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Sample records for adolescent sexual orientation

  1. Adolescents Define Sexual Orientation and Suggest Ways to Measure It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, M. S. Mark S.; Silvestre, Anthony J.; Gold, Melanie A.; Markovic, Nina; Savin-Williams, Ritch C.; Huggins, James; Sell, Randal L.

    2004-01-01

    Researchers disagree on how to assess adolescent sexual orientation. The relative importance of various dimensions (e.g. attraction, relationships, behavior, self-labeling) is unknown, which calls into question the validity of studies assessing adolescent sexual orientation. To address this issue, 50 male and female adolescents of varied sexual…

  2. Structural Stigma and Sexual Orientation Disparities in Adolescent Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Jun, Hee-Jin; Corliss, Heather L.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2015-01-01

    Although epidemiologic studies have established the existence of large sexual orientation disparities in illicit drug use among adolescents and young adults, the determinants of these disparities remain understudied. This study sought to determine whether sexual orientation disparities in illicit drug use are potentiated in states that are characterized by high levels of stigma surrounding sexual minorities. State-level structural stigma was coded using a previously established measure based on a 4-item composite index: (1) density of same-sex couples; (2) proportion of Gay-Straight Alliances per public high school; (3) 5 policies related to sexual orientation discrimination (e.g., same-sex marriage, employment non-discrimination); and (4) public opinion toward homosexuality (aggregated responses from 41 national polls). The index was linked to individual-level data from the Growing Up Today Study, a prospective community-based study of adolescents (2000–2010). Sexual minorities report greater illicit drug use than their heterosexual peers. However, for both men and women, there were statistically significant interactions between sexual orientation status and structural stigma, such that sexual orientation disparities in marijuana and illicit drug use were more pronounced in high-structural stigma states than in low-structural stigma states, controlling for individual- and state-level confounders. For instance, among men, the risk ratio indicating the association between sexual orientation and marijuana use was 24% greater in high- versus low-structural stigma states, and for women it was 28% greater in high- versus low-structural stigma states. Stigma in the form of social policies and attitudes may contribute to sexual orientation disparities in illicit drug use. PMID:25753931

  3. Structural stigma and sexual orientation disparities in adolescent drug use.

    PubMed

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Jun, Hee-Jin; Corliss, Heather L; Bryn Austin, S

    2015-07-01

    Although epidemiologic studies have established the existence of large sexual orientation disparities in illicit drug use among adolescents and young adults, the determinants of these disparities remain understudied. This study sought to determine whether sexual orientation disparities in illicit drug use are potentiated in states that are characterized by high levels of stigma surrounding sexual minorities. State-level structural stigma was coded using a previously established measure based on a 4-item composite index: (1) density of same-sex couples; (2) proportion of Gay-Straight Alliances per public high school; (3) 5 policies related to sexual orientation discrimination (e.g., same-sex marriage, employment non-discrimination); and (4) public opinion toward homosexuality (aggregated responses from 41 national polls). The index was linked to individual-level data from the Growing Up Today Study, a prospective community-based study of adolescents (2001-2010). Sexual minorities report greater illicit drug use than their heterosexual peers. However, for both men and women, there were statistically significant interactions between sexual orientation status and structural stigma, such that sexual orientation disparities in marijuana and illicit drug use were more pronounced in high-structural stigma states than in low-structural stigma states, controlling for individual- and state-level confounders. For instance, among men, the risk ratio indicating the association between sexual orientation and marijuana use was 24% greater in high- versus low-structural stigma states, and for women it was 28% greater in high- versus low-structural stigma states. Stigma in the form of social policies and attitudes may contribute to sexual orientation disparities in illicit drug use. PMID:25753931

  4. Adolescent Sexual Orientation and Suicide Risk: Evidence from a National Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Stephen T.; Joyner, Kara

    2001-01-01

    Used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to investigate links between sexual orientation and suicidality. There was a strong link between adolescent sexual orientation and suicidal thoughts and behaviors. This relationship was mediated by critical youth suicide risk factors (depression, hopelessness, alcohol abuse,…

  5. Sexual harassment among adolescents of different sexual orientations and gender identities.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Ybarra, Michele L; Korchmaros, Josephine D

    2014-02-01

    This article examines (a) variation in rates of sexual harassment across mode (e.g., in-person, online) and type of harassment, (b) the impact of sexual harassment (i.e., distressing vs. non-distressing), and (c) how sexual harassment is similarly and differently experienced across sexual orientation and gender identity groups. Data were collected as part of the Teen Health and Technology online survey of 5,907 13 to 18 year-old Internet users in the United States. Past year sexual harassment was reported by 23-72% of youth, depending upon sexual orientation, with the highest rates reported by lesbian/queer girls (72%), bisexual girls (66%), and gay/queer boys (66%). When examined by gender identity, transgender youth reported the highest rates of sexual harassment - 81%. Overall, the most common modes for sexual harassment were in-person followed by online. Distress in the form of interference with school, family, and/or friends; creating a hostile environment; or being very/extremely upset was reported by about half of the sexually harassed bisexual girls and lesbian/queer girls, 65% of the gender non-conforming/other gender youth, and 63% of the transgender youth. Youth with high social support and self-esteem were less likely to report sexual harassment. Findings point to the great importance of sexual harassment prevention for all adolescents, with particular emphasis on the unique needs and experiences of youth of different sexual orientations and gender identities. Socio-emotional programs that emphasize self-esteem building could be particularly beneficial for reducing the likelihood of victimization and lessen the impact when it occurs.

  6. Adolescents of the U.S. National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study: sexual orientation, sexual behavior, and sexual risk exposure.

    PubMed

    Gartrell, Nanette K; Bos, Henny M W; Goldberg, Naomi G

    2011-12-01

    This study assessed Kinsey self-ratings and lifetime sexual experiences of 17-year-olds whose lesbian mothers enrolled before these offspring were born in the longest-running, prospective study of same-sex parented families, with a 93% retention rate to date. Data for the current report were gathered through online questionnaires completed by 78 adolescent offspring (39 girls and 39 boys). The adolescents were asked if they had ever been abused and, if so, to specify by whom and the type of abuse (verbal, emotional, physical, or sexual). They were also asked to specify their sexual identity on the Kinsey scale, between exclusively heterosexual and exclusively homosexual. Lifetime sexual behavior was assessed through questions about heterosexual and same-sex contact, age of first sexual experience, contraception use, and pregnancy. The results revealed that there were no reports of physical or sexual victimization by a parent or other caregiver. Regarding sexual orientation, 18.9% of the adolescent girls and 2.7% of the adolescent boys self-rated in the bisexual spectrum, and 0% of girls and 5.4% of boys self-rated as predominantly-to-exclusively homosexual. When compared with age- and gender-matched adolescents of the National Survey of Family Growth, the study offspring were significantly older at the time of their first heterosexual contact, and the daughters of lesbian mothers were significantly more likely to have had same-sex contact. These findings suggest that adolescents reared in lesbian families are less likely than their peers to be victimized by a parent or other caregiver, and that daughters of lesbian mothers are more likely to engage in same-sex behavior and to identify as bisexual.

  7. Adolescents of the U.S. National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study: sexual orientation, sexual behavior, and sexual risk exposure.

    PubMed

    Gartrell, Nanette K; Bos, Henny M W; Goldberg, Naomi G

    2011-12-01

    This study assessed Kinsey self-ratings and lifetime sexual experiences of 17-year-olds whose lesbian mothers enrolled before these offspring were born in the longest-running, prospective study of same-sex parented families, with a 93% retention rate to date. Data for the current report were gathered through online questionnaires completed by 78 adolescent offspring (39 girls and 39 boys). The adolescents were asked if they had ever been abused and, if so, to specify by whom and the type of abuse (verbal, emotional, physical, or sexual). They were also asked to specify their sexual identity on the Kinsey scale, between exclusively heterosexual and exclusively homosexual. Lifetime sexual behavior was assessed through questions about heterosexual and same-sex contact, age of first sexual experience, contraception use, and pregnancy. The results revealed that there were no reports of physical or sexual victimization by a parent or other caregiver. Regarding sexual orientation, 18.9% of the adolescent girls and 2.7% of the adolescent boys self-rated in the bisexual spectrum, and 0% of girls and 5.4% of boys self-rated as predominantly-to-exclusively homosexual. When compared with age- and gender-matched adolescents of the National Survey of Family Growth, the study offspring were significantly older at the time of their first heterosexual contact, and the daughters of lesbian mothers were significantly more likely to have had same-sex contact. These findings suggest that adolescents reared in lesbian families are less likely than their peers to be victimized by a parent or other caregiver, and that daughters of lesbian mothers are more likely to engage in same-sex behavior and to identify as bisexual. PMID:21057866

  8. Victimisation and psychosocial difficulties associated with sexual orientation concerns: a school-based study of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cotter, P; Corcoran, P; McCarthy, J; O'Suilleabháin, F; Carli, V; Hoven, C; Wasserman, C; Sarchiapone, M; Wasserman, D; Keeley, H

    2014-01-01

    This study examined victimisation, substance misuse, relationships, sexual activity, mental health difficulties and suicidal behaviour among adolescents with sexual orientation concerns in comparison to those without such concerns. 1112 Irish students (mean age 14 yrs) in 17 mixed-gender secondary schools completed a self-report questionnaire with standardised scales and measures of psychosocial difficulties. 58 students (5%) reported having concerns regarding their sexual orientation. Compared with their peers, they had higher levels of mental health difficulties and a markedly-increased prevalence of attempted suicide (29% vs. 2%), physical assault (40% vs. 8%), sexual assault (16%vs. 1%) and substance misuse. Almost all those (90%) with sexual orientation concerns reported having had sex compared to just 4% of their peers. These results highlight the significant difficulties associated with sexual orientation concerns in adolescents in Ireland. Early and targeted interventions are essential to address their needs. PMID:25551899

  9. Sexual Orientation Disparities in Adolescent Cigarette Smoking: Intersections With Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Age

    PubMed Central

    Corliss, Heather L.; Rosario, Margaret; Birkett, Michelle A.; Newcomb, Michael E.; Buchting, Francisco O.; Matthews, Alicia K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined sexual orientation differences in adolescent smoking and intersections with race/ethnicity, gender, and age. Methods. We pooled Youth Risk Behavior Survey data collected in 2005 and 2007 from 14 jurisdictions; the analytic sample comprised observations from 13 of those jurisdictions (n = 64 397). We compared smoking behaviors of sexual minorities and heterosexuals on 2 dimensions of sexual orientation: identity (heterosexual, gay–lesbian, bisexual, unsure) and gender of lifetime sexual partners (only opposite sex, only same sex, or both sexes). Multivariable regressions examined whether race/ethnicity, gender, and age modified sexual orientation differences in smoking. Results. Sexual minorities smoked more than heterosexuals. Disparities varied by sexual orientation dimension: they were larger when we compared adolescents by identity rather than gender of sexual partners. In some instances race/ethnicity, gender, and age modified smoking disparities: Black lesbians–gays, Asian American and Pacific Islander lesbians–gays and bisexuals, younger bisexuals, and bisexual girls had greater risk. Conclusions. Sexual orientation, race/ethnicity, gender, and age should be considered in research and practice to better understand and reduce disparities in adolescent smoking. PMID:24825218

  10. Sexual Orientation and Psychological Distress in Adolescence: Examining Interpersonal Stressors and Social Support Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueno, Koji

    2005-01-01

    Adolescents with homosexual and bisexual orientations have higher levels of psychological distress than other adolescents. Drawing from previous studies, I hypothesize that this epidemiological pattern is due largely to the interpersonal problems that sexual minorities experience at home and at school. Analysis of longitudinal data based on a…

  11. Substance Use and Sexual Orientation among East and Southeast Asian Adolescents in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homma, Yuko; Chen, Weihong; Poon, Colleen S.; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between substance use and sexual orientation among Asian adolescents in Canada. We analyzed an East- and Southeast-Asian subsample of a province-wide, school-based survey (weighted N = 51,349). Compared to heterosexual adolescents of the same gender, gay, lesbian, bisexual, and mostly…

  12. Sexual Orientation, Weight Concerns, and Eating-Disordered Behaviors in Adolescent Girls and Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, S. Bryn; Ziyadeh, Najat; Kahn, Jessica A.; Camargo, Carlos A.; Colditz, Graham A.; Field, Alison E.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine sexual orientation group differences in eating disorder symptoms in adolescent girls and boys. Method: Cross-sectional associations were examined using multivariate regression techniques using data gathered in 1999 from 10,583 adolescents in the Growing Up Today Study, a cohort of children of women participating in the…

  13. Genetic Influences on Adolescent Sexual Behavior: Why Genes Matter for Environmentally-Oriented Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Harden, K. Paige

    2013-01-01

    There are dramatic individual differences among adolescents in how and when they become sexually active adults, and “early” sexual activity is frequently cited as a cause of concern for scientists, policymakers, and the general public. Understanding the causes and developmental impact of adolescent sexual activity can be furthered by considering genes as a source of individual differences. Quantitative behavioral genetics (i.e., twin and family studies) and candidate gene association studies now provide clear evidence for the genetic underpinnings of individual differences in adolescent sexual behavior and related phenotypes. Genetic influences on sexual behavior may operate through a variety of direct and indirect mechanisms, including pubertal development, testosterone levels, and dopaminergic systems. Genetic differences may be systematically associated with exposure to environments that are commonly treated as causes of sexual behavior (gene-environment correlation). Possible gene-environment correlations pose a serious challenge for interpreting the results of much behavioral research. Multivariate, genetically-informed research on adolescent sexual behavior compares twins and family members as a form of “quasi-experiment”: How do twins who differ in their sexual experiences differ in their later development? The small but growing body of genetically-informed research has already challenged dominant assumptions regarding the etiology and sequelae of adolescent sexual behavior, with some studies indicating possible positive effects of teenage sexuality. Studies of gene × environment interaction may further elucidate the mechanisms by which genes and environments combine to shape the development of sexual behavior and its psychosocial consequences. Overall, the existence of heritable variation in adolescent sexual behavior has profound implications for environmentally-oriented theory and research. PMID:23855958

  14. Genetic influences on adolescent sexual behavior: Why genes matter for environmentally oriented researchers.

    PubMed

    Harden, K Paige

    2014-03-01

    There are dramatic individual differences among adolescents in how and when they become sexually active adults, and early sexual activity is frequently cited as a cause of concern for scientists, policymakers, and the general public. Understanding the causes and developmental impact of adolescent sexual activity can be furthered by considering genes as a source of individual differences. Quantitative behavioral genetics (i.e., twin and family studies) and candidate gene association studies now provide clear evidence for the genetic underpinnings of individual differences in adolescent sexual behavior and related phenotypes. Genetic influences on sexual behavior may operate through a variety of direct and indirect mechanisms, including pubertal development, testosterone levels, and dopaminergic systems. Genetic differences may be systematically associated with exposure to environments that are commonly treated as causes of sexual behavior (gene-environment correlation). Possible gene-environment correlations pose a serious challenge for interpreting the results of much behavioral research. Multivariate, genetically informed research on adolescent sexual behavior compares twins and family members as a form of quasi experiment: How do twins who differ in their sexual experiences differ in their later development? The small but growing body of genetically informed research has already challenged dominant assumptions regarding the etiology and sequelae of adolescent sexual behavior, with some studies indicating possible positive effects of teenage sexuality. Studies of Gene × Environment interaction may further elucidate the mechanisms by which genes and environments combine to shape the development of sexual behavior and its psychosocial consequences. Overall, the existence of heritable variation in adolescent sexual behavior has profound implications for environmentally oriented theory and research.

  15. Envisioning an America without sexual orientation inequities in adolescent health.

    PubMed

    Mustanski, Brian; Birkett, Michelle; Greene, George J; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Newcomb, Michael E

    2014-02-01

    This article explicates a vision for social change throughout multiple levels of society necessary to eliminate sexual orientation health disparities in youths. We utilized the framework of Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory of development, a multisystemic model of development that considers direct and indirect influences of multiple levels of the environment. Within this multisystem model we discuss societal and political influences, educational systems, neighborhoods and communities, romantic relationships, families, and individuals. We stress that continued change toward equity in the treatment of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths across these levels will break down the barriers for these youths to achieve healthy development on par with their heterosexual peers.

