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Sample records for adolescent sex offenders

  1. Treatment of Adolescent Sex Offenders with Intellectual Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, William R.; Olley, Susan; Baillie, Nicola; Smith, Anne H. W.

    1999-01-01

    This article presents four case studies of male adolescent sex offenders with intellectual disabilities. All were successfully treated in a group program that focused on specific techniques for cognitive change for thinking errors related to sex offending, problem-solving in offending situations, and analysis of behavior and routines consistent…

  2. Risk Assessment with Adolescent Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christodoulides, T. E.; Richardson, G.; Graham, F.; Kennedy, P. J.; Kelly, T. P.

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes an evaluation of a risk assessment tool's effectiveness in distinguishing adolescent sexual offenders who had committed further sexual offences from those who had not. The sample consisted of 50 male adolescent sexual offenders referred to a forensic outpatient service within a healthcare setting. The adolescents within the…

  3. Adolescent Sex Offenders: Issues in Research and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otey, Emeline M., Ed.; Ryan, Gail D., Ed.

    This document contains an introduction by Richard D. Krugman and five papers from the Adolescent Sex Offender Work Group meeting, which provide an overview of the present status of treatment programs for adolescent sexual offenders, methodological and ethical issues in research on etiology and treatment, and perspectives on research from those…

  4. Adolescent Sibling-Incest Offenders: Differences in Family and Individual Functioning When Compared to Adolescent Nonsibling Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worling, James R.

    1995-01-01

    Adolescent male sex offenders who assaulted younger siblings (n=32) were compared to those who offended against nonsibling children (n=28). Adolescent sibling-incest offenders reported significantly more marital discord, parental rejection, physical discipline, negative family atmosphere, and general dissatisfaction with family relationships and…

  5. Female Adolescent Sex Offenders--An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendriks, J.; Bijleveld, C. C. J. H.

    2006-01-01

    A sample of 10 female adolescent sex offenders, aged between 11 and 18 years, is studied. They constitute about one-sixth of all young women who were registered at the prosecutor's office in the Netherlands during the past 10 years. Information was gathered from psychological screenings carried out in relation to the sex offence. Most young women…

  6. Isolation and normlessness: attitudinal comparisons of adolescent sex offenders, juvenile offenders, and nondelinquents.

    PubMed

    Miner, Michael H; Munns, Rosemary

    2005-10-01

    The authors explored attitudinal differences among adolescent male sex offenders, juvenile delinquents, and nondelinquent youth based on three variables drawn from integrated delinquency theory: conventional attitudes, normlessness, and social isolation. Consistent with previous juvenile delinquency studies, the results indicate no differences among the three groups on conventional attitudes. With respect to normlessness, both the sex offenders and juvenile delinquent groups demonstrated more school normlessness than did nondelinquent youths, and adolescent sex offenders showed greater peer normlessness than did either nondelinquent youths or juvenile delinquents. Examination of perceived social isolation among the three groups indicates that sex offenders consistently perceived themselves as more isolated than other youths with their families, in their school, and among their peers. These results suggest that interpersonal factors, in addition to a lack of social controls and normlessness, are associated with sexually inappropriate behavior. PMID:16260479

  7. Adolescent Sex Offenders' Rankings of Therapeutic Factors Using the Yalom Card Sort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sribney, Christine L.; Reddon, John R.

    2008-01-01

    Following 11-98 weeks of inpatient residential treatment, 69 male adolescent sex offenders completed the 60-item, 12-factor Yalom Card Sort. The rank orders were compared to adult sex offenders and a psychiatric adult outpatient group. Relative to adult psychiatric outpatients, the adolescent sex offenders had rated Instillation of Hope three…

  8. An Investigation of Successfully Treated Adolescent Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franey, Kristina Crumpton; Viglione, Donald J.; Wayson, Peter; Clipson, Clark; Brager, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about the characteristics of adolescent sex offenders who do not reoffend. Most studies emphasize reoffense rates, recidivism and those who reoffend. Moreover, these studies provide quantitative summaries without describing the individual, his behavior, and challenges after treatment. The present study seeks to provide novel…

  9. Differences in Offending Patterns between Adolescent Sex Offenders High or Low in Callous--Unemotional Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawing, Kathryn; Frick, Paul J.; Cruise, Keith R.

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, the authors investigated whether callous and unemotional (CU) traits designated a distinct and important group of adolescent sex offender. A sample of 150 detained adolescents (mean age = 15.89, SD = 1.53) with a current sexual offense disposition was assessed with a self-report measure of CU traits and through extensive…

  10. Development of an object relation-based typology of adolescent sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Gamache, Dominick; Diguer, Louis; Laverdière, Olivier; Rousseau, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a typology of adolescent sex offenders based on object relations theory and Otto F. Kernberg's model of personality organizations (PO). A secondary objective was to compare the identified subtypes on offense characteristics as well as some psychological variables of adolescent sex offenders. Clinical files from 40 male adolescent sex offenders in treatment were examined. Cluster analysis based on PO and object relations variables identified six subtypes of offenders, in line with Kernberg's PO model. These subtypes differed from one another on various variables pertaining to characteristics of sex offenses, general delinquency, relational/sexual history, and trauma history. PMID:23244526

  11. Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Susan

    1991-01-01

    This paper on the problem of sex offending among individuals with intellectual disabilities examines the incidence of this problem, characteristics of intellectually disabled sex offenders, determination of whether the behavior is a paraphilia or functional age-related behavior, and treatment options, with emphasis on the situation in New South…

  12. The Impact of Risk Factors on the Treatment of Adolescent Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Sharon M.; Lewis, Kathy; Sigal, Janet

    2004-01-01

    The authors investigated the impact that 5 selected risk factors have on the treatment outcome of adolescent male sex offenders. The results indicated that the greatest risk factor among sex offenders was having a mother who had a substance abuse problem. Study participants were 35 adolescent boys in a New Jersey residential facility for…

  13. The Effect of Adolescent Sex Offender Abuse History on Counselor Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carone, Stacia S.; LaFleur, N. Kenneth

    2000-01-01

    Examines judgment of counseling students, with history of sexual or physical abuse, about their attitudes towards counseling adolescent sex offenders. Reports sexually abused counselors desired to see physically abused offenders as clients over sexually abused offenders. Presents implications for counseling, including ways in which nonabused…

  14. A Brunswikian evolutionary-developmental theory of adolescent sex offending.

    PubMed

    Figueredo, A J; Sales, B D; Russell, K P; Becker, J V; Kaplan, M

    2000-01-01

    A Brunswikian Evolutionary-Developmental model was developed to relate the sex offending behavior of adolescents to other forms of social deviance, tracing a history of repeated frustration and failure in various competitive sexual strategies and escalation to more extreme means of obtaining sexual gratification. Four hypothetical constructs were proposed as stages in the development of sexual criminality: (1) Psycho-Social Deficiency (PSD); (2) Non-Criminal Sexuality (NCS); (3) Non-Sexual Criminality (NSC); and (4) Sexual Criminality (SC). Significant direct and indirect pathways led from PSD to SC through both NCS and NSC, each time facilitated by an interaction with PSD. Although the causal orders between stages remain equivocal, the current results are consistent with our theory and establish the heuristic value of our theoretical approach, providing empirical support for otherwise counterintuitive predictions. This interpretation also offers hope for focusing preventative intervention at one major root cause of this unfortunate cascade of consequences, Psycho-Social Deficiency. PMID:10874291

  15. The Role of the Juvenile Probation Officer regarding the Adolescent Sex Offender and Related Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Herbert R.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the ethical role of the juvenile probabtion officer regarding the adolescent sex offender. Demonstrates the need for role consonant treatment models. Explores the applicability of the proffered model to other offender populations and stresses the appropriate role of the juvenile probation officer. Examines appropriate assessment of…

  16. Variables Associated with Treatment Failure among Adolescent Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman, Brenda J.

    2005-01-01

    While an adolescent sexual offender's response to treatment is thought to be impacted by both static and dynamic factors, there is no objective method of assessing the likelihood of success or failure in treatment. The assessment of amenability to treatment is generally a subjective process completed by clinicians in the field. Using descriptive…

  17. The Profile and Treatment of Male Adolescent Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakey, Joyce F.

    1994-01-01

    Outlines characteristics of sex offenders, including family and school histories, sexual attitudes, social skills and relationships, delinquent behaviors, psychiatric diagnoses, and cognitive distortions based on mythical beliefs. Treatment requires correction of thinking errors and promotion of accountability, empathy, education, morality,…

  18. Adolescent and young adult male sex offenders: understanding the role of recidivism.

    PubMed

    Riser, Diana K; Pegram, Sheri E; Farley, Julee P

    2013-01-01

    The current review explores the complex paths that can lead to adolescent and young adult males becoming sexually abusive. Because sexual abuse is an ongoing issue in our society that is often oversimplified, this article distinguishes between the various risk factors that predict sexually abusive behavior and types of sex offenders, particularly recidivistic offenders. It is imperative to focus on adolescents and young adults who sexually abuse because they represent a particularly important intervention point in preventing sexual abuse in comparison to older age groups and address the importance of differentiating among youths who sexually abuse, particularly between one-time offenders and recidivistic offenders. Implications for addressing these differences are discussed. PMID:23350537

  19. Adolescent and Young Adult Male Sex Offenders: Understanding the Role of Recidivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riser, Diana K.; Pegram, Sheri E.; Farley, Julee P.

    2013-01-01

    The current review explores the complex paths that can lead to adolescent and young adult males becoming sexually abusive. Because sexual abuse is an ongoing issue in our society that is often oversimplified, this article distinguishes between the various risk factors that predict sexually abusive behavior and types of sex offenders, particularly…

  20. Do adolescent child abusers, peer abusers, and non-sex offenders have different personality profiles?

    PubMed

    Glowacz, Fabienne; Born, Michel

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify two sub-populations of sex offenders based on the age of the victims and on the age difference between the abuser and the victim (child sexual abusers vs. peer sexual abusers), and to compare the personality characteristics of these two subgroups with those of juvenile non-sex offenders. The group was composed of 67 adolescent offenders aged 13-18 years who were adjudicated for sexual offenses or non-sexual offenses: 20 non-sex offenders (JNSOs), 26 child sexual abusers (CAs), and 21 peer sexual abusers (PAs). The Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) was administered to all participants. The mean scores and clinical cutoffs on the MACI scales were compared across the three samples. Compared with PAs, CAs were more submissive and conforming, and they experienced more anxious feelings. Peer sexual abusers scored higher on the unruly and forceful personality scales, on social insensitivity, and on delinquent predisposition. Peer sexual abusers also reported higher scores on substance-abuse proneness, impulsive propensities, and antisocial functioning than CAs, but their scores were similar to those of JNSOs. Our results show clear similarities between PAs and JNSOs in terms of personality and clinical characteristics, especially with regard to antisocial personality traits. Child sexual abusers did not display the personality characteristics typical of PAs and JNSOs which predisposed them to delinquent activities. These results raise questions as to whether juvenile sex offenders should be treated within the same institutions as non-sex offenders and whether the same treatment programs should be implemented for all types of juvenile sex offenders. PMID:23064997

  1. Traumagenic Dynamics in Adult Women Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse vs. Adolescent Male Sex Offenders with Similar Histories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Carla; Hendrix, Rebecca

    2001-01-01

    Female childhood sexual abuse survivors and adolescent male sexual offenders with a history of childhood sexual abuse were assessed using the Trauma-Related Beliefs Questionnaire. Results suggested that male sex offenders hold high levels of traumagenic beliefs common in females, especially related to trust and betrayal. (Author)

  2. Juvenile Sex Offenders.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Eileen P

    2016-01-01

    Public policy has tended to treat juvenile sex offenders (JSOs) as adult sex offenders in waiting, despite research that contradicts this notion. Although as a group, JSOs are more similar to general delinquents than to adult sex offenders, atypical sexual interests and sexual victimization during childhood may be a pathway for sexual offending that differentiates some JSOs from their nonsexually delinquent peers. Developmental considerations must be considered in risk assessment evaluations of these youth. This article reviews theories of sexual offending in youth, risk factors for juvenile offending and reoffending, psychopathology in JSOs, risk assessment, and treatment. PMID:26593121

  3. Juvenile Sex Offenders.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Eileen P; Otonichar, Joseph M

    2016-07-01

    Sexual offending by juveniles accounts for a sizable percentage of sexual offenses, especially against young children. In this article, recent research on female juvenile sex offenders (JSOs), risk factors for offending in juveniles, treatment, and the ways in which these youth may differ from general delinquents will be reviewed. Most JSOs do not go on to develop paraphilic disorders or to commit sex offenses during adulthood, and as a group, they are more similar to nonsexual offending juvenile delinquents than to adult sex offenders. Recent research has elucidated some differences between youth who commit sex offenses and general delinquents in the areas of atypical sexual interests, the use of pornography, and early sexual victimization during childhood. PMID:27222141

  4. Embedding Psychodrama in a Wilderness Group Program for Adolescent Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambie, Ian; Robson, Marlyn; Simmonds, Les

    1997-01-01

    Describes the technique of psychodrama to facilitate victim empathy with adolescent sexual offenders. Discusses other psychodramatic methods of role training, sociodrama, mirroring, and modeling, and their applications to working with adolescent sexual offenders. Outlines the history of the psychodrama technique's implementation in a…

  5. Risk factors for adolescent sex offender recidivism: evaluation of predictive factors and comparison of three groups based upon victim type.

    PubMed

    Parks, Gregory A; Bard, David E

    2006-10-01

    This study investigated differences in recidivism risk factors and traits associated with psychopathy among 3 groups of male adolescent sexual offenders (N=156): offenders against children, offenders against peers or adults, and mixed type offenders. Furthermore, those same variables were examined for their association with sexual and nonsexual recidivism and the 3 groups were compared for differences in rates of recidivism. Based upon both juvenile and adult recidivism data, 6.4% of the sample reoffended sexually and 30.1% reoffended nonsexually. Retrospective risk assessments were completed using the Juvenile Sex Offender Assessment Protocol-II (JSOAP-II) and the Psychopathy Checklist:Youth Version (PCL:YV). Comparisons of the 3 preexisting groups for differences on scale and factor scores were conducted using analyses of variance (ANOVAs). Differences among groups for recidivism were measured using survival curve analysis. Associations between risk scales and recidivism were measured using Cox regression analyses. Results suggest significant differences among the 3 offender groups on multiple scales of the JSOAP-II and PCL:YV, with mixed type offenders consistently producing higher risk scores as compared to those who exclusively offend against children or peers/adults. The Impulsive/Antisocial Behavior scale of the JSOAP-II and the Interpersonal and Antisocial factors of the PCL:YV were significant predictors of sexual recidivism. The Behavioral and Antisocial factors of the PCL:YV were significant predictors of nonsexual recidivism. Results supported previous research indicating that most adolescents who sexually offend do not continue offending into adulthood. Such results can lead to improved treatment by targeting specific risk factors for intervention and better use of risk management resources in the community, while preserving the most restrictive treatment options for the highest risk offenders. PMID:17136626

  6. Hypnotic Psychotherapy with Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, Sullivan; Briggs, Wanda P.; Magnus, Virginia

    2005-01-01

    The authors review the literature on the prevalence of sex offenders; multiple treatment modalities; and implications of the use of hypnotic psychotherapy, coupled with cognitive behavioral treatment programs, for treating sex offenders. (Contains 2 tables.)

  7. Sex Education for Male Adolescent Sex Offenders in a Group Setting Led by General Psychiatry Residents: A Literature Review and Example in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, R. Gregg; Boyd, Mary S.

    2009-01-01

    Male adolescents have been credited with a significant percentage of sex crimes in recent years. They are a heterogeneous population with offenses spanning the same range found among adult offenders. A lack of interpersonal social skills relevant to intimate relationships and inaccurate knowledge regarding appropriate sexual behaviors contribute…

  8. Knowledge of Juvenile Sex Offender Registration Laws Predicts Adolescent Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Margaret C.; Najdowski, Cynthia J.; Wiley, Tisha R. A.

    2013-01-01

    Because juveniles can now be registered as sex offenders, we conducted a pilot study to investigate awareness of these policies and sexual behavior histories in a convenience sample of 53 young adults (ages 18 to 23, 79% women). These preliminary data revealed that 42% percent of participants were unaware that youth under the age of 18 can be…

  9. Brain Dysfunction in Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galski, Thomas; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Attempted to establish the connection between disordered sexuality and brain impairment by using newly developed techniques of neuropsychological investigation with sex offenders (n=35). Results indicated a major portion of the sex offenders showed impaired brain functioning on Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery. (Author/ABL)

  10. Clackamas Adolescent Sexual Offender Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Richard B.

    The Clackamas Adolescent Sexual Offender Intervention program is designed to interrupt and change behavior of clients who are juvenile sexual offenders at risk to re-offend. Intervention is scheduled for each offender over a 52-week period with groups meeting each week for 2 hours, and an all day session each 6-week period on Saturday. The…

  11. Public Attitudes toward Sexual Offenders and Sex Offender Registration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernsmith, Poco D.; Craun, Sarah W.; Foster, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between fear of various types of sexual offenders and a belief that those sexual offenders should be subject to sex offender registration. We hypothesized that those who offend against children would elicit the most fear; consequently, the most feared offenders would be rated as most requiring registration. As…

  12. The Lived Experience of the Adolescent Sex Offender: A Phenomenological Case Study.

    PubMed

    Gerhard-Burnham, Beth; Underwood, Lee A; Speck, Kathryn; Williams, Cyrus; Merino, Carrie; Crump, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    Treatment for adolescents with sexually maladaptive behaviors is a continuing intervention that is changing and developing as greater understanding about this population of adolescents is obtained. The majority of treatment programs for adolescent sexually maladaptive behavior contain programming components that include cognitive distortions/thinking errors. Interviews including a conceptual mapping exercise were conducted with four adolescents adjudicated to a secure care program for sexual behaviors. All four boys completed an interview and a conceptual map of their perceived experiences as an adolescent with sexual maladaptive behaviors. All interviews were audio recorded. Analysis of the interviews and conceptual mappings yielded five themes present in the boys' experience as well as a consideration of the role early trauma may have in the establishment of cognitive distortion development. Contributing environmental and familial factors also play an important part in sustaining cognitive distortion. Main themes include: loss of responsible father or father figure, inability to regulate emotion, lack of personal and parental boundaries, and early exposure to pornography. The contributing influence of responsible male father figures may play an even greater role in the lives of young males than originally thought. How the adolescent inaccurately perceives his environment--in essence what he tells himself and continues to tell himself to make sense of his world--are building blocks in the development and continuation of thinking errors/cognitive distortions used to commit and justify sexual offending behaviors. PMID:26828129

  13. A comparison of sex offenders against female and male minors.

    PubMed

    Freund, K; Watson, R; Rienzo, D

    1987-01-01

    Male sex offenders against minors were grouped according to age and sex of victims, and according to whether they had offended against one or more than one minor. Cases of incest or courtship disorder were not included in the study. Among offenders against female children, the number of one-case offenders was substantially larger than that of multicase offenders. The opposite was true of offenders against male children, and there was no significant difference between one-case and multicase offenders against female or male early adolescents. If these counts reflect corresponding prevalences within sex offenders against minors in a Western cultural setting, some inferences can be made from these comparisons. PMID:3694689

  14. Working with Parents to Reduce Juvenile Sex Offender Recidivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zankman, Scott; Bonomo, Josephine

    2004-01-01

    Although there is very little research in the area of including parents in juvenile sex offender treatment, one of the factors that might be worth exploring is how the parental relationship may aid in successful relapse prevention. Since the family environment is a potential risk factor for adolescent sex offenders, integration of relapse…

  15. Sex offender treatment and legislation.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Fred S

    2003-01-01

    The current issue of the Journal contains three articles related to sex offenders. The first, by Scott and Holmberg, discusses legislation that mandates either "chemical or surgical castration." The second, by Saleh and Guidry, reviews diagnostic and treatment considerations. The third, by Scott and Gerbasi, discusses sex offender registration and community notification. Much of the relevant sex offender legislation, including that pertaining to testosterone-lowering treatments, has been enacted in response to intense public passion. When it comes to the issue of sex offenders, there is a pressing need to develop a coherent body of evidence-based forensic concepts and knowledge that can rationally inform both clinical practice and future public policy. That may require a closer collaboration between both the criminal justice and legislative sectors, and the scientific-medical communities. The three papers published in this issue provide useful information that may assist toward such a goal. PMID:14974807

  16. Psychopathology of incarcerated sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Ahlmeyer, Sean; Kleinsasser, Dennis; Stoner, John; Retzlaff, Paul

    2003-08-01

    The psychopathology and particularly the personality disorders of sex offenders were compared to general inmates of the Colorado Department of Corrections. Using the MCMI-III (Millon, 1994, 1997), sex offenders in general were found to have more varied types of personalities than general population inmates. Specifically, they were more schizoid, avoidant, depressive, dependent, self-defeating, and schizotypal. General population inmates had the more classically criminal personality characteristics of antisocial, narcissistic, and sadistic. Multivariate analysis showed the Dependent, Narcissistic, Antisocial, and Schizotypal scales to be the most differentiating. Sex offenders were also found to have more affective psychopathology such as anxiety, dysthymia, PTSD, and major depression. A similar trend was found when comparing child molesters to rapists. The child molesters were more neurotic, affective, and socially impaired than the rapists. Multivariate analysis showed the Dependent scale to be the most important in differentiating these two types of sex offenders. PMID:14521179

  17. Incarcerated Dutch Juvenile Sex Offenders Compared with Non-Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wijk, Anton Ph.; Vreugdenhil, Coby; van Horn, Joan; Vermeiren, Robert; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.

    2007-01-01

    There is some debate about whether or not sex offenders are similar to non-sex offenders with regard to family background (parental characteristics), personality, and psychopathology. The central aim of this study focused on the comparison of juvenile sex offenders and non-sex offenders. The sample consisted of incarcerated juvenile male sex (n =…

  18. 77 FR 73558 - Sex Offender Registration Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... SUPERVISION AGENCY FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 28 CFR Part 811 RIN 3225-AA10 Sex Offender Registration... requirements relating to periodic verification of registration information for sex offenders. The proposed rule, if finalized, would permit CSOSA to verify addresses of sex offenders by conducting home visits...

  19. Factors affecting attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Sahlstrom, Kimberly J; Jeglic, Elizabeth L

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and factors influencing those attitudes. Additionally, the influences of perpetrator characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity on societal attitudes towards intervention requirements were also investigated. Overall, attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and their treatment amenability were negative. No differences in attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders were found between those who had been victims of sexual abuse and those that had not. Sex offenses committed by juvenile female sex offenders were viewed to be more serious and require more intervention than those committed by juvenile male sex offenders. PMID:19042245

  20. Can We Distinguish Juvenile Violent Sex Offenders, Violent Non-Sex Offenders, and Versatile Violent Sex Offenders Based on Childhood Risk Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanklyn, Sonya G.; Ward, Ashley K.; Cormier, Nicole S.; Day, David M.; Newman, Jennifer E.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the developmental precursors of juvenile violent sex offending can contribute to the promotion of effective early intervention and prevention programs for high-risk children and youth. However, there is currently a lack of research on the early characteristics of adolescents who commit violent sex offenses. Drawing on the literature…

  1. Deaf Sex Offenders in a Prison Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Katrina; Vernon, McCay

    2003-01-01

    A study of 41 sex offenders who are deaf found the rate of sexual offending was 4 times the rate of sexual offending by hearing offenders, with 30% recidivism. Sixty-two percent of subjects were functionally illiterate. However, the performance IQs were comparable to those of the overall prison population. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  2. Sex Offender Task Force Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of the Youth Authority, Sacramento.

    This report includes the findings of a California task force convened to examine juvenile and youthful sex offenders and the impact of their behavior on the citizenry. The foreword notes this report attempts to identify informational and research needs and encourage networking and coordination to support state and local efforts to improve the…

  3. Sex differences in empathy and its relation to juvenile offending.

    PubMed

    Broidy, Lisa; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Espelage, Dorothy L; Mazerolle, Paul; Piquero, Alex

    2003-10-01

    Implicit in most theoretical accounts of sex differences in offending is the assumption that females are less likely than males to engage in crime--especially serious, violent crime--in part because of their comparatively higher levels of concern for others and stronger affiliative ties. Much research suggests that significant sex differences in both empathy and serious offending emerge in adolescence, with females displaying notably higher levels of empathy and males engaging in notably higher levels of serious offending. However, there has been little empirical work assessing the degree to which sex differences in empathy among adolescents can account for sex differences in offending. This research uses data from a sample of adolescents attending public high schools in Philadelphia (n = 425) and a sample of adolescents incarcerated in the California Youth Authority (CYA) (n = 232) to examine the relation between empathy and serious offending. Results suggest that empathy acts as a protective factor for both males and females but that there are subtle differences among males and females in the relation between empathy and offending. PMID:14695017

  4. What Is so Special about Male Adolescent Sexual Offending? A Review and Test of Explanations through Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seto, Michael C.; Lalumiere, Martin L.

    2010-01-01

    We tested special and general explanations of male adolescent sexual offending by conducting a meta-analysis of 59 independent studies comparing male adolescent sex offenders (n = 3,855) with male adolescent non-sex offenders (n = 13,393) on theoretically derived variables reflecting general delinquency risk factors (antisocial tendencies),…

  5. Model Underpinning Treatment for Sex Offenders with Mild Intellectual Disability: Current Theories of Sex Offending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, William R.

    2005-01-01

    Although many writers have provided a theoretical framework for treatment of mainstream sex offenders, this research has not been extended to sex offenders with mild intellectual disability. My purpose here is to bring together several research strands to provide a theoretical model for working in this field, including theories of sex offending,…

  6. Misperceptions of Sex Offender Perpetration: Considering the Impact of Sex Offender Registration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craun, Sarah W.; Theriot, Matthew T.

    2009-01-01

    A popular misconception among the general public is that sex offenders most often victimize strangers. To better understand these misconceptions about sex offenders, this study determines the frequency of misperception in the general public and establishes if the misconceptions are related to the policy of sex offender registration. Using a…

  7. Career Salience of Institutionalized Adolescent Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munson, Wayne W.; Strauss, Christine F.

    1993-01-01

    Investigated self-esteem and career salience of institutionalized male adolescent offenders (n=185) in context of Super's lifespan career development theory. Results indicated that participation, commitment, and values expectations in home-family roles contributed significantly to self-esteem in adolescent offenders. Adolescent offenders differed…

  8. Altruism, Empathy, and Sex Offender Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Tony; Durrant, Russil

    2013-01-01

    Treatment programs for serious offenders such as sex offenders typically include an empathy training component as part of a comprehensive intervention package. The reasons for doing so are partly based on research evidence indicating that social disconnection and relationship ruptures related to empathy failures often trigger offending, and also…

  9. Predictors of Sex Offender Treatment Completion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Donna L.; Bergman, Barbara A.; Knox, Pamela L.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews records of 126 incarcerated offenders who participated in a prison-based sex offender treatment program. Discriminate function analysis reveals that offenders who completed treatment were more often diagnosed with a substance disorder, had a history of nonviolence offenses, and were less often diagnosed as having an antisocial personality…

  10. 78 FR 23835 - Sex Offender Registration Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... it can be found at 77 FR 73558. The proposed rule was published to allow CSOSA to better meet the... SUPERVISION AGENCY FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 28 CFR Part 811 RIN 3225-AA10 Sex Offender Registration... verification of registration information for sex offenders. Furthermore, the rule permits CSOSA to...

  11. Factors Affecting Attitudes toward Juvenile Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahlstrom, Kimberly J.; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and factors influencing those attitudes. Additionally, the influences of perpetrator characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity on societal attitudes towards intervention requirements were also investigated. Overall, attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and their treatment…

  12. Validating the Attitudes toward Sex Offenders Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Charmeka

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the reliability and validity of the Attitudes Toward Sex Offenders Scale (ATS) measurement by assessing attitudes of counselors in training towards juvenile sex offenders. The specific aims of this study were to determine (a) internal consistency of the ATS, (b) construct validity of the ATS based on exploratory factor…

  13. Examining the developmental trajectories of adolescent sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Pullman, Lesleigh E; Leroux, Elisabeth J; Motayne, Gregory; Seto, Michael C

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess the validity of the sex-plus versus sex-only categorization method for distinguishing between different types of adolescent sex offenders (ASOs; Butler & Seto, 2002). It is hypothesized that this categorization method has utility when attempting to distinguish between generalist and specialist ASOs (Seto & Pullman, 2014). Additionally, further classification of ASOs was attempted using a well known juvenile delinquency classification scheme, early-onset versus late-onset offenders (Moffitt, 1993). The current study was an archival analysis of clinical files from a sample of 158 male ASOs seen for clinical assessment at a Metropolitan Family Court Clinic. Results indicate that sex-plus offenders are more antisocial, exhibit more psychiatric issues, and have greater deficits in general social skills compared to sex-only offenders. Conversely, sex-only offenders were found to have more atypical sexual interests, and were more likely to have greater deficits in romantic relationships compared to sex-plus offenders. Due to a power related limitation, little support was found for the use of the early-onset versus late-onset classification scheme with ASOs. Overall, these results provide further support to the validity of a sex-only versus sex-plus distinction. Given these results mirror those found in the generalist/specialist literature regarding the etiology of ASOs, sex-only and sex-plus offenders may indeed have different etiological pathways: sex-plus offenders are more driven by general antisociality factors, as the generalist perspective suggests, and sex-only offenders are more driven by special factors, as the specialist explanations suggest. PMID:24695320

  14. Impaired Sensory-Emotional Integration in a Violent Adolescent Sex Offender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlberg, Lawrence; Kennedy, Joycee; Simpson, Janice

    2003-01-01

    Social risk factors, executive neuropsychological functioning, and emotional numbing were examined as potential risk factors for violent sexual assaults by an adolescent male. The subject had been exposed to at least four previously identified social risk factors, including neglect, early separation from both parents, sexual abuse, and low…

  15. The Role Healthy Sexuality Plays in Modifying Abusive Behaviours of Adolescent Sex Offenders: Practical Considerations for Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Garry P.; Ohm, Phyllis

    1999-01-01

    Highlights an approach that guides adolescents who have committed sexual offenses to learn healthy/prosocial ways to meet their sexual needs. Article is divided into an overview of literature, review of the sex education component of an intervention program for these adolescents, and discussion of practical considerations for professionals.…

  16. Comparative Differences in the Psychological Histories of Sex Offenders, Victims, and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miccio-Fonseca, L. C.

    1996-01-01

    Presents the findings of a comprehensive seven-year research project which involved 656 participants (male, female, adolescent sex offenders, adult sex offenders, victims, and their families) ages 4-71. Comparative data are reported on age, marital status, educational level, psychological histories, violence, life stressors, sexual behavior and…

  17. Prolonged Exposure Treatment of Chronic PTSD in Juvenile Sex Offenders: Promising Results from Two Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Prolonged exposure (PE) was used to treat chronic PTSD secondary to severe developmental trauma in two adolescent male sex offenders referred for residential sex offender treatment. Both youth were treatment resistant prior to initiation of PE and showed evidence of long-standing irritability and depression/anxiety. Clinical observation and…

  18. Evaluating Awareness of Registered Sex Offenders in the Neighborhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craun, Sarah W.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of sex offender registration is to protect residents from recidivistic sexual offenders by providing public information about local offenders. This study determines what percentage of residents living near registered sex offenders are aware of the offenders and the predictors of awareness. The investigational group includes randomly…

  19. Misperceptions of sex offender perpetration: considering the impact of sex offender registration.

    PubMed

    Craun, Sarah W; Theriot, Matthew T

    2009-12-01

    A popular misconception among the general public is that sex offenders most often victimize strangers. To better understand these misconceptions about sex offenders, this study determines the frequency of misperception in the general public and establishes if the misconceptions are related to the policy of sex offender registration. Using a self-administered mail survey, it is found that on average, 3 out of 10 respondents indicate more worry about a child being sexually abused by a stranger than a child being sexually abused by someone known to them. In neighborhoods where registered sex offenders reside, awareness of a local sex offender significantly increases the likelihood that a respondent is more worried about a stranger sexually abusing a child. Interpretations of the findings follow, including discussing if the findings demonstrate an unintended consequence of sex offender registries. PMID:19074256

  20. Working with parents to reduce juvenile sex offender recidivism.

    PubMed

    Zankman, Scott; Bonomo, Josephine

    2004-01-01

    Although there is very little research in the area of including parents in juvenile sex offender treatment, one of the factors that might be worth exploring is how the parental relationship may aid in successful relapse prevention. Since the family environment is a potential risk factor for adolescent sex offenders, integration of relapse prevention into daily family life may be a significant part of these youths' success or failure in the community. This article focuses on the concept of including parents in juvenile sex offender treatment. Issues addressed include what treatment providers can do to involve parents in relapse prevention, treatment providers' misconceptions about the inclusion of parents in treatment, a rationale for including parents in treatment, and research regarding different parenting styles. PMID:15914394

  1. Sex Offender Treatment: The Case for Manualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Ruth E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper sets out the case for the manualization of sex offender treatment. The movement towards evidence-based practice in psychotherapy has led to strongly voiced opposing views on the value of manualization. However, "what works" evidence, i.e. the meta-analytical research behind the Risk-Needs-Responsivity model of offender rehabilitation,…

  2. Moral Development of Solo Juvenile Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Vugt, Eveline; Stams, Geert Jan; Dekovic, Maja; Brugman, Daan; Rutten, Esther; Hendriks, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the moral development of solo juvenile male sex offenders (n = 20) and juvenile male non-offenders (n = 76), aged 13-19 years, from lower socioeconomic and educational backgrounds. The Moral Orientation Measure (MOM) was used to assess punishment- and victim-based moral orientation in sexual and non-sexual situations. Moral…

  3. Sex offender registration and recidivism risk in juvenile sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Michael F; Dickinson, Casey

    2009-01-01

    Juvenile sex offenders are increasingly included in sex offender registration laws, based, in part, on the assumption that they pose a distinctively high risk for future sexual violence and registration may help to mitigate this risk. To test this assumption, the current study compares risk scores on the static scales of the Juvenile Sex Offender Assessment Protocol-II (JSOAP-II; Prentky & Righthand, 2003) and the Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI; Hoge, Andrews, & Leschied, 2002), between samples of 106 registered and 66 unregistered juvenile sex offenders. New criminal charges, including sexually based crimes, were examined over a mean follow-up of 49.2 months (SD = 29.6 months). Results indicated that registered youth had lower risk scores on scales that most accurately predicted recidivism and registered youth were charged with new crimes at rates similar to those of unregistered youth. Reoffense risk, as measured by the risk scales, was not moderated by registration. The findings did not support the assumption that registration can effectively lower the risk for reoffense in juvenile offenders. PMID:19937920

  4. Victim Age and the Generalist Versus Specialist Distinction in Adolescent Sexual Offending.

    PubMed

    Leroux, Elisabeth J; Pullman, Lesleigh E; Motayne, Gregory; Seto, Michael C

    2016-03-01

    More knowledge is needed about the etiology and treatment needs of adolescent sex offenders. The current study compared adolescents who had offended against children (defined as below the age of 12 and at least 5 years younger than the adolescent), adolescents who have offended against peers or adults, and adolescents who had victims in both age groups. Based on Seto and Lalumière's meta-analytic findings, participants were compared on theoretically derived factors, including childhood sexual abuse, atypical sexual interests, sexual experience, social competence, psychiatric history, and general delinquency factors (past criminal history, substance abuse history, and offense characteristics). The study sample consisted of 162 court-referred male adolescent sexual offenders aged 12 to 17 years. Of the six identified domains, groups significantly differed on five of them; the exceptions were variables reflecting social competence. The results further support the validity of distinguishing adolescent sex offenders by victim age. PMID:24906363

  5. Types of Empathy and Adolescent Sexual Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varker, Tracey; Devilly, Grant J.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine general empathy, general victim empathy and own victim empathy in adolescent sexual offenders. Sixteen adolescent sexual offenders completed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), the Personal Reaction Inventory, a "general sexual abuse victim" form of the Victim Empathy Distortions Scale (VEDS) and an…

  6. Examining Specialization Among Sex Offenders Released From Prison.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jeffrey; Simon, Walter

    2016-04-01

    A prevailing cultural stereotype about sex offenders is that they tend to specialize in sexual offending. Many recent policy developments-mainly aimed to restrict the liberties of sex offenders-are rooted in this idea. We examined the correctional and arrest records of a sample of 312 sex offenders released on parole in Colorado to determine the prevalence of sexual specialization among these offenders, and to compare the legal and social characteristics of specialists and versatile sex offenders. Overall we found that very few participants officially classified as sex offenders fit the specialist stereotype. Study participants generally displayed versatile histories of criminal offending. We also found that specialists were distinguishable from versatile offenders on certain indices of social integration and mental health, and they were more likely to have had a history of offending against children. PMID:25143435

  7. Female Sex Offenders' Relationship Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Louanne

    2010-01-01

    Interventions for child sexual abusers should take into account their perspectives on the context of their offenses, but no descriptions of everyday life from the offender's point of view have been published. This study therefore explored female offenders' views of their strengths and challenges. Documented risk assessments of 20 female offenders were analyzed using inductive content analysis (Cavanagh, 1997; Priest, Roberts & Woods, 2002; Woods, Priest & Roberts, 2002). The Good Lives Model provided the initial coding framework and Atlas/ti software (Muhr, 1997) was used for simultaneous data collection and analysis. The content analysis yielded 999 coding decisions organized in three themes. The global theme was relationship experiences. Offenders described the quality of their relationship experiences, including their personal perspectives, intimate relationships and social lives. These descriptions have implications for treatment planning and future research with women who have molested children. PMID:18624098

  8. Juvenile sex offenders: Personality profile, coping styles and parental care.

    PubMed

    Margari, Francesco; Lecce, Paola Alessandra; Craig, Francesco; Lafortezza, Elena; Lisi, Andrea; Pinto, Floriana; Stallone, Valentina; Pierri, Grazia; Pisani, Rossella; Zagaria, Giuseppina; Margari, Lucia; Grattagliano, Ignazio

    2015-09-30

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in juvenile sex offenders showing that this population is highly heterogeneous. The aim of the present study was to identify possible different profiles that could help understand the motivation behind offending, comparing 31 Juvenile Sexual Offenders (JSOs), 31 Juvenile Sexual Non Offenders (JSNOs) and 31 Juvenile Non Offenders (Control Group). A data collection form, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) or Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) and the Parental Bonding Inventory (PBI) were administered to all participants. The results show that JSOs differs from JNSOs in some domains, such as living in single-parent homes, while maintain some common aspects such as academic failure and previous sexual intercourse. Moreover, JNSOs showed more abnormal personality traits, such as Authority Problems, MacAndrew Alcoholism, Acknowledgement and Alcohol-Drug Problem Proneness compared to JSOs and the Control Group, while JSOs and JNSOs use a coping strategy more oriented to Avoidance and Distraction compared to the Control group. Finally, JSOs described the relationships with fathers characterized by higher care and protection than JNSOs. These findings provide additional evidence with respect the prevention and treatment of criminal sexual behavior in adolescent. PMID:26233829

  9. The characteristics of online sex offenders: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Babchishin, Kelly M; Hanson, R Karl; Hermann, Chantal A

    2011-03-01

    There is much debate as to whether online offenders are a distinct group of sex offenders or if they are simply typical sex offenders using a new technology. A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the extent to which online and offline offenders differ on demographic and psychological variables. Online offenders were more likely to be Caucasian and were slightly younger than offline offenders. In terms of psychological variables, online offenders had greater victim empathy, greater sexual deviancy, and lower impression management than offline offenders. Both online and offline offenders reported greater rates of childhood physical and sexual abuse than the general population. Additionally, online offenders were more likely to be Caucasian, younger, single, and unemployed compared with the general population. Many of the observed differences can be explained by assuming that online offenders, compared with offline offenders, have greater self-control and more psychological barriers to acting on their deviant interests. PMID:20660639

  10. Sex Offender Rehabilitation Programs in State Prisons: A Nationwide Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Allen D.; Vaughn, Michael S.

    1991-01-01

    Examined programs and strategies for rehabilitation used in adult sex offender treatment programs in state-operated adult correctional institutions. Questionnaires were completed by 73 adult sex offender treatment providers. The results revealed that incarcerated adult sex offenders were receiving comprehensive psychotherapy and behavior…

  11. Sexual Abuse History among Adult Sex Offenders and Non-Sex Offenders: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jespersen, Ashley F.; Lalumiere, Martin L.; Seto, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The sexually abused-sexual abuser hypothesis states there is a specific relationship between sexual abuse history and sexual offending, such that individuals who experience sexual abuse are significantly more likely to later engage in sexual offenses. Therefore, samples of adult sex offenders should contain a disproportionate number of…

  12. Enhancing Victim Empathy for Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carich, Mark S.; Metzger, Carole K.; Baig, Mirza S. A.; Harper, Joseph J.

    2003-01-01

    Victim empathy is a widely used component of sex offender treatment throughout North America and Great Britain. Yet, it has been controversial over the past few years. One of the complications involves giving empathy a solid definition. Empathy was defined as the capacity to express compassion for victims. A multi-level system was developed to…

  13. Women don't do such things! Characteristics of female sex offenders and offender types.

    PubMed

    Wijkman, Miriam; Bijleveld, Catrien; Hendriks, Jan

    2010-06-01

    The authors studied offender, offense, and victim characteristics in a cohort of 111 adult female sex offenders comprising all female sex offenders known to the criminal justice authorities in the Netherlands between 1994 and 2005. In 77% of the cases, the female sex offenders had abused children; almost two thirds of the women had co-offended with a male co-offender. Their backgrounds are on average problematic with sexual abuse being prominent (31%); mental disorders were also prominent (59%). Using multiple correspondence analysis, the authors distinguished four prototypical offender types. They identified the young assaulter and the rapist who are relatively young solo offenders. Two prototypes, the psychologically disturbed co-offender and the passive mother, comprise older women. They mostly abused their own children together with their male/intimate partner. These prototypes partly overlap with previous typologies. The authors discuss implications for theory and treatment. PMID:20237394

  14. Enhancing victim empathy for sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Carich, Mark S; Metzger, Carole K; Baig, Mirza S A; Harper, Joseph J

    2003-01-01

    Victim empathy is a widely used component of sex offender treatment throughout North America and Great Britain. Yet, it has been controversial over the past few years. One of the complications involves giving empathy a solid definition. Empathy was defined as the capacity to express compassion for victims. A multi-level system was developed to help specify the definition. The second issue concerns which methods to use in enhancing victim empathy. A variety of techniques are provided as specific ways in which clinicians can help enhance an offender's empathy level. PMID:15308454

  15. Characterization and prediction of sexual and nonsexual recidivism among adjudicated juvenile sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Ashley K; Vincent, John P

    2013-01-01

    Estimating the risk of sexual recidivism for a juvenile sex offender is essential in order to protect public safety by identifying and evaluating high risk adolescents and to ensure the rights and welfare of juvenile offenders who will not likely reoffend. Empirically validated risk assessment methods are needed to aid in the classification and treatment of juvenile sex offenders. The present study utilized a dataset collected by Maricopa County, AZ, and aggregated by the National Juvenile Court Data Archive. The purpose of the study was to evaluate and characterize risk factors for juveniles who have been charged with a sexual offense in order to determine the predictive utility of these factors for subsequent offending, as well as offense trajectory, and to evaluate risk factors for nonsexual offenders who have committed crimes of various severities. The results of the present study show the strongest individual predictors of sexual recidivism to be prior nonsexual offending, prior sexual offending, hands-off offending, offending against a child, younger school grade/age at time of initial offense, Asian or Hispanic ethnicity, and not attending school. A preliminary screening measure was developed from the seven positive risk factors, and ROC analysis produced an AUC indicating moderate predictive utility in discriminating between juvenile sex offenders who would sexually reoffend and those who would not. PMID:23703937

  16. An exploratory study of Internet-initiated sexual offenses and the chat room sex offender: has the Internet enabled a new typology of sex offender?

