sexual activity for boys (OR = 1.49, P < 0.0001) and girls (OR = 1.74, P = 0.02). For boys, perceptions of male peer behaviour were associated with both ever having participated in sexual activity (OR = 1.48, P < 0.01) and condom use at last sex (OR = 1.79, P < 0.01). Girls who equated condom use with having numerous partners were more likely to use them. Among boys, results challenged some expected gender beliefs: support for girls’ initiative in relationship formation and refusal of sex were significant predictors of sexual activity. Among girls, higher pregnancy risk perception (OR = 1.32, P = 0.02) and knowledge (OR = 4.85, P = 0.055) were associated with sexual activity. Conclusions Creating more gender equitable norms can reduce HIV risk behaviours. HIV prevention interventions should build on existing gender equitable beliefs, and work to promote others, including sexual communication and negotiation skills, and modelling of positive peer norms. PMID:22498163
Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen
Previous research has consistently documented the importance of VIPs (mentors or important non-parental adults) in the lives of adolescents. Little is known, however, about whether VIPs play the same important roles across ethnic groups and whether VIPs remain influential when adolescents are older and involved in romantic relationships. The present study compared VIPs of 355 Hispanic, Asian, and European American older adolescents (age range = 17–19 years; M = 18.7 years; 62% female). Results indicated that, despite ethnic differences in their social capital, VIPs’ psychological characteristics (e.g., warmth and acceptance, depressive symptoms, and problem behavior) were similar. VIPs were perceived to have more positive psychological profiles than parents and peers, and in some cases, romantic partners. Moreover, with a few exceptions, the associations between VIP characteristics and adolescent adjustment (e.g., self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and problem behavior) were largely similar across ethnic groups. Finally, VIPs made unique contributions to adolescents’ self-esteem and problem behaviors even after the effects of romantic partners were considered. Implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:20446024
Burke, Tricia J; Young, Valerie J
To understand the association between sexual transformations (i.e., changes in sexual behavior for the partner), intimate behaviors, and relationship quality among couples in romantic relationships, this study used Actor Partner Interdependence Models to examine frequency of sexual transformations, feelings about sexual transformations, and intimate behaviors as predictors of relationship satisfaction among 96 couples (N = 192). Sexual transformations were also examined as a moderator of the association between intimate behavior and relationship satisfaction. Results indicated that relationship satisfaction was positively associated with partners' frequent sexual transformations, actors' positive feelings about sexual transformations, and intimate behavior from the partner. Further, in less intimate relationships, relationship satisfaction was greater when partners reported making more sexual transformations.
Acevedo, Bianca P; Aron, Arthur; Fisher, Helen E; Brown, Lucy L
The present study examined the neural correlates of long-term intense romantic love using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Ten women and 7 men married an average of 21.4 years underwent fMRI while viewing facial images of their partner. Control images included a highly familiar acquaintance; a close, long-term friend; and a low-familiar person. Effects specific to the intensely loved, long-term partner were found in: (i) areas of the dopamine-rich reward and basal ganglia system, such as the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and dorsal striatum, consistent with results from early-stage romantic love studies; and (ii) several regions implicated in maternal attachment, such as the globus pallidus (GP), substantia nigra, Raphe nucleus, thalamus, insular cortex, anterior cingulate and posterior cingulate. Correlations of neural activity in regions of interest with widely used questionnaires showed: (i) VTA and caudate responses correlated with romantic love scores and inclusion of other in the self; (ii) GP responses correlated with friendship-based love scores; (iii) hypothalamus and posterior hippocampus responses correlated with sexual frequency; and (iv) caudate, septum/fornix, posterior cingulate and posterior hippocampus responses correlated with obsession. Overall, results suggest that for some individuals the reward-value associated with a long-term partner may be sustained, similar to new love, but also involves brain systems implicated in attachment and pair-bonding.
Lesch, Elmien; de Jager, Nadia
Parent and peer relationships are important social resources for adolescents. South African research on adolescents' relationships, however, underemphasises these relationships as potential positive resources. Studies also tend to use samples from urban populations, while rural and semi-rural adolescent populations are neglected. This study focused on White and Coloured adolescents living in one South African semi-rural community and their ratings of positive and negative relationship qualities in relationships with parents and peers. Using the Network of Relationships Inventory (NRI), we found that mothers, best friends and romantic partners were relatively equal sources of social support. Mothers' high ratings for support, conflict and punishment may point to mothers bearing the primary responsibility for child care. Fathers' low support ratings raise concern as father involvement is important for adolescents' well-being. White participants overall rated their relationship higher for support and lower for negative qualities than the Coloured participants.
Fisher, Helen E; Aron, Arthur; Brown, Lucy L
Mammals and birds regularly express mate preferences and make mate choices. Data on mate choice among mammals suggest that this behavioural 'attraction system' is associated with dopaminergic reward pathways in the brain. It has been proposed that intense romantic love, a human cross-cultural universal, is a developed form of this attraction system. To begin to determine the neural mechanisms associated with romantic attraction in humans, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study 17 people who were intensely 'in love'. Activation specific to the beloved occurred in the brainstem right ventral tegmental area and right postero-dorsal body of the caudate nucleus. These and other results suggest that dopaminergic reward and motivation pathways contribute to aspects of romantic love. We also used fMRI to study 15 men and women who had just been rejected in love. Preliminary analysis showed activity specific to the beloved in related regions of the reward system associated with monetary gambling for uncertain large gains and losses, and in regions of the lateral orbitofrontal cortex associated with theory of mind, obsessive/compulsive behaviours and controlling anger. These data contribute to our view that romantic love is one of the three primary brain systems that evolved in avian and mammalian species to direct reproduction. The sex drive evolved to motivate individuals to seek a range of mating partners; attraction evolved to motivate individuals to prefer and pursue specific partners; and attachment evolved to motivate individuals to remain together long enough to complete species-specific parenting duties. These three behavioural repertoires appear to be based on brain systems that are largely distinct yet interrelated, and they interact in specific ways to orchestrate reproduction, using both hormones and monoamines. Romantic attraction in humans and its antecedent in other mammalian species play a primary role: this neural mechanism motivates
Connolly, Jennifer; Josephson, Wendy
The emergence of romantic relationships is one of the most striking features of adolescence. By the late adolescent years, most teenagers have been in a romantic relationship at least once and roughly half of teens are dating currently. Alarmingly though, in many of these relationships adolescents act aggressively toward each other and this…
fascination with Shakespeare was the birth of character criticism, or, in the words of Romantic critic Charles Lamb, the desire "to know the internal workings...and movements of a great mind, of an Othello or a Hamlet for instance, the when and the why and the how far they should be moved". Strangely, despite...were unsuccessful. The Romantic playwrights had to contend with the remarkable and influential legacy of Shakespeare --a tradition which they tried to
Seth, Puja; Raiji, Paulomi T; DiClemente, Ralph J; Wingood, Gina M; Rose, Eve
Previous research has established the association between psychosocial factors and risky sexual behaviour. However, few studies have examined the relationship between psychological distress and sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV-associated behaviours in African-American youth. The present study examined the association of psychological distress with STI/HIV-risk behaviour and psycho-social mediators of HIV-preventive behaviours. A sample of 715 African-American female adolescents, 15-21 years old, completed an audio computer assisted self-interviewing (ACASI) assessing sociodemographics, psychological distress, self-efficacy, communication and STI/HIV-associated sexual behaviours. Participants also provided self-collected vaginal swab specimens, which were assayed for STIs. High levels of psychological distress were defined as having a score of > or =7 on the eight-item Centre for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale. The overall prevalence of high levels of psychological distress was 44.5%. Logistic regression analyses revealed that adolescents with high psychological distress, relative to those with low psychological distress, were more likely to have a biologically confirmed STI (adjusted odd ratio (AOR) = 1.40), use condoms inconsistently (AOR = 1.50), not use condoms during their last casual sexual encounter (AOR = 1.89), have sex while high on alcohol or drugs (AOR = 1.47), have male sexual partners with concurrent female sexual partners (AOR = 1.98), have low condom use self-efficacy (AOR = 1.54), partner sexual communication self-efficacy (AOR = 1.77), refusal self-efficacy (AOR = 2.05) and be more fearful of communicating with their partners (AOR = 1.98). These findings, although preliminary, could be used to inform HIV intervention programs and physicians/clinicians providing regular health care maintenance to African-American female adolescents engaging in risky sexual behaviour.
Neumann, Eva; Sattel, Heribert; Gündel, Harald; Henningsen, Peter; Kruse, Johannes
Adult attachment representations have been considered to play a role in the development and treatment of somatizing behavior. In this study, the associations between the two attachment dimensions avoidance and anxiety and dimensions of psychopathology (somatization, depression, and general anxiety) were explored. The sample consists of 202 outpatients diagnosed with a somatoform disorder. Data were collected via self-report measures. A path analysis shows that the two attachment dimensions are not directly associated with somatization. There are, however, significant indirect associations between attachment and somatization mediated by depression and general anxiety, which are more pronounced for attachment anxiety than for attachment avoidance. The findings reveal that a low level of attachment security in romantic relationships, especially an anxious stance toward the partner, comes along with poor mental health, which in turn is related to a preoccupation with somatic complaints. Implications for the treatment of somatizing patients are discussed.
Galano, Eliana; Turato, Egberto Ribeiro; Succi, Regina Célia; de Souza Marques, Heloisa Helena; Della Negra, Marinella; da Silva, Mariliza Henrique; do Carmo, Fabiana Bononi; Gouvea, Aida de Fátima Barbosa; Delmas, Philippe; Côté, José; Machado, Daisy Maria
This study explored the experiences of the first generation of adolescents who acquired HIV through vertical transmission when disclosing their diagnosis to friends and romantic partners. The study sample was selected by convenience, with 20 patients (13-20 years old) participating in a qualitative investigation using individual interviews (language: Portuguese; duration: 45 minutes). The participants were followed in specialized clinics for the treatment of pediatric AIDS in São Paulo, Brazil. The results suggest that families who live with HIV tend to keep it a secret, and such behavior is learned and accepted unquestioningly as natural. Respect for privacy and the fear of rejection, coupled with the belief that information about their disease will be spread, are the main beliefs with which participants justify their secrecy. In terms of romantic relationships, adolescents were aware that their HIV status should at some point be shared with current or future sexual partners. However, the decision to reveal an HIV diagnosis in romantic relationships is permeated by anxieties, uncertainties about the right time, and fear of abandonment. In any case, telling the truth requires trust, guarantees of the other's love, and, in some cases, probing romantic partners beforehand to learn their perceptions about the disease. Participants who had experiences disclosing their HIV status shared positive and negative results, including emotional support, acceptance, and understanding, along with ostracism, discrimination, and abandonment by family members. The findings of this paper reinforce the challenges of revealing an HIV diagnosis to third parties. It requires understanding the meaning and importance of the secret for each patient, along with the conflict between the right to confidentiality and the responsibility of treating others exposed to the disease. All these aspects should be discussed extensively with this population and incorporated into clinical practice.
The family stress model proposes that financial stress experienced by parents is associated with problem behavior in adolescents. The present study applied an actor-partner interdependence approach to the family stress model and focused on low-, middle-, and high-income families to broaden our understanding of the pathways by which the financial stress of mothers and fathers are related to adolescent outcomes. The study uses dyadic data (N = 798 heterosexual couples) from the Relationship between Mothers, Fathers and Children study in which two-parent families with an adolescent between 11 and 17 years of age participated. Path-analytic results indicated that in each of the families the association between parents' financial stress and problem behavior in adolescents is mediated through parents' depressive symptoms, interparental conflict, and positive parenting. Family stress processes also appear to operate in different ways for low-, middle-, and high-income families. In addition to a higher absolute level of financial stress in low-income families, financial stress experienced by mothers and fathers in these families had significant direct and indirect effects on problem behavior in adolescents, while in middle- and high-income families only significant indirect effects were found. The financial stress of a low-income mother also had a more detrimental impact on her level of depressive feelings than it had on mothers in middle-income families. Furthermore, the study revealed gender differences in the pathways of mothers and fathers. Implications for research, clinical practice, and policy are also discussed.
Giordano, Peggy C.; Lonardo, Robert A.; Manning, Wendy D.; Longmore, Monica A.
Hirschi argued that delinquent youth tend to form relatively “cold and brittle” relationships with peers, depicting these youths as deficient in their attachments to others. The current analysis explores connections between delinquency and the character of adolescent romantic ties, drawing primarily on the first wave of the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study, and focusing on 957 teens with dating experience. We examine multiple relationship qualities/dynamics in order to explore both the “cold” and “brittle” dimensions of Hirschi’s hypothesis. Regarding the “cold” assumption, results suggest that delinquency is not related to perceived importance of the romantic relationship, level of intimate self-disclosure or feelings of romantic love, and more delinquent youth actually report more frequent contact with their romantic partners. Analyses focused on two dimensions tapping the “brittle” description indicate that while durations of a focal relationship do not differ according to level of respondent delinquency, more delinquent youths report higher levels of verbal conflict. PMID:21423845
Guerra, Pedro; Campagnoli, Rafaela R; Vico, Cynthia; Volchan, Eliane; Anllo-Vento, Lourdes; Vila, Jaime
A major problem in recent neuroscience research on the processing of loved familiar faces is the absence of evidence concerning the elicitation of a genuine positive emotional response (love). These studies have two confounds: familiarity and arousal. The present investigation controlled for both factors in female university students. Two categories of loved faces were chosen: one with higher familiarity but lower emotionality (fathers) and the other with higher emotionality but lower familiarity (romantic partners). Unfamiliar and baby faces were used as control faces. Central and peripheral electrophysiological measures as well as subjective indices of valence, arousal, and dominance were recorded. Results support the conclusion that viewing loved familiar faces elicits an intense positive emotional reaction that cannot be explained either by familiarity or arousal. The differences between romantic and filial love appeared in the magnitude of some peripheral and subjective indices of emotionality (zygomatic activity, valence, arousal, and dominance), that were higher for images of the romantic partners, and one central index of familiarity (the P3 amplitude), that was higher for images of the fathers.
Adamczyk, Katarzyna; Segrin, Chris
This study investigates the role of romantic desolation on life satisfaction in young adulthood. Using data from a Polish sample of 330 (205 females and 125 males) young adults aged 20-30, who completed Polish versions of the Satisfaction With Life Scale, Dating Anxiety Scale, Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire-Revised, and Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale for Adults-Short Form, romantic desolation (romantic loneliness and lack of a romantic partner) and dating anxiety were tested as mediators of the association between interpersonal competence and life satisfaction. Results revealed that single individuals reported lower life satisfaction and higher romantic loneliness than did partnered individuals. At the same time, no differences emerged between single and partnered individuals in dating anxiety or interpersonal competence. Structural equation modeling results showed that low interpersonal competence has an indirect effect on romantic desolation through higher levels of dating anxiety. Also, dating anxiety had an indirect effect on lower life satisfaction through increased romantic desolation. These results highlight the important role of dating anxiety and romantic desolation for explaining why low interpersonal competence is associated with diminished life satisfaction in young adults.
Joel, Samantha; MacDonald, Geoff; Shimotomai, Atsushi
Anxious attachment predicts strong desires for intimacy and stability in romantic relationships, yet the relation between anxious attachment and romantic commitment is unclear. We propose that extant literature has failed to find a consistent relation because anxiously attached individuals experience conflicting pressures on commitment. Data from Australia (N=137) show that relationship satisfaction and felt security each act as suppressors of a positive relation between anxious attachment and commitment. Data from Japan (N=159) replicate the suppression effect of felt security and also demonstrate that the residual positive relation between anxious attachment and commitment can be partly explained by dependence on the partner. These findings suggest that anxiously attached individuals may be ambivalent about commitment. Dissatisfaction and worries about negative evaluation appear to exert downward pressure on commitment, counteracting the upward pressure that is exerted by factors such as relational dependency.
Kennedy, Angie C; Bybee, Deborah; Kulkarni, Shanti J; Archer, Gretchen
Guided by an intersectional feminist perspective, we examined sexual victimization, witnessing intimate partner violence (IPV) in the family, and familial physical abuse among a sample of 180 urban African American adolescent women. We used cluster analysis to better understand the profiles of cumulative victimization, and the relationships between profiles and IPV victimization and personal exposure to the sex trade. Just under one third of the sample reported sexual victimization, with cooccurrence with both forms of family violence common. The cluster profile with high levels of severe family violence was associated with the highest rate of IPV victimization and sex trade exposure.
Kennedy, Angie C; Bennett, Larry
Using a risk and resilience perspective, the authors assessed urban adolescent mothers' exposure to community, family, and partner violence and analyzed the relationships between cumulative violence exposure and multiple school outcomes, within the context of welfare reforms. Positive attitude toward school and social support were examined as moderators of violence exposure on school outcomes. The authors pilot tested the questionnaire with 10 participants, then surveyed 120 adolescent mothers regarding their violence exposure, school performance and participation, positive attitude toward school, and social support. Results indicate very high rates of lifetime exposure to violence; intercorrelations and regression analyses indicate that as violence exposure increases, school outcomes tend to worsen, with positive attitude toward school found to be a significant moderator of the effects of exposure to community violence on behavior problems in school. Implications for researchers, practitioners, school policies and programs, and welfare policies and programs conclude the article.
Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.