  16. Envisioning an America without sexual orientation inequities in adolescent health.

    PubMed

    Mustanski, Brian; Birkett, Michelle; Greene, George J; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Newcomb, Michael E

    2014-02-01

    This article explicates a vision for social change throughout multiple levels of society necessary to eliminate sexual orientation health disparities in youths. We utilized the framework of Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory of development, a multisystemic model of development that considers direct and indirect influences of multiple levels of the environment. Within this multisystem model we discuss societal and political influences, educational systems, neighborhoods and communities, romantic relationships, families, and individuals. We stress that continued change toward equity in the treatment of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths across these levels will break down the barriers for these youths to achieve healthy development on par with their heterosexual peers. PMID:24328618

  17. Envisioning an America Without Sexual Orientation Inequities in Adolescent Health

    PubMed Central

    Birkett, Michelle; Greene, George J.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Newcomb, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    This article explicates a vision for social change throughout multiple levels of society necessary to eliminate sexual orientation health disparities in youths. We utilized the framework of Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory of development, a multisystemic model of development that considers direct and indirect influences of multiple levels of the environment. Within this multisystem model we discuss societal and political influences, educational systems, neighborhoods and communities, romantic relationships, families, and individuals. We stress that continued change toward equity in the treatment of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths across these levels will break down the barriers for these youths to achieve healthy development on par with their heterosexual peers. PMID:24328618

  18. Prevalence and stability of sexual orientation components during adolescence and young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Savin-Williams, Ritch C; Ream, Geoffrey L

    2007-06-01

    Analyses of three waves (6 years) of the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health data explored the prevalence and stability of sexual orientation and whether these two parameters varied by biologic sex, sexual orientation component (romantic attraction, sexual behavior, sexual identity), and degree of component. Prevalence rates for nonheterosexuality varied between 1 and 15% and depended on biologic sex (higher among females), sexual orientation component (highest for romantic attraction), degree of component (highest if "mostly heterosexual" was included with identity), and the interaction of these (highest for nonheterosexual identity among females). Although kappa statistics testing for temporal stability across waves were significant, they failed to reach acceptable levels of agreement and could be largely attributable to the stability of opposite-sex rather than same-sex attraction and behavior. Migration over time among sexual orientation components was in both directions, from opposite-sex attraction and behavior to same-sex attraction and behavior and vice versa. To assess sexual orientation, investigators should measure multiple components over time or abandon the general notion of sexual orientation and measure only those components relevant for the research question. PMID:17195103

  19. Adolescents' Acceptance of Same-Sex Peers Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Staccy S.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated tenth- and twelfth-grade adolescents' (N less than or equal to 264) judgments about the acceptability of same-sex peers who varied in terms of their sexual orientation (straight, gay or lesbian) and their conformity to gender conventions or norms in regard to appearance and mannerisms or activity. Overall, the results of…

  20. Research on Adolescent Sexual Orientation: Development, Health Disparities, Stigma, and Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saewyc, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    The decade between 1998 and 2008 saw rapid increases in research on adolescent sexual orientation development and related health issues, both in the quantity and in the quality of studies. While much of the research originated in North America, studies from other countries also contributed to emerging understanding of developmental trajectories…

  1. Sexual Orientation and Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids in US Adolescent Boys

    PubMed Central

    Safren, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We compared the lifetime prevalence of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) misuse among sexual minority versus heterosexual US adolescent boys, and secondarily, sought to explore possible intermediate variables that may explain prevalence differences. METHODS: Participants were 17 250 adolescent boys taken from a pooled data set of the 14 jurisdictions from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys that assessed sexual orientation. Data were analyzed for overall prevalence of AAS misuse and possible intermediary risk factors. RESULTS: Sexual minority adolescent boys were at an increased odds of 5.8 (95% confidence interval 4.1–8.2) to report a lifetime prevalence of AAS (21% vs 4%) compared with their heterosexual counterparts, P < .001. Exploratory analyses suggested that increased depressive symptoms/suicidality, victimization, and substance use contributed to this disparity. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first known study to test and find substantial health disparities in the prevalence of AAS misuse as a function of sexual orientation. Prevention and intervention efforts are needed for sexual minority adolescent boys. PMID:24488735

  2. Adolescent sexuality.

    PubMed

    Grant, L M; Demetriou, E

    1988-12-01

    The consequences of adolescent sexual behavior are an enormous burden both for the adolescent and society. The problem is not that teens are sexually active but rather that they have little preparation and guidance in developing responsible sexual behavior. Developmentally, adolescents reach physical maturity before they are cognitively able to appreciate the consequences of their behavior. A teenager's primary source of information regarding sexuality is his or her peer group, all of whom are experiencing and reinforcing the same behaviors. The family, the major socializer of other behaviors, is not as powerful a force in shaping responsible sexual behavior because of parental discomfort with sex education and sexual discussions. This is the result of a social milieu in which sex is frequently portrayed but rarely linked with responsible behavior or accurate, nonjudgmental information. The pediatric practitioner is in an ideal position to intervene in these dynamics. In the office, the practitioner can provide accurate sexual information to both parents and adolescents, support parental-child communication on sexual issues, and provide appropriate services or referral. In the community, the practitioner can advocate for school-based sex education as well as act as an information resource. Finally, the practitioner can advocate for the health care needs for adolescents on a national level, supporting legislation that provides adolescents with information and access to services necessary to make responsible sexual decisions.

  3. The Internet's Multiple Roles in Facilitating the Sexual Orientation Identity Development of Gay and Bisexual Male Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Harper, Gary W; Serrano, Pedro A; Bruce, Douglas; Bauermeister, Jose A

    2016-09-01

    One emerging avenue for the exploration of adolescents' sexual orientation identity development is the Internet, since it allows for varying degrees of anonymity and exploration. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine the role of the Internet in facilitating the sexual orientation identity development process of gay and bisexual male adolescents. Qualitative interviews were conducted with an ethnically diverse sample of 63 gay/bisexual male adolescents (ages 15-23). Participants reported using a range of Internet applications as they explored and came to accept their sexual orientation identity, with the intended purpose and degree of anonymity desired determining which applications were used. Youth reported that the Internet provided a range of functions with regard to the exploration and acceptance of their sexual orientation identity, including (1) increasing self-awareness of sexual orientation identity, (2) learning about gay/bisexual community life, (3) communicating with other gay/bisexual people, (4) meeting other gay/bisexual people, (5) finding comfort and acceptance with sexual orientation, and (6) facilitating the coming out process. Future research and practice may explore the Internet as a platform for promoting the healthy development of gay and bisexual male adolescents by providing a developmentally and culturally appropriate venue for the exploration and subsequent commitment to an integrated sexual orientation identity.

  4. Identifying Sexual Orientation Health Disparities in Adolescents: Analysis of Pooled Data From the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2005 and 2007

    PubMed Central

    Van Wagenen, Aimee; Birkett, Michelle; Eyster, Sandra; Corliss, Heather L.

    2014-01-01

    We studied sexual orientation disparities in health outcomes among US adolescents by pooling multiple Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data sets from 2005 and 2007 for 14 jurisdictions. Here we describe the methodology for pooling and analyzing these data sets. Sexual orientation–related items assessed sexual orientation identity, gender of sexual contacts, sexual attractions, and harassment regarding sexual orientation. Wording of items varied across jurisdictions, so we created parallel variables and composite sexual minority variables. We used a variety of statistical approaches to address issues with the analysis of pooled data and to meet the aims of individual articles, which focused on a range of health outcomes and behaviors related to cancer, substance use, sexual health, mental health, violence, and injury. PMID:24328640

  5. The Internet’s Multiple Roles in Facilitating the Sexual Orientation Identity Development of Gay and Bisexual Male Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Gary W.; Serrano, Pedro A.; Bruce, Douglas; Bauermeister, Jose A.

    2016-01-01

    One emerging avenue for the exploration of adolescents’ sexual orientation identity development is the Internet since it allows for varying degrees of anonymity and exploration. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine the role of the Internet in facilitating the sexual orientation identity development process of gay and bisexual male adolescents. Qualitative interviews were conducted with an ethnically diverse sample of 63 gay/bisexual male adolescents (ages 15–23). Participants reported using a range of Internet applications as they explored and came to accept their sexual orientation identity, with the intended purpose and degree of anonymity desired determining which applications were used. Youth reported that the Internet provided a range of functions with regard to the exploration and acceptance of their sexual orientation identity, including: 1) increasing self awareness of sexual orientation identity; 2) learning about gay/bisexual community life; 3) communicating with other gay/bisexual people; 4) meeting other gay/bisexual people; 5) finding comfort and acceptance with sexual orientation; and 6) facilitating the coming out process. Future research and practice may explore the Internet as a platform for promoting the healthy development of gay and bisexual male adolescents by providing a developmentally and culturally appropriate venue for the exploration and subsequent commitment to an integrated sexual orientation identity. PMID:25585861

  6. [Adolescent sexuality].

    PubMed

    Calero, Juan del Rey

    2010-01-01

    The social Adolescent features are insecurity, narcissism, eroticism, more impetuosity than reason. 1/3 of adolescents have risk behaviour for health. The pregnancy rate in adolescent are 9/1,000 (11,720, the abort about 50 %). The total abort (2009) were 114,480. Increase the rate of 8,4 (1990) to 14,6/ 1,000 (2009). The sexual education fails. The consulting about contraceptives get pregnancy of the OR 3,2, condom OR 2,7. The adolescent are influenced in his matter: oeer have 70-75 % of influence, mother 30-40 %, father 15 %, for yhe environment and education Cyberspace access to information: 33 % exposed to unwanted sexual materials, 1 in 7 solicited sexual online. The argument have 4 central topic: Morality and Responsibility, Desire (responsibility vs gratification), Danger (fear related to pregnancy and STD/VIH), and Victimization. The prevention of STD: so called safe sex, delayed, and abstinence, Prevention HPV vaccine. The information is not enough, are necessary personal integral formation in values as self control, abstinence, mutual respect, responsibility, reasonable decisions. PMID:21877398

  7. The association of sexual orientation with self-rated health, and cigarette and alcohol use in Mexican adolescents and youths.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Hernández, Luis; Tello, Blanca Lilia Gómez; Valdés, Jesús

    2009-07-01

    Evidence of health inequities associated with sexual orientation has been gathered for industrialized countries. The situation for lesbians, gay males, and bisexuals (LGB) from middle- or low-income countries may be worse than those in industrialized nations. Here, we analyze the relationship of sexual orientation with self-rated health and cigarette and alcohol use among a representative sample of Mexican adolescents and youths between the ages of 12 and 29 years, in order to explore whether this association is mediated by discrimination and violence. Three dimensions of sexual orientation (affective attraction, sexual behavior, and identity) were assessed. The outcomes were self-rated health and cigarette and alcohol use. Compared to heterosexuals, LGB youths more frequently smoked >or=6 cigarettes per day, reported having experienced family violence, having crimes perpetrated against them, and having experienced violations of their rights. Among males, gays and bisexuals exhibited a higher risk of poor health than heterosexuals. Compared to heterosexual women, lesbians and bisexual women were more likely to consume alcohol. Many differences in self-rated health and substance use according to sexual orientation were explained by having experienced discrimination and violence. We concluded that lesbian and bisexual females have a higher prevalence of cigarette and alcohol use. It is necessary to develop policies and programs aimed at the reduction of substance abuse among LGB youths (focusing on females who engage in sexual contact with persons of the same gender) and to work against discrimination and violence experienced by LGB people, particularly against non-heterosexual males.

  8. Indicators of Victimization and Sexual Orientation Among Adolescents: Analyses From Youth Risk Behavior Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Everett, Bethany G.; Rosario, Margaret; Birkett, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We used nuanced measures of sexual minority status to examine disparities in victimization and their variations by gender, age, and race/ethnicity. Methods. We conducted multivariate analyses of pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. Results. Although all sexual minorities reported more fighting, skipping school because they felt unsafe, and having property stolen or damaged at school than did heterosexuals, rates were highest among youths who identified as bisexual or who reported both male and female sexual partners. Gender differences among sexual minorities appeared to be concentrated among bisexuals and respondents who reported sexual partners of both genders. Sexual minority youths reported more fighting than heterosexual youths, especially at younger ages, and more nonphysical school victimization that persisted through adolescence. White and Hispanic sexual minority youths reported more indicators of victimization than did heterosexuals; we found few sexual minority differences among African American and Asian American youths. Conclusions. Victimization carries health consequences, and sexual minorities are at increased risk. Surveys should include measures that allow tracking of disparities in victimization by sexual minority status. PMID:24328633

  9. [Migrant adolescents and sexuality].

    PubMed

    Renteria, Saira-Christine

    2012-06-13

    Besides its emotional, hormonal and physical components, sexuality has also an important social function. Analyzing these interactions in immigrant adolescents who are challenged at the same time by developmental changes and modified cultural and social rules--especially if they differ from the rules assimilated during childhood--might help professionals to access better comprehension. Personal experience, individual and external resources, whether they are family oriented or professional, are prone to influence on behavior, perception and outcome related to sexual health. The subject is discussed on the base of scientific literature and medical practice.

  10. Theories of Sexual Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storms, Michael D.

    1980-01-01

    Results indicated homosexuals, heterosexuals, and bisexuals did not differ within each sex on measures of masculinity and femininity. Strong support was obtained for the hypothesis that sexual orientation relates primarily to erotic fantasy orientation. (Author/DB)

  11. Asian/Pacific Islander Adolescent Sexual Orientation and Suicide Risk in Guam

    PubMed Central

    Pinhey, Thomas K.; Millman, Sara R.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the effects of same-sex orientation on suicide risks for Guam’s Asian/Pacific Islander adolescents. Methods. We used a probability sample and logistic regression analysis to identify suicide risk factors. Results. Same-sex orientation was associated with a greater risk of suicide attempt, especially for boys. Adolescents who reported suffering physical abuse in the context of a romantic relationship, engaging in binge drinking, and experiencing feelings of hopelessness were at greater risk for suicidal ideation and attempts. Race/ethnicity was associated with suicide risk for both boys and girls, and patterns suggest that membership in the same racial/ethnic group decreased suicide risk for girls and increased risk of suicide for boys. Conclusions. Gay, lesbian, and bisexual Asian/Pacific Islander adolescents in Guam deserve intervention and counseling programs to reduce suicide risk. PMID:15226144

  12. Sexuality Education for Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Breuner, Cora C; Mattson, Gerri

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this clinical report is to provide pediatricians updated research on evidence-based sexual and reproductive health education conducted since the original clinical report on the subject was published by the American Academy of Pediatrics in 2001. Sexuality education is defined as teaching about human sexuality, including intimate relationships, human sexual anatomy, sexual reproduction, sexually transmitted infections, sexual activity, sexual orientation, gender identity, abstinence, contraception, and reproductive rights and responsibilities. Developmentally appropriate and evidence-based education about human sexuality and sexual reproduction over time provided by pediatricians, schools, other professionals, and parents is important to help children and adolescents make informed, positive, and safe choices about healthy relationships, responsible sexual activity, and their reproductive health. Sexuality education has been shown to help to prevent and reduce the risks of adolescent pregnancy, HIV, and sexually transmitted infections for children and adolescents with and without chronic health conditions and disabilities in the United States.

  13. Sexuality Education for Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Breuner, Cora C; Mattson, Gerri

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this clinical report is to provide pediatricians updated research on evidence-based sexual and reproductive health education conducted since the original clinical report on the subject was published by the American Academy of Pediatrics in 2001. Sexuality education is defined as teaching about human sexuality, including intimate relationships, human sexual anatomy, sexual reproduction, sexually transmitted infections, sexual activity, sexual orientation, gender identity, abstinence, contraception, and reproductive rights and responsibilities. Developmentally appropriate and evidence-based education about human sexuality and sexual reproduction over time provided by pediatricians, schools, other professionals, and parents is important to help children and adolescents make informed, positive, and safe choices about healthy relationships, responsible sexual activity, and their reproductive health. Sexuality education has been shown to help to prevent and reduce the risks of adolescent pregnancy, HIV, and sexually transmitted infections for children and adolescents with and without chronic health conditions and disabilities in the United States. PMID:27432844

  14. Sexual Orientation (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Transgender People Teaching Your Child Tolerance STDs Understanding Early ... and Romance Am I in a Healthy Relationship? Transgender People Sexual Attraction and Orientation Contact Us Print ...