    PubMed

    Briggs, Peter; Simon, Walter T; Simonsen, Stacy

    2011-03-01

    This exploratory study examined 51 participants convicted of an Internet-initiated sex offense in which they attempted to entice an adolescent into a sexual relationship using an Internet chat room. All participants were convicted of a sex offense and subject to an evaluation as a part of sentencing requirements in Colorado. Clinical and behavioral data were obtained from each subject's offense-specific evaluation and chat room transcripts. The results of the study found that 90% of the participants were apprehended as a result of an Internet sex sting. The authors conclude that Internet chat room sex offenders constitute a separate group characterized by less severe criminogenic factors than other sex offenders (rapists, child molesters). It can be hypothesized that chat room sex offenders avoid relationships and spend a significant amount of time in online chat rooms as a primary social and sexual outlet, and engage in other sexually compulsive behaviors. Within this offender group, it was discovered that two subgroups exist: a contact-driven group motivated to engage in offline sexual behavior with an adolescent and a fantasy-driven group motivated to engage an adolescent in online cybersex without an express intent to meet offline. The chat room sex offender presents a significant clinical issue to treatment providers as a live victim does not exist. Thus, it is unclear if Internet sex stings prevent incidents of child sexual exploitation and may result in convictions of individuals who may never have abused a child. The data suggest a tentative sex offender typology, including subtypes, which need to be replicated in future studies. PMID:20947699

  17. Juvenile Group Sex Offenders: A Comparison of Group Leaders and Followers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    't Hart-Kerkhoffs, Lisette A.; Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M.; Jansen, Lucres M. C.; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate group sex offenses with regard to the role of leaders versus followers and to compare both groups on levels of psychopathology, intelligence, and psychosocial and offense-related characteristics. Eighty-nine adolescent group sex offenders (mean age = 14.9, SD = 1.4) referred by the police to the Dutch child…

  18. Providing long term care for sex offenders: liabilities and responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Corson, Tyler Rogers; Nadash, Pamela

    2013-11-01

    The high risk for recidivism among sex offenders who need long term care (LTC) raises serious issues when they are cared for alongside frail, vulnerable adults. LTC providers must balance offenders' right to access care with other residents' right to be free from abuse and must assess and manage the risks associated with admitting offenders. This article identifies sources of legal liability that derive from sex offender management and discusses the need for the LTC community to develop reasonable, balanced guidance on how best to mitigate the risks associated with sex offenders, protect the rights of all residents, and reduce provider liabilities. PMID:24094899

  19. The Colorado Sex Offender Risk Scale.

    PubMed

    English, Kim; Retzlaff, Paul; Kleinsasser, Dennis

    2002-01-01

    This study documents the development of an adult sex offender risk assessment tool. A sample of 494 sex offenders were followed for an average of 30 months. A risk scale was developed based upon criminal and therapeutic outcomes. The final risk scale included prior juvenile felony convictions, prior adult felony convictions, failure of the first or second grade, not being employed, victim being intoxicated, the perpetrator reporting not being sexually aroused during the crime, possession of a weapon during the crime, denial in therapy, sexual deviance in therapy, and motivation in therapy. The risk scale provided significant relative risk ratios against program failure at 12 and 30 months. Overall, those scoring high on the risk tool were 372% as likely to fail as those scoring low. PMID:16221641

  20. Do Sexual Offenders with Learning Disabilities Benefit from Sex Offender Treatment Programmes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henson, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses some of the clinical and practical issues in relation to sex offender treatment in prisons and compares, through the experience of one offender who has been called Sam, how the experiences may differ between offenders with and without learning disabilities. It gives a brief overview of how programmes have developed in…

  1. Sex offender reentry courts: a cost effective proposal for managing sex offender risk in the community.

    PubMed

    La Fond, John Q; Winick, Bruce J

    2003-06-01

    Recently enacted legal strategies to protect society from dangerous sex offenders generally use two very different approaches: Long-term incapacitation or outright release. The first strategy relies on harsh criminal sentences or indeterminate sexual predator commitment laws. The second relies primarily on registration and notification laws. Both strategies rely on prediction models of dangerousness. Authorities determine at a single moment the likelihood that an offender will sexually "recidivate" and then choose the appropriate type of control for an extended period. This paper reviews the problems of predicting sexual recidivism in the context of both strategies. It then proposes special sex offender reentry courts to manage the risk that sexual offenders will reoffend. Risk management allows decision makers to adjust calculations of individual risk on an ongoing basis in light of new information and to adjust the level of control. Drawing on Therapeutic Jurisprudence-a belief that legal rules, procedures, and legal roles can have positive or negative psychological impact on participants in the legal system-these courts can impose, and then adjust control over sex ofenders in the community. In a sex offender reentry court, the judge is a member of an interdisciplinary team that uses a community containment approach; the offender, as a condition for release, enters into a behavioral contract to engage in treatment and submit to periodic polygraph testing. This therapeutic jurisprudence approach creates incentives for offenders to change their behavior and attitudes, thereby reducing their recidivism risk and earning more freedom. It can also monitor compliance and manage risk more effectively. PMID:12839907

  2. The neuropsychology of sex offenders: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Joyal, Christian C; Beaulieu-Plante, Jolyane; de Chantérac, Antoine

    2014-04-01

    Typically, neuropsychological studies of sex offenders have grouped together different types of individuals and different types of measures. This is why results have tended to be nonspecific and divergent across studies. Against this background, the authors undertook a review of the literature regarding the neuropsychology of sex offenders, taking into account subgroups based on criminological theories. They also conducted a meta-analysis of the data to demonstrate the cognitive heterogeneity of sex offenders statistically. Their main objective was to test the hypothesis to the effect that the neuropsychological deficits of sex offenders are not broad and generalized compared with specific subgroups of participants based on specific measures. In all, 23 neuropsychological studies reporting data on 1,756 participants were taken into consideration. As expected, a highly significant, broad, and heterogeneous overall effect size was found. Taking subgroups of participants and specific cognitive measures into account significantly improved homogeneity. Sex offenders against children tended to obtain lower scores than did sex offenders against adults on higher order executive functions, whereas sex offenders against adults tended to obtain results similar to those of non-sex offenders, with lower scores in verbal fluency and inhibition. However, it is concluded that neuropsychological data on sex offenders are still too scarce to confirm these trends or to test more precise hypotheses. For greater clinical relevance, future neuropsychological studies should consider specific subgroups of participants and measures to verify the presence of different cognitive profiles. PMID:23567470

  3. Homicidal sex offenders: psychological, phallometric, and diagnostic features.

    PubMed

    Firestone, P; Bradford, J M; Greenberg, D M; Larose, M R

    1998-01-01

    Homicidal sex offenders represent an understudied population in the forensic literature. Forty-eight homicidal sex offenders assessed between 1982 and 1992 were studied in relation to a comparison group of incest offenders. Historical features, commonly used psychological inventories, criminal histories, phallometric assessments, and DSM diagnoses were collected on each group. The homicidal sex offenders, compared with the incest offenders, self-reported that they had more frequently been removed from their homes during childhood and had more violence and forensic psychiatric contact in their histories. On the self-report psychological inventories, the homicidal sex offenders portrayed themselves as functioning significantly better in the areas of sexuality (Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory) and aggression/hostility (Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory). However, on the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), researchers rated the homiciders significantly more psychopathic than the incest offenders on Factor 1 (personality traits) and Factor 2 (antisocial history). Police records revealed the homicidal subjects also had been charged or convicted of more violent and nonviolent nonsexual offenses. The phallometric assessments indicated that the homicidal sex offenders demonstrated higher levels of response to pedophilic stimuli and were significantly more aroused to stimuli depicting assaultive acts to children, relative to the incest offenders. Despite the homiciders' self-reports of fairly good psychological functioning, DSM-III diagnoses reliably discriminated between the groups. A large number of homicidal sex offenders were diagnosed as suffering from psychosis, antisocial personality disorder, paraphilias, sexual sadism, sexual sadism with pedophilia, and substance abuse. Seventy-five percent of the homicidal sex offenders had three or more diagnoses compared with six percent of the incest offenders. The article addresses the role of "hard" versus "soft

  4. Sex Offender Recidivism Revisited: Review of Recent Meta-analyses on the Effects of Sex Offender Treatment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bitna; Benekos, Peter J; Merlo, Alida V

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of sex offender treatment programs continues to generate misinformation and disagreement. Some literature reviews conclude that treatment does not reduce recidivism while others suggest that specific types of treatment may warrant optimism. The principal purpose of this study is to update the most recent meta-analyses of sex offender treatments and to compare the findings with an earlier study that reviewed the meta-analytic studies published from 1995 to 2002. More importantly, this study examines effect sizes across different age populations and effect sizes across various sex offender treatments. Results of this review of meta-analyses suggest that sex offender treatments can be considered as "proven" or at least "promising," while age of participants and intervention type may influence the success of treatment for sex offenders. The implications of these findings include achieving a broader understanding of intervention moderators, applying such interventions to juvenile and adult offenders, and outlining future areas of research. PMID:25575803

  5. Sexual preferences and recidivism of sex offenders with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Rice, Marnie E; Harris, Grant T; Lang, Carol; Chaplin, Terry C

    2008-12-01

    By some accounts, sex offenders with mental retardation commit sex offenses against children because the offenders lack sexual knowledge or are socially and intellectually immature rather than because of sexually deviant interests. By other accounts, these offenders exhibit pedophilic sexual interests. In this study, phallometrically determined sexual interests, recidivism, and choices of victims of 69 sex offenders with mental retardation are examined and compared with those of 69 sex offenders of average or higher IQ. Consistent with hypotheses, sex offenders with mental retardation exhibit more deviant preferences for prepubertal children, male children, and young children than do the comparison offenders. They are also more likely to have had a prepubertal victim, a prepubertal male victim, and a very young victim. They are no more likely than the comparison offenders to exhibit preferences for extremely coercive sex with children or to exhibit deviant adult activity preferences, nor are they more likely to recidivate violently. Results support the idea that pedophilia is a disorder of neurodevelopment and point to the importance of risk assessments that include assessing sexual preferences among sex offenders with mental retardation. PMID:19020337

  6. Rape against Brazilian Women: Characteristics of Victims and Sex Offenders

    PubMed Central

    SOUTO, Rafaella Q.; ARAÚJO, Francisco K. C. D.; XAVIER, Alidianne F. C.; CAVALCANTI, Alessandro L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Violence against women is a serious social problem and affects mainly young women. This study aimed to evaluate sexual violence against women in Campina Grande, Brazil. Methods: A retrospective study with analysis of 886 forensic medical reports of sexual violence from the Institute of Legal Medicine of Campina Grande, Brazil, was conducted between January 2005 and December 2009. Sociodemographic variables related to victims, offenders and aggressions were analyzed. Significance level of 5% was adopted. Results: Two hundred and ninety-one cases of rape (32.8%) were confirmed, the majority of victims aged between 0 and 19 years (89.9%), were single (98.8%) and had low educational level (86.9%), with association with marital status (P = 0.02). The sex offender was known to the victim in 84.2% of cases and in 93.8% of cases, he acted alone. There was an association between rape and the relationship with the offenders (P = 0.01) and the age of the offenders (P = 0.03). The rape occurred in most cases at the home of victims (49.3%), with the use of violence in 72.3% of cases, but only 5.7% of the victims exhibited physical injuries. There was an association between rape and variables date of occurrence (P = 0.001), previous virginity (P = 0.001) and violence during practice (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Over one third of women were victims of rape, predominantly adolescents, unmarried and with low educational level. The offenders were known to the victims, and acted alone in most situations, making use of physical violence. PMID:26811812

  7. The role of theory in the assessment of sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Quackenbush, Ray E

    2003-01-01

    No generally accepted theory of sex offender behavior exists at this point. As clinical experience and research findings interact within an evolving theoretical framework, the picture of what is important, as well as what is possible to know about a sex offender, is rapidly changing. It is vital that mental health professionals, the legal system, social service agencies, and other consumers and providers of sex offender assessments be aware of both what is possible to learn about an offender as well as the limitations on that knowledge and its application. Prominent theories that influence the assessment of offenders in North America and Europe are presented and examined. Uses and limitations of each theory are discussed. Several trends emerge which could influence the future of sex offender assessment, treatment, management, and policy. PMID:15308448

  8. Treated Sex Offenders as "Paraprofessional" Co-Workers in the Treatment of the Sex Offender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossack, Alex; Robinson, Julie

    2005-01-01

    This paper will briefly review the utilization of the paraprofessional in a community-based sex offender treatment programme in Merseyside, UK. The paraprofessionals are treated paedophiles in the role of treatment co-facilitators. Further thoughts on the role dynamic, training issues and supervision are discussed. This is an example of…

  9. The Current Role of Post-Conviction Sex Offender Polygraph Testing in Sex Offender Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokish, Ron

    2003-01-01

    Polygraph testing is becoming increasingly important in sex offender treatment. Polygraph advocates cite dramatic increases in historical disclosures that presumably allow more precise targeting of treatment interventions, earlier detection of risky behaviors that often lead to new offenses, and improved treatment and supervision compliance. Based…

  10. The Experiences of Registered Sex Offenders with Internet Offender Registries in Three States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Alissa R.; Sacks, Meghan; Osier, Lindsay N.

    2013-01-01

    For over two decades, U.S. state and federal governments have enacted broad legislation in an effort to keep communities aware about and safe from sex offenders living nearby. The current study qualitatively analyzes unsolicited responses from sex offenders regarding their feelings, attitudes, and experiences living under the auspices of such…

  11. An Investigation into the Effect of Respondent Gender, Victim Age, and Perpetrator Treatment on Public Attitudes towards Sex Offenders, Sex Offender Treatment, and Sex Offender Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Paul; Hirst, Lindsay; Davies, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    In this study the authors examine the effect respondent gender, victim age, and offender treatment programs have upon public attitudes towards sex offenders. A community sample of 235 participants were asked to read a hypothetical vignette involving the sexual assault of a 10-, 15-, or 20-year-old female by a 35-year-old male who subsequently…

  12. Young Female Sex Offenders: Assessment and Treatment Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vick, Jennifer; McRoy, Ruth; Matthews, Bobbie M.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the literature on female sex offenders and presents the results of a nationwide survey of mental health providers on approaches to diagnosing prior sexual abuse history and/or perpetration among juvenile females. Key findings include the lack of research, tools, and literature on young female sex offenders and perceived differences between…

  13. The Role of Theory in the Assessment of Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quackenbush, Ray E.

    2003-01-01

    No generally accepted theory of sex offender behavior exists at this point. As clinical experience and research findings interact within an evolving theoretical framework, the picture of what is important, as well as what is possible to know about a sex offender, is rapidly changing. It is vital that mental health professionals, the legal system,…

  14. Assessment of Risk Manageability of Intellectually Disabled Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boer, Douglas P.; Tough, Susan; Haaven, James

    2004-01-01

    Background: There are no validated risk assessment tools for intellectually disabled (ID) sex offenders, with the exception of the work of Lindsay et al. ["Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities" (2004) 17: 267] regarding the prediction of risk for aggressive behaviour of ID offenders in residential settings. ID sex offenders…

  15. 32 CFR 635.7 - Registration of sex offenders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Registration of sex offenders. 635.7 Section 635.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW... of sex offenders. Soldiers who are convicted by court-martial for certain sexual offenses must...

  16. 32 CFR 635.7 - Registration of sex offenders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Registration of sex offenders. 635.7 Section 635.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW... of sex offenders. Soldiers who are convicted by court-martial for certain sexual offenses must...

  17. 32 CFR 635.7 - Registration of sex offenders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Registration of sex offenders. 635.7 Section 635.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW... of sex offenders. Soldiers who are convicted by court-martial for certain sexual offenses must...

  18. 32 CFR 635.7 - Registration of sex offenders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Registration of sex offenders. 635.7 Section 635.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW... of sex offenders. Soldiers who are convicted by court-martial for certain sexual offenses must...

  19. 32 CFR 635.7 - Registration of sex offenders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Registration of sex offenders. 635.7 Section 635.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW... of sex offenders. Soldiers who are convicted by court-martial for certain sexual offenses must...

  20. Electronic Monitoring of Sex Offenders: Identifying Unanticipated Consequences and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demichele, Matthew; Payne, Brian K.; Button, Deeanna M.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, increased legislative attention has been given to strategies to supervise sex offenders in the community. Among other policies, several states have passed laws calling for the use of electronic monitoring technologies to supervise sex offenders in the community. When initially developed, this community-based sanction was designed…

  1. A Commentary on the Michigan Sex Offender Registration Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Lucinda A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the author's comments on the Michigan sex offender registration article "Family Experiences of Young Adult Sex Offender Registration" (Comartin, Kernsmith, & Miles, 2010). The article is an important piece of research that addresses a much neglected and almost invisible population in the annals of research: the families of…

  2. The Effectiveness of the Tupiq Program for Inuit Sex Offenders.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Lynn A; Hamilton, Ellen; Wilton, Geoff; Cousineau, Colette; Varrette, Steven K

    2015-11-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of the Tupiq program, a culturally specific program for Inuit sex offenders that incorporates cognitive behavioural methods with traditional Inuit knowledge and culture led by Inuit healers and facilitators. Outcomes of 61 offenders who participated in the Tupiq program and were released were compared with outcomes of a cohort of 114 released Inuit sex offenders incarcerated during the same time period who had taken alternative sex offender treatment programs, or had not attended any sex offender program. On release, Tupiq participants had significantly lower rates of general reoffending and violent reoffending than those in the combined comparison group. The hazard of reoffending for the comparison group was almost twice that of the Tupiq group. Although the sexual reoffending rate for the Tupiq participants was less than half of that of the comparison group, the difference between the two groups was not significant because of reduced statistical power. Survival analysis controlling for covariates confirmed significantly lower rates of general reoffending for the Tupiq group. Further analyses comparing the outcomes of the subgroup of offenders in the comparison group who participated in alternative sex offender treatment programs with those who participated in Tupiq indicated that Tupiq participants had significantly lower rates of both general and sexual reoffending. These positive results for this culturally specific program suggest that similarly designed interventions have a probability of contributing to the reduction of sexual offending within Inuit communities and, potentially, other jurisdictions that work with cultural minority sex offender groups from relatively isolated communities. PMID:24913245

  3. Correlates of recidivism among adolescents who have sexually offended.

    PubMed

    Carpentier, Julie; Proulx, Jean

    2011-12-01

    The present study investigates the recidivism rates of a sample of 351 male adolescents who sexually offended, and were assessed at an outpatient psychiatric clinic in Montreal, Canada, between 1992 and 2002. The mean age of the participants was 15.8 years (SD=1.8). Data on adolescent and adult recidivism were collected in Summer 2005 from official criminality sources in Canada. Over an 8-year follow-up period, 45% (n=158) of the participants were charged with a new criminal offense, 30% (n=104) were charged with a violent offense, and 10% (n=36) were charged with a sexual offense. Cox regression results suggest that overall, violent, and sexual recidivism can be predicted by a variety of developmental, social, and criminological factors. Paternal abandonment, childhood sexual victimization, association with significantly younger children, and having victimized a stranger were associated with a higher risk of sexual recidivism. Previous delinquency, attention deficit disorder, and childhood sexual victimization were found to increase the risk for both violent and overall recidivism. Also, the use of violence during a sex crime and victimizing a stranger were associated with violent recidivism, and school delay and association with delinquent peers were predictive of overall recidivism. The results confirm that a significant proportion of adolescents who have sexually offended pursue a criminal activity beyond adolescence, although few specialize in sexual offending. PMID:21960517

  4. Attachment Styles and Psychological Profiles of Child Sex Offenders in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsa, Fiona; O'Reilly, Gary; Carr, Alan; Murphy, Paul; O'Sullivan, Maura; Cotter, Anthony; Hevey, David

    2004-01-01

    When 29 child sex offenders, 30 violent offenders, 30 nonviolent offenders, and 30 community controls were compared, a secure adult attachment style was 4 times less common in the child sex offender group than in any of the other three groups. Ninety-three percent of sex offenders had an insecure adult attachment style. Compared with community…

  5. Effectiveness of sex offender treatment for psychopathic sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Doren, Dennis M; Yates, Pamela M

    2008-04-01

    Meta-analyses have suggested that sexual offender treatment (SOT) completion is associated with lowered sexual recidivism rates for convicted sexual offenders. The paucity of properly designed studies allows for the alternative explanation of less recidivism among treated samples as reflecting that lower risk offenders disproportionately self-select into treatment. A test of the "self-selection explanation" can occur by investigating treatment effect on known high-risk offenders. Psychopathy correlates with increased sexual recidivism risk, such that an exploration of the SOT effect on psychopathic offenders could clarify the accuracy of the self-selection hypothesis. Additionally, the debated degree to which psychopaths are treatable might obtain clarification by a research review. This article examines empirical findings concerning the effectiveness of SOT for psychopathic sexual offenders. Ten studies were found to meet the minimal quality standards used, stemming from only four data sources. Shortcomings of existing research precluded clear conclusions, though trends in the data are delineated. PMID:17615428

  6. The treatment of sex offenders: evidence, ethics, and human rights.

    PubMed

    Birgden, Astrid; Cucolo, Heather

    2011-09-01

    Public policy is necessarily a political process with the law and order issue high on the political agenda. Consequently, working with sex offenders is fraught with legal and ethical minefields, including the mandate that community protection automatically outweighs offender rights. In addressing community protection, contemporary sex offender treatment is based on management rather than rehabilitation. We argue that treatment-as-management violates offender rights because it is ineffective and unethical. The suggested alternative is to deliver treatment-as-rehabilitation underpinned by international human rights law and universal professional ethics. An effective and ethical community-offender balance is more likely when sex offenders are treated with respect and dignity that, as human beings, they have a right to claim. PMID:20937793

  7. Female sex offender recidivism: a large-scale empirical analysis.

    PubMed

    Sandler, Jeffrey C; Freeman, Naomi J

    2009-12-01

    Using a sample of 1,466 females convicted of a sexual offense in New York State, the current study explored the following: (a) offending prior to the commission of the offenders' first sexual offense, (b) rates of recidivism following their first sexual offense conviction, and (c) factors associated with the likelihood of sexual recidivism. Results showed the recidivism rates of female sex offenders to be lower than those of male sex offenders for all types of recidivism studied (any rearrest, felony rearrest, violent [including violent sexual] felony rearrest, and sexual rearrest). Several significant differences were found between the group of female sex offenders who sexually recidivated and the group who did not, including crime of first sexual conviction and measures of prior offending. PMID:19901239

  8. Adolescent Sexual Offenders: The Relationship Between Typology and Recidivism

    PubMed Central

    Chi Meng Chu; Thomas, Stuart D. M.

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent sexual offending represents an ongoing social, judicial, clinical, and policy issue for services. The current study investigated the characteristics, criminal versatility, and rates of recidivism of a cohort of 156 male adolescent sexual offenders who were referred for psychological assessments by the courts between 1996 and 2007 in Singapore. Analyses revealed that specialists (sex-only offenders; n = 71, M follow-up = 56.99 months, SD follow-up = 31.33) and generalists (criminally versatile offenders; n = 77, M follow-up = 67.83 months, SD follow-up = 36.55) differed with respect to offense characteristics (e.g., sexually assaulting familial victims) and recidivistic outcomes. Although both groups sexually reoffended at roughly the same rate (14.3% vs. 9.9%), consistent with their typology, significantly more of the generalists reoffended violently (18.2% vs. 1.4%), sexually and/or violently (27.3% vs. 11.3%), nonviolently (37.7% vs. 16.9%), and engaged in any further criminal behaviors (45.5% vs. 23.9%) during follow-up. Adjusting for total number of offenses and age at first sexual offense, Cox regression analyses showed that generalists were significantly more likely than specialists to reoffend violently (hazard ratio = 9.31; 95% confidence interval = 1.15-76.39). The differences between generalists and specialists suggest a valid typological distinction with a higher risk trajectory for the generalists. These findings therefore have important clinical implications for assessment, management, and intervention planning for adolescent sexual offenders. PMID:20458125

  9. Adolescent sexual offenders: the relationship between typology and recidivism.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chi Meng; Thomas, Stuart D M

    2010-06-01

    Adolescent sexual offending represents an ongoing social, judicial, clinical, and policy issue for services. The current study investigated the characteristics, criminal versatility, and rates of recidivism of a cohort of 156 male adolescent sexual offenders who were referred for psychological assessments by the courts between 1996 and 2007 in Singapore. Analyses revealed that specialists (sex-only offenders; n = 71, M(follow-up) = 56.99 months, SD(follow-up) = 31.33) and generalists (criminally versatile offenders; n = 77, M (follow-up) = 67.83 months, SD(follow-up) = 36.55) differed with respect to offense characteristics (e.g., sexually assaulting familial victims) and recidivistic outcomes. Although both groups sexually reoffended at roughly the same rate (14.3% vs. 9.9%), consistent with their typology, significantly more of the generalists reoffended violently (18.2% vs. 1.4%), sexually and/or violently (27.3% vs. 11.3%), nonviolently (37.7% vs. 16.9%), and engaged in any further criminal behaviors (45.5% vs. 23.9%) during follow-up. Adjusting for total number of offenses and age at first sexual offense, Cox regression analyses showed that generalists were significantly more likely than specialists to reoffend violently (hazard ratio = 9.31; 95% confidence interval = 1.15-76.39). The differences between generalists and specialists suggest a valid typological distinction with a higher risk trajectory for the generalists. These findings therefore have important clinical implications for assessment, management, and intervention planning for adolescent sexual offenders. PMID:20458125

  10. Sexual Offending in Adolescence: A Comparison of Sibling Offenders and Nonsibling Offenders across Domains of Risk and Treatment Need

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latzman, Natasha E.; Viljoen, Jodi L.; Scalora, Mario J.; Ullman, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Sibling sexual offending has received limited empirical attention, despite estimates that approximately half of all adolescent-perpetrated sexual offenses involve a sibling victim. The present study addresses this gap by examining male adolescent sibling (n = 100) and nonsibling offenders (n = 66) with regard to maltreatment histories and scores…

  11. A critical review of objective personality inventories with sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Davis, Karen M; Archer, Robert P

    2010-12-01

    This review provides a critical analysis of the ability of multiscale inventories to distinguish between sex offender and nonoffender control groups, as well as to discriminate sex offenders from other types of offenders. In addition to expanding upon previous reviews that examined the utility of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) with this population (e.g., Levin & Stava, 1987), the current review included studies that utilized other multiscale inventories commonly used in forensic practice (i.e., MMPI-2, Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III [MCMI-III], Personality Assessment Inventory) and, when possible, provides effect sizes to evaluate group differences. Based on the review, the various forms of the MMPI and MCMI are clearly the most widely used instruments in sex offender populations. The MMPI Pd scale has shown moderate to large effect sizes when distinguishing between sex offender and nonsex offender groups, but this relationship may be reflective of antisocial behavior in general rather than traits specific to sex offenders. Recommendations to standardize future research classification strategies and more effectively utilize these instruments when assessing sex offenders are also provided. PMID:20734319

  12. The impact of specialized sex offender legislation on community reentry.

    PubMed

    Mercado, Cynthia Calkins; Alvarez, Shea; Levenson, Jill

    2008-06-01

    The authors sought to examine the impact of notification and residence restriction statutes on sex offender reintegration. Although previous research has primarily sampled sex offenders receiving treatment, the authors examined the impact of these policies on a broad sample of registered sex offenders subject to notification via the Internet. Findings from a survey of 138 community sex offenders revealed that a high percentage perceived residence restriction and community notification legislation to negatively affect employment, housing, and social relations. Consistent with prior research in this area, these findings suggest that such policies might hamper offenders' efforts toward community reintegration, which ultimately could serve to inflate rates of recidivism. Directions for future research and implications for practice and policy evaluation are discussed. PMID:18490481

  13. [Adolescents engaging in sexually offending behavior].

    PubMed

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Työläjärvi, Marja; Eronen, Markku

    2015-01-01

    Sexually offending behavior by adolescents may be directed towards children, age-mates and adults. Neurocognitive and psychiatric disorders and the associated inability to age-related interpersonal relationships and inability to control the sexual desires activated during adolescence may lead a young person to seek inappropriate sexual satisfaction from children. Sometimes the offenses are part of antisocial development. Interventions should be focused on the distorted cognitions and attitudes maintaining the injurious sexual behavior, and on the risk of criminal behavior in general. Pharmacological therapy, mainly with SSRI drugs, has also been tested in adolescents. PMID:26233982

  14. Views of sexual abuse professionals about sex offender notification policies.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Jill S; Fortney, Timothy; Baker, Juanita N

    2010-04-01

    This study examines the views of 261 sexual abuse professionals regarding sex crime policies. Few participants believe that community notification is very effective in reducing sex offenses, but about half believe that all sex offenders should be subject to public disclosure. About one quarter of respondents opine that sex offenders should not be allowed to live in their communities, but a majority do not view residential housing restrictions for sex offenders as effective at reducing recidivism. Most believe in the helpfulness of therapeutic intervention. More than half say that they will support sex offender policies even without scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Criminal justice professionals are more likely to approve of these laws compared to mental health professionals. Those with more conservative political leanings also favor more restrictive policies. There are few differences attributable to gender, parenting status, or victimization experiences. PMID:19131567

  15. Adolescent Offenders with Mental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grisso, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the author points out that youth with mental disorders make up a significant subgroup of youth who appear in U.S. juvenile courts. And he notes that juvenile justice systems today are struggling to determine how best to respond to those youths' needs, both to safeguard their own welfare and to reduce re-offending and its…

  16. Offense related characteristics and psychosexual development of juvenile sex offenders

    PubMed Central

    Hart-Kerkhoffs, Lisette 't A; Doreleijers, Theo AH; Jansen, Lucres MC; van Wijk, Anton PH; Bullens, Ruud AR

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This article reports on offense related characteristics and the psychosexual development in subgroups of juvenile sex offenders as measured by the Global Assessment Instrument for Juvenile Sex Offenders (GAIJSO). The predictive validity of these characteristics for persistent (sexual) offensive behavior in subgroups of juvenile sex offenders was investigated. Methods: One hundred seventy four sex offenders (mean age 14.9 SD 1.4) referred by the police to the Dutch Child Protection Board were examined. Offense related characteristics were assessed by means of the GAIJSO and the BARO (a global assessment tool for juvenile delinquents), and criminal careers of the subjects were ascertained from official judicial records. Results: Serious need for comprehensive diagnostics were found on the domains sexual offense and psychosexual development in juvenile sex offenders, especially in the group of child molesters. These youngsters displayed more internalizing and (psychosexual) developmental problems and their sexual offense was more alarming as compared to the other juvenile sex offender subgroups. Although one third of the juveniles had already committed one or more sex offenses prior to the index offense, at follow up (mean follow up period: 36 months SD 18 months) almost no sexual recidivism was found (0.6% of the entire sample). However, a substantial proportion of the entire sample of juvenile sex offenders showed non-sexual (55.6%) and violent recidivism (32.1%). Several predictors for a history of multiple sex offending and non-sexual recidivism were identified. Conclusion: This study revealed numerous problems in juvenile sex offenders. Assessment using the GAIJSO is helpful in order to identify indicators for extensive diagnostic assessment. In order to investigate the predictive validity for sexual reoffending a longer follow up period is necessary. PMID:19594889

  17. 28 CFR 72.3 - Applicability of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability of the Sex Offender...) SEX OFFENDER REGISTRATION AND NOTIFICATION § 72.3 Applicability of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act. The requirements of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act apply to all...

  18. 28 CFR 72.3 - Applicability of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability of the Sex Offender...) SEX OFFENDER REGISTRATION AND NOTIFICATION § 72.3 Applicability of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act. The requirements of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act apply to all...

  19. 28 CFR 72.3 - Applicability of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability of the Sex Offender...) SEX OFFENDER REGISTRATION AND NOTIFICATION § 72.3 Applicability of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act. The requirements of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act apply to all...

  20. 28 CFR 72.3 - Applicability of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability of the Sex Offender...) SEX OFFENDER REGISTRATION AND NOTIFICATION § 72.3 Applicability of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act. The requirements of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act apply to all...

  1. 28 CFR 72.3 - Applicability of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability of the Sex Offender...) SEX OFFENDER REGISTRATION AND NOTIFICATION § 72.3 Applicability of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act. The requirements of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act apply to all...

  2. Juvenile sex offenders: similar to, or different from, other incarcerated delinquent offenders?

    PubMed

    Kempton, T; Forehand, R

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare incarcerated juvenile sex offenders to incarcerated youth who committed confrontational but nonsex offenses, and to those youth who committed only nonconfrontational, nonsex offenses. Furthermore, comparisons were made between two subtypes of sex offenders: those youth convicted for rape or sodomy vs those convicted for child molestation. Eighty-three male juvenile delinquents served as participants. Teachers within the correctional facility completed an instrument which allowed the examination of the two areas of interest: externalizing problems and internalizing problems. The results indicated that sex offenders generally, and particularly those who had committed only sex offenses, were perceived as having fewer externalizing and internalizing problems. No differences emerged between the two subtypes of sex offenders. Implications, as well as limitations, of the findings are discussed. PMID:1520239

  3. Remorse, psychopathology, and psychopathy among adolescent offenders.

    PubMed

    Spice, Andrew; Viljoen, Jodi L; Douglas, Kevin S; Hart, Stephen D

    2015-10-01

    Remorse has long been important to the juvenile justice system. However, the nature of this construct has not yet been clearly articulated, and little research has examined its relationships with other theoretically and forensically relevant variables. The present study was intended to address these issues by examining relationships among remorse, psychopathology, and psychopathy in a sample of adolescent offenders (N = 97) using the theoretically and empirically established framework of guilt and shame (Tangney & Dearing, 2002). Findings indicated that shame was positively related to behavioral features of psychopathy, whereas guilt was negatively related to psychopathic characteristics more broadly. In addition, shame was positively associated with numerous mental health problems whereas guilt was negatively associated with anger, depression, and anxiety. These results provide empirical support for theory that psychopathy is characterized by lack of remorse (e.g., Hare, 1991), and also underscore shame and guilt as potentially important treatment targets for adolescent offenders. PMID:26011041

  4. Cognitive Distortions about Sex and Sexual Offending: A Comparison of Sex Offending Girls, Delinquent Girls, and Girls from the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubik, Elizabeth K.; Hecker, Jeffrey E.

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive distortions about sexual offending were examined in 11 girls who committed sexual offenses, 12 girls who committed non-sexual criminal offenses, and 21 girls with no history of sexual or non-sexual offending. Participants responded to 12 vignettes that described sexual contact between an adolescent girl and a younger boy. The vignettes…

  5. Family Experiences of Young Adult Sex Offender Registration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comartin, Erin B.; Kernsmith, Poco D.; Miles, Bart W.

    2010-01-01

    Since 1994, policies have been instituted throughout the United States that require sex offenders to register their personal information with law enforcement officials (Jacob Wetterling Crimes against Children and Sexually Violent Offender Registration Program, 1994). With the passage of additional laws, this information is now available to the…

  6. Some Essential Environmental Ingredients for Sex Offender Reintegration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boer, Douglas P.

    2013-01-01

    Until the systematic work on the Good Lives Model (GLM) produced by Tony Ward, not a great deal of conceptual structure existed to provide sex offender treatment specialists with a theoretical underpinning for their work in helping offenders develop a better life as a way to prevent reoffending. However, the work of Ward and colleagues initially…

  7. Perceptions of Punishment: How Registered Sex Offenders View Registries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tewksbury, Richard; Lees, Matthew B.

    2007-01-01

    Sex offender registries (SORs) are a societal response to serious and presumably dangerous criminal offenders. Existing research on registries has focused on demographic overviews of registrants, assessments of registrants' recidivism, accuracy and completeness of listed information, and collateral consequences for registrants. The present…

  8. Phoenix: An Inhospital Treatment Program for Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Studer, Lea H.; Reddon, John R.; Roper, Vincent; Estrada, Leonel

    1996-01-01

    Evaluates the post-discharge recidivism rates of an eclectic sex offender treatment program. Study of 120 program completers and 100 noncompleters indicates significant differences in recidivism for the two groups. Results suggest that comprehensive treatment of sexual offenders can substantially reduce sexual as well as nonsexual offense…

  9. Serum Testosterone Levels in Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurnani, Prem D.; Dwyer, Margretta

    1986-01-01

    Reports that with the increase in diagnosis of offenders across the nation, physicians and psychiatric personnel need to be aware of low testosterone as a possible indicator of hypo-sexuality and possible concurrent offending behavior. (Author/ABB)

  10. Sex offender management using the polygraph: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Ewout H; Verschuere, Bruno; Merckelbach, Harald L G J; Crombez, Geert

    2008-01-01

    Reducing recidivism is a central goal in the treatment of sex offenders. In Europe, there is an increased interest in using the polygraph ("lie detector") as a tool in the treatment and risk assessment of convicted sex offenders. This interest originated from optimistic reports by American clinicians who argued that polygraph testing in the treatment of sex offenders is akin to urine analysis in the treatment of drug addiction. In this article, we critically examine the validity and utility of post-conviction sex offender polygraph testing. Our review shows that the available evidence for the claims about the clinical potential of polygraph tests is weak, if not absent. We conclude that portraying post-conviction polygraph testing as analogous to urine analysis is inaccurate, misleading, and ultimately, risky. PMID:18789528

  11. Assessment and treatment of sex offenders: the Prince of Wales Programme.

    PubMed

    McConaghy, N

    1990-06-01

    The treatment programme for sex offenders at the Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, is described. Penile circumference assessment is not used as there is no evidence it provides a valid measure of individuals' paedophile or rapist tendencies. Sex offenders' self-reports remain the major source of information in their assessment. The development of the two major techniques used--imaginal desensitization and short-term medroxyprogesterone--is outlined. About 80% of subjects can be expected to show a good response to one or other of these therapies. Of those who do not, most respond to the alternative or aversive therapy. Adolescent offenders appear to require more intensive treatment. Results appear comparable with those of more intensive programmes in use overseas. PMID:2204335

  12. Criminal Profiles of Violent Juvenile Sex and Violent Juvenile Non-Sex Offenders: An Explorative Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wijk, Anton Ph.; Mali, Bas R. F.; Bullens, Ruud A. R.; Vermeiren, Robert R.

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have longitudinally investigated the criminal profiles of violent juvenile sex and violent juvenile non-sex offenders. To make up for this lack, this study used police records of juveniles to determine the nature of the criminal profiles of violent sex offenders (n = 226) and violent non-sex offenders (n = 4,130). All offenders…

  13. Use of prescription drugs and future delinquency among adolescent offenders.

    PubMed

    Drazdowski, Tess K; Jäggi, Lena; Borre, Alicia; Kliewer, Wendy L

    2015-01-01

    Non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) by adolescents is a significant public health concern. The present study investigated the profile of NMUPD in 1349 adolescent offenders from the Pathways to Desistance project, and whether NMUPD predicted future delinquency using longitudinal data. Results indicated that increased frequency and recency of NMUPD in adolescent offenders are related to some demographic factors, as well as increased risk for violence exposure, mental health diagnoses, other drug use, and previous delinquency, suggesting that severity of NMUPD is important to consider. However, ANCOVA analyses found that NMUPD was not a significant predictor of drug-related, non-aggressive, or aggressive delinquency 12 months later beyond other known correlates of delinquency. Age, sex, exposure to violence, lower socioeconomic status, more alcohol use, and having delinquency histories were more important than NMUPD in predicting future delinquency. These findings suggest that although NMUPD is an important risk factor relating to many correlates of delinquency, it does not predict future delinquency beyond other known risk factors. PMID:25135798

  14. Juvenile Sex Offenders: Development and Correction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Gail; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Three case histories elucidate a discussion of the developmental nature of the behaviors of juvenile male sexual offenders. The sexual assault cycle is defined in the stages of negative self-image, predicting rejection, isolation, fantasies, planning the offense, and committing the offense. Tools for treating the offender are outlined. (Author/JDD)

  15. Sentencing Outcomes of Convicted Child Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Steven; Marsh, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This research examines the sentencing outcomes of convicted child sexual offenders from data collected over an eight year period. Multiple regression and nominal log linear regression are used to examine length of prison sentence, length of probation sentence, and whether the convicted offender is actually sent to prison or to probation. While…

  16. Childhood Psychopathology Predicts Adolescence-Onset Offending: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Nicole; Verhulst, Frank; van Marle, Hjalmar; van der Ende, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Moffitt, Caspi, Harrington, and Milne (2002) found in a follow-up study that many of the supposedly adolescence-limited offenders had committed offenses past adolescence. This finding raises the question of whether adulthood starts later or whether there are two distinct delinquency types, adolescence limited and adolescence onset, each with its…

  17. Sex Differences in Trajectories of Offending Among Puerto Rican Youth.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Wesley G; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M; Piquero, Alex R; Odgers, Candice L; Bird, Hector; Canino, Glorisa

    2010-07-01

    Although sex is one of the strongest correlates of crime, contentions remain regarding the necessity of sex-specific theories of crime. The current study examines delinquent trajectories across sex among Puerto Rican youth socialized in two different cultural contexts (Bronx, United States and San Juan, Puerto Rico). Results indicate: similar substantive offending trajectories across males and females within each cultural context; that males exhibit a higher frequency of offending and higher levels of risk factors for delinquency; and there more similarities than differences in how risk/protective factors relate to patterns of offending across male versus female youth. Study limitations and implications for sex-specific criminological theories are also discussed. PMID:21701603

  18. Sex Differences in Trajectories of Offending Among Puerto Rican Youth

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Wesley G.; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Piquero, Alex R.; Odgers, Candice L.; Bird, Hector; Canino, Glorisa

    2011-01-01

    Although sex is one of the strongest correlates of crime, contentions remain regarding the necessity of sex-specific theories of crime. The current study examines delinquent trajectories across sex among Puerto Rican youth socialized in two different cultural contexts (Bronx, United States and San Juan, Puerto Rico). Results indicate: similar substantive offending trajectories across males and females within each cultural context; that males exhibit a higher frequency of offending and higher levels of risk factors for delinquency; and there more similarities than differences in how risk/protective factors relate to patterns of offending across male versus female youth. Study limitations and implications for sex-specific criminological theories are also discussed. PMID:21701603

  19. Castration of sex offenders: prisoners' rights versus public safety.

    PubMed

    Scott, Charles L; Holmberg, Trent

    2003-01-01

    Sexual victimization of children and adults is a significant treatment and public policy problem in the United States. To address increasing concerns regarding sex offender recidivism, nine states have passed legislation since 1996 authorizing the use of either chemical or physical castration. In most statutes, a repeat offender's eligibility for probation or parole is linked to acceptance of mandated hormonal therapy. Future legal challenges to this wave of legislation will probably include arguments that such laws violate constitutional rights guaranteed to the offender by the First, Eighth, and Fourteenth Amendments. When the promise of freedom is predicated on mandated treatment, the clinician must carefully assess the validity of informed consent. PMID:14974806

  20. The kindest cut? Surgical castration, sex offenders and coercive offers.

    PubMed

    McMillan, John

    2014-09-01

    The European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CPT) have conducted visits and written reports criticising the surgical castration of sex offenders in the Czech Republic and Germany. They claim that surgical castration is degrading treatment and have called for an immediate end to this practice. The Czech and German governments have published rebuttals of these criticisms. The rebuttals cite evidence about clinical effectiveness and point out this is an intervention that must be requested by the sex offender and cannot occur without informed consent. This article considers a number of relevant arguments that are not discussed in these reports but which are central to how we might assess this practice. First, the article discusses the possible ways in which sex offenders could be coerced into castration and whether this is a decisive moral problem. Then, it considers a number of issues relevant to determining whether sex offenders are harmed by physical castration. The article concludes by arguing that sex offenders should not be coerced into castration, be that via threats or offers, but that there is no reason to think that this is occurring in the Czech Republic or Germany. In some cases, castration might be useful for reconfiguring a life that has gone badly awry and where there is no coercion, the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment are mistaken about this being degrading treatment. PMID:23665998

  1. Birth order in sex-offending and aggressive-offending men.

    PubMed

    MacCulloch, Sophie I; Gray, Nicola S; Phillips, Helen K; Taylor, John; MacCulloch, Malcolm J

    2004-10-01

    The relation between birth order and number of sexual and violent convictions was investigated retrospectively in a sample of 113 men, to determine whether the established fraternal birth order effect in male homosexual preference and deviant sexual preference (e.g., for rape and pedophilia) may be extended to sexual behavior. Participants were mentally disordered offenders detained in a medium secure psychiatric unit in the United Kingdom and comprised 64 men with sexual convictions and 49 men with nonsexual violent convictions. Sibling data from psychiatric notes were used to calculate Berglin's birth order index for each participant and conviction data were obtained from the Home Office Offenders' Index. Fraternal birth order was significantly correlated with number of sexual convictions (p < or = .05). No association was found between fraternal or sororal birth order and violent convictions in either the sex offender or violent offender group. Results suggest that the fraternal birth order effect previously found for deviant sexual preference in sex offenders (K. Côté, C. M. Earls, & M. L. Lalumière, 2002; M. L. Lalumière, G. T. Harris, V. L. Quinsey, & M. E. Rice, 1998) also applies to sexually deviant behavior and is specific to sexual rather than general offending. Results are discussed in terms of the maternal immunosensitization hypothesis. PMID:15305117

  2. Adverse childhood experiences in the lives of female sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Jill S; Willis, Gwenda M; Prescott, David S

    2015-06-01

    This study explored the prevalence of early trauma in a sample of U.S. female sexual offenders (N = 47) using the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) scale. Compared with females in the general population, sex offenders had more than three times the odds of child sexual abuse, four times the odds of verbal abuse, and more than three times the odds of emotional neglect and having an incarcerated family member. Half of the female sex offenders had been sexually abused as a child. Only 20% endorsed zero adverse childhood experiences (compared with 35% of the general female population) and 41% endorsed four or more (compared with 15% of the general female population). Higher ACE scores were associated with having younger victims. Multiple maltreatments often co-occurred in households with other types of dysfunction, suggesting that many female sex offenders were raised within a disordered social environment by adults with problems of their own who were ill-equipped to protect their daughters from harm. By enhancing our understanding of the frequency and correlates of early adverse experiences, we can better devise trauma-informed interventions that respond to the clinical needs of female sex offender clients. PMID:25210107

  3. The current role of post-conviction sex offender polygraph testing in sex offender treatment.

    PubMed

    Kokish, Ron

    2003-01-01

    Polygraph testing is becoming increasingly important in sex offender treatment. Polygraph advocates cite dramatic increases in historical disclosures that presumably allow more precise targeting of treatment interventions, earlier detection of risky behaviors that often lead to new offenses, and improved treatment and supervision compliance. Based on this, they believe the procedure supports desirable behavior that continues to various degrees after treatment and supervision end. Opponents cite ethical problems related to inaccurate results, unproven accuracy rates, and the risk that examinees may be coerced into making false admissions. To counter these criticisms, proponents have developed standards, best practices, and examiner training and certification programs intended to reduce error rates and address ethical issues. Opponents argue that these measures have not been tested and that empirically established error rates and best practices may not be possible for a variety of reasons. This article reviews the current situation, leaving readers to decide the wisdom and ethics of using polygraph testing in their own practices. PMID:15308451

  4. What Is in a Symptom? A Conservative Approach in the Therapy of Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfafflin, Friedemann

    1992-01-01

    Reviews methods of treatment used with sex offenders, each based on the erroneous belief that sex offenders constitute a relatively homogeneous taxonomic class. Asserts that sex offenders are people with a sad personal history, in which their deviant sexual behavior represents an effort to banish the pain they experienced during their developing…

  5. 24 CFR 5.856 - When must I prohibit admission of sex offenders?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... sex offenders? 5.856 Section 5.856 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department... Denying Admissions § 5.856 When must I prohibit admission of sex offenders? You must establish standards... lifetime registration requirement under a State sex offender registration program. In the screening...