Developed for a high school quinmester unit on the romantic hero, this guide contains teaching strategies for a study of the characteristics of the romantic hero as he appears in various literary selections. Several major literary works are analyzed and discussed in comparison with popular culture heroes, and the portrayal of the romantic hero in…
Stanton, Sarah C E; Campbell, Lorne; Loving, Timothy J
We assessed the impact of thinking of a current romantic partner on acute blood glucose responses and positive affect over a short period of time. Participants in romantic relationships were randomly assigned to reflect on their partner, an opposite-sex friend, or their morning routine. Blood glucose levels were assessed prior to reflection, as well as at 10 and 25 min postreflection. Results revealed that individuals in the routine and friend conditions exhibited a decline in glucose over time, whereas individuals in the partner condition did not exhibit this decline (rather, a slight increase) in glucose over time. Reported positive affect following reflection was positively associated with increases in glucose, but only for individuals who reflected on their partner, suggesting this physiological response reflects eustress. These findings add to the literature on eustress in relationships and have implications for relationship processes.
Freeman, Harry; Almond, Tasha M.
A mixed methods approach was used to examine how young adults (n = 1012) perceive fathers as targets for attachment support. Participants ranked the level of attachment support received and sought from fathers, mothers, best friends, and romantic partners, and provided relationship-specific information on additional indices of social support…
Holman, Thomas B.; Galbraith, Richard C.; Timmons, Nicole Mead; Steed, April; Tobler, Samuel B.
This study tested hypotheses based on the theoretical idea that threats to parental availability would have a direct effect on later adult attachment insecurity and that this relationship would be partially, but not fully, mediated by threats to the availability of a romantic partner. Participants were 1,063 individuals in a married or unmarried…
Simons, Ronald L.; Barr, Ashley B.
Although research regarding the impact of marriage on desistance is important, most romantic relationships during early adulthoood, the period in the life course when involvement in criminal offending is relatively high, do not involve marriage. Using the internal moderator approach, we tested hypotheses regarding the impact of non-marital romantic relationships on desistance using longitudinal data from a sample of approximately 600 African American young adults. The results largely supported the study hypotheses. We found no significant association between simply being in a romantic relationship and desistance from offending. On the other hand, for both males and females quality of romantic relationship was rather strongly associated with desistance. Partner antisociality only influenced the offending of females. Much of the effect of quality of romantic relationship on desistance was mediated by a reduction in commitment to a criminogenic knowledge structure (a hostile view of people and relationships, concern with immediate gratification, and cynical view of conduct norms). The mediating effect of change in affiliation with deviant peers was not significant once the contribution of criminogenic knowledge structure was taken into account. The findings are discussed in terms of social control and cognitive accounts of the mechanisms whereby romantic relationships influence desistance. PMID:25328280
Rivadeneyra, Rocío; Lebo, Melanie J
Two hundred and fifteen ninth grade students were surveyed to examine the relationship between television use and gender role attitudes and behavior in dating situations. Findings indicate the existence of a relationship between watching "romantic" television programming and having more traditional gender role attitudes in dating situations. However, watching non-romantic television dramas and thinking television was realistic, was related to having less traditional dating role attitudes. In addition, watching soap operas was related to a younger age of dating initiation and a greater number of dating partners. These results suggest that along with their own experiences in dating peers, adolescents may be learning from television programs that dating is a gendered process with prescribed roles for males and females, an attitude connected with greater sexual risk for young women.
Obsuth, Ingrid; Hennighausen, Katherine; Brumariu, Laura E.; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen
Disoriented, punitive, and caregiving/role-confused attachment behaviors are associated with psychopathology in childhood, but have not been assessed in adolescence. A total of 120 low-income late adolescents (aged 18-23 years) and parents were assessed in a conflict-resolution paradigm. Their interactions were coded with the Goal-Corrected…
Johnston, Michael W.; Bell, Alan P.
Compared reports of gay and heterosexual male college students about particular behaviors and feelings during childhood and adolescence. Results were interpreted as providing general support for Bell's heterogamy principle that regardless of one's sexual orientation, romantic attachments will be to people perceived different from one's self.…
Wisnieski, Deborah; Sieving, Renee; Garwick, Ann
Parents can play an important role in reducing their children's risk for teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, and in promoting sexual health during adolescence. The purpose of this study was to explore communication between parents, family members and young people and how it influences their romantic and sexual behaviours.…
Billedo, Cherrie Joy; Kerkhof, Peter; Finkenauer, Catrin
Social networking sites (SNS) play an increasingly important role in maintaining geographically close romantic relationships (GCRR). However, knowledge about SNS use in long-distance romantic relationships (LDRR) is still lacking. The present study examined the relative importance of SNS in maintaining LDRR compared to GCRR, particularly with regard to the use of SNS to express involvement (via relational maintenance behaviors) and to gauge a partner's involvement (via partner surveillance and jealousy) in the relationship. An online survey was conducted among predominantly young adult Facebook users who were in a romantic relationship (N=272). Results showed that participants who were in a LDRR reported higher levels of relational maintenance behaviors through SNS than participants who were in a GCRR. Also, as compared to participants who were in a GCRR, participants who were in a LDRR used SNS more for partner surveillance and experienced higher levels of SNS jealousy.
Dalla, Rochelle L; Marchetti, Alexandria M; Sechrest, Elizabeth Beth A; White, Jennifer L
In 1992 and 1995, data were collected from 29 Navajo Native American adolescent mothers. In 2007 and 2008, data were collected from 21 of the original 29 (72%). Guided by feminist family theory, this investigation sought to (a) examine Navajo adolescent mothers' intimate partner relationships during the transition to parenthood, (b) identify themes in the young mothers' intimate partnerships across time, and (c) assess participants' psychosocial well-being in adulthood. Four themes emerged in the women's long-term intimate relationships: limited support, substance abuse, infidelity, and intimate partner violence. Implications of the findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Marshall, Carl L.
One of the Afro-American writers who spoke out clearly during the postreconstruction period was Albery A. Whitman (1851-1902). A romantic poet, Whitman produced seven volumes of poetry. His profound belief in freedom and equality for his race is expressed forcefully in two long narrative poems, "Not a Man and Yet a Man" and "The…
Elliott, Lindsey; Knox, David
A 64 item Internet questionnaire was completed by 381 undergraduates at a large southeastern university to assess taking chances in romantic relationships. Almost three fourths (72%) self-identified as being a "person willing to take chances in my love relationship." Engaging in unprotected sex, involvement in a "friends with…
Weissbourd, Richard; Peterson, Amelia; Weinstein, Emily
One of the most important aspects in our lives is learning how to have mutual, caring romantic relationships. Yet while schools and many other industries in this country devote tremendous attention and resources to preparing the young for work, they do remarkably little to prepare them for generous, self-respecting sex and love. Educators and…
Müller, Viktor; Lindenberger, Ulman
Coordinated social interaction is associated with, and presumably dependent on, oscillatory couplings within and between brains, which, in turn, consist of an interplay across different frequencies. Here, we introduce a method of network construction based on the cross-frequency coupling (CFC) and examine whether coordinated social interaction is associated with CFC within and between brains. Specifically, we compare the electroencephalograms (EEG) of 15 heterosexual couples during romantic kissing to kissing one’s own hand, and to kissing one another while performing silent arithmetic. Using graph-theory methods, we identify theta–alpha hyper-brain networks, with alpha serving a cleaving or pacemaker function. Network strengths were higher and characteristic path lengths shorter when individuals were kissing each other than when they were kissing their own hand. In both partner-oriented kissing conditions, greater strength and shorter path length for 5-Hz oscillation nodes correlated reliably with greater partner-oriented kissing satisfaction. This correlation was especially strong for inter-brain connections in both partner-oriented kissing conditions but not during kissing one’s own hand. Kissing quality assessed after the kissing with silent arithmetic correlated reliably with intra-brain strength of 10-Hz oscillation nodes during both romantic kissing and kissing with silent arithmetic. We conclude that hyper-brain networks based on CFC may capture neural mechanisms that support interpersonally coordinated voluntary action and bonding behavior. PMID:25375132
Hennessy, Michael; Bleakley, Amy; Fishbein, Martin; Jordan, Amy
Using a web-based survey of adolescents 14-16 years of age, a hierarchical index of heterosexual behavior was developed with excellent psychometric properties. The easiest sexual behavior to perform was "deep kissing" and the most difficult was "receiving anal sex" for females and "giving anal sex" for males. The index was validated with data that show increased sexual activity with being older and of minority status, with social traits such as physical development, having a romantic partner, and sensation seeking, and with psychosocial variables known to be associated with sexual behavior such as attitudes, norms, self-efficacy and intentions.
Abbasi, Irum Saeed; Alghamdi, Nawal G
What causes some marriages to stand the test of time while others fail? Marital commitment is the key force underlying the stability, quality, and longevity of the romantic relationship. Commitment is strengthened in the presence of marital satisfaction, the absence of alternative attractions, and steady investments made in the relationship. Commitment is also a consequence of increasing dependence such that when partners are emotionally engaged with their virtual connections, their dependence on their significant other weakens resulting in low commitment. Dependence on the partner increases when people feel satisfied in their relationship, think unfavorably about the quality of available alternatives and feel that they have made great investments in their relationship. Technological advancements and the ever-evolving communication mediums contribute to relationship troubles by providing access to alternatives that substantially reduce shared family time. The boastfully curated profiles of virtual connections and their overly glossed pictures may lead partners to feel deficient in their life. Previous research showed that Facebook can reduce relationship satisfaction by providing alternatives and deflecting time and emotional investments away from the committed relationship. This article examines the commitment literature and discusses how commitment is undermined in the contemporary era. Finally, marital therapy is addressed with suggestions for future areas of exploration.
Ackerman, Joshua M; Griskevicius, Vladas; Li, Norman P
Are men or women more likely to confess love first in romantic relationships? And how do men and women feel when their partners say "I love you"? An evolutionary-economics perspective contends that women and men incur different potential costs and gain different potential benefits from confessing love. Across 6 studies testing current and former romantic relationships, we found that although people think that women are the first to confess love and feel happier when they receive such confessions, it is actually men who confess love first and feel happier when receiving confessions. Consistent with predictions from our model, additional studies have shown that men's and women's reactions to love confessions differ in important ways depending on whether the couple has engaged in sexual activity. These studies have demonstrated that saying and hearing "I love you" has different meanings depending on who is doing the confessing and when the confession is being made. Beyond romantic relationships, an evolutionary-economics perspective suggests that displays of commitment in other types of relationships--and reactions to these displays--will be influenced by specific, functional biases.
Fisher, Helen E; Aron, Arthur; Brown, Lucy L
Mammals and birds regularly express mate preferences and make mate choices. Data on mate choice among mammals suggest that this behavioural ‘attraction system’ is associated with dopaminergic reward pathways in the brain. It has been proposed that intense romantic love, a human cross-cultural universal, is a developed form of this attraction system. To begin to determine the neural mechanisms associated with romantic attraction in humans, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study 17 people who were intensely ‘in love’. Activation specific to the beloved occurred in the brainstem right ventral tegmental area and right postero-dorsal body of the caudate nucleus. These and other results suggest that dopaminergic reward and motivation pathways contribute to aspects of romantic love. We also used fMRI to study 15 men and women who had just been rejected in love. Preliminary analysis showed activity specific to the beloved in related regions of the reward system associated with monetary gambling for uncertain large gains and losses, and in regions of the lateral orbitofrontal cortex associated with theory of mind, obsessive/compulsive behaviours and controlling anger. These data contribute to our view that romantic love is one of the three primary brain systems that evolved in avian and mammalian species to direct reproduction. The sex drive evolved to motivate individuals to seek a range of mating partners; attraction evolved to motivate individuals to prefer and pursue specific partners; and attachment evolved to motivate individuals to remain together long enough to complete species-specific parenting duties. These three behavioural repertoires appear to be based on brain systems that are largely distinct yet interrelated, and they interact in specific ways to orchestrate reproduction, using both hormones and monoamines. Romantic attraction in humans and its antecedent in other mammalian species play a primary role: this neural mechanism
Roisman, Glenn I; Collins, W Andrew; Sroufe, L Alan; Egeland, Byron
Although attachment theory suggests that childhood experiences with caregivers serve as a prototype for adult love relationships, few explicit tests of this hypothesis exist in the literature. Drawing on data from a longitudinal cohort followed from birth to young adulthood, this paper examined correlates and antecedents of young adults' representations of and behavior in their current romantic relationship. Young adults who experienced a secure relationship with their primary caregiver in infancy as assessed in the Strange Situation were more likely to (a) produce coherent discourse regarding their current romantic partnership in the context of the Current Relationship Interview (CRI) and (b) have a higher quality romantic relationship as observed in standard conflict and collaboration tasks. Infant security accounted for variation in CRI security above and beyond the observed quality of participants' current romantic relationship. In contrast, the association between infant and romantic security was partially mediated by individuals' self-reports about their romantic experiences, suggesting that one plausible mechanism by which early experiences with caregivers shape young adults' representations of their attachments with romantic partners is through adults' expectations for and perceptions of love relationships.
Righetti, Francesca; Luchies, Laura B; van Gils, Suzanne; Slotter, Erica B; Witcher, Betty; Kumashiro, Madoka
Romantic partners often have to sacrifice their interests to benefit their partner or to maintain the relationship. In the present work, we investigated whether relative power within the relationship plays an important role in determining the extent to which partners are likely to sacrifice. Drawing from both classic theories and recent research on power, we tested two competing predictions on the relationship between power and sacrifice in romantic relationships. We tested whether (a) power is negatively related to sacrifice and (b) power is positively related to sacrifice. Furthermore, we also explored whether the association between power and sacrifice is moderated by commitment and inclusion of the other in the self. To test our hypotheses, we used different methodologies, including questionnaires, diary studies, and videotaped interactions. Results across the five studies (N = 1,088) consistently supported the hypothesis that power is negatively related to tendencies to sacrifice in close relationships.
Fox, Jesse; Anderegg, Courtney
Due to their pervasiveness and unique affordances, social media play a distinct role in the development of modern romantic relationships. This study examines how a social networking site is used for information seeking about a potential or current romantic partner. In a survey, Facebook users (N=517) were presented with Facebook behaviors categorized as passive (e.g., reading a partner's profile), active (e.g., "friending" a common third party), or interactive (e.g., commenting on the partner's wall) uncertainty reduction strategies. Participants reported how normative they perceived these behaviors to be during four possible stages of relationship development (before meeting face-to-face, after meeting face-to-face, casual dating, and exclusive dating). Results indicated that as relationships progress, perceived norms for these behaviors change. Sex differences were also observed, as women perceived passive and interactive strategies as more normative than men during certain relationship stages.
Perrone-McGovern, Kristin M; Oliveira-Silva, Patrícia; Simon-Dack, Stephanie; Lefdahl-Davis, Erin; Adams, David; McConnell, John; Howell, Desiree; Hess, Ryan; Davis, Andrew; Gonçalves, Oscar F
The present research builds upon the extant literature as it assesses psychophysiological factors in relation to empathy, conflict resolution, and romantic relationship satisfaction. In this study, we examined physiological reactivity of individuals in the context of emotionally laden interactions with their romantic partners. Participants (N = 31) completed self-report measures and attended in-person data collection sessions with their romantic partners. Participants were guided through discussions of problems and strengths of their relationships in vivo with their partners while we measured participants' skin conductance level (SCL) and interbeat interval (IBI) of the heart. We hypothesized that participants' level of empathy towards their partners would be reflected by physiological arousal (as measured by SCL and IBI) and relationship satisfaction, such that higher levels of empathy would be linked to changes in physiological arousal and higher relationship satisfaction. Further, we hypothesized that differences would be found in physiological arousal (as measured by SCL and IBI) based on the type of conflict resolution strategy used by participants. Finally, we hypothesized that differences would be found in empathy towards partner and relationship satisfaction based on the type of conflict resolution strategies used by participants. Results partially supported hypotheses and were discussed in light of existing knowledge based on empirical and theoretical sources.
Anderson, Traci L
The purpose of this study was to investigate factors relating to perceptions of online romantic relationships. One hundred seventy-seven people who had never been involved in an online romantic relationship completed a survey to assess relationships among perceptions of online romantic relationships and (a) amount of Internet use, (b) Internet affinity, (c) perceived realism of the Internet, and (d) romantic beliefs. Results reveal that amount of time spent online and affinity for the Internet are positively related to more favorable perceptions of online romantic relationships, whereas perceived realism and romantic beliefs were not related to perceptions of online romantic relationships. Romantic beliefs, therefore, may lend themselves to more conventional notions of relationships. Implications for and development and maintenance of online relationships, as impacted by social support networks, are discussed.