  15. Associations of Health-Risk Behaviors and Health Cognition With Sexual Orientation Among Adolescents in School

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Yun; Kim, Seo-Hee; Woo, Sook Young; Yoon, Byung-Koo; Choi, DooSeok

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Homosexual adolescents may face significant health disparities. We examined health-risk behaviors and health cognition related to homosexual behavior in a representative sample of adolescents. Data were obtained from 129,900 adolescents between 2008 and 2012 over 5 cycles of the Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a national survey of students in grades 7 to 12. Various health-risk behaviors and aspects of health cognition were compared between homosexual and heterosexual adolescents and analyzed with multiple logistic regression models. Compared with heterosexual adolescents (n = 127,594), homosexual adolescents (n = 2306) were more likely to engage in various health-risk behaviors and to have poor health cognition. In multiple logistic regression analysis, not living with parents, alcohol experience (adjusted odds ratio, 1.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.26–1.78 for males and 1.66; 1.33–2.07 for females), smoking experience (1.80; 1.54–2.10 for males and 3.15; 2.61–3.79 for females), and drug experience (3.65; 2.81–4.80 for males and 3.23; 2.35–4.46 for females) were associated with homosexual behavior. Homosexual adolescents were more likely to use adult internet content (2.82; 2.27–3.50 for males and 7.42; 4.19–13.15 for females), and to be depressed (1.21; 1.03–1.43 for males and 1.32; 1.06–1.64 for females). In addition, suicide ideation (1.51; 1.26–1.81 for males and 1.47; 1.16–1.86 for females) and attempts (1.67; 1.37–2.05 for males and 1.65; 1.34–2.03 for females) were significantly more prevalent among homosexual adolescents. Homosexual adolescents report disparities in various aspects of health-risk behavior and health cognition, including use of multiple substances, adult internet content and inappropriate weight loss methods, suicide ideation and attempts, and depressive mood. These factors should be addressed relevantly to develop specific interventions regarding sexual minorities. PMID:27227939

  16. Factors associated with sexual orientation and gender disparities in chronic pain among U.S. adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L.; Everett, Bethany; Scherer, Emily A.; Gooding, Holly; Milliren, Carly E.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated factors associated with sexual orientation disparities in chronic pain frequency among youth. Data were analyzed from 4534 female and 3785 male youth from Waves I–IV (1995–2009) of the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Gender-stratified weighted logistic regression models controlled for sociodemographic characteristics and included sexual orientation (primary predictor) and frequency of three types of chronic pain (outcomes). Models with sexual orientation only were compared to models with factors hypothesized to increase or decrease risk of pain. Significant odds ratios (OR) for chronic pain frequency (daily/weekly vs. rarely) with confidence intervals (CI) and associated factors are reported. Compared to same-gender heterosexual females, mostly heterosexuals were more likely to report headaches (OR = 1.40, CI = 1.09, 1.79) and mostly heterosexuals and bisexuals were more likely to report muscle/joint pain (mostly heterosexual OR = 1.69, CI = 1.29, 2.20; bisexual OR = 1.87, CI = 1.03, 3.38). Compared to same-gender heterosexual males, gay males were more likely to report headaches (OR = 2.00, CI = 1.06, 3.82), but less likely to report muscle/joint pain (OR = 0.28, CI = 0.11, 0.74). Significant disparities were attenuated by up to 16% when associated factors were added to the model. Sexual orientation disparities in chronic pain were partially explained by associated factors, but more research is needed to develop intervention and prevention strategies. PMID:26557475

  17. Let’s Get Physical: Sexual Orientation Disparities in Physical Activity, Sports Involvement, and Obesity Among a Population-Based Sample of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Poteat, V. Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined sexual orientation disparities in physical activity, sports involvement, and obesity among a population-based adolescent sample. Methods. We analyzed data from the 2012 Dane County Youth Assessment for 13 933 students in grades 9 through 12 in 22 Wisconsin high schools. We conducted logistic regressions to examine sexual orientation disparities in physical activity, sports involvement, and body mass index among male and female adolescents. Results. When we accounted for several covariates, compared with heterosexual females, sexual minority females were less likely to participate in team sports (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.37, 0.53) and more likely to be overweight (AOR = 1.28; 95% CI = 1.02, 1.62) or obese (AOR = 1.88; 95% CI = 1.43, 2.48). Sexual minority males were less likely than heterosexual males to be physically active (AOR = 0.62; 95% CI = 0.46, 0.83) or to participate in team sports (AOR = 0.26; 95% CI = 0.20, 0.32), but the 2 groups did not differ in their risk of obesity. Conclusions. Sexual orientation health disparities in physical activity and obesity are evident during adolescence. Culturally affirming research, interventions, and policies are needed for sexual minority youths. PMID:26180946

  18. Sexual Health for America's Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haffner, Debra W.

    1996-01-01

    The National Commission on Adolescent Sexual Health developed a professional consensus statement about adolescent sexual health. Its report for policymakers recommends that adults face the facts about adolescent sexuality and that public policies on adolescent sexual health be based on appropriate knowledge, accurate data, current theory, ongoing…

  19. Sexual Behavior of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Hilmar

    1978-01-01

    Confined to discussion of heterosexual activities, this article examines adolescent sexual behavior in terms of promiscuity; the search for a sexual behavior code; the impact of the media; and the influence of peer groups, religious identification, and the adult double standard. (JC)

  20. Television and adolescent sexuality.

    PubMed

    Brown, J D; Childers, K W; Waszak, C S

    1990-01-01

    Existing studies of the sexual content of television programming and advertising and the effects of this content on adolescent viewers are reviewed. Content studies show that the frequency of sexual references have increased in the past decade and are increasingly explicit. Studies of the effects of this content, while scarce, suggest that adolescents who rely heavily on television for information about sexuality will have high standards of female beauty and will believe that premarital and extramarital intercourse with multiple partners is acceptable. They are unlikely to learn about the need for contraceptives as a form of protection against pregnancy or disease. Suggestions for future research and trends in television programming policies are explored.

  1. [Adolescent sexuality in Peru].

    PubMed

    Loli, A; Aramburu, C; Paxman, J M

    1987-01-01

    22% of the population of Peru, or 4.25 million individuals, is between the ages of 11 and 19 years. A survey was performed on a sample of 6,000 adolescents living in Lima, Cajamarca, Huarez, and Supe. Surveys were performed in a variety of locations, including school classrooms, maternity wards, schools, and work places. The questionnaire was constructed based on a format that had been tested in Nigeria; questions dealt with socioeconomic background, sex behavior, contraceptive behavior, pregnancy history, and health practices and knowledge. 60% of the adolescents were women and 40% were men. 41% had had at least 1 sexual experience; among 18-year-olds, this % rose to 55. Only 10% were in stable union. Married adolescents tended to have begun sexual relations sooner in life. Early sexual relations were more common among men than among women, and more common among non-religious adolescents than among Catholics. Fewer than 12% of the adolescents had at 1 time used contraceptives. Contraceptive use was more prevalent among adolescents from wealthier socioeconomic groups, and more prevalent in Lima than in other regions surveyed. Of adolescents using contraceptives, 38% used condoms, 24% used oral contraceptives, and 15% used rhythm methods. Most adolescents who did not use contraceptives failed to do so because of lack of knowledge. Almost 1/4 of the young women had had a pregnancy. 18.5 of these had abortions, usually in a hospital. The importance of supporting educational prevention programs is underlined.

  2. [Adolescent sexuality in Peru].

    PubMed

    Loli, A; Aramburu, C; Paxman, J M

    1987-01-01

    22% of the population of Peru, or 4.25 million individuals, is between the ages of 11 and 19 years. A survey was performed on a sample of 6,000 adolescents living in Lima, Cajamarca, Huarez, and Supe. Surveys were performed in a variety of locations, including school classrooms, maternity wards, schools, and work places. The questionnaire was constructed based on a format that had been tested in Nigeria; questions dealt with socioeconomic background, sex behavior, contraceptive behavior, pregnancy history, and health practices and knowledge. 60% of the adolescents were women and 40% were men. 41% had had at least 1 sexual experience; among 18-year-olds, this % rose to 55. Only 10% were in stable union. Married adolescents tended to have begun sexual relations sooner in life. Early sexual relations were more common among men than among women, and more common among non-religious adolescents than among Catholics. Fewer than 12% of the adolescents had at 1 time used contraceptives. Contraceptive use was more prevalent among adolescents from wealthier socioeconomic groups, and more prevalent in Lima than in other regions surveyed. Of adolescents using contraceptives, 38% used condoms, 24% used oral contraceptives, and 15% used rhythm methods. Most adolescents who did not use contraceptives failed to do so because of lack of knowledge. Almost 1/4 of the young women had had a pregnancy. 18.5 of these had abortions, usually in a hospital. The importance of supporting educational prevention programs is underlined. PMID:12269059

  3. Early adolescents' sexual behaviors.

    PubMed

    Porter, C P; Ronis, D L; Oakley, D J; Guthrie, B J; Killion, C

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze changes in early adolescents' intimate behaviors and the initiation of sexual intercourse over a one-year time period. The changes are interpreted within the context of recent progress in understanding the development of early adolescents. Public school students in sixth and ninth grades of selected schools in a midwestern industrial city were studied in two waves of data collection. A total of 106 students provided data for the second year, allowing comparisons of their Time 2 with their Time 1 responses. Five of eight intimate behaviors studied increased in frequency during the year. Also, the adolescents' perceived benefits of having sexual intercourse increased and perceived costs decreased during the follow-up year. Increases in the frequency of intimate behaviors but not changes in their perceptions of the benefits and costs predicted whether or not students had initiated sexual intercourse during the follow-up period. These findings support current understanding of early adolescence as a time of incremental learning about intimacy and about sexual relationships. The findings suggest that preventing early sexual intercourse may require understanding the specific behavioral competencies related to healthful development of intimacy. Pediatric nurses can be leaders in providing the necessary counseling and education to young adolescents, their families, and their communities.

  4. The Role of Social Connectedness and Sexual Orientation in the Prevention of Youth Suicide Ideation and Attempts Among Sexually Active Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stone, Deborah M; Luo, Feijun; Lippy, Caroline; McIntosh, Wendy LiKamWa

    2015-08-01

    The impact of types of social connectedness-family, other adult, and school-on suicide ideation and attempts among all youth, the relative impact of each type, and effect modification by sexual orientation was assessed. Data were from the 2007-2009 Milwaukee Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. Multivariable logistic regression analyses calculated the risk of suicide ideation and attempts by sexual orientation, types of social connectedness, and their interaction. Among all youth, each type of connectedness modeled singly conferred protective effects for suicide ideation. Family and other adult connectedness protected against suicide attempts. When modeled simultaneously, family connectedness protected against ideation and attempts. Sexual orientation modified the association between other adult connectedness and suicide ideation. Findings suggest that family connectedness confers the most consistent protection among all youth and sexual orientation does not generally modify the association between connectedness and suicidal behavior.

  5. Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity/Expression Related Peer Victimization in Adolescence: A Systematic Review of Associated Psychosocial and Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Kate L.; van Beusekom, Gabriël; Bos, Henny M. W.; Sandfort, Theo G. M.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews research on psychosocial and health outcomes associated with peer victimization related to adolescent sexual orientation and gender identity or expression. Using four electronic databases and supplementary methods, we identified 39 relevant studies. These studies were published between 1995 and 2012 and conducted in 12 different countries. The studies were diverse in terms of their approaches to sampling participants, assessing participants’ sexual orientation, operationalizing peer victimization, and with regard to the psychosocial and health outcomes studied in relation to peer victimization. Despite the methodological diversity across studies, there is fairly strong evidence that peer victimization related to sexual orientation and gender identity or expression is associated with a diminished sense of school belonging and higher levels of depressive symptoms; findings regarding the relationship between peer victimization and suicidality have been more mixed. Peer victimization related to sexual orientation and gender identity or expression is also associated with disruptions in educational trajectories, traumatic stress, and alcohol and substance use. Recommendations for future research and interventions are discussed. PMID:23480074

  6. Sexual orientation and gender identity/expression related peer victimization in adolescence: a systematic review of associated psychosocial and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Collier, Kate L; van Beusekom, Gabriël; Bos, Henny M W; Sandfort, Theo G M

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews research on psychosocial and health outcomes associated with peer victimization related to adolescent sexual orientation and gender identity or expression. Using four electronic databases and supplementary methods, we identified 39 relevant studies. These studies were published between 1995 and 2012 and conducted in 12 different countries. The studies were diverse in terms of their approaches to sampling participants, assessing participants' sexual orientation, operationalizing peer victimization, and with regard to the psychosocial and health outcomes studied in relation to peer victimization. Despite the methodological diversity across studies, there is fairly strong evidence that peer victimization related to sexual orientation and gender identity or expression is associated with a diminished sense of school belonging and higher levels of depressive symptoms; findings regarding the relationship between peer victimization and suicidality have been more mixed. Peer victimization related to sexual orientation and gender identity or expression is also associated with disruptions in educational trajectories, traumatic stress, and alcohol and substance use. Recommendations for future research and interventions are discussed.

  7. Adolescent sexuality and public policy.

    PubMed

    Olsen, J A; Jensen, L C; Greaves, P M

    1991-01-01

    In recent decades, various attempts have been made to determine the level of sexual activity among adolescents. This information has been used in the planning and evaluation of sex-related programs. However, there is a flaw in using only the initial estimates of the behavior--that a sexually active person is defined as one who has had sexual intercourse. This narrow definition distorts the perception of adolescent sexual behavior. Sexual activity can more accurately be designated by focusing on the actual frequency with which teenagers have sex. In this research report, adolescents were considered sexually active if they had had sex within the last four weeks. Using this definition, adolescents were found to be substantially less sexually active than has been previously reported. This finding was then used to look at various policy decisions in the areas of sex education, family planning, and sexually transmitted disease prevention. PMID:1927672

  8. Patterns of adolescent sexual behavior predicting young adult sexually transmitted infections: a latent class analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Vasilenko, Sara A; Kugler, Kari C; Butera, Nicole M; Lanza, Stephanie T

    2015-04-01

    Adolescent sexual behavior is multidimensional, yet most studies of the topic use variable-oriented methods that reduce behaviors to a single dimension. In this study, we used a person-oriented approach to model adolescent sexual behavior comprehensively, using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. We identified five latent classes of adolescent sexual behavior: Abstinent (39%), Oral Sex (10%), Low-Risk (25%), Multi-Partner Normative (12%), and Multi-Partner Early (13%). Membership in riskier classes of sexual behavior was predicted by substance use and depressive symptoms. Class membership was also associated with young adult STI outcomes although these associations differed by gender. Male adolescents' STI rates increased with membership in classes with more risky behaviors whereas females' rates were consistent among all sexually active classes. These findings demonstrate the advantages of examining adolescent sexuality in a way that emphasizes its complexity.

  9. Adolescent sexual counseling.

    PubMed

    Shen, J T

    1982-05-01

    The physician provides a much-needed service to teenagers by counseling them regarding sexuality. A series of conferences during adolescence and use of questionnaires can facilitate discussion and point up potential problems. When the patient is confronted with a problem such as a need for contraception or an unwanted pregnancy, the physician should present all the options available and leave the final choice up to the patient. The physician is not obligated to participate in a solution that is counter to his or her moral values. PMID:7071042

  10. Adolescents and sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Yarber, W L; Parrillo, A V

    1992-09-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are a serious health problem for adolescents, occurring in an estimated one-quarter of sexually active teen-agers. Many of the health problems--including STDs--result from specific risk-taking behaviors. Determinants of STD risks among adolescents include behavioral, psychological, social, biological, institutional factors. Education is an important component in STD control in adolescents. The goal of education is to increase adolescent self-efficiency in practicing STD prevention and risk-reduction. A comprehensive approach including quality, theory-based education, accessible and effective health clinics, and improved social and economic conditions has the most promise of controlling STDs in adolescents. PMID:1434562

  11. Sexual Orientation, Controversy, and Science.

    PubMed

    Bailey, J Michael; Vasey, Paul L; Diamond, Lisa M; Breedlove, S Marc; Vilain, Eric; Epprecht, Marc

    2016-09-01

    SummaryOngoing political controversies around the world exemplify a long-standing and widespread preoccupation with the acceptability of homosexuality. Nonheterosexual people have seen dramatic surges both in their rights and in positive public opinion in many Western countries. In contrast, in much of Africa, the Middle East, the Caribbean, Oceania, and parts of Asia, homosexual behavior remains illegal and severely punishable, with some countries retaining the death penalty for it. Political controversies about sexual orientation have often overlapped with scientific controversies. That is, participants on both sides of the sociopolitical debates have tended to believe that scientific findings-and scientific truths-about sexual orientation matter a great deal in making political decisions. The most contentious scientific issues have concerned the causes of sexual orientation-that is, why are some people heterosexual, others bisexual, and others homosexual? The actual relevance of these issues to social, political, and ethical decisions is often poorly justified, however.