  6. 76 FR 1630 - Supplemental Guidelines for Sex Offender Registration and Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ... Notification, 73 FR 38030, on July 2, 2008. The SORNA standards are administered by the Office of Sex Offender... nonconsensual sex offenses involving penetration or related attempts or conspiracies. See 73 FR at 38030, 38040... offender's ``tier'' for SORNA purposes. See 73 FR at 38043, 38064. In relation to sex offenders in...

  7. 24 CFR 5.856 - When must I prohibit admission of sex offenders?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sex offenders? 5.856 Section 5.856 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department... Denying Admissions § 5.856 When must I prohibit admission of sex offenders? You must establish standards... lifetime registration requirement under a State sex offender registration program. In the screening...

  8. 24 CFR 5.856 - When must I prohibit admission of sex offenders?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... sex offenders? 5.856 Section 5.856 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department... Denying Admissions § 5.856 When must I prohibit admission of sex offenders? You must establish standards... lifetime registration requirement under a State sex offender registration program. In the screening...

  9. 24 CFR 5.856 - When must I prohibit admission of sex offenders?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... sex offenders? 5.856 Section 5.856 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department... Denying Admissions § 5.856 When must I prohibit admission of sex offenders? You must establish standards... lifetime registration requirement under a State sex offender registration program. In the screening...

  10. 24 CFR 5.856 - When must I prohibit admission of sex offenders?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... sex offenders? 5.856 Section 5.856 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department... Denying Admissions § 5.856 When must I prohibit admission of sex offenders? You must establish standards... lifetime registration requirement under a State sex offender registration program. In the screening...

  11. 75 FR 27362 - Supplemental Guidelines for Sex Offender Registration and Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... included in their public Web site postings. See 73 FR at 38059. A sex offender's use of his name or an... tracking sex offenders who enter or leave the United States. See 42 U.S.C. 16928; 73 FR at 38066- 67. To... sex offender's registration information in the national databases. See 73 FR at 38067. (Regarding...

  12. Development and Refinement of a Measure of Attitudes toward Sex Offender Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wnuk, Dorota; Chapman, Jason E; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years public attitudes toward sex offenders have become increasingly punitive. Consequently, new legislation pertaining to the sentencing and treatment of convicted sex offenders has been focused on containment and monitoring rather than rehabilitation. However, research suggests that treatment programs for sex offenders are effective in…

  13. Outcome Evaluation of a High-Intensity Inpatient Sex Offender Treatment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olver, Mark E.; Wong, Stephen C. P.; Nicholaichuk, Terry P.

    2009-01-01

    The treatment outcome of a high-intensity inpatient sex offender treatment program was evaluated by comparing the sexual recidivism rates of 472 treated and 282 untreated sex offenders. The program is designed for moderate- to high-risk sex offenders and follows the principles of effective correctional treatment. The current investigation is an…

  14. Community reintegration of sex offenders of children in new zealand.

    PubMed

    Russell, Gemma; Seymour, Fred; Lambie, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Reintegration of offenders following incarceration is most successful if matched to the needs of offenders, victims, and the community. This study explored child sex offenders' expectations for and experiences of reintegration into the community. A longitudinal design was used in which semistructured interviews covered issues identified in the literature as being related to reintegration. Nine offenders were interviewed within 1 week prior to release, 3 months post release, and 6 months post release. Interviews were analysed using thematic analyses producing six key themes. The interviews revealed that most of the participants feared their release from prison into the community and once released struggled to live in society. Overall, reintegration planning was simplistic and aimed primarily to manage risk factors rather than promote reintegration. Those participants who reported most satisfaction with their adjustment following release had more comprehensive reintegration plans, which enabled them to visualise what life would be like after release. PMID:22100427

  15. Online child pornography offenders are different: a meta-analysis of the characteristics of online and offline sex offenders against children.

    PubMed

    Babchishin, Kelly M; Hanson, R Karl; VanZuylen, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The current meta-analysis compared the characteristics of online child pornography-only offenders, typical (offline) sex offenders against children, and offenders with both child pornography and contact sex offences against children (mixed). Based on 30 unique samples (comparison ns ranging from 98 to 2,702), the meta-analysis found key differences between groups. Offenders who committed contact sex offences were more likely to have access to children than those with only child pornography offences. In contrast, offenders who used the internet to commit sexual offences had greater access to the internet than those with contact sex offenders. Differences between the groups, however, were not limited to differential opportunities. Sex offenders against children and mixed offenders were found to score higher on indicators of antisociality than online child pornography offenders (CPOs). CPOs were also more likely to have psychological barriers to sexual offending than sex offenders against children and mixed offenders (e.g., greater victim empathy). Mixed offenders were found to be the most pedophilic, even more than CPOs. The findings suggest that offenders who restricted their offending behavior to online child pornography offences were different from mixed offenders and offline sex offenders against children, and that mixed offenders were a particularly high risk group. PMID:24627189

  16. Priming unconscious racial stereotypes about adolescent offenders.

    PubMed

    Graham, Sandra; Lowery, Brian S

    2004-10-01

    Two studies examined unconscious racial stereotypes of decision makers in the juvenile justice system. Police officers (Experiment 1) and juvenile probation officers (Experiment 2) were subliminally exposed to words related to the category Black or to words neutral with respect to race. In a presumably unrelated task, officers read 2 vignettes about a hypothetical adolescent who allegedly committed either a property crime (shoplifting from a convenience store) or an interpersonal crime (assaulting a peer). The race of the offender was left unstated and the scenarios were ambiguous about the causes of the crime. Respondents rated the hypothetical offender on a number of traits (e.g., hostility and immaturity) and made judgments about culpability, expected recidivism, and deserved punishment. They also completed a self-report measure of conscious attitudes about race. As hypothesized, officers in the racial prime condition reported more negative trait ratings, greater culpability, and expected recidivism, and they endorsed harsher punishment than did officers in the neutral condition. The effects of the racial primes were not moderated by consciously held attitudes about African Americans. The implications of the findings for racial disparity in the juvenile justice system and for changing unconscious stereotypes were discussed. PMID:15638206

  17. A multimodal examination of sexual interest in children: a comparison of sex offenders and nonsex offenders.

    PubMed

    Babchishin, Kelly M; Nunes, Kevin L; Kessous, Nicolas

    2014-08-01

    Research and theoretical models have consistently identified sexual interest in children as a key factor involved in child sexual offending. However, there is only moderate agreement in the diagnosis of pedophilia and different assessment methods identify different offenders as pedophiles. The current study examined the discriminative and convergent validity of three different measures of sexual interest in children. Participants included sex offenders and nonsex offenders recruited from federal prisons (i.e., offenders serving sentences of more than 2 years) in Ontario, Canada. Child molesters' responses (n = 35) were not significantly different from nonsex offenders (n = 21) on an implicit measure of sexual interest in children (Sexual Attraction to Children Implicit Association Test [SAC-IAT] d = 0.44, 95% CI [-0.11, 0.99]), but differed on the self-report (Sexual Interest Profiling System; d = 0.83, 95% CI [0.27, 1.39]) and viewing time (d = 1.15, 95% CI [0.54, 1.75]) measures. Findings did not provide clear support for the superiority of a multimodal approach, possibly due to the relatively small sample. More often than not, convergence between the three measures was observed (n = 74). Findings from the present study are an important step toward understanding the relationship between different measures of sexual interest in children and establishing their validity. PMID:23861406

  18. Relationship conflict management patterns among sex dysfunction, sex offender, and satisfied couples.

    PubMed

    Metz, M E; Dwyer, S M

    1993-01-01

    A substantial amount of research has distinguished specific behaviors of distressed from nondistressed couples. Among this evidence are differences in relationship conflict management styles. This investigation examined differences in relationship satisfaction and conflict management styles among 30 sex dysfunction, 25 sex offender, and 26 satisfied couples assessed by the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) and the Styles of Conflict Inventory (SCI). Results indicate significantly different levels of marital adjustment and distinctive conflict management patterns among the three couples groups. The two sex problem groups were significantly more distressed than the satisfied couples, and sex offender couples appeared more conflicted than sex dysfunction couples. Compared to satisfied couples, sex dysfunction couples address relationship conflict with somewhat polarized roles with an "avoid vs. engage" pattern, while sex offender couples employ a more chaotic "engage-avoid vs. engage-avoid" style. These different patterns of reactivity to conflict suggest that individualized treatment approaches to this dimension of the clinical picture is warranted. PMID:8336343

  19. Myth Information and Bizarre Beliefs of Male Juvenile Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakey, Joyce F.

    1992-01-01

    Describes mythical beliefs, thinking errors, and faulty attitudes collected from a group of 67 male juvenile sex offenders. Addresses four major thinking errors: pretentiousness, uniqueness, failure to assume responsibility, and distorted values. Notes that therapists need this information to develop effective treatment strategies for replacing…

  20. Physical and Chemical Castration of Sex Offenders: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Walter J., III; Cole, Collier M.

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview of physical and chemical castration and its use in controlling sex offenders. Discusses castration and sexual aggression, then focuses on the use of therapeutic physical castration in dealing with those who display unacceptable sexual behaviors. Details legal and ethical issues and the efficacy of testosterone-lowering…

  1. Neighborhood Characteristics and the Social Control of Registered Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Socia, Kelly M.; Stamatel, Janet P.

    2012-01-01

    This study uses geospatial and regression analyses to examine the relationships among social disorganization, collective efficacy, social control, residence restrictions, spatial autocorrelation, and the neighborhood distribution of registered sex offenders (RSOs) in Chicago. RSOs were concentrated in neighborhoods that had higher levels of social…

  2. Assessing Juvenile Sex Offenders to Determine Adequate Levels of Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Karen E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study analyzed the internal consistency of four inventories used by Utah probation officers to determine adequate and efficacious supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders. Three factors accounted for 41.2 percent of variance (custodian's and juvenile's attitude toward intervention, offense characteristics, and historical…

  3. Integrating a Humanistic Approach in Outpatient Sex Offender Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauman, Sheri; Kopp, T. Gregory

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral and relapse prevention models are currently the treatments of choice among sex offender treatment providers. This article recommends integrating humanistic principles within treatment programs in order to maximize the power of group psychotherapy. Humanistic treatment processes and therapist characteristics that improve…

  4. What Happens to Therapists Who Work with Sex Offenders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrenkopf, Toni

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed 24 experienced therapists working with sex offenders regarding personal impact of work. Most reported shift in perspective, becoming discouraged about client change. Several adjustment phases were reported. One-quarter experienced burnout. Alternative to burnout was adaptation: lowering of expectations, objective detachment, acceptance of…

  5. The Impact of Training on Attitudes towards Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Leam A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to measure attitudes towards sex offenders held by professionals and paraprofessionals and to evaluate an introductory training workshop aimed at increasing knowledge and improving attitudes to this client group. Eighty-five residential hostel workers and probation officers attended an intensive two-day…

  6. Sanctions for Sex Offenders: Fear and Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comartin, Erin B.; Kernsmith, Poco D.; Kernsmith, Roger M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated public attitudes regarding sex offender sanctions through telephone surveys (n = 703). The greatest support was for residency and work restrictions. There was less support for publication of names in a newspaper, curfews, life in prison, and castration. Support for nonsevere sanctions correlated with socioeconomic status,…

  7. Motivational Counseling: Implications for Counseling Male Juvenile Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Samir H.; Lambie, Glenn W.; Glover, Michelle Muenzenmeyer

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile sex offenders (JSOs) often appear unmotivated to change, which thus necessitates a therapeutic approach that matches "resistant" client characteristics. In this article, the authors review common traits of JSOs, introduce motivational counseling as an effective treatment modality, and offer a case illustration. (Contains 1 table and 1…

  8. Study characteristics and recidivism base rates in juvenile sex offender recidivism.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Michael F

    2010-04-01

    This study reports on the results of a review and meta-analysis of 63 data sets that examine sexual recidivism among juvenile sex offenders. The studies include a total of 11,219 juvenile sex offenders, followed for a weighted mean of 59.4 months (SD = 36.1 months). Recidivism is identified through official records of arrest or conviction. The weighted mean sexual recidivism rate is 7.08% ( SD = 3.9%). The weighted mean rate of general recidivism is 43.4% ( SD = 18.9%). Studies that examine sexual recidivism during adolescence find monthly sexual recidivism rates that are more than 4 times higher than those found in studies that rely only on adult recidivism records. Neither the level of secured placement (community, residential, or secured custody) nor the use of arrest versus conviction as an outcome significantly influences sexual recidivism rates. PMID:19168638

  9. Sex Offender Situational Competency Test (SOSCT) Pretreatment and Posttreatment Effects for Inpatient Sex Offenders in Hypothetical High-Risk Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddon, John R.; Takacs, Shelly; Hogan, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate relapse prevention skill acquisition within the context of a comprehensive treatment program involving group psychotherapy, relapse prevention programming, and other essential psychoeducational components. The Sex Offender Situational Competency Test (SOSCT) was administered pretreatment and posttreatment…

  10. Assessing Components of Empathy in Sex-Offenders with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ralfs, Sonya; Beail, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    Background: Because of a lack of research investigating empathy in sex offenders with intellectual disabilities, this study explored empathy in sex offenders and non-offenders with intellectual disabilities. Specific aims were to explore differences between these groups on measures of the components of empathy. Methods: The scores of 21…

  11. Female and Male Sex Offenders: A Comparison of Recidivism Patterns and Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Naomi J.; Sandler, Jeffrey C.

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have empirically validated the assertion that female and male sex offenders are vastly different. Therefore, utilizing a matched sample of 780 female and male sex offenders in New York State, the current study explored differences and similarities of recidivism patterns and risk factors for the two offender groups. Results suggested…

  12. Physiological and Psychosocial Assessment and Treatment of Sex Offenders: A Comprehensive Victim-Oriented Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Robert L.

    1995-01-01

    Attempts to define the optimal sex offender treatment program based on a review of the empirical literature and on personal clinical experience with sex offenders. Discusses the use of the penile plethysmograph and the polygraph as methods of psychosocial assessment used in conjunction with antiandrogen medication to dampen the offender's libido…

  13. Offense history and recidivism in three victim-age-based groups of juvenile sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Therese Skubic; Kistner, Janet A

    2007-12-01

    This study compared subgroups of juvenile sex offenders (JSOs) who victimized children (child offenders), peers (peer offenders), or both children and peers (mixed offenders) on sexual and nonsexual offense history, treatment outcomes, and recidivism to determine if these are distinct and valid subgroups. Though the group of mixed offenders was small, results showed that they exhibited a more diverse and more physically intrusive sexual offense history than the other JSOs and were less likely to successfully complete treatment. Sexual and nonsexual recidivism rates of mixed offenders did not differ from the other subgroups despite subgroup differences in juvenile sexual and nonsexual criminal records. However, differences in sexual recidivism rates of child versus peer offenders were found when the mixed offenders were either excluded from the sample or combined with child offenders. The results highlight the need to include mixed offenders in future research examining the etiology of sexual offending, treatment, and recidivism of JSOs. PMID:17952596

  14. Sex offender treatment outcome, actuarial risk, and the aging sex offender in Canadian corrections: a long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Olver, Mark E; Nicholaichuk, Terry P; Gu, Deqiang; Wong, Stephen C P

    2013-08-01

    The present study is an examination of sex offender treatment outcome in a large national cohort of Canadian Federally incarcerated sex offenders followed up an average of 11.7 years postrelease. A brief actuarial risk scale (BARS), which predicted sexual and violent recidivism, was created for the purposes of the present study to control for risk-related differences between treated and untreated offenders. In total, 732 offenders were identified as having completed (n = 625) or not attended (n = 107) a sex offender treatment program and for whom sufficient information was available to complete the scale. Controlling for risk and individual differences in follow-up time using Cox regression survival analyses and an 8-year fixed follow-up period, treated sex offenders demonstrated significantly lower rates of violent, but not sexual, recidivism. When the treated and untreated groups were stratified by risk level, significant differences were observed only among moderate or high risk offenders. Some significant group differences also emerged on indicators of recidivism severity, with treated offenders demonstrating slower times to sexual reoffense and lower scores on a quantified metric of sexual and violent recidivism severity after controlling for risk. Differences in recidivism base rates between treated and untreated offenders were also larger in magnitude for younger offenders (i.e., under age 50 at release), than for older offenders; however, interactions between age and treatment were not found. The findings are consistent with the risk principle and have possible implications regarding the dynamic nature of sexual violence risk. PMID:23136142

  15. Short-Term Stability of Psychopathic Traits in Adolescent Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Zina; Klaver, Jessica R.; Hart, Stephen D.; Moretti, Marlene M.; Douglas, Kevin S.

    2009-01-01

    There is considerable debate about the assessment of psychopathic traits in adolescence due in part to questions regarding the stability of traits. We investigated the 6-month stability of psychopathic traits in a sample of 83 male adolescent offenders using an augmented protocol for the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version and the self-report…

  16. Psychophysiological assessment of sex offenders in a security hospital.

    PubMed

    Hinton, J W; O'Neill, M T; Webster, S

    1980-06-01

    A study on the sexual orientation and responsiveness of sexual offenders in a maximum security hospital who had been referred to the Psychology Department for sexual assessment is described. Correlations between "felt sexual arousal" ratings and penis diameter increase were calculated to assess validity, but a high proportion of detained patients gave results which could be interpreted as indicating defensiveness or faking. Groups of sexual offenders (against women, girls, boys, and men), nonsexual attackers of women, and typical heterosexuals were compared on their profiles of response to films showing consenting adult heterosexual, adult homosexual, and boy homosexual activity, girl abduction, and girl rape. Groups did not differ on the consenting heterosexual activity film, but typical heterosexuals and nonsexual attackers of women showed significantly less response to the film of girl abduction (p less than 0.001) and rape (p less than 0.001) than did groups of sex offenders generally. PMID:7396693

  17. Posthospitalization Outcomes for Psychiatric Sex Offenders: Comparing Two Treatment Protocols.

    PubMed

    Stinson, Jill D; McVay, Lee Ann; Becker, Judith V

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of safe offender strategies (SOS) in comparison with relapse prevention (RP) in a sample of 91 inpatient males in a secure psychiatric setting. All men evidenced a history of violent sexual offending and were diagnosed with serious psychiatric disorders and/or intellectual disabilities. Participants who received SOS (n= 58) and RP (n= 33) were followed from 6 to 36 months post release. SOS clients were significantly less likely to be arrested (0%) or rehospitalized (5.2%) than RP clients (9% arrested; 54.5% rehospitalized). In addition, SOS clients were more likely to transition continuously to less restrictive alternatives, with no returns to high security, in comparison with RP clients. The authors discuss implications for use of SOS, a treatment that facilitates skills development and affects global self-regulatory functioning, particularly in sex offenders with serious mental illness or intellectual impairment, in promoting community reintegration and limiting returns to psychiatric settings. PMID:26205684

  18. A Restorative Justice Approach to Empathy Development in Sex Offenders: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseman, Christopher P.; Ritchie, Martin; Laux, John M.

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe an exploratory study in sex offender treatment using a restorative justice approach to examine the shame, guilt, and empathy development of convicted sexual offenders. Implications for clinical practice and future research are highlighted. (Contains 3 tables.)

  19. Culturally competent practice with African American juvenile sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Venable, Victoria M; Guada, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    African American juveniles adjudicated for sexual offenses may struggle with the mistrust of both the judicial and treatment systems. Unlike general mental health services, juvenile sex offender treatment is often mandated by the court or child welfare services, thus these youths and their families must engage in the treatment process. Without clinicians and services that can acknowledge and respond to a minority youth's experience in a sensitive, culturally competent manner, there could be significant resistance to treatment. Traditional treatment approaches fail to prioritize issues involving cultural competence. This article addresses the unique challenges of African American juvenile sex offenders and makes recommendations for creating culturally competent practice for these youth and their families. PMID:24641684

  20. Assessing juvenile sex offenders to determine adequate levels of supervision.

    PubMed

    Gerdes, K E; Gourley, M M; Cash, M C

    1995-08-01

    The present study analyzed the internal consistency of four inventories currently being used by probation officers in the state of Utah to determine adequate and efficacious supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders. The internal consistency or reliability of the inventories ranged from moderate to good. Factor analysis was utilized to significantly increase the reliability of the four inventories by collapsing them into the following three factors: (a) Custodian's and Juvenile's Attitude Toward Intervention; (b) Offense Characteristics; and (c) Historical Risk Factors. These three inventories/factors explained 41.2% of the variance in the combined inventories' scores. Suggestions are made regarding the creation of an additional inventory. "Characteristics of the Victim" to account for more of the variance. In addition, suggestions as to how these inventories can be used by probation officers to make objective and consistent decisions about adequate supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders are discussed. PMID:7583754

  1. Refusers, dropouts, and completers: measuring sex offender treatment efficacy.

    PubMed

    Seager, James A; Jellicoe, Debra; Dhaliwal, Gurmeet K

    2004-10-01

    A sex offender program delivered in a medium-security prison followed 109 treatment completers and 37 noncompleters for 2 years after release. Noncompleters, those who refused treatment or dropped out, had 6 times the rate of sexual and violent reoffending relative to completers. Among those who completed the program, however, positive evaluations of treatment change, such as quality of disclosure and enhanced victim empathy, found in posttreatment assessments did not correlate with recidivism. Furthermore, completers did not differ in their rates of recidivism from pretreatment rates predicted by the Static 99, an actuarial measure of anticipated sexual and violent recidivism. We conclude that the program did not influence propensities for sexual and violent recidivism but rather served as a prolonged screening instrument for sex offenders whose failure to comply with treatment attendance predicted higher rates of recidivism. PMID:15358934

  2. Response Patterns on the Questionnaire on Attitudes Consistent with Sexual Offending in Groups of Sex Offenders with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, William R.; Michie, Amanda M.; Whitefield, Elaine; Martin, Victoria; Grieve, Alan; Carson, Derek

    2006-01-01

    Background: This report employs a recently developed assessment on attitudes consistent with sexual offending [Questionnaire on Attitudes Consistent with Sexual Offences (QACSO)] to compare different groups of sex offenders with intellectual disability. Method: Two studies are reported each from a different region and each conducted by different…

  3. Interpreting multiple risk scales for sex offenders: evidence for averaging.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Robert J B; Hanson, R Karl; Babchishin, Kelly M; Gallasch-Nemitz, Franziska; Biedermann, Jürgen; Dahle, Klaus-Peter

    2013-09-01

    This study tested 3 decision rules for combining actuarial risk instruments for sex offenders into an overall evaluation of risk. Based on a 9-year follow-up of 940 adult male sex offenders, we found that Rapid Risk Assessment for Sex Offender Recidivism (RRASOR), Static-99R, and Static-2002R predicted sexual, violent, and general recidivism and provided incremental information for the prediction of all 3 outcomes. Consistent with previous findings, the incremental effect of RRASOR was positive for sexual recidivism but negative for violent and general recidivism. Averaging risk ratios was a promising approach to combining these risk scales, showing good calibration between predicted (E) and observed (O) recidivism rates (E/O index = 0.93, 95% CI [0.79, 1.09]) and good discrimination (area under the curve = 0.73, 95% CI [0.69, 0.77]) for sexual recidivism. As expected, choosing the lowest (least risky) risk tool resulted in underestimated sexual recidivism rates (E/O = 0.67, 95% CI [0.57, 0.79]) and choosing the highest (riskiest) resulted in overestimated risk (E/O = 1.37, 95% CI [1.17, 1.60]). For the prediction of violent and general recidivism, the combination rules provided similar or lower discrimination compared with relying solely on the Static-99R or Static-2002R. The current results support an averaging approach and underscore the importance of understanding the constructs assessed by violence risk measures. PMID:23730829

  4. Coping Style and Psychological Health among Adolescent Prisoners: A Study of Young and Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ireland, J.L.; Boustead, R.; Ireland, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    The current study explores the role of coping styles as a predictor of poor psychological health among adolescent offenders. It presents the first study to compare young and juvenile offenders. Two hundred and three male offenders took part: 108 young (18-21 years) and 95 juvenile (15-17 years) offenders. All completed the General Health…

  5. Cognitive Distortions and Blame Attribution in Sex Offenders against Adults and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenthal, Stephen; Gudjonsson, Gisli; Burns, Jan

    1999-01-01

    This study compared sex offenders against children and adults on measures of cognitive distortions relating to sex with children and rape and a measure of blame attribution. Child sexual offenders endorsed more cognitive distortions relating to sex with children and reported more guilt-feeling attributions. (Author/DB)

  6. Adolescent sexual offenders: a self-psychological perspective.

    PubMed

    Chorn, R; Parekh, A

    1997-01-01

    Following a request for assistance in formulating a treatment philosophy for adolescent sexual offenders, a qualitative study of seven adolescent offenders was designed with a view to elaborating pre-offense, and post-offense dynamics. The point of departure was the hypothesis that sexual offending had relation to object relations. It was further hypothesized that offenders' object relations and self-development had been disfigured in childhood and adolescent development. The developmental theories of Mahler, Stern, Winnicott, and Kohut were reviewed in order to shed light on the connection between disfigured self-development and sexual offending. Mahler's work suggested that anomalies during the separation-individuation process were heavily implicated. Winnicott's thinking on transitional functioning in potential space and his employment of the concepts of the true self and false self were especially useful. These bodies of work were assimilated to Kohut's theory of self development in which three nuclear sectors of the self, namely, the grandiose-exhibitionistic sector, the idealizing-voyeuristic sector, and the twinship-alterego sector, gradually coalesce and cohere through the moderating influence of parental empathy with the child's developmental tasks. Where such empathy is unforthcoming, or when the normal parental functions are obliterated by traumatic experiences of abuse, unmoderated needs for exhibitionism and voyeurism continue through childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Victims of sexual offending were hypothesized to perform functions of restoration and preservation of a chronically weak and threatened self. The sample's interview transcripts were qualitatively analyzed and aggregated. Analysis suggested that, indeed, offenses appeared to have been motivated to preserve a weakened sense of self and that the thoughts and perceptions surrounding the offenses resonated with expressions of problematic separation from parental objects. In addition, it

  7. Childhood Attachment and Adult Attachment in Incarcerated Adult Male Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smallbone, Stephen W.; Dadds, Mark R.

    1998-01-01

    Forty-eight incarcerated sex offenders were compared with 16 property offenders and 16 nonoffenders on self-report measures of childhood maternal and paternal attachment and adult attachment. Results suggest that insecure childhood attachments may be related to offending behavior generally and that certain combinations of childhood attachment…

  8. The Effect of Offenders' Sex on Reporting Crimes to the Police

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Thessa M. L.; Van de Schoot, Rens

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the difference in victims' reporting behavior regarding crimes committed by males and by females. The authors expect that victims of female offenders are less likely to report to the police than victims of male offenders because of differences in the victim-offender relationship as well as in the victim's sex. With recent…

  9. Female Sex Offenders: Exploring Issues of Personality, Trauma, and Cognitive Distortions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the characteristics of female sex offenders and factors and/or causes of female deviance. Research to date has been descriptive in nature, with few comparison studies. Using a correlational design and three valid instruments, female sexual offenders and a matched group of female nonsexual offenders are compared in the…

  10. Learning to pass: sex offenders' strategies for establishing a viable identity in the prison general population.

    PubMed

    Schwaebe, Charles

    2005-12-01

    This article endeavors to illustrate the realities of prison life for sex offenders and the means by which they attempt to establish viable identities and acquire a survivable niche in the prison general population, particularly when established identities and protective niches are put at risk by entry into a sex offender treatment program. Qualitative data was collected by repeatedly interviewing a cohort of sex offenders for 6 months as they completed a basic sex offender treatment program. The findings indicate a need to include consideration of treatment context in understanding the limits of treatment gain in prison-based programs. PMID:16249394

  11. Sexual history disclosure polygraph outcomes: do juvenile and adult sex offenders differ?

    PubMed

    Jensen, Todd M; Shafer, Kevin; Roby, C Y; Roby, Jini L

    2015-03-01

    Despite the empirical and theoretical chasm between the opponents and proponents of polygraphy, its use is prominent among sex offender agencies in the United States. However, current research on polygraph examination outcomes among juvenile sex offenders, along with potential differences from their adult counterparts, is scarce and outdated. In the present study, we assess the difference between juvenile and adult sex offenders in terms of the propensity for passing a sexual history disclosure polygraph examination. A sample of 324 sex offenders (86 juveniles and 238 adults) who engaged in a sexual history disclosure polygraph examination as part of their treatment in an Intermountain West sex offender treatment agency was used for the analysis. Results from preliminary and logistic regression analyses indicate that juvenile and adult offenders do not significantly differ in the likelihood of passing a sexual history disclosure polygraph examination. Implications and limitations are discussed. PMID:25049032

  12. 24 CFR 5.905 - What special authority is there to obtain access to sex offender registration information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... obtain access to sex offender registration information? 5.905 Section 5.905 Housing and Urban Development... access to sex offender registration information? (a) PHA obligation to obtain sex offender registration... applying for admission to any federally assisted housing program is subject to a lifetime sex...

  13. 24 CFR 5.905 - What special authority is there to obtain access to sex offender registration information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... obtain access to sex offender registration information? 5.905 Section 5.905 Housing and Urban Development... access to sex offender registration information? (a) PHA obligation to obtain sex offender registration... applying for admission to any federally assisted housing program is subject to a lifetime sex...

  14. 24 CFR 5.905 - What special authority is there to obtain access to sex offender registration information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... obtain access to sex offender registration information? 5.905 Section 5.905 Housing and Urban Development... access to sex offender registration information? (a) PHA obligation to obtain sex offender registration... applying for admission to any federally assisted housing program is subject to a lifetime sex...

  15. 24 CFR 5.905 - What special authority is there to obtain access to sex offender registration information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... obtain access to sex offender registration information? 5.905 Section 5.905 Housing and Urban Development... access to sex offender registration information? (a) PHA obligation to obtain sex offender registration... applying for admission to any federally assisted housing program is subject to a lifetime sex...

  16. 24 CFR 5.905 - What special authority is there to obtain access to sex offender registration information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... obtain access to sex offender registration information? 5.905 Section 5.905 Housing and Urban Development... access to sex offender registration information? (a) PHA obligation to obtain sex offender registration... applying for admission to any federally assisted housing program is subject to a lifetime sex...

  17. Assessing Sexual Interest in Adolescents Who Have Sexually Offended.

    PubMed

    Mackaronis, Julia E; Byrne, Peter M; Strassberg, Donald S

    2016-03-01

    Adolescents who have sexually offended have unique treatment needs. For mental health professionals to adequately address these unique needs, further research is necessary. To that end, we explored the assessment of sexual interest (which may play an integral role in understanding potential for sexual reoffending) in a sample of 103 male adolescents who have sexually offended. We compared results from a physiological assessment (MONARCH 21 penile plethysmography [PPG]) and an actuarial assessment (Screening Scale for Pedophilic Interest [SSPI]), plus data from an unobstrusive assessment (Affinity, a viewing time measure) in a smaller subsample of 16 male adolescents. One finding that has particular relevance for clinical assessment is that the SSPI may have limited utility with adolescents. We also found evidence for some overlap between data from PPG and viewing time assessments, although whether or not PPG data are ipsatized may affect relationships with other assessment modalities. PMID:24879092

  18. Victim-Offender Mediation with Adolescents Who Commit Hate Crimes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Stephen C.; Swain, Jennifer E.

    The number of reported hate crimes has steadily increased. Racial prejudice motivates most of these crimes, which typically are committed by a small, loosely associated group of adolescent offenders. In addition to the physical pain and material loss associated with these crimes, they can be psychologically devastating to the victim. New…

  19. Acculturation and Enculturation Trajectories among Mexican-American Adolescent Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, George P.; Vargas-Chanes, Delfino; Losoya, Sandra H.; Cota-Robles, Sonia; Chassin, Laurie; Lee, Joanna M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines changes over time in ethnic affirmation/belonging and ethnic identity achievement, Spanish language use, English language use, Mexican/Mexican-American affiliation/identification and Anglo affiliation/identification in a sample of Mexican-American adolescents participating in a longitudinal study of juvenile offenders. The…

  20. Outcome evaluation of a high-intensity inpatient sex offender treatment program.

    PubMed

    Olver, Mark E; Wong, Stephen C P; Nicholaichuk, Terry P

    2009-03-01

    The treatment outcome of a high-intensity inpatient sex offender treatment program was evaluated by comparing the sexual recidivism rates of 472 treated and 282 untreated sex offenders. The program is designed for moderate- to high-risk sex offenders and follows the principles of effective correctional treatment. The current investigation is an extension of an earlier study (Nicholaichuk et al., 2000) with the addition of 176 participants, an extra 4 years follow-up, and the use of Cox regression survival analysis to control for three potentially confounding variables: age of release, sexual offending history, and length of follow-up. Treated offenders sexually recidivated significantly less than the comparison group over nearly 20 years of follow-up, even after controlling for the aforementioned variables. The substantive findings suggest that treatment adhering to the what works principles can reduce long-term sexual recidivism for a moderate- to high-risk group of sex offenders. PMID:18458350

  1. A Comparison of Two Treatment Studies: CBT and MDT with Adolescent Male Sex Offenders with Reactive Conduct Disorder and/or Personality Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apsche, Jack A.; Bass, Christopher K.; Murphy, Christopher J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper compares the results of two separate published studies regarding adolescent males with conduct disorders and/or personality disorders/traits. Both studies were published in the Behavior Analyst Today, Vol. 3, No. 4, Vol 5, No. 1, respectively. The concept is to evaluate two treatment research studies that represent "the best" practices…

  2. Moral Judgment of Young Sex Offenders with and without Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Vugt, Eveline; Asscher, Jessica; Stams, Geert Jan; Hendriks, Jan; Bijleveld, Catrien; van der Laan, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This study examined differences in moral judgment between juvenile sex offenders with and without intellectual disabilities. The Sociomoral Reflection Measure-Short Form (SRM-SF) was used to assess moral judgment, and was extended with questions referring to general sexual situations and to the offenders' abuse victim(s). Juvenile sex offenders…

  3. An Empirical Study of the Personality Characteristics of Internet Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomak, Sheri; Weschler, Frederick S.; Ghahramanlou-Holloway, Marjan; Virden, Thomas; Nademin, Mahsaw Elicia

    2009-01-01

    The present study evaluated the personality characteristics and psychopathology of internet sex offenders (ISOs) using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, Second Edition (MMPI-2) to determine whether ISO personality profiles are different to those of general sex offenders (GSOs; e.g. child molesters and rapists). The ISOs consisted of…

  4. The Community Attitudes toward Sex Offenders Scale: The Development of a Psychometric Assessment Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Church, Wesley T., II; Wakeman, Emily E.; Miller, Sarah L.; Clements, Carl B.; Sun, Fei

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine the nature of individual attitudes toward sex offenders. Because the term "sex offender" tends to evoke strong emotions, and given that open-ended self reports tend to be highly subjective, particularly in the context of such pointed terminology, this study sought to develop an attitude…

  5. Is More Better? Combining Actuarial Risk Scales to Predict Recidivism among Adult Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seto, Michael C.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine whether combining the results of multiple actuarial risk scales increases accuracy in predicting sex offender recidivism. Multiple methods of combining 4 validated actuarial risk scales--the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide, the Sex Offender Risk Appraisal Guide, the Rapid Risk Assessment for Sexual…

  6. Dispelling the Myths: Can Psychoeducation Change Public Attitudes towards Sex Offenders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleban, Holly; Jeglic, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The public desires more punitive sentencing for sex offenders; however, treatment has been shown to be most effective in increasing public safety. It has been suggested that public education about the benefits of sex offender treatment could influence public policy. The purpose of this study was to determine if a brief psychoeducational…

  7. The Social Construction of the Child Sex Offender Explored by Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavin, Helen

    2005-01-01

    The notion of "child sex offender" provokes aversion, but it may be that it is a social construction. We suggest that a Dominant narrative, in which child sex offenders are constructed as irredeemable, persists, despite the emergence of assumption challenging Alternative narratives. A story completion method was used to elicit themes of Dominant…

  8. Self-Control Assessments and Implications for Predicting Adolescent Offending.

    PubMed

    Fine, Adam; Steinberg, Laurence; Frick, Paul J; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    Although low self-control is consistently related to adolescent offending, it is unknown whether self-report measures or laboratory behavior tasks yield better predictive utility, or if a combination yields incremental predictive power. This is particularly important because developmental theory indicates that self-control is related to adolescent offending and, consequently, risk assessments rely on self-control measures. The present study (a) examines relationships between self-reported self-control on the Weinberger Adjustment Inventory with Go/No-Go response inhibition, and (b) compares the predictive utility of both assessment strategies for short- and long-term adolescent reoffending. It uses longitudinal data from the Crossroads Study of male, first-time adolescent offenders ages 13-17 (N = 930; 46 % Hispanic/Latino, 37 % Black/African-American, 15 % non-Hispanic White, 2 % other race). The results of the study indicate that the measures are largely unrelated, and that the self-report measure is a better indicator of both short- and long-term reoffending. The laboratory task measure does not add value to what is already predicted by the self-report measure. Implications for assessing self-control during adolescence and consequences of assessment strategy are discussed. PMID:26792266

  9. Recidivism among sex offenders: a follow-up study of 541 Norwegian sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Grünfeld, B; Noreik, K

    1986-01-01

    A study of recidivism to sexual offences was conducted among Norwegian males who had received their first conviction for a sexual crime during the years 1970-1974. Five hundred and forty-one out of a total of 1,071 offenders were randomly selected and followed by means of official and public register systems until the end of August 1983. No one was contacted personally by the investigators. The recidivism rate was 12.8%, with the rapists having the highest tendency to commit new sexual crimes. Acts like incest, exploitation of someone in the custody of the perpetrator or similar felonies against so-called public morals were least likely to be repeated. Most of the repeat offenders only had one single subsequent offence, either of the same type of crime as at the first or to a less severe crime. Only a handful committed more than one repeat offence. A large number of the sexual offenders had committed others types of crimes, some prior to their first conviction for the sexual crime and some subsequent. Most of our criminally convicted males had a record of mixed criminality, in which crimes of profit and violence dominated. PMID:3793349

  10. A practical guide for the evaluation of sexual recidivism risk in mentally retarded sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Phenix, Amy; Sreenivasan, Shoba

    2009-01-01

    Although sex offender risk assessment has progressed greatly over the past decade and a half since most states implemented the sexually violent predator/sexually dangerous person (SVP/SDP) laws, there continues to be limited applicability of such models to intellectually disabled sex offenders because there has been no empirical validation. However, SVP/SDP civil commitment programs have reported increased admission of developmentally disabled sex offenders. Differentiating sexual deviance, the primary factor predisposing most individuals to criminal sexual violence, from impulsive, immature, and inappropriate behavior stemming from cognitive deficits presents yet another challenge to the clinician tasked with performing such evaluations. This article reviews actuarial risk models and their limited applicability to mentally retarded sex offenders and offers a conceptual method of assessing the risk of recidivism in intellectually disabled sex offenders under SVP/SDP evaluation. PMID:20018999

  11. A longitudinal examination of sex offender recidivism prior to and following the implementation of SORN.

    PubMed

    Tewksbury, Richard; Jennings, Wesley G; Zgoba, Kristen M

    2012-01-01

    The goals of the present study were to examine the recidivism rates of two matched samples of sexual offenders, those released prior to and after sex offender registration and notification (SORN) in New Jersey. The pre-SORN group (1990-1994) included 247 offenders, while the post-SORN group (1996-2000) included 248 offenders. The longitudinal analysis demonstrated that for sex offenders released from prison both prior to and after implementation of SORN, there are clearly two distinguishable groups of sex offenders in relation to patterns of recidivism. More than three-quarters of sex offenders were identified as at low risk of recidivism, with low rates of repeat criminal offenses. By contrast, the high-risk group of offenders was not only more likely to commit future criminal offenses, including sex offenses, but they were also more likely to commit significantly more offenses and to do so fairly quickly following release. Analyses also include an examination of the influence of demographics, substance abuse and mental health issues, treatment history, sex offense incident characteristics, and criminal history on recidivism. Finally, SORN status was not a significant predictor of sex or general recidivism. The study limitations and policy implications are discussed. PMID:21898579

  12. Childhood Abuse and Adolescent Sexual Re-Offending: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallie, Adana L.; Viljoen, Jodi L.; Mordell, Sarah; Spice, Andrew; Roesch, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Recent research indicates that adolescents who have sexually offended are more likely than other adolescents to have a history of sexual and physical abuse. However, it is unclear whether abuse predicts re-offending among these adolescents. To examine this relationship, a meta-analysis was conducted which included 29 effect sizes drawn from 11…

  13. Sex Offender Populations and Clinical Efficacy: A Response to Rosky.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Todd M; Shafer, Kevin; Roby, C Y; Roby, Jini L

    2016-06-01

    We provide a brief response to a commentary submitted by Rosky in which he questions the rationale and methodological merits of our original study about full-disclosure polygraph outcome differences between juvenile and adult sex offenders. At the heart of Rosky's substantive concerns is the premise that only research tying polygraphy outcomes to actual recidivism is useful or worthwhile. He also questions the overall utility and validity of polygraphy. We acknowledge and challenge these two points. Furthermore, many of the methodological concerns expressed by Rosky represent either a misunderstanding of our research question, study design, and sample, or a disregard for the explicit declarations we made with respect to our study limitations. Overall, it appears Rosky has accused us of not answering well a question we were not trying to ask. Our response addresses the key substantive and methodological concerns extended by Rosky and clarifies the actual aims and scope of our original study. We also argue that a calm, rational, and scientific discussion is the best approach to understanding how to improve clinical methods used in sex offender treatment. PMID:25670743

  14. Too close for comfort? Registered sex offender spatial clustering and recidivistic sex crime arrest rates.

    PubMed

    Socia, Kelly M

    2013-12-01

    This study examined whether three measures of the spatial distribution of registered sex offenders (RSOs) in September 2010 were associated with differences in county-level rates of recidivistic sex crime arrests over the following year in 52 upstate New York counties. Results indicate that RSO clustering was positively associated with modest increases of recidivistic sex crime arrest rates, but results were significant only for adult victim sex crimes and only for certain types of RSO clustering. Under no circumstances, however, was increased RSO clustering associated with decreased rates of recidivistic sex crime arrests. The results of this study, combined with the limited prior research, suggest that RSO clustering has only a limited association with recidivistic sex crime arrest rates. This implies that housing policies such as residence restrictions may be useful in mitigating risk from some types of recidivistic sex crimes only to the extent that they result in more equitable distributions of RSOs within a county. PMID:23296093

  15. The proportions of heterosexual and homosexual pedophiles among sex offenders against children: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Freund, K; Watson, R J

    1992-01-01

    Previous investigations have indicated that the ratio of sex offenders against female children vs. offenders against male children is approximately 2:1, while the ratio of gynephiles to androphiles among the general population is approximately 20:1. The present study investigated whether the etiology of preferred partner sex among pedophiles is related to the etiology of preferred partner sex among males preferring adult partners. Using phallometric test sensitivities to calculate the proportion of true pedophiles among various groups of sex offenders against children, and taking into consideration previously reported mean numbers of victims per offender group, the ratio of heterosexual to homosexual pedophiles was calculated to be approximately 11:1. This suggests that the resulting proportion of true pedophiles among persons with a homosexual erotic development is greater than that in persons who develop heterosexually. This, of course, would not indicate that androphilic males have a greater propensity to offend against children. PMID:1556756

  16. Predatory online behavior: modus operandi of convicted sex offenders in identifying potential victims and contacting minors over the internet.