Nydegger, Liesl A; DiFranceisco, Wayne; Quinn, Katherine; Dickson-Gomez, Julia
Unequal gender norms and age-disparate sexual relationships can lead to power imbalances and are also associated with intimate partner violence (IPV), sexual coercion and violence, and sexual risk behaviors. The present study examined these variables from both victim and perpetrator perspectives among adolescent gang members. Age-disparate sexual relationships were defined as sex partners 5 or more years older among female participants and 5 or more years younger among male participants. Participants were recruited from a mid-sized Midwestern city and completed a 60-90-min audio computer-assisted self-interview in a community-based setting. Participants in this study included 107 female gang members (68 % African-American, 19 % Latina; mean age, 17.6) and 169 male gang members (62 % African-American, 28 % Latino; mean age, 17.7). As hypothesized, endorsing unequal gender norms toward women was significantly related to IPV victimization among female participants and perpetration among male participants, and engagement in group sex in the past month among both female and male participants (ps < 0.05). Additionally, unequal gender norms were significantly related to male participants' perpetrating rape (p < 0.05). As hypothesized, female gang members who had been in age-disparate sexual relationships were significantly more likely to have experienced more IPV and report being raped and males gang members who had age-disparate sexual relationships were significantly more likely to perpetrate IPV in the past year and perpetrate rape (ps < 0.05). Age-disparate sexual relationships were also significantly related to being gang raped among female gang members and participating in a gang rape among male gang members, and engaging in group sex among both female and male gang members (ps < 0.05). Female participants who had been in age-disparate sexual relationships were more likely to have been pregnant (ps < 0.05). It is essential for researchers and
Hill, Jonathan; Stepp, Stephanie D; Wan, Ming Wai; Hope, Holly; Morse, Jennifer Q; Steele, Miriam; Steele, Howard; Pilkonis, Paul A
Previous studies have implicated attachment and disturbances in romantic relationships as important indicators for Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). The current research extends our current knowledge by examining the specific associations among attachment, romantic relationship dysfunction, and BPD, above and beyond the contribution of emotional distress and nonromantic interpersonal functioning in two distinct samples. Study 1 comprised a community sample of women (N = 58) aged 25-36. Study 2 consisted of a psychiatric sample (N = 138) aged 21-60. Results from both Study 1 and Study 2 demonstrated that (1) attachment was specifically related to BPD symptoms and romantic dysfunction, (2) BPD symptoms were specifically associated with romantic dysfunction, and (3) the association between attachment and romantic dysfunction was statistically mediated by BPD symptoms. The findings support specific associations among attachment, BPD symptoms, and romantic dysfunction.
The United Nations's (UN) sustainable development goals (SDGs) include the target (3.3) of ending the HIV/AIDS epidemic by 2030. A major challenge in this regard is to curb the incidence of HIV among adolescents, the number two cause of their death in Africa. In Eastern and Southern Africa, they are mainly infected through heterosexual transmission. Research findings about parental influence on the sexual behavior of their adolescent children are reviewed and findings indicate that parental communication, monitoring and connectedness contribute to the avoidance of risky sexual behavior in adolescents. This article evaluates the extent to which these three dimensions of parenting have been factored in to current HIV prevention recommendations relating to adolescent boys and girls. Four pertinent UN reports are analyzed and the results used to demonstrate that the positive role of parents or primary caregivers vis-à-vis risky sexual behavior has tendentially been back-grounded or even potentially undermined. A more explicit inclusion of parents in adolescent HIV prevention policy and practice is essential - obstacles notwithstanding - enabling their indispensable partnership towards ending an epidemic mostly driven by sexual risk behavior. Evidence from successful or promising projects is included to illustrate the practical feasibility and fruitfulness of this approach.
Orosz, Gábor; Szekeres, Ádám; Kiss, Zoltán G; Farkas, Péter; Roland-Lévy, Christine
Declared relationship status on Facebook can serve as a public commitment and as an extra layer of a couple's security. However, the question arises: do those who report the relationship status feel stronger romantic love and jealousy toward their partners than those who do not share such information publicly? To test this assumption, profile information and questionnaire data of romantic love and jealousy were gathered from 292, 230 females) respondents that were in a relationship. Our results suggest that announcing the relationship status is associated with elevated romantic love and jealousy. Therefore, being "Facebook official" can be interpreted as a tie-sign indicating that the couple is "out of the market," and can promote their unity as a "digital wedding ring."
Orosz, Gábor; Szekeres, Ádám; Kiss, Zoltán G.; Farkas, Péter; Roland-Lévy, Christine
Declared relationship status on Facebook can serve as a public commitment and as an extra layer of a couple’s security. However, the question arises: do those who report the relationship status feel stronger romantic love and jealousy toward their partners than those who do not share such information publicly? To test this assumption, profile information and questionnaire data of romantic love and jealousy were gathered from 292, 230 females) respondents that were in a relationship. Our results suggest that announcing the relationship status is associated with elevated romantic love and jealousy. Therefore, being “Facebook official” can be interpreted as a tie-sign indicating that the couple is “out of the market,” and can promote their unity as a “digital wedding ring.” PMID:25767460
Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Brown-Wright, Lynda; Tyler, Kenneth
The current study examined the association between the number of lifetime sexual partners and race-related stress among African American 201 high school juniors and seniors at two urban high schools in the Southeastern region of the country. Students completed the Index of Race-Related Stress-Brief (IRRS-B) and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey…
Dogan, Shannon J.; Stockdale, Gary D.; Widaman, Keith F.; Conger, Rand D.
We explored two unanswered questions about the role of alcohol use in sexual behavior. First, we considered whether alcohol use temporally precedes and predicts changes in sexual behavior assessed as the number of sexual partners, whether the reverse pattern holds, or whether the association reflects a common, external cause. Second, we assessed…
Miranda, Jenniffer K.; de la Osa, Nuria; Granero, Roser; Ezpeleta, Lourdes
Objectives: The current study examined the independent effects of mothers' childhood abuse (CA) and intimate partner violence (IPV) on psychopathology and functional impairment in children; and the potential moderating and mediating role of individual and family factors in these relationships. Additionally, this study explored the potential…
Kunnuji, Michael O N
Gender-based domestic violence (DV) comes at great costs to the victims and society at large. Yet, many women hold the view that intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is appropriate behavior. This study aimed at exploring the nexus of experience of different forms of DV and acceptance of IPV as appropriate behavior. Using data from a survey of 480 out-of-school adolescent girls, the researcher shows that psychological abuse is a significant predictor of approval of DV resulting from the wife's failure to make food available for her husband with victims of abuse approving of violence against women. Conversely, victims of sexual abuse, more than nonvictims, disapproved of wife beating resulting from the wife going out without informing the husband. The implications of the findings are discussed and the study recommends deconstructing women's negative beliefs upon which DV rests.
Kruger, Daniel J; Fisher, Maryanne; Jobling, Ian
Empirical tests described in this article support hypotheses derived from evolutionary theory on the perceptions of literary characters. The proper and dark heroes in British Romantic literature of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries respectively represent long-term and short-term mating strategies. Recent studies indicate that for long-term relationships, women seek partners with the ability and willingness to sustain paternal investment in extended relationships. For short-term relationships, women choose partners whose features indicate high genetic quality. In hypothetical scenarios, females preferred proper heroes for long-term relationships. The shorter the relationship under consideration, the more likely women were to choose dark heroes as partners.
Muthengi, Eunice; Gitau, Tabither; Austrian, Karen
Introduction Previous studies have shown that women’s empowerment, though beneficial in many aspects, can also increase the risk of intimate-partner violence (IPV). This study seeks to examine the association between work and experience of physical violence among married adolescents, and to understand the impact of access to independent financial resources on this risk. Authors draw on the asset-building framework and the ecological model. Methods The data is from a baseline survey of girls aged 15–19 residing in urban slums in four cities and towns in Kenya (Nairobi, Thika, Nakuru and Kisumu). The analytic sample is 452 married girls. Logistic regression is used to examine associations between working status, savings and experience of IPV in the previous six months, controlling for other factors. This is complemented by content analysis of in-depth interviews with 32 adolescent girls and 16 young men. Results Compared to girls who did not work, working with no regular savings was significantly associated with greater odds (OR = 1.96, p<0.01) of experiencing IPV. There was no difference between girls who did not work and those who worked but had regular savings. Qualitative findings indicate savings decrease girls’ dependency on men and allow them to leave abusive partners. Discussion Findings imply that in these communities with patriarchal gender norms and high levels of poverty, female employment and financial conflicts can be triggers of violence in marriages. On the other hand, girls’ management of and access to independent financial resources through savings can potentially help to reduce this risk. PMID:27232997
Schneiderman, Inna; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna; Leckman, James F.; Feldman, Ruth
Summary Romantic relationships can have a profound effect on adults’ health and well-being whereas the inability to maintain intimate bonds has been associated with physical and emotional distress. Studies in monogamous mammalian species underscore the central role of oxytocin (OT) in pair-bonding and human imaging studies implicate OT-rich brain areas in early romantic love. To assess the role of OT in romantic attachment, we examined plasma OT in 163 young adults: 120 new lovers (60 couples) three months after the initiation of their romantic relationship and 43 non-attached singles. Twenty-five of the 36 couples who stayed together were seen again six months later. Couples were observed in dyadic interactions and were each interviewed regarding relationship-related thoughts and behaviors. OT was significantly higher in new lovers compared to singles, F(1, 152) = 109.33, p < .001, which may suggest increased activity of the oxytocinergic system during the early stages of romantic attachment. These high levels of OT among new lovers did not decrease six months later and showed high individual stability. OT correlated with the couples’ interactive reciprocity, including social focus, positive affect, affectionate touch, and synchronized dyadic states, and with anxieties and worries regarding the partner and the relationship, findings which parallel those described for parent–infant bonding. OT levels at the first assessment differentiated couples who stayed together six months later from those who separated during this period. Regression analysis showed that OT predicted interactive reciprocity independent of sex, relationship duration, and the partner’s OT. Findings suggest that OT may play an important role at the first stages of romantic attachment and lend support to evolutionary models suggesting that parental and romantic attachment share underlying bio-behavioral mechanisms. PMID:22281209
Fisher, Helen E; Aron, Arthur; Mashek, Debra; Li, Haifang; Brown, Lucy L
Mammals and birds have evolved three primary, discrete, interrelated emotion-motivation systems in the brain for mating, reproduction, and parenting: lust, attraction, and male-female attachment. Each emotion-motivation system is associated with a specific constellation of neural correlates and a distinct behavioral repertoire. Lust evolved to initiate the mating process with any appropriate partner; attraction evolved to enable individuals to choose among and prefer specific mating partners, thereby conserving their mating time and energy; male-female attachment evolved to enable individuals to cooperate with a reproductive mate until species-specific parental duties have been completed. The evolution of these three emotion-motivation systems contribute to contemporary patterns of marriage, adultery, divorce, remarriage, stalking, homicide and other crimes of passion, and clinical depression due to romantic rejection. This article defines these three emotion-motivation systems. Then it discusses an ongoing project using functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain to investigate the neural circuits associated with one of these emotion-motivation systems, romantic attraction.
Bale, Christopher; Archer, John
Sociometer theory proposes that self-esteem is an adaptation which evolved to monitor and regulate interpersonal relationships. It is therefore sensitive to self-assessments in domains relevant to relational desirability. Positive relationships between self-perceived physical attractiveness and self-esteem found in previous studies may reflect the functioning of a mating sociometer, designed to monitor individuals' desirability as romantic or sexual partners. We thus predicted that these relationships should be mediated by self-perceptions of romantic desirability, or more specifically, individuals' confidence in their abilities to successfully establish and maintain romantic relationships. Two hundred and eighty seven young adults (98 male) completed an online measure of self-perceived attractiveness, together with measures of self-confidence in appearance and romantic relationships, body-esteem and global self-esteem. Linear regression analyses indicated that self-perceived attractiveness, self-confidence in appearance and body-esteem all significantly predicted self-esteem, and that in each case, the relationship was mediated by romantic self-confidence. Self-perceived attractiveness predicted self-esteem significantly more strongly in females than in males. We discuss these results in relation to sociometer and parental investment theories, and explore limitations and future directions.
Shulman, S; Seiffge-Krenke, I
This concluding and integrative paper calls attention to several features and conceptual issues addressed by the contributors of this special issue. The first issue pertains to developmental perspectives in the study of how adolescent romance evolves. The second deals with the various features and concepts of adolescent romance. The third topic discusses the association of adolescent romance with other close relationships occurring during this time span. The fourth topic highlights the importance of the diversity of developmental contexts in shaping romantic relationships. Finally, conceptual issues in the study of adolescent romance are reviewed and the need for future studies of early adolescent romantic experiences is discussed.
Linkin, Harriet Kramer
Describes and reports on a survey of 164 U.S. universities to ascertain what is taught as the current canon of British Romantic literature. Asserts that the canon may now include Mary Shelley with the former standard six major male Romantic poets, indicating a significant emergence of a feminist perspective on British Romanticism in the classroom.…
Long, Edgar C. J.; Angera, Jeffrey J.; Carter, Sara Jacobs; Nakamoto, Mindy; Kalso, Michelle
Couples (N=48) in romantic relationships participated in a 10-hour empathy training program. Scores on three empathy measures improved over a six-month period. A change in perceptions of a partner's empathy at six months was positively related to relationship satisfaction at the six-month follow-up. (Author/MKA)
Baker, Levi R; McNulty, James K
Intimates regularly confront their partners to motivate them to change undesirable behaviors. Nevertheless, contextual perspectives suggest that qualities of the partner may determine the implications of such attempts. Consistent with these ideas, a pilot study of romantic relationships, an observational study of newlyweds, and a diary study of married couples demonstrated that partner depression moderates the association between confrontational partner-regulation behaviors and partners' motivation, such that confrontational behaviors were associated with marginally greater motivation to resolve problems among partners who were experiencing relatively few depressive symptoms, but significantly less motivation among partners who were experiencing relatively more depressive symptoms. Furthermore, Study 2 provided evidence for the mechanism of these effects--relationship self-efficacy. Finally, these studies also demonstrated that benevolent behaviors were particularly motivating for partners who were experiencing more depressive symptoms. These findings highlight the important roles played by depression, relationship self-efficacy, and context in interpersonal communication.
Pines, A M; Friedman, A
Findings of studies of gender differences in jealousy are contradictory. In the present study, conflicting literature was addressed by distinguishing 5 dimensions of jealousy: level, trigger, experience, focus, and responses. In 4 studies, 3 in the U.S. and 1 in Israel, gender differences were explored in these 5 dimensions of romantic jealousy. Although there were no gender differences in the likelihood, frequency, duration, or intensity of jealousy, there were differences in the responses to certain jealousy-producing occasions as well as in the focus, experience, and expression of jealousy.
Keelan, Colleen M; Schenk, Allison M; McNally, Matthew R; Fremouw, William J
Research has yet to examine the social influences of parents, peers, and partners on bullying. This study explored the impact of social relationships on bullies, victims, bully/victims, and uninvolved participants. A sample of 370 college-age participants was asked about bullying, family environment, friends' illegal behavior, and conflict resolution tactics in romantic relationships. Results indicated controls came from more secure and engaged families. Bully/victims reported friends engaging in more illegal behaviors than victims and uninvolved participants. Bullies and bully/victims reported more psychological coercion from their romantic partner. A logistic regression revealed peer illegal behaviors, psychological aggression, physical assault, and sexual coercion in romantic relationships best predicted bullies from non-bullies (67.3%). Based on these results, the interpersonal world of those involved with bullying significantly impacts behaviors.
Kogan, Aleksandr; Impett, Emily A; Oveis, Christopher; Hui, Bryant; Gordon, Amie M; Keltner, Dacher
Who benefits most from making sacrifices for others? The current study provides one answer to this question by demonstrating the intrinsic benefits of sacrifice for people who are highly motivated to respond to a specific romantic partner's needs noncontingently, a phenomenon termed communal strength. In a 14-day daily-experience study of 69 romantic couples, communal strength was positively associated with positive emotions during the sacrifice itself, with feeling appreciated by the partner for the sacrifice, and with feelings of relationship satisfaction on the day of the sacrifice. Furthermore, feelings of authenticity for the sacrifice mediated these associations. Several alternative hypotheses were ruled out: The effects were not due to individuals higher in communal strength making qualitatively different kinds of sacrifices, being more positive in general, or being involved in happier relationships. Implications for research and theory on communal relationships and positive emotions are discussed.
Beyers, Wim; Seiffge-Krenke, Inge
Erikson stated that healthy identity development during adolescence is a precursor of intimacy in romantic relationships during emerging adulthood. However, from a developmental contextual perspective, there are reasons to question this strict developmental ordering. Using interview and questionnaire data from a longitudinal study on 93…
Marital delay, relationship dissolution and churning, and high divorce rates have extended the amount of time individuals in search of romantic relationships spend outside of marital unions. The scope of research on intimate partnering now includes studies of "hooking up," Internet dating, visiting relationships, cohabitation, marriage following…
The way in which satisfaction with a romantic relationship may be affected by how supportive a partner is and how constructively they deal with conflict in that relationship was examined in young adults. Both greater support and less conflict were found to be independently associated with relationship satisfaction, implying that both are necessary…
Ináncsi, Tamás; Láng, András; Bereczkei, Tamás
Machiavellianism is a personality trait that is characterized by manipulative and exploitative attitude toward others, lack of empathy, and a cynical view of human nature. In itself or as part of the Dark Triad it has been the target of several studies investigating romantic relations. Nevertheless, the relationship between Machiavellianism and romantic ideals has not been revealed yet. An undergraduate sample of 143 (92 females) with an average age of 19.83 years (SD = 1.51 years) filled out self-report measures of Machiavellianism (Mach-IV Scale) and romantic ideals (Ideal Standards Scale and NEO-FFI-IDEAL). According to our results, Machiavellianism correlated negatively with the importance of partner's warmth-trustworthiness, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and with the importance of intimacy and loyalty in their ideal relationships. Machiavellianism correlated positively with the ideal partner's possession over status and resources. Explorative factor analysis revealed three components of ideal partner's characteristics. Machiavellianism loaded significantly on two out of three components. Results are discussed with regard to Ideal Standards Model and the Big Five model of personality.