  12. Sexual Orientation, Controversy, and Science.

    PubMed

    Bailey, J Michael; Vasey, Paul L; Diamond, Lisa M; Breedlove, S Marc; Vilain, Eric; Epprecht, Marc

    2016-09-01

    SummaryOngoing political controversies around the world exemplify a long-standing and widespread preoccupation with the acceptability of homosexuality. Nonheterosexual people have seen dramatic surges both in their rights and in positive public opinion in many Western countries. In contrast, in much of Africa, the Middle East, the Caribbean, Oceania, and parts of Asia, homosexual behavior remains illegal and severely punishable, with some countries retaining the death penalty for it. Political controversies about sexual orientation have often overlapped with scientific controversies. That is, participants on both sides of the sociopolitical debates have tended to believe that scientific findings-and scientific truths-about sexual orientation matter a great deal in making political decisions. The most contentious scientific issues have concerned the causes of sexual orientation-that is, why are some people heterosexual, others bisexual, and others homosexual? The actual relevance of these issues to social, political, and ethical decisions is often poorly justified, however. PMID:27113562

  13. Late Adolescent Girls' Sexual Experiences and Sexual Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Impett, Emily A.; Tolman, Deborah L.

    2006-01-01

    This study presented and tested a model of sexual satisfaction for late adolescent girls. In this model, sexual self-concept and approach sexual motives were tested as predictors of adolescent girls' sexual satisfaction with their most recent experience of sexual intercourse. A total of 116 girls in 12th grade (ages 16-19) completed measures of…

  14. Sexual Orientation and Involvement in Nonviolent and Violent Delinquent Behaviors: Findings From the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health.

    PubMed

    Beaver, Kevin M; Connolly, Eric J; Schwartz, Joseph A; Boutwell, Brian B; Barnes, J C; Nedelec, Joseph L

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the association between sexual orientation and nonviolent and violent delinquency across the life course. We analyzed self-reported nonviolent and violent delinquency in a sample of heterosexual males (N = 5220-7023) and females (N = 5984-7875), bisexuals (N = 34-73), gay males (N = 145-189), and lesbians (N = 115-150) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). The analyses revealed, in general, that bisexuals were the most delinquent of the sexual orientation categories for both males and females. Additional analyses revealed that heterosexual males reported significantly higher levels of both violent and nonviolent delinquency than gay males, whereas lesbians reported more involvement in nonviolent delinquency and, to a lesser extent, violent delinquency relative to heterosexual females. Analyses also revealed that lesbians reported significantly more delinquent behavior, particularly for nonviolent delinquency, than gay males. Future research should explore the mechanisms that account for these observed patterns and how they can be used to more fully understand the etiology of delinquency.

  15. Sexual Orientation and Involvement in Nonviolent and Violent Delinquent Behaviors: Findings From the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health.

    PubMed

    Beaver, Kevin M; Connolly, Eric J; Schwartz, Joseph A; Boutwell, Brian B; Barnes, J C; Nedelec, Joseph L

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the association between sexual orientation and nonviolent and violent delinquency across the life course. We analyzed self-reported nonviolent and violent delinquency in a sample of heterosexual males (N = 5220-7023) and females (N = 5984-7875), bisexuals (N = 34-73), gay males (N = 145-189), and lesbians (N = 115-150) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). The analyses revealed, in general, that bisexuals were the most delinquent of the sexual orientation categories for both males and females. Additional analyses revealed that heterosexual males reported significantly higher levels of both violent and nonviolent delinquency than gay males, whereas lesbians reported more involvement in nonviolent delinquency and, to a lesser extent, violent delinquency relative to heterosexual females. Analyses also revealed that lesbians reported significantly more delinquent behavior, particularly for nonviolent delinquency, than gay males. Future research should explore the mechanisms that account for these observed patterns and how they can be used to more fully understand the etiology of delinquency. PMID:27056045

  16. Legal dimensions of adolescent sexuality.

    PubMed

    Mykitiuk, Roxanne; Turnham, Stephanie

    2004-11-01

    The ethical and legal obligations with respect to treating a minor can be confusing, particularly in the areas of consent to treatment, confidentiality, and parental involvement. The clinician must be aware of the appropriate course of practice when the patient is an adolescent seeking care for contraception, pregnancy, or sexually transmitted infections. This article examines a number of ethical and legal issues that arise when providing reproductive and sexual health care to an adolescent and offers recommendations for the physician's most appropriate courses of action regarding adolescent patients and the age of consent to sexual activity, reporting of child abuse, provision of reproductive and sexual health care to a minor, assessing an adolescent's capacity to consent to treatment, the physician's duty of confidentiality, and the exceptions to the rule of confidentiality. PMID:15560862

  17. Parental Sexual Attitudes, Family Sexual Communication, and Adolescent Sexual Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Terri D.

    Some researchers have reported that when parents are the main source of sex education, their adolescent children are less likely to engage in premarital sexual activity and are more likely to use effective contraception. This study used the variables of gender and parental sexual attitudes (liberal or conservative) to categorize 349 college…

  18. Parenting and Adolescents' Sexual Initiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longmore, Monica A.; Eng, Abbey L.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Manning, Wendy D.

    2009-01-01

    This study draws on social control and social learning theories to examine the role of dating-specific attitudes and practices as predictors of adolescents' sexual initiation. We include attention to the adolescent's reaction to control attempts as a further means of assessing family dynamics (i.e., frequency of dating disagreements). The study…

  19. Adolescent's sexual problems in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, B S

    1990-07-01

    This article discusses primary contributors of sexual problems among Korean adolescents. As a result of improved nutrition, physical maturity is occurring at an earlier age in Korean youths. On the other hand, marital age has increased; the average age for males to marry is 27.3 years and 24.1 years in females. Hence, these factors extend the time frame between onset of sexual maturity and marriage. Enrollment in schools has risen; middle school registration has increased from 74.2% in 1975 to 99.7% in 1985 and from 43.6% to 78.3% in high schools. Increased enrollment has also been observed at the university level which may promote prolonged educational periods; this focus on education may reduce sexual interest among students. Improved employment opportunities may also influence sexual behavior among adolescents; urban migration can encourage casual relationships. Changes in family structure and sexual morals has promoted liberal attitudes regarding sexual practices. Increased exposure to mass media has affected adolescent sexual problems; 99.1% of the households in 1985 possessed televisions. These sexual problems include onset of sexual intercourse at an earlier age, unwanted pregnancies, increased induced abortions, and early childbirth. Overall, sexual activity in females has risen from 3.6% in 1965 to 14.5% in 1981 and from 18.5% in 1971 for males to 27.7% in 1981. Pre-marital pregnancy rates have continually increased since 1950; this has resulted in a rise of unwed mothers' consultations which reflects adolescent childbirths. Sex-related crime have also increased; rape ranks 3rd in crimes committed by Korean youth. Sex education and family planning should be provided for adolescents. Furthermore, counseling services should be available to youth regarding unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases, and contraception. The Planned Parenthood Federation of Korea provides youth sex telephone services in which adolescents can acquire information on

  20. Adolescent's sexual problems in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, B S

    1990-07-01

    This article discusses primary contributors of sexual problems among Korean adolescents. As a result of improved nutrition, physical maturity is occurring at an earlier age in Korean youths. On the other hand, marital age has increased; the average age for males to marry is 27.3 years and 24.1 years in females. Hence, these factors extend the time frame between onset of sexual maturity and marriage. Enrollment in schools has risen; middle school registration has increased from 74.2% in 1975 to 99.7% in 1985 and from 43.6% to 78.3% in high schools. Increased enrollment has also been observed at the university level which may promote prolonged educational periods; this focus on education may reduce sexual interest among students. Improved employment opportunities may also influence sexual behavior among adolescents; urban migration can encourage casual relationships. Changes in family structure and sexual morals has promoted liberal attitudes regarding sexual practices. Increased exposure to mass media has affected adolescent sexual problems; 99.1% of the households in 1985 possessed televisions. These sexual problems include onset of sexual intercourse at an earlier age, unwanted pregnancies, increased induced abortions, and early childbirth. Overall, sexual activity in females has risen from 3.6% in 1965 to 14.5% in 1981 and from 18.5% in 1971 for males to 27.7% in 1981. Pre-marital pregnancy rates have continually increased since 1950; this has resulted in a rise of unwed mothers' consultations which reflects adolescent childbirths. Sex-related crime have also increased; rape ranks 3rd in crimes committed by Korean youth. Sex education and family planning should be provided for adolescents. Furthermore, counseling services should be available to youth regarding unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases, and contraception. The Planned Parenthood Federation of Korea provides youth sex telephone services in which adolescents can acquire information on

  1. Care of the adolescent sexual assault victim.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, D W; Feinstein, R A; Fisher, M M; Klein, J D; Olmedo, L F; Rome, E S; Samuel Yancy, W; Adams Hillard, P J; Sacks, D; Pearson, G; Frankowski, B L; Piazza Hurley, T

    2001-06-01

    Sexual assault is a broad-based term that encompasses a wide range of sexual victimizations, including rape. Since the American Academy of Pediatrics published its last policy statement on this topic in 1994, additional information and data have emerged about sexual assault and rape in adolescents, the adolescent's perception of sexual assault, and the treatment and management of the adolescent who has been a victim of sexual assault. This new information mandates an updated knowledge base for pediatricians who care for adolescent patients. This statement provides that update, focusing on sexual assault and rape in the adolescent population.

  2. Religious Orientation and Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillen, Eileen K.; Helm, Herbert W., Jr.; McBride, Duane C.

    2011-01-01

    Religion is one of the major forces of control over sexuality, and many studies have observed an inverse relationship between religiosity and sexual permissiveness. The Religious Orientation Scale has been used to study the relationship between religious orientation and sexuality. It has been found that those with intrinsic views are more…

  3. Facing Facts: Sexual Health for America's Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haffner, Debra W., Ed.

    This report summarizes the deliberations, findings, and recommendations of the National Commission on Adolescent Sexual Health. The report defines the characteristics of a sexually healthy adolescent, provides a foundation for understanding the three developmental stages of adolescents (early, middle, and late adolescence), and offers…

  4. Masculinity in adolescent males' early romantic and sexual heterosexual relationships.

    PubMed

    Bell, David L; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Ott, Mary A

    2015-05-01

    There is a need to understand better the complex interrelationship between the adoption of masculinity during adolescence and the development of early romantic and sexual relationships. The purpose of this study was to describe features of adolescent masculinity and how it is expressed in the contexts of early to middle adolescent males' romantic and sexual relationships. Thirty-three 14- to 16-year-old males were recruited from an adolescent clinic serving a community with high sexually transmitted infection rates and were asked open-ended questions about their relationships-how they developed, progressed, and ended. Participants described a high degree of relationally oriented beliefs and behaviors related to romantic and sexual relationships, such as a desire for intimacy and trust. The males also described a more limited degree of conventionally masculine beliefs and behaviors. These beliefs and behaviors often coexisted or overlapped. Implications for the clinical care of similar groups of adolescents are described.

  5. Birth weight and two possible types of maternal effects on male sexual orientation: a clinical study of children and adolescents referred to a Gender Identity Service.

    PubMed

    VanderLaan, Doug P; Blanchard, Ray; Wood, Hayley; Garzon, Luisa C; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2015-01-01

    This study tested predictions regarding two hypothesized maternal immune responses influencing sexual orientation: one affecting homosexual males with high fraternal birth order and another affecting firstborn homosexual individuals whose mothers experience repeated miscarriage after the birth of the first child. Low birth weight was treated as a marker of possible exposure to a maternal immune response during gestation. Birth weight was examined relative to sibship characteristics in a clinical sample of youth (N = 1,722) classified as heterosexual or homosexual based on self-reported or probable sexual orientation. No female sexual orientation differences in birth weight were found. Homosexual, compared to heterosexual, males showed lower birth weight if they had one or more older brothers--and especially two or more older brothers--or if they were an only-child. These findings support the existence of two maternal immune responses influencing male sexual orientation and possibly also cross-gender behavior and identity.

  6. Adolescent sexuality and its problems.

    PubMed

    Yang, M

    1995-09-01

    Adolescent sexual activity is increasing globally. Abstinence and a delay in the start of sexual intercourse may be the most effective methods in preventing the consequences of teenage sexual activity. However, these goals are seldom met. With the change in social norms, peer pressure and media influences; teenagers are engaging in premarital sex earlier. Family life education in countries like Sweden and Finland reduces teenage pregnancy and abortion. It is unrealistic to expect sexually active adolescents to stop their sexual activity. An effective contraceptive method will provide an alternative to prevent teenage pregnancy. Issues on compliance of contraceptive use, especially at the very outset of sexual activity should be addressed. Most of the problems associated with teenage pregnancy are now thought to be related to the social circumstances of the mother, the poor nutritional status before pregnancy and poor attendance at antenatal clinics. Risk-taking behaviour in this age group will also make them more prone to contracting sexually transmitted diseases. High risk groups should be screened and treated early. Contraceptive methods with protection against sexually transmitted diseases should be advised.

  7. A biologic perspective on sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Pillard, R C; Bailey, J M

    1995-03-01

    Sexual orientation may be defined as the sustained erotic attraction to members of one's own gender, the opposite gender, or both--homosexual, heterosexual, or bisexual, respectively. Interest in sexual orientation is as old as the science of psychology, yet many fundamental issues remain unresolved. This article reviews research in the development and psychopathology of sexual orientation as well as the results of family and twin studies. Research in genetic linkage, sex hormones, and brain differences also is discussed. PMID:7761309

  8. "Sexuality? A million things come to mind": reflections on gender and sexuality by Chilean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Macintyre, Anna K-J; Montero Vega, Adela R; Sagbakken, Mette

    2015-11-01

    Although Chile is a traditionally conservative country, considerable legal advances in sexual and reproductive rights over the past decade have brought discourses on sexuality into mainstream political, social and media agendas. In light of these changes it is important to explore how adolescents conceptualize sexuality, which in turn influences their understanding of sexual rights. This study is based on four focus group discussions and 20 semi-structured interviews with adolescents, and seven interviews with key informants in Santiago, Chile. Findings indicate that adolescent conceptualizations of sexuality are diverse, often expressed as attitudes or observations of their social context, and primarily shaped by peers, parents and teachers. Attitudes towards individuals with non-heterosexual orientations ranged from support to rejection, and conceptualizations of sexual diversity were also influenced by media, medicalization and biological explanations. Gender differences in sexual expression were described through gendered language and behaviour, in particular observations of gender stereotypes, censored female sexuality and discourses highlighting female risk. Many adolescents described social change towards greater equality regarding gender and sexuality. To optimize this change and help bridge the gap between legal and social recognition of sexual rights, adolescents should be encouraged to reflect critically on issues of gender equality and sexual diversity in Chile. PMID:26719000

  9. "Sexuality? A million things come to mind": reflections on gender and sexuality by Chilean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Macintyre, Anna K-J; Montero Vega, Adela R; Sagbakken, Mette

    2015-11-01

    Although Chile is a traditionally conservative country, considerable legal advances in sexual and reproductive rights over the past decade have brought discourses on sexuality into mainstream political, social and media agendas. In light of these changes it is important to explore how adolescents conceptualize sexuality, which in turn influences their understanding of sexual rights. This study is based on four focus group discussions and 20 semi-structured interviews with adolescents, and seven interviews with key informants in Santiago, Chile. Findings indicate that adolescent conceptualizations of sexuality are diverse, often expressed as attitudes or observations of their social context, and primarily shaped by peers, parents and teachers. Attitudes towards individuals with non-heterosexual orientations ranged from support to rejection, and conceptualizations of sexual diversity were also influenced by media, medicalization and biological explanations. Gender differences in sexual expression were described through gendered language and behaviour, in particular observations of gender stereotypes, censored female sexuality and discourses highlighting female risk. Many adolescents described social change towards greater equality regarding gender and sexuality. To optimize this change and help bridge the gap between legal and social recognition of sexual rights, adolescents should be encouraged to reflect critically on issues of gender equality and sexual diversity in Chile.