    PubMed

    Malesky, L Alvin

    2007-01-01

    Sex offenders have used the Internet to identify and contact minors for sexual exploitation (Armagh, 1998; Hernandez, 2000; Lamb, 1998; Lanning, 1998). Yet little is known about how these individuals select their online victims. In order to gain a better understanding of this behavior, the online activity of 31 men who perpetrated or attempted to perpetrate contact sex offenses against minors they communicated with via the Internet, was examined. Three-fourths of the participants monitored chat room dialogue and almost one-half reviewed online profiles of minors in an attempt to identify potential victims. Recommendations to increase the online safety of children and adolescents are discussed. PMID:17895230

  17. An exploration of psychopathy in self-report measures among juvenile sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Morrell, Laura M; Burton, David L

    2014-05-01

    Researchers have indicated that adult psychopathy often originates in childhood or adolescence. It has also been established that psychopathic traits are linked to disruptive behavior, criminality, and violence. As knowledge about psychopathy and its manifestations in juvenile sex offender populations remains limited, several instruments have been developed in an effort to measure the construct. In this study, we assessed how the relationship of diverse scales of psychopathy related to characteristics of sexual aggression, and determined which scales were most correlated to sexual and nonsexual delinquency. We utilized four measures of juvenile psychopathy: the Modified Childhood Psychopathy Scale (mCPS; Lynam, 1997), the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD; Frick & Hare, 2001; Frick, O'Brien, Wootton, & McBurnett, 1994), the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI; Millon & Davis, 1993; using two derived psychopathy scales), and the Inventory of Callous and Unemotional (ICU) Traits (Frick, 2003), in a sample of 191 incarcerated adolescent sex offenders located in juvenile detention facilities across a Midwestern state. We found that of the four instruments and seven subscales, only the APSD Narcissism and Impulsivity Scale was significantly correlated to a characteristic of sexual crime (i.e., number of victims, level of crime severity). No subscales were found to predict sexual crime at a significant level. However, several scales were correlated to the total delinquency score as measured by the Self-Reported Delinquency Measure. In a series of multiple regressions, the MACI Factor 2 and ICU total score were determined as the best fit to total nonsexual delinquency. Implications are offered. PMID:23525176

  18. A Quasi-Experimental Evaluation of High-Intensity Inpatient Sex Offender Treatment in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Smid, Wineke J; Kamphuis, Jan H; Wever, Edwin C; Van Beek, Daan J

    2016-08-01

    The current study quasi-experimentally assessed the outcome of high-intensity inpatient sex offender treatment in the Netherlands in terms of sexual and violent (including sexual) recidivism. It was hypothesized that treated sex offenders would show lower recidivism rates than untreated sex offenders of the same risk level. In line with the risk principle of the Risk, Need, Responsivity (RNR) model, we predicted that this would especially hold true for offenders of higher risk levels. The study sample consisted of 25% of all convicted Dutch sex offenders not referred to any form of treatment and discharged from prison between 1996 and 2002, and all convicted Dutch sex offenders referred to inpatient treatment who were discharged between 1996 and 2002. Static-99R risk levels of these 266 offenders were retrospectively assessed and survival curves regarding sexual and violent (including sexual) recidivism were compared between treated and untreated offenders, controlling for level of risk. Mean follow-up was 148.0 months (SD = 29.6) and the base rate of sexual recidivism was 15.0% and 38.4% for violent (including sexual) recidivism. Cox regression survival analyses showed marginally significant lower failure rates regarding sexual recidivism for treated high-risk offenders only, and significantly lower failure rates regarding violent (including sexual recidivism) for treated sex offenders of moderate-high and high-risk levels. No treatment effects for low and low-moderate risk offenders were found. Results underscore the risk principle of the RNR model: Treatment is more effective when its dosage is attuned to risk level. PMID:24867416

  19. Attitudes Toward Juvenile Sex Offender Legislation: The Influence of Case-Specific Information.

    PubMed

    Campregher, Julia; Jeglic, Elizabeth L

    2016-01-01

    This study examined attitudes toward the application of adult sex offender legislation to juvenile sex offenders. Participants were randomly assigned to one of nine conditions. In the generic condition, the participants were asked to envision a generic juvenile sex offender, whereas in the manipulated conditions, participants read a vignette with three manipulated variables: offense type, victim age, and victim gender. Afterward, all participants (n = 978) completed questionnaires assessing perceptions of juvenile sex offenders and juvenile sex offender legislation. Overall, participants in the generic juvenile sex offender condition rated the perpetrator as more dangerous and more likely to reoffend than participants in the experimental conditions. Moreover, participants in the generic juvenile sex offender condition were more likely to endorse more punitive punishments and viewed perpetrators as "superpredators." When examining differences between the experimental conditions, participants reading vignettes with younger victims and male victims as well as vignettes with contact offenses were more likely to view the perpetrator as dangerous, likely to recidivate, as a "superpredator," and deserving of more punitive punishments. Implications for public policy as well as future research directions are discussed. PMID:27266540

  20. Catch me if you can: an analysis of fugitive sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Jill S; Ackerman, Alissa R; Harris, Andrew J

    2014-04-01

    The presumed dangers presented by sex offenders who have absconded from authorities have played a prominent role in public discourse surrounding state and federal sex offender management policy. The current study is the first to empirically investigate the characteristics of absconded sex offenders and explore how this group compares to other groups of sex offenders. Utilizing data from the Florida sex offender registry (N = 23,557), this exploratory study compares the characteristics and risk factors of absconders with those of compliant and noncompliant (nonabsconding) registrants as well as with those with convictions for failure to register (FTR). Absconders, as a group, were less likely than compliant registrants to be listed as predators, and less likely than both compliants and noncompliants to have a minor victim or to be a repeat sex offender. Absconders were also least likely to have a prior FTR conviction, but those with a previous FTR conviction were more likely to abscond from registration than probation. The findings fail to support the hypothesis that fugitive sex offenders are more sexually dangerous (especially to children), and suggest a multitude of explanations for absconding. PMID:23567471

  1. An ecological process model of female sex offending: the role of victimization, psychological distress, and life stressors.

    PubMed

    DeCou, Christopher R; Cole, Trevor T; Rowland, Sarah E; Kaplan, Stephanie P; Lynch, Shannon M

    2015-06-01

    Female sex offenders may be implicated in up to one fifth of all sex crimes committed in the United States. Despite previous research findings that suggest unique patterns of offending among female sex offenders, limited empirical research has investigated the motivations and processes involved. The present study qualitatively examined female sex offenders' offense-related experiences and characterized the internal and external factors that contributed to offending. Semi-structured interviews with 24 female sex offenders were analyzed by a team of coders with limited exposure to the existing literature using grounded theory analysis. A conceptual framework emerged representing distinctive processes for solo- and co-offending, contextualized within ecological layers of social and environmental influence. This model extends previous work by offering an example of nested vulnerabilities proximal to female sexual offending. Implications for future research, prevention, and treatment are discussed. PMID:25413945

  2. Age, actuarial risk, and long-term recidivism in a national sample of sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Nicholaichuk, Terry P; Olver, Mark E; Gu, Deqiang; Wong, Stephen C P

    2014-10-01

    Age at release has become an increasing focus of study with regard to evaluating risk in the sex offender population and has been repeatedly shown to be an important component of the risk assessment equation. This study constitutes an extension of a study of sex offender outcomes prepared for the Evaluation Branch, Correctional Service of Canada. The entire cohort of 2,401 male federally incarcerated sexual offenders who reached their warrant expiry date (WED) within 1997/1998, 1998/1999, and 1999/2000 fiscal years were reviewed for the study. Sexual and violent reconviction information was obtained from CPIC criminal records over an average of 12.0 years (SD = 1.7) follow-up. This study focused upon the cohort of sex offenders who were 50 years or older at time of release (N = 542). They were stratified according to risk using a brief actuarial scale (BARS) comprising six binary variables. For the most part, older offenders showed low base rates of sexual recidivism regardless of the risk band into which they fell. The exception was a small group of elderly offenders (n = 20) who fell into the highest risk band, and who showed high levels of sexual recidivism. The results of this combination of cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of elderly sexual offenders may have important implications for offender management, particularly in light of the increasing numbers of offenders in Canada who fall into the over 50 age cohort. PMID:23818657

  3. What makes sex offenders confess? An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Faller, K C; Birdsall, W C; Henry, J; Vandervort, F; Silverschanz, P

    2001-01-01

    This study examines correlates of offender confession in criminal sexual conduct cases involving children. The cases consist of all closed court files (N=318), spanning the last 10 years from a single jurisdiction. This jurisdiction has a community-wide protocol for handling child sexual abuse cases, a high rate of charging (69%), a high rate of confession (64%), and high rates of pleas to sex crimes (77%). To determine what factors were associated with suspect confession before adjudication, we examined characteristics of the suspect, the child, the abuse, and the system using bi-variate and multi-variate analysis. The following four variables are associated with suspect confession: (1) having the state police conducting the law enforcement part of the investigation, (2) more serious abuse, (3) younger age of the suspect, and (4) having a court appointed (as opposed to a retained) attorney. PMID:16221625

  4. Predictors of the sex offender civil commitment trial outcomes in New York State.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yunmei; Freeman, Naomi J; Sandler, Jeffrey C

    2015-10-01

    The present study analyzed sex offender civil management (i.e., civil commitment) legal proceedings in New York State and identified factors that predict trial results. Specifically, the current study compared a sample of 38 sex offenders who were released to the community after winning their civil management trials to 183 sex offenders who lost their civil management trials. Additionally, for the 183 sex offenders who lost their civil management trials, the current study compared 146 offenders who were ordered to inpatient civil commitment to 37 offenders who were deemed fit for civil management in the community. Results of the analyses indicated that sexual criminality, sexual deviance, and criminality involving child victims increased the likelihood of offenders both losing their civil management trial and being found to be in need of inpatient care, while the presence of variables associated with nonsexual criminality increased the likelihood of offenders both winning their civil management trials and being deemed fit for management in the community. The findings of this study provide guidance for psychiatric examiners who testify in civil management legal proceedings, as well as for legal professionals specializing in civil management cases. PMID:26076118

  5. The Relationship between Childhood Abuse, Psychological Symptoms and Subsequent Sex Offending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Childhood sexual and physical abuse has been related to subsequent offending behaviour in non-disabled individuals as well as people with intellectual disabilities, but there is a dearth of research examining the link between these two characteristics and psychological, behavioural and psychiatric symptoms amongst sex offenders with…

  6. Quality of Life and Relationships in Sex Offenders with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steptoe, Lesley; Lindsay, William R.; Forrest, Diane; Power, Mick

    2006-01-01

    Background: Hayes (1991) and Day (1994) have developed hypotheses about the importance of social and developmental variables in the aetiology of sexual offences in offenders with intellectual disability. The present study is the first of its kind to investigate the perceived quality of life and relationships of sex offenders in comparison to an…

  7. Further Investigation of Findings Reported for the Minnesota Sex Offender Screening Tool--Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langton, Calvin M.; Barbaree, Howard E.; Harkins, Leigh; Peacock, Edward J.; Arenovich, Tamara

    2008-01-01

    Among a number of widely used risk assessment instruments with adult sexual offenders, the Minnesota Sex Offender Screening Tool-Revised (MnSOST-R) has been subject to relatively few evaluation studies. Only two independent research groups have published replication studies in the peer-reviewed literature with data not provided by the MnSOST-R's…

  8. The Public Safety Impact of Community Notification Laws: Rearrest of Convicted Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Naomi J.

    2012-01-01

    Sex offender management is one of the highest-profile issues in public safety today. Although states have enacted community notification laws as a means to protect communities from sexual offending, limited research has been conducted to examine the impact of these laws on public safety. As such, this study used a quasi-experimental design to…

  9. Post-release controls for sex offenders in the U.S. and UK.

    PubMed

    Lieb, Roxanne; Kemshall, Hazel; Thomas, Terry

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, both the United States and United Kingdom have developed numerous innovations in legal efforts to protect society from sex offenders. Each country has adopted special provisions for sex offenders. In particular, governments have focused on forms of social control after release from incarceration and probation. These policy innovations for this category of offenders have been more far reaching than those for any other offender population. The two jurisdictions have adopted policies with similar goals, but the selected strategies have important differences. Generally speaking, the U.S. has favored an ever-expanding set of policies that place sex offenders into broad categories, with few opportunities that distinguish the appropriate responses for individual offenders. The UK government observed the proliferation of Megan's Laws(1) in the U.S., and deliberately chose to establish carefully controlled releases of information, primarily relying on governmental agencies to work in multi-disciplinary groups and make case-specific decisions about individual offenders. Although the UK policy leaders expressed significant concern that the public's response to knowing about identified sex offenders living in the community would result in vigilantism, to date the results have not borne out this fear. Both governments have turned to other crime control measures such as polygraphy testing, electronic monitoring, and civil protection orders as a means to prevent further sexual violence. PMID:21555154

  10. Comparisons of Sex Offenders with Non-Offenders on Attitudes Toward Masturbation and Female Fantasy as Related to Participation in Human Sexuality Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotten-Hustan, Annie L.

    1983-01-01

    Examined the effects of sexuality classes on 23 sex offenders and 28 college students. Results showed that compared to controls, participants had more positive attitudes toward masturbation and a disgust of perverse fantasies about women, suggesting human sexuality education may be useful in preventing sex offenses and rehabilitating offenders.…

  11. Appraising the risk matrix 2000 static sex offender risk assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Tully, Ruth J; Browne, Kevin D

    2015-02-01

    This critical appraisal explores the reliability and validity of the Risk Matrix 2000 static sex offender risk assessment tool that is widely used in the United Kingdom. The Risk Matrix 2000 has to some extent been empirically validated for use with adult male sex offenders; however, this review highlights that further research into the validity of this static tool with sex offender subgroups or types is necessary in order to improve practical utility. The Risk Matrix 2000 relies on static risk predictors, thus it is limited in scope. This article argues that the addition of dynamic items that have been shown to be predictive of sexual recidivism would further enhance the tool. The paper argues that adding dynamic risk items would fit better with a rehabilitative approach to sex offender risk management and assessment. This would also provide a means by which to effectively plan sex offender treatment and evaluate individual offenders' progress in treatment; however, difficulties remain in identifying and assessing dynamic risk factors of sexual offending and so further research is required. PMID:24146356

  12. Patterns of exposure to sexually explicit material among sex offenders, child molesters, and controls.

    PubMed

    Nutter, D E; Kearns, M E

    1993-01-01

    The Meese Commission Report claimed exposure to sexually explicit material leads to sex offenses and recommended examining developmental patterns and pornography experiences of offenders. This second phase of our study examines developmental patterns and sexually explicit material experiences of sex offenders, a subgroup of child molesters, and controls. Results indicate sex offenders (but not the child molester subgroup) began masturbating at a significantly younger age than controls. Sexually explicit material was used during the first masturbatory experience of 33.3% of sex offenders and 14% of controls. Child molesters were significantly older than controls when exposed to sexually explicit material. Frequency of adult use of sexually explicit material does not differ significantly among groups. PMID:8468712

  13. Victimization and Violent Offending: An Assessment of the Victim-Offender Overlap Among Native American Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Reingle, Jennifer M.; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate the victim–offender overlap among a nationally representative sample of Native American adolescents and young adults. Data for this study were obtained from 338 Native American youth who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) Waves I-IV. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to estimate trajectories of violence and victimization separately. Bivariate tests were used to assess the overlap between victimization and violent trajectory groups. Multinomial regression procedures were used to assess the predictors of victimization, offending, and the overlap category of both victimization and offending. Three trajectory groups were found for violence (nonviolent, escalators, and desistors) and victimization (nonvictim, decreasing victimization, and increasing victimization). We found substantial evidence of an overlap between victimization and offending among Native Americans, as 27.5% of the sample reported both victimization and offending. Those in the overlap group had greater number of risk factors present at baseline. These results suggest that the victim–offender overlap is present in Native American adolescents. Explanations and implications are discussed. PMID:24078778

  14. Stumbling into sexual crime: the passive perpetrator in accounts by male internet sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Winder, Belinda; Gough, Brendan; Seymour-Smith, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Public reactions to internet child offending remain ambivalent in that, while there is vocal condemnation of contact child sex offending, there is less indignation about internet child abuse. This is potentially due to a lack of recognition of this type of offence as sexual offending per se. This ambiguity is reflected by internet sex offenders themselves in their verbalizations of their offending. This article presents a qualitative analysis of the accounts offered by seven individuals convicted of internet-based sexual offences involving the downloading and viewing of images of children. In particular, this article presents an analysis of the explanations of offenders for the commencement of internet activity and the progression to more illicit online materials. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using discursive methods, paying close attention to language use and function. The analysis documented the practices that internet child abusers employed in order to manage their identities, distance themselves from the label of sex offender, and/or reduce their personal agency and accountability. Implications of this analysis are discussed with reference to the current minimization of the downloading of sexually explicit images of children as a sexual crime per se by the public and offenders alike and the risk assessment and treatment of individuals convicted of these offences. PMID:24917484

  15. Recent research related to juvenile sex offending: findings and directions for further research.

    PubMed

    Malin, H Martin; Saleh, Fabian M; Grudzinskas, Albert J

    2014-04-01

    Serious scholarly inquiry into juvenile sex offending represents a relatively new field, dating from the mid 1940s. During the next 4 decades, a mere handful of articles exploring aspects of juvenile sex offending were added to the available literature. By the 1980s, however, the literature began to increase rapidly, a trend that continues today. The purpose of this article is a focused review of the juvenile sex offender literature cited in PubMed over the last 5 years (2009-2013). The authors have chosen studies that will bring readers up to date on research they believe impacts our current understanding of best practices in the management of juvenile sex offending. For convenience, our review is organized into topical categories including research into characteristics and typologies of juvenile sex offenders, risk assessment and recidivism, assessment and treatment, the ongoing debate about mandatory registration of sex offenders as it applies to juveniles, and other thought provoking studies that do not fit neatly into the aforementioned categories. The studies included contain findings that both reinforce and challenge currently held notions about best practices concerning treatment and public policy, suggesting that our knowledge of the field continues to evolve in important ways. PMID:24562765

  16. Acculturation and Enculturation Trajectories Among Mexican-American Adolescent Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Knight, George P.; Vargas-Chanes, Delfino; Losoya, Sandra H.; Cota-Robles, Sonia; Chassin, Laurie; Lee, Joanna M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines changes over time in ethnic affirmation/belonging and ethnic identity achievement, Spanish language use, English language use, Mexican/Mexican-American affiliation/identification and Anglo affiliation/identification in a sample of Mexican-American adolescents participating in a longitudinal study of juvenile offenders. The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure and the Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans-II were completed by the Mexican-American adolescents 7 times over a 3-year period. The findings from longitudinal growth modeling analyses and growth mixture modeling analyses indicate that there is heterogeneity in the initial scores and changes over time on these variables that are related to markers for the cultural qualities of the home environment (i.e., generational status and mother’s most frequent language use). In contrast to expectations, marginalized or assimilated acculturation trajectories/types were not overrepresented in this sample of adolescent offenders. Implications for our understanding of the nature of acculturation and enculturation processes and the way these processes are studied are discussed. PMID:20300539

  17. Acculturation and Enculturation Trajectories Among Mexican-American Adolescent Offenders.

    PubMed

    Knight, George P; Vargas-Chanes, Delfino; Losoya, Sandra H; Cota-Robles, Sonia; Chassin, Laurie; Lee, Joanna M

    2009-12-01

    This study examines changes over time in ethnic affirmation/belonging and ethnic identity achievement, Spanish language use, English language use, Mexican/Mexican-American affiliation/identification and Anglo affiliation/identification in a sample of Mexican-American adolescents participating in a longitudinal study of juvenile offenders. The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure and the Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans-II were completed by the Mexican-American adolescents 7 times over a 3-year period. The findings from longitudinal growth modeling analyses and growth mixture modeling analyses indicate that there is heterogeneity in the initial scores and changes over time on these variables that are related to markers for the cultural qualities of the home environment (i.e., generational status and mother's most frequent language use). In contrast to expectations, marginalized or assimilated acculturation trajectories/types were not overrepresented in this sample of adolescent offenders. Implications for our understanding of the nature of acculturation and enculturation processes and the way these processes are studied are discussed. PMID:20300539

  18. Treatment of adolescent sexual offenders: theory-based practice.

    PubMed

    Sermabeikian, P; Martinez, D

    1994-11-01

    The treatment of adolescent sexual offenders (ASO) has its theoretical underpinnings in social learning theory. Although social learning theory has been frequently cited in literature, a comprehensive application of this theory, as applied to practice, has not been mapped out. The social learning and social cognitive theories of Bandura appear to be particularly relevant to the group treatment of this population. The application of these theories to practice, as demonstrated in a program model, is discussed as a means of demonstrating how theory-driven practice methods can be developed. PMID:7850605

  19. Adolescents, sex, and the media.

    PubMed

    Strasburger, Victor C

    2012-04-01

    In the absence of effective sex education in the United States, the media have arguably become the leading sex educator for children and teenagers. Considerable research now exists that attests to the ability of the media to influence adolescents' attitudes and beliefs about sex and sexuality. In addition, new research has found a significant link between exposure to sexual content in the media and earlier onset of sexual intercourse. Although there is little research on the behavioral effects of "new" media, they are discussed as well. Suggestions for clinicians, parents, the federal government, and the entertainment industry are provided. PMID:22764553

  20. What Keeps Them Together? Insights into Sex Offender Couples Using Qualitative Content Analyses.

    PubMed

    Iffland, J A; Berner, W; Dekker, A; Briken, P

    2016-08-17

    Research on sex offenders' relationships is scarce. The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate sex offenders' relationships as well as their female partners' adjustment strategies by means of interview analysis. Both partners profit from the relationship in terms of mutual support and acceptance. The sexual offense is a taboo subject, and the female partners were found to demonstrate cognitive distortions. The imbalance of power found in the sex offenders' relationships is discussed, as is the finding that those sexual offenders interviewed live out their need for dominance and sometimes their aggression. The women interviewed were found to cling to their partners as a result of their insecure attachment style. We discuss couples counseling and therapy as possibilities for addressing the imbalance of power and casting light upon the sexual aspect of the relationship. PMID:26280194

  1. Adverse Childhood Experiences in the Lives of Male Sex Offenders: Implications for Trauma-Informed Care.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Jill S; Willis, Gwenda M; Prescott, David S

    2016-06-01

    This study explored the prevalence of childhood trauma in a sample of male sexual offenders (N = 679) using the Adverse Childhood Experience (ACE) scale. Compared with males in the general population, sex offenders had more than 3 times the odds of child sexual abuse (CSA), nearly twice the odds of physical abuse, 13 times the odds of verbal abuse, and more than 4 times the odds of emotional neglect and coming from a broken home. Less than 16% endorsed zero ACEs and nearly half endorsed four or more. Multiple maltreatments often co-occurred with other types of household dysfunction, suggesting that many sex offenders were raised within a disordered social environment. Higher ACE scores were associated with higher risk scores. By enhancing our understanding of the frequency and correlates of early adverse experiences, we can better devise trauma-informed interventions that respond to the clinical needs of sex offender clients. PMID:24872347

  2. The impact of prison-based treatment on sex offender recidivism: evidence from Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Duwe, Grant; Goldman, Robin A

    2009-09-01

    Using a retrospective quasi-experimental design, this study evaluates the effectiveness of prison-based treatment by examining recidivism outcomes among 2,040 sex offenders released from Minnesota prisons between 1990 and 2003 (average follow-up period of 9.3 years). To reduce observed selection bias, the authors used propensity score matching to create a comparison group of 1,020 untreated sex offenders who were not significantly different from the 1,020 treated offenders. In addition, intent-to-treat analyses and the Rosenbaum bounds method were used to test the sensitivity of the findings to treatment refuser and unobserved selection bias. Results from the Cox regression analyses revealed that participating in treatment significantly reduced the hazard ratio for rearrest by 27% for sexual recidivism, 18% for violent recidivism, and 12% for general recidivism. These findings are consistent with the growing body of research supporting the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral treatment for sex offenders. PMID:19531811

  3. Lifetime criminal history of sex offenders seen for psychological assessment in five decades.

    PubMed

    Langevin, Ron; Curnoe, Suzanne

    2012-10-01

    A sample of 2,190 sex offenders seen between 1966 and 2009 was compared on lifetime sexual and all offending, using charges, convictions, court appearances, and self-report as criteria. Of these various criteria, between 47.4% and 81.1% reoffended. Canadian child abuse reporting laws, which came into effect in the 1980s, were associated with increased charges and convictions for offenders, who victimized children, and with a reduction in their longer term reoffense rates. Immigration and population mobility, use of aliases, study follow-up time, and self-reported undetected sex crimes influenced reoffense rates. Results indicate that sex offenders continued to have short prison sentences and/or spend little or no time incarcerated during the latter part of the 20th century. PMID:21862525

  4. An empirical assessment of the overlap between sexual victimization and sex offending.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Wesley G; Zgoba, Kristen M; Maschi, Tina; Reingle, Jennifer M

    2014-12-01

    There has been a recent proliferation in the number of studies that are investigating the phenomenon that has been coined the victim-offender overlap. There has been noticeably less attention toward examining the sexual victimization and sex offending overlap. Acknowledging this gap in the literature, the present study provides an assessment of this overlap among a large sample of male prisoners with a focus on the cycle of violence hypothesis. Bivariate results reveal a considerable degree of overlap between sexual victimization and sex offending, and multivariate results estimated from a series of bivariate probit models simultaneously assessing both outcomes suggest that experiencing emotional abuse early on in the life-course is a robust risk factor for experiencing sexual victimization and demonstrating sex offending behavior. Furthermore, being physically neglected and witnessing family violence also emerged as significant risk factors for sexual victimization. Study limitations and policy implications are also discussed. PMID:23864522

  5. A Comparative Study of Two Groups of Sex Offenders Identified as High and Low Risk on the Static-99

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coxe, Ray; Holmes, William

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify possible differences between high- and low-risk sex offenders. The subjects included 285 sex offenders on probation. They were evaluated with the Static-99, Abel Assessment, Raven's, and MMPI-2. A criminal history review identified the number of prior offenses and the age/sex category in the index offense.…

  6. Predictors of recidivism in Australian juvenile sex offenders: implications for treatment.

    PubMed

    Kenny, D T; Keogh, T; Seidler, K

    2001-04-01

    Juvenile sex offenders charged with their first sexual offense were compared with recidivist juvenile sex offenders who had been charged with more than one sexual offense on a number of factors related to sexual offending. Participants were 70 male juvenile sex offenders, aged 13-21 years who were awaiting court disposition. Negative family history, negative family characteristics, school and learning problems, social skill deficits, deviant sexual experiences, deviant sexual fantasies, and cognitive distortions were assessed for their direct and mediating roles in recidivism. Path analysis indicated that poor social skills, learning problems, and deviant sexual experiences were causally related to recidivism of sexual offending. Poor social skills were directly related to recidivism, whereas cognitive distortions and deviant sexual fantasies mediated the role of learning problems and deviant sexual experiences. There was a significant association between deviant sexual experience and learning problems. The findings support the role of cognitive distortions and deviant sexual fantasies in recidivist sexual offending for this sample. The causal role identified for poor social skills and learning problems in recidivism for sexual offending has implications for treatment and therefore deserves further attention. PMID:11294124

  7. Sex differences in predictors of violent and non-violent juvenile offending.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Zoe; Woodhams, Jessica; Cooke, Claire

    2014-01-01

    In response to concerns regarding the rise in female juvenile violent crime and the dearth of gender-specific research, this study aimed to identify predictors of violent offending in female offenders. Data were extracted from risk assessments of 586 male and female juvenile offenders (aged 11-17 years) conducted between 2005 and 2009 by the Youth Offending Service in Gloucestershire, an English county. Information regarding the young people's living arrangements, family and personal relationships, education, emotional/mental health, thinking and behavior, and attitudes to offending was recorded. Comparisons were made between the violent male offenders (N = 185), the violent female offenders (N = 113), the non-violent male offenders (N = 150), and the non-violent female offenders (N = 138) for these variables. These were followed by a multinomial logistic regression analysis. The findings indicated that engaging in self-harm was the best predictor of being a female violent offender, with the predictors of giving into pressure from others and attempted suicide nearing significance. Furthermore, non-violent females were significantly less likely to lose control of their temper and more likely to give in to pressure from others than their violent counterparts. Non-violent males were significantly less likely to lose control of their temper and more likely to self-harm and give in to pressure from others than violent males. Although many similarities existed between sexes for predictors of violent offending, the findings of this study indicate that more attention needs to be paid to the mental health of female offenders. PMID:24014192

  8. A geospatial analysis of the impact of sex offender residency restrictions in two New York counties.

    PubMed

    Berenson, Jacqueline A; Appelbaum, Paul S

    2011-06-01

    The efficacy of sex offender residence restriction laws in enhancing public safety is controversial and further complicated by evidence that adverse collateral effects may negate or even outweigh whatever benefits they achieve. Based on the theory of "distance decay" that postulates that offenders are more likely to recidivate closer to home, the statutes seek to distance offenders from potential child victims. However, to the extent that such statutes preclude residence in large portions of covered jurisdictions, it has been argued that they contribute to social instability, relegation of offenders to rural or undesirable locations, and even homelessness. A small number of studies have demonstrated the impact of restrictions on residential availability and compliance with the laws, but methodologic issues make it difficult to compare findings. This study uses parcel geocoding, a computerized mapping method, to examine the impact of the sex offender residency restrictions enacted in Erie and Schenectady Counties, NY. Identification and mapping of restricted locations revealed that in nonurban areas, available residential locations were drastically reduced by the restrictions (89.46% and 73.16% restricted in the two counties) and in urban areas almost completely eliminated (95.45% and 97.21%). Unexpectedly, however, when the registered sex offenders in each county were matched to their addresses in the state database, analysis revealed that residence restrictions had no demonstrable effect on where offenders live. More than 85% of offenders in each of the counties were found living in the urban centers, the vast majority of whom (91.89% and 100%) were matched to addresses in restricted locations. These findings may have important policy and procedural implications in the creation and enforcement of sex offender statutes, as well as in the evaluation of those presently in place. PMID:20549319

  9. Interrogations, confessions, and adolescent offenders' perceptions of the legal system.

    PubMed

    Arndorfer, Andrea; Malloy, Lindsay C; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    The potential consequences of interrogations and false confessions have been discussed primarily in terms of the risk for wrongful conviction, especially among adolescents and other vulnerable populations. However, it is possible that such experiences influence adolescents' perceptions of the legal system more generally. In the present study, we examined whether incarcerated male juvenile offenders' (n = 193) perceptions of police and the courts were related to their confession and interrogation experiences. High-pressure interrogation experiences and self-reported false confessions to police were associated with more negative perceptions of police. However, self-reported true confessions were not significantly associated with youths' perceptions of the police. Neither interrogation nor confession experiences (true or false) were related to youths' perceptions of the courts. Results provide additional support for policy reform of interrogation practices with young suspects. A more developmentally appropriate approach to criminal interrogations with youth may simultaneously improve police-youth relations and protect vulnerable suspects in the interrogation room. PMID:26011040

  10. Beyond Static and Dynamic Risk Factors: The Incremental Validity of Release Planning for Predicting Sex Offender Recidivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scoones, Carwyn D.; Willis, Gwenda M.; Grace, Randolph C.

    2012-01-01

    Both desistance research and strengths-based approaches to offender rehabilitation suggest that attempts to reduce sex offender recidivism should attend to an offender's release environment. Recent research has demonstrated that better quality release planning is associated with reduced recidivism; however, whether release planning contributes…

  11. Interpreting Child Sexual Abuse: Empathy and Offense-Supportive Cognitions among Child Sex Offenders.

    PubMed

    Hempel, Inge Sarah; Buck, Nicole Maria Leonarda; van Vugt, Eveline Stefanie; van Marle, Hjalmar Johan Carel

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that child sex offenders hold distorted views on social interactions with children. Misinterpreting children's behavior and intentions could lead to sexually abusive behavior toward children. It is further suggested that the interpretation process is influenced by offenders' offense-supportive cognitions and levels of empathy. To examine the relationships between these three concepts, 47 contact offenders completed self-reports on offense-supportive cognitions and empathy. Vignettes were developed to assess the extent to which offenders attributed responsibility, benefit, and complicity to children in hypothetical child molestation incidents. This study showed that cognitions that justify sexual offending against children seem to diminish the threshold for sexual assault by assigning more cooperation and willingness of the victim in a child molestation incident. PMID:26061021

  12. Self-Reported Sexual Assault in Convicted Sex Offenders and Community Men

    PubMed Central

    Widman, Laura; Olson, Michael A.; Bolen, Rebecca M.

    2013-01-01

    Although self-reported sexual assault perpetrated by men against women has been well documented among college men, less is known about self-reported perpetration among convicted sex offenders and community men. This study provides unique descriptive and comparative information on sexual assaults in these understudied populations. Participants were 40 convicted sex offenders and 49 demographically-comparable community men who completed the Sexual Experiences Survey (SES; Abbey, Parkhill, & Koss, 2005; Koss, Gidycz, & Wisniewski, 1987) and other surveys to capture the promiscous sex and hostile masculinity pathways posited by the confluence model (Malamuth, 2003). We found notably few differences between sex offenders and community men in the rate and severity of sexual assault perpetration and the tactics used to obtain unwanted sexual contact. Specifically, 68% of sex offenders and 59% of community men acknowledged they had perpetrated sexual assault. Both groups used guilt and anger as the most frequent tactics to obtain unwanted sexual activity from their female victims. Consistent with the confluence model, an impersonal orientation towards sexual relationships was associated with sexual assault for both sex offenders and community men. Future directions for research on sexual assault perpetration and violence prevention efforts are discussed in light of these findings. PMID:23262829

  13. Adolescent delinquency and antisocial tendencies as precursors to adult violent offending: a prospective study of a representative sample of swiss men.

    PubMed

    Laubacher, Arja; Rossegger, Astrid; Endrass, Jérôme; Angst, Jules; Urbaniok, Frank; Vetter, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Studies on adult sex and violent offenders have found high rates of adolescent delinquency, while early delinquency has been shown to be significantly associated with adult offending. The examined subsample (n = 123) of a longitudinal prospective study (n = 6,315) includes all men who at the age of 19 had an entry in the criminal records. During the observation period of 34 years, 68.3% of the sample had been reconvicted as adults, 23.6% for violent or sex offenses. The odds of adult sex or violent offending were 2.8 times higher for those who had committed a violent offense in adolescence and 1.05 times higher for any offense committed before the age of 19. The characteristics of criminal history showed the highest discriminative values (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.61-0.65). The most important finding of this study was that characteristics of adolescent delinquency predicted adult violent or sex offending, whereas socioeconomic and psychiatric characteristics did not. PMID:23486754

  14. Outcomes in a community sex offender treatment program: a comparison between polygraphed and matched non-polygraphed offenders.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Robert J; Cumming, Georgia F; Hoke, Stephen E; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2007-12-01

    This study compared a group of 104 adult male sex offenders who received community cognitive-behavioral treatment, correctional supervision, and periodic polygraph compliance exams with a matched group of 104 sex offenders who received the same type of treatment and supervision services but no polygraph exams. Polygraph exams focused on whether participants were following their conditions of community supervision and treatment and had avoided committing new sexual offenses. The two groups were exact pair-wise matched on three variables: (1) Static-99 risk score (Hanson & Thornton 2000, Law and Human Behavior, 24, 119-136), (2) status as a completer of prison sex offender treatment, and (3) date placed in the community. At fixed 5-year follow-up periods, the number of individuals in the polygraph group charged with committing a new non-sexual violent offense was significantly lower than in the no polygraph group (2.9% versus 11.5%). However, there were no significant between-group differences for the number of individuals charged for new sexual (5.8% versus 6.7%), any sexual or violent (8.7% versus 16.3%), or any criminal offense (39.4% versus 34.6%). The results are discussed in terms of their clinical and research implications. PMID:17914673

  15. Family or Caregiver Instability, Parental Attachment, and the Relationship to Juvenile Sex Offending.

    PubMed

    Felizzi, Marc V

    2015-01-01

    A violent or unstable home life-characterized by caregivers physically or sexually abusing children, physical violence in the home, homelessness, and other factors-and disrupted parental attachment are examined in this secondary data analysis for their possible relationship to juvenile sex offending. Parent or caregiver instability is measured by a demographic questionnaire administered to participants. Parental attachment is measured by the Inventory of Peer and Personal Attachment. The population included 502 adjudicated juvenile male sexual and nonsexual offenders in a Midwest state who responded to questionnaires in order to examine juvenile offending antecedents. The highest correlated parent or caregiver instability variables to juvenile sex offending status were multiple relocations or homelessness, children placed out of the home, slapping or punching in the home, and sexual abuse victimization. The quality of parental attachment had little impact on the respondents' offense status. PMID:26340072

  16. A Prospective Analysis of Juvenile Male Sex Offenders: Characteristics and Recidivism Rates as Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandiver, Donna M.

    2006-01-01

    This research assesses the recidivism rates of a sample of 300 registered male sex offenders who were juveniles at the time of their initial arrest for a sex offense. This sample is followed for 3 to 6 years after they reached adulthood; recidivism rates are assessed during their adulthood only. The typical juvenile is a 15-year-old Caucasian male…

  17. An Offender Typology Based upon Psychoeducational Needs: A Collaborative Climate for Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Mindy; Schafer, Mary Ann

    This study developed a classification model for matching appropriate psychoeducational interventions with specific groups of adolescent sexual offenders. Participants were male juvenile sex offenders incarcerated as wards in the Continuum of Care Sex Offender Treatment Program of the California Department of Corrections. The treatment provided…

  18. High-risk sex offenders may not be high risk forever.

    PubMed

    Hanson, R Karl; Harris, Andrew J R; Helmus, Leslie; Thornton, David

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the extent to which sexual offenders present an enduring risk for sexual recidivism over a 20-year follow-up period. Using an aggregated sample of 7,740 sexual offenders from 21 samples, the yearly recidivism rates were calculated using survival analysis. Overall, the risk of sexual recidivism was highest during the first few years after release, and decreased substantially the longer individuals remained sex offense-free in the community. This pattern was particularly strong for the high-risk sexual offenders (defined by Static-99R scores). Whereas the 5-year sexual recidivism rate for high-risk sex offenders was 22% from the time of release, this rate decreased to 4.2% for the offenders in the same static risk category who remained offense-free in the community for 10 years. The recidivism rates of the low-risk offenders were consistently low (1%-5%) for all time periods. The results suggest that offense history is a valid, but time-dependent, indicator of the propensity to sexually reoffend. Further research is needed to explain the substantial rate of desistance by high-risk sexual offenders. PMID:24664250

  19. Sex Differences in Adolescent Reactions Toward Newcomers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feshbach, Norma; Sones, Gittelle

    Reactions of male and female adolescent pairs to a same sex newcomer were observed as a means of assessing sex differences in indirect aggressive behaviors. Following a problem solving session, the group members rated each other's personality. Adolescent girls made less favorable judgments of the newcomer than did adolescent boys. In addition, on…

  20. Offending Behaviours of Child and Adolescent Firesetters over a 10-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambie, Ian; Ioane, Julia; Randell, Isabel; Seymour, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Background: To assess the postintervention arson recidivism and other offending rates of a group of 182 firesetting children and adolescents referred to the New Zealand Fire Awareness and Intervention Program (FAIP) over a follow-up period of 10 years. To investigate predictors of offending behaviour as well as variables associated with previous…

  1. Polish project of a Sex Offenders Registry - a mental health professionals' perspective.

    PubMed

    Szumski, Filip; Kasparek, Krzysztof; Gierowski, Józef Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses the governmental draft of the Act on counteracting threats of sexual offences. It assumes the creation of the Registry of Sex Offenders in a version with a limited access and a version available to the public. The registry is supplemented with a publically available map of sexual crime threats, which includes the places of sexual offences and the places of residence of offenders. Criticising the proposed solutions, the authors point out the lack of integration with other interventions conducted in Poland against sex offenders, noncompliance with the recommendations of the most important expert circles in the field, as well as the research results showing the lack of effectiveness of the planned measures to reduce sexual offences. Anumber of negative consequences of making the sex offenders'data available to the public was also highlighted in the form of a clear deterioration of social rehabilitation prognoses, additional stigmatisation, as well as social exclusion of the offenders themselves and the victims of sexual violence. The summary emphasises the need to counteract the problem of sexual offences in a systematic way and the need to diversify the interventions undertaken against the offenders, depending on the level of risk of sexual recidivism. PMID:27556108

  2. Risk and the preventive detention of sex offenders in Australia and the United States.

    PubMed

    Mercado, Cynthia Calkins; Ogloff, James R P

    2007-01-01

    The development of recent statutory schemes, in both the United States and Australia, aim to keep the most dangerous sex offenders detained beyond the expiration of their prison sentence. In Kansas v. Hendricks (1997), the United States Supreme Court found constitutional Sexually Violent Predator (SVP) legislation that allows for the post-sentence, indefinite civil commitment of a subclass of dangerous offenders. More recently, the Australian High Court in Attorney-General (Qld) v. Fardon (2004) similarly upheld the constitutionality of Queensland's Dangerous Prisoners (Sexual Offenders) Act (2003), which allows for the post-sentence preventive detention of sex offenders deemed to be at high risk of serious sexual recidivism. Because an evaluation of a sex offender's likelihood of re-offending is fundamental to these schemes, this article provides an overview of recent advances in the risk assessment literature, discussing base rates of sexual recidivism, the identification of empirically validated risk factors, and the utility of structured risk assessment tools. Although it is recommended that risk assessment measures be utilized to assist the courts in making sound decisions about commitment, the limits of current research knowledge and areas of future research need are discussed. PMID:17157911

  3. A comparison of modified versions of the Static-99 and the Sex Offender Risk Appraisal Guide.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Kevin L; Firestone, Philip; Bradford, John M; Greenberg, David M; Broom, Ian

    2002-07-01

    The predictive validity of 2 risk assessment instruments for sex offenders, modified versions of the Static-99 and the Sex Offender Risk Appraisal Guide, was examined and compared in a sample of 258 adult male sex offenders. In addition, the independent contributions to the prediction of recidivism made by each instrument and by various phallometric indices were explored. Both instruments demonstrated moderate levels of predictive accuracy for sexual and violent (including sexual) recidivism. They were not significantly different in terms of their predictive accuracy for sexual or violent recidivism, nor did they contribute independently to the prediction of sexual or violent recidivism. Of the phallometric indices examined, only the pedophile index added significantly to the prediction of sexual recidivism, but not violent recidivism, above the Static-99 alone. PMID:12087686

  4. The Empathy Index: An Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of a New Empathy Measure for Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, Melissa D.; Rose, Roderick A.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the analysis of the psychometric properties, including the validity and reliability, of the Empathy Index (EI), a new instrument designed to measure empathy deficits of sex offenders. The EI was tested with a sample of 158 sex offenders incarcerated in North Carolina prisons. An exploratory factor analysis yielded three…

  5. Evaluation for civil commitment of sex offenders: a survey of experts.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Rebecca L; Hess, Derek T

    2007-12-01

    At this study's commencement, 17 states had enacted sex offender civil commitment legislation. Although each statute outlines broad criteria that must be met, civil commitment evaluators are given considerable latitude in how to conduct their assessment. Forty-one experts who conduct sex offender civil commitment evaluations were surveyed to identify the usual practice of these evaluators. A great deal of agreement exists across experts regarding the conduct of sex offender civil commitment evaluations. However, these patterns appear quite different from the usual practice outlined in other types of forensic evaluations. Experts in sex offender civil commitment endorsed documentation as the core method for evaluation. The majority of evaluators reported the assessment of paraphilias, substance abuse, other Axis I disorders, Axis II disorders, and psychopathy as essential to the evaluation. Virtually all survey respondents utilized actuarial risk assessment measures, primarily the Static-99, in assessing for risk of future sexual violence. Although several approaches to assessing volitional impairment were described, the majority of respondents reported that a history of sex offending combined with a personality disorder or a paraphilia established the necessary link between mental abnormality and risk of future sexual violence. An overwhelming majority of experts indicated that it was essential for evaluators to report their ultimate opinion as to whether criteria had been met for civil commitment. Future research regarding the use and incorporation of documentation should be conducted to determine whether the heavy reliance on documentation is unique to sex offender civil commitment evaluations, or whether it is commonly used in other forensic evaluations. PMID:18000756

  6. An investigation into causal links between victimization and offending in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Smith, David J; Ecob, Russell

    2007-12-01

    There is a considerable body of evidence from earlier research to show that offending is associated with an increased risk of victimization, and being a victim with an increased risk of offending. There have been few earlier studies of the link. These have generally set out to test specific explanations, for example, the idea that the same lifestyles or routine activities may be associated with both victimization and offending. In a current study of a cohort of 4,300 adolescents in Edinburgh we have found a correlation of 0.421 between crime victimization and self-reported offending at the age of 15 when offending peaks. Variables chosen to test three broad types of theory - life-style and routine activities, weak social bonds, aspects of personality - are shown to be related both to victimization and to offending in adolescence. The present analysis uses latent class growth mixture models to track the dynamic relationships over time between adolescent victimization and offending both before and after controlling for these explanatory variables. In the short term, offending is strongly related to a later rise in victimization, but in the longer term to a fall that tends to cancel out the earlier rise. These findings remain the same after controlling for the ten explanatory variables. Victimization is associated with a later rise in offending in the longer term. The theoretical perspectives suggested by earlier researchers are fairly successful in explaining this linkage running from victimization to offending. Future research should focus on the role of peer influence in linking victimization and offending, and should push forward the analysis into the adult years. The implications for criminal justice policy could be far-reaching. PMID:18076389

  7. 45 CFR 2540.203 - When must I conduct a State criminal registry check and a National Sex Offender Public Web site...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... check and a National Sex Offender Public Web site check on an individual in a covered position? 2540.203... National Sex Offender Public Web site check on an individual in a covered position? (a) The State criminal... enrolls in, or is hired by, your program on or after October 1, 2009. (b) The National Sex Offender...

  8. 45 CFR 2540.203 - When must I conduct a State criminal registry check and a National Sex Offender Public Web site...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... check and a National Sex Offender Public Web site check on an individual in a covered position? 2540.203... National Sex Offender Public Web site check on an individual in a covered position? (a) The State criminal... enrolls in, or is hired by, your program on or after October 1, 2009. (b) The National Sex Offender...

  9. 45 CFR 2540.203 - When must I conduct a State criminal registry check and a National Sex Offender Public Web site...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... check and a National Sex Offender Public Web site check on an individual in a covered position? 2540.203... National Sex Offender Public Web site check on an individual in a covered position? (a) The State criminal... enrolls in, or is hired by, your program on or after October 1, 2009. (b) The National Sex Offender...