Maas, Megan; Lefkowitz, Eva
Sexual esteem is an integral psychological aspect of sexual health (Snell & Papini, 1989), yet it is unclear if sexual esteem is associated with sexual health behavior among heterosexual men and women. The current analysis uses a normative framework for sexual development (Lefkowitz & Gillen, 2006; Tolman & McClelland, 2011) by examining the association of sexual esteem with sexual behavior, contraception use, and romantic relationship characteristics. Participants (N = 518; 56.0% female; mean age = 18.43 years; 26.8% identified as Hispanic/Latino; among non-Hispanic/Latinos, 27.2% of the full sample identified as European American, 22.4% Asian American, 14.9% African American, and 8.7% multiracial) completed web-based surveys at a large northeastern university. Participants who had oral sex more frequently, recently had more oral and penetrative sex partners (particularly for male participants), and spent more college semesters in romantic relationships, tended to have higher sexual esteem than those who had sex less frequently, with fewer partners, or spent more semesters without romantic partners. Sexually active male emerging adults who never used contraception during recent penetrative sex tended to have higher sexual esteem than those who did use it, whereas female emerging adults who never used contraception tended to have lower sexual esteem than those who did use it. Implications of these results for the development of a healthy sexual self-concept in emerging adulthood are discussed. PMID:25210789
Maas, Megan K; Lefkowitz, Eva S
Sexual esteem is an integral psychological aspect of sexual health (Snell & Papini, 1989 ), yet it is unclear whether sexual esteem is associated with sexual health behavior among heterosexual men and women. The current analysis used a normative framework for sexual development (Lefkowitz & Gillen, 2006 ; Tolman & McClelland, 2011 ) by examining the association of sexual esteem with sexual behavior, contraception use, and romantic relationship characteristics. Participants (N = 518; 56.0% female; mean age = 20.43 years; 26.8% identified as Hispanic/Latino; among non-Hispanic/Latinos, 27.2% of the full sample identified as European American, 22.4% Asian American, 14.9% African American, and 8.7% multiracial) completed Web-based surveys at a large Northeastern university. Participants who had oral sex more frequently, recently had more oral and penetrative sex partners (particularly for male participants), and spent more college semesters in romantic relationships tended to have higher sexual esteem than those who had sex less frequently, with fewer partners, or spent more semesters without romantic partners. Sexually active male emerging adults who never used contraception during recent penetrative sex tended to have higher sexual esteem than those who did use it, whereas female emerging adults who never used contraception tended to have lower sexual esteem than those who did use it. Implications of these results for the development of a healthy sexual self-concept in emerging adulthood are discussed.
Wurst, Stefanie N; Gerlach, Tanja M; Dufner, Michael; Rauthmann, John F; Grosz, Michael P; Küfner, Albrecht C P; Denissen, Jaap J A; Back, Mitja D
Narcissism is known to be related to romantic success in short-term contexts (dating, early stage relationships) but also to problems in long-term committed relationships. We propose that these diverging romantic outcomes of narcissism can be explained by differential associations with agentic versus antagonistic dimensions of grandiose narcissism: Narcissistic Admiration and Rivalry. Both dimensions serve the central narcissistic goal of gaining and maintaining a grandiose self-view, but do so by different processes: Admiration is characterized by the tendency to promote the positivity of one's self-view by seeking social admiration (assertive self-enhancement). Rivalry is characterized by the tendency to protect oneself from a negative self-view by derogating others (antagonistic self-protection). Across 7 studies (total N = 3,560) using diverse measures and methodological approaches (self-, peer, and partner reports, as well as interpersonal perception measures in video-based studies, face-to-face laboratory encounters, and online surveys), we show that the short-term romantic appeal associated with narcissism is primarily attributable to the dimension of Admiration, whereas the long-term romantic problems associated with narcissism are primarily attributable to the dimension of Rivalry. These results highlight the utility of a 2-dimensional reconceptualization of grandiose narcissism for explaining its heterogeneous romantic outcomes. The findings further underscore the idea that different facets of personality traits might impact different aspects of romantic relationship quality, depending on the stage of the relationship. Such a more nuanced view increases the predictive validity of personality traits in social relationship research. (PsycINFO Database Record
Ebisch, Sjoerd J.; Ferri, Francesca; Gallese, Vittorio
A romantic caress is a basic expression of affiliative behavior and a primary reinforcer. Given its inherent affective valence, its performance also would imply the prediction of reward values. For example, touching a person for whom one has strong passionate feelings likely is motivated by a strong desire for physical contact and associated with the anticipation of hedonic experiences. The present study aims at investigating how the anticipatory neural processes of active romantic caress are modulated by the intensity of the desire for affective contact as reflected by passionate feelings for the other. Functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning was performed in romantically involved partners using a paradigm that allowed to isolate the specific anticipatory representations of active romantic caress, compared with control caress, while testing for the relationship between neural activity and measures of feelings of passionate love for the other. The results demonstrated that right posterior insula activity in anticipation of romantic caress significantly co-varied with the intensity of desire for union with the other. This effect was independent of the sensory-affective properties of the performed touch, like its pleasantness. Furthermore, functional connectivity analysis showed that the same posterior insula cluster interacted with brain regions related to sensory-motor functions as well as to the processing and anticipation of reward. The findings provide insight on the neural substrate mediating between the desire for and the performance of romantic caress. In particular, we propose that anticipatory activity patterns in posterior insula may modulate subsequent sensory-affective processing of skin-to-skin contact. PMID:24616676
Ebisch, Sjoerd J; Ferri, Francesca; Gallese, Vittorio
A romantic caress is a basic expression of affiliative behavior and a primary reinforcer. Given its inherent affective valence, its performance also would imply the prediction of reward values. For example, touching a person for whom one has strong passionate feelings likely is motivated by a strong desire for physical contact and associated with the anticipation of hedonic experiences. The present study aims at investigating how the anticipatory neural processes of active romantic caress are modulated by the intensity of the desire for affective contact as reflected by passionate feelings for the other. Functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning was performed in romantically involved partners using a paradigm that allowed to isolate the specific anticipatory representations of active romantic caress, compared with control caress, while testing for the relationship between neural activity and measures of feelings of passionate love for the other. The results demonstrated that right posterior insula activity in anticipation of romantic caress significantly co-varied with the intensity of desire for union with the other. This effect was independent of the sensory-affective properties of the performed touch, like its pleasantness. Furthermore, functional connectivity analysis showed that the same posterior insula cluster interacted with brain regions related to sensory-motor functions as well as to the processing and anticipation of reward. The findings provide insight on the neural substrate mediating between the desire for and the performance of romantic caress. In particular, we propose that anticipatory activity patterns in posterior insula may modulate subsequent sensory-affective processing of skin-to-skin contact.
Meeus, W.; Branje, S.; Overbeek, G. J.
Background: This study sought the answer to three questions: 1. Is having an intimate partner associated with the level of delinquency? 2. Does the quality of the relationship with an intimate partner, operationalised as partner support, predict the level of delinquency? 3. Does a relationship with an intimate partner or age moderate the…
Kogan, Steven M.; Lei, Man-Kit; Grange, Christina R.; Simons, Ronald L.; Brody, Gene H.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Chen, Yifu
Accumulating evidence suggests that African American men and women experience unique challenges in developing and maintaining stable, satisfying romantic relationships. Extant studies have linked relationship quality among African American couples to contemporaneous risk factors such as economic hardship and racial discrimination. Little research, however, has examined the contextual and intrapersonal processes in late childhood and adolescence that influence romantic relationship health among African American adults. We investigated competence-promoting parenting practices and exposure to community-related stressors in late childhood, and negative relational schemas in adolescence, as predictors of young adult romantic relationship health. Participants were 318 African American young adults (59.4% female) who had provided data at four time points from ages 10–22 years. Structural equation modeling indicated that exposure to community-related stressors and low levels of competence-promoting parenting contributed to negative relational schemas, which were proximal predictors of young adult relationship health. Relational schemas mediated the associations of competence-promoting parenting practices and exposure to community stressors in late childhood with romantic relationship health during young adulthood. Results suggest that enhancing caregiving practices, limiting youths’ exposure to community stressors, and modifying relational schemas are important processes to be targeted for interventions designed to enhance African American adults’ romantic relationships. PMID:23494451
Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Bosma, Harke; Chau, Cecilia; Cok, Figen; Gillespie, Cecilia; Loncaric, Darko; Molinar, Roberta; Cunha, Magdalena; Veisson, Marika; Rohail, Iffat
The present study focuses on romantic stress and coping styles in the context of identity and future-related stressors in 8,654 adolescents with a mean age of M = 15.3; SD = 1.84. The adolescents from 17 countries were grouped into seven regions, i.e., Mid-Europe, Northern Europe, Eastern Europe, Southern Europe, South Africa, South America, and…
Wlodarski, Rafael; Dunbar, Robin I M
The effects of the human pair-bonded state of "romantic love" on cognitive function remain relatively unexplored. Theories on cognitive priming suggest that a state of love may activate love-relevant schemas, such as mentalizing about the beliefs of another individual, and may thus improve mentalizing abilities. On the other hand, recent functional MRI (fMRI) research on individuals who are in love suggests that several brain regions associated with mentalizing may be "deactivated" during the presentation of a love prime, potentially affecting mentalizing cognitions and behaviors. The current study aimed to investigate experimentally the effect of a love prime on a constituent aspect of mentalizing-the attribution of emotional states to others. Ninety-one participants who stated they were "deeply in love" with their romantic partner completed a cognitive task involving the assessment of emotional content of facial stimuli (the Reading the Mind in the Eyes task) immediately after the presentation of either a love prime or a neutral prime. Individuals were significantly better at interpreting the emotional states of others after a love prime than after a neutral prime, particularly males assessing negative emotional stimuli. These results suggest that presentation of a love stimulus can prime love-relevant networks and enhance subsequent performance on conceptually related mentalizing tasks.
Wlodarski, Rafael; Dunbar, Robin I. M.
The effects of the human pair-bonded state of “romantic love” on cognitive function remain relatively unexplored. Theories on cognitive priming suggest that a state of love may activate love-relevant schemas, such as mentalizing about the beliefs of another individual, and may thus improve mentalizing abilities. On the other hand, recent functional MRI (fMRI) research on individuals who are in love suggests that several brain regions associated with mentalizing may be “deactivated” during the presentation of a love prime, potentially affecting mentalizing cognitions and behaviors. The current study aimed to investigate experimentally the effect of a love prime on a constituent aspect of mentalizing—the attribution of emotional states to others. Ninety-one participants who stated they were “deeply in love” with their romantic partner completed a cognitive task involving the assessment of emotional content of facial stimuli (the Reading the Mind in the Eyes task) immediately after the presentation of either a love prime or a neutral prime. Individuals were significantly better at interpreting the emotional states of others after a love prime than after a neutral prime, particularly males assessing negative emotional stimuli. These results suggest that presentation of a love stimulus can prime love-relevant networks and enhance subsequent performance on conceptually related mentalizing tasks. PMID:26167112
Wyse, Jessica JB; Harding, David J.; Morenoff, Jeffrey D.
In dominant theories of criminal desistance, marital relationship formation is understood to be a key “turning point” away from deviant behavior. Empirical studies supporting this claim have largely focused on the positive role of marriage in men's desistance from crime, and relatively few studies have examined the role that non-marital relationships may play in desistance. Drawing on 138 longitudinal in-depth interviews with 22 men and women reentering society from prison, this paper extends the scope of desistance research by additionally considering the significance of more fleeting and fluid relationships, and the diverse processes through which romantic relationships of all sorts are linked with criminal behaviors. We present an empirically-based typology detailing six processes, grouped within three conceptual categories, through which romantic relationships had their effects. These pathways include material circumstances, social bonds and interactions, and emotional supports and stressors. We also consider gender differences in these processes. While more tenuous bonds to marginally conventional partners would seem to exert little effect, as one of the few relationships and social roles available to many former prisoners, we found that they wielded important influence, if not always in a positive direction. PMID:25484489
Pawlby, Susan J.; Mills, Alice; Taylor, Alan; Quinton, David
Compares the friendships of girls (N=50) at risk for difficulties in early adult partnerships with those of 50 girls of the same age. Results indicate key differences in both romantic and non-romantic adolescent friendships between the two groups. Findings offer a clearer understanding of processes linking childhood adversity and poor adult…
Brakefield, Tiffany A; Mednick, Sara C; Wilson, Helen W; De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Christakis, Nicholas A; Fowler, James H
Peers have a powerful effect on adolescents' beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. Here, we examine the role of social networks in the spread of attitudes towards sexuality using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Although we found evidence that both sexual activity (OR = 1.79) and desire to have a romantic relationship (OR = 2.69) may spread from person to person, attraction to same sex partners did not spread (OR = 0.96). Analyses of comparable power to those that suggest positive and significant peer-to-peer influence in sexual behavior fail to demonstrate a significant relationship on sexual attraction between friends or siblings. These results suggest that peer influence has little or no effect on the tendency toward heterosexual or homosexual attraction in teens, and that sexual orientation is not transmitted via social networks.
South, Susan C.; Krueger, Robert F.; Elkins, Irene; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt
The heritability of major normative domains of personality is well-established, with approximately half the proportion of variance attributed to genetic differences. In the current study, we examine the possibility of gene x environment interaction (GxE) for adult personality using the environmental context of intimate romantic relationship functioning. Personality and relationship satisfaction are significantly correlated phenotypically, but to date no research has examined how the genetic and environmental components of variance for personality differ as a function of romantic relationship satisfaction. Given the importance of personality for myriad outcomes from work productivity to psychopathology, it is vital to identify variables present in adulthood that may affect the etiology of personality. In the current study, quantitative models of GxE were used to determine whether the genetic and environmental influences on personality differ as a function of relationship satisfaction. We drew from a sample of now-adult twins followed longitudinally from adolescence through age 29. All participants completed the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) and an abbreviated version of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS). Biometric moderation was found for eight of the eleven MPQ scales examined: Well-Being, Social Potency, Negative Emotionality, Alienation, Aggression, Constraint, Traditionalism, and Absorption. The pattern of findings differed, suggesting that the ways in which relationship quality moderates the etiology of personality may depend on the personality trait. PMID:26581694
South, Susan C; Krueger, Robert F; Elkins, Irene J; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt
The heritability of major normative domains of personality is well-established, with approximately half the proportion of variance attributed to genetic differences. In the current study, we examine the possibility of gene × environment interaction (G×E) for adult personality using the environmental context of intimate romantic relationship functioning. Personality and relationship satisfaction are significantly correlated phenotypically, but to date no research has examined how the genetic and environmental components of variance for personality differ as a function of romantic relationship satisfaction. Given the importance of personality for myriad outcomes from work productivity to psychopathology, it is vital to identify variables present in adulthood that may affect the etiology of personality. In the current study, quantitative models of G×E were used to determine whether the genetic and environmental influences on personality differ as a function of relationship satisfaction. We drew from a sample of now-adult twins followed longitudinally from adolescence through age 29. All participants completed the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) and an abbreviated version of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale. Biometric moderation was found for eight of the eleven MPQ scales examined: well-being, social potency, negative emotionality, alienation, aggression, constraint, traditionalism, and absorption. The pattern of findings differed, suggesting that the ways in which relationship quality moderates the etiology of personality may depend on the personality trait.
Wlodarski, Rafael; Dunbar, Robin I. M.
Hormonal changes associated with the human menstrual cycle have been previously found to affect female mate preference, whereby women in the late follicular phase of their cycle (i.e., at higher risk of conception) prefer males displaying putative signals of underlying genetic fitness. Past research also suggests that romantic kissing is utilized in human mating contexts to assess potential mating partners. The current study examined whether women in their late follicular cycle phase place greater value on kissing at times when it might help serve mate assessment functions. Using an international online questionnaire, results showed that women in the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle felt that kissing was more important at initial stages of a relationship than women in the luteal phase of their cycle. Furthermore, it was found that estimated progesterone levels were a significant negative predictor for these ratings. PMID:24078298
Asano, Ryosuke; Yoshida, Toshikazu
This study investigated how relational efficacy affects functions of safe haven and secure base in romantic relationships and same-sex friendships. Relational efficacy, which is a shared or intersubjective efficacy of relationship partners, refers to a pair's belief that they can mutually coordinate and integrate their resources to prevent and resolve any problems. Participants were 97 dating heterosexual couples and 119 same-sex friendships. Multilevel structural equation modeling suggested that relational efficacy promotes the safe haven function and the secure base function in romantic relationships and same-sex friendships, controlled for sex, relationship longevity, irreplaceability, attachment anxiety, and attachment avoidance. Additionally, the effects of relational efficacy on the safe haven function and the secure base function in romantic relationships are stronger than in same-sex friendships. These results are discussed in terms of the association between intersubjective processes in close relationships and individuals' hedonic/eudaimonic well-being.