  10. The Sexual Victimization of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Ann Wolbert

    This manual provides information and guidance for people (mental health professionals, other health professionals, paraprofessionals, school personnel, nonprofessional community volunteers, and youth workers) concerned with the mental health needs of adolescents who experience sexual assault. The four chapters provide these people with assistance…

  11. Distinctive Characteristics of Sexual Orientation Bias Crimes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacey, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Despite increased attention in the area of hate crime research in the past 20 years, sexual orientation bias crimes have rarely been singled out for study. When these types of crimes are looked at, the studies are typically descriptive in nature. This article seeks to increase our knowledge of sexual orientation bias by answering the question:…

  12. Sexual Orientation and Violations of Civil Liberties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Marcy R.

    1977-01-01

    This study determined that sexual orientation is frequently assumed rather than known. Bases for assumption include gossip and rumor, appearance and behavior, and association with others. Sexual orientation was most frequently assumed on the basis of appearance and behavior. Presented at the American Psychological Association Convention,…

  13. Practice Parameter on Gay, Lesbian, or Bisexual Sexual Orientation, Gender Nonconformity, and Gender Discordance in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medicus, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Children and adolescents who are growing up gay, lesbian, bisexual, gender nonconforming, or gender discordant experience unique developmental challenges. They are at risk for certain mental health problems, many of which are significantly correlated with stigma and prejudice. Mental health professionals have an important role to play in fostering…

  14. Types of Empathy and Adolescent Sexual Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varker, Tracey; Devilly, Grant J.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine general empathy, general victim empathy and own victim empathy in adolescent sexual offenders. Sixteen adolescent sexual offenders completed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), the Personal Reaction Inventory, a "general sexual abuse victim" form of the Victim Empathy Distortions Scale (VEDS) and an…

  15. Sexual compulsion – Relationship with sex, attachment and sexual orientation

    PubMed Central

    KATZ, LICHEN; EBERHARDT, HILA; COHEN, KOBY; LEJOYEUX, MICHEL

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Sexual addiction, also known as hypersexual disorder, is associated with serious psychosocial problems for many people. Methods This study used questionnaires to investigate the effects of gender, sexual orientation and attachment (avoidance and anxiety) on sexual compulsion among 100 heterosexual and homosexual men and women. Results A positive correlation was found between anxious attachment and sexual compulsivity (r = 0.46; p < 0.01) and a positive correlation between avoidant attachment and sexual compulsivity (r = 0.39; p ≤ 0.01) in all participants. Secondly, an analysis of covariance showed a gender by sexual orientation interaction effect [F(1, 103) = 6.39, p < 0.01] but no attachment effect on sexual compulsivity. A follow-up comparison showed that lesbian women had higher rates of sexual compulsivity than heterosexual women [t (2, 50) = 5.08, p < 0.001] whereas there was non-significant difference in sexual compulsivity between homosexual and heterosexual men [t (2, 50) = 1.30, p = N.S.]. Discussion The results provide preliminary evidence for an association between attachment and sexual compulsivity and the effects of gender and sexual orientation on sexual compulsivity. PMID:25786496

  16. Sexual Orientation Identity Change and Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Everett, Bethany

    2015-01-01

    Several new studies have documented high rates of sexual identity mobility among young adults, but little work has investigated the links between identity change and mental health. This study uses the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (N = 11,727) and employs multivariate regression and propensity score matching to investigate the impact of identity change on depressive symptoms. The results reveal that only changes in sexual identity toward more same-sex-oriented identities are associated with increases in depressive symptoms. Moreover, the negative impacts of identity change are concentrated among individuals who at baseline identified as heterosexual or had not reported same-sex romantic attraction or relationships. No differences in depressive symptoms by sexual orientation identity were found among respondents who reported stable identities. Future research should continue to investigate the factors that contribute to the relationship between identity change and depression, such as stigma surrounding sexual fluidity. PMID:25690912

  17. Sexual orientation identity change and depressive symptoms: a longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Everett, Bethany

    2015-03-01

    Several new studies have documented high rates of sexual identity mobility among young adults, but little work has investigated the links between identity change and mental health. This study uses the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (N = 11,727) and employs multivariate regression and propensity score matching to investigate the impact of identity change on depressive symptoms. The results reveal that only changes in sexual identity toward more same-sex-oriented identities are associated with increases in depressive symptoms. Moreover, the negative impacts of identity change are concentrated among individuals who at baseline identified as heterosexual or had not reported same-sex romantic attraction or relationships. No differences in depressive symptoms by sexual orientation identity were found among respondents who reported stable identities. Future research should continue to investigate the factors that contribute to the relationship between identity change and depression, such as stigma surrounding sexual fluidity.

  18. Sexual orientation identity change and depressive symptoms: a longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Everett, Bethany

    2015-03-01

    Several new studies have documented high rates of sexual identity mobility among young adults, but little work has investigated the links between identity change and mental health. This study uses the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (N = 11,727) and employs multivariate regression and propensity score matching to investigate the impact of identity change on depressive symptoms. The results reveal that only changes in sexual identity toward more same-sex-oriented identities are associated with increases in depressive symptoms. Moreover, the negative impacts of identity change are concentrated among individuals who at baseline identified as heterosexual or had not reported same-sex romantic attraction or relationships. No differences in depressive symptoms by sexual orientation identity were found among respondents who reported stable identities. Future research should continue to investigate the factors that contribute to the relationship between identity change and depression, such as stigma surrounding sexual fluidity. PMID:25690912

  19. Adolescent sexuality and the media.

    PubMed

    Strasburger, V C

    1989-06-01

    Teenagers spend more time with the media than they do in any other activity except sleeping. Is it mere coincidence that the rises in rates of adolescent sexual intercourse during the past 30 years have coincided with the new era of electronic media? Do the media merely reflect society's changes, or do they have the capacity to influence human behavior as well? Although currently part of the problem of teenage pregnancy, the media could become part of the solution, if they were to portray human sexuality responsibly and allow the advertising of contraception. PMID:2660095

  20. Adolescent sexuality and the media.

    PubMed

    Strasburger, V C

    1989-06-01

    Teenagers spend more time with the media than they do in any other activity except sleeping. Is it mere coincidence that the rises in rates of adolescent sexual intercourse during the past 30 years have coincided with the new era of electronic media? Do the media merely reflect society's changes, or do they have the capacity to influence human behavior as well? Although currently part of the problem of teenage pregnancy, the media could become part of the solution, if they were to portray human sexuality responsibly and allow the advertising of contraception.

  1. Sexual activities of Malaysian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zulkifli, S N; Low, W Y; Yusof, K

    1995-03-01

    This paper examines data on the sexual activities of 1,200 Malaysian adolescents aged 15-21 years based on a probability household sampled survey carried out in Kuala Lumpur in 1986. Sexual behaviours like premarital sexual intercourse, contraceptive usage and masturbation were presented. Of the 1,181 unmarried respondents, 9% (105) reported having had sexual intercourse; males were significantly more experienced compared to females. Older age groups were also found to be more sexually active than the younger ones. Among those who had experience dating (n = 521), 20% (105) have experienced sexual intercourse, 44% (228) have kissed and necked, and 35% (183) have experienced petting, while 24% (130) have had no physical intimacies. Poor use of contraception was also revealed. The most commonly used were condoms, oral contraceptives and withdrawal. With regard to masturbation, males begin this practice relatively earlier than females. Almost half of those who indulged in masturbation were worried by the act, especially the females. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  2. Adolescent sexuality, contraceptive health and STD.

    PubMed

    Irmak, Y; Jainudeen, M R; Irvin, R P

    1986-10-01

    Major topics addressed by this article on adolescent sexuality include adolescent festivals, adolescent reproductive psychophysiology, contraception for adolescents, the World Federation of Contraception and Health, sexually transmitted diseases, and recommendations for research. The purpose of adolescent festivals is to increase communication between young people and their parents on subjects such as sexuality. Of particular concern is the traumatic emotional, physical, and financial impact of adolescent pregnancy, both in developed and developing countries. Contraceptive methods considered to be most appropriate for use in developing countries are injectable Depo-Provera and the Norplant contraceptive implant system. To reduce the problem of adolescent pregnancy, television programs need to portray responsible sexuality, family responsibility and involvement must be strengthended, funds for education and prevention programs should be increased, and there must be more intraprofessional collaboration. The World Federation of Contraception and Health, a nonprofit multicenter institution, has been created to make recommendations on how current resources can be utilized to address problems of adolescent sexuality. Adolescent clubs are being set up to provide adolescents and their families with computer support and information. Another concern is the spread of sexually transmitted diseases that cause infections in the genitourinary tract and threaten to impair future fertility. The incidence of diseases such as chlamydia trachomatis and nongonococcal urethritis is especially high in teenagers. Needed in the future are more multicenter studies conducted by microbiologists, pathophysiologists, family planning experts, epidemiologists, venereologists, gynecologists, obstetricians, and dermatologists on the many aspects of adolescent sexuality.

  3. Sexual orientation microaggressions and the experience of sexual minorities.

    PubMed

    Platt, Lisa F; Lenzen, Alexandra L

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study sought to confirm and expand on previous research on sexual orientation microaggressions--subtle discrimination in the form of verbal, behavioral, and environmental slights and indignities as defined by Sue (2010). The study had two primary research questions: Does the data from the sample validate Sue's (2010) typology of sexual orientation microaggressions? Beyond Sue's (2010) typology, are other themes/types of sexual orientation microaggressions present in the data? Using a focus group methodology, data was collected from a sample of self-identified non-heterosexual college students (N=12). Data analysis confirmed five previously identified themes from Sue's (2010) typology (Endorsement of Heteronormative Culture, Sinfulness, Homophobia, Heterosexist Language/Terminology, and Oversexualization) and demonstrated two new themes (Undersexualization and Microaggressions as Humor). The implications of sexual orientation microaggressions, along with limitations and future research directions, are discussed.

  4. Televised sexual content and parental mediation: Influences on adolescent sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Deborah A.; Hill, Douglas L.; Grube, Joel W.; Bersamin, Melina M.; Walker, Samantha; Gruber, Enid L.

    2011-01-01

    Little research has been conducted to examine the influence of exposure to televised sexual content on adolescent sexuality or how parental intervention may reduce negative effects of viewing such content. This study uses self-report data from 1,012 adolescents to investigate the relations among exposure to sexually suggestive programming, parental mediation strategies, and three types of adolescent sexuality outcomes: participation in oral sex and sexual intercourse, future intentions to engage in these behaviors, and sex expectancies. As predicted, exposure to sexual content was associated with an increased likelihood of engaging in sexual behaviors, increased intentions to do so in the future, and more positive sex expectancies. Often, parental mediation strategies were a significant factor in moderating these potential media influences. PMID:21546986

  5. Adolescent Sexuality and Parent-Adolescent Processes: Promoting Healthy Teen Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meschke, Laurie L.; Bartholomae, Suzanne; Zentall, Shannon R.

    2000-01-01

    Reports on trends in adolescent sexual health, the relation between parenting and adolescent sexual outcomes, and adolescent sexuality interventions. Discusses parenting efforts related to adolescent sexual behavior. Examines adolescent sexuality programs with a parent component. Review of 19 programs supports the incorporation of theory and the…

  6. Youth Suicide Risk and Sexual Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Philip A.; Soucar, Emil

    2002-01-01

    Study examines the relationship between sexual orientation and youth suicide risk. The suicide risk demonstrated by sexual minorities in this study was no greater than that of their heterosexual peers. Youth who reported more external support demonstrated lower overall suicide risk and, specifically, lower levels of hostility, hopelessness, and…

  7. Towards a Sexual Ethics for Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steutel, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Which moral principles should guide us in evaluating sexual contacts of adolescents? This paper tries to answer this question by taking two steps. First, the implications of a liberal sexual ethics for adolescence are spelled out, assessed and refuted. The core principle of the liberal ethical view, the principle of valid consent, takes competence…

  8. Meanings of Sexual Intercourse for Italian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giannotta, Fabrizia; Ciairano, Silvia; Spruijt, Rob; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate meanings of sexual intercourse in adolescence, and the relationships between meanings, gender, age, and sexual behaviors. Subjects were 201 Italian adolescents (107 boys and 94 girls), aged 14-19 (M=17.44, SD=1.65). Participants completed a battery of questionnaires on meanings of sex, sexual…

  9. Predicting Resilience in Sexually Abused Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Javonda; Nelson-Gardell, Debra

    2012-01-01

    This research examined factors that predicted resilience in sexually abused adolescents. Using Bronfenbrenner's Process-Person-Context-Time (PPCT) ecological model, this study considered the proximal and distal factors that would contribute to adolescents' reactions to sexual victimization. This correlational study used hierarchical regression…

  10. Beyond Exposure: A Person-Oriented Approach to Adolescent Media Diets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schooler, Deborah; Sorsoli, C. Lynn; Kim, Janna L.; Tolman, Deborah L.

    2009-01-01

    Research on adolescents' use of sexual media has been dominated by a variable-oriented perspective, focusing on incremental effects of media exposure on sexual behavior. The present investigation examines the ways in which adolescents select and organize their television viewing. This study used cluster analysis to identify, validate, and describe…

  11. Sexual orientation and non-suicidal self-injury: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Batejan, Kristen L; Jarvi, Stephanie M; Swenson, Lance P

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct the first meta-analysis comparing risk for NSSI between sexual minority and heterosexual persons. Eleven published and 4 unpublished studies were reviewed, describing associations between sexual orientation and NSSI in 7,147 sexual minority and 61,701 heterosexual participants. The overall weighted effect size for the relationship between sexual orientation and NSSI using a random-effects model was OR = 3.00 (95% CI = 2.46-3.66), indicating a medium-to-large effect. Sexual minority adolescents and bisexuals were found to be at particularly high-risk. These findings highlight the need to examine mechanisms linking sexual orientation and NSSI in future research. Building on these findings can add to understanding the associations between sexual orientation, NSSI, and suicidality, as well as prevention/intervention.

  12. Latino cultural values as protective factors against sexual risks among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ma, Mindy; Malcolm, Lydia R; Diaz-Albertini, Kristine; Klinoff, Vera A; Leeder, Elisa; Barrientos, Sohani; Kibler, Jeffrey L

    2014-12-01

    The study objective was to examine the associations between cultural values and sexual risk factors among Latino youth. A sample of 226 Latino adolescents ages 13-16 completed a survey on cultural and sexual variables. Results indicate higher levels of Latino cultural orientation were related to greater sexual self-efficacy and fewer sexual partners for female adolescents and greater condom use self-efficacy for both males and females. Greater endorsement of simpatia (belief in interpersonal relationship harmony) was associated with sexual abstinence and greater sexual self-efficacy for all adolescents, and with being older at sexual debut for females. Stronger endorsement of respeto (respect towards parents and other authority figures) was correlated with a lower intention to have sex during secondary school and greater condom use self-efficacy. American cultural orientation was associated with less condom use. Our findings indicate Latino cultural values may serve as protective factors against sexual risk behaviors among Latino youth.

  13. Adolescent Sexuality: Values, Morality and Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhasz, Anne McCreary; Sonnenshein-Schneider, Mary

    1987-01-01

    Analyzed adolescents' (N=500) evaluations of factors which would influence their sexual decisions. Results idetified six factors (family establishment competence, external morality, consequences of childbearing, self-enhancement through sexual intercourse, intimacy considerations regarding sexual intercourse, consequence of marriage) which were…

  14. Adolescent Sexual Education: Designing Curriculum That Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quincy, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this review paper, "Adolescent Sexual Education: Designing Curriculum That Works", is to present some basic curriculum necessities for developing an in-school sexual education program that results in decreasing the number of teenagers initiating sex, thus reducing the number of teen pregnancies and cases of sexually transmitted…

  15. Sexual Coercion among Adolescents: Victims and Perpetrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacasse, Anne; Mendelson, Morton J.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescence is a transitional period when the pressure to engage in romantic and sexual relationships can leave teenagers feeling confused and at risk for sexual coercion. Our studies investigated characteristics of male and female perpetrators and victims of peer sexual coercion, focusing on self-esteem, sexist attitudes, and involvement in…

  16. Unique Aspects of Adolescent Sexual Victimization Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, Jennifer A.; Hequembourg, Amy; Testa, Maria; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol

    2007-01-01

    This study explored females’ adolescent experiences with sexual aggression, using event-level data. A community sample of women, ages 18–30 years (N = 319), were interviewed regarding their most recent unwanted sexual experience. Incidents were categorized as occurring during adolescence (ages 14–17) or adulthood (after age 18). Preliminary statistical comparison of adolescent and adult incidents revealed differences in perpetrators, type of aggression, preceding activities, and location of assault. Qualitative analytic techniques were then used to identify the contexts in which adolescent victimization occurred, as well as the factors contributing to adolescent vulnerability. Four contexts in which adolescents were sexually victimized emerged: Within Intimate Relationships, At Parties/Social Gatherings, Abuse by Authority Figures, and While Alone with a Friend. Thematic analysis revealed that inexperience with sex and dating, lack of guardianship, substance use, social and relationship concerns, and powerlessness contributed to adolescent vulnerability within these contexts. PMID:18516221

  17. Understanding sexuality among Indian urban school adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ramadugu, Shashikumar; Ryali, VSSR; Srivastava, K.; Bhat, P. S.; Prakash, J.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Adolescence is a very exciting phase of life fraught with many challenges like sexuality. Understanding them is important in helping the adolescents grow up healthily. Aims: To ascertain the attitudes and knowledge about sexuality among school-going adolescents. Settings and Design: Students in two urban schools of an Indian city from class IX to XII were administered a self-reporting questionnaire on matters related to sexuality. Materials and Methods: Requisite ethical clearances were taken as also the consent of the parents and students before administration of the questionnaire. The authors clarified doubts to adolescents. Statistical analysis: Statistical package for social sciences. Results: The incidence of having sexual contact was 30.08% for boys and 17.18% for girls. 6.31% boys and 1.31% girls reported having had experienced sexual intercourse. Friends constituted the main sexual partners for both boys and girls. Sexual abuse had been reported by both girls and boys. These and other findings are discussed in the article. Conclusions: Adolescent school students are involved in sexual activity, but lack adequate knowledge in this regard. Students, teachers, and parents need to understand various aspects of sexuality to be able to help adolescents’ healthy sexual development. PMID:22969181

  18. The sexual orientation of men who were brought up in gay or lesbian households.

    PubMed

    James, William H

    2004-05-01

    Elsewhere the author has suggested that adolescent and adult male homosexual orientation is, in some cases, causally associated with sexual or quasi-sexual experience in childhood (James, 2004). Here it is argued that the available data on men raised by same-sex parents cannot validly be interpreted as supporting or refuting this suggestion.