  10. Helping Sex Offenders to Desist Offending: The Gains and Drains for CoSA Volunteers-A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Höing, Mechtild; Bogaerts, Stefan; Vogelvang, Bas

    2016-08-01

    In Circles of Support and Accountability (CoSA), a group of trained volunteers support sex offenders in their desistance process by engaging in a long-lasting empathic relationship. Is it safe to employ volunteers in this way? This literature review provides an overview of both theoretical explanations and empirical evidence of the possible impact of this type of volunteerism on the volunteers themselves. Fifty original research articles and reviews met the selection criteria of a systematic search. Results on effects of volunteering in general, effects of volunteer work with offenders, and effects of working with sex offenders on professionals are summarized and integrated. Generally, volunteering supports and improves physical health and mental well-being, personal growth, and citizenship. However, working with sex offenders in an empathic relationship generates both positive and negative effects on psychological and social function. Personal characteristics, task characteristics, and organizational characteristics moderate and mediate the impact. PMID:24906364

  11. Female Juvenile Sexual Offenders: Understanding Who They Are and Possible Steps That May Prevent Some Girls From Offending.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Brian E; Holmes, Laura

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been accumulating evidence that sexual abuse committed by females is not rare and can be just as traumatic as sexual abuse committed by males. Despite the increased recognition given to sex offending by adult women, however, very little attention has been given to sex offenses committed by juvenile females. There has further been very little published material that has focused specifically on intervening with female children and adolescents before they offend. In an attempt to fill this gap, this article describes common characteristics of juvenile female sex offenders, ways in which juvenile female sex offenders are similar to and different from juvenile male sex offenders, and the limitations that exist related to our knowledge about these offenders. Based on this information, suggestions are given for possible ways to intervene in the lives of at-risk female youth before they offend. PMID:26340075

  12. Perceptions of sex offenders about treatment: satisfaction and engagement in group therapy.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Jill S; Macgowan, Mark J; Morin, John W; Cotter, Leo P

    2009-03-01

    Surveying the views of sex offender clients can help ensure that treatment is relevant and responsive to client needs. The purpose of this exploratory study is to elicit sex offender clients' perceptions of their experiences in treatment in order to better understand the components of treatment perceived to be helpful in preventing reoffense. Samples (N = 338) of male sex offenders in outpatient group therapy are found to be generally satisfied with treatment services and have positive perceptions of treatment effectiveness. Offenders in treatment value the role of group therapy, and they find accountability, victim empathy, relapse prevention, and "good lives" concepts to be most helpful in managing their behavior. Their engagement in group therapy is assessed using the Group Engagement Measure, and a positive correlation is found between engagement and treatment satisfaction. Eliciting client opinions about the helpfulness of program content and process, and adjusting treatment protocols accordingly, is consistant with the principles of risk, need, and responsivity, a model recommended for therapeutic interventions with criminal offenders. PMID:18948429

  13. A Comparison of African American and Cuban American Adolescent Juvenile Offenders: Risky Sexual and Drug Use Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Dévieux, Jessy G; Malow, Robert M; Ergon-Pérez, Emma; Samuels, Deanne; Rojas, Patria; Khushal, Sarah R; Jean-Gilles, Michèle

    2005-01-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities exist in HIV seroconversion rates, with African American and Hispanic youth in the 13-19-year-old age group representing 61% and 21% of new AIDS cases, respectively. The aim of this study was to examine sexual and drug use behaviors among a sample of 138 African American and Cuban American juvenile offenders. Cuban American adolescents showed higher levels of unprotected sex, higher levels of sex while using drugs, and higher levels of drug/alcohol use in the three and six months prior to confinement. These differences may be explained by multiple factors, including differences in acculturation levels among the Cuban American adolescents, differences in health messages targeted at the two groups, and family mores and norms. PMID:19096724

  14. Post-conviction sex offender polygraph examination: client-reported perceptions of utility and accuracy.

    PubMed

    Kokish, Ron; Levenson, Jill S; Blasingame, Gerry D

    2005-04-01

    Post-conviction polygraph testing of adult sex offenders in treatment has been a somewhat controversial subject. This study (n = 95 participants who took 333 polygraph tests) explored how sexual offenders enrolled in outpatient treatment programs perceived their polygraph experience. Participants reported a relatively low incidence of false indications of both deception (22 of 333 tests) and truthfulness (11 of 333) tests, suggesting that clients agreed with examiners' opinions 90% of the time. The majority of clients reported that polygraph testing was a helpful part of treatment. Finally, about 5% of participants reported that they responded to allegedly inaccurate accusations of deception by admitting to things they had not done. The data offer encouragement for continued but cautious use of polygraphs by sex offender treatment programs. Implications for practice and research are identified. PMID:15974426

  15. Washington State's unscientific approach to the problem of repeat sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Brody, A L; Green, R

    1994-01-01

    In 1990, Washington State enacted the Sexual Predator Act, allowing the civil commitment of sex offenders to a mental health facility for life if they are deemed to be sexual predators (repeat, hardcore offenders). They are released only upon proof that they are no longer a threat to others. This paper reviews the debate about this law and the recent literature on the treatment of sex offenders. We conclude that the Washington State law is unscientific, because the available treatments are not adequate to ensure future safety and because the law selects poor candidates for treatment. Finally, a comment is made about preventive detention effected by psychiatry, and an analogy made to the habitual drunk driver. PMID:7841506

  16. Child Pornography Possessors and Child Contact Sex Offenders: A Multilevel Comparison of Demographic Characteristics and Rates of Recidivism.

    PubMed

    Faust, Erik; Bickart, William; Renaud, Cheryl; Camp, Scott

    2015-10-01

    Considerable debate surrounds the topic of whether possessing or distributing online images of child pornography (CP) represents a new type of crime perpetrated by conventional sex offenders (e.g., child contact [CC] sex offenders), or whether individuals who commit these crimes differ from contact sex offenders in meaningful ways. The current study compares groups of Internet (CP) and CC sexual offenders, with each group's sexual offending history exclusively confined to its offense category. T tests were used to conduct bivariate comparisons of group demographics and criminal histories. Rates of recidivism were examined using survival curves and Cox proportional hazard regression models. Results showed significant differences on demographic and criminal history variables, with CP offenders demonstrating a lower frequency of prior criminal offending and substance abuse, and higher rates of pre-incarceration employment and level of education. Rates of recidivism were significantly different between the two groups, with CP offenders showing lower rates of re-offense for most measures of recidivism. When controlling for background characteristics and the timing of the event, CC offenders were at much greater risk for having an arrest for a new crime or a non-sexual violent crime than CP offenders. Treatment and policy implications are discussed, along with suggestions for future research. PMID:24556314

  17. The incidence of depressive symptomatology in juvenile sex offenders with a history of abuse.

    PubMed

    Becker, J V; Kaplan, M S; Tenke, C E; Tartaglini, A

    1991-01-01

    Depressive symptomatology was assessed in a sample of 246 male juvenile sex offenders using the Beck Depression Inventory. Of these participants, the racial composition was black = 147, Hispanic = 62, Caucasian = 34. Three adolescents elected not to identify their racial origin. Subjects were divided according to their self-reports of having been sexually or physically abused. The mean Beck score across all subjects was 14.3, a value markedly higher than published norms and indicative of mild depression. Forty-two percent of subjects attained scores indicative of appreciable depressive symptomatology. A history of sexual or physical abuse was significantly related to high Beck scores; abused subjects had a mean Beck score of 16.4, as contrasted to 12.3 for nonabused subjects (Wilcoxon test: z = 2.82; p less than .005). This relationship was apparent across all racial groups. While Hispanic subjects tended to have higher Beck scores and Caucasians lower scores, racial differences were not statistically significant. Results indicate that juveniles who have committed sexual crimes, particularly those with a history of abuse, should be evaluated for depression. PMID:1959085

  18. Underreporting of bestiality among juvenile sex offenders: polygraph versus self-report.

    PubMed

    Schenk, Allison M; Cooper-Lehki, Christi; Keelan, Colleen M; Fremouw, William J

    2014-03-01

    Juvenile sex offenders (JSO) are a specific subset of delinquent adolescents that are receiving more attention because of the crimes they commit and the issues surrounding how to successfully treat their deviant behaviors. Given JSO are such predominant treatment concerns in society, it is essential to identify and target key risk factors. One sexual behavior, bestiality, may be of particular importance to address in treatment. In a meta-analysis conducted by Seto and Lalumiere, a 14% rate of bestiality among JSO was reported. This current study examined the differences in JSO (n = 32) who admitted bestiality based upon a self-report measure, the Multiphasic Sexual Inventory-II (MSI-II), compared to information elicited by polygraphs. The results indicated extensive underreporting of bestiality behaviors between these two sources of information (MSI-II = 37.5%; polygraph = 81.25%). These findings are important given the reliance treatment programs place on information elicited from self-report tools. PMID:24502368

  19. A New Way of Doing Time on the Outside: Sex Offenders' Pathways In and Out of a Transitional Housing Facility.

    PubMed

    Kras, Kimberly R; Pleggenkuhle, Breanne; Huebner, Beth M

    2016-04-01

    Although housing has been highlighted as a key element of successful reentry experiences, little research has considered the perspectives of sex offenders living in transitional housing upon release from prison. This topic is important given the increasing legal restrictions faced by this offender population. The current study utilizes qualitative data to explore the pathways from prison to transitional housing, the experience of residing in these facilities, and how transitional housing is perceived to affect the overall reentry experience. In general, results suggest that sex offenders reside in the facility because of lack of access to a suitable home, and report a need for service provisions. However, most view their experiences in the transitional facility (TF) as contrary to the rehabilitative ideal, and some indicate that this type of programming has collateral consequences for reentry. The proliferation of sex offender restriction laws has only exacerbated the challenges faced by sex offenders living in the TF. PMID:25326464

  20. Collaboration among sex offender treatment providers and probation and parole officers: the beliefs and behaviors of treatment providers.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Robert J; Cumming, Georgia; Holt, John

    2002-01-01

    New and emerging collaborative responses to sex offender management are challenging traditional notions about how treatment providers and probation and parole officers (POs) deliver services to this difficult population. Typically, sex offender treatment professionals provide community-based services to offenders who are supervised by POs. Yet, no comprehensive survey has investigated how treatment providers and POs collaborate and view their relationships with each other. This national random survey examined the beliefs and behaviors of community-based adult sex-offender treatment providers concerning various types of provider and PO interactions and collaborative models. Overall, treatment providers reported that they value frequent and substantive communication with POs concerning mutual clients. There was, however, considerable diversity in practice and opinion among providers with regard to POs leading, coleading, and observing sex offender treatment groups. Treatment providers' opinions about various clinical, ethical, and legal issues evident in these collaborative approaches are examined. PMID:11803595

  1. What Makes Sex Offenders Confess? An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faller, Kathleen Coulborn; Birdsall, William Chalk; Henry, James; Vandervort, Frank; Silverschanz, Peregrine

    2001-01-01

    Examines correlates of offender confession in criminal sexual conduct cases involving children. The following four variables are associated with suspect confession: (1) having the state police conducting the law enforcement part of the investigation, (2) more serious abuse, (3) younger age of the suspect, and (4) having a court appointed (as…

  2. An Integrated Groupwork Methodology for Working with Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Andrew; Ware, Jayson; Boer, Douglas P.

    2009-01-01

    There is now a considerable literature on the assessment and treatment of sexual offenders. There exists another substantial literature on therapeutic groupwork and its relevance to a range of clinical populations. These bodies of work have made reference to the other in terms of their mutual relevance. However, there has been no comprehensive…

  3. Conceptualizing Sex Offender Denial from a Multifaceted Framework: Investigating the Psychometric Qualities of a New Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Sandy; Daniels, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the psychometric properties of a clinician-rated measure of sex offender denial. Convergent and discriminant validity for the measure was supported, and given its relationship to treatment attitudes, the measure demonstrated utility for assessing treatment change and readiness. (Contains 3 tables.)

  4. Web Systems Help Schools Screen Visitors: Officials Responding to Increased Fears About Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports, that in a growing number of districts, school leaders are ranking the threat of sex offenders-some of them the parents of enrolled students--as one of their chief student-safety concerns. That threat, they say, is a primary reason for investing thousands of dollars in a Web-based tracking system that tells school officials if…

  5. The North Carolina Online Sex Offender Registry: Awareness and Utilization by Childcare Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Jennifer L.; Malesky, L. Alvin, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined childcare providers' usage of the North Carolina Sex Offender and Public Protection Registry. One hundred twenty three childcare providers in 76 counties in North Carolina were surveyed via telephone interview about their utilization of the registry Web site. Responses revealed that most providers knew about the registry…

  6. Replications and Extensions in Arousal Assessment for Sex Offenders with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Jorge R.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Hall, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    Three adult male sex offenders with developmental disabilities participated in phallometric assessments that involved repeated measures of arousal when exposed to various stimuli. Arousal assessment outcomes were similar to those obtained by Reyes et al. (2006). Additional data-analysis methods provided further information about sexual…

  7. Assessment of Deviant Arousal in Adult Male Sex Offenders with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Jorge R.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Sloman, Kimberly N.; Hall, Astrid; Reed, Robert; Jansen, Greg; Carr, Sam; Jackson, Kevin; Stoutimore, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Ten individuals, residing in a treatment facility specializing in the rehabilitation of sex offenders with developmental disabilities, participated in an arousal assessment involving the use of the penile plethysmograph. The arousal assessments involved measuring change in penile circumference to various categories of stimuli both appropriate…

  8. Sex Offenders with Intellectual Disabilities and Their Academic Observers: Popular Methodologies and Research Interests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollomotz, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Over the past two decades, disability activists and scholars have developed research paradigms that aim to place (some of the) control over the research process in the hands of disabled people. This paper discusses the appropriateness of applying such paradigms to sex offenders with intellectual disabilities (ID). It exposes to what…

  9. The Effectiveness of Treatment for Male Sex Offenders with Learning Disabilities: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Jude; Rose, John

    2004-01-01

    Background. A variety of research designs have been employed to explore the efficacy of the wide range of interventions for sex offenders with learning disabilities. This paper reviews these studies to consider the efficacy of such treatments. Methods. Computerized searches and less formal literature gathering led to the identification of 31…

  10. The American Bar Association and Legislatively Mandated Treatment for Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallone, Nathanial J.

    1991-01-01

    Offers historical overview of "criminal sexual psychopath" legislation, which customarily prescribes confinement for treatment (rather than incarceration for punishment) for offenders whose sex crimes are attributed to sexual psychopathology. Discusses desire of American Bar Association and Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry to repeal extant…

  11. Depo provera treatment for sex offending behavior: an evaluation of outcome.

    PubMed

    Meyer, W J; Cole, C; Emory, E

    1992-01-01

    Forty men, ages 16 to 78 years, with sex-offending behavior, were treated with combined medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), group therapy, and individual psychotherapy. Twenty-three are pedophiles; seven, rapists; and 10, exhibitionists. Five had sex-offending behavior that began after head trauma. The duration of MPA therapy, usual intramuscular dose 400 mg/wk, ranged from six months to 12 years, usually more than two years. These men were compared with a control group of 21 men who refused MPA therapy. They had similar types of sex-offending behavior and were treated with psychotherapy alone with follow-up for a period that ranged from two to 12 years. MPA-related side effects included excessive weight gain, malaise, migraine headaches, severe leg cramps, elevation of blood pressure, gastrointestinal complaints, gallbladder stones, and diabetes mellitus. Of the 40 individuals who took MPA, 10 are still on therapy. Eighteen percent reoffended while receiving MPA therapy; 35 percent reoffended after stopping MPA. In contrast, 58 percent of the control patients, who refused and never received MPA, reoffended. Patients defined as regressed were much more likely to reoffend off therapy than the patients defined as fixated. Other risk factors for reoffense include elevated baseline testosterone, previous head injury, never forming a marriage relationship, and alcohol and drug abuse. In spite of significant medical side effects, maintenance MPA offers benefit for the compulsive sex offender by reducing the reoffense rate. PMID:1421556

  12. Police posing as juveniles online to catch sex offenders: is it working?

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Wolak, Janis; Finkelhor, David

    2005-07-01

    This paper explores the extent and effectiveness of proactive investigations in which investigators pose as minors on the Internet to catch potential sex offenders. It utilizes a subsample of cases from the National Juvenile Online Victimization Survey, which concerned persons arrested for Internet sex crimes against minors in the year beginning July 1, 2000. Results suggest proactive investigations represented a significant proportion (25%) of all arrests for Internet sex crimes against minors. Such investigations were being conducted at all levels of law enforcement. The online personas assumed by investigators paralleled the ages and genders of real youth victimized in sex crimes that started as online encounters. These proactive investigations accessed an offender group that appeared somewhat less deviant in terms of adult sexual behavior and arrest history but equally deviant as other online offenders in terms of possession of child pornography. Prosecution of these cases produced high rates of guilty pleas and low rates of dismissed or dropped cases. The entrapment, fantasy or role-playing, and factual impossibility defenses were used but not successfully. Findings suggest that the Internet sometimes allows law enforcement to interdict before a youth is victimized, gather solid evidence of offenses, and find and track some offenders. PMID:16121838

  13. Predicting recidivism in sex offenders with the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS).

    PubMed

    Walters, Glenn D; Deming, Adam; Casbon, Todd

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) was capable of predicting recidivism in 322 male sex offenders released from prison-based sex offender programs in a Midwestern state. The Static-99R and PICTS General Criminal Thinking (GCT), Reactive (R), and Entitlement (En) scores all correlated significantly with general recidivism, the Static-99R correlated significantly with violent recidivism, and the Static-99R score and PICTS GCT, Proactive (P), and En scores correlated significantly with failure to register as a sex offender (FTR) recidivism. Area under the curve effect size estimates varied from small to large, and Cox regression analyses revealed that the PICTS En score achieved incremental validity relative to the Static-99R in predicting general recidivism and the PICTS GCT, P, and En scores achieved incremental validity relative to the Static-99R in predicting FTR recidivism. It is speculated that the PICTS in general and the En scale in particular may have utility in risk management and treatment planning for sex offenders by virtue of their focus on antisocial thinking. PMID:25013121

  14. Development of Vermont assessment of sex offender risk-2 (VASOR-2) reoffense risk scale.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Robert J; Lasher, Michael P; Cumming, Georgia F; Langton, Calvin M; Hoke, Stephen E

    2014-06-01

    The present study aimed to revise the Vermont Assessment of Sex Offender Risk (VASOR) Reoffense Risk Scale, a commonly used sex offender risk assessment tool. The revised tool was named the VASOR-2. Among models tested to revise the scale, a logistic regression model showed the best balance between simplicity of use, goodness of fit, and internal validity (as tested with K-10 cross-validation), and maximized predictive accuracy. Predictive accuracy was tested using four meta-analytically combined data sets drawn from Canada and Vermont (N = 1,581). At 5-year fixed follow-up, the predictive accuracy for sexual recidivism for VASOR-2 (AUC = .74) was similar to the VASOR (AUC = .71). The findings show the VASOR-2 is well calibrated with observed recidivism rates for all but the highest risk sex offenders. The instrument showed good interrater reliability (ICC = .88). An advantage of the VASOR-2 is that it has fewer items and simpler scoring instructions than the VASOR. Norms are presented for a contemporary, nonselected, routine sample of Vermont sex offenders (n = 887). PMID:23630225

  15. Comparing Sex Offender Risk Classification Using the Static-99 and LSI-R Assessment Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Amanda L.; Dulmus, Catherine N.; Theriot, Matthew T.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study compares sex offender risk classification using two popular actuarial risk assessment instruments--the Static-99 and the Level of Service Inventory-Revised (LSI-R). Despite their extensive use, the two scales assess different types of risk factors and research has yet to compare them. Method: Static-99 and LSI-R risk…

  16. Effectively Utilizing the "Behavioral" in Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy of Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Jerry L.; Deming, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Although cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is touted as the predominant approach in sex offender-specific group treatment, a review of the field shows that the "behavioral" part of CBT has become minimal in relation to that which is cognitive. The authors show how a revitalized "behavioral sensibility" may help to enhance…

  17. Even Highly Correlated Measures Can Add Incrementally to Predicting Recidivism among Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babchishin, Kelly M.; Hanson, R. Karl; Helmus, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    Criterion-referenced measures, such as those used in the assessment of crime and violence, prioritize predictive accuracy (discrimination) at the expense of construct validity. In this article, we compared the discrimination and incremental validity of three commonly used criterion-referenced measures for sex offenders (Rapid Risk Assessment for…

  18. Supporting Every Child: School Counselors' Perceptions of Juvenile Sex Offenders in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Leann Wyrick; McClendon, Levi S.; McCarty, Jenna; Zinck, Kirk

    2016-01-01

    Researchers explored the attitudes and concerns of professional school counselors in their roles in working with juvenile sex offenders (JSOs) who attend school. Little empirical data exist regarding school counselors' roles in effectively engaging and supporting JSOs toward school success. Focus groups contributed to the consensual qualitative…

  19. The Efficacy of County-Level Sex Offender Residence Restrictions in New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Socia, Kelly M.

    2012-01-01

    Residence restrictions seek to protect community members from registered sex offenders (RSOs) reentering society following incarceration. These policies, first passed in 1995 at the state level and in 2005 at the county and local levels, have become extremely popular throughout the United States but without proof that they are effective. To date,…

  20. Ethical practice in sex offender assessment: consideration of actuarial and polygraph methods.

    PubMed

    Vess, James

    2011-09-01

    The current generation of community protection laws represents a shift in priorities that may see the individual rights of sex offenders compromised for the goal of public safety. At the center of many judicial decisions under these laws are the risk assessment reports provided by mental health practitioners. The widespread enactment of laws allowing for additional sanctions for sex offenders, and a burgeoning research literature regarding the methods used to assess risk have served to heighten rather than resolve the ethical concerns associated with professional practice in this area. This article examines ethical issues inherent in the use of two assessment methods commonly used with sex offenders in the correctional context, focusing on actuarial measures and polygraph tests. Properly conducted and adequately reported actuarial findings are considered to provide useful information of sufficient accuracy to inform rather than mislead judicial decision makers, although careful consideration must be given to the limitations of current measures in each individual case. Despite its increasing use, polygraph testing is considered controversial, with little consensus regarding its accuracy or appropriate applications. On the basis of the current state of the professional literature regarding the polygraph, its use with sex offenders raises unresolved ethical concerns. PMID:20944058

  1. Concerned about Juvenile Sex Offenders, States Move to Tighten Their Regulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2007-01-01

    Confronted with widely publicized accounts of assaults by juvenile sex offenders against fellow students or school staff members, several states are grappling with the issue of how to balance a student's right to an education with the threat that such a student may pose. Legislatures and agencies in several states, such as Arkansas, New Mexico,…

  2. Treating Juveniles in a Sex Offender Program Using Adventure-Based Programming: A Matched Group Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, H. L.; Gass, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Ninety-five male juvenile sex offenders in an adventure-based behavior management program (LEGACY) were matched with male juveniles in state treatment-as-usual and other specialized programs in the same state to determine program effectiveness (as measured by rearrest rates). The LEGACY program demonstrated significant treatment effectiveness on…

  3. Community Management of Sex Offenders with Intellectual Disabilities: Characteristics, Services, and Outcome of a Statewide Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Robert J.; Livingston, Joy A.; Falk, Gail

    2007-01-01

    The state of Vermont closed its only institution for persons with intellectual disabilities in 1993 and moved to a totally community-based model of services. Here we describe the characteristics of the near exhaustive statewide sample of adult male sex offenders with intellectual disabilities (N = 103) who received these services between 1993 and…

  4. A Problem-Solving Intervention for Sex Offenders with an Intellectual Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Wendy

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted of 13 male sex offenders with mild intellectual disability (ages 17 to 43) in Victoria (Australia). Results suggest that cognitive restructuring, consequence training, relapse prevention, and covert sensitization appear to be promising intervention techniques. The importance of early intervention to prevent sexual offenses is…

  5. Concept Mapping Professionals' Perceptions of Reward and Motive in Providing Sex Offender Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadambi, Michaela; Truscott, Derek

    2006-01-01

    Concept mapping (a combined qualitative/quantitative approach) was used to clarify the domain, composition, and underlying structure of 82 Canadian professionals' experiences of reward in their work with sex offenders. Seven thematic clusters were identified: Protection of Potential Victims, Socially Meaningful Curiosity, Enjoyment of Counselling,…

  6. Predictors of Support for Juvenile Sex Offender Registration: Educated Individuals Recognize the Flaws of Juvenile Registration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Margaret C.; Smith, Amy C.; Sekely, Ady; Farnum, Katlyn S.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated demographic predictors of support for juvenile sex offender registration policies, including education level, gender, political orientation, and age. Participants were 168 individuals recruited from public places in a Midwest community (45% women; M age = 42). In line with hypotheses, as education level increased, support for…

  7. Why Therapy Fails with Some Sex Offenders: Learning Difficulties Examined Empirically.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langevin, Ron; Marentette, Dennis

    1996-01-01

    A total of 203 men accused of sexual offenses were compared on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, the Halstead-Reitan Battery, school grade repeats, and therapy outcome measures. Sex offenders with and without learning problems did not differ in desire for treatment, but those with learning problems had better attendance. (LSR)

  8. The Incidence of Depressive Symptomatology in Juvenile Sex Offenders with a History of Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Judith V.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Depressive symptomatology was assessed in 246 male juvenile sex offenders. Scores on the Beck Depression Inventory indicated 42 percent showed appreciable depressive symptomatology. A history of sexual or physical abuse was related to high Beck scores. Racial differences were not statistically significant. (Author/DB)

  9. A prospective analysis of juvenile male sex offenders: characteristics and recidivism rates as adults.

    PubMed

    Vandiver, Donna M

    2006-05-01

    This research assesses the recidivism rates of a sample of 300 registered male sex offenders who were juveniles at the time of their initial arrest for a sex offense. This sample is followed for 3 to 6 years after they reached adulthood; recidivism rates are assessed during their adulthood only. The typical juvenile is a 15-year-old Caucasian male who was arrested for sexual assault or indecency with a child. The majority of the victims are females with an average age of 8. Although only 13 are rearrested during the follow-up period for a sex offense, more than half of the sample is arrested at least once for a nonsexual offense. The results of a Cox regression indicate that victim age, offender age, and victim sex are significant predictors of recidivism during adulthood. PMID:16574639

  10. Doing cognitive distortions: a discursive psychology analysis of sex offender treatment talk.

    PubMed

    Auburn, Timothy; Lea, Susan

    2003-06-01

    Theories of sex offending have for several years relied upon the notion of cognitive distortions as an important cause of sexual offending. In this study we critique this notion and suggest that the sort of phenomenon addressed by cognitive distortions is better understood by adopting a discursive psychology approach. In this approach, talk is regarded as occasioned and action oriented. Thus 'cognitive distortions' are conceptualized as something people do rather than something that people have. Sessions from a prison-based sex offender treatment programme were taped and transcribed. A discursive psychology analysis was conducted on those sessions relating to offenders' first accounts of their offences. Our analysis suggests that offenders utilize a particular narrative organization to manage their blame and responsibility for the offence. This organization is based on a first part which is oriented to quotidian precursors to the offence and an immediately following second which is oriented to a sudden shift in the definition of the situation. The implications of this analysis are discussed, in relation to the status of cognitive distortions and treatment. PMID:12869249

  11. Maltreatment and Depression in Adolescent Sexual Offenders with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Jessica Bleil; Hughes, Tammy L.; Sutton, Lawrence R.; Marshall, Stephanie N.; Crothers, Laura M.; Lehman, Cathryn; Paserba, Dave; Talkington, Vanessa; Taormina, Rochelle; Huang, Ann

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the self-reported presence and severity of abuse, neglect, and depressive symptoms for 43 adolescents adjudicated delinquent due to a sexual offense. Twenty-seven of the adolescent sexual offenders were also diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder, and 16 did not carry an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis. Both groups…

  12. Wilderness Therapy within an Adolescent Sexual Offender Treatment Programme: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somervell, Julia; Lambie, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Wilderness therapy is a core component of the adolescent sexual offender treatment programme offered by the SAFE Network Inc. However, little is known about how wilderness therapy contributes to the overall outcomes of adolescents completing the programme. This paper presents an exploratory investigation of the function and process of wilderness…

  13. Evaluating an Adolescent Behavioral Program: Leadership, Education, Achievement, and Development for Adolescent Female Offenders in Corrections.

    PubMed

    Panosky, Denise M; Shelton, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a pilot study designed to: test the feasibility of implementation, assess implementation barriers, and determine the effectiveness of a modified evidence-based program designed for adolescent female offenders in a women's correctional facility in the United States. A therapeutic expressive arts behavioral program, Leadership, Education, Achievement and Development (LEAD), has been used in community settings as a health promotion program. This behavioral program was adapted to LEAD-Corrections (LEAD-C) and serves incarcerated adolescent female offenders. Results of this pilot study show that it is feasible to offer LEAD-C in a correctional setting. Positive effects were noted on session satisfaction surveys as well as formative and summative evaluations. Implementation of LEAD-C, using therapeutic expressive arts interventions, included coping strategies to help adolescents become confident and self-assured and review better choices. Adolescents were taught to utilize these learned coping strategies in their life, which may help to overcome adversity, enhance resilience, and support youth transition at the time of reentry to the community. PMID:26186153

  14. The Good, the Bad, and the Incomprehensible: Typifications of Victims and Offenders as Antecedents of Beliefs About Sex Crime.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Christina; Pickett, Justin T

    2016-01-01

    Public opinion has played a critical role in the development of sex crime laws. However, little scholarly work has focused directly on the origins of negative attitudes toward sex offenders. We address this research gap by developing and testing a theoretical account of such views. Drawing on recent national survey data, we examine the extent to which typifications about sexual victims and offenders--believing sex crime typically affects children and female victims and is committed by strangers--explain beliefs about the reformability of sex offenders, harm inflicted on victims, and the causes of offending. Results indicate that judging children to be typical targets of sex crimes is a key determinant of public views. We discuss the implications of our findings. PMID:25381282

  15. The Influence of a Juvenile’s Abuse History on Support for Sex Offender Registration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether and how a juvenile’s history of experiencing sexual abuse affects public perceptions of juvenile sex offenders in a series of 5 studies. When asked about juvenile sex offenders in an abstract manner (Studies 1 and 2), the more participants (community members and undergraduates) believed that a history of being sexually abused as a child causes later sexually abusive behavior, the less likely they were to support sex offender registration for juveniles. Yet when participants considered specific sexual offenses, a juvenile’s history of sexual abuse was not considered to be a mitigating factor. This was true when participants considered a severe sexual offense (forced rape; Study 3 and Study 4) and a case involving less severe sexual offenses (i.e., statutory rape), when a juvenile’s history of sexual abuse backfired and was used as an aggravating factor, increasing support for registering the offender (Study 3 and Study 5). Theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:26074717

  16. Public attitudes toward sex offenders and their relationship to personality traits and demographic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Olver, Mark E; Barlow, Ashley A

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined public attitudes toward the sentencing, treatment, management, and perceived dangerousness of sex offenders. Seventy-eight university undergraduates completed a 25-item attitude toward sex offenders survey developed for the present study, along with a five-factor measure of personality (NEO Personality Inventory - Revised), a demographic questionnaire, and the Paulhus Deception Scale, to control for social desirability. While participants most frequently endorsed the belief that sentences were not sufficiently severe, they tended to espouse treatment and risk management alternatives to longer sentences and eschewed exceptionally severe punishments (e.g., surgical castration). Participants estimated high rates of sexual recidivism (59%), although they also estimated significantly lower recidivism rates for treated offenders. Results of a principle components analysis suggested that participant attitudes comprised two broad domains: systems attitudes (e.g., law enforcement, corrections, justice) and rehabilitative attitudes. Although few demographic differences emerged in participant attitudes, 'openness to experience' and 'agreeableness' each significantly predicted more rehabilitative attitudes, while contrary to expectations, 'extraversion' was significantly associated with more negative systems-related attitudes. The results provide support that personality traits may be linked to important social attitudes, including those toward sex offenders. PMID:20857417

  17. Comorbid Adolescent Difficulties: Social Work Prevention of Delinquency and Serious Youthful Offending.

    PubMed

    Mallett, Christopher A; Kirven, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    A majority of adolescents who are formally involved with the juvenile courts and detained or incarcerated are dealing with past or present maltreatment victimization, learning disabilities, and/or mental health/substance abuse difficulties. Addressing these problems and traumas is an integral part of preventing delinquency and breaking a youthful offender's recidivist cycle, a pattern that often predicts adult offending and incarceration. Fortunately, there are effective programs across the social work profession that decrease or may even eliminate delinquent behaviors, both for low-level and more serious youthful offenders. Unfortunately, the use of these social work preventative programs is not consistent or extensive within the juvenile justice system. PMID:25844994

  18. Peer Relations among Adolescents with Female Same-Sex Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainright, Jennifer L.; Patterson, Charlotte J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined associations among family type (same-sex vs. opposite-sex parents), adolescent gender, family and relationship variables, and the peer relations of adolescents. Participants included 44 adolescents parented by same-sex female couples and 44 adolescents parented by opposite-sex couples, matched on demographic characteristics …

  19. Sex Differences in Trajectories of Offending among Puerto Rican Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Wesley G.; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Piquero, Alex R.; Odgers, Candice L.; Bird, Hector; Canino, Glorisa

    2010-01-01

    Although sex is one of the strongest correlates of crime, contentions remain regarding the necessity of sex-specific theories of crime. The current study examines delinquent trajectories across sex among Puerto Rican youth socialized in two different cultural contexts (Bronx, United States; and San Juan, Puerto Rico). Results indicate similar…

  20. Maltreatment and depression in adolescent sexual offenders with an autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Bleil Walters, Jessica; Hughes, Tammy L; Sutton, Lawrence R; Marshall, Stephanie N; Crothers, Laura M; Lehman, Cathryn; Paserba, Dave; Talkington, Vanessa; Taormina, Rochelle; Huang, Ann

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the self-reported presence and severity of abuse, neglect, and depressive symptoms for 43 adolescents adjudicated delinquent due to a sexual offense. Twenty-seven of the adolescent sexual offenders were also diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder, and 16 did not carry an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis. Both groups reported moderate to high levels of abuse and neglect. Adolescent sexual offenders with an autism spectrum disorder reported significantly higher depressive symptoms than those without an autism spectrum disorder. Furthermore, of the group with an autism spectrum disorder, those reporting severe levels of emotional abuse and/or emotional neglect were more likely to also have depressive symptoms. Results suggest a need to tailor treatment programs to match the unique needs of sexual offenders. PMID:23350540

  1. Predicting relapse for Catholic clergy sex offenders: the use of the static-99.

    PubMed

    Montana, Stephen; Thompson, Gary; Ellsworth, Peter; Lagan, Hugh; Helmus, Leslie; Rhoades, Colin J

    2012-12-01

    The Static-99 is an instrument commonly used to measure the likelihood of recidivism among sex offenders. The current study explores whether the Static-99 is an effective predictor of relapse among Catholic clergy who have had sexual contact with minors. Static-99 scores were compiled for 337 treated clergy who had offended against minors, including 21 who were known to have relapsed after treatment. Clergy were followed up for 5 to 25 years posttreatment (M = 16.05; SD = 5.12) after their completion of treatment. Post release, they were closely supervised, with explicit rules limiting their contacts with minors and church officials monitoring their compliance with posttreatment plans. Descriptive information on the victims of clergy sex offenders is provided. Although all clergy offenders had the same score on 4 of the 10 Static-99 items, Static-99 total scores still significantly predicted relapse with a moderate to large effect size (area under the curve [AUC] = .672; Cohen's d = .808). Predictive accuracy of each item is also reported. Issues concerning the use of the Static-99 with this population are discussed. PMID:22593148

  2. Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents: Profiles of Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowder, Melissa H.; Cummings, Jack A.; McKinney, Robert

    2010-01-01

    An exploratory study of resiliency profiles of male and female juvenile offenders committed to a juvenile correctional facility was conducted. The goal of the present study was to examine juvenile offenders' positive characteristics (e.g., adaptability, optimism, self-efficacy, tolerance of differences). To assess positive characteristics and…

  3. Are parental attitudes related to adolescent juvenile offenders' readiness to change?

    PubMed

    Snyder, Benjamin D H; Glaser, Brian A; Calhoun, Georgia B

    2015-05-01

    Contemporary research suggests that many factors contribute to adolescent problematic and delinquent behaviors; however, there is little discussion in the literature related to factors that contribute to an adolescent's willingness to change these maladaptive behaviors. The current study examines the role parental attitudes play in the adolescent juvenile offender's readiness to change. Ninety-five adjudicated adolescents and their parent or legal guardian completed the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA) and the Juvenile Offender Parent Questionnaire (JOPQ), respectively. Participants fell into one of two URICA groups: Precontemplative or Contemplative. Parental attitudes (JOPQ) of Exasperation in Regard to the Child and Fear of the Child significantly predicted membership in two of the URICA stages of change groups (Precontemplative and Contemplative) when gender was included in the model. This study has important implications for practitioners developing effective treatments for adjudicated adolescents. PMID:24391125

  4. Sex trafficking and the exploitation of adolescents.

    PubMed

    McClain, Natalie M; Garrity, Stacy E

    2011-01-01

    Human trafficking affects a surprisingly large number of adolescents around the globe. Women and girls make up the majority of sex trafficking victims. Nurses must be aware of sex trafficking as a form of sexual violence in the adolescent population. Nurses can play a role in identifying, intervening, and advocating for victims of human trafficking as they currently do for patients that are the victims of other types of violent crimes. PMID:21284727

  5. Psychiatric disorders in property, violent, and versatile offending detained male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Colins, Olivier; Vermeiren, Robert; Schuyten, Gilberte; Broekaert, Eric

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the past year prevalence rate of psychiatric disorders in detained male adolescents and the relation between psychiatric disorders and type of offending. The Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-IV) was administered in a sample (N = 245) of male detained adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. Based on lifetime official criminal history, participants were classified into property, violent, and versatile subgroups. High rates of psychiatric disorders were found in all groups. In addition, property offenders reported significantly higher rates of depression, disruptive behavior disorders, substance use disorders and comorbidity than violent and versatile offenders. Overall, versatile offenders did not differ from violent offenders, with the exception of more marijuana use disorder found in violent offenders. This study once more emphasizes that detained boys have substantial mental health needs, a finding that is generalizable across countries. In addition, the current study suggests that classifying detained juveniles by offense subgroups may carry clinical relevance. The long-term impact of these differences, and the possible effects of intervention, should be subject of further research. PMID:19290723

  6. Sex offender registration and community notification challenges: the Supreme Court continues its trend.

    PubMed

    Scott, Charles L; Gerbasi, Joan B

    2003-01-01

    All states and the District of Columbia have passed sex offender registration and community notification laws. While the specific provisions of these statutes vary, all have public safety as a primary goal. The authors discuss two recent cases heard by the United States Supreme Court that challenged the constitutionality of Alaska's and Connecticut's statutes. The laws were challenged as violations of the United States Constitution's prohibition on ex post facto laws and its Fourteenth Amendment guarantee of procedural due process. In both cases, the statutes were upheld. As it has found in challenges to sexually violent predator statutes, the Court emphasized that the registration and community notification schemes are civil and not criminal in nature. The article concludes with a discussion of possible implications for clinicians involved in evaluating or treating sex offenders. PMID:14974805

  7. Effects of defendant and victim race on perceptions of juvenile sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Margaret C; Sorenson, Katlyn M; Smith, Amy C; Sekely, Ady; Dzwairo, Rukudzo A

    2009-01-01

    We investigated effects of defendant race, victim race, and juror gender on public perceptions of a juvenile sex offense. We predicted that participants, particularly men, would support registering a juvenile defendant as a sex offender more when he was Black than White and that participants, particularly women, would support registering the defendant more when the female crime victim was portrayed as White than as Black. We also expected that support for registration would be higher when the defendant and victim were different races than when they were the same race. As expected, women (but not men) recommended registration more when the victim was White than Black. Further, participants supported registration more when the defendant and the victim were different races than when they were the same race. These effects were mediated by retributive goals to punish the offender-not by utilitarian goals to protect society. Explanations and implications are discussed. PMID:19937924

  8. Sex offender commitments in Minnesota: a descriptive study of second generation commitments.

    PubMed

    Janus, E S; Walbek, N H

    2000-01-01

    Civil commitment laws intended to prevent sexual violence are being considered and enacted by many state legislatures. In their use of "preventive detention" to lock up the "most dangerous," the laws are highly controversial legally and morally. As well, critics raise questions about the extent to which the laws advance their stated goals. Considering the growing expense of these programs, evaluation efforts based on an empirical foundation are imperative. This study collected data on all 116 men committed under Minnesota's program during the period 1975-1996. The authors report descriptive summary data on admission rates and population trends, demographic characteristics of detainees and victims, pre-commitment criminal and mental health histories, and current status of detainees. The article also compares the committed group with sex offenders in the state's correctional system. The article describes the history and functioning of sex offender commitment programs, and draws implications for policy-makers from the data presented. PMID:10874293

  9. A consumer satisfaction survey of civilly committed sex offenders in Illinois.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Jill S; Prescott, David S; Jumper, Shan

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain feedback from civilly committed sex offenders (N = 113) about the components of treatment that they believed to be most important and helpful in preventing reoffense. Participants were also asked to rate their satisfaction with the treatment process and therapists. Victim empathy and accountability were rated as the most important elements of treatment, along with skills for preventing relapse and methods for controlling sexual arousal. There was a fairly robust correlation between client perceptions of importance and satisfaction on most treatment components. Some clients expressed concerns about respect, confidentiality, and judgmental attitudes of some therapists. Because civilly committed sex offenders are considered to be among the most likely to reoffend, strategies are discussed for engagement of this population in a meaningful process of change. PMID:23362339

  10. Treatment experiences of civilly committed sex offenders: a consumer satisfaction survey.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Jill S; Prescott, David S

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to elicit feedback from sex offenders about the components of treatment that they believed to be most helpful in preventing reoffense. A sample of civilly committed sex offenders from the Sand Ridge Civil Commitment Center in Wisconsin (n = 44) was surveyed about their perceptions of treatment, including content, process, therapists, rules, and completion requirements. Clients were asked to rate the importance of treatment components to their recovery and to rate their satisfaction with the treatment they received for each component. Participants expressed fairly positive sentiments about their treatment experiences, though specific concerns were noted. There was an overall positive correlation between importance of and satisfaction with treatment, but ratings of importance were consistently higher than ratings of satisfaction. Implications for practice and future research are discussed. PMID:18840899

  11. "Brothers Under the Bridge": Factors Influencing the Transience of Registered Sex Offenders in Florida.

    PubMed

    Socia, Kelly M; Levenson, Jill S; Ackerman, Alissa R; Harris, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    The transience of registered sex offenders (RSOs) is a major impediment to reentry success, particularly because it has been linked to increased absconding and recidivism, and thus decreased community safety. Unfortunately, there is limited existing research on what factors most influence this transience. The purpose of this study was to identify and explore the relative influence of factors predicting transience for RSOs. Using data gathered from the Florida sex offender registry and multiple supplemental state and federal data sources, the analysis revealed a number of county- and individual-level characteristics that are associated with the likelihood of RSO transience. At the county level, these include residence restriction coverage, housing affordability, and population density. At the individual level, these include age, minority status, victim type (minor vs. adult), risk level, supervision status, and prior failure to register convictions. Implications for policy and practice are discussed. PMID:24501210

  12. Does adolescent bullying distinguish between male offending trajectories in late middle age?

    PubMed

    Piquero, Alex R; Connell, Nadine M; Piquero, Nicole Leeper; Farrington, David P; Jennings, Wesley G

    2013-03-01

    The perpetration of bullying is a significant issue among researchers, policymakers, and the general public. Although researchers have examined the link between bullying and subsequent antisocial behavior, data and methodological limitations have hampered firm conclusions. This study uses longitudinal data from 411 males in the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development from ages 8 to 56 in order to examine the relationship between adolescent bullying and distinct late middle adulthood trajectories of offending, in which different groups of males follow different offending pathways. Results show that self-reported bullying predicts only certain adult offending trajectories but that the effect becomes insignificant once controls are introduced for childhood risk factors, although this may be due to the small number of the most chronic offenders. Study implications and directions for future research are noted. PMID:23224995

  13. REPLICATIONS AND EXTENSIONS IN AROUSAL ASSESSMENT FOR SEX OFFENDERS WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Jorge R; Vollmer, Timothy R; Hall, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    Three adult male sex offenders with developmental disabilities participated in phallometric assessments that involved repeated measures of arousal when exposed to various stimuli. Arousal assessment outcomes were similar to those obtained by Reyes et al. (2006). Additional data-analysis methods provided further information about sexual preferences, thus replicating and extending previous research. The results provide preliminary data for establishing a preference gradient by age. Implications for the use of repeated measures and preference gradients in arousal assessments are discussed. PMID:21709795

  14. A Systematic Review of Behavioral Health Interventions for Sex Offenders With Intellectual Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Marotta, Phillip L.

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews evaluation studies of programs designed to treat sex offenders with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) published in peer-reviewed journals between 1994 and 2014. The design of this study is mirrored after PRISMA (Preferred Reporting of Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) recommendations for conducting a systematic literature review. The study design, study setting, characteristics of participants, type of treatment, and intervention procedures comprise areas of focus for evaluating the implementation of treatment programs. Therapeutic outcomes include changes in attitudes consistent with sex offending, victim empathy, sexual knowledge, cognitive distortions, and problem sexual behaviors. Eighteen treatment evaluation studies were identified from the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand. Cognitive-behavioral treatments were the most commonly delivered treatment modality to sex offenders with IDD. Other less common treatments were dialectical behavioral therapy, problem solving therapy, mindfulness, and relapse prevention. No randomized controlled trials were identified. The most common designs were multiple case studies and pre- and post-treatment assessments with no control and repeated measures follow-up. Small sample sizes, no control groups, and wide variation in treatment length and follow-up time complicate the qualitative synthesis of study findings. Short follow-up times introduce the potential for bias in conclusions surrounding treatment efficacy for many of the studies reviewed in this analysis. The overall quality of studies examining treatments for sex offenders with IDD is poor and requires further development before rendering firm conclusions about the effectiveness of interventions for this population. PMID:25667227

  15. Trajectories of desistance and continuity in antisocial behavior following court adjudication among serious adolescent offenders.