Macapagal, Kathryn; Coventry, Ryan; Puckett, Jae A; Phillips, Gregory; Mustanski, Brian
Geosocial networking (GSN) mobile phone applications ("apps") are used frequently among men who have sex with men (MSM) to socialize and meet sexual partners. Though GSN apps are used by some MSM in partnered relationships, little is known about how the use of GSN apps among MSM in serious romantic relationships can influence couples' sexual and relationship health. MSM in serious relationships (N = 323; M age = 40 years) were recruited through a popular GSN app for MSM. Participants completed open-ended items regarding the costs and benefits of app use to their relationships, discussions of app use with their partners, and preferences for relationship education related to app use. Reported benefits of app use included improving sex and communication with one's primary partner and fulfilling unmet sexual needs. Although approximately half had not discussed app use with their partners, citing app use as a "non-issue," many cited various drawbacks to app use, including jealousy and being a distraction from the relationship. Few described sexual health concerns as a drawback to meeting partners through apps. Regarding relationship education preferences, most wanted help with general communication skills and how to express one's sexual needs to a partner. Although GSN app use can enhance relationships and sex among partnered MSM, unclear communication about app use may contribute to negative relationship outcomes and could prevent partners from having sexual needs met. Relationship and sexual health education programs for male couples should consider addressing social media and technology use in their curricula.
Gunaydin, Gul; DeLong, Jordan E
A defining feature of passionate love is idealization--evaluating romantic partners in an overly favorable light. Although passionate love can be expected to color how favorably individuals represent their partner in their mind, little is known about how passionate love is linked with visual representations of the partner. Using reverse correlation techniques for the first time to study partner representations, the present study investigated whether women who are passionately in love represent their partner's facial appearance more favorably than individuals who are less passionately in love. In a within-participants design, heterosexual women completed two forced-choice classification tasks, one for their romantic partner and one for a male acquaintance, and a measure of passionate love. In each classification task, participants saw two faces superimposed with noise and selected the face that most resembled their partner (or an acquaintance). Classification images for each of high passion and low passion groups were calculated by averaging across noise patterns selected as resembling the partner or the acquaintance and superimposing the averaged noise on an average male face. A separate group of women evaluated the classification images on attractiveness, trustworthiness, and competence. Results showed that women who feel high (vs. low) passionate love toward their partner tend to represent his face as more attractive and trustworthy, even when controlling for familiarity effects using the acquaintance representation. Using an innovative method to study partner representations, these findings extend our understanding of cognitive processes in romantic relationships.
Vézina, Johanne; Hébert, Martine
This article reviews the literature on risk factors for victimization in romantic relationships of adolescent girls and young adult women. The review includes 61 empirical studies published between 1986 and 2006 that have investigated risk factors for sustained psychological, sexual, and physical violence in romantic relationships of young women ages 12 to 24. An ecological approach is used as a conceptual model to review risk factors into four categories: sociodemographic factors, individual factors (personal and interpersonal), environmental factors (family, community, and peers), and contextual factors (linked to the romantic relationship). Methodological limitations of the studies in terms of measurement issues, samples studied, research designs, and underlying conceptual models are discussed. Finally, implications for prevention programming are considered. Recommendations are presented about which clientele should be targeted, which risk factors should be considered, and when programs should be implemented.
Flamm, Elizabeth S; Grolnick, Wendy S
This study examined the associations among disruptive life events, supportive parenting practices, adolescent self-perceptions, and emotional outcomes. One-hundred and three 7th graders (68% minority, 32% European American) and their parents completed recent negative life events checklists. Parents also reported the total number of major transitions (changes in residences, schools, parent's romantic partners) that adolescents experienced since birth. Life events were related to lower adolescent-reported perceptions of competence and control, higher adolescent-reported depression and behavior problems, and higher parent-reported conduct problems. Regression analyses supported a mediational model in which competence and control perceptions explained relations between adolescent life events and symptomatology. Parental structure-the provision of clear, consistent and predictable rules and expectations-was associated with more adaptive adolescent functioning, especially among girls. Regressions indicated that structure related to higher perceptions of competence and control and fewer behavioral problems, even after accounting for the risk associated with negative life events and transitions.
Karremans, Johan C; Verwijmeren, Thijs
Based on the recent literature indicating that nonconscious behavioral mimicry is partly goal directed, three studies examined, and supported, the hypothesis that people who are involved in a romantic relationship nonconsciously mimic an attractive opposite-sex other to a lesser extent than people not involved in a relationship. Moreover, Studies 2 and 3 revealed that romantically involved persons tended to mimic an attractive alternative less to the extent that they were more close to their current partner. Finally, Study 3 provided preliminary support for a potential underlying mechanism, revealing that the effect of relationship status on level of mimicry displayed toward an opposite-sex other is mediated by perceived attractiveness of the opposite-sex other. The present findings suggest that behavioral mimicry serves an implicit self-regulatory function in relationship maintenance. Implications for both the literature on relationship maintenance and the literature on behavioral mimicry are discussed.
Sailor, Joanni L.
Romantic love is considered a necessary ingredient in marriage. In this study, the experience of falling out of romantic love with one's spouse was examined. Eight individuals who had fallen out of romantic love with their spouse were interviewed. By using Moustakas' Transcendental Phenomenological method, several themes emerged which provided a…
Jang, Su Ahn; Smith, Sandi W.; Levine, Timothy R.
Investigates communication patterns and subsequent relational outcomes following romantic partners' deception for people with different attachment styles. Reveals that respondents (undergraduate students) with a secure attachment style were more likely to report talking about the issue, whereas anxious/ambivalents were more likely to report…
Previous studies find that romantic relationships adversely affect adolescents' psychological well-being, yet none examine the differential effects of adolescent romance for same-race and interracial daters. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), I find that heterosexual adolescents in same-race…
Cavanagh, Shannon E.; Crissey, Sarah R.; Raley, R. Kelly
This study examined the association between family structure history and adolescent romance. Using a national sample drawn from Add Health (N = 13,570), family structure at Wave I was associated with the likelihood that adolescents were involved in a romantic relationship at Wave II and, among those in a relationship, the number of relationships…
Cook, Emily C.; Buehler, Cheryl; Blair, Bethany L.
Adolescents' emotional reactivity in family, close friendships, and romantic relationships was examined in a community-based sample of 416 two-parent families. Six waves of annual data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Emotional reactivity to interparental conflict during early adolescence was associated prospectively with…
Tucker, M B; Taylor, R J; Mitchell-Kernan, C
This study examined the extent and structural correlates of marriage, romantic involvement, and preference for romantic involvement among older adults in a national sample of African Americans. Multivariate analyses indicated that gender, age, education, income, and urban residence were important predictors of marriage and romantic involvement. In particular, men and younger respondents were more likely than women and older respondents to be married, have a romantic involvement, or be desirous of a romantic involvement. The effects of the decreased probability of marriage for future cohorts of older African American women on their supportive networks, living arrangements, and income adequacy are discussed.
Edwards, Gaynor L; Barber, Bonnie L
Australian young adults reported how often they wanted to use condoms in both romantic (n = 667) and casual relationship (n = 152) contexts and how often they thought their partners wanted to use condoms. Young adults wanted to use condoms more often than they perceived their partners to in both casual and romantic relationship contexts. Gender interactions showed that this pattern was especially strong among young women. Women seemed to underestimate the frequency at which their male partners wanted to use condoms. Furthermore, both the participants' condom use desires and perceptions of their partners' condom use desires predicted condom use behavior. Results suggest that gendered expectations may play a part in how often individuals perceive their partners to want to use condoms, which, in effect, may determine condom use behavior.
Tskhay, Konstantin O; Clout, Jerri M; Rule, Nicholas O
A large literature suggests that men and women differ in their self-reported mate preferences such that men place greater weight on physical attractiveness than women do, whereas women value financial prospects more than men. Yet, little research has addressed how these differences generalize to other contexts, such as modern online dating in which mate selection may largely depend on visual cues. Distinct from the sex differences observed in previous studies relying on self-reports, we found that men and women both used perceptions of health and attractiveness to select hypothetical partners based on photographs of their faces. Importantly, although people reliably identified others' wealth from their photographs, these perceptions did not influence men's or women's partner selections. Thus, men and women may select romantic partners similarly based on limited visual information.
Decker, Michele R.; Miller, Elizabeth; McCauley, Heather L.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Anderson, Heather; Levenson, Rebecca R.; Silverman, Jay G.
Background/Objectives Adolescent and young adult women are at high risk for both STI/HIV and intimate partner violence (IPV). We evaluate the prevalence of IPV in the past three months and its associations with STI/HIV risk, STI, and related care-seeking over the same time period. Methods Female family planning clinic patients ages 16–29 (n=3,504) participated in a cross-sectional survey in 2011–2012 as a baseline assessment for an intervention study. We examined associations of recent IPV with sexual and drug-related STI/HIV risk behavior, self-reported STI, and STI-related clinical care seeking via logistic regression. Results Recent physical or sexual IPV (prevalence 11%) was associated with recent sexual and drug-related STI/HIV risk, specifically unprotected vaginal sex (AOR 1.93, 95% CI 1.52, 2.44), unprotected anal sex (AOR 2.22, 95% CI 1.51, 3.27) and injection drug use, both their own (AOR 3.39, 95% CI 1.47, 7.79) and their partner’s (AOR 3.85, 1.91, 7.75). IPV was also linked with coercive sexual risk: involuntary condom non-use (AOR 1.87, 95% CI 1.51, 2.33), and fears of requesting condoms (AOR 4.15, 95% CI 2.73, 6.30) and refusing sex (AOR 11.84, 95% CI 7.59, 18.45). STI-related care-seeking was also more common among those abused (AOR 2.49, 95% CI 1.87, 3.31). Conclusions Recent IPV is concurrent with sexual and drug-related STI/HIV risk, including coercive sexual risk, thus compromising women’s agency in STI/HIV risk reduction. Clinical risk assessments should broaden to include unprotected heterosexual anal sex, coercive sexual risk, and IPV, and should promote safety and harm reduction. PMID:24234072
Rodriguez, Lindsey M; DiBello, Angelo M; Neighbors, Clayton
The current research evaluates how perceptions of one's partner's drinking problem relate to attempts to regulate partner behavior and relationship functioning, and whether this varies by perceptions of one's own drinking. New measures are offered for Thinking about your Partner's Drinking (TPD) and Partner Management Strategies (PMS). Participants included 702 undergraduates who had been in a romantic relationship for at least three months. Participants completed an online survey assessing perceptions of problematic drinking for one's self and partner, ways in which attempts were made to regulate or restrain their partner's drinking, relationship outcomes (i.e., satisfaction, commitment, trust, and need fulfillment), and alcohol use and consequences for self and partner. Factor analyses supported a single factor for Thinking about your Partner's Drinking (TPD) and two factors for the Partner Management Strategies (PMS) scale (i.e., punishment and reward). Results using structural equation modeling indicated that perceiving one's partner to have a drinking problem was associated with lower relationship functioning. Further, this association was mediated by strategies using punishment aimed at changing one's partner's drinking, but was not mediated by strategies using rewards. Finally, moderation results suggested that this relationship was not as detrimental for participants who perceived they also had an alcohol problem. In sum, perceiving one's partner to have a drinking problem was associated with relationship problems through punishing regulation strategies, and was weaker among individuals who also perceived themselves to have a drinking problem.
Spriggs, Aubrey L; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Herring, Amy H; Schoenbach, Victor J
Although low socioeconomic status has been positively associated with adult partner violence, its relationship to adolescent dating violence remains unclear. Further, few studies have examined the relationship between contextual disadvantage and adolescent dating violence, or the interactive influences of family and contextual disadvantage. Guided by social disorganization theory, relative deprivation theory, and gendered resource theory, we analyzed data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994-1996) to explore how family and school disadvantage relate to dating violence victimization. Psychological and minor physical victimization were self-reported by adolescents in up to six heterosexual romantic or sexual relationships. Family and school disadvantage were based on a principal component analysis of socioeconomic indicators reported by adolescents and parents. In weighted multilevel random effects models, between-school variability in dating violence victimization was proportionately small but substantive: 10% for male victimization and 5% for female victimization. In bivariate analyses, family disadvantage was positively related to victimization for both males and females; however, school disadvantage was only related to males' physical victimization. In models adjusted for race/ethnicity, relative age within the school, and mean school age, neither family nor school disadvantage remained related to males' victimization. For females, family disadvantage remained significantly positively associated with victimization, but was modified by school disadvantage: family disadvantage was more strongly associated with dating violence victimization in more advantaged schools. Findings support gendered resource theory, and suggest that status differentials between females and their school context may increase their vulnerability to dating violence victimization.
Eisenberg, Marla E.; Sieving, Renee E.; Bearinger, Linda H.; Swain, Carolyne; Resnick, Michael D.
Parents may wait to talk to their teens about sexuality until they believe their child is in a romantic relationship. To examine this, telephone surveys were conducted with 1069 parents of adolescents. Measures assessed parents' perception of teens' romantic involvement and parent-child communication about several sexuality topics. Multivariable…
Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; King, Rosalind Berkowitz; Oslak, Selene G.; Udry, J. Richard
Romantic relationships constitute an important, but understudied, developmental context for accommodation to pubertal change. Using a nationally representative sample of 5,487 black, white, and Hispanic adolescent females, this study examined associations among body mass index, current romantic involvement, and dieting. For each one point increase…
Fogle, Richard Harter, Comp.
Intended as a guide to scholarship on Romantic writers, this selective bibliography attempts to cover the major works and topics, with emphasis on work published in the 20th century. Omitted are unpublished dissertations and most literary histories, bibliographies of bibliography, short notes and explications, and older biographical works that…
Byers, Peggy Yuhas
Kenneth Burke's dramatistic theory of social movements can be applied to current romantic jealousy theories. Burke's dramaturgy has seven major elements: order, guilt, negation, victimage, mortification, catharsis, and redemption. These elements may all be transposed onto Burke's three critical motives: Order (status quo), Secret (differences…
Recent trends in curriculum development in Irish post-primary schools are traced according to two models: the classic-centrist and the romantic-decentralist. The classic model, initiated by agencies external to the school, views curriculum development as a science and focuses on accountability and competency-based teaching and testing. The…
Butzer, Bethany; Kuiper, Nicholas A
In this study, the authors explored the use of positive, negative, and avoiding humor in 2 types of situations by individuals in romantic relationships. Participants (N = 154) rated their frequency of humor use in either a typical conflict scenario with their partner or a typical pleasant event. Participants also indicated their overall degree of romantic relationship satisfaction. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that individuals who were more satisfied with their relationship reported higher levels of positive humor use and lower levels of negative and avoiding humor use. Furthermore, lower levels of negative and avoiding humor use were reported for the conflict situation. Last, a significant 2-way interaction revealed that individuals who were high in relationship satisfaction reported significantly lower levels of negative humor use in a conflict situation as compared with a pleasant encounter. In contrast, individuals who were low in relationship satisfaction reported the same high levels of negative humor use regardless of whether they were in a conflict situation or a pleasant encounter. The authors discuss these findings in terms of the need for further research to clearly delineate the factors that may influence the complex use of humor in romantic relationships.
Li, Gu; Hines, Melissa
Sex-typed behavior in childhood is significantly related to sexual orientation in adulthood. In addition, same-sex attractions in early adolescence are more non-exclusive than in adulthood and can differ from later same-sex orientations. However, little research has focused on romantic attractions as they emerge during early adolescence. Drawing a sample from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (197 girls, 204 boys), the current study examined whether same-sex romantic attractions at age 13 years were exclusive, and whether they were predicted by sex-typed behavior at age 3.5 years. No young adolescents in this sample reported exclusive same-sex attractions, and increased same-sex attractions were not significantly related to reduced other-sex sexualities. Childhood sex-typed behavior did not significantly predict early same-sex attractions, suggesting that early same-sex attractions differ from later same-sex orientations. The current study highlights the importance of studying the development of sexuality beginning prior to adulthood.