  19. Distinctive characteristics of sexual orientation bias crimes.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Michele

    2011-10-01

    Despite increased attention in the area of hate crime research in the past 20 years, sexual orientation bias crimes have rarely been singled out for study. When these types of crimes are looked at, the studies are typically descriptive in nature. This article seeks to increase our knowledge of sexual orientation bias by answering the question: What are the differences between sexual orientation motivated bias crimes and racial bias crimes? This question is examined using data from the National Incident Based Reporting System (NIBRS) and multiple regression techniques. This analysis draws on the strengths of NIBRS to look at the incident characteristics of hate crimes and distinguishing characteristics of sexual orientation crimes. Specifically this analysis looks at the types and seriousness of offenses motivated by sexual orientation bias as opposed to race bias as well as victim and offender characteristics. The findings suggest that there are differences between these two types of bias crimes, suggesting a need for further separation of the bias types in policy and research.

  20. The Impact of Sexual Orientation on Sexuality and Sexual Practices in North American Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Breyer, Benjamin N.; Smith, James F.; Eisenberg, Michael L.; Ando, Kathryn A.; Rowen, Tami S.; Shindel, Alan W.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction There has been limited investigation of the sexuality and sexual dysfunction in non-heterosexual subjects by the sexual medicine community. Additional research in these populations is needed. Aims To investigate and compare sexuality and sexual function in students of varying sexual orientations. Methods An internet-based survey on sexuality was administered to medical students in North American between the months of February and July of 2008. Main Outcome Measures All subjects provided information on their ethnodemographic characteristics, sexual orientation, and sexual history. Subjects also completed a series of widely-utilized instruments for the assessment of human sexuality (International Index of Erectile Function [IIEF], Female Sexual Function Index [FSFI], Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool [PEDT], Index of Sex Life [ISL]). Results There were 2,276 completed responses to the question on sexual orientation. 13.2% of male respondents and 4.7% of female respondents reported a homosexual orientation; 2.5% of male and 5.7% of female respondents reported a bisexual orientation. Many heterosexual males and females reported same-sex sexual experiences (4% and 10%, respectively). Opposite-sex experiences were very common in the male and female homosexual population (37% and 44%, respectively). The prevalence of premature ejaculation (PEDT > 8) was similar among heterosexual and homosexual men (16% and 17%, P = 0.7, respectively). Erectile dysfunction (IIEF-EF < 26) was more common in homosexual men relative to heterosexual men (24% vs. 12%, P = 0.02). High risk for female sexual dysfunction (FSFI < 26.55) was more common in heterosexual and bisexual women compared with lesbians (51%, 45%, and 29%, respectively, P = 0.005). Conclusion In this survey of highly educated young professionals, numerous similarities and some important differences in sexuality and sexual function were noted based on sexual orientation. It is unclear whether the

  1. Adolescent Sexuality: Pregnancy, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santelli, John S.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Special edition discusses adolescent sexuality, focusing on pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, and prevention. The articles focus on demographics, risk factors, school-based risk reduction programs, contraception, early intervention, options, school-based prenatal and postpartum care programs, teenage parenting, abortion, HIV and AIDS,…

  2. Sexuality among Adolescents with Moderate Disabilities: Promoting Positive Sexual Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harader, Dana L.; Fullwood, Harry; Hawthorne, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents with moderate disabilities are not being given vital information regarding their sexuality and ways to behave responsibly with their peers. This article examines the laws that govern the education of all persons with disabilities, how societal norms and attitudes have contributed to this lack of sexuality knowledge, how these…

  3. [Internet use and adolescents' sexual health].

    PubMed

    Tseng, Ying-Hua; Wang, Ruey-Hsia; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Chou, Fan-Hao

    2012-12-01

    Internet use is an important part of the daily life of adolescents. The ease of searching the internet for information makes finding information on sex, a topic of particular interest to adolescents, easy. Although the internet is replete with sexual information, the influence of internet use on adolescents' sexual health is analogous to a double-edged sword. This article identifies the four main sexual dilemmas facing Taiwan adolescents and analyzes the pros and cons of internet use with regard to adolescents' sexual health. Cons include the predominance of internet pornography and the potential risks of making friends online. Pros include the internet's role as an optimal communications platform and tool for sex-related research. We suggest that nurses have a unique role and functions to play in promoting adolescent sexual health. We also offer recommendations for school health nursing and clinical nursing. Further internet-based quantitative and qualitative research is necessary to clarify relevant sexual health issues. Finally, we offer design suggestions for sexual education homepages. PMID:23212259

  4. Adolescence, Sexual Conflict, and Anorexia Nervosa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romeo, Felicia F.

    1984-01-01

    Suggests that the high incidence of anorexia nervosa in adolescent girls may be related to developmental sexual pressure. Symptoms appear with the onset of puberty and are related to physiological and psychological changes. (JAC)

  5. Sexual Risk Behaviors and Steroid Use among Sexual Minority Adolescent Boys

    PubMed Central

    Safren, Steven A.; Jampel, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous research has extensively examined the relationship between the use of alcohol and illicit substances with sexual risk behaviors among sexual minority (i.e., gay and bisexual) male youth; however, no known studies have assessed the association of steroid use to risk behaviors among this population. Methods Participants were 556 sexually active sexual minority adolescent boys (M age = 16.2, SD = 1.3), taken from a pooled dataset of the 14 jurisdictions from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys that assessed sexual orientation. The association between lifetime use of steroids and sexual risk behaviors were examined. Results Controlling for number of sexual partners, depression, victimization, and race, boys who reported increased steroid use were at increased odds of engaging in condomless sex, OR = 1.55, p = .003, and use of alcohol/drugs during sex, OR = 1.48, p = .002. Conclusions Steroid use among sexual minority adolescent boys is prevalent and associated with HIV/STI sexual transmission risk behaviors. PMID:26144592

  6. Extending Multicultural Counselor Competence to Sexual Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bidell, Markus Paul

    The purpose of this study was to develop and establish psychometric properties of the Sexual Orientation Counselor Scale (SOCS), an instrument assessing the awareness, skills, and knowledge of counselors working with lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations. The sample consisted of 287 undergraduates, master-level students, doctoral-level…

  7. Sexual Orientation, Public Schools, and the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fossey, Richard; DeMitchell, Todd A.; Eckes, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    Schools are experiencing an increased level of litigation about issues pertaining to sexual orientation. This monograph provides educators and attorneys with a comprehensive analysis of this litigation along with practical tips for avoiding lawsuits in this sensitive area. The monograph consists of six chapters and addresses the following topics:…

  8. Disentangling Adolescent Pathways of Sexual Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookmeyer, Kathryn A.; Henrich, Christopher C.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the authors aimed to describe the pathways of risk within sexual risk taking, alcohol use, and delinquency, and then identify how the trajectory of sexual risk is linked to alcohol use and delinquency. Risk trajectories were measured with adolescents aged 15-24 years (N = 1,778). Using…

  9. Predictors of Sexual Intercourse among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryu, Eunjung; Kim, Kyunghee; Kwon, Hyejin

    2007-01-01

    Background: The proportion of adolescents experiencing unwanted pregnancy and abortion caused by the premature initiation of sexual intercourse is increasing at an alarming rate in Korea. This study aimed at developing a theoretical model for identifying individual and environmental risk factors affecting the initiation of sexual intercourse by…

  10. Adolescent Survivors of Sexual Abuse: Developmental Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banyard, Victoria L.; Williams, Linda M.

    2007-01-01

    Using an ecological model as a guiding framework, this article reviews key factors which put adolescent survivors of sexual abuse at risk for negative outcomes, as well as resources which might enhance positive outcomes and recovery. Throughout the article, quotes from women who experienced sexual abuse during their youth highlight opportunities…

  11. Heritable factors influence sexual orientation in women.

    PubMed

    Bailey, J M; Pillard, R C; Neale, M C; Agyei, Y

    1993-03-01

    Homosexual female probands with monozygotic cotwins, dizygotic cotwins, or adoptive sisters were recruited using homophile publications. Sexual orientation of relatives was assessed either by asking relatives directly, or, when this was impossible, by asking the probands. Of the relatives whose sexual orientation could be confidently rated, 34 (48%) of 71 monozygotic cotwins, six (16%) of 37 dizygotic cotwins, and two (6%) of 35 adoptive sisters were homosexual. Probands also reported 10 (14%) nontwin biologic sisters to be homosexual, although those sisters were not contacted to confirm their orientations. Heritabilities were significant using a wide range of assumptions about both the base rate of homosexuality in the population and ascertainment bias. The likelihood that a monozygotic cotwin would also be homosexual was unrelated to measured characteristics of the proband such as self-reported history of childhood gender nonconformity. Concordant monozygotic twins reported similar levels of childhood gender nonconformity.

  12. Sexual Orientation Prototypicality and Well-Being Among Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Adults.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Brian A; Meuwly, Nathalie; Davila, Joanne; Eaton, Nicholas R; Yoneda, Athena

    2015-07-01

    The current study examined the associations between sexual orientation prototypicality--or the extent to which an individual's attractions or sexual behaviors are similar to others in the same sexual orientation category--and several indicators of well-being (depressive symptoms, loneliness, and self-esteem). Data were analyzed from a sample of 586 self-identified heterosexual and sexual minority (lesbian/gay and bisexual) men and women who completed an online survey. We used k-means cluster analysis to assign individuals to sexual orientation clusters (resulting in heterosexual and sexual minority clusters) based on dimensions of same-sex and other-sex attractions (emotional, romantic, and sexual) and sexual behavior. Sexual orientation prototypicality was operationalized as the Euclidean distance between an individual's position in the cluster and their cluster centroid. Lower sexual orientation prototypicality (i.e., greater Euclidean distance from one's cluster centroid) was significantly associated with higher depressive symptoms, higher loneliness, and lower self-esteem for men and women; results did not significantly differ for self-identified heterosexuals versus sexual minorities. Although self-identified sexual orientation and sexual orientation prototypicality were both associated with well-being for women, only sexual orientation prototypicality was associated with well-being for men. Findings suggest that sexual orientation prototypicality may be a better indicator of well-being than sexual orientation for men. Further, sexual orientation prototypicality appears to play a significant role in well-being for women.

  13. Adolescents Engaging in Risky Sexual Behavior: Sexual Activity and Associated Behavioral Risk Factors in Bolivian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novilla, M. Lelinneth B.; Dearden, Kirk A.; Crookston, Benjamin T.; De La Cruz, Natalie; Hill, Susan; Torres, Scott B.

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence of risky sexual activities among Bolivian adolescents within the context of other behavioral factors that contribute to compromised health outcomes, unintended pregnancies, and sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS. Data was collected from 576 adolescents, 13-18 years of age, from six schools in La…

  14. A Classroom Activity Exploring the Complexity of Sexual Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madson, Laura

    2001-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students categorize the sexual orientation (heterosexual, bisexual, homosexual) of 10 fictional people. Students study aspects of sexual orientation, including its resistance to rigid and consistent definitions. The activity has been used in Psychology of Women, Sexual Behavior, and Psychology of Sexual Orientation…

  15. Faith and Sexual Orientation Identity Development in Gay College Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Merrily; Glassmann, Danny; Garrett, J. Matthew; Badaszewski, Philip; Jones, Ginny; Pierre, Darren; Fresk, Kara; Young, Dallin; Correll-Hughes, Larry

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the experiences of gay-identified college men related to their faith and sexual orientation identity development. The findings suggest that for gay-identified college men, faith and sexual orientation identity development includes examination of one's faith and sexual orientation identity, important relationships, and a desire…

  16. Disentangling adolescent pathways of sexual risk taking.

    PubMed

    Brookmeyer, Kathryn A; Henrich, Christopher C

    2009-11-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the authors aimed to describe the pathways of risk within sexual risk taking, alcohol use, and delinquency, and then identify how the trajectory of sexual risk is linked to alcohol use and delinquency. Risk trajectories were measured with adolescents aged 15-24 years (N = 1,778). Using Latent Class Growth Analyses (LCGA), models indicated that the majority of adolescents engaged in sexual risk and alcohol use. In joint trajectory analyses, LCGA revealed six risk taking classes: sex and alcohol, moderate risk taking, joint risk taking, moderate alcohol, alcohol risk, and alcohol and delinquency experimentation. Editors' Strategic Implications: School administrators and curriculum designers should pay attention to the study's findings with respect to the need for prevention programs to target early adolescents and integrate prevention messages about alcohol use and sexual risk taking.

  17. Older Adolescents' Positive Attitudes toward Younger Adolescents as Sexual Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegna, Kristinn; Mossige, Svein; Wichstrom, Lars

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of older adolescents' positive attitudes toward younger sexual partners was investigated through three measures of self-reported hypothetical likelihood of having sex with preadolescents and younger adolescents (LSA), using a school-based cluster sample of 710 Norwegian 18- to 19-year-olds attending nonvocational high schools in…

  18. Beyond Sexual Orientation: Integrating Gender/Sex and Diverse Sexualities via Sexual Configurations Theory.

    PubMed

    van Anders, Sari M

    2015-07-01

    Sexual orientation typically describes people's sexual attractions or desires based on their sex relative to that of a target. Despite its utility, it has been critiqued in part because it fails to account for non-biological gender-related factors, partnered sexualities unrelated to gender or sex, or potential divergences between love and lust. In this article, I propose Sexual Configurations Theory (SCT) as a testable, empirically grounded framework for understanding diverse partnered sexualities, separate from solitary sexualities. I focus on and provide models of two parameters of partnered sexuality--gender/sex and partner number. SCT also delineates individual gender/sex. I discuss a sexual diversity lens as a way to study the particularities and generalities of diverse sexualities without privileging either. I also discuss how sexual identities, orientations, and statuses that are typically seen as misaligned or aligned are more meaningfully conceptualized as branched or co-incident. I map out some existing identities using SCT and detail its applied implications for health and counseling work. I highlight its importance for sexuality in terms of measurement and social neuroendocrinology, and the ways it may be useful for self-knowledge and feminist and queer empowerment and alliance building. I also make a case that SCT changes existing understandings and conceptualizations of sexuality in constructive and generative ways informed by both biology and culture, and that it is a potential starting point for sexual diversity studies and research.

  19. Psychosexual Correlates of Sexual Double Standard Endorsement in Adolescent Sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Emmerink, Peggy M. J.; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; van den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Endorsement and enactment of the (hetero)sexual double standard (SDS), prescribing sexual modesty for girls and sexual prowess for boys, has been shown to be negatively related to sexual and mental health. To be able to challenge the SDS, more insight is needed into the conditions that shape gendered sexual attitudes. A survey was conducted among 465 heterosexual adolescents (aged 16–20 years), examining the relationship between a number of relevant demographic and psychosexual variables and SDS endorsement. SDS endorsement was assessed using a newly developed instrument, the Scale for the Assessment of Sexual Standards Among Youth (SASSY). Gender (being male) and religiousness were significantly associated with increased SDS endorsement. For both boys and girls, increased feelings of entitlement to self-induced sexual pleasure (e.g., masturbation) were significantly associated with reduced SDS endorsement, whereas higher gender investment was significantly associated with increased SDS endorsement. Furthermore, increased feelings of entitlement to partner-induced sexual pleasure and more frequent talking about sexuality with peers were associated with increased SDS endorsement among boys but not among girls. We conclude that future research should explore peer influence processes through peer communication about sex, gender investment, and feelings of entitlement to both self and partner-induced sexual pleasure. PMID:26327361

  20. Psychosexual Correlates of Sexual Double Standard Endorsement in Adolescent Sexuality.

    PubMed

    Emmerink, Peggy M J; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Ter Bogt, Tom F M

    2016-01-01

    Endorsement and enactment of the (hetero)sexual double standard (SDS), prescribing sexual modesty for girls and sexual prowess for boys, has been shown to be negatively related to sexual and mental health. To be able to challenge the SDS, more insight is needed into the conditions that shape gendered sexual attitudes. A survey was conducted among 465 heterosexual adolescents (aged 16-20 years), examining the relationship between a number of relevant demographic and psychosexual variables and SDS endorsement. SDS endorsement was assessed using a newly developed instrument, the Scale for the Assessment of Sexual Standards Among Youth (SASSY). Gender (being male) and religiousness were significantly associated with increased SDS endorsement. For both boys and girls, increased feelings of entitlement to self-induced sexual pleasure (e.g., masturbation) were significantly associated with reduced SDS endorsement, whereas higher gender investment was significantly associated with increased SDS endorsement. Furthermore, increased feelings of entitlement to partner-induced sexual pleasure and more frequent talking about sexuality with peers were associated with increased SDS endorsement among boys but not among girls. We conclude that future research should explore peer influence processes through peer communication about sex, gender investment, and feelings of entitlement to both self and partner-induced sexual pleasure.