    PubMed

    Mulvey, Edward P; Steinberg, Laurence; Piquero, Alex R; Besana, Michelle; Fagan, Jeffrey; Schubert, Carol; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2010-05-01

    Because many serious adolescent offenders reduce their antisocial behavior after court involvement, understanding the patterns and mechanisms of the process of desistance from criminal activity is essential for developing effective interventions and legal policy. This study examined patterns of self-reported antisocial behavior over a 3-year period after court involvement in a sample of 1,119 serious male adolescent offenders. Using growth mixture models, and incorporating time at risk for offending in the community, we identified five trajectory groups, including a "persister" group (8.7% of the sample) and a "desister" group (14.6% of the sample). Case characteristics (age, ethnicity, antisocial history, deviant peers, a criminal father, substance use, psychosocial maturity) differentiated the five trajectory groups well, but did not effectively differentiate the persisting from desisting group. We show that even the most serious adolescent offenders report relatively low levels of antisocial activity after court involvement, but that distinguishing effectively between high-frequency offenders who desist and those who persist requires further consideration of potentially important dynamic factors related to this process. PMID:20423553

  16. Trajectories of desistance and continuity in antisocial behavior following court adjudication among serious adolescent offenders

    PubMed Central

    MULVEY, EDWARD P.; STEINBERG, LAURENCE; PIQUERO, ALEX R.; BESANA, MICHELLE; FAGAN, JEFFREY; SCHUBERT, CAROL; CAUFFMAN, ELIZABETH

    2010-01-01

    Because many serious adolescent offenders reduce their antisocial behavior after court involvement, understanding the patterns and mechanisms of the process of desistance from criminal activity is essential for developing effective interventions and legal policy. This study examined patterns of self-reported antisocial behavior over a 3-year period after court involvement in a sample of 1,119 serious male adolescent offenders. Using growth mixture models, and incorporating time at risk for offending in the community, we identified five trajectory groups, including a “persister” group (8.7% of the sample) and a “desister” group (14.6% of the sample). Case characteristics (age, ethnicity, antisocial history, deviant peers, a criminal father, substance use, psychosocial maturity) differentiated the five trajectory groups well, but did not effectively differentiate the persisting from desisting group. We show that even the most serious adolescent offenders report relatively low levels of antisocial activity after court involvement, but that distinguishing effectively between high-frequency offenders who desist and those who persist requires further consideration of potentially important dynamic factors related to this process. PMID:20423553

  17. Sex offenders' response to treatment and its association with recidivism as a function of psychopathy.

    PubMed

    Langton, Calvin M; Barbaree, Howard E; Harkins, Leigh; Peacock, Edward J

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between recidivism and ratings of response to specialized cognitive behavioral treatment conducted in a prison setting among 418 sex offenders released to the community for an average follow-up period of over 5 years. As well as testing for a main effect for treatment ratings, the potential role of psychopathy assessed using the Psychopathy Checklist--Revised (PCL-R) as a moderator of response to treatment was investigated. Ratings of response to treatment failed to predict either serious (violent including sexual) or sexual recidivism. For the more inclusive outcome of serious recidivism, there was no significant interaction between psychopathy and treatment ratings; however, the ubiquitous effect of psychopathy on recidivism was found to be significant. For sexual recidivism, psychopathy was not significant as a main effect, but a significant interaction between psychopathy and treatment ratings was found. Among sex offenders with PCL-R scores of 25 or higher, those with ratings reflecting a more negative response to treatment recidivated sexually at a faster rate than others. This interaction effect was not significant when treatment noncompleters were removed from the data set. The results were discussed in terms of the methodology involved in the assessment of response to treatment among sex offenders. PMID:16598661

  18. A community service for high-risk mentally disordered sex offenders: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Craissati, Jackie; Blundell, Rachel

    2013-04-01

    There is sparse literature on mentally disordered sex offenders, and little is published on treatment participation and outcomes for this group. This article aims to describe the characteristics of a cohort of high-risk mentally disordered-largely personality disordered-sex offenders at risk in the community in southeast London. Drawing on various measures of personality dysfunction-including key developmental variables, a self-report personality disorder questionnaire Millon Clinical Multi-axial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) and psychopathy as measured by the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV)-the researchers describe the characteristics of a cohort of mentally disordered sex offenders referred to the Challenge project. Follow-up data for those placed in treatment are reported and include consideration of treatment completion and reconviction: the relationship between personality dysfunction and a dynamic measure of risk are also explored. Of the 137 participants, 53% were placed in the community treatment project. Seventy five percent completed treatment, and were followed up for an average of 40 months. Eleven percent were sexually reconvicted, 3% violently reconvicted. Community failure was best predicted by a combination of static risk and personality-related variables. PMID:23315709

  19. Sex Differences in the Adolescent Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenroot, Rhoshel K.; Giedd, Jay N.

    2010-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of increased divergence between males and females in physical characteristics, behavior, and risk for psychopathology. Here we will review data regarding sex differences in brain structure and function during this period of the lifespan. The most consistent sex difference in brain morphometry is the 9-12% larger brain size…

  20. Child sex tourism: extending the borders of sexual offender legislation.

    PubMed

    Newman, William J; Holt, Ben W; Rabun, John S; Phillips, Gary; Scott, Charles L

    2011-01-01

    Child sex tourism, the act of traveling to engage in sexual acts with minors, plagues developing nations worldwide. Several laws have been passed internationally in recent years designed to curtail this practice. Government entities and human rights organizations have driven these efforts. United States citizens represent a significant proportion of participants in child sex tourism. The PROTECT Act of 2003 prohibits United States citizens from participating in sexual acts with minors while traveling, and establishes extraterritorial jurisdiction. The case of Michael Lewis Clark, the first United States citizen convicted under this legislation, is highlighted. Child sex tourism poses unique issues to courts that will require ongoing clarification as challenges arise. This article discusses potential future challenges, describes strategies to address this problem, and relates this issue to psychiatry. Mental health providers may have the role of evaluating both the victims and perpetrators of child sex tourism. The authors propose a classification system for offenses and an initial list of topics to discuss with victims. The authors also describe the proper mechanism for reporting United States citizens suspected of participating in child sex tourism. PMID:21420172

  1. Alcohol Use and Delinquency among Black, White and Hispanic Adolescent Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawkins, Russell L.; Dawkins, Marvin P.

    1983-01-01

    Examined the relationship between drinking and criminal behavior among 342 adolescent offenders. Results showed drinking is strongly associated with minor offenses. Relative to background and behavioral factors, drinking is the strongest single predictor of serious criminal offenses among Blacks, with less importance for whites and little…

  2. The Use of Adventure-Based Therapy in Work with Adolescents Who Have Sexually Offended.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayment, Susan

    The Sexual Abuse Counselling Service is a unit within the Department of Families, Youth, and Community Care in Queensland, Australia, that operates a counseling program for adolescent sexual offenders. Clients are expected to participate in individual and group counseling sessions, and family counseling sessions where appropriate. The group…

  3. Growing Up behind Bars: An Ethnographic Study of Adolescent Inmates in a Cottage for Violent Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inderbitzin, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to direct attention inside the walls of a juvenile correctional facility to closely examine the experiences and daily lives of adolescent inmates. The ethnographic data for this study were collected through participant-observation and extended interactions in a cottage for violent male offenders in one state's…

  4. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Adolescent Offenders with Mental Health Problems in Custody

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Paul; Smedley, Kirsty; Kenning, Cassandra; McKee, Amy; Woods, Debbie; Rennie, Charlotte E.; Bell, Rachel V.; Aryamanesh, Mitra; Dolan, Mairead

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have identified high levels of mental health problems among adolescents in custody and there is increasing evidence that mental health problems in this population are associated with further offending and mental health problems into adulthood. Despite recent improvements in mental health provision within custodial settings there is…

  5. THEORY AND RESEARCH ON DESISTANCE FROM ANTISOCIAL ACTIVITY AMONG SERIOUS ADOLESCENT OFFENDERS.

    PubMed

    Mulvey, Edward P; Steinberg, Laurence; Fagan, Jeffrey; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Piquero, Alex R; Chassin, Laurie; Knight, George P; Brame, Robert; Schubert, Carol A; Hecker, Thomas; Losoya, Sandra H

    2004-07-01

    Improving juvenile court decision making requires information about how serious adolescent offenders desist from antisocial activity. A systematic research agenda on this topic requires consideration of several processes, including normative development in late adolescence, what constitutes desistance, and the factors likely to promote the end of involvement in antisocial behavior and successful adjustment in early adulthood. This article presents an overview of the major points to consider in pursuing this research agenda. PMID:20119505

  6. THEORY AND RESEARCH ON DESISTANCE FROM ANTISOCIAL ACTIVITY AMONG SERIOUS ADOLESCENT OFFENDERS

    PubMed Central

    Mulvey, Edward P.; Steinberg, Laurence; Fagan, Jeffrey; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Piquero, Alex R.; Chassin, Laurie; Knight, George P.; Brame, Robert; Schubert, Carol A.; Hecker, Thomas; Losoya, Sandra H.

    2009-01-01

    Improving juvenile court decision making requires information about how serious adolescent offenders desist from antisocial activity. A systematic research agenda on this topic requires consideration of several processes, including normative development in late adolescence, what constitutes desistance, and the factors likely to promote the end of involvement in antisocial behavior and successful adjustment in early adulthood. This article presents an overview of the major points to consider in pursuing this research agenda. PMID:20119505

  7. Development of adolescence-limited, late-onset, and persistent offenders from age 8 to age 48.

    PubMed

    Farrington, David P; Ttofi, Maria M; Coid, Jeremy W

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the life success at ages 32 and 48 of four categories of males: nonoffenders, adolescence-limited offenders (convicted only at ages 10-20), late-onset offenders (convicted only at ages 21-50), and persistent offenders (convicted at both ages 10-20 and 21-50). In the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development, 411 South London males have been followed up from age 8 to 48 in repeated personal interviews. There was considerable continuity in offending over time. Persistent offenders had the longest criminal careers (averaging 18.4 years), and most of them had convictions for violence. Persistent offenders were leading the most unsuccessful lives at ages 32 and 48, although all categories of males became more successful with age. By age 48, the life success of adolescence-limited offenders was similar to that of nonoffenders. The most important risk factors at ages 8-18 that predicted which offenders would persist after age 21 were heavy drinking at age 18, hyperactivity at ages 12-14, and low popularity and harsh discipline at ages 8-10. The most important risk factors that predicted which nonoffenders would onset after age 21 were poor housing and low nonverbal IQ at ages 8-10, high neuroticism at age 16, and anti-establishment attitudes and motoring convictions at age 18. It was suggested that nervousness and neuroticism may have protected children at risk from offending in adolescence and the teenage years. PMID:19172660

  8. Appeals panel vacates sentence of HIV-positive sex offender.

    PubMed

    1998-02-20

    The Ohio Court of Appeals rejected [name removed]'s arguments for a lighter sentence, but remanded the case for resentencing on other grounds. [Name removed] pleaded guilty to one count of corrupting a minor, a plea bargain with prosecutors in which they dropped rape and kidnapping charges. The case involved oral sex with a 13-year-old boy in which [name removed] did not disclose his HIV-positive status. The lower court erred in neglecting to explain its reason for giving [name removed] the maximum allowable sentence, and should not have raised Megan's Law concerns, as the crime took place before that statute was enacted. This was [name removed]'s first offense for a sex crime. PMID:11365098

  9. Adolescent Fathers Who Are Incarcerated Juvenile Offenders: Explanatory Study of the Co-Occurrence of Two Problem Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unruh, Deanne; Bullis, Michael; Yovanoff, Paul

    2004-01-01

    We identify explanatory risk variables associated with the co-occurrence of two problem behaviors: juvenile offending and adolescent fatherhood. Data were gathered from a 5-year prospective, longitudinal study of 531 incarcerated juvenile offenders as they transitioned from youth correction facilities back into the community. Of the total sample,…

  10. Evaluation of a community-based sex offender treatment program using a good lives model approach.

    PubMed

    Harkins, Leigh; Flak, Vanja E; Beech, Anthony R; Woodhams, Jessica

    2012-12-01

    In this study the authors assessed a Good Lives model (GLM) approach to sex offender treatment and compare it to a standard Relapse Prevention program. The comparisons examined (a) attrition rates, (b) treatment change in areas targeted in treatment and achievement of a posttreatment treated profile, and (c) views of offenders and facilitators. There were no differences in the attrition rates or the rates of treatment change between the two programs, indicating that they were equally effective at retaining participants and achieving change on areas targeted within treatment. Both facilitators and program participants reported the Good Lives approach module's impact in a positive, future-focused manner. In contrast, those who attended the Relapse Prevention module did not report their perceptions and motivations in a manner that was focused on the positives in their future as frequently as those who attended the module with the Good Lives model approach. PMID:22291046

  11. Sex offender modus operandi stability and relationship with actuarial risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Lasher, Michael P; McGrath, Robert J; Cumming, Georgia F

    2015-03-01

    Three studies conducted in Vermont yielded data on 82 sexual recidivists' index offenses (Time 1) and sexual reoffenses (Time 2) across 16 modus operandi (MO) characteristics. The current study examines the stability of these 16 characteristics between Time 1 and Time 2 offenses. Probabilities of Time 1-Time 2 characteristic combinations are reported, including when controlling for static risk as measured by the Static-99R and Vermont Assessment of Sex Offender Risk-2 (VASOR-2). Overall, considerable stability of offenders' MO was evident between Time 1 and Time 2 offenses. Victim characteristics and offense behaviors were the most stable MO characteristics, and degree of force used and victim injury were less stable and trended toward less forceful and less injurious reoffenses. Controlling for static risk had little impact on the patterns of MO stability. PMID:24958134

  12. 75 FR 81849 - Office of the Attorney General; Applicability of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... sex offense occurred prior to the enactment of SORNA.'' 72 FR at 8896. The rule noted that this issue... sexual nature. See 42 U.S.C. 16911(5)-(8); 73 FR at 38037, 38051-52. Within the class of ``sex offender... is considered. See 72 FR at 8896-97 (noting frustration of SORNA's public safety objectives if...

  13. The consumption of Internet child pornography and violent and sex offending

    PubMed Central

    Endrass, Jérôme; Urbaniok, Frank; Hammermeister, Lea C; Benz, Christian; Elbert, Thomas; Laubacher, Arja; Rossegger, Astrid

    2009-01-01

    Background There is an ongoing debate on whether consumers of child pornography pose a risk for hands-on sex offenses. Up until now, there have been very few studies which have analyzed the association between the consumption of child pornography and the subsequent perpetration of hands-on sex offenses. The aim of this study was to examine the recidivism rates for hands-on and hands-off sex offenses in a sample of child pornography users using a 6 year follow-up design. Methods The current study population consisted of 231 men, who were subsequently charged with consumption of illegal pornographic material after being detected by a special operation against Internet child pornography, conducted by the Swiss police in 2002. Criminal history, as well as recidivism, was assessed using the criminal records from 2008. Results 4.8% (n = 11) of the study sample had a prior conviction for a sexual and/or violent offense, 1% (n = 2) for a hands-on sex offense, involving child sexual abuse, 3.3% (n = 8) for a hands-off sex offense and one for a nonsexual violent offense. When applying a broad definition of recidivism, which included ongoing investigations, charges and convictions, 3% (n = 7) of the study sample recidivated with a violent and/or sex offense, 3.9% (n = 9) with a hands-off sex offense and 0.8% (n = 2) with a hands-on sex offense. Conclusion Consuming child pornography alone is not a risk factor for committing hands-on sex offenses – at least not for those subjects who had never committed a hands-on sex offense. The majority of the investigated consumers had no previous convictions for hands-on sex offenses. For those offenders, the prognosis for hands-on sex offenses, as well as for recidivism with child pornography, is favorable. PMID:19602221

  14. The Adolescent Sexual Abuser Project (ASAP) Assessment Measures-Dutch Revised Version: A Comparison of Personality Characteristics between Juvenile Sex Offenders, Juvenile Perpetrators of Non-Sexual Violent Offences and Non-Delinquent Youth in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Outsem, Ron; Beckett, Richard; Bullens, Ruud; Vermeiren, Robert; van Horn, Joan; Doreleijers, Theo

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the Adolescent Sexual Abuser Project (ASAP) assessment pack-Dutch Revised Version (ASAP-D) is presented. The ASAP-D is an assessment instrument which measures the personality characteristics that are generally considered relevant in the literature for the development and perpetuation of sexually abusive behaviour in juveniles. After…

  15. Examining the substance use patterns and treatment needs of incarcerated sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Peugh, J; Belenko, S

    2001-07-01

    Using data from a Bureau of Justice Statistics' national prison inmate survey, this paper analyzes alcohol and drug use and abuse patterns among men incarcerated in state prison for sex crimes. Of the 13,986 inmates in the sample, 11.5% were incarcerated for a sex offense. Two thirds were substance-involved, meaning that they were under the influence of alcohol or drugs at the time of their crime, had committed a crime to get money for drugs, had histories of regular illegal drug use, had received treatment for alcoholism, or shared some combination of these characteristics. The level and type of substance-involvement was related to age and race, to history of victimization, and to victim characteristics. We discuss the implications of these findings for correctional program interventions, including assessing drug and alcohol problems, availability of substance abuse treatment for sex offenders, and the conjunction of such treatment with other programs. PMID:11486712

  16. A comparison of the predictive properties of nine sex offender risk assessment instruments.

    PubMed

    Smid, Wineke J; Kamphuis, Jan H; Wever, Edwin C; Van Beek, Daniël J

    2014-09-01

    Sex offender treatment is most effective when tailored to risk-need-responsivity principles, which dictate that treatment levels should match risk levels as assessed by structured risk assessment instruments. The predictive properties, missing values, and interrater agreement of the scores of 9 structured risk assessment instruments were compared in a national sample of 397 Dutch convicted sex offenders. The instruments included the Rapid Risk Assessment for Sexual Offense Recidivism, Static-99, Static-99R, a slightly modified version of Static-2002 and Static-2002R, Structured Anchored Clinical Judgments Minimum, Risk Matrix 2000, Sexual Violence Risk 20, and a modified version of the Sex Offender Risk Appraisal Guide; sexual and violent (including sexual) recidivism was assessed over 5- and 10-year fixed and variable follow-up periods. In general, the instrument scores showed moderate to large predictive accuracy for the occurrence of reoffending and the number of reoffenses in this sample. Predictive accuracy regarding latency showed more variability across instrument scores. Static-2002R and Static-99R scores showed a slight but consistent advantage in predictive properties over the other instrument scores across outcome measures and follow-up periods in this sample. The results of Sexual Violence Risk 20 and Rapid Risk Assessment for Sexual Offense Recidivism scores were the least positive. A positive association between predictive accuracy and interrater agreement at the item level was found for both sexual recidivism (r = .28, p = .01) and violent (including sexual) recidivism (r = .45, p < .001); no significant association was found between predictive accuracy and missing values at the item level. Results underscore the feasibility and utility of these instruments for informing treatment selection according to the risk-need-responsivity principles. PMID:24773035

  17. Exploring sex disparity in sentencing outcomes: a focus on narcotics offenders in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Richard D; Kwak, Dae-Hoon; Park, Mirang; Lee, Min-Sik

    2011-04-01

    Most research on sentencing outcomes reveals that legally relevant factors such as the seriousness of the offense and prior criminal record are primary determinants. There is, however, a substantial body of research that finds that extralegal factors such as a defendant's sex also influence these outcomes. Most of these latter studies conclude that female defendants receive less severe outcomes compared to their male counterparts. Most of this research, however, is limited to Western societies. To extend this body of research, the current study examines sex differences in sentencing practices for a sample of narcotics offenders in South Korea. Results support previous research; female drug offenders in South Korea are generally treated more leniently than their male counterparts. Tests for interaction effects reveal that the defendant's sex also interacts with other constellations of factors to produce lenient treatment for certain female defendants. These tests, however, also reveal that lenient sentence outcomes are not extended to all female defendants; those with prior drug convictions do not fare better than their male counterparts at the incarceration decision. PMID:20142625

  18. Psychopathic traits and offender characteristics – a nationwide consecutive sample of homicidal male adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Nina; Laajasalo, Taina; Holi, Matti; Putkonen, Hanna; Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helinä

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to evaluate psychopathy-like personality traits in a nationwide consecutive sample of adolescent male homicide offenders and to compare the findings with those of a randomly sampled adult male homicide offender group. A further aim was to investigate associations between psychopathic traits and offender and offence characteristics in adolescent homicides. Methods Forensic psychiatric examination reports and crime reports of all 15 to19- year- old male Finnish offenders who had been subjected to a forensic psychiatric examination and convicted for a homicide during 1995–2004 were collected (n = 57). A random sample of 57 adult male homicide offenders was selected as a comparison group. Offence and offender characteristics were collected from the files and a file-based assessment of psychopathic traits was performed using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) by trained raters. Results No significant differences existed between the adolescents and adults in PCL-R total scores, factor 2 (social deviance) scores, or in facets 3 (lifestyle) and 4 (antisocial). Adults scored significantly higher on factor 1 (interpersonal/affective) and facets 1 (interpersonal) and 2 (affective). The adolescent group was divided into two subgroups according to PCL-R total scores. One in five homicidal male adolescents met criteria for psychopathic personality using a PCL-R total score of 26 or higher. These boys significantly more often had a crime history before the index homicide, more frequently used excessive violence during the index homicide, more rarely lived with both parents until 16 years of age, had more institutional or foster home placements in childhood, had more school difficulties, more often had received special education, and, more often had contact with mental health services prior to age 18 years than boys scoring low on the PCL-R. They also more often had parental criminal history as well as homicide history of parents

  19. An Exploratory Evaluation of the Ward and Hudson Offending Pathways Model with Sex Offenders Who Have Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langdon, Peter E.; Maxted, Helen; Murphy, Glynis H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: It was predicted that offenders with intellectual disability (ID) categorised according to Ward & Hudson's (1998b) self-regulation theory as having an "Approach" goal would have higher levels of distorted cognitions, less victim empathy, and a history of more prolific offending compared to those with an "Avoidant" goal. Offenders…

  20. Sex offender polygraph examination: an evidence-based case management tool for social workers.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Jill S

    2009-10-01

    This article will review the use of polygraphy in the assessment and treatment of sexual perpetrators. Such information can be utilized by social workers who are involved in the treatment and case management of child sexual abuse cases. First, the controversial literature regarding the validity and reliability of polygraph examination in general will be reviewed. Next, an emerging body of evidence supporting the utility of polygraph testing with sex offenders will be discussed. Finally, ways that social workers can incorporate this knowledge into their case management and clinical roles will be offered. PMID:20183683

  1. Evaluating outpatient behavior therapy of sex offenders. A pretest-posttest study.

    PubMed

    Crolley, J; Roys, D; Thyer, B A; Bordnick, P S

    1998-10-01

    This study compared the entrance and exit scores of 16 patients completing treatment at the Highland Institute for Behavioral Change (HIBC), an outpatient program specializing in the behavioral treatment of sex offenders. Outcome measures included the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), the Multiphasic Sexual Inventory, and recidivism (rearrest record) posttreatment. Statistically significant and clinical improvements were obtained on a number of these measures. One of the 16 graduates reoffended during the average follow-up period of 26 months (he is now incarcerated). These data are supportive of the contention that outpatient behavior therapy can be effective in reducing deviant sexual arousal and in enhancing appropriate consensual sexual behavior. PMID:9755648

  2. Rational Choice and Developmental Influences on Recidivism Among Adolescent Felony Offenders.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Jeffrey; Piquero, Alex R

    2007-12-01

    Recent case law and social science both have claimed that the developmental limitations of adolescents affect their capacity for control and decision making with respect to crime, diminishing their culpability and reducing their exposure to punishment. Social science has focused on two concurrent adolescent developmental influences: the internalization of legal rules and norms that regulate social and antisocial behaviors, and the development of rationality to frame behavioral choices and decisions. The interaction of these two developmental processes, and the identification of one domain of socialization and development as the primary source of motivation or restraint in adolescence, is the focus of this article. Accordingly, we combine rational choice and legal socialization frameworks into an integrated, developmental model of criminality. We test this framework in a large sample of adolescent felony offenders who have been interviewed at six-month intervals for two years. Using hierarchical and growth curve models, we show that both legal socialization and rational choice factors influence patterns of criminal offending over time. When punishment risks and costs are salient, crime rates are lower over time. We show that procedural justice is a significant antecedent of legal socialization, but not of rational choice. We also show that both mental health and developmental maturity moderate the effects of perceived crime risks and costs on criminal offending. PMID:20148123

  3. Rational Choice and Developmental Influences on Recidivism Among Adolescent Felony Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Jeffrey; Piquero, Alex R.

    2009-01-01

    Recent case law and social science both have claimed that the developmental limitations of adolescents affect their capacity for control and decision making with respect to crime, diminishing their culpability and reducing their exposure to punishment. Social science has focused on two concurrent adolescent developmental influences: the internalization of legal rules and norms that regulate social and antisocial behaviors, and the development of rationality to frame behavioral choices and decisions. The interaction of these two developmental processes, and the identification of one domain of socialization and development as the primary source of motivation or restraint in adolescence, is the focus of this article. Accordingly, we combine rational choice and legal socialization frameworks into an integrated, developmental model of criminality. We test this framework in a large sample of adolescent felony offenders who have been interviewed at six-month intervals for two years. Using hierarchical and growth curve models, we show that both legal socialization and rational choice factors influence patterns of criminal offending over time. When punishment risks and costs are salient, crime rates are lower over time. We show that procedural justice is a significant antecedent of legal socialization, but not of rational choice. We also show that both mental health and developmental maturity moderate the effects of perceived crime risks and costs on criminal offending. PMID:20148123

  4. "It's Intense, to an Extent": A Qualitative Study of the Emotional Challenges Faced by Staff Working on a Treatment Programme for Intellectually Disabled Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandhu, Daljit K.; Rose, John; Rostill-Brookes, Helen J.; Thrift, Su

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study explores the emotional challenges faced by staff working on a sex offender treatment programme for people with an intellectual disability. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with eight participants working on a treatment programme for sex offenders with an intellectual disability. Interviews were analysed…

  5. Sex Offender Registration: Balancing the Rights of the Individual with the Public Good--A Commentary on Comartin, Kernsmith, and Miles (2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Carol D.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's comments on the article "Family Experiences of Young Adult Sex Offender Registration" by E. B. Comartin, P. D. Kernsmith, & P. W. Miles (2010). In the article "Family Experiences of Young Adult Sex Offender Registration", Comartin, Kernsmith, and Miles (2010) put forth a telling argument about the impact of the…

  6. Civil commitment of sex offenders to mental institutions: should the standard be based on serious mental illness or mental disorder?

    PubMed

    Alexander, R

    2000-01-01

    Civil commitment to mental institutions requires that an individual be both seriously mentally ill and dangerous. This principle is erroneously being applied to incarcerated sex offenders nearing release from prison under the theory that they have antisocial personalities or paraphilia disorders, which are called mental illnesses. However, the mental health and legal communities are at odds regarding the use of a diagnosis of personality disorder or paraphilia to justify civil commitment. The author reviews the differences between serious mental illness and mental disorder, the flaws with assessing sex offenders as mentally ill, and the ethical dilemma for social workers employed in mental hospitals. PMID:10557893

  7. Is a Risky Lifestyle Always "Risky"? The Interaction between Individual Propensity and Lifestyle Risk in Adolescent Offending: A Test in Two Urban Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Robert; Pauwels, Lieven

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effects on adolescent offending of lifestyle risk and the individual propensity to offend. It is assumed that lifestyle risk will have a more important effect on offending for those individuals with high levels of individual propensity, whereas for individuals with low levels of individual propensity it is assumed that a…

  8. Sex, Sexuality, Sexting, and SexEd: Adolescents and the Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jane D.; Keller, Sarah; Stern, Susannah

    2009-01-01

    The traditional media (television, radio, movies, magazines) and new, digital media (the Internet, Social Networking Sites such as Facebook and Myspace, and cell phones) have become important sex educators for adolescents. Adolescents in the United States spend six to seven hours a day with some form of media, often using more than one kind…

  9. Using logistic regression modeling to predict sexual recidivism: the Minnesota Sex Offender Screening Tool-3 (MnSOST-3).

    PubMed

    Duwe, Grant; Freske, Pamela J

    2012-08-01

    This study presents the results from efforts to revise the Minnesota Sex Offender Screening Tool-Revised (MnSOST-R), one of the most widely used sex offender risk-assessment tools. The updated instrument, the MnSOST-3, contains nine individual items, six of which are new. The population for this study consisted of the cross-validation sample for the MnSOST-R (N = 220) and a contemporary sample of 2,315 sex offenders released from Minnesota prisons between 2003 and 2006. To score and select items for the MnSOST-3, we used predicted probabilities generated from a multiple logistic regression model. We used bootstrap resampling to not only refine our selection of predictors but also internally validate the model. The results indicate the MnSOST-3 has a relatively high level of predictive discrimination, as evidenced by an apparent AUC of .821 and an optimism-corrected AUC of .796. The findings show the MnSOST-3 is well calibrated with actual recidivism rates for all but the highest risk offenders. Although estimating a penalized maximum likelihood model did not improve the overall calibration, the results suggest the MnSOST-3 may still be useful in helping identify high-risk offenders whose sexual recidivism risk exceeds 50%. Results from an interrater reliability assessment indicate the instrument, which is scored in a Microsoft Excel application, has an adequate degree of consistency across raters (ICC = .83 for both consistency and absolute agreement). PMID:22291047

  10. A longitudinal assessment of the victim-offender overlap.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Wesley G; Higgins, George E; Tewksbury, Richard; Gover, Angela R; Piquero, Alex R

    2010-12-01

    Although research has established an offending/victimization overlap and that offenders and victims share similar characteristics, much less work has examined the longitudinal sequencing of victimization and offending in the same developmental period and whether key risk/protective factors significantly distinguish both offenders and victims.This study uses longitudinal data from a large sample of adolescents to examine these issues and does so using a novel methodological approach, the trajectory methodology, which allows for the examination of covariation between offending and victimization. Results indicate that there is a considerable degree of overlap between victims of physical violence and offenders over time and that certain covariates including school commitment, parental monitoring, low self-control, and sex significantly discriminate victim and offender groups. Furthermore, low self-control appears to be the most salient risk factor for distinguishing both victimization and delinquency trajectories.Theoretical and policy implications and directions for future research are identified. PMID:20068116

  11. Adolescent Boys’ Experiences of First Sex

    PubMed Central

    Ghani, Nadia; McKenzie, Fatima; Rosenberger, Joshua G.; Bell, David L.

    2012-01-01

    There are limited contextual data regarding first sexual experiences of younger adolescent men. Yet these data that are needed to inform STI and early fatherhood prevention efforts, particularly in lower income communities. Using qualitative methods, 14 adolescent men (ages 14–16, all low income, most African American) from a mid-sized U.S. city were asked about relationships and sexual experiences in a one hour face-to-face semi-structured interview, with two follow-up interviews at 6–9 month intervals. Story-telling was encouraged. Descriptions of first sex were identified, and then analysed for narrative structure and shared concepts. The dominant narrative of first sex proceeded through three steps: (1) Preparation, which involved identification of a sexualised space, mentoring by an older man, and pre-planning; (2) the event, which involved looking for cues indicating sexual interest and consent from a female partner, feelings of fear/nervousness, and first sex itself; and (3) afterwards, which involved a return to prior activities, minimal verbal exchange and a general positive feeling, sometimes accompanied by later disappointment. Mentorship, initiation by the female, and idealising sex as a romantic experience, played important roles in constructing the context of first sex. These factors should be incorporated in harm-reduction interventions for young men in similar contexts. PMID:22762432

  12. Predatory Online Behavior: Modus Operandi of Convicted Sex Offenders in Identifying Potential Victims and Contacting Minors over the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malesky, L. Alvin, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Sex offenders have used the Internet to identify and contact minors for sexual exploitation (Armagh, 1998; Hernandez, 2000; Lamb, 1998; Lanning, 1998). Yet little is known about how these individuals select their online victims. In order to gain a better understanding of this behavior, the online activity of 31 men who perpetrated or attempted to…

  13. The Influence of Sex Offender Registration and Notification Laws in the United States: A Time-Series Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez, Bob Edward; Maddan, Sean; Walker, Jeffery T.

    2008-01-01

    Although federal legislation for the implementation of sex offender registration and notification systems is now a decade old, empirical studies on the efficacy of this policy are relatively nonextant. This article explores the impact of registration legislation on the incidence of forcible rapes. Using monthly count data of rapes aggregated at…

  14. Seven-Year Life Outcomes of Adolescent Offenders in Los Angeles

    PubMed Central

    Morral, Andrew R.; Becker, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We examined important life outcomes for adolescent offenders to describe how they were faring in young adulthood. Methods. We assessed 449 adolescent offenders (aged 13–17 years) in Los Angeles, CA, whose cases had been adjudicated by the Los Angeles Superior Court and who had been referred to group homes between February 1999 and May 2000. We used the Global Appraisal of Individual Needs to interview respondents at baseline and at 3, 6, 12, 72, and 87 months after baseline. A total of 395 respondents (88%) were interviewed or confirmed as dead at the final interview. Results. At final interview, 12 respondents had died, 7 of them from gunshot wounds. Thirty-six percent of respondents reported recent hard drug use, and 27% reported 5 or more symptoms of substance dependence. Sixty-six percent reported committing an illegal activity within the previous year, 37% reported being arrested within the previous year, and 25% reported being in jail or prison every day for the previous 90 days. Fifty-eight percent had completed high school or obtained a GED, and 63% reported working at a job in the previous year. Conclusions. The high rates of negative life outcomes presented here suggest the need for more effective rehabilitation programs for juvenile offenders. PMID:19299674

  15. Predicting sex offender treatment entry among individuals convicted of sexual offense crimes.

    PubMed

    Jones, Nicole; Pelissier, Bernadette; Klein-Saffran, Jody

    2006-01-01

    This study examined what factors were predictive of who volunteers for sex offender treatment (self-selection) as well as who enters treatment after volunteering (administration selection). Research participants included 404 treatment volunteers and 387 nonvolunteers to treatment who were convicted of a sexual offense involving minors within the federal prison system. Maximum likelihood probit estimation procedures indicated that when compared with nonvolunteers, treatment volunteers were more likely to be recommended by a judge to receive treatment at the time of sentencing, had received prior treatment for sexually deviant behavior, reported higher levels of motivation to change their sexually deviant behavior, and had lower rates of a substance use disorder in the year prior to incarceration. Of those persons who initially volunteered, 62% were accepted and entered treatment, 16% were denied entry to treatment by program staff, and 22% refused treatment after being accepted to the waiting list. When compared with those who were accepted and entered treatment, motivation was the only predictor of being denied admission into treatment by program staff and for refusal of treatment once accepted. The findings emphasize the need to control for selection bias in treatment outcome studies and the importance of examining the role of motivation in treatment volunteerism and treatment entry for sexual offenders. PMID:16763760

  16. A prospective investigation of factors that predict desistance from recidivism for adolescents who have sexually offended.

    PubMed

    Worling, James R; Langton, Calvin M

    2015-02-01

    Current approaches to violence risk assessment are focused on the identification of factors that are predictive of future violence rather than factors that predict desistance. This is also true for the popular tools designed to predict adolescent sexual recidivism. Research on strengths-based variables with adolescents who have sexually offended that could serve a protective function is only recently underway. In the current prospective study, scores from clinician-completed assessments using the Estimate of Risk of Adolescent Sexual Offense Recidivism (ERASOR) and the parent-completed form of the Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale (BERS-2) were evaluated in a sample of 81 adolescent males with at least one sexual offense. As expected, the ERASOR was significantly correlated with sexual recidivism over an average 3.5-year follow-up. In terms of a protective function, the Affective Strength scale of the BERS-2 was significantly negatively correlated with sexual recidivism, although it did not have incremental validity over and above the ERASOR. The BERS-2 School Functioning scale was significantly negatively correlated with nonsexual recidivism. The results are discussed in terms of previous findings and theoretical work on attachment in sexual offending behavior and implications for risk assessment practice. PMID:25201880

  17. An exploration of crossover sexual offending.

    PubMed

    Kleban, Holly; Chesin, Megan S; Jeglic, Elizabeth L; Mercado, Cynthia Calkins

    2013-10-01

    Studies have produced equivocal findings regarding whether sex offenders are stable in their choice of victims. Indeed, it remains unclear whether a sex offender's subsequent victims are typically of the same gender, age range, and victim-perpetrator relationship as that of the initial victim. Although some differences may be attributed to methodological disparities, others are not. This study sought to clarify this question by examining the tendency of sex offenders to switch from one type of victim to another, both within an index offense and across offenses and all victims. Archival records of 789 incarcerated sex offenders were examined. Of those offenders who had multiple victims at the index offense (n = 279), 13% had victims of both genders, 14% had victims in different age categories (child, adolescent, and adult), and 13% had varying relationships with the victims (i.e., family member, acquaintance, or stranger). When the records of those with past sexual convictions were examined (n = 208), 20% of offenders had a prior victim of a different gender; 40% crossed over across age categories, and 48% of the repeat offenders had varying relationships with the victim across convictions. Offenders who had both male and female victims and offenders who had victims of varied relationship status across crimes had higher Static-99 risk scores than offenders who were more stable with regard to victim selection. These findings are compared to those of previous studies, focusing on how these results add clarity to a previous literature whose conclusions were challenged by the use of disparate sampling and research methodologies. PMID:23144168

  18. Community management of sex offenders with intellectual disabilities: characteristics, services, and outcome of a statewide program.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Robert J; Livingston, Joy A; Falk, Gail

    2007-12-01

    The state of Vermont closed its only institution for persons with intellectual disabilities in 1993 and moved to a totally community-based model of services. Here we describe the characteristics of the near exhaustive statewide sample of adult male sex offenders with intellectual disabilities (N=103) who received these services between 1993 and 2004, discuss these services, and examine the sexual recidivism rates of the sample. Over an average follow-up period of 5.8 years, 10.7% of the sample was identified as having sexually reoffended. Most reoffenses were noncontact, and most victims were staff members, relatives, or housemates of the abuser. Results are discussed in terms of their clinical, policy, and research implications. PMID:17997615

  19. Quantifying the relative risk of sex offenders: risk ratios for static-99R.

    PubMed

    Hanson, R Karl; Babchishin, Kelly M; Helmus, Leslie; Thornton, David

    2013-10-01

    Given the widespread use of empirical actuarial risk tools in corrections and forensic mental health, it is important that evaluators and decision makers understand how scores relate to recidivism risk. In the current study, we found strong evidence for a relative risk interpretation of Static-99R scores using 8 samples from Canada, United Kingdom, and Western Europe (N = 4,037 sex offenders). Each increase in Static-99R score was associated with a stable and consistent increase in relative risk (as measured by an odds ratio or hazard ratio of approximately 1.4). Hazard ratios from Cox regression were used to calculate risk ratios that can be reported for Static-99R. We recommend that evaluators consider risk ratios as a useful, nonarbitrary metric for quantifying and communicating risk information. To avoid misinterpretation, however, risk ratios should be presented with recidivism base rates. PMID:23264543

  20. Predicting Recidivism with the Personality Assessment Inventory in a Sample of Sex Offenders Screened for Civil Commitment as Sexually Violent Predators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boccaccini, Marcus T.; Murrie, Daniel C.; Hawes, Samuel W.; Simpler, Amber; Johnson, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    We examined the ability of scores from the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) to predict postrelease (M = 4.90 years follow-up) arrests in a sample of 1,412 sex offenders. We focused on scores from 4 PAI measures conceptually relevant to offending, including the Antisocial Features (ANT), Aggression (AGG), and Dominance (DOM)…

  1. "They Treat Us Like Human Beings"--Experiencing a Therapeutic Sex Offenders Prison: Impact on Prisoners and Staff and Implications for Treatment.

    PubMed

    Blagden, Nicholas; Winder, Belinda; Hames, Charlie

    2016-03-01

    Research evidence demonstrates that sex offender treatment programmes (SOTPs) can reduce the number of sex offenders who are reconvicted. However, there has been much less empirical research exploring the experiences and perspectives of the prison environment within which treatment takes place. This is important, particularly for sexual offenders, as they often face multiple stigmas in prison. This study used a mixed-methods approach to explore the experiences of prisoners and staff at a therapeutically orientated sexual offenders' prison to understand whether the prison environment was conducive to rehabilitation. The quantitative strand of the research sampled prisoners (n = 112) and staff (n = 48) from a therapeutically orientated sex offenders prison. This strand highlighted that both prisoners and staff had positive attitudes toward offenders and high beliefs that offenders could change. Importantly, the climate was rated positively and, in particular, participants had very high ratings of "experienced safety." The qualitative strand of the research consisted of semistructured interviews with prisoners (n = 15) and a range of prison staff (n = 16). The qualitative analysis revealed positive prisoner views toward staff relationships, with most participants articulating that the prison and its staff had contributed to positive change in prisoners. Crucially, the environment was perceived as safe and allowed prisoners "headspace" to work through problems and contemplate change. This research offers some support to the notion that context is important for sex offender rehabilitation. PMID:25305193

  2. Developmental Trajectories of Offending for Male Adolescents Leaving Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Joseph P.; Hernandez, Pedro M.; Herz, Denise

    2007-01-01

    The difficulties that adolescents encounter as they age out of the foster care system are numerous and fairly well documented. Such difficulties include poor health, lack of affordable housing, low-wage employment, limited educational opportunities, and unreliable or nonexistent familial support. These difficulties often increase the likelihood of…

  3. Sentencing Male Sex Offenders Under the Age of 14: A Law Reform Advocacy Journey in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Ng, Wai-Ching Irene; Cheung, Monit; Ma, Anny Kit-Ying

    2015-01-01

    The common law presumption that a boy under the age of 14 is incapable of sexual intercourse has provoked controversial debates in Hong Kong. This article describes a 6-step advocacy journey to examine how community efforts have helped modify this law so that juvenile male sexual offenders under the age of 14 who have committed the crime of having sexual intercourse with underage females can be sentenced to receive appropriate treatment. Seven court cases provided by the magistrates' courts in Hong Kong were used in this advocacy effort for the removal of the presumption in July 2012. Although this effort has yet to reveal signs of effectiveness, it represents greater public awareness about providing rehabilitation appropriate for juvenile sex offenders through a formal sentence. Restorative justice, as opposed to retributive or punitive justice, places an emphasis on rehabilitation of the offender and restoration of victims to a place of wholeness. PMID:26061020

  4. TECHNIQUES OF HELPING THE YOUTHFUL OFFENDER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IVES, JANE K.

    THE SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL TASK OF ADOLESCENCE IS IDENTIFICATION. THE DEVELOPMENTAL TASK OF IDENTIFICATION INVOLVES ACQUIRING A SURE PICTURE OF ONE'S SELF BY SEX, BY OCCUPATION, AND BY PLACE IN A COMMUNITY. HELPING THE OFFENDER ACHIEVE IDENTIFICATION IS ACCOMPLISHED THROUGH THE PROPER USE OF AUTHORITATIVE AND SUPPORTIVE MEASURES DESIGNED TO GIVE…

  5. Service use after court involvement in a sample of serious adolescent offenders

    PubMed Central

    Mulvey, Edward P.; Schubert, Carol A.; Chung, He Len

    2009-01-01

    The juvenile justice system faces a difficult challenge when providing services to serious adolescent offenders, having to balance community safety concerns with hopes for successful intervention. Increasing the effectiveness of this system rests partially on having a clearer picture of the regularities of current service provision to these adolescents. This study describes the types of services received by a large (N=868) sample of adjudicated serious offenders from two metropolitan areas over a two-year follow-up period after adjudication in court, and examines whether indicators of need for services determine the types of services received in the juvenile justice system. Findings indicate that: 1) the level of specialized services received is rather low, 2) there is considerable site variability, 3) the service needs of adolescents sent to different types of settings appear to be generally equivalent, 4) state training schools appear to provide about the same level of services found in contracted provider settings, and 5) need is an inconsistent determinant of service provision. PMID:19907667

  6. A prospective study of the impact of polygraphy on high-risk behaviors in adult sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Grubin, Don; Madsen, Lars; Parsons, Shaun; Sosnowski, Dan; Warberg, Brent

    2004-06-01

    This study examined whether polygraph testing would result in sex offenders engaging in fewer high-risk behaviors. Fifty adult male sex offenders taking part in community treatment programs were allocated into 2 groups: "Polygraph Aware" subjects were told they would receive a polygraph examination in 3 months regarding their high-risk behaviors, while "Polygraph Unaware" subjects were told their behavior would be reviewed in 3 months. Relevant behaviors for each subject were established at baseline interviews, following which both groups were polygraphed at 3 months. All subjects were polygraphed again at 6 months. The hypothesis was that subjects in the "Polygraph Aware" group would have engaged in fewer high-risk behaviors, based on their self-report during the examination. Thirty-two subjects (64%) attended the first polygraph examination, with 31 (97%) disclosing an average of 2.45 high-risk behaviors each previously unknown to supervising probation officers. There was no significant difference between the two groups. Because of the high failure rate, all subjects were told to expect a second polygraph. Twenty-one subjects (42%) completed the second polygraph test, with 71% disclosing an average of 1.57 behaviors, a significant decrease compared with the first test. Disclosures to treatment providers and probation officers also increased. It was concluded that polygraph testing resulted in offenders engaging in less high-risk behavior, although the possibility that offenders fabricated reports of high-risk behaviours to satisfy examiners is also considered; similarly, offenders seemed to be more honest with their supervisors, but this only occurred after experience of the test itself. Feedback from offenders who completed the study, taken together with the high drop out rate, suggested that those motivated not to reoffend found polygraphy useful, while those less motivated sought to avoid it. PMID:15326881

  7. Does early adolescent sex cause depressive symptoms?

    PubMed

    Sabia, Joseph J

    2006-01-01

    A recent study by the Heritage Foundation (Rector, Johnson, & Noyes, 2003) found evidence of a positive relationship between early sexual intercourse and depressive symptoms. This finding has been used to bolster support for funding abstinence only sex education. However, promoting abstinence will only yield mental health benefits if there is a causal link between sexual intercourse and depression. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), I carefully examine the relationship between early teen sex and several measures of depression. Controlling for a wide set of individual level and family level observable characteristics, cross section estimates consistently show a significant positive relationship between early sexual activity for females and three measures of adverse mental health: self reported depression, a belief that one's life is not worth living, and serious thoughts of suicide. However, difference-in-difference estimates reflect no evidence of a significant relationship between early teen sex and depressive symptoms. These findings suggest that the positive association observed by Rector et al. (2003) can be explained by unmeasured heterogeneity. Thus, promoting abstinence among adolescents is unlikely to alleviate depressive symptoms PMID:16989034

  8. Contingent negative variation (CNV) and erotic preference in self-declared homosexuals and in child sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Howard, R C; Longmore, F J; Mason, P A; Martin, J L

    1994-10-01

    Contingent negative variation (CNV) was recorded bilaterally from central electrodes using a "match/mismatch" paradigm in (Study 1) samples of heterosexual men (N = 6), gay men (N = 10) and lesbian women (N = 14) and (Study 2) in samples of child sex offenders (N = 34) and heterosexual control men (N = 19). Sexual orientation was assessed using the Multidimensional Scale of Sexuality (MSS) and the Human Sexuality Questionnaire (HSQ). Separate CNV averages were formed for each condition of stimulation: for Study 1, slides of adult male and female nudes; for Study 2, slides of child, pubescent and adult male and female nudes. Penile plethysmographic (PPG) data were also obtained from 15 of the child sex offender sample while they viewed stimuli of the same categories as were used in the CNV recording. On the basis of their PPG responses to children, child sex offenders were classified as either "pedophiles" or "non-pedophiles". In Study 1 significant Group x Sex (of slide) and Group x Electrode interactions indicated that: (i) heterosexual men (but neither homosexual group) showed significantly larger CNVs to female than to male slides; (ii) both homosexual groups showed significantly asymmetrical (R > L) CNVs. In Study 2, controls showed significantly greater CNVs to adult females than to both adult males and female children. Child sex offenders showed no significant differences in CNV to male and female slides for any age. "Non-pedophiles" showed significantly larger CNVs to female adults than to female children, but "pedophiles" did not. It is concluded that CNV has promise as a measure of both deviant and non-deviant sexual preference. PMID:7873701

  9. Do PCL-R scores from state or defense experts best predict future misconduct among civilly committed sex offenders?

    PubMed

    Boccaccini, Marcus T; Turner, Darrel B; Murrie, Daniel C; Rufino, Katrina A

    2012-06-01

    In a recent study of sex offender civil commitment proceedings, Murrie et al. (Psychol Public Policy Law 15:19-53, 2009) found that state-retained experts consistently assigned higher PCL-R total scores than defense-retained experts for the same offenders (Cohen's d > .83). This finding raises an important question about the validity of these discrepant scores: Which type of score, state or defense evaluator, provides the most useful information about risk? We examined the ability of PCL-R total scores from state and defense evaluators to predict future misconduct among civilly committed sex offenders (N = 38). For comparison, we also examined predictive validity when two state experts evaluated the same offender (N = 32). Agreement between evaluators was low for cases with opposing experts (ICCA,1 = .43 to .52) and for cases with two state experts (ICCA,1 = .40). Nevertheless, scores from state and defense experts demonstrated similar levels of predictive validity (AUC values in the .70 range), although scores from different types of state evaluators (corrections-contracted vs. prosecution-retained) did not. The finding of mean differences between opposing evaluator scores, but similar levels of predictive validity, suggests that scores from opposing experts in SVP cases may need to be interpreted differently depending on who assigned them. Findings have important implications for understanding how rater disagreement may relate to predictive validity. PMID:22667805

  10. The World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for the treatment of adolescent sexual offenders with paraphilic disorders.