Pichot, F; Dayan-lintzer, M
Although inadequate information on sex and contraception is frequently believed to account for contraceptive failure in adolescents, other factors including resistence to contraception or poor compliance with method requirements have been invoked to explain contraceptive failures in well-informed adolescents. Sexual relations are beginning at ever-younger ages in France; a 1980 survey indicated that 50% had their 1st sexual relations before age 17. Sexual activity is sporadic and irregular but usually occurs with the same partner. At least 50% of 1st sexual relations are unprotected by contraception, and half of adolescent pregnancies occur in the 1st 6th months of sexual activity. 6-12 months pass on average before sexually active adolescents begin to use contraception. Rates of pregnancy and abortion have increased especially among adolescents under 16, and in 1979 almost 20% of all abortions were in women under 20 years old. In 1980, only 20% of adolescents used contraception, with 17.3% using oral contraceptives. Few statistics exist on the complex phenomenon of conscious or subconscious contraceptive resistence in adolescence, and clinical experience serves as a better guide. A frequent attitude among adolescents is that sexual relations should be spontaneous and romantic, traits viewed as incompatible with contraception. "Magical thinking", failure to appreciate the real risk of pregnancy, and dissociation of sex and pregnancy are common. Adolescents who doubt their fecundity may engage in unprotected relations to reassure themselves, while some seeking to assert their femininity may use pills although they have no need for contraception. Guilt and ambivalence may be unconscious motivations for poor contraceptive use. Young girls in cold, uncaring, neglectful, or conflict-ridden homes may seek affection from a sexual partner and wish to have a baby to demonstrate their attachment. Such situations often lead to well-accepted pregnancies and may also
Guendelman, Maya D.; Ahmad, Shaikh; Meza, Jocelyn I.; Owens, Elizabeth B.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with interpersonal dysfunction during childhood and adolescence, yet little is known about the romantic relationships of young women with childhood ADHD. In the present study, we draw from a longitudinal sample of girls followed prospectively into young adulthood, comparing those with (n = 114) and without (n = 79; comparisons) childhood ADHD in terms of their risk for physical victimization by an intimate partner (physical IPV; e.g., slapping, punching) by 17–24 years of age. We examined ADHD both diagnostically and dimensionally, at the same time establishing reliable indicators of young adult physical IPV. Externalizing and internalizing problems, and academic achievement during adolescence, were tested as potential mediators. Overall, participants with a childhood diagnosis of ADHD experienced more physical IPV than did comparisons (30.7% vs. 6.3%). In parallel, IPV was associated with higher levels of childhood ADHD symptomatology (d = .73). Young women with persistent ADHD stood the highest risk of experiencing IPV (37.3%), followed by those with transient ADHD (19.0%) and those never-diagnosed (5.9%). Academic achievement measured during adolescence was a significant partial mediator of the childhood ADHD symptomatology-young adult IPV relationship, even with control of sociodemographic, psychiatric, and cognitive factors, including childhood reading and math disorders. Findings indicate that in young women, childhood ADHD is a specific and important predictor of physically violent victimization in their intimate relationships. This vulnerable population requires IPV prevention and intervention, with academic empowerment as a key target. PMID:25663589
Cunningham, Karlene; German, Nicole M; Mattson, Richard E
Regrets over partner selection can negatively influence romantic relationship functioning. It may even undermine stability in otherwise satisfied unions. The present study extends research on partner regret by exploring its several possible links with sexual satisfaction and satisfaction with the relationship as a whole. The authors analyzed data provided by 351 individuals using path analysis. Primary findings indicate that partner regret reduces sexual satisfaction by first depreciating satisfaction with the relationship as a whole. This effect was especially pronounced for parents and women. Implications for assessment and targeted interventions for partner regret are discussed.
Lee, Nikki C; Jolles, Jelle; Krabbendam, Lydia
Trust plays an integral role in daily interactions within adolescents' social environment. Using a trust game paradigm, this study investigated the modulating influence of social information about three interaction partners on trust behaviour in adolescents aged 12-18 (N = 845). After receiving information about their interaction partners prior to the task, participants were most likely to share with a 'good' partner and rate this partner as most trustworthy. Over the course of the task all interaction partners showed similar levels of trustworthy behaviour, but overall participants continued to trust and view the good partner as more trustworthy than 'bad' and 'neutral' partners throughout the game. However, with age the ability to overcome prior social information and adapt trust behaviour improved: middle and late adolescents showed a larger decrease in trust of the good partner than early adolescents, and late adolescents were more likely to reward trustworthy behaviour from the negative partner.
Carcedo, Rodrigo J; Perlman, Daniel; López, Félix; Begoña Orgaz, M
The purpose of this study was to investigate the moderating effect of having vs. not having a and quality of life. In-person interviews were conducted with 55 male and 64 female inmates from the Topas Penitentiary (Spain). Higher levels of social loneliness and lower levels of sexual satisfaction were associated with lower levels of quality of life. In addition, the interaction between sexual satisfaction and romantic partner status was significant. Higher levels of sexual satisfaction were associated with higher levels of quality of life only for the group without a partner. These findings support a "bad is stronger than good" principle and indicate the detrimental aspects that can be associated with not having a satisfactory sexual life while incarcerated.
Lang, Sarah N; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J; Kotila, Letitia E; Kamp Dush, Claire M
We investigated the association of prenatal assessments of mothers' and fathers' self-reported romantic attachment anxiety and avoidance with the time mothers and fathers reported in proximity-focused and exploration-focused engagement with their infants at 9 months postpartum. Our sample of 136 dual-earner couples came from a larger longitudinal study of the transition to parenthood. Time in proximity-focused (interactions that emphasize physical or emotional connection) and exploration-focused (activities that stimulate and build knowledge of the world) engagement on workdays and nonworkdays were measured using time diaries. Using actor-partner interdependence models, we found significant across-partners associations between romantic attachment and parental engagement. In particular, analyses revealed interesting interactions: fathers higher in avoidance spent more time in exploration-focused engagement on workdays when mothers were more anxious, whereas mothers higher in anxiety spent more time in proximity-focused engagement on nonworkdays when fathers were more avoidant. Moreover, fathers demonstrated a compensatory pattern of engagement in response to mother's greater attachment anxiety or avoidance. Findings support the utility of studying romantic attachment within a family system and extend the literature on correlates of early parental engagement.
Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, David A; Graham-Kevan, Nicola; Tew, Emily; Meng, K Nathan; Olsen, Joseph A
Various studies have found that viewing physical or relational aggression in the media can impact subsequent engagement in aggressive behavior. However, this has rarely been examined in the context of relationships. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to examine the connection between viewing various types of aggression in the media and perpetration of aggression against a romantic partner. A total of 369 young adults completed a variety of questionnaires asking for their perpetration of various forms of relationship aggression. Participants' exposure to both physical and relational aggression in the media was also assessed. As a whole, we found a relationship between viewing aggression in the media and perpetration of aggression; however, this depended on the sex of the participant and the type of aggression measured. Specifically, exposure to physical violence in the media was related to engagement in physical aggression against their partner only for men. However, exposure to relational aggression in the media was related to romantic relational aggression for both men and women.
Fincham, Frank D; Cui, Ming; Braithwaite, Scott; Pasley, Kay
Prevention of intimate partner violence on college campuses includes programs designed to change attitudes, and hence, a scale that assesses such attitudes is needed. Study 1 (N = 859) cross validates the factor structure of the Intimate Partner Violence Attitude Scale-Revised using exploratory factor analysis and presents initial validity data on the scale. In Study 2 (N = 687), the obtained three-factor structure (Abuse, Control, Violence) is tested using confirmatory factor analysis, and it is shown to be concurrently related to assault in romantic relationships and to predict psychological aggression 14 weeks later. The findings are discussed in the context of how understanding and modifying attitudes assessed by the Intimate Partner Violence Attitude Scale-Revised may improve interventions aimed at reducing intimate partner violence.
Bowker, Julie C.; Thomas, Katelyn K.; Spencer, Sarah V.; Park, Lora E.
The present study of 150 adolescents ("M" age = 13.05 years) examined the associations between appearance-based rejection sensitivity (Appearance-RS) and psychological adjustment during early adolescence, and evaluated three types of other-gender peer experiences (other-gender friendship, peer acceptance, and romantic relationships) as…
Monahan, Kathryn C.; Lee, Joanna M.
Little is known about the impact of the relational context of adolescent sexual activity on depressive symptoms. The present study examined trajectories of depressive symptoms among 6,602 adolescents (44% male, 60% White) taken from a nationally representative study (Add Health). Sexually active youth in romantic and casual relationships were…
Luciano, Eva C; Orth, Ulrich
Research suggests that self-esteem increases during late adolescence and young adulthood, but that there is large interindividual variability in this development. However, little is known about the factors accounting for these findings. Using propensity score matching, we tested whether important transitions in the domain of romantic relationships (i.e., beginning a relationship, marrying, and breaking up) explain why individuals differ in the particular self-esteem trajectory they follow. Data came from a longitudinal German study with a large sample of 3 nationally representative cohorts of late adolescents and young adults (total N = 9,069). The analyses were based on 4 assessments across a 3-year period. Using matched samples, the results showed that beginning a relationship increased self-esteem and that the increase persisted when the relationship held at least for 1 year. Experiencing a relationship break-up decreased self-esteem, but the effect disappeared after 1 year, even if the participant stayed single. Marrying did not influence self-esteem. Additionally, we tested for selection effects of self-esteem on the later occurrence of relationship transitions. High self-esteem predicted the beginning of a relationship and low self-esteem predicted relationship break-up. All findings held across gender, age, and migration background. Furthermore, relationship quality mediated the effect of self-esteem on relationship break-up and the effect of beginning a longer versus a short relationship on self-esteem. The findings have significant implications because they show that self-esteem influences whether important transitions occur in the relationship domain and that, in turn, experiencing these transitions influences the further development of self-esteem. (PsycINFO Database Record
Espinosa-Hernández, Graciela; Vasilenko, Sara A
To broaden our understanding of romance and sexuality during adolescence in Latin American countries, we used a person-oriented approach (latent class analysis) to examine classes marked by different patterns of romantic and sexual behaviors in Mexican adolescents. We found 5 classes: Inactive (8.53%), Early stage (37.8%), Waiting class (27.5%), Physical (8.4%) and Committed (17.9%); but no group dating class. We also explored how these classes were associated with adolescents' mental health and school performance. Middle school adolescents in the Committed class (high in romantic and sexual behaviors) had the highest level of depressive symptoms. Girls in the Inactive class and boys in the Physical class had the lowest level of symptoms. Adolescents in the Committed class also reported less academic motivation and achievement, whereas adolescents in the Inactive class reported higher motivation. This study expands our knowledge of adolescent romantic and sexual development in Mexico.
Bauermeister, José A
Using data from a sample of single young men who have sex with men (N = 1,359, ages 18-24, 65 % White, 93 % gay), we examined whether the number of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) partners with differed across relationship typologies (e.g., friends with benefits, hookups, romantic interests). We then examined how safer sex self-efficacy, decisional balance to forego condoms, ideal relationship attributes (i.e., intimacy, passion and commitment), and limerence were associated with UAI. Different partner types were associated with greater UAI partners; single partner types were associated with fewer UAI partners, irrespective of how they were categorized. UAI partners was associated with decisional balance (OR = 1.89, p < 0.001), passion ideation (OR = 1.38, p < 0.001), and difficulty negotiating safer sex with romantic partners (OR = 1.16, p < 0.001). Odds of UAI partners decreased with higher scores of commitment ideation (OR = 0.91, p < 0.05) and difficulty negotiating safer sex with casual partners (OR = 0.96, p < 0.05). We discuss the importance of acknowledging how different sexual partnerships, alongside its motivational correlates, influence UAI risk in order to inform HIV-prevention interventions.
Pistole, M. Carole; Roberts, Amber
This study investigated aspects of construct validity for the scores of a new long-distance romantic relationship measure. A single-factor structure of the long-distance romantic relationship index emerged, with convergent and discriminant evidence of external validity, high internal consistency reliability, and applied utility of the scores.…
Ward, Karen M.; Bosek, Rebecca L.; Trimble, Erin L.
Romantic relationships are important in the lives of adults with developmental disabilities. The purpose of this study was to explore dating and romantic relationships among these adults and to identify the nature and extent of interpersonal violence in their relationships. A random sample of 47 women and men participated in semistructured…
Problem Statement: The complex nature of romantic relationships, in general, makes the continuation of these relationships a challenge. This situation is even more problematic in traditional societies, as social norms for these relations are more strict and more disciplinarian. University students want to be in romantic relationships due to their…
Pelfrey, Patricia A.
While British Romantic literature provides ample evidence of the pleasures of knowledge, it also reveals strong counter-evidence of its power to inflict a sense of intellectual impairment and diminution. This Romantic ambivalence sprang from a complex of ideas and anxieties about the potentially corrosive effects of certain kinds of education and…
Lehmiller, Justin J.; Agnew, Christopher R.
The present research examined how perceived marginalization of one's romantic relationship is associated with level of future commitment to and stability of that involvement. Results from a 7-month longitudinal study of romantically involved individuals (N = 215) revealed that perceived social network marginalization at Time 1 predicted breakup…
Rye, James; Tompkins, Nancy O'Hara; McClure, Darlene; Aleshire, Jacqueline
Schools are an important resource in combating the physical inactivity and obesity epidemics in rural economically depressed areas. Through a University-community partnership, teachers and adolescents in a rural West Virginia county with one of the highest obesity rates in the state developed a school-based research intervention to increase…
Matte, Melody; Lafontaine, Marie-France
The objective of the present study was to provide validity evidence for the scores from the Romantic Relationship Perfectionism Scale. Results indicate a two-factor structure, adequate reliability, and overall good convergent, concurrent, discriminant, and incremental validity evidence. The strengths and limitations of this measure are discussed.…
Alleyne-Green, Binta; Grinnell-Davis, Claudette; Clark, Trenette T; Quinn, Camille R; Cryer-Coupet, Qiana R
This study explored the relationship between the involvement of biological fathers and the sexual risk behaviors and dating violence/victimization and/or perpetration of adolescent girls. The data used in this cross-sectional analysis were drawn from the second wave of the public release of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Only adolescents who reported their biological sex as female, reported a history of being sexually active, and reported having a romantic partner in the previous 18 months were selected (N = 879). This study focused on overall positive sexual behaviors and use of contraception. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to best utilize capacity for dealing with latent variables and to test for possible mediation effects. The analysis demonstrated main effects of dating violence and father involvement on sexual behaviors. The more dating violence an adolescent girl experiences, the less likely she is to engage in healthy sexual behaviors. Likewise, the more involvement the biological father has in a woman's life, the more likely she is to engage in positive sexual behaviors. Perceived father involvement was associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls. Dating violence was directly associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls, particularly non-White girls. Future studies should use longitudinal models and test theoretically and empirically guided potential mediators. Future studies should also consider father figures such as step-fathers and grandfathers in addition to biological fathers, as having a father figure may be a stronger predictor of adolescent sexual behaviors than having a biological connection.
Alleyne-Green, Binta; Grinnell-Davis, Claudette; Clark, Trenette T.; Quinn, Camille R.; Cryer, Qiana R.
This study explored the relationship between the involvement of biological fathers and the sexual risk behaviors and dating violence/victimization and/ or perpetration of adolescent girls. The data used in this cross-sectional analysis were drawn from the second wave of the public release of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Only adolescents who reported their biological sex as female, reported a history of being sexually active, and reported having a romantic partner in the previous 18 months were selected (N = 879). This study focused on overall positive sexual behaviors and use of contraception. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to best utilize capacity for dealing with latent variables and to test for possible mediation effects. The analysis demonstrated main effects of dating violence and father involvement on sexual behaviors. The more dating violence an adolescent girl experiences, the less likely she is to engage in healthy sexual behaviors. Likewise, the more involvement the biological father has in a woman’s life, the more likely she is to engage in positive sexual behaviors. Perceived father involvement was associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls. Dating violence was directly associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls, particularly non-White girls. Future studies should use longitudinal models and test theoretically and empirically guided potential mediators. Future studies should also consider father figures such as step-fathers and grandfathers in addition to biological fathers, as having a father figure may be a stronger predictor of adolescent sexual behaviors than having a biological connection. PMID:25475102
Barry, Robin A.; Lawrence, Erika; Langer, Amie
Research examining relationship distress and dissolution highlights the importance of romantic disengagement. However, prior conceptualizations and measures of romantic disengagement have tended to combine disengagement with related but distinct constructs hindering the study of romantic disengagement. In the present study we conducted exploratory factor analyses to demonstrate that disengagement is a relatively distinct construct and to clarify the conceptualization of romantic disengagement. More importantly, we developed a novel measure– the Romantic Disengagement Scale (RDS). The RDS demonstrated adequate fit across samples of dating individuals, married couples and women in physically aggressive relationships. The RDS also demonstrated strong divergent and incremental validity. Implications for enhancing conceptual models, research methodology, and clinical interventions are discussed. PMID:19727315
Meston, Cindy M; Frohlich, Penny F
This study examined the effects of residual nervous system arousal on perceptions of sexual attraction. Researchers approached individuals (males, n = 165; females, n = 135) at amusement parks as they were either waiting to begin or as they had just gotten off a roller-coaster ride. Participants were shown a photograph of an average attractive, opposite-gendered individual and asked to rate the individual on attractiveness and dating desirability. Participants were also asked to rate their seatmates' levels of attractiveness. Consistent with the predictions of excitation transfer theory, for males and females riding with a nonromantic partner, ratings of attractiveness and dating desirability toward the photographed individual were higher among persons exiting than entering the ride. Among persons riding with a romantic partner, there were no significant differences in attractiveness or dating desirability ratings between persons entering and exiting the ride. The findings are discussed in terms of the potential moderator effects of a salient romantic partner on excitation transfer.
Khaddouma, Alexander; Coop Gordon, Kristina; Strand, Elizabeth B
Very little is currently known about how increases in dispositional mindfulness through mindfulness training affect the quality of participants' romantic relationships, and no previous studies have examined how increases in specific facets of mindfulness differentially contribute to relationship health. Additionally, even less is known about how an individual's development of mindfulness skills affects the relationship satisfaction of his or her romantic partner. Thus, the purpose of this pilot study was to examine associations between changes in facets of mindfulness and relationship satisfaction among participants enrolled in a Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) course and their nonenrolled romantic partners. Twenty MBSR participants and their nonenrolled partners (n = 40) completed measures of mindfulness and relationship satisfaction pre- and post-enrolled partners' completion of an MBSR course. Results indicated that enrolled participants significantly improved on all facets of mindfulness and relationship satisfaction, while nonenrolled partners did not significantly increase on any facet of mindfulness or relationship satisfaction. Moreover, enrolled participants' increases in Acting with Awareness were positively associated with increases in their own and their nonenrolled partners' relationship satisfaction, whereas increases in enrolled participants' Nonreactivity were positively associated with increases in their nonenrolled partners' (but not their own) relationship satisfaction. These results suggest that increasing levels of mindfulness (particularly specific aspects of mindfulness) may have positive effects on couples' relationship satisfaction and highlight mindfulness training as a promising tool for education and intervention efforts aimed at promoting relational health.