  1. Exposure to Sexual Lyrics and Sexual Experience Among Urban Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; Douglas, Erika L.; Fine, Michael J.; Dalton, Madeline A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Two thirds of all sexual references in music are degrading in nature, yet it remains uncertain whether these references promote earlier sexual activity. The purpose of this study was to determine if exposure to lyrics describing degrading sex in popular music is independently associated with sexual behavior in a cohort of urban adolescents. Methods All ninth-grade health students at three large urban high schools completed in-school surveys in 2006 and 2007. Participants’ exposure to lyrics describing degrading sex was computed with overall music exposure and content analyses of their favorite artists’ songs. Outcomes included sexual intercourse and progression along a noncoital sexual continuum. Multivariable regression was used to assess independent associations between exposure to lyrics describing degrading sex and outcomes. Results The 711 participants were exposed to 14.7 hours each week of songs with lyrics describing degrading sex (SD=17.0). Almost one third of participants (n=216) had previously been sexually active. Compared to those with the least exposure to lyrics describing degrading sex, those with the most exposure were more than twice as likely to have had sexual intercourse (OR=2.07; 95% CI=1.26, 3.41), even after adjusting for all covariates. Similarly, among those who had not had sexual intercourse, those in the highest tertile of exposure to lyrics describing degrading sex were nearly twice as likely to have progressed along a noncoital sexual continuum (OR=1.88; 95% CI=1.23, 2.88) compared to those in the lowest tertile. Finally, the relationships between exposure to lyrics describing nondegrading sex and sexual outcomes were not significant. Conclusions This study supports an association between exposure to lyrics describing degrading sex in popular music and early sexual experience among adolescents. PMID:19285196

  2. Automatic Thoughts During Sexual Activity, Distressing Sexual Symptoms, and Sexual Orientation: Findings from a Web Survey.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Maria Manuela; Nobre, Pedro

    2016-10-01

    Studies with heterosexual samples have supported the role of cognitions on sexual functioning in men and women. However, there is no research on the impact of automatic thoughts on sexual functioning in sexual-minority samples. Therefore, the current study aimed to analyze the differences in automatic thoughts during sexual activity between gay and heterosexual men, and lesbian and heterosexual women, with and without distressing sexual symptoms, in order to establish similarities and differences between samples. A web survey was completed by 156 men and 168 women. A group of men and women with distressing sexual symptoms (78 men and 84 women) and a group without distressing sexual symptoms (78 men and 84 women) equally distributed in terms of sexual orientation and matched for sociodemographic variables were constituted. Participants answered a sociodemographic questionnaire, a questionnaire about sexual symptoms, and an automatic thoughts measure. Main findings suggested that men and women with distressing sexual symptoms reported significantly more negative automatic thoughts and fewer erotic thoughts during sexual activity, regardless of sexual orientation. Overall, current findings were consistent with previous research with heterosexual samples, suggesting a similar pattern in heterosexual samples, and gay men and lesbian women samples.

  3. Automatic Thoughts During Sexual Activity, Distressing Sexual Symptoms, and Sexual Orientation: Findings from a Web Survey.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Maria Manuela; Nobre, Pedro

    2016-10-01

    Studies with heterosexual samples have supported the role of cognitions on sexual functioning in men and women. However, there is no research on the impact of automatic thoughts on sexual functioning in sexual-minority samples. Therefore, the current study aimed to analyze the differences in automatic thoughts during sexual activity between gay and heterosexual men, and lesbian and heterosexual women, with and without distressing sexual symptoms, in order to establish similarities and differences between samples. A web survey was completed by 156 men and 168 women. A group of men and women with distressing sexual symptoms (78 men and 84 women) and a group without distressing sexual symptoms (78 men and 84 women) equally distributed in terms of sexual orientation and matched for sociodemographic variables were constituted. Participants answered a sociodemographic questionnaire, a questionnaire about sexual symptoms, and an automatic thoughts measure. Main findings suggested that men and women with distressing sexual symptoms reported significantly more negative automatic thoughts and fewer erotic thoughts during sexual activity, regardless of sexual orientation. Overall, current findings were consistent with previous research with heterosexual samples, suggesting a similar pattern in heterosexual samples, and gay men and lesbian women samples. PMID:26571182

  4. Facing facts: sexual health for America's adolescents: the report of the National Commission on Adolescent Sexual Health.

    PubMed

    Haffner, D W

    1995-01-01

    Compared to life in the 1950s, today's teenagers become physically mature earlier and marry later. There is a steady increase in the proportion of adolescents having sexual intercourse, and in the percentage doing so at younger ages. Moreover, almost all teens experiment with some type of sex, with largely similar patterns of sexual activity among males and females, and young people from different ethnic, socioeconomic, and religious groups. There is, however, little public, professional, or political consensus about what is sexually healthy for teenagers. SIECUS convened the National Commission on Adolescent Sexual Health in 1994. The commission believes that there is an urgent need for a new approach to adolescent sexual health, one in which adults help young people avoid unprotected and unwanted sexual behavior. Individual adults and society in general must help adolescents develop the values, attitudes, maturity, and skills to become sexually healthy adults. On June 21, 1995, SIECUS released its report on adolescent sexual health in America. This condensed version highlights key findings and recommendations of the National Commission on Adolescent Sexual Health. Sections consider adolescent development, adolescent sexual behavior in the 1990s, abstinence and sexual intercourse, the adult role in promoting adolescent sexual health, and recommendations for policymakers. A consensus statement on adolescent sexual health endorsed by 48 national organizations and the commission, as well as a listing of characteristics of a sexually healthy adolescent are also presented. PMID:12319704

  5. Characteristics of sexual behavior in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Teva, Inmaculada; Paz Bermúdez, Ma; Buela-Casal, Gualberto

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study is to describe some characteristics of the sexual behavior of adolescents in Spain and to compare these characteristics according to gender, using a cross-sectional survey. Participants were 1.279 male and female adolescents who reported having had sexual intercourse. A questionnaire about sexual behavior was applied at their high schools and during school hours. Data were collected between 2006 and 2007. Mean age at the onset of sexual intercourse was 14.8 years in males and 15.0 years in females. Males and females were different according to the type of partner at the last sexual intercourse: 63.0% of males had a steady partner compared to 90.5% of females (p < 0.01). The mean number of sexual partners during the last 12 months was higher in males than in females (M = 2.1 and M = 1.5 partners, for males and females, respectively, p < 0.01). 50.0% of males had sexual intercourse under the effects of drugs versus 39.3% of females (p < 0.01). STD and HIV prevention programs should be designed considering the differences according to adolescents' sex.

  6. Analysis of sexual behavior in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Teva, Inmaculada; Bermudez, M Paz; Ramiro, Maria T; Ramiro-Sanchez, Tamara

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to describe some characteristics of vaginal, anal and oral sexual behavior in Spanish adolescents. It was a cross-sectional descriptive population study conducted using a probabilistic sample survey. The sample was composed of 4,612 male and female adolescents, of whom 1,686 reported having penetrative sexual experience. Sample size was established with a 97% confidence level and a 3% estimation error. Data collection took place in secondary education schools. Mean age of vaginal sex initiation was 15 years. Compared to females, males reported an earlier age of anal and oral sex initiation and a larger number of vaginal and anal sexual partners. Males also reported a higher frequency of penetrative sexual relations under the influence of alcohol or other drugs. A higher percentage of females than males reported not using a condom in their first anal sexual experience. This study provides a current overview of the sexual behavior of adolescents that can be useful for the design of future programs aimed at preventing HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

  7. Sexual Orientation and Gender Differences in Markers of Inflammation and Immune Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Everett, Bethany G.; Rosario, Margaret; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2014-01-01

    Background Sexual minorities have documented elevated risk factors that can lead to inflammation and poor immune functioning Purpose Investigate disparities in C-Reactive protein and Epstein Barr Virus by gender and sexual orientation. Methods We used the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine disparities in CRP (N=11,462) and EBV (N=11,812). Results Among heterosexuals, women had higher levels of CRP and EBV than men. However, sexual-minority men had higher levels of CRP and EBV than heterosexual men and sexual minority women. Lesbians had lower levels of CRP than heterosexual women. Conclusions Gender differences in CRP and EBV found between men and women who identify as 100% heterosexual were reversed among sexual minorities and not explained by known risk factors (e.g. victimization, alcohol and tobacco use, BMI). More nuanced approaches to addressing gender differences in sexual orientation health disparities that include measures of gender nonconformity and minority stress are needed. PMID:24347405

  8. Adolescent Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors: A Developmental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.; Reznik, Yana

    2009-01-01

    Understanding adolescents' attitudes regarding sexual behavior is key to understanding why they choose to engage or not engage in sex, which sexual behavior(s) they initiate and continue, and the outcomes experienced during and following sexual behavior. This article briefly explores adolescent sexual behavior, positive and negative outcomes…

  9. Phenomenological Research and Adolescent Female Sexuality: Discoveries and Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrissey, Gabrielle; Higgs, Joy

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents research in female first sexual intercourse in Australia. Previous research in adolescent sexual behavior, particularly issues around first sexual intercourse behavior, has mainly utilized quantitative methodology. Our research adopted a qualitative approach to provide unique insight into adolescent sexual behavior, attitudes,…

  10. Measurement and Design Issues in the Study of Adolescent Sexual Behavior and the Evaluation of Adolescent Sexual Health Behavior Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michael; Palacios, Rebecca; Penhollow, Tina M.

    2012-01-01

    To improve the quality of research and commentary concerning adolescent sexuality and evaluation of both comprehensive sexuality education and abstinence education programs, this article aims to help readers (1) select appropriate measures to study adolescent sexual behavior, (2) develop appropriate study designs to evaluate adolescent sexual…

  11. [The handicapped adolescents and their sexuality].

    PubMed

    García Arrigoni, Patricia; Nastri, Mariana

    2011-10-01

    Adolescents with different types of motor handicapping have desires, needs, and feelings, and have the right to express them in the best possible and acceptable way. Sexual education provided to young people with these handicaps is generally more limited than that offered to their normal peers. These adolescents are inadvertently excluded, and some may find difficult to establish a steady couple relationship. Health-care professionals should bear in mind the needs and worries of their handicapped patients and include the topic of sexuality in their visits from the start insisting on the fact that it is a normal activity in the context of a variety of associated problems.

  12. [The handicapped adolescents and their sexuality].

    PubMed

    García Arrigoni, Patricia; Nastri, Mariana

    2011-10-01

    Adolescents with different types of motor handicapping have desires, needs, and feelings, and have the right to express them in the best possible and acceptable way. Sexual education provided to young people with these handicaps is generally more limited than that offered to their normal peers. These adolescents are inadvertently excluded, and some may find difficult to establish a steady couple relationship. Health-care professionals should bear in mind the needs and worries of their handicapped patients and include the topic of sexuality in their visits from the start insisting on the fact that it is a normal activity in the context of a variety of associated problems. PMID:22042077

  13. Scientific Understanding of Sexual Orientation: Implications for Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Ron; Hafner, Mark; Peebles, Patsye

    2000-01-01

    Discusses sexual orientation using the analogy of handedness. Points out the presence of diverse sexual behavior and homosexuality among living species and focuses on human behavior. Encourages discussions among biology teachers on the origins of sexual orientation. (Contains 27 references.) (YDS)

  14. Brain research, gender and sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Swaab, D F; Gooren, L J; Hofman, M A

    1995-01-01

    Recent brain research has revealed structural differences in the hypothalamus in relation to biological sex and sexual orientation. Differences in size and cell number of various nuclei in the hypothalamus for homosexual versus heterosexual men have recently been reported in two studies. We have found that a cluster of cells in the preoptic area of the human hypothalamus contains about twice as many cells in young adult men as in women. We have called this cluster the sexually dimorphic nucleus (SDN). The magnitude of the difference is the SDN depends on age. In other human research, two other hypothalamic nuclei (interstitial nuclei of the anterior hypothalamus [INAH] 2 and 3) and part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) have been reported to be sexually dimorphic in the human. Sexual differentiation to the human brain takes place much later than originally claimed. At birth the SDN contains only some 20% of the cells found at 2 to 4 years of age. The cell number rapidly increases in boys and girls at the same rate until 2 to 4 years of age. After that age period, a decrease in cell number takes place in girls, but not in boys. This causes the sexual differentiation of the SDN. This postnatal period of hypothalamic differentiation indicates that, in addition to genetic factors, a multitude of environmental and psychosocial factors may have profound influence on the sexual differentiation of the brain. No difference in SDN cell number was observed between homosexual and heterosexual men. This finding refutes Dörner's hypothesis that homosexual males have a "female" hypothalamus. However, in a sample of brains of homosexual men we did find that an area of the hypothalamus called the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) contains twice as many cells as the SCN of a heterosexual group. A recent report by LeVay claims that another nucleus, INAH-3, is more than twice as large in heterosexual as in homosexual men, whereas Allen and Gorski found that the anterior

  15. Perceived realism moderates the relation between sexualized media consumption and permissive sexual attitudes in Dutch adolescents.

    PubMed

    Baams, Laura; Overbeek, Geertjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; Doornwaard, Suzan M; Rommes, Els; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2015-04-01

    This study examined whether the development of sexualized media consumption and permissive sexual attitudes would be more strongly interrelated when adolescents perceived sexualized media images as highly realistic. We used data from a three-wave longitudinal sample of 444 Dutch adolescents aged 13-16 years at baseline. Results from parallel process latent growth modeling multigroup analyses showed that higher initial levels of sexualized media consumption were associated with higher initial level of permissive sexual attitudes. Moreover, increases of sexualized media consumption over time were associated with increases of permissive sexual attitudes over time. Considering the moderation by perceived realism, we found these effects only for those who perceived sexualized media as more realistic. Findings for male and female adolescents were similar except for the relations between initial levels and subsequent development. Among male adolescents who perceived sexualized media images to be realistic, higher initial levels of permissive sexual attitudes were related to subsequent less rapid development of sexualized media consumption. For male adolescents who perceived sexualized media to be less realistic, higher initial levels of sexualized media consumption were related to a subsequent less rapid development of permissive sexual attitudes. These relations were not found for female adolescents. Overall, our results suggest that, in male and female adolescents, those with a high level of perceived realism showed a correlated development of sexualized media consumption and permissive sexual attitudes. These findings point to a need for extended information on how to guide adolescents in interpreting and handling sexualized media in everyday life.

  16. A Sex-Positive Framework for Research on Adolescent Sexuality.

    PubMed

    Harden, K Paige

    2014-09-01

    In this article, I propose a sex-positive framework for research on adolescent sexuality in which I consider consensual sexual activities in adolescence as developmentally normative and potentially healthy. The sex-positive framework is contrasted with the predominant "risk" perspective that presumes that abstinence from sexual activity is the ideal behavioral outcome for teenagers. Evidence from longitudinal and behavioral genetic studies indicates that engaging in sexual intercourse in adolescence does not typically cause worse psychological functioning. The relationship context of sexual experience may be a critical moderator of its psychological impact. Moreover, cross-cultural data on adolescents' contraception usage, unintended pregnancy, and sexually transmitted infections suggest that, despite the unacceptably high rate of negative health consequences among U.S. teenagers, adolescents can have the developmental capacity to regulate the health risks inherent in sexual activity. Understanding adolescent sexuality can be fostered by considering sexual well-being, a multidimensional construct that incorporates an adolescent's sexual self-efficacy, sexual self-esteem, feelings of sexual pleasure and satisfaction, and freedom from pain and negative affect regarding sexuality. New research is necessary to understand the development of adolescent sexual well-being, including its normative age trends, its reciprocal links with sexual behavior, and its impact on psychological and physical health.