    PubMed

    Thibaut, Florence; Bradford, John M W; Briken, Peer; De La Barra, Flora; Häßler, Frank; Cosyns, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of these guidelines was to evaluate the role of pharmacological agents in the treatment of adolescents with paraphilic disorders who are also sexual offenders or at-risk of sexual offending. Psychotherapeutic and psychosocial treatments were also reviewed. Adolescents with paraphilic disorders specifically present a different therapeutic challenge as compared to adults. In part, the challenge relates to adolescents being in various stages of puberty and development, which may limit the use of certain pharmacological agents due to their potential side effects. In addition, most of the published treatment programmes have used cognitive behavioural interventions, family therapies and psychoeducational interventions. Psychological treatment is predicated in adolescents on the notion that sexually deviant behaviour can be controlled by the offender, and that more adaptive behaviours can be learned. The main purposes of these guidelines are to improve the quality of care and to aid physicians in their clinical decisions. These guidelines brought together different expert views and involved an extensive literature research. Each treatment recommendation was evaluated and discussed with respect to the strength of evidence for efficacy, safety, tolerability and feasibility. An algorithm is proposed for the treatment of paraphilic disorders in adolescent sexual offenders or those who are at risk. PMID:26595752

  11. The World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for the treatment of adolescent sexual offenders with paraphilic disorders

    PubMed Central

    Thibaut, Florence; Bradford, John M. W.; Briken, Peer; De La Barra, Flora; Häßler, Frank; Cosyns, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The primary aim of these guidelines was to evaluate the role of pharmacological agents in the treatment of adolescents with paraphilic disorders who are also sexual offenders or at-risk of sexual offending. Psychotherapeutic and psychosocial treatments were also reviewed. Adolescents with paraphilic disorders specifically present a different therapeutic challenge as compared to adults. In part, the challenge relates to adolescents being in various stages of puberty and development, which may limit the use of certain pharmacological agents due to their potential side effects. In addition, most of the published treatment programmes have used cognitive behavioural interventions, family therapies and psychoeducational interventions. Psychological treatment is predicated in adolescents on the notion that sexually deviant behaviour can be controlled by the offender, and that more adaptive behaviours can be learned. The main purposes of these guidelines are to improve the quality of care and to aid physicians in their clinical decisions. These guidelines brought together different expert views and involved an extensive literature research. Each treatment recommendation was evaluated and discussed with respect to the strength of evidence for efficacy, safety, tolerability and feasibility. An algorithm is proposed for the treatment of paraphilic disorders in adolescent sexual offenders or those who are at risk. PMID:26595752

  12. The Path from Childhood Behavioural Disorders to Felony Offending: Investigating the Role of Adolescent Drinking, Peer Marginalization, and School Failure

    PubMed Central

    Savolainen, Jukka; Mason, W. Alex; Bolen, Jonathan D.; Chmelka, Mary B.; Hurtig, Tuula; Ebeling, Hanna; Nordström, Tanja; Taanila, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Background Although a pathway from childhood behavioural disorders to criminal offending is well-established, the aetiological processes remain poorly understood. Also, it is not clear if attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is predictive of crime in the absence of comorbid disruptive behaviour disorder (DBD). Hypothesis We examined two research questions: (1) Does ADHD have a unique effect on the risk of criminal offending, independently of DBD? (2) Is the effect of childhood behavioural disorders on criminal offending direct or mediated by adolescent processes related to school experience, substance misuse, and peers? Method Structural equation modelling, with latent variables, was applied to longitudinally collected data on 4,644 males from the 1986 Northern Finland Birth Cohort Study. Results Both ADHD and DBD separately predicted felony conviction risk. Most of these effects were mediated by adolescent alcohol use and low academic performance. The effect of DBD was stronger and included a direct pathway to criminal offending. Conclusion Findings were more consistent with the life course mediation hypothesis of pathways into crime, in that the effects of each disorder category were mediated by heavy drinking and educational failure. Preventing these adolescent risk outcomes may be an effective approach to closing pathways to criminal behaviour among behaviourally disordered children. However, as there was some evidence of a direct pathway from DBD, effective treatments targeting this disorder are also expected to reduce criminal offending. PMID:25250918

  13. Inadequacy of Sex Knowledge of Adolescents: Implications for Counseling and Sex Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onyehalu, Anthony S.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews evidence relating to the paucity of sex-oriented knowledge by adolescents across cultures. Such sex learning is obtained almost entirely from peers since cultural inhibitions and puritan attitudes often prevent open discussions with teachers and parents. A comprehensive program of sex education and sex counseling is needed. (JAC)

  14. Impact of the Family on the Sex Lives of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pick, Susan; Palos, Patricia Andrade

    1995-01-01

    Presents results of three studies as they relate to family influence on adolescents' sex lives. The studies' results support the hypothesis that the family has a substantial influence on adolescents' sexual and contraceptive behavior, justifying the incorporation of such issues as parent-child communication into sex education programs. (RJM)

  15. Executive Dysfunction Predicts Delinquency But Not Characteristics of Sexual Aggression Among Adolescent Sexual Offenders.

    PubMed

    Burton, David; Demuynck, Sophia; Yoder, Jamie R

    2014-11-25

    Our aim in this study was to evaluate executive function and its relationship to delinquency and sexual crime in adolescents incarcerated for sexual crimes. Based on self-report data, 196 male adolescent sexual offenders from a Midwest state reported high rates of executive dysfunction. Although such deficits did not relate to the number of victims of sexual abuse, severity, or degree of force used in commission of the sexual crimes, poor executive function was significantly predictive of both general delinquency and felony theft. In both measures of delinquent conduct, behavioral regulation dysfunction was predictive of the frequency of commission of the crimes, whereas metacognition was not. Research and treatment implications are offered. PMID:25428928

  16. The psychological profiles of internet, contact, and mixed internet/contact sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Ian A; Beech, Anthony R; Mandeville-Norden, Rebecca

    2013-02-01

    A sample of 526 contact offenders, 459 internet offenders, and 143 mixed contact/internet offenders was compared on a range of self-report psychological measures assessing offense-supportive beliefs, socioaffective functioning, emotional management, and socially desirable responding. A multivariate general linear model found a mixed offender profile that was similar to internet offenders rather than contact offenders. The contact group demonstrated lower victim empathy, a greater level of pro-offending attitudes, an externalized locus of control, more assertiveness, a diminished ability to relate to fictional characters, and greater impulsivity than the internet and mixed offender groups. The mixed offender group demonstrated a higher level of empathic concern than the other two groups. The mixed offender group could also be distinguished from the internet group by increased personal distress and perspective-taking ability. A discriminant function analysis highlighted the key linear factor distinguishing between the groups to be one relating to offense-supportive attitudes and identification with fictional characters. A second factor was related to higher levels of empathic concern and poor self-management. These findings are discussed in the context of the potential pathways between internet and contact sexual offenses. PMID:22434344

  17. A female sex offender with multiple paraphilias: a psychologic, physiologic (laboratory sexual arousal) and endocrine case study.

    PubMed

    Cooper, A J; Swaminath, S; Baxter, D; Poulin, C

    1990-05-01

    A 20 year old female pedophile exhibiting multiple paraphilias and who had been both a victim of incest and an active participant, undertook extensive clinical, psychometric, endocrine and laboratory sexual arousal studies. Her psychiatric, psychometric and physiologic arousal profiles showed similarities to those of a sizable proportion of male child molesters, especially incestors. It is suggested that laboratory arousal tests (using the vaginal photoplethysmograph) may have a role in the assessment of some female sex offenders. PMID:2346901

  18. Antecedents of Adolescent Initiation of Sex, Contraceptive Use, and Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Douglas

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the literature to identify the most important antecedents associated with adolescent initiation of sex, contraception use, and pregnancy. Results indicate that over 100 antecedents create a complex, detailed picture of the correlates of adolescent sexual behaviors. They describe characteristics of adolescents themselves, their partners,…

  19. Assessing Youth Who Sexually Offended

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Kynaston; Fong, June; Teoh, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Recent research suggested that the predictive validity of adult sexual offender risk assessment measures can be affected when used cross-culturally, but there is no published study on the predictive validity of risk assessment measures for youth who sexually offended in a non-Western context. This study compared the predictive validity of three youth risk assessment measures (i.e., the Estimate of Risk of Adolescent Sexual Offense Recidivism [ERASOR], the Juvenile Sex Offender Assessment Protocol-II [J-SOAP-II], and the Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory [YLS/CMI]) for sexual and nonviolent recidivism in a sample of 104 male youth who sexually offended within a Singaporean context (Mfollow-up = 1,637 days; SD follow-up = 491). Results showed that the ERASOR overall clinical rating and total score significantly predicted sexual recidivism but only the former significantly predicted time to sexual reoffense. All of the measures (i.e., the ERASOR overall clinical rating and total score, the J-SOAP-II total score, as well as the YLS/CMI) significantly predicted nonsexual recidivism and time to nonsexual reoffense for this sample of youth who sexually offended. Overall, the results suggest that the ERASOR appears to be suited for assessing youth who sexually offended in a non-Western context, but the J-SOAP-II and the YLS/CMI have limited utility for such a purpose. PMID:21825111

  20. The sex offender treatment intervention and progress scale (SOTIPS): psychometric properties and incremental predictive validity with static-99R.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Robert J; Lasher, Michael P; Cumming, Georgia F

    2012-10-01

    The Sex Offender Treatment Intervention and Progress Scale (SOTIPS) is a 16-item rating scale designed to assess dynamic risk among adult male sex offenders and degree of change at 6-month intervals during treatment. The purpose of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of the SOTIPS in a construction sample of 759 adult male sex offenders who were under correctional supervision and enrolled in cognitive-behavioral community treatment in Vermont between 2001 and 2007. The scale showed acceptable interrater reliability. SOTIPS scores at 1, 7, and 13 months after participants began treatment predicted sexual, violent, and any recidivism, and return to prison at fixed 1- and 3-year follow-up periods (AUCs = .60 to .85). Combined SOTIPS and Static-99R scores predicted all recidivism types (AUCs = .67 to .89) and outperformed either instrument alone when both instruments had similar predictive power. Participants who demonstrated treatment progress, as reflected by reductions in SOTIPS scores, showed lower rates of recidivism than those who did not. PMID:22368161

  1. Validity of the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test and a Four-Subtest WISC-III Short Form with Adolescent Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Anthony; Browne, Janet; Schmidt, Fred; Boer, Marian

    1997-01-01

    The validity of a four-subtest short form of the third edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III) and the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (K-BIT) was evaluated with 42 adolescent offenders. Findings support the clinical use of the short form as a good estimate of WISC-III full-scale IQ. (SLD)

  2. What Were We Thinking? Five Erroneous Assumptions That Have Fueled Specialized Interventions for Adolescents Who Have Sexually Offended

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worling, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, five assumptions have influenced the assessment, treatment, and community supervision of adolescents who have offended sexually. In particular, interventions with this population have been informed by the assumptions that these youth are (i) deviant, (ii) delinquent, (iii) disordered, (iv) deficit-ridden, and (v) deceitful.…

  3. Brief cognitive behavioural therapy with male adolescent offenders in open custody or on probation: an evaluation of management of anger.

    PubMed

    Valliant, P M; Jensen, B; Raven-Brook, L

    1995-06-01

    A 6-wk. cognitive behavioural program administered to 24 adolescent male offenders assigned to open custody and 5 to probation showed no mean differences on the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, and the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory. Significant correlations were found for the personality measures with pretreatment and posttreatment scores on the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory. PMID:7568580

  4. Sex education for emotionally disturbed adolescents.

    PubMed

    Schoenholtz, S W; Horowitz, H A; Shtarkshall, R

    1989-02-01

    Under investigation were effects of a course in sex education on a population of emotionally disturbed adolescents who were enrolled as day patients in a school program that is part of the Adolescent Treatment Program of the Institute of Pennsylvania Hospital. Subjects included 7 females, and 8 males, aged 15-18, with severe socio-emotional and educational problems. Pre-and posttesting were used to measure changes. Measures included a short form questionnaire assessing sexual knowledge and attitudes, the Draw-a-Person test, and behavioral observations by teachers, faculty, and Adolescent Treatment Program staff. The results of the study indicated that patients responded age appropriately and gained knowledge and an increased openness about sexuality issues. On the knowledge section of the questionnaire areas addressed in class, such as contraception, were the areas that students showed improvement in student response. The attitudes section revealed an increase in uncertainty about their own values, or conversely, an increase in establishing their values more firmly. In the Draw-a-Person test there was a greater degree of openness and less defensiveness in the posttest drawings. Most postcourse drawings also included more sexual signs and showed nudity. Behavioral changes were noted in the student's increased class contributions and participation, as well as in a more frequent focus of issues relating to sexuality and maturation. In addition, there was no regression or dysfunction as a result of the materials presented, and therapeutic and educational processes were not disrupted by the patient's involvement in the course. It was concluded that a sex education course is clinically and educationally useful on many levels within a therapeutic setting. PMID:12342338

  5. The cycle of violence: examining the impact of maltreatment early in life on adult offending.

    PubMed

    Reckdenwald, Amy; Mancini, Christina; Beauregard, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Over the last two decades, considerable scholarly attention has been directed toward explaining the "cycle of violence"-a phenomenon whereby victimization and offending appear inexorably linked to one another. Extant work has greatly contributed to our understanding of this cycle for different types of abuse and different types of offending, such as sex offending. The link between sexual abuse and later offending cannot be overstated, with research suggesting the impact of sexual abuse on sex offending to be more pronounced than any other type of abuse. However, in the literature, questions remain regarding sex offenders' patterns of offending. Specifically, it remains unclear whether type of abuse experienced has a differential impact on type of offending in adulthopd. Using retrospective data from sexual offenders in a Canadian penitentiary, we address this research gap by examining the impact of abuse experienced during childhood and adolescence on various types of offending in adulthood. Results indicate partial support for the cycle of violence hypothesis-the extent of criminal involvement can be explained as being a consequence of prior maltreatment; however, findings also suggest refinements to the theory, because the influence of type of abuse varies depending on the type of offending examined. Research and policy implications are discussed. PMID:23862310

  6. Online solicitation offenders are different from child pornography offenders and lower risk contact sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Seto, Michael C; Wood, J Michael; Babchishin, Kelly M; Flynn, Sheri

    2012-08-01

    The current study compared 38 lower risk (based on actuarial risk assessments) men convicted of contact sexual offenses against children, 38 child pornography offenders, and 70 solicitation offenders (also known as luring or traveler offenders). Solicitation and child pornography offenders were better educated than contact offenders but did not differ on other sociodemographic variables. In comparison to child pornography offenders, solicitation offenders had lower capacity for relationship stability and lower levels of sex drive/preoccupation and deviant sexual preference. Solicitation offenders were also more problematic than lower risk contact offenders on sex drive/preoccupation and capacity for relationship stability and had greater self-reported use of child pornography. Differences between groups on two actuarial risk measures, the Static-99 and the VASOR, were inconsistent. This study suggests that solicitation offenders differ in meaningful ways from lower risk contact offenders and child pornography offenders and, consequently, in risk, treatment, and supervision needs. PMID:22849417

  7. Where Do Chinese Adolescents Obtain Knowledge of Sex? Implications for Sex Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming; Shah, Iqbal H.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Sex education in China has been promoted for many years, but limited data are available regarding the sources from which adolescents receive sex-related knowledge. The present study was designed to examine the sources from which Chinese adolescents obtain their information on puberty, sexuality and STI/HIV/AIDS, and whether there are any…

  8. Risking a Relation: Sex Education and Adolescent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Jen

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers how issues of adolescent development might be brought into conversation with dilemmas in sex education. Here, sex education is larger than information, affirmation or prohibition. In its address to the most intimate aspects of life--love, loss, vulnerability, power, friendship, aggression--sex education is necessarily…

  9. Sadistic personality disorder in sex offenders: relationship to antisocial personality disorder and sexual sadism.

    PubMed

    Berger, P; Berner, W; Bolterauer, J; Gutierrez, K; Berger, K

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the relationship of sadistic personality disorder (SPD), as defined in the appendix of DSM-III-R, to other personality disorders and to sexual sadism, 70 sex offenders (27 child molesters, 33 rapists, and 10 murderers) were assessed by the International Personality Disorder Examination. In 19 subjects (27.2%) from the total sample, SPD was diagnosed. The highest overlap appeared with borderline personality disorder (31.6%) and antisocial personality disorder (42.1%). However, in four cases SPD was the only personality disorder diagnosed. Factor analysis of the antisocial and sadistic criteria resulted in four major factors--one factor with high loadings on the sadistic criteria and the violent criteria of antisocial personality disorder, two factors with different forms of adult and juvenile aggression, and a fourth factor with high loadings on the antisocial criteria covering exploitative behavior. The results do not support SPD as a discrete disorder. Nevertheless, SPD may be seen as an important subdimension of antisocial personality disorder, distinct from more exploitative forms of antisocial behavior with less violence. Of those patients with SPD, 42.1% also had a DSM-III-R diagnosis of sexual sadism, which may be the most dangerous configuration. PMID:10372350

  10. [Sadistic fetishism--deadly passion. Forensic psychiatric assessment of sex offenders].

    PubMed

    Nedopil, N; Blümcke, I; Bock, H; Bogerts, B; Born, C; Stübner, S

    2008-11-01

    This article reviews current developments in psychiatric assessment of sex offenders for criminal courts. These developments are characterized by constantly changing laws and increasing neurobiological findings about paraphilias. Psychiatrists must prepare their reports taking into account the tension between psychopathological, neurobiological, and normative aspects of their judgement. The complexity of such assessments can best be demonstrated by narratives. This narrative concerns a 47-year-old patient who killed eight women after strangling them and masturbating or having intercourse with the unconscious victims. He explained in detail six of these crimes and gave ample information about his history, sexual development, fantasies, and a number of other sexual crimes he had committed. From this information a plausible explanation of his development to sexual fetishism and from there to sadism could be derived. Brain MRI displayed gliotic scars in the frontal lobe and right hippocampus. Consequences of the various findings on psychiatric assessment of legal culpability are discussed in this paper, concluding that a differentiated approach to the assessment is possible only from a psychopathological point of view in which behaviour, clinical features, and motivations are analysed. PMID:18806981

  11. Assessment and treatment of Spanish-speaking sex offenders: special considerations.

    PubMed

    Cullen, K; Travin, S

    1990-01-01

    While there is an expanding body of literature pertaining to the special considerations related to the treatment of Hispanic patients whose primary language is Spanish, there is virtually no information reported to aid in the assessment and treatment of Hispanic and primarily Spanish-speaking sex offenders. Beyond the obvious problems posed by differences in language, there are a host of transcultural factors that may impact on the evaluation and engagement of this patient population when they are also largely psychologically unsophisticated and from a low socioeconomic level. The experiences in modifying and implementing a special program to accommodate the needs of this patient group is presented. Reticence to discuss sexuality in a group setting, the relationship between therapists and patients as effected by rules of social etiquette, and the reluctance to criticize other members in the group were prominent features attributed to religious and cultural factors. The authors consider it a necessity to be sensitive to these subtle nuances in order to provide adequate treatment. PMID:2103007

  12. The Differences between Sex Offending and Challenging Behaviour in People with an Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, David Michael

    2004-01-01

    This paper differentiates between sexual offending behaviour and challenging behaviour in people with an intellectual disability. There is growing awareness that people with an intellectual disability can perform both classes of behaviour. The definitions of sexual offending and challenging behaviour are almost interchangeable, due to the poor…

  13. Emotion recognition and cognitive empathy deficits in adolescent offenders revealed by context-sensitive tasks

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Gadea, Maria Luz; Herrera, Eduar; Parra, Mario; Gomez Mendez, Pedro; Baez, Sandra; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin

    2014-01-01

    Emotion recognition and empathy abilities require the integration of contextual information in real-life scenarios. Previous reports have explored these domains in adolescent offenders (AOs) but have not used tasks that replicate everyday situations. In this study we included ecological measures with different levels of contextual dependence to evaluate emotion recognition and empathy in AOs relative to non-offenders, controlling for the effect of demographic variables. We also explored the influence of fluid intelligence (FI) and executive functions (EFs) in the prediction of relevant deficits in these domains. Our results showed that AOs exhibit deficits in context-sensitive measures of emotion recognition and cognitive empathy. Difficulties in these tasks were neither explained by demographic variables nor predicted by FI or EFs. However, performance on measures that included simpler stimuli or could be solved by explicit knowledge was either only partially affected by demographic variables or preserved in AOs. These findings indicate that AOs show contextual social-cognition impairments which are relatively independent of basic cognitive functioning and demographic variables. PMID:25374529

  14. Recent research (N = 9,305) underscores the importance of using age-stratified actuarial tables in sex offender risk assessments.

    PubMed

    Wollert, Richard; Cramer, Elliot; Waggoner, Jacqueline; Skelton, Alex; Vess, James

    2010-12-01

    A useful understanding of the relationship between age, actuarial scores, and sexual recidivism can be obtained by comparing the entries in equivalent cells from "age-stratified" actuarial tables. This article reports the compilation of the first multisample age-stratified table of sexual recidivism rates, referred to as the "multisample age-stratified table of sexual recidivism rates (MATS-1)," from recent research on Static-99 and another actuarial known as the Automated Sexual Recidivism Scale. The MATS-1 validates the "age invariance effect" that the risk of sexual recidivism declines with advancing age and shows that age-restricted tables underestimate risk for younger offenders and overestimate risk for older offenders. Based on data from more than 9,000 sex offenders, our conclusion is that evaluators should report recidivism estimates from age-stratified tables when they are assessing sexual recidivism risk, particularly when evaluating the aging sex offender. PMID:21098823

  15. Juvenile sex offender re-arrest rates for sexual, violent nonsexual and property crimes: a 10-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Waite, Dennis; Keller, Adrienne; McGarvey, Elizabeth L; Wieckowski, Edward; Pinkerton, Relana; Brown, Gerald L

    2005-07-01

    We report the results of a 10-year follow-up recidivism study of two sex offender treatment programs for incarcerated juvenile sex offenders (JSOs) in Virginia. The programs vary in environment and intensity. The more intense JSO program ("self-contained") operates in specialized living units that are separate from those of the general juvenile incarcerated population. In the less intense program ("prescriptive"), JSOs remain housed with the general population of juvenile offenders. Arrest and incarceration data through January 2003 were obtained for 261 male JSOs released between 1992 and 2001. The inclusion of adult incarceration data allowed for a more accurate assessment of the actual time at risk for sexual re-offending. Outcomes are re-arrest rates, length of time to re-arrest and type of offense (property, nonsexual assault, sexual) on re-arrest, with analyses using survival curve functions. For both groups, actual re-arrest is most likely to be for a nonsexual person offense (31 and 47%, respectively) and least likely to be for a sexual offense (<5% for both groups). Comparing the nonequivalent groups, the self-contained treatment group has a lower predicted re-arrest rate and a longer mean time to re-arrest, for all types of offenses, than the prescriptive treatment group. In addition, juveniles who indicate high levels of impulsive/antisocial behaviors are significantly more likely to recidivate compared to juveniles with low-levels of impulsive/antisocial behaviors, regardless of treatment type. This is the first 10-year follow-up study of treatment outcomes for a relatively large sample of males who were incarcerated for sexual offenses as juveniles. PMID:16121841

  16. Comparing recidivism rates of treatment responders/nonresponders in a sample of 413 child molesters who had completed community-based sex offender treatment in the United kingdom.

    PubMed

    Beech, Anthony R; Mandeville-Norden, Rebecca; Goodwill, Alasdair

    2012-02-01

    Analysis of psychometric data from a sample of 413 child molesters who had completed a U.K. probation-based sex offender treatment program was carried out to assess (a) the effectiveness of therapy in the short term and (b) the longer term implications of treatment in relation to sexual recidivism. It was found that 12% (51 offenders) of the sample had recidivated within 2 to 4 years. Of these recidivists, 86% (44 offenders) had been reconvicted for a sexually related offense. One hundred thirty-five offenders (33%) demonstrated a treated profile (i.e., demonstrated no offense-specific problems and few, or no, socioaffective problems at the posttreatment stage). This group was compared with a sample of offenders deemed as not responding to treatment, matched by their levels of pretreatment risk/need. It was found that a significantly smaller proportion (n = 12, 9%) of treatment responders had recidivated, compared to the treatment nonresponders (n = 20, 15%), indicating a 40% reduction in recidivism in those who had responded to treatment (effect size = .18). Matching length of treatment to the offenders' level of pretreatment risk/need (i.e., higher risk/treatment-need offenders typically undertook longer treatment) reduced the rate of recidivism among this group to the level of recidivism observed among the lower risk/need offenders. PMID:21187301

  17. Does adolescent alcohol and marijuana use predict suppressed growth in psychosocial maturity among male juvenile offenders?

    PubMed

    Chassin, Laurie; Dmitrieva, Julia; Modecki, Kathryn; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Piquero, Alex R; Knight, George P; Losoya, Sandra H

    2010-03-01

    Multiple theories suggest mechanisms by which the use of alcohol and drugs during adolescence could dampen growth in psychosocial maturity. However, scant empirical evidence exists to support this proposition. The current study tested whether alcohol and marijuana use predicted suppressed growth in psychosocial maturity among a sample of male serious juvenile offenders (n = 1,170) who were followed from ages 15 to 21 years. Alcohol and marijuana use prospectively predicted lower maturity 6 months later. Moreover, boys with the greatest increases in marijuana use showed the smallest increases in psychosocial maturity. Finally, heterogeneity in the form of age-related alcohol and marijuana trajectories was related to growth in maturity, such that only boys who decreased their alcohol and marijuana use significantly increased in psychosocial maturity. Taken together, these findings suggest that patterns of elevated alcohol and marijuana use in adolescence may suppress age-typical growth in psychosocial maturity from adolescence to young adulthood, but that effects are not necessarily permanent, because decreasing use is associated with increases in maturity. PMID:20307112

  18. Does adolescent alcohol and marijuana use predict suppressed growth in psychosocial maturity among male juvenile offenders?

    PubMed Central

    Chassin, Laurie; Dmitrieva, Julia; Modecki, Kathryn; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Piquero, Alex R.; Knight, George P.; Losoya, Sandra H.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple theories suggest mechanisms by which the use of alcohol and drugs during adolescence could dampen growth in psychosocial maturity. However, scant empirical evidence exists to support this proposition. The current study tested whether alcohol and marijuana use predicted suppressed growth in psychosocial maturity among a sample of male serious juvenile offenders (n = 1,170) who were followed from ages 15 to 21. Alcohol and marijuana use prospectively predicted lower maturity six months later. Moreover, boys with the greatest increases in marijuana use showed the smallest increases in psychosocial maturity. Finally, heterogeneity in the form of age-related alcohol and marijuana trajectories was related to growth in maturity, such that only boys who decreased their alcohol and marijuana use significantly increased in psychosocial maturity. Taken together, these findings suggest that patterns of elevated alcohol and marijuana use in adolescence may suppress age-typical growth in psychosocial maturity from adolescence to young adulthood, but that effects are not necessarily permanent, because decreasing use is associated with increases in maturity. PMID:20307112

  19. Alcohol use and delinquency among black, white and hispanic adolescent offenders.

    PubMed

    Dawkins, R L; Dawkins, M P

    1983-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between drinking and criminal behavior among adolescent offenders. Data were collected by means of questionnaires administered to 342 residents of a public juvenile facility in the summer of 1979. Analyses were performed separately for each racial subgroup including blacks, whites and hispanics. Based on simple correlation, the results show that among each subgroup, drinking is strongly associated with minor juvenile offenses. However, the correlation between drinking and serious offenses is strong only for blacks and whites. Multiple regression further reveals that relative to other background and behavioral factors, drinking is the strongest single predictor of criminal offenses among blacks, with less importance for whites and little importance for hispanics. Implications for prevention are discussed. PMID:6666705

  20. What's "Verbil" Sex? An Analysis of Adolescents' Questions about Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Toni A.; Campbell, David E.

    Although many studies have described adolescents' sexual behavior and attitudes, there are little data available on the nature of the questions that occur to adolescents as they move toward maturity. A study was conducted to determine whether the questions children and adolescents ask reflect developmental differences in cognitive abilities and…

  1. An Exploration of Differences Between Small Samples of Female Sex Offenders With Prepubescent Versus Postpubescent Victims.

    PubMed

    Pflugradt, Dawn M; Allen, Bradley P

    2015-01-01

    The general consensus among researchers is that the prevalence of sexual paraphilias among female sexual offenders is low relative to male sexual offenders (Cortoni & Gannon, 2013). In addition, there is very limited information about gender specific paraphilic behaviors and characteristics pertaining to females who commit sexual assaults (Pflugradt & Allen, 2014). This study examined the characteristics of female, solo sexual offenders who sexually assaulted prepubescent (n = 14) and postpubescent (n = 15) children. A content analysis was utilized to examine their psychological characteristics. Nonparametric analysis indicated that significantly more offenders with prepubescent victims had multiple paraphilias, poor cognitive problem-solving, noncompliance with supervision, and negative social influences. Limitations and future research directions are discussed. PMID:26340074

  2. Adjustment and Sex-Role Orientation in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamke, Leanne K.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between sex-role orientation and self-esteem in adolescence was reexamined. The results revealed that androgynous individuals had higher levels of self-esteem than masculine, feminine, and undifferentiated adolescents. When the independent contributions of masculinity and femininity were assessed, both significantly predicted…

  3. Sex-Role Influences on Turkish Adolescents' Self-Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildirim, Ali

    This study was undertaken to investigate sex role influences on Turkish adolescents' self-identity process as part of an international self-identity research project. Specifically, the purpose of this study was to examine the role gender plays in the value systems of Turkish adolescents through a questionnaire. A total of 154 male and 119 female…

  4. The Roles of Sex, Gender, and Coping in Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Cindy Ellen; DiGiuseppe, Raymond; Froh, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the roles of coping and masculinity in higher rates of depressive symptoms among adolescent girls, as compared to boys. A model was designed and tested through path analysis, which involved the variables of sex, gender, problem-focused coping, rumination, and distraction. The Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale and the Bem…

  5. Same-Sex Attraction and Successful Adolescent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busseri, Michael A.; Willoughby, Teena; Chalmers, Heather; Bogaert, Anthony R.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the relation of adolescent same-sex attraction to "successful development" (Baltes, P. B., "Am. Psychol." 32:366-380, 1997). Based on a survey of high-school adolescents, four groups were defined according to the nature of self-reported sexual attraction: exclusively heterosexual (EHA; n=3594); mostly heterosexual (MHA;…

  6. Adolescents' Transition to First Intercourse, Religiosity, and Attitudes about Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Ann M.

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of longitudinal data on 4,948 adolescents, who were virgins aged 15-18 at first interview, found that the probability of having sex for the first time was lowered by religiosity, but only for females; was related to personal and relational attitudes regarding sex; and was only indirectly related to parental attitudes. Having sex…

  7. Gender and Sex Education: A Study of Adolescent Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Measor, Lynda; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Responses of English adolescents to single-sex sex education classes were studied, focusing on about 20 females and about 20 males. There were clear gender differences in student reactions, with boys responding more openly, disruptively, and negatively. The role of cultural prescriptions in their responses is explored. (SLD)

  8. The Psychosocial Needs of Young Offenders and Adolescents from an Inner City Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carswell, Kenneth; Maughan, Barbara; Davis, Hilton; Davenport, Franscesca; Goddard, Nick

    2004-01-01

    To date, assessments of the prevalence of mental health problems in young offenders have largely focused on incarcerated samples. This paper describes a quantitative study of a sample of 47 male young offenders under the supervision of an inner city Youth Offending Team. A semi-structured interview, modified from previous studies, was used to…

  9. Comparing Offenders against Women and Offenders against Children on Treatment Outcome in Offenders with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, William R.; Michie, Amanda M.; Steptoe, Lesley; Moore, Fhionna; Haut, Fabian

    2011-01-01

    Background: Several studies have shown the positive effects of sex offender treatment for men with intellectual disabilities who have perpetrated sex offences or inappropriate sexual behaviour. The present study investigates the process of treatment change and compares two groups of offenders against adults and offenders against children. Method:…

  10. A linguistic analysis of grooming strategies of online child sex offenders: Implications for our understanding of predatory sexual behavior in an increasingly computer-mediated world.

    PubMed

    Black, Pamela J; Wollis, Melissa; Woodworth, Michael; Hancock, Jeffrey T

    2015-06-01

    There is a large body of evidence to suggest that child sex offenders engage in grooming to facilitate victimization. It has been speculated that this step-by-step grooming process is also used by offenders who access their underage victims online; however, little research has been done to examine whether there are unique aspects of computer-mediated communication that impact the traditional face-to-face grooming process. This study considered the similarities and differences in the grooming process in online environments by analyzing the language used by online offenders when communicating with their victims. The transcripts of 44 convicted online offenders were analyzed to assess a proposed theory of the online grooming process (O'Connell, 2003). Using a stage-based approach, computerized text analysis examined the types of language used in each stage of the offender-victim interaction. The transcripts also were content analyzed to examine the frequency of specific techniques known to be employed by both face-to-face and online offenders, such as flattery. Results reveal that while some evidence of the strategies used by offenders throughout the grooming process are present in online environments, the order and timing of these stages appear to be different. The types (and potential underlying pattern) of strategies used in online grooming support the development of a revised model for grooming in online environments. PMID:25613089

  11. Same-Sex versus Other-Sex Best Friendship in Early Adolescence: Longitudinal Predictors of Antisocial Behavior throughout Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arndorfer, Cara Lee; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between having other-sex versus same-sex best friends and antisocial behavior throughout early adolescence. Participants (N = 955) were recruited in 6th grade and followed longitudinally through 7th, 8th, and 11th grades. Participants were 58% ethnically diverse youth and 48% girls. Results indicate that the…

  12. Effectiveness of a sex offender treatment programme: a risk band analysis.

    PubMed

    Woodrow, Anna C; Bright, David A

    2011-02-01

    This article reports an evaluation of a New South Wales Department of Corrective Services custody-based treatment programme for adult male sexual offenders. A risk band analysis was used to compare observed and predicted sexual and violent recidivism rates in a sample of 117 treated and released offenders. Risk bands and predicted recidivism were determined using the Static-99 risk assessment measure. Results demonstrated that during an average follow-up period of 3.75 years, observed sexual recidivism rates were lower than Static-99 predictions for the overall sample (8.5% vs. 26%). The same pattern was observed for violent recidivism (12.8% vs. 36%). At each Static-99 level of risk (low, low-moderate, moderate-high, and high), observed sexual and violent recidivism rates were lower than predicted rates. These findings were consistent with the general consensus that well-implemented cognitive-behavioural treatment can have a positive effect on offending behaviour. PMID:20081095

  13. The prevalence of risk factors for general recidivism in female adolescent sexual offenders: a comparison of three subgroups.

    PubMed

    van der Put, Claudia E

    2013-09-01

    To our knowledge, there are no former studies in which subgroups of female adolescent sexual offenders are studied. Therefore, we examined differences in risk factors for general recidivism between female adolescents who have committed a felony sexual offense against a younger child (CSO, n=25), female adolescents who have committed a felony sexual offense with a peer victim (PSO, n=15) and female adolescents who have committed a misdemeanor sexual offenses (MSO, n=31). Results showed that CSOs had considerably fewer problems in the domains of school (truancy, behavior problems, dropping out of school), family (e.g., parental alcohol problems, parental mental health problems, poor authority and control, out of home placements and run away from home) and friends (antisocial friends) than MSOs and/or PSOs. No differences were found in the prevalence of mental health problems, physical abuse, sexual abuse and neglect. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:23830779

  14. Adjustment and sex-role orientation in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Lamke, L K

    1982-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to reexamine the relationship between sex-role orientation and self-esteem in adolescence. One hundred and six senior high school students completed the Rosenberg self-esteem measure (Rosenberg, 1965) and two measures of sex-role orientation, the Bem Sex Role Inventory, Short Form (BSRI; Bem, 1981), and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire Short Form (PAQ; Spence et al., 1975). The relationship between sex-role orientation and self-esteem was found to vary depending on the sex-role measure employed. Results of the BSRI revealed that androgynous individuals had higher levels of self-esteem than masculine, feminine, and undifferentiated adolescents. PAQ results indicated that androgynous individuals had higher levels of self-esteem than feminine and undifferentiated individuals. When the independent contributions of masculinity and femininity were assessed, both BSRI and PAQ masculinity and femininity significantly predicted self-esteem. Analyses also revealed that the effects of sex-role orientation on self-esteem varied by sex across both the BSRI and PAQ. Implications of the present findings for previous work on sex-role development in adolescence are discussed. PMID:24310777

  15. Field Validity of the Psychopathy Checklist--Revised in Sex Offender Risk Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murrie, Daniel C.; Boccaccini, Marcus T.; Caperton, Jennifer; Rufino, Katrina

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have concluded that scores from Hare's (2003) Psychopathy Checklist--Revised (PCL-R) predict reoffense among sexual offenders, but most of those studies examined the predictive validity of scores from trained research staff, not clinicians in the field scoring the measure as part of actual forensic assessments. Therefore, we…

  16. Should Actuarial Risk Assessments Be Used with Sex Offenders Who Are Intellectually Disabled?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Andrew J. R.; Tough, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Background: Objective actuarial assessments are critical for making risk decisions, determining the necessary level of supervision and intensity of treatment ( Andrews & Bonta 2003). This paper reviews the history of organized risk assessment and discusses some issues in current attitudes towards sexual offenders with intellectual disabilities.…

  17. Efficacy of Nonpsychopharmacological Treatment for Male Sex Offenders: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorhead, Douglas A.

    Sexual offenses have a serious impact on individuals and society at large. Most victims know the offender; few victims report the offense; not all reports result in arrests; not all arrests result in conviction; and not all convictions result in incarceration. This paper reviews the literature related to psychotherapeutic treatment of male sex…

  18. The Validity and Reliability of the Violence Risk Scale-Sexual Offender Version: Assessing Sex Offender Risk and Evaluating Therapeutic Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olver, Mark E.; Wong, Stephen C. P.; Nicholaichuk, Terry; Gordon, Audrey

    2007-01-01

    The Violence Risk Scale-Sexual Offender version (VRS-SO) is a rating scale designed to assess risk and predict sexual recidivism, to measure and link treatment changes to sexual recidivism, and to inform the delivery of sexual offender treatment. The VRS-SO comprises 7 static and 17 dynamic items empirically or conceptually linked to sexual…

  19. A Sex-Positive Framework for Research on Adolescent Sexuality.

    PubMed

    Harden, K Paige

    2014-09-01

    In this article, I propose a sex-positive framework for research on adolescent sexuality in which I consider consensual sexual activities in adolescence as developmentally normative and potentially healthy. The sex-positive framework is contrasted with the predominant "risk" perspective that presumes that abstinence from sexual activity is the ideal behavioral outcome for teenagers. Evidence from longitudinal and behavioral genetic studies indicates that engaging in sexual intercourse in adolescence does not typically cause worse psychological functioning. The relationship context of sexual experience may be a critical moderator of its psychological impact. Moreover, cross-cultural data on adolescents' contraception usage, unintended pregnancy, and sexually transmitted infections suggest that, despite the unacceptably high rate of negative health consequences among U.S. teenagers, adolescents can have the developmental capacity to regulate the health risks inherent in sexual activity. Understanding adolescent sexuality can be fostered by considering sexual well-being, a multidimensional construct that incorporates an adolescent's sexual self-efficacy, sexual self-esteem, feelings of sexual pleasure and satisfaction, and freedom from pain and negative affect regarding sexuality. New research is necessary to understand the development of adolescent sexual well-being, including its normative age trends, its reciprocal links with sexual behavior, and its impact on psychological and physical health. PMID:26186753

  20. Sex and secrecy: How HIV-status disclosure affects safe sex among HIV-positive adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Toska, Elona; Cluver, Lucie D.; Hodes, Rebecca; Kidia, Khameer K.