Lacasse, Anne; Mendelson, Morton J.
Adolescence is a transitional period when the pressure to engage in romantic and sexual relationships can leave teenagers feeling confused and at risk for sexual coercion. Our studies investigated characteristics of male and female perpetrators and victims of peer sexual coercion, focusing on self-esteem, sexist attitudes, and involvement in…
Shortt, Joann Wu; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Tiberio, Stacey S.
The substantial number of young people in romantic relationships that involve intimate partner violence, a situation deleterious to physical and mental health, has resulted in increased attention to understanding the links between risk factors and course of violence. The current study examined couples' interpersonal stress related to not liking…
Vasilenko, Sara A.
To broaden our understanding of romance and sexuality during adolescence in Latin American countries, we used a person-oriented approach (latent class analysis) to examine classes marked by different patterns of romantic and sexual behaviors in Mexican adolescents. We found 5 classes: Inactive, (8.53%), Early stage (37.8%), Waiting class (27.5%), Physical (8.4%) and Committed (17.9%); but no group dating class. We also explored how these classes were associated with adolescents’ mental health and school performance. Middle school adolescents in the Committed class (high in romantic and sexual behaviors) had the highest level of depressive symptoms. Girls in the Inactive class and boys in the Physical class had the lowest level of symptoms. Adolescents in the Committed class also reported less academic motivation and achievement, whereas adolescents in the Inactive class reported higher motivation. This study expands our knowledge of adolescent romantic and sexual development in Mexico. PMID:26340166
Stanley, Scott M; Rhoades, Galena K; Whitton, Sarah W
In this theoretical paper, we review central concepts in the psychological literature on relationship commitment to provide a foundation to discuss two themes related to long-term romantic relationships and marriages. First, we describe and discuss the role that commitment plays in stabilizing romantic attachment. Second, we use empirical research on cohabitation to highlight how the formation of commitment can be undermined by what are now common trajectories of couple development. The first topic underscores an increasingly important role for commitment in an age of companionate marriage. The second topic draws attention to dynamics that can affect the strength of romantic commitments, especially in marriage.
Foster, Katherine T.; Hicks, Brian M.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt
Background Gender differences in the prevalence of alcohol use disorder (AUD) have motivated the separate study of its risk factors and consequences in men and women. However, leveraging gender as a third variable to help account for the association between risk factors and consequences for AUD could elucidate etiological mechanisms and clinical outcomes. Method Using data from a large, community sample followed longitudinally from ages 17 to 29, we tested for gender differences in psychosocial risk factors and consequences in adolescence and adulthood after controlling for gender differences in the base rates of AUD and the psychosocial factor. Psychosocial factors included alcohol use, other drug use, externalizing and internalizing symptoms, deviant peer affiliation, family adversity, academic problems, attitudes and use of substances by a romantic partner, and adult socio-economic status. Results At both ages 17 and 29, mean-levels of psychosocial risks and consequences were higher in men and those with AUD. However, the amount of risk exposure in adolescence was more predictive of AUD in women than men. By adulthood, AUD consequences were larger in women than men and internalizing risk had a stronger relationship with AUD in women at both ages. Conclusion Despite higher mean-levels of risk exposure in men overall, AUD appears to be a more severe disorder in women characterized by higher levels of adolescent risk factors and a greater magnitude of the AUD consequences among women than men. Furthermore, internalizing symptoms appear to be a gender specific risk factor for AUD in women. PMID:26118496
Murphy, Devin; Klosky, James L; Reed, Damon R; Termuhlen, Amanda M; Shannon, Susan V; Quinn, Gwendolyn P
Visions for the future are a normal developmental process for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with and without cancer, and these visions often include expectations of sexual and romantic relationships. AYA cancer survivors indicate reproductive health is an issue of great importance and more attention is needed in the health care setting throughout the cancer experience, beginning at diagnosis. Various practice guidelines are predominately focused on fertility; are intended to influence survivorship care plans; and do not encompass the broad scope of reproductive health that includes romantic partnering, friendships, body image, sexuality, sexual identity, fertility, contraception, and more. Although interventions to reduce reproductive health-related sequelae from treatment are best approached as an evolving process, practitioners are not certain of the priorities of these various reproductive health content areas. Strategies incongruent with the reproductive health priorities of AYAs will likely thwart adequate follow-up care and foster feelings of isolation from the treatment team. Research is needed to identify these priorities and ensure discussions of diverse content areas. This review explored various domains of reproductive health and emphasized how understanding the priorities of the AYA cancer cohort will guide future models of care.
Kuhn, Dr. Cynthia
Substance use and abuse begins during adolescence. Male and female adolescent humans initiate use at comparable rates, but males increase use faster. In adulthood, more men than women use and abuse addictive drugs. However, some women progress more rapidly from initiation of use to entry into treatment. In animal models, adolescent males and females consume addictive drugs similarly. However, reproductively mature females acquire self-administration faster, and in some models, escalate use more. Sex/gender differences exist in neurobiologic factors mediating both reinforcement (dopamine, opioids) and aversiveness (CRF, dynorphin), as well as intrinsic factors (personality, psychiatric co-morbidities) and extrinsic factors (history of abuse, environment especially peers and family) which influence the progression from initial use to abuse., Many of these important differences emerge during adolescence, and are moderated by sexual differentiation of the brain. Estradiol effects which enhance both dopaminergic and CRF-mediated processes contribute to the female vulnerability to substance use and abuse. Testosterone enhances impulsivity and sensation seeking in both males and females. Several protective factors in females also influence initiation and progression of substance use including hormonal changes of pregnancy as well as greater capacity for self-regulation and lower peak levels of impulsivity/sensation seeking. Same sex peers represent a risk factor more for males than females during adolescence, while romantic partners increase risk for women during this developmental epoch. In summary, biologic factors, psychiatric co-morbidities as well as personality and environment present sex/gender-specific risks as adolescents begin to initiate substance use. PMID:26049025
Substance use and abuse begin during adolescence. Male and female adolescent humans initiate use at comparable rates, but males increase use faster. In adulthood, more men than women use and abuse addictive drugs. However, some women progress more rapidly from initiation of use to entry into treatment. In animal models, adolescent males and females consume addictive drugs similarly. However, reproductively mature females acquire self-administration faster, and in some models, escalate use more. Sex/gender differences exist in neurobiologic factors mediating both reinforcement (dopamine, opioids) and aversiveness (CRF, dynorphin), as well as intrinsic factors (personality, psychiatric co-morbidities) and extrinsic factors (history of abuse, environment especially peers and family) which influence the progression from initial use to abuse. Many of these important differences emerge during adolescence, and are moderated by sexual differentiation of the brain. Estradiol effects which enhance both dopaminergic and CRF-mediated processes contribute to the female vulnerability to substance use and abuse. Testosterone enhances impulsivity and sensation seeking in both males and females. Several protective factors in females also influence initiation and progression of substance use including hormonal changes of pregnancy as well as greater capacity for self-regulation and lower peak levels of impulsivity/sensation seeking. Same sex peers represent a risk factor more for males than females during adolescence, while romantic partners increase risk for women during this developmental epoch. In summary, biologic factors, psychiatric co-morbidities as well as personality and environment present sex/gender-specific risks as adolescents begin to initiate substance use.
Thomas, Laura; Scott-Tilley, Donna
Research in intimate partner violence has focused on married, cohabiting, adolescents, or college aged women. The experience of intimate partner violence by single women has not been studied separately from other groups of women. An interpretive phenomenological approach was used with feminist inquiry to gain insight into the experience of intimate partner violence by single women. The overarching theme was control and manipulation by the abuser. Subthemes included not feeling safe, poor communication skills, and caretaking. Nurses need to be aware of the occurrence of intimate partner violence in male and female partnered relationships to provide comprehensive and nonjudgmental care.
Woods, Sarah B; Priest, Jacob B; Denton, Wayne H
Depression is a common presenting problem, often affected by couple interactions in unique ways. However, research in the area of romantic relationship functioning and depression often replicates previous research or consists of literature reviews, limiting the clinical relevancy. The purpose of this preliminary study is to expand the research on the effects of relational processes on depression treatment outcomes. We tested whether initiator tendency, attachment anxiety, attachment avoidance, and marital satisfaction predicted improvement in depression for women with Major Depressive Disorder enrolled in a depression treatment clinical trial (n = 17). Women completed treatments of either pharmacotherapy or combined Emotionally Focused Therapy for couples and pharmacotherapy. We found that higher baseline levels of partner initiator tendency resulted in less change in depression (worse outcomes), regardless of treatment type and that higher baseline levels of attachment avoidance predicted better depression outcomes in treatment. Marital satisfaction, however, was not linked to change in depression. Initiator tendency is discussed as a critical romantic relationship factor for depression treatment outcomes.
Schneider, Daniel; Harknett, Kristen; McLanahan, Sara
In the United States, the Great Recession was marked by severe negative shocks to labor market conditions. In this study, we combine longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study with U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics data on local area unemployment rates to examine the relationship between adverse labor market conditions and mothers' experiences of abusive behavior between 2001 and 2010. Unemployment and economic hardship at the household level were positively related to abusive behavior. Further, rapid increases in the unemployment rate increased men's controlling behavior toward romantic partners even after we adjust for unemployment and economic distress at the household level. We interpret these findings as demonstrating that the uncertainty and anticipatory anxiety that go along with sudden macroeconomic downturns have negative effects on relationship quality, above and beyond the effects of job loss and material hardship. PMID:27003136
De Smet, Olivia; Loeys, Tom; Buysse, Ann
Unwanted pursuit behavior (UPB) refers to a wide range of repeated, unwanted, and privacy-violating intrusions that are inflicted to pursue an intimate or romantic relationship. These behaviors most often occur when partners end their romantic entanglements. Despite the fact that UPB is grounded in relationships, psychological explanations for post-breakup UPB perpetration have been restricted to actor effects assessed in samples of separated individuals. For that reason, the present study aimed to identify feasible partner effects that additionally explain UPB perpetration using a Flemish sample of 46 heterosexual divorced couples, beginning with the notion of interdependence. Using actor-partner interdependence models, we explored actor, partner, and gender main and interaction effects of anxious attachment, satisfaction, alternatives, investments, and conflict in the previous marriage on the perpetration of post-divorce UPBs. The significant Partner × Gender interactions of anxious attachment and satisfaction, Actor × Partner interactions of anxious attachment and quality of alternatives, and the marginally significant partner effect of relational conflict underline the important role of the dyad in studying UPB perpetration. These findings shed new light on the nature of UPB perpetration that go beyond the individual and support the use of a systemic approach in clinical practices.
Knee, C Raymond; Hadden, Benjamin W; Porter, Ben; Rodriguez, Lindsey M
Self-determination theory can be viewed as a theory of optimal relationship development and functioning. We examine the concept of self that is employed in self-determination theory and explain how its unique definition allows an important and novel characterization of investing one's "self" in romantic relationships. A self-determined perspective on romantic relationships integrates several theories on romantic relationship development, but also goes beyond them by explicitly articulating the personality, developmental, and situational factors that facilitate optimal self-investment and relational functioning. Self-determination promotes openness rather than defensiveness and facilitates perspective-taking, authenticity, and support of close others. The dyadic context of romantic relationships affords great opportunity for theoretical development and integration of self-determination theory with current theories of interdependence and relational well-being.
Hill, R; Davis, P
Romantic jealousy has long been of interest to psychodynamically oriented clinicians. More recently empirical investigations have emerged into the causes and treatments of romantic jealousy. What has not kept pace with this interest is a wider research agenda into non-romantic forms of jealousy. While work has appeared in relation to specific groups or topics, such as sibling rivalry, no attempt has been made to draw together the material on non-romantic jealousy. In this paper the theoretical and empirical material on non-romantic jealousy is reviewed in order to answer two fundamental questions. Firstly, is non-romantic jealousy necessarily pathological? Secondly, to what extent is it helpful to subsume all forms of non-romantic jealousy under one term? It is suggested that while non-romantic jealousy is not always pathological, the term non-romantic jealousy may be a useful differentiating term, not least in highlighting an important area for future research.
Gulledge, Andrew K; Stahmann, Robert F; Wilson, Colwick M
College students from Brigham Young University (N= 186; 68 men, 118 women, M age=22.7 yr., SD=3.5) completed a survey regarding nonsexual, romantic physical affection-defined as any touch intended to arouse feelings of love in the giver or the recipient. Respondents included both dating and married individuals, although this was not specified on the questionnaire. This descriptive study reports the mean, median, mode, and standard deviation for each of the seven physical affection types: backrubs/massages, caressing/stroking, cuddling/holding, holding hands, hugging, kissing on the face, and kissing on the lips. Grouped frequency distributions further describe the amounts of each type of physical affection. Although physical affection has been underrepresented in the literature, studies have shown it to be associated with relationship satisfaction, partner satisfaction, psychological intimacy, feeling understood, the development of attachment bonds, modulating cardiovascular arousal, and easier conflict resolution.
Capaldi, Deborah M.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Owen, Lee D.
Female romantic partners’ influence on official crime occurrence for men across a 12-year period in early adulthood was examined within a comprehensive dynamic prediction model including both social learning and social control predictors. We hypothesized that relationship stability, rather than attachment to partner, would be associated with reduced likelihood of crime, whereas women’s antisocial behavior would be a risk factor, along with deviant peer association. Models were tested on a sample of at-risk men [the Oregon Youth Study (OYS)] using zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) modeling predicting to 1) arrest persistence (class and count) and 2) arrest onset class. Findings indicated that women’s antisocial behavior was predictive of both onset and persistence of arrests for men, and deviant peer association was predictive of persistence. Relationship stability was protective against persistence. PMID:19079751
Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P.; Diener, Ed
Background Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. Methods To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as a predictor of relationship, adjustment, self worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilized multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Results Early adolescent positive affect predicted less relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers), healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. Conclusions The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. PMID:27075545
Roth, Alexis M.; Rosenberger, Joshua G.; Hensel, Devon J.; Wiehe, Sarah E.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Wagner, Karla D.
Background Relationship characteristics and day-to-day variation in affective state have been associated with HIV risk behavior. However, no research has assessed the impact of these factors on event-level condom use among women engaging in transactional sex. Methods We enrolled twenty-six women engaging in transactional sex in a prospective study and collected information about their paid/traded sexual experiences twice daily on cell phones. Results Over 4-weeks, 18 participants reported 87 paid/traded vaginal intercourse events. Of these, 51.7% were condom protected. The majority of paid/traded events (81.5%) occurred with a non-romantic partner. After controlling for partner type, feeling in love on a given day was associated with higher odds of condom use during paid/traded sexual events, while having sex and on the weekend were associated with lower odds of condom use (all p=<.05). There was a significant interaction between being in love and using condoms during transactional sex (p<0.01). In paid/traded sexual events with romantic partners, the frequency of condom use was 71.4% (5/7) when women did not report love and 40% (4/10) when love was reported. In sexual events with non-romantic partners, the frequency of condom use was 43.8% (14/32) when women did not report love and 59.5% (22/37) when love was reported. Conclusions Women were less likely to reported protected sex with romantic partners and more likely to report protected sex with non-romantic partners when they are in love. Interventions focusing on the link between day-to-day variation in affective state on condom use may help women with risk management across partner types. PMID:26615499
Mackinnon, Sean P; Sherry, Simon B; Antony, Martin M; Stewart, Sherry H; Sherry, Dayna L; Hartling, Nikola
According to the social disconnection model, perfectionistic concerns (i.e., harsh self-scrutiny, extreme concern over mistakes and others' evaluations, and excessive reactions to perceived failures) confer vulnerability to depressive symptoms indirectly through interpersonal problems. This study tested the social disconnection model in 226 heterosexual romantic dyads using a mixed longitudinal and experience sampling design. Perfectionistic concerns were measured using three partner-specific self-report questionnaires. Conflict was measured as a dyadic variable, incorporating reports from both partners. Depressive symptoms were measured using a self-report questionnaire. Perfectionistic concerns and depressive symptoms were measured at Day 1 and Day 28. Aggregated dyadic conflict was measured with daily online questionnaires from Days 2 to 15. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. There were four primary findings: (a) Dyadic conflict mediated the link between perfectionistic concerns and depressive symptoms, even when controlling for baseline depressive symptoms; (b) depressive symptoms were both an antecedent and a consequence of dyadic conflict; (c) perfectionistic concerns incrementally predicted dyadic conflict and depressive symptoms beyond neuroticism (i.e., a tendency to experience negative emotions) and other-oriented perfectionism (i.e., rigidly demanding perfection from one's partner); and (d) the relationships among variables did not differ based on gender. As the most rigorous test of the social disconnection model to date, this study provides strong support for this emerging model. Results also clarify the characterological and the interpersonal context within which depressive symptoms are likely to occur.