    2015-01-01

    HIV-positive adolescents who engage in unsafe sex are at heightened risk for transmitting or re-acquiring HIV. Disclosure of HIV-status to sexual partners may impact on condom use, but no study has explored the effects of (i) adolescent knowledge of one's HIV-status, (ii) knowledge of partner status and (iii) disclosure to partners, on safer sex behaviour. This study aimed to identify whether knowledge of HIV-status by HIV-positive adolescents and partners was associated with safer sex. Eight fifty eight HIV-positive adolescents (10–19 years old, 52% female, 68.1% vertically infected) who had ever initiated antiretroviral treatment in 41 health facilities in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, were interviewed using standardised questionnaires. Quantitative analyses used multivariate logistic regressions, controlling for confounders. Qualitative research included interviews, focus group discussions and observations with 43 HIV-positive teenagers and their healthcare workers. N = 128 (14.9%) of the total sample had ever had sex, while N = 109 (85.1%) of sexually active adolescents had boy/girlfriend. In total, 68.1% of the sample knew their status, 41.5% of those who were sexually active and in relationships knew their partner's status, and 35.5% had disclosed to their partners. For adolescents, knowing one's status was associated with safer sex (OR = 4.355, CI 1.085–17.474, p = .038). Neither knowing their partner's status, nor disclosing one's HIV-status to a partner, were associated with safer sex. HIV-positive adolescents feared rejection, stigma and public exposure if disclosing to sexual and romantic partners. Counselling by healthcare workers for HIV-positive adolescents focused on benefits of disclosure, but did not address the fears and risks associated with disclosure. These findings challenge assumptions that disclosure is automatically protective in sexual and romantic relationships for HIV-positive adolescents, who may be ill-equipped to

  1. Sex and secrecy: How HIV-status disclosure affects safe sex among HIV-positive adolescents.

    PubMed

    Toska, Elona; Cluver, Lucie D; Hodes, Rebecca; Kidia, Khameer K

    2015-01-01

    HIV-positive adolescents who engage in unsafe sex are at heightened risk for transmitting or re-acquiring HIV. Disclosure of HIV-status to sexual partners may impact on condom use, but no study has explored the effects of (i) adolescent knowledge of one's HIV-status, (ii) knowledge of partner status and (iii) disclosure to partners, on safer sex behaviour. This study aimed to identify whether knowledge of HIV-status by HIV-positive adolescents and partners was associated with safer sex. Eight fifty eight HIV-positive adolescents (10-19 years old, 52% female, 68.1% vertically infected) who had ever initiated antiretroviral treatment in 41 health facilities in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, were interviewed using standardised questionnaires. Quantitative analyses used multivariate logistic regressions, controlling for confounders. Qualitative research included interviews, focus group discussions and observations with 43 HIV-positive teenagers and their healthcare workers. N = 128 (14.9%) of the total sample had ever had sex, while N = 109 (85.1%) of sexually active adolescents had boy/girlfriend. In total, 68.1% of the sample knew their status, 41.5% of those who were sexually active and in relationships knew their partner's status, and 35.5% had disclosed to their partners. For adolescents, knowing one's status was associated with safer sex (OR = 4.355, CI 1.085-17.474, p = .038). Neither knowing their partner's status, nor disclosing one's HIV-status to a partner, were associated with safer sex. HIV-positive adolescents feared rejection, stigma and public exposure if disclosing to sexual and romantic partners. Counselling by healthcare workers for HIV-positive adolescents focused on benefits of disclosure, but did not address the fears and risks associated with disclosure. These findings challenge assumptions that disclosure is automatically protective in sexual and romantic relationships for HIV-positive adolescents, who may be ill-equipped to

  2. Violence exposure mediates the relation between callous-unemotional traits and offending patterns in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Howard, Aisha L; Kimonis, Eva R; Muñoz, Luna C; Frick, Paul J

    2012-11-01

    The link between callous-unemotional (CU) traits in youth and delinquent, aggressive and violent behavior is well-replicated in the literature. However, the mediating effects of violence exposure on this relationship are unclear. The current study addresses this important gap in the literature with a sample of 88 detained, primarily ethnic minority adolescent boys (M age = 15.57; SD = 1.28). Results indicate that exposure to violence fully mediated the relationship between CU traits and violent delinquency, and this pattern of mediation was accounted for by exposure to witnessed violence, but not direct violent victimization. Secondly, exposure to violence, both direct and witnessed forms, also mediated the relationship between CU traits and drug delinquency. These findings suggest that (a) the well-established link between CU traits and violence may be attributed to high rates of witnessed violence among this subpopulation, and (b) specific types of violence exposure may be important for predicting the offending patterns of youth high on CU traits. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:22644426

  3. Adolescents' Preferences for Source of Sex Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Cheryl L.; Surmann, Amy T.

    2004-01-01

    The primary purposes of this study were to examine what adolescents' identify as their preferred sources of sexual education (e.g., peers, family, school, media, professionals, etc.) about various topics, and whether patterns varied for each gender, race, grade, and economic group. Participants were 672 adolescents of both genders, three…

  4. Adolescents' Cues and Signals: Sex and Assault.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giarrusso, Roseann; And Others

    Acquaintance rape has been found to occur with disturbing frequency in an adolescents' social world. Unlike stranger rape, acquaintance rape, particularly dating rape, takes place in the context of normal social activity. In 1978, 432 adolescents, ages 14-18, were interviewed in the Los Angeles area: half male, and half female, and one-third drawn…

  5. Sex Stereotypes and School Adolescents' Sexual Behaviour in Osun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popoola, Bayode Isaiah

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the association between sex stereotypes and the sexual behaviour of Nigerian school-going adolescents. It also ascertained the effects of age and sex on adolescents' beliefs about sex stereotypes. The study sample consisted of 658 (male = 287, female = 371) adolescents from nine randomly selected secondary schools in three…

  6. Multiple-Family Group Intervention for Incarcerated Male Adolescents Who Sexually Offend and Their Families: Change in Maladaptive Emotion Regulation Predicts Adaptive Change in Adolescent Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Keiley, Margaret K; Zaremba-Morgan, Ali; Datubo-Brown, Christiana; Pyle, Raven; Cox, Milira

    2015-07-01

    The multiple-family group intervention is an effective, yet affordable, 8-week treatment that is conducted in a juvenile correctional institution in Alabama with adolescents who sexually offend and their families. Data from 115 incarcerated male adolescents and their male and female caregivers collected at pre-, post-, and 1-year follow-up were used to determine that problem behaviors (internalizing, externalizing) decreased over pre- and posttest and the significant decreases in maladaptive emotion regulation predicted those changes. Adolescent-reported anxiety over abandonment and attachment dependence on parents increased significantly; these changes were predicted by decreases in maladaptive emotion regulation. Linear growth models were also fit over the 3 time points and indicate decreases in adolescent problem behavior and maladaptive emotion regulation. PMID:24809985

  7. How useful are psychometric scores in predicting recidivism for treated sex offenders?

    PubMed

    Barnett, Georgia D; Wakeling, Helen C; Mandeville-Norden, Rebecca; Rakestrow, Janine

    2012-05-01

    This study examined the relationship between psychometric test scores, psychometric test profiles, and sexual and/or violent reconviction. A sample of 3,402 convicted sexual offenders who attended a probation service-run sexual offender treatment programme in the community completed a battery of psychometric tests pre- and posttreatment. Using Cox regression, posttreatment scores on measures of self-esteem, an ability to relate to fictional characters, and recognition of risk factors were, individually, predictive of recidivism. When psychometric tests were grouped into dynamic risk domains, only the pretreatment scores of the domain labelled socioaffective functioning (SAF) predicted recidivism and added predictive power to a static risk assessment. The number of risk domains that were dysfunctional pretreatment also predicted recidivism outcome; however, this did not add predictive power to a static risk assessment tool. Possible explanations for the superiority of pre- over posttreatment scores in predicting reconviction are discussed, and directions for further research considered. PMID:21518697

  8. Field validity of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised in sex offender risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Murrie, Daniel C; Boccaccini, Marcus T; Caperton, Jennifer; Rufino, Katrina

    2012-06-01

    Several studies have concluded that scores from Hare's (2003) Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) predict reoffense among sexual offenders, but most of those studies examined the predictive validity of scores from trained research staff, not clinicians in the field scoring the measure as part of actual forensic assessments. Therefore, we examined the field validity of PCL-R scores that forensic evaluators assigned to 333 male sexual offenders who underwent evaluations during a civil commitment selection process. Overall, no PCL-R score was a significant predictor of sexually violent recidivism. Facet 4 was the only PCL-R score with an area under the curve (AUC) greater than .50 (AUC = .53, p = .85) and the only PCL-R score that approached statistical significance for predicting the combined category of violent or sexually violent offending (AUC = .63, p = .08). However, scores from a subset of evaluators revealed stronger predictive effects, indicating that predictive validity was higher for scores from some evaluators than others. Overall, these results suggest that the stronger predictive validity values in controlled research studies may not apply to all evaluators when the PCL-R is administered in the field. PMID:22023560

  9. Family Sex Communication and the Sexual Desire, Attitudes, and Behavior of Late Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamboni, Brian D.; Silver, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Parental sex education might promote healthy sexual behavior among adolescents, but some parents assume that family communication about sex will lead to sexual activity. Family sex communication has been studied with a limited range of adolescent sexual behaviors but not sexual fantasy or desire. Two measures of family sex communication were…

  10. Does Sex Education Affect Adolescent Sexual Behaviors and Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabia, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether offering sex education to young teenagers affects several measures of adolescent sexual behavior and health: virginity status, contraceptive use, frequency of intercourse, likelihood of pregnancy, and probability of contracting a sexually transmitted disease. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent…

  11. Adolescents' Preferences regarding Sex Education and Relationship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, Triece; van Schaik, Paul; van Wersch, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the current study was to examine adolescents' perceptions of the quality of a Sex and Relationship Education (SRE) intervention, their preferences for sources of SRE and how these vary as a function of gender, school's faith and school type. Design: A non-experimental design was used. Setting: The participants (N = 759…

  12. Sexual Learning, Sexual Experience, and Healthy Adolescent Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2014-01-01

    This chapter is organized around the question "How do adolescents learn to have healthy sex?" The chapter assumes that sexual learning derives from a broad range of both informal and formal sources that contribute to learning within the context of neurocognitive brain systems that modulate sexual motivations and self-regulation. The…

  13. Detained Male Adolescent Offender's Emotional, Physical and Sexual Maltreatment Profiles and Their Associations to Psychiatric Disorders and Criminal Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Aebi, Marcel; Linhart, Susanne; Thun-Hohenstein, Leonhard; Bessler, Cornelia; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Plattner, Belinda

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyse patterns of emotional, physical and sexual maltreatment in detained male juvenile offenders using latent class analysis (LCA). The association of maltreatment related LCA profiles with psychopathology and criminal behaviors was also studied. LCA based on the items of the Child Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) assessing childhood emotional, physical, and sexual abuse was performed in a sample of 260 male adolescent offenders (mean age = 16.5 years, SD = 1.29 years). Chi square tests and general linear models were performed to assess the associations of CTQ profiles with categorical interview-based psychiatric disorders, dimensional Youth Self-Report problem scales, and officially registered offenses. LCA suggested a three class solution: (1) a no/mild trauma (NM; 76 %) (2) emotional and physical trauma (EP; 18 %) and (3) emotional, physical, and sexual trauma (EPS; 8 %). The classes EP and EPS were related to a variety of psychiatric disorders and self-reported mental health problems. Furthermore, EPS showed higher presence of a subsequent re-incarceration compared to NM. A majority of sexually abused juveniles also experienced emotional and physical abuse reflecting gravely disturbed family systems. Multiple abuse in childhood was associated with a broad variety of disorders including externalizing disorders and repeated criminal offending. Such findings indicate that trauma assessment is also relevant in externalizing youth. A comprehensive treatment approach for detained boys with multiple abuse experiences is required targeting both mental health needs and the reduction of criminal behaviors. PMID:25418616

  14. Risk/benefit ratio of androgen deprivation treatment for sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Fred S

    2009-01-01

    Androgen deprivation treatment (ADT) significantly lowers testosterone. That, in turn, can decrease sexual drive, facilitating better self-control and lower recidivism rates among sexually disordered offenders. Potential side effects can include: decreases in bone density; development of a metabolic syndrome involving weight gain, accompanied by changes in glucose and lipid metabolism; and rarely, depression. In the presence of a proper treatment protocol designed either to prevent or to minimize side effects, particularly the development of osteoporosis, the risks associated with ADT are generally within the same range as those associated with many other commonly prescribed psychotropic interventions. PMID:19297635

  15. Sex, competitiveness, and intimacy in same-sex friendship in Hong Kong adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cheng, S T; Chan, A C

    1999-02-01

    One of the alleged reasons that males report lower intimacy in same-sex friendships than females is that males tend to be more competitive than females, but this assumption has not been empirically tested. In the current study, 121 Hong Kong adolescents filled out Chinese versions of the Intimate Friendship Scale and the Competitiveness Index. As predicted, females reported having more intimate same-sex relationships than males, and they scored lower on competitiveness than males. However, the correlations between scores on the Competitiveness Index and the Intimate Friendship subscales were small and nonsignificant, suggesting that the sex difference in intimacy was not a function of competitiveness. PMID:10203927

  16. MMPI differences among adolescent inpatients, rapists, sodomists, and sexual abusers.

    PubMed

    Herkov, M J; Gynther, M D; Thomas, S; Myers, W C

    1996-02-01

    This study examined Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) responding among 61 adolescent sex offenders accused of Sexual Abuse (n = 22), Rape (n = 19), and Sodomy (n = 18) and 15 adolescents without a history of sexual offending admitted to an inpatient psychiatric unit. Results indicated significant differences between sex offenders and inpatients as well as among sex offender groups on both single-scale elevations and 2-point code types. Contrary to previous research, adolescents in the sex offender groups demonstrated significantly more psychopathology than those in the inpatient sample. Subjects in the Sodomy group achieved the highest clinical scale elevations and were more likely to have scales associated with significant psychopathology as one of their 2-point pairs. In general, increased psychopathology was associated with increased sexual deviancy. That is, subjects in the sexual offender groups evidenced more psychopathology than inpatients and the more deviant Sodomy and Rape groups evidenced more psychological disturbance on the MMPI than Sexual Abuser subjects. Results indicate that the MMPI can be useful in providing both quantitative and qualitative distinctions among adolescent sex offenders. PMID:8576837

  17. The influence of risk and psychopathy on the therapeutic climate in sex offender treatment.

    PubMed

    Harkins, Leigh; Beech, Anthony R; Thornton, David

    2013-04-01

    The current study examines the relationship between therapeutic climate of sexual offender treatment groups, risk level, psychopathy and phase (i.e., early/later) of treatment. The participants were 137 sexual offenders detained indefinitely under Wisconsin's Sexually Violent Person's Law who attended a treatment group based on their level of psychopathy: higher levels of psychopathy (i.e., PCL-R scores of 25 or above) or lower levels of psychopathy (i.e., PCL-R scores of less than 25). Using MANOVA with aspects of the therapeutic climate as the dependent variables, the therapeutic climate did not differ as a function of the risk level of the participants. However, the overall therapeutic climate of the two treatment tracks (Lower vs. Higher PCL-R) differed significantly. The mean therapeutic climate scores for both treatment tracks were in the medium to high range (with exception of group cohesion, which was low in the Higher PCL-R track), indicating a fairly positive therapeutic climate in both treatment tracks overall. The therapeutic climate also differed as a function of phase of treatment for each of the treatment tracks, with some aspects being rated more positively early in treatment and others in more positively in later phases. In particular, group cohesion was viewed more positively for the Higher PCL-R group in later phases of treatment. PMID:22565197

  18. Midwestern Rural Adolescents' Oral Sex Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dake, Joseph A.; Price, James H.; Ward, Britney L.; Welch, Philip J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study examined the prevalence of oral sexual activity in rural Midwestern adolescents. We also examined the correlates of a series of risk behaviors with oral sexual activity. Methods: A questionnaire based on the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System was distributed to 2121 rural middle and high school students in grades 6-12…

  19. Sex Education Justice: A Call for Comprehensive Sex Education and the Inclusion of Latino Early Adolescent Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouyoumdjian, Claudia; Guzman, Bianca L.

    2013-01-01

    Many sex education programs do not conceptualize adolescent sexuality as a normative process of development, thus sexuality is not part of a holistic picture of health education.The current project examines the multiple determinants of adolescent boys' sexual behaviors in the context of developing sex education. Limited research has examined…

  20. Determinants of Heterosexual Adolescents Having Sex with Female Sex Workers in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Junice Y. S.; Wong, Mee-Lian

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We assessed the proportion of and socio-ecological factors associated with ever having had sex with female sex workers (FSWs) among heterosexual adolescents. We also described the characteristics of the adolescents who reported inconsistent condom use with FSWs. Methods This is a cross-sectional study (response rate: 73%) of 300 heterosexually active male adolescents of 16 to 19 years attending a national STI clinic in Singapore between 2009 and 2014. We assessed the ecological factors (individual, parental, peer, school and medial influences) and sexual risk behaviors using a self-reported questionnaire. Poisson regression was used to obtain the adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) and confidence intervals (CI). Results The proportion of heterosexual male adolescents who had ever had sex with FSWs was 39%. Multivariate analysis showed that significant factors associated with ever having had sex with FSWs were sex initiation before 16 years old (aPR 1.79 CI: 1.30–2.46), never had a sexually active girlfriend (aPR 1.75 CI 1.28–2.38), reported lower self-esteem score (aPR 0.96 CI: 0.93–0.98), higher rebelliousness score (aPR 1.03 CI: 1.00–1.07) and more frequent viewing of pornography (aPR 1.47 CI: 1.04–2.09). Lifetime inconsistent condom use with FSWs was 30%. Conclusions A significant proportion of heterosexual male adolescents attending the public STI clinic had ever had sex with FSWs. A targeted intervention that addresses different levels of influence to this behavior is needed. This is even more so because a considerable proportion of adolescents reported inconsistent condom use with FSWs, who may serve as a bridge of STI transmission to the community. National surveys on adolescent health should include the assessment of frequency of commercial sex visits and condom use with FSWs for long-term monitoring and surveillance. PMID:26808561

  1. With or Without You? Contextualizing the Impact of Romantic Relationship Breakup on Crime Among Serious Adolescent Offenders.

    PubMed

    Larson, Matthew; Sweeten, Gary; Piquero, Alex R

    2016-01-01

    The decline and delay of marriage has prolonged adolescence and the transition to adulthood, and consequently fostered greater romantic relationship fluidity during a stage of the life course that is pivotal for both development and offending. Yet, despite a growing literature of the consequences of romantic relationships breakup, little is known about its connection with crime, especially among youth enmeshed in the criminal justice system. This article addresses this gap by examining the effects of relationship breakup on crime among justice-involved youth-a key policy-relevant group. We refer to data from the Pathways to Desistance Study, a longitudinal study of 1354 (14% female) adjudicated youth from the juvenile and adult court systems in Phoenix and Philadelphia, to assess the nature and complexity of this association. In general, our results support prior evidence of breakup's criminogenic influence. Specifically, they suggest that relationship breakup's effect on crime is particularly acute among this at-risk sample, contingent upon post-breakup relationship transitions, and more pronounced for relationships that involve cohabitation. Our results also extend prior work by demonstrating that breakup is attenuated by changes in psychosocial characteristics and peer associations/exposure. We close with a discussion of our findings, their policy implications, and what they mean for research on relationships and crime among serious adolescent offenders moving forward. PMID:26092231

  2. An examination of the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV) among male adolescent offenders: an item response theory analysis.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Siny; Piquero, Alex R; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the applicability of the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV; Forth, Kosson, & Hare, 2003) among a large sample of serious offending adolescent males. Adopting an item response theory approach, item properties of the PCL:YV were examined using the generalized partial credit model. Results showed that need for stimulation, "irresponsibility," and callous & unemotional were sensitive to changes in respondents' varying psychopathy levels, whereas lack of realistic, long-term goals; superficial charm; and revocation of conditional release were less so (quoted PCL:YV item published with permission by Multi-Health Systems, Inc.; see full permissions statement in footnote 1 in the article; other items are paraphrased). Substantial differential item functioning was also found in 15 of the 20 PCL:YV items among Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic offending boys, indicating that item functioning was not invariant across race/ethnicity. Questions remain regarding whether the construct of psychopathy as assessed with the PCL:YV is equivalent across adolescents in general and across different race/ethnic groups in particular. PMID:25181395

  3. Does Early Adolescent Sex Cause Depressive Symptoms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabia, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    A recent study by the Heritage Foundation (Rector, Johnson, & Noyes, 2003) found evidence of a positive relationship between early sexual intercourse and depressive symptoms. This finding has been used to bolster support for funding abstinence only sex education. However, promoting abstinence will only yield mental health benefits if there is a…

  4. [School nursing and sex education for adolescents].

    PubMed

    Felizari, G M

    1990-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to organize and testify the teaching of Sexual Education for Adolescents. Two groups of first level School adolescents were selected to be submitted to a diagnostic test; after being worked, they were submitted to a post-test about their knowledge of subject matter. It was concluded that the teenagers are very little informed about sexuality, although they are highly motivated and able to discuss and to receive information about the subject. The results of the research points to the necessity of a multidisciplinary approach, with the active participation of scholar nursing in its development. It is recommended that the Program of Sexual Education should also include some bio-psychosocial aspects and must be based on the diagnosis of students' needs. PMID:2130384

  5. Evidence of primary, secondary, and collateral paraphilias left at serial murder and sex offender crime scenes.

    PubMed

    White, John H

    2007-09-01

    This paper is a descriptive review of the phenomenon of paraphilias, the relationship of possessing multiple paraphilias with the commission of sexual crimes and serial murder and the recognition of evidence related to sexual crimes committed by offenders with paraphilias. Several case studies are presented and the manifestations of multiple paraphilias, such as those experienced by Jeffrey Dahmer, Albert Fish, and others, are conceptualized and divided into three types: (i) replacement--no overlap; (ii) replacement with overlap; and (iii) cumulative. The categories are further divided into primary, secondary, and collateral paraphilias. Primary and secondary paraphilias are mutually exclusive and one does not build upon the other. Collateral paraphilias may serve to enhance the overall sexual experience of the primary and secondary paraphilias, including the sexualization of props or weapons. Implications for criminalists and criminal investigators are explained, particularly the value in discerning hidden as well as salient evidence of paraphilic behaviors left at crime scenes. PMID:17681002

  6. Sex Differences in the Forms of Aggression among Adolescent Students in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amedahe, Francis K.; Owusu-Banahene, Nana Opoku

    2007-01-01

    A number of studies have investigated sex differences in the forms of aggression exhibited by adolescent students, particularly in the Western world. No such study has been done among sub-Saharan Africa students. The aim was to examine the sex differences in forms of aggression among adolescent students in Ghana. A total of 800 adolescent students…

  7. Parent-Adolescent Discussions about Sex and Condoms: Impact on Peer Influences of Sexual Risk Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Daniel J.; Miller, Kim S.

    2000-01-01

    Examined how parent-adolescent communication about initiating sex and using condoms influenced the relationship between peer norms and behavior among African American and Hispanic adolescents. Found that peer norms were more strongly related to behavior among adolescents who had not discussed sex or condoms. Communication was also related to teens…

  8. Media influences on children and adolescents: violence and sex.

    PubMed

    Earles, K A; Alexander, Randell; Johnson, Melba; Liverpool, Joan; McGhee, Melissa

    2002-09-01

    The portrayal of violence, sex, and drugs/alcohol in the media has been known to adversely affect the behavior of children and adolescents. There is a strong association between perceptions of media messages and observed behavior, especially with children. Lately, there has been more of a focus in the public health/medical field on media influences of youth and the role of the pediatrician and/or healthcare worker in addressing this area of growing concern. There is a need to explicitly explore the influences of media violence, sex, and drugs/alcohol on youth within the context of the Social Learning Theory. Implications of these influences are discussed, and recommendations for pediatricians and/or health care workers who interact with children and adolescents are described. Pediatricians and health care workers should incorporate media exposure probes into the developmental history of their patients and become knowledgeable about the effects of medial influences on youth. PMID:12392043

  9. Media influences on children and adolescents: violence and sex.

    PubMed Central

    Earles, K. A.; Alexander, Randell; Johnson, Melba; Liverpool, Joan; McGhee, Melissa

    2002-01-01

    The portrayal of violence, sex, and drugs/alcohol in the media has been known to adversely affect the behavior of children and adolescents. There is a strong association between perceptions of media messages and observed behavior, especially with children. Lately, there has been more of a focus in the public health/medical field on media influences of youth and the role of the pediatrician and/or healthcare worker in addressing this area of growing concern. There is a need to explicitly explore the influences of media violence, sex, and drugs/alcohol on youth within the context of the Social Learning Theory. Implications of these influences are discussed, and recommendations for pediatricians and/or health care workers who interact with children and adolescents are described. Pediatricians and health care workers should incorporate media exposure probes into the developmental history of their patients and become knowledgeable about the effects of medial influences on youth. PMID:12392043

  10. Psychosocial Adjustment, School Outcomes, and Romantic Relationships of Adolescents With Same-Sex Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainright, Jennifer L.; Russell, Stephen T.; Patterson, Charlotte J.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined associations among family type (same-sex vs. opposite-sex parents); family and relationship variables; and the psychosocial adjustment, school outcomes, and romantic attractions and behaviors of adolescents. Participants included 44 12- to 18-year-old adolescents parented by same-sex couples and 44 same-aged adolescents…

  11. Sex-Role Development and Parental Expectations among Disturbed Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Arnold; And Others

    1975-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the sex-linked personality traits of adolescents referred to out-patient clinics for a variety of psychological problems, the sex-linked personality traits of their parents, and the sex-linked personality characteristics that the parents of these adolescents would ideally like for their sons. (Author/RK)

  12. American Indian adolescent girls: vulnerability to sex trafficking, intervention strategies.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Alexandra Sandi

    2012-01-01

    The Minnesota Indian Women's Resource Center offers harm reduction programming to at-risk adolescent American Indian girls, including outreach, case management, advocacy, healthy sexuality education, and support groups. To evaluate program impact, participants are assessed at intake and every 6 months afterward for current vulnerability to commercial sexual exploitation, violence, and addiction. Evaluation results indicate frequent exposure to sex traffickers and suggest that harm reduction methods can help girls reduce risk of commercial sexual exploitation. PMID:22569724

  13. Emergence of nonsexual crimes and their relationship to sexual crime characteristics and the deviant arousal of male adolescent sexual offenders: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Akakpo, Tohoro F; Burton, David L

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we explore nonsexual crimes committed by a sample of 437 incarcerated adolescent sexual offenders as well as deviant arousal and its relationships to nonsexual and sexual crimes. Over 50% of the juvenile sexual offenders in this sample have committed nonsexual offenses. In addition, nonsexual crimes, particularly general delinquency, were significantly correlated to a number of characteristics of sexual crimes committed by the youth. Previous research has shown that sexually abusive youth are more likely to recidivate nonsexual crimes, and among the implications of this study is the need for treatment providers and service delivery systems to address nonsexual as well as sexual crimes. PMID:24818552

  14. Assessment of Multiple Risk Outcomes, Strengths, and Change with the START:AV: A Short-Term Prospective Study with Adolescent Offenders.

    PubMed

    Viljoen, Jodi L; Beneteau, Jennifer L; Gulbransen, Erik; Brodersen, Etta; Desmarais, Sarah L; Nicholls, Tonia L; Cruise, Keith R

    2012-01-01

    The Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability: Adolescent Version (START:AV; Nicholls, Viljoen, Cruise, Desmarais, & Webster, 2010; Viljoen, Cruise, Nicholls, Desmarais, & Webster, in preparation) is a clinical guide designed to assist in the assessment and management of adolescents' risk for adverse events (e.g., violence, general offending, suicide, victimization). In this initial validation study, START:AV assessments were conducted on 90 adolescent offenders (62 male, 28 female), who were prospectively followed for a 3-month period. START:AV assessments had good to excellent inter-rater reliability and strong concurrent validity with Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth assessments (SAVRY; Borum, Bartel, & Forth, 2006). START:AV risk estimates and Vulnerability total scores predicted multiple adverse outcomes, including violence towards others, offending, victimization, suicidal ideation, and substance abuse. In addition, Strength total scores inversely predicted violence, offending, and street drug use. During the 3-month follow-up, risk estimates changed in at least one domain for 92% of youth, and 27% of youth showed reliable changes in Strength and/or Vulnerability total scores (reliable change index, 90% confidence interval; Jacobsen & Truax, 1991). While these findings are promising, a strong need exists for further research on the START:AV, the measurement of change, and on the role of strengths in risk assessment and treatment-planning. PMID:23436983

  15. Maternal and Adolescent Expectations and Aspirations as Related to Sex, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Judith S.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Examines the interrelationship of demographic variables (socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and sex) and maternal orientations, and its effect on adolescent expectations and aspirations. Subjects were 190 Black and White adolescents. (CM)

  16. Understanding the relationship between onset age and subsequent offending during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Bacon, Sarah; Paternoster, Raymond; Brame, Robert

    2009-03-01

    This article examines the well-documented relationship between early initiation or onset of criminal behavior and a heightened risk of involvement in offending. Previous research examining this question conducted by Nagin and Farrington (Criminology 30:235-260, 1992a; Criminology 30:501-523, 1992b) used data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development and found that: (1) onset age was correlated with offending involvement; and (2) the correlation could be explained by stable individual differences in the propensity to offend rather than a causal effect of early onset age. In this study, similar analytic methods are applied to data from the Second Philadelphia Birth Cohort. This data set consists of all 13,160 males born in Philadelphia in 1958 who resided in the city continuously from ages 10 to 18, slightly more than half of whom were non-white. Information from each of the youths was collected from schools, juvenile justice agencies, other official sources and surveys. In a model that mimics previous analyses, we initially found that an early age of onset is associated with greater subsequent involvement in delinquent behavior. When unobserved criminal propensity was controlled, however, we found that a late rather than an early onset of delinquency was related to future offending. In finding a state dependent effect for age of onset, our findings are contrary to propensity theory in criminology. In finding that it is late rather early onset which puts youth at risk for future offending, our findings are contrary to developmental/life course theory. Our results are more compatible with traditional criminological theory that is friendly to state dependence processes, though they too have not to date articulated why a late onsetting of offending might be particularly criminogenic. PMID:19636746

  17. Using behavior-analytic implicit tests to assess sexual interests among normal and sex-offender populations

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Bryan; O’Reilly, Anthony; Gavin, Amanda; Ruiz, Maria R.; Arancibia, Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    Background The development of implicit tests for measuring biases and behavioral predispositions is a recent development within psychology. While such tests are usually researched within a social-cognitive paradigm, behavioral researchers have also begun to view these tests as potential tests of conditioning histories, including in the sexual domain. Objective The objective of this paper is to illustrate the utility of a behavioral approach to implicit testing and means by which implicit tests can be built to the standards of behavioral psychologists. Design Research findings illustrating the short history of implicit testing within the experimental analysis of behavior are reviewed. Relevant parallel and overlapping research findings from the field of social cognition and on the Implicit Association Test are also outlined. Results New preliminary data obtained with both normal and sex offender populations are described in order to illustrate how behavior-analytically conceived implicit tests may have potential as investigative tools for assessing histories of sexual arousal conditioning and derived stimulus associations. Conclusion It is concluded that popular implicit tests are likely sensitive to conditioned and derived stimulus associations in the history of the test-taker rather than ‘unconscious cognitions’, per se. PMID:24693346

  18. Discriminant factors for adolescent sexual offending: On the usefulness of considering both victim age and sibling incest.

    PubMed

    Joyal, Christian C; Carpentier, Julie; Martin, Caroline

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the pathways and circumstances of juvenile sexual offending is of utmost importance. However, juvenile sexual offenders (JSO) represent an especially diverse group of individuals, and several categorizations have been proposed to obtain more homogeneous subgroups. Victim age-based and family relation-based categorizations are particularly promising because they seem theoretically and clinically relevant. Empirical results however are still inconsistent, and most studies have not considered these two dimensions jointly. The first goal of this study was to further examine the value of subgrouping JSO according to the age of their victim. A second goal was to determine the supplementary value, if any, of considering sibling incest. Based on a sample of 351 male JSO, it was first confirmed that sexual abuse of children was more strongly related to asociality (social skill deficits) than sexual abuse of peers, the latter being more closely associated with antisociality (general delinquency). The relevance of considering mixed-type JSO (with both child and peer victims) separately was also confirmed. More importantly, multivariate statistical analyses demonstrated that adding sibling incest to the equation was useful. JSO of intra-familial child were significantly more likely to have been victimized during their own childhood compared to JSO with extra-familial victims. Nevertheless, adolescents who had committed sibling incest obtained middle ground results on most variables (except for crime severity), suggesting that they constitute a distinct but not extreme, subgroup. This study confirmed the utility of using both the age and the family relation with the victim in characterizing juvenile sexual offending. PMID:26901696

  19. A Psychometric Comparison of Internet and Non-Internet Sex Offenders from a Community Treatment Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Andrew; Metcalf, Caroline

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares psychometric test assessments of 39 men convicted of internet sex offences with 39 convicted of contact offences against a specific victim. Higher rates of socially desirable responding were identified in the internet group, as well as higher rates of emotional loneliness and under assertiveness, although the latter two…

  20. Integrating Theory and Research: The Development of a Research-Based Treatment Program for Juvenile Male Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calley, Nancy G.

    2007-01-01

    A research-based treatment model designed to effectively address identified factors related to juvenile sexual offending behaviors is presented. Current research, theory, and national standards related to juvenile sexual offending are each explored with the treatment model reflecting an integration of these 3 components. The use of counseling…

  1. Routine Activities Preceding Adolescent Sexual Abuse of Younger Children.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Benoit; Felson, Marcus

    2016-03-01

    Adolescent abuse of younger children has long been recognized, but empirical research on the circumstances of this phenomenon is rare. This article examines how adolescent offenders find and gain access to victims, work out time alone with them, and set up or exploit settings for sexual contact. Prior researchers learned that adult sex offenders use certain routine activities to perform these tasks. The current research inquires whether adolescent offenders are similar. We administered Kaufman's Modus Operandi Questionnaire to a sample of 116 Canadian adolescent males undergoing treatment for a sexual offense against a child. Adolescent offenders follow routines similar to adults but are better able to use games and activities as a prelude to sexual abuse. We discuss how routine legal activities set the stage for activities and should be considered when devising situational prevention strategies. PMID:25060598

  2. Understanding the Relationship between Onset Age and Subsequent Offending during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Sarah; Paternoster, Raymond; Brame, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the well-documented relationship between early initiation or onset of criminal behavior and a heightened risk of involvement in offending. Previous research examining this question conducted by Nagin and Farrington ("Criminology" 30:235-260, 1992a; "Criminology" 30:501-523, 1992b) used data from the Cambridge Study in…

  3. Predictors of Offense Severity, Prosecution, Incarceration and Repeat Violations for Adolescent Male and Female Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, David E.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Zhang, Dalun

    2006-01-01

    We examined factors predicting severity of first offense, adjudication, incarceration, and repeat offenses for first time juvenile offenders. The sample consisted of 12,468 juveniles, all born in 1985. Each of the juveniles had been assigned to the South Carolina Juvenile Justice System (SCDJJ) on at least one occasion ("referral"). Analysis on…

  4. Ecological context, concentrated disadvantage, and youth reoffending: identifying the social mechanisms in a sample of serious adolescent offenders.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kevin A; Kim, Byungbae; Chassin, Laurie; Losoya, Sandra H; Piquero, Alex R

    2014-10-01

    Serious youthful offenders are presented with a number of significant challenges when trying to make a successful transition from adolescence to adulthood. One of the biggest obstacles for these youth to overcome concerns their ability to desist from further antisocial behavior, and although an emerging body of research has documented important risk and protective factors associated with desistance, the importance of the neighborhoods within which these youth reside has been understudied. Guided by the larger neighborhood effects on crime literature, the current study examines the direct and indirect effects of concentrated disadvantage on youth reoffending among a sample of highly mobile, serious youthful offenders. We use data from Pathways to Desistance, a longitudinal study of serious youthful offenders (N = 1,354; 13.6% female; 41.4% African American, 33.5% Hispanic, 20.2% White), matched up with 2000 Census data on neighborhood conditions for youth's main residence location during waves 7 and 8 of the study. These waves represent the time period in which youth are navigating the transition to adulthood (aged 18-22; average age = 20). We estimate structural equation models to determine direct effects of concentrated disadvantage on youth reoffending and also to examine the possible indirect effects working through individual-level mechanisms as specified by theoretical perspectives including social control (e.g., unsupervised peer activities), strain (e.g., exposure to violence), and learning (e.g., exposure to antisocial peers). Additionally, we estimate models that take into account the impact that a change in neighborhood conditions may have on the behavior of youth who move to new residences during the study period. Our results show that concentrated disadvantage is indirectly associated with youth reoffending primarily through its association with exposure to deviant peers. Taking into account youth mobility during the study period produced an additional

  5. Having and Being an Other-Sex Crush during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Julie C.; Spencer, Sarah V.; Thomas, Katelyn K.; Gyoerkoe, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined other-sex crush experiences (both having and being perceived as an other-sex crush) among 544 young adolescents (mean age = 12.74 years). Results indicated that 56% had at least one current other-sex crush, with little overlap between crushes, friends, and boyfriends/girlfriends. Significant associations between other-sex crush…

  6. Sex role strain among kibbutz adolescents and adults: A developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Snarey, J; Friedman, K; Blasi, J

    1986-06-01

    In spite of a commitment to equality, the kibbutz is a male-dominated society with highly differentiated sex roles. Has this gap between ideals and reality created sex role strain for kibbutz-born adolescents and adults? Previous kibbutz studies have suggested that sex role strain may be the most intense among adult kibbutz women. Based on Erik Erikson's developmental model, however, we hypothesized that adolescent females would experience significantly greater sex role strain than other kibbutz members, including adult women. Adolescent and adult males and females were tested using Loevinger's ego development test. The sex role items of the test were used to construct a new measure of sex role strain. The global index included the following submeasures: avoidance of sex role issues; expression of intellectual, emotional, or behavioral sex role conflict; and evaluative attitudes toward male roles and female roles. Significant cohort or sex differences were found on the global index and on all submeasures of sex role strain. The findings indicate that sex role strain is greatest among adolescent females, followed by adolescent males. Adult kibbutz women, however, are significantly more likely to focus their dissatisfaction in the area of actual role behavior rather than in terms of how they intellectually conceptualize kibbutz sex roles, as is the case for adolescents and adult males. PMID:24301699

  7. Examining Antisocial Behavioral Antecedents of Juvenile Sexual Offenders and Juvenile Non-Sexual Offenders.

    PubMed

    McCuish, Evan C; Lussier, Patrick; Corrado, Raymond R

    2015-08-01

    In prospective longitudinal studies of juvenile offenders, the presence of multiple developmental pathways of antisocial behaviors has consistently been identified. An "antisocial" type of juvenile sex offender (JSO) has also been identified; however, whether antisocial JSOs follow different antisocial pathways has not been examined. In the current study, differences in antisocial pathways within JSOs and between JSOs and juvenile non-sex offenders (JNSOs) were examined. Data on Canadian male incarcerated adolescent offenders were used to identify whether behavioral antecedents differed within JSOs and between JSOs (n = 51) and JNSOs (n = 94). Using latent class analysis (LCA), three behavioral groups were identified. For both JSOs and JNSOs, there was a Low Antisocial, Overt, and Covert group. Overall, there were important within-group differences in the behavioral patterns of JSOs, but these differences resembled differences in the behavioral patterns of their JNSO counterpart. Risk factors including offense history, abuse history, and family history were more strongly associated with the Overt and Covert groups compared with the Low Antisocial group. Implications for JSO assessment practices were discussed. PMID:24487119

  8. Assessment of Multiple Risk Outcomes, Strengths, and Change with the START:AV: A Short-Term Prospective Study with Adolescent Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Viljoen, Jodi L.; Beneteau, Jennifer L.; Gulbransen, Erik; Brodersen, Etta; Desmarais, Sarah L.; Nicholls, Tonia L.; Cruise, Keith R.

    2012-01-01

    The Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability: Adolescent Version (START:AV; Nicholls, Viljoen, Cruise, Desmarais, & Webster, 2010; Viljoen, Cruise, Nicholls, Desmarais, & Webster, in preparation) is a clinical guide designed to assist in the assessment and management of adolescents’ risk for adverse events (e.g., violence, general offending, suicide, victimization). In this initial validation study, START:AV assessments were conducted on 90 adolescent offenders (62 male, 28 female), who were prospectively followed for a 3-month period. START:AV assessments had good to excellent inter-rater reliability and strong concurrent validity with Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth assessments (SAVRY; Borum, Bartel, & Forth, 2006). START:AV risk estimates and Vulnerability total scores predicted multiple adverse outcomes, including violence towards others, offending, victimization, suicidal ideation, and substance abuse. In addition, Strength total scores inversely predicted violence, offending, and street drug use. During the 3-month follow-up, risk estimates changed in at least one domain for 92% of youth, and 27% of youth showed reliable changes in Strength and/or Vulnerability total scores (reliable change index, 90% confidence interval; Jacobsen & Truax, 1991). While these findings are promising, a strong need exists for further research on the START:AV, the measurement of change, and on the role of strengths in risk assessment and treatment-planning. PMID:23436983

  9. Impact of sex education on knowledge and attitude of adolescent school children of Loni village.

    PubMed

    Avachat, Shubhada Sunil; Phalke, Deepak Baburao; Phalke, Vaishali Deepak

    2011-11-01

    Reproductive capability is now established at earlier age. But the subject of adolescent sexuality is taboo in most societies. There is widespread ignorance about risks of unprotected sex, problems among adolescents. Unfortunately need of sex education is not perceived and fulfilled in India especially in rural areas. The present study was conducted to assess the need and demonstrate the impact of sex education among adolescent school children. The impact of sex education workshop was tested by analysing pre- and postintervention questionnaire. The felt need of sex education increased considerably and the knowledge regarding contraceptives increased from manifolds after the intervention. There was significant increase in knowledge about menstrual hygiene, sexually transmitted diseases, etc, after sex education workshop. This study concludes that there is intense need of sex education and it has significant impact on knowledge of adolescent school children. PMID:22666937

  10. Three Years of Teen Court Offender Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgays, Deborah Kirby

    2008-01-01

    Since 1983, Teen Courts have offered a judicial alternative for many adolescent offenders. In the first year of the Whatcom County Teen Court Program, a small sample of Teen Court offenders had more favorable outcomes than did Court Diversion offenders. In the current study, the results are based on a three-year sample of 84 Whatcom County…

  11. Mediation of Anti-Social Adolescent Behavior by Single-Sex and Co-Educational Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastick, Tony

    Many societies institute coeducational and single-sex schools to mediate adolescents' antisocial behavior. This paper details a study comparing antisocial behavior of adolescent boys and girls in coeducational schools with that of a matching group in single-sex schools in Jamaica. The study identified the 10 most common types of antisocial…

  12. Correlates of Oral Sex and Vaginal Intercourse in Early and Middle Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bersamin, Melina M.; Walker, Samantha; Fisher, Deborah A.; Grube, Joel W.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined whether a comprehensive set of psychosocial factors was equally predictive of both adolescent vaginal intercourse and oral sex among 1,105 adolescents aged 12-16. Logistic regressions were used to examine the relationships between parental communication, religiosity, bonding to school, heavy drinking, sex expectancies,…

  13. Attitudes of Parents and Health Promoters in Greece Concerning Sex Education of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirana, Paraskevi-Sofia; Nakopoulou, Evangelia; Akrita, Ioanna; Papaharitou, Stamatis

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the attitudes and views of Greek parents concerning the provision of sex education to adolescents, as well as the opinion and the involvement of school health promoters in sex education. A questionnaire containing 20 items was constructed and administered to 93 parents of adolescents who participated in parents'…

  14. Other-Sex Friendships in Late Adolescence: Risky Associations for Substance Use and Sexual Debut?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mrug, Sylvie; Borch, Casey; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents' friendships with other-sex peers serve important developmental functions, but they may also facilitate engagement in problem behavior. This study examines the unique contributions of other-sex friendships and friends' behavior to alcohol use, smoking, and initiation of sexual intercourse among late adolescent girls and boys. A total…

  15. Sex Differences in Internalizing Problems during Adolescence in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, Tasha M.; Winter-Messiers, Mary Ann; Gibson, Brandon; Schmidt, Alexandra M.; Herr, Cynthia M.; Solomon, Marjorie

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that the double hit conferred by sex and diagnosis increases the risk for internalizing disorders in adolescent females with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In a sample of 32 adolescents with ASD and 32 controls, we examined the effects of sex, diagnostic factors, and developmental stages on depression and anxiety. A 3-way…

  16. Understanding the Sex Difference in Vulnerability to Adolescent Depression: An Examination of Child and Parent Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberhart, Nicole K.; Shih, Josephine H.; Hammen, Constance L.; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined sex differences in risk factors associated with adolescent depression in a large sample of boys and girls. Moderation and mediation explanatory models of the sex difference in likelihood of depression were examined. Findings indicate that the factors associated with depression in adolescent boys and girls are quite similar. All…

  17. Sex and Sibling Structure: Interaction Effects upon the Accuracy of Adolescent Perceptions of Parental Orientations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Thomas Ewin

    1984-01-01

    Surveyed 291 mother-child and 221 father-child dyads to examine adolescent perceptions of parental educational goals. Results showed family size and student's age had no effect, but birth order and sibling sex composition interact with sex of the parent and the adolescent in effects on accuracy of perception. (JAC)

  18. Research on Adolescent Pregnancy-Risk: Implications for Sex Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Stephen R.; Alexander, Sharon J.

    1983-01-01

    A complex set of issues plague the efforts of public school sex education programs to reduce the level of pregnancy risk among adolescents. Issues include: (1) uncertain status of sex education; (2) training the teacher; (3) support among school leaders; (4) other influences on adolescent development; (5) developmental characteristics of…

  19. Treatment for Juveniles Who Sexually Offend in a Southwestern State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikomi, Philip A.; Harris-Wyatt, Georgetta; Doucet, Geraldine; Rodney, H. Elaine

    2009-01-01

    A 25-item questionnaire was mailed to sex offender treatment providers from counties with 60 or more reported juvenile sex offenders in a Southwestern state to determine the most effective treatment for juvenile sex offenders. Results indicated that cognitive behavioral therapy was the most successful reported approach to treatment with an average…

  20. Sex, race/ethnicity, and romantic attractions: multiple minority status adolescents and mental health.

    PubMed

    Consolacion, Theodora B; Russell, Stephen T; Sue, Stanley

    2004-08-01

    This study examined the association between multiple minority statuses and reports of suicidal thoughts, depression, and self-esteem among adolescents. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to examine mental health outcomes across racial/ethnic groups for same-sex-attracted youths and female youths. Hispanic/Latino, African American, and White female adolescents reported more suicidal thoughts, higher depression, and lower self-esteem compared with male adolescents in their racial/ethnic group. Same-sex-attracted youths did not consistently demonstrate compromised mental health across racial/ethnic groups. Follow-up analyses show that White same-sex-attracted female adolescents reported the most compromised mental health compared with other White adolescents. However, similar trends were not found for racial/ethnic minority female youths with same-sex attractions. PMID:15311974