Sadikaj, Gentiana; Rappaport, Lance M; Moskowitz, D S; Zuroff, David C; Koestner, Richard; Powers, Theodore
Large fluctuations in a person's interpersonal behavior across situations and over time are thought to be associated with poor personal and interpersonal outcomes. This study examined 2 outcomes, relationship satisfaction and goal progress, that could be associated with individual differences in dispersion of interpersonal behavior (interpersonal spin) in romantic relationships. Need satisfaction and perceived autonomy support for goal pursuit from the partner were examined as mediator variables. Spin was measured using an event-contingent recording (ECR) methodology with a sample of 93 cohabiting couples who reported their interpersonal behavior in interactions with each other during a 20-day period. Relationship satisfaction and goal completion were measured at the end of the ECR procedure (T2) and approximately 7 months after the ECR (T3). Need satisfaction and perceived autonomy support were measured at T2. In both genders, higher spin was associated with lower T2 relationship satisfaction. There was also a decline in relationship satisfaction from T2 to T3 among men with high spin partners. In both genders, higher spin was associated with lower need satisfaction, and lower need satisfaction was associated with a decline in relationship satisfaction from T2 to T3. In both genders, higher spin was associated with lower perceived autonomy support, and lower support was associated with decreased progress in goal completion from T2 to T3. The effects of spin were independent of the effects of mean levels of behavior. These findings extend the understanding of the detrimental consequences of dispersion in interpersonal behavior to the disruption of the person's romantic relationships.
Blais, Julie J.; Craig, Wendy M.; Pepler, Debra; Connolly, Jennifer
The purpose of this study was to determine whether using the Internet for different activities affects the quality of close adolescent relationships (i.e., best friendships and romantic relationships). In a one-year longitudinal study of 884 adolescents (Mean age = 15, 46% male), we examined whether visiting chat rooms, using ICQ, using the…
Ivanova, Katya; Mills, Melinda; Veenstra, Rene
This study examined the effect of parental divorce on the time it took adolescents to initiate their first romantic relationships. Individual differences in temperament and pubertal development and the age of the adolescent at the time of divorce were also taken into account. Hypotheses were tested using event history analysis with a sample of…
Drew, Cathy L.
Adolescent males are influenced by various social and cultural factors. This qualitative study sought to further understanding about adolescent males' thoughts and behaviors regarding sexual decision-making. Specific exploration encompassed the influences of the identified factors of parents, peers, media, first romantic relationship breakups, and…
Starr, Lisa R.; Donenberg, Geri R.; Emerson, Erin
The current study examines longitudinal associations between light and heavy sexual experiences and psychiatric symptoms in African American adolescent girls receiving mental health care. Research supports bidirectional associations between adolescent romantic and sexual behaviors and depression and other mental health problems, but this finding…
Muise, Amy; Stanton, Sarah C E; Kim, James J; Impett, Emily A
Men's sexual overperception bias-where men tend to perceive greater sexual interest in women's behavior than actually exists-is a well-documented finding in previous research. All of the existing research, however, has tested this effect in the context of initial encounters or for fictitious or unknown targets. No research currently exists on how people perceive their romantic partner's sexual desire in the context of ongoing, intimate relationships. In 3 dyadic studies, we provide evidence that men in established romantic relationships err in the direction of the opposite bias and underperceive their romantic partner's sexual desire. We also demonstrate that this underperception bias is functional (particularly for men) in that it is associated with their partner feeling more satisfied and committed to the relationship. In addition, people are particularly likely to underperceive their partner's desire on days when they are motivated to avoid sexual rejection, and men's underperception bias is, in part, accounted for by men's higher general levels of sexual desire than women. The current studies extend previous findings on sexual perceptual biases and demonstrate the important role of context in men's judgments of a partner's sexual interest. (PsycINFO Database Record
Murray, Sandra L.; Aloni, Maya; Holmes, John G.; Derrick, Jaye L.; Stinson, Danu Anthony; Leder, Sadie
A model of the trust-insurance system is proposed to examine how low and high self-esteem people cope with the interdependence dilemma posed by feeling inferior to a romantic partner. Feeling inferior automatically activates “if-then” contingencies that link inferiority to the exchange script (i.e., partner qualities are evenly traded) and exchange script anxieties to reparative efforts to secure a partner's dependence. A daily diary study of newlyweds and five experiments supported the model. Induced upward social comparisons to the partner activated exchange anxieties for low, but not high, self-esteem people. When implicitly primed, the exchange script heightened worries about being inferior and motivated behavioral efforts to increase the partner's dependence regardless of self-esteem. When consciously deliberated, the exchange script only elicited dependence-promotion for low self-esteem people. PMID:19159135
Murray, Sandra L; Aloni, Maya; Holmes, John G; Derrick, Jaye L; Stinson, Danu Anthony; Leder, Sadie
A model of the trust-insurance system is proposed to examine how people with low and high self-esteem cope with the interdependence dilemma posed by feeling inferior to a romantic partner. Feeling inferior automatically activates "if-then" contingencies that link inferiority to the exchange script (i.e., partner qualities are evenly traded) and exchange script anxieties to reparative efforts to secure a partner's dependence. A daily diary study of newlyweds and 5 experiments supported the model. Induced upward social comparisons to the partner activated exchange anxieties for low, but not high, self-esteem people. When implicitly primed, the exchange script heightened worries about being inferior and motivated behavioral efforts to increase the partner's dependence regardless of self-esteem. When consciously deliberated, the exchange script elicited dependence promotion only for low self-esteem people.
Kenny, David A; Ledermann, Thomas
Family researchers have used the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) to study romantic couples, parent-child dyads, and siblings. We discuss a new method to detect, measure, and test different theoretically important patterns in the APIM: equal actor and partner effect (couple pattern); same size, but different signs of actor and partner effects (contrast pattern); and zero partner effects (actor-only pattern). To measure these different patterns, as well as others, we propose the estimation of the parameter k, which equals the partner effect divided by the actor effect. For both indistinguishable dyad members (e.g., twins) and distinguishable dyad members (e.g., heterosexual couples), we propose strategies for estimating and testing different models. We illustrate our new approach with four data sets.
Park, Lora E; Young, Ariana F; Troisi, Jordan D; Pinkus, Rebecca T
The present research examined the impact of everyday romantic goal strivings on women's attitudes toward science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). It was hypothesized that women may distance themselves from STEM when the goal to be romantically desirable is activated because pursuing intelligence goals in masculine domains (i.e., STEM) conflicts with pursuing romantic goals associated with traditional romantic scripts and gender norms. Consistent with hypotheses, women, but not men, who viewed images (Study 1) or overheard conversations (Studies 2a-2b) related to romantic goals reported less positive attitudes toward STEM and less preference for majoring in math/science compared to other disciplines. On days when women pursued romantic goals, the more romantic activities they engaged in and the more desirable they felt, but the fewer math activities they engaged in. Furthermore, women's previous day romantic goal strivings predicted feeling more desirable but being less invested in math on the following day (Study 3).
Darvell, Millie J; Walsh, Shari P; White, Katherine M
The social networking site (SNS) Facebook is becoming increasingly recognized as a medium through which individuals can investigate and monitor others' activities. However, little is known about whether Facebook monitoring behavior occurs within romantic relationships and, accordingly, the psychological predictors of this behavior. The present study employed an extended theory of planned behavior (TPB) framework including self-esteem, partner trust, and demographic characteristics, to predict frequent Facebook partner-monitoring. Facebook users (N=244) in romantic relationships completed measures assessing the standard TPB constructs (attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control), additional predictor variables (self-esteem and partner trust), and demographic characteristics (age, gender, relationship length, daily Facebook logins, and time spent per login). One week later, participants reported their level of Facebook partner-monitoring during the previous week. Regression analyses supported the standard TPB constructs of attitude and subjective norm in predicting intentions to engage in frequent Facebook partner-monitoring, with intention, in turn, predicting behavior. Partner trust, but not self-esteem, significantly predicted frequent Facebook partner-monitoring intentions. Of the demographic characteristics, daily Facebook logins significantly predicted both intention and behavior and, unexpectedly, relationship length directly affected behavior. Overall, the current study revealed that frequent Facebook partner-monitoring is influenced by attitudinal, normative, and relational factors and, potentially, increased visits to Facebook. These findings provide a new understanding of an individual's use of the world's leading SNS to monitor their partner's activities and provide a foundation for future studies to investigate the potential negative implications this activity may have for those in romantic relationships.
Schvey, Natasha A.; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Kelly, Nichole R.; Pickworth, Courtney K.; Cassidy, Omni; Galescu, Ovidiu; Demidowich, Andrew P.; Brady, Sheila M.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A.
Purpose Extant research indicates that some of the comorbidities associated with adult obesity may be adversely affected by the stress resulting from negative body image and weight-related teasing. This study examined the association between weight-related pressure and insulin sensitivity in adolescents, who are vulnerable to both weight-based teasing and the onset of metabolic dysregulation. Methods Participants were 215 adolescent healthy volunteers (55% female; 59% White; 35% overweight/obese; M±SD age = 15.4±1.4y), who completed a self-report measure of pressure to be thin from parents, friends, and romantic partners. Fasting blood samples were obtained to assess serum insulin and glucose, which were used to calculate insulin sensitivity; fat mass (kg) and fat-free mass (%) were measured with air displacement plethysmography. Pubertal stage was determined by physical examination. Results Pressure to be thin was positively associated with fasting insulin (p = .01) and negatively associated with insulin sensitivity (p = .02), after controlling for pubertal stage, sex, race, height, fat-free mass, and adiposity. Pressure to be thin was associated with a greater odds of having hyperinsulinemia (fasting insulin ≥ 15 µIU/mL; Odds Ratio (95% CI): 1.65 (1.08–2.50), p = .02), adjusting for the same covariates. Conclusions Results indicate that adolescents perceiving more pressure to be thin have greater elevations of fasting insulin and poorer insulin sensitivity above and beyond the effect of fat mass. Future research is warranted to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for this relationship. PMID:26707232
Gordon, Amie M; Chen, Serena
Reconciling competing viewpoints suggesting that power helps and hurts perspective-taking in close relationships, in two experiments and two daily experience studies we tested the hypothesis that power's effect on perspective-taking depends on the extent to which people are relatively self-versus other-focused. In Study 1, recalling a time of high (vs. low) power over a romantic partner reduced inclinations to take the partner's perspective for relatively self-focused but not other-focused individuals. Studies 2 and 3 replicated Study 1 using daily variations in power and perspective-taking. In Study 4, being the "in-charge" partner during a conflict conversation reduced empathic accuracy for more self-focused individuals. Self-other focus was assessed with measures of gratitude, relational self-construal, and social value orientation. The current findings provide evidence that, particularly for the more self-focused, relationship power influences people's inclinations to take their romantic partner's perspective in daily life as well as their empathic accuracy during conflict.
Bejanyan, Kathrine; Marshall, Tara C; Ferenczi, Nelli
Previous studies have established that Indians tend to be greater in collectivism and gender role traditionalism than Americans. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether these differences explained further cultural differences in romantic beliefs, traditional mate preferences, and anticipation of future difficulties in marital life. Results revealed that Indians reported greater collectivism than Americans and, in turn, held stronger romantic beliefs. Additionally, Indians' greater collectivism and endorsement of more traditional gender roles in part predicted their preferences for a marital partner possessing traditional characteristics, and fully accounted for their heightened concerns about encountering future difficulties in marital life. These results shed light on the processes underlying cultural differences in relationship attitudes and preferences, and point to culture-specific therapies to enhance marital functioning.
Bejanyan, Kathrine; Marshall, Tara C.; Ferenczi, Nelli
Previous studies have established that Indians tend to be greater in collectivism and gender role traditionalism than Americans. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether these differences explained further cultural differences in romantic beliefs, traditional mate preferences, and anticipation of future difficulties in marital life. Results revealed that Indians reported greater collectivism than Americans and, in turn, held stronger romantic beliefs. Additionally, Indians' greater collectivism and endorsement of more traditional gender roles in part predicted their preferences for a marital partner possessing traditional characteristics, and fully accounted for their heightened concerns about encountering future difficulties in marital life. These results shed light on the processes underlying cultural differences in relationship attitudes and preferences, and point to culture-specific therapies to enhance marital functioning. PMID:25520681
EPA Green Power Partners can access tools and resources to help promote their green power commitments. Partners use these tools to communicate the benefits of their green power use to their customers, stakeholders, and the general public.
This EPA presentation provides information on the SmartWay Transport Partnership Program, including key information about EPA, Partners' roles, benefits, tools, partner recognition, awards, and brand value. Transcript available.
Dailey, Rene M.; Romo, Lynsey Kluever; Thompson, Charee Mooney
Using confirmation theory, this study investigated how romantic couples' (N = 100) accepting and challenging communication was associated with several weight management (WM) outcomes (i.e., partners' general effectiveness in motivating each other to enact healthy behaviors, productivity of WM conversations, and diet and exercise behaviors).…
Improving Access to Standardized Fertility Preservation Information for Older Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer: Using a User-Centered Approach with Young Adult Patients, Survivors, and Partners to Refine Fertility Knowledge Transfer.
Tam, Seline; Puri, Natasha; Stephens, Derek; Mitchell, Laura; Giuliani, Meredith; Papadakos, Janet; Gupta, Abha A
Adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients under 40 should be made aware of their fertility risks and preservation options throughout their care. However, discussions on fertility preservation (FP) do not routinely occur. With a dearth of FP resources, oncology providers may lack knowledge around FP. Thus, informational needs can be unmet, leading to anxiety and distress in patients. Provision of pertinent and timely information can help patients cope better with their diagnosis. FP pamphlets were developed for men and women with cancer. A cross-sectional in-house survey, using convenience sampling, evaluated the pamphlets' effectiveness and measured ease of understanding, acceptability, and perceived utility. Patients and partners were also asked to provide recommendations and complete the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA) measuring health literacy level. This helps determine if health literacy influences perception of pamphlet effectiveness. All participants (n = 56) reviewed both pamphlets. Fifty-four participants (96 %) found the pamphlet for men useful, while 29 participants (52 %) improved their male fertility knowledge. The pamphlet for women was useful for 52 participants (93 %) and improved knowledge in 35 (63 %) of them. Although the majority of participants had adequate health literacy (98 %), there was insufficient sample diversity to determine if health literacy influenced the pamphlet's effectiveness. Participants indicated preference in receiving verbal (73 %) and written (66 %) information over watching videos or in-class education. They recommended including fertility clinics, financial resources, and statistics in the brochures. These FP pamphlets were concluded as effective in supporting patients in making FP decisions.
Marital delay, relationship dissolution and churning, and high divorce rates have extended the amount of time individuals in search of romantic relationships spend outside of marital unions. The scope of research on intimate partnering now includes studies of “hooking up,” Internet dating, visiting relationships, cohabitation, marriage following childbirth, and serial partnering, as well as more traditional research on transitions into marriage. Collectively, we know much more about relationship formation and development, but research often remains balkanized among scholars employing different theoretical approaches, methodologies, or disciplinary perspectives. The study of relationship behavior is also segmented into particular life stages, with little attention given to linkages between stages over the life course. Recommendations for future research are offered. PMID:22822268
Marazziti, Donatella; Consoli, Giorgio; Albanese, Francesco; Laquidara, Emanuela; Baroni, Stefano; Catena Dell’Osso, Mario
The present study explored the possible relationship between romantic attachment and jealousy in 100 healthy subjects. The romantic attachment and jealousy were evaluated by means of, respectively, the “Experiences in Close Relationships” questionnaire (ECR), and the “Questionario della Gelosia” (QUEGE). The ECR anxiety scale was related to all QUEGE dimensions, while the ECR avoidance scale to three. Individuals with the preoccupied attachment style showed higher scores than secure subjects on the obsessionality, interpersonal sensitivity and fear of loss dimensions. Fearful-avoidant individuals had higher score than secure subjects on the fear of loss dimension only, while dismissing individuals had lower scores on the self-esteem dimension. These findings suggest that romantic attachment and jealousy are intertwined. PMID:20835357
Pratt, V; Brook, I
This paper attempts to illuminate Goethe's concept of an archetype by setting it alongside the concept of the self that was being articulated at the same time, also by writers of the Romantic movement. The Romantic concept of the self expresses a new concept of the self as a 'core' plus an expression of the core: and it is the same 'core plus expression' idea that is embodied in the Goethean archetype. Goethe's archetype is not simply a 'plan'. It is a kind of agent at the heart of a thing, striving for self expression, and to this end driving the thing's development. Both Romantic self and archetype reflect the wider attempt to reinstate the concept of action in our understanding of things and happenings in general. The root idea of there being at the heart of a living thing an agent pursuing a goal remains in the modern concept of the organism.
Chen, Xiaochen; Graham, Sandra
This study examined the effect of close relationships (best friendship and romantic relationship) on late adolescents' casual attributions for peer victimization. A total of 1106 twelfth grade students completed self-report measures of perceived peer victimization, self-blame attribution, psychological maladjustment (loneliness and social…
Kreager, Derek A.; Haynie, Dana L.
The onset and escalation of alcohol consumption and romantic relationships are hallmarks of adolescence. Yet only recently have these domains jointly been the focus of sociological inquiry. We extend this literature by connecting alcohol use, dating, and peers to understand the diffusion of drinking behavior in school-based friendship networks.…