  17. A Sex-Positive Framework for Research on Adolescent Sexuality.

    PubMed

    Harden, K Paige

    2014-09-01

    In this article, I propose a sex-positive framework for research on adolescent sexuality in which I consider consensual sexual activities in adolescence as developmentally normative and potentially healthy. The sex-positive framework is contrasted with the predominant "risk" perspective that presumes that abstinence from sexual activity is the ideal behavioral outcome for teenagers. Evidence from longitudinal and behavioral genetic studies indicates that engaging in sexual intercourse in adolescence does not typically cause worse psychological functioning. The relationship context of sexual experience may be a critical moderator of its psychological impact. Moreover, cross-cultural data on adolescents' contraception usage, unintended pregnancy, and sexually transmitted infections suggest that, despite the unacceptably high rate of negative health consequences among U.S. teenagers, adolescents can have the developmental capacity to regulate the health risks inherent in sexual activity. Understanding adolescent sexuality can be fostered by considering sexual well-being, a multidimensional construct that incorporates an adolescent's sexual self-efficacy, sexual self-esteem, feelings of sexual pleasure and satisfaction, and freedom from pain and negative affect regarding sexuality. New research is necessary to understand the development of adolescent sexual well-being, including its normative age trends, its reciprocal links with sexual behavior, and its impact on psychological and physical health. PMID:26186753

  18. Understanding normal development of adolescent sexuality: A bumpy ride.

    PubMed

    Kar, Sujita Kumar; Choudhury, Ananya; Singh, Abhishek Pratap

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence, derived from the Latin word "adolescere" meaning "to grow up" is a critical developmental period. During adolescence, major biological as well as psychological developments take place. Development of sexuality is an important bio-psycho-social development, which takes an adult shape during this period. During adolescence, an individual's thought, perception as well as response gets colored sexually. Puberty is an important landmark of sexuality development that occurs in the adolescence. The myriad of changes that occurs in adolescents puts them under enormous stress, which may have adverse physical, as well as psychological consequences. Understanding adolescent sexuality has important clinical, legal, social, cultural, as well as educational implications.

  19. Effects of Family and Friend Support on LGB Youths' Mental Health and Sexual Orientation Milestones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shilo, Guy; Savaya, Riki

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of social support components and providers on mental health and sexual orientation (SO) milestones of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths. Data were collected on 461 self-identified LGB adolescents and young adults. Family acceptance and support yielded the strongest positive effect on self-acceptance of SO,…

  20. Vulnerable Adolescent Participants' Experience in Surveys on Sexuality and Sexual Abuse: Ethical Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priebe, Gisela; Backstrom, Martin; Ainsaar, Mare

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this research was to study the discomfort experienced by adolescents when answering questions in a survey about sexuality and sexual abuse and to investigate factors that may determine possible experience of discomfort. The research focused particularly on vulnerable adolescents--sexually abused and sexually inexperienced.…

  1. Does Maltreatment in Childhood Affect Sexual Orientation in Adulthood?

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Andrea L.; Glymour, M. Maria; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies find a positive association between physical and sexual abuse, neglect, and witnessing violence in childhood and same-sex sexuality in adulthood, but studies directly assessing the association between these diverse types of maltreatment and sexuality cannot disentangle the causal direction because the sequencing of maltreatment and emerging sexuality is difficult to ascertain. Nascent same-sex orientation may increase risk of maltreatment; alternatively, maltreatment may shape sexual orientation. Our study used instrumental variable models based on family characteristics that predict maltreatment but are not plausibly influenced by sexual orientation (e.g., having a stepparent) as natural experiments to investigate whether maltreatment might increase the likelihood of same-sex sexuality in a nationally representative sample (n = 34,653). In instrumental variable models, history of sexual abuse predicted increased prevalence of same-sex attraction by 2.0 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4, 2.5), any same-sex partners by 1.4 percentage points (95% CI = 1.0, 1.9), and same-sex identity by 0.7 percentage points (95% CI = 0.4, 0.9). Effects of sexual abuse on men’s sexual orientation were substantially larger than on women’s. Effects of non-sexual maltreatment were significant only for men and women’s sexual identity and women’s same-sex partners. While point estimates suggest much of the association between maltreatment and sexual orientation may be due to the effects of maltreatment on sexual orientation, confidence intervals were wide. Our results suggest that causal relationships driving the association between sexual orientation and childhood abuse may be bidirectional, may differ by type of abuse, and may differ by sex. Better understanding of this potentially complex causal structure is critical to developing targeted strategies to reduce sexual orientation disparities in exposure to abuse. PMID:22976519

  2. Does maltreatment in childhood affect sexual orientation in adulthood?

    PubMed

    Roberts, Andrea L; Glymour, M Maria; Koenen, Karestan C

    2013-02-01

    Epidemiological studies find a positive association between physical and sexual abuse, neglect, and witnessing violence in childhood and same-sex sexuality in adulthood, but studies directly assessing the association between these diverse types of maltreatment and sexuality cannot disentangle the causal direction because the sequencing of maltreatment and emerging sexuality is difficult to ascertain. Nascent same-sex orientation may increase risk of maltreatment; alternatively, maltreatment may shape sexual orientation. Our study used instrumental variable models based on family characteristics that predict maltreatment but are not plausibly influenced by sexual orientation (e.g., having a stepparent) as natural experiments to investigate whether maltreatment might increase the likelihood of same-sex sexuality in a nationally representative sample (n = 34,653). In instrumental variable models, history of sexual abuse predicted increased prevalence of same-sex attraction by 2.0 percentage points [95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-2.5], any same-sex partners by 1.4 percentage points (95 % CI = 1.0-1.9), and same-sex identity by 0.7 percentage points (95 % CI = 0.4-0.9). Effects of sexual abuse on men's sexual orientation were substantially larger than on women's. Effects of non-sexual maltreatment were significant only for men and women's sexual identity and women's same-sex partners. While point estimates suggest much of the association between maltreatment and sexual orientation may be due to the effects of maltreatment on sexual orientation, confidence intervals were wide. Our results suggest that causal relationships driving the association between sexual orientation and childhood abuse may be bidirectional, may differ by type of abuse, and may differ by sex. Better understanding of this potentially complex causal structure is critical to developing targeted strategies to reduce sexual orientation disparities in exposure to abuse. PMID:22976519

  3. Eating Disorders and Sexual Abuse among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Jeanne

    This study was conducted to examine the list of identifying factors and predictors of childhood physical abuse, extrafamilial sexual abuse, and incest among male and female adolescents in the general population. In 1989, a survey was administered to 6,224 9th and 12th grade students in public schools in Minnesota. The findings revealed that more…

  4. HIV Risk Behavior of Runaway Youth in San Francisco: Age of Onset and Relation to Sexual Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Martha W.; McFarland, William; Kellogg, Timothy; Baxter, Michael; Katz, Mitchell H.; MacKellar, Duncan; Valleroy, Linda A.

    2000-01-01

    Examined HIV risk behaviors among runaway youth by age at onset and sexual orientation. Adolescents age 12-21 years seeking health care at two clinics completed interviews and blood testing. Gay/lesbian/bisexual youth reported higher levels and earlier onset of sexual and drug-using behavior than heterosexual youth and were at exceptionally high…

  5. [Sexuality of adolescents in the Sahel].

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    The major results are presented of a study of adolescent sexuality in five Sahel countries: Burkina Faso, Gambia, Mali, Niger, and Senegal. Because of strong taboos on discussing sexuality, most studies of reproductive health in the region have paid little attention to adolescents, who constitute over one-fifth of reproductive-age women. Awareness of problems in adolescent reproductive health is limited. Marriage age in the five countries is among the lowest in the world. In urban areas marriage age is increasing, but premarital sex is becoming more common. 51% of uneducated rural girls in Niger are married by age 15, as are 26% who are educated. But at age 20, 38% in Ouagadougou, 52% in Niamey, and 71% in Dakar are still single. Early marriage in the Sahel is usually followed rapidly by a pregnancy in an immature adolescent. The medical consequences of early pregnancy are a public health problem: spontaneous abortion, premature or difficult deliveries, high cesarean rates, infections, fistulas, trauma to the newborn, and low birth weight. Premarital sexual activity carries the same risks of early pregnancy, with the additional social and economic consequences inherent in non-marital fertility. Unwanted pregnancy, illegal abortion, or even infanticide may occur. The proportion of single mothers under age 20 varies from 9% to 18% in the large cities of the Sahel. Adolescents appear to be especially vulnerable to sexually transmitted diseases and HIV infection in case of unprotected sex, possibly because of their physical immaturity. Knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases is limited among girls, and most do not know that seemingly healthy persons can be HIV seropositive. Friends and the media are the most common sources of information about sex, and health agents, family members, and teachers are among the least frequent sources. Most older respondents agreed that premarital sexual activity has increased. Various explanations including later marriage and economic

  6. A genetic study of male sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Bailey, J M; Pillard, R C

    1991-12-01

    Homosexual male probands with monozygotic cotwins, dizygotic cotwins, or adoptive brothers were recruited using homophile publications. Sexual orientation of relatives was assessed either by asking relatives directly, or when this was impossible, asking the probands. Of the relatives whose sexual orientation could be rated, 52% (29/56) of monozygotic cotwins, 22% (12/54) of dizygotic cotwins, and 11% (6/57) of adoptive brothers were homosexual. Heritabilities were substantial under a wide range of assumptions about the population base rate of homosexuality and ascertainment bias. However, the rate of homosexuality among nontwin biological siblings, as reported by probands, 9.2% (13/142), was significantly lower than would be predicted by a simple genetic hypothesis and other published reports. A proband's self-reported history of childhood gender non-conformity did not predict homosexuality in relatives in any of the three subsamples. Thus, childhood gender nonconformity does not appear to be an indicator of genetic loading for homosexuality. Cotwins from concordant monozygotic pairs were very similar for childhood gender nonconformity.

  7. Developmental trajectories of religiosity, sexual conservatism and sexual behavior among female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Aalsma, Matthew C; Woodrome, Stacy E; Downs, Sarah M; Hensel, Devon J; Zimet, Gregory D; Orr, Don P; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the role of socio-sexual cognitions and religiosity on adolescent sexual behavior could guide adolescent sexual health efforts. The present study utilized longitudinal data from 328 young women to assess the role of religion and socio-sexual cognitions on sexual behavior accrual (measuring both coital and non-coital sexual behavior). In the final triple conditional trajectory structural equation model, religiosity declined over time and then increased to baseline levels. Additionally, religiosity predicted decreased sexual conservatism and decreased sexual conservatism predicted increased sexual behavior. The final models are indicative of young women's increasing accrual of sexual experience, decreasing sexual conservatism and initial decreasing religiosity. The results of this study suggest that decreased religiosity affects the accrual of sexual experience through decreased sexual conservatism. Effective strategies of sexual health promotion should include an understanding of the complex role of socio-sexual attitudes with religiosity.

  8. Considering the role of conditioning in sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Heather

    2012-02-01

    The effects of learning on sexual orientation are rarely addressed in the literature. At the very least, such processes provide a means of elaborating upon orientation predispositions. Some aspects of our mates may inherently elicit a sexual response, but other attributes do so only after sexual experience with them. Animal research shows robust, direct effects of conditioning processes on partner preference with a few studies showing plasticity in preference for sex of partner. Descriptive research in humans suggests effects of experience on partner preference and, although experimental demonstrations of human sexual conditioning are neither numerous nor robust, sexual arousal is conditionable in women and men. With modern developments in learning theory (e.g., expectancy learning and evaluative conditioning), it seems appropriate to renew the investigation of contributions and limitations of conditioning processes to explaining how cues acquire erotic value and to attempt some integration between the sexual conditioning literature and research on sexual orientation or more generally sexual partner preference.

  9. Patterns of relationship and sexual behaviors in Mexican adolescents and associations with well-being: A latent class approach.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Hernández, Graciela; Vasilenko, Sara A

    2015-10-01

    To broaden our understanding of romance and sexuality during adolescence in Latin American countries, we used a person-oriented approach (latent class analysis) to examine classes marked by different patterns of romantic and sexual behaviors in Mexican adolescents. We found 5 classes: Inactive (8.53%), Early stage (37.8%), Waiting class (27.5%), Physical (8.4%) and Committed (17.9%); but no group dating class. We also explored how these classes were associated with adolescents' mental health and school performance. Middle school adolescents in the Committed class (high in romantic and sexual behaviors) had the highest level of depressive symptoms. Girls in the Inactive class and boys in the Physical class had the lowest level of symptoms. Adolescents in the Committed class also reported less academic motivation and achievement, whereas adolescents in the Inactive class reported higher motivation. This study expands our knowledge of adolescent romantic and sexual development in Mexico.

  10. Patterns of relationship and sexual behaviors in Mexican adolescents and associations with well-being: A latent class approach.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Hernández, Graciela; Vasilenko, Sara A

    2015-10-01

    To broaden our understanding of romance and sexuality during adolescence in Latin American countries, we used a person-oriented approach (latent class analysis) to examine classes marked by different patterns of romantic and sexual behaviors in Mexican adolescents. We found 5 classes: Inactive (8.53%), Early stage (37.8%), Waiting class (27.5%), Physical (8.4%) and Committed (17.9%); but no group dating class. We also explored how these classes were associated with adolescents' mental health and school performance. Middle school adolescents in the Committed class (high in romantic and sexual behaviors) had the highest level of depressive symptoms. Girls in the Inactive class and boys in the Physical class had the lowest level of symptoms. Adolescents in the Committed class also reported less academic motivation and achievement, whereas adolescents in the Inactive class reported higher motivation. This study expands our knowledge of adolescent romantic and sexual development in Mexico. PMID:26340166

  11. Perceived Sexual Orientation Based on Vocal and Facial Stimuli Is Linked to Self-Rated Sexual Orientation in Czech Men

    PubMed Central

    Valentova, Jaroslava Varella; Havlíček, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that lay people can accurately assess male sexual orientation based on limited information, such as face, voice, or behavioral display. Gender-atypical traits are thought to serve as cues to sexual orientation. We investigated the presumed mechanisms of sexual orientation attribution using a standardized set of facial and vocal stimuli of Czech men. Both types of stimuli were rated for sexual orientation and masculinity-femininity by non-student heterosexual women and homosexual men. Our data showed that by evaluating vocal stimuli both women and homosexual men can judge sexual orientation of the target men in agreement with their self-reported sexual orientation. Nevertheless, only homosexual men accurately attributed sexual orientation of the two groups from facial images. Interestingly, facial images of homosexual targets were rated as more masculine than heterosexual targets. This indicates that attributions of sexual orientation are affected by stereotyped association between femininity and male homosexuality; however, reliance on such cues can lead to frequent misjudgments as was the case with the female raters. Although our study is based on a community sample recruited in a non-English speaking country, the results are generally consistent with the previous research and thus corroborate the validity of sexual orientation attributions. PMID:24358180

  12. Adolescent Sexuality, Masculinity-Femininity, and Educational Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harry, Joseph

    The role of adolescent sexual behavior in educational attainment has been overlooked. Homosexual and heterosexual men were interviewed to test for a correlation between adolescent sexual activeness and educational attainment, as well as any link between childhood masculine sex roles and early sexual activity. Approximately 1,000 volunteers,…

  13. Improving Sexual Risk Communication with Adolescents Using Event History Calendars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martyn, Kristy K.; Darling-Fisher, Cynthia; Pardee, Michelle; Ronis, David L.; Felicetti, Irene L.; Saftner, Melissa A.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the effects of an event history calendar (EHC) approach on adolescent sexual risk communication and sexual activity. Adolescent school-linked health clinic patients (n = 30) who reported sexual activity self-administered the EHC that was used by nurse practitioners (NPs; n = 2) during a clinic visit. Immediately…

  14. Childhood Sexual Abuse in Pregnant and Parenting Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilson, Kathryn J.; Lancaster, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine childhood sexual abuse in Australian childbearing adolescents and the contribution of abuse variables (sexual and physical abuse) to antenatal and postpartum depression and anxiety in adolescents. Methods: Seventy-nine adolescents proceeding with a pregnancy for the first time were surveyed about abuse experiences and were…

  15. Extent Matters: Exposure to Sexual Material among Czech Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ševcíková, Anna; Šerek, Jan; Machácková, Hana; Šmahel, David

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents use media that exposes them to sexual material. This study focused on adolescents in the Czech Republic, a country with relatively high rates of exposure to sexual material (ESM). A sample of adolescents aged 11 to 15 years ("N" = 495) taken from the project EU Kids Online II was examined for predictors of the following:…

  16. Sexual Orientation, Adult Connectedness, Substance Use, and Mental Health Outcomes Among Adolescents: Findings From the 2009 New York City Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    PubMed Central

    Seil, Kacie S.; Desai, Mayur M.; Smith, Megan V.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We examined associations between identifying as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) and lacking a connection with an adult at school on adolescent substance use and mental health outcomes including suicidality. Methods We analyzed data from the 2009 New York City Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n = 8910). Outcomes of interest included alcohol use, marijuana use, illicit drug use, depressive symptomatology, suicide ideation, and suicide attempt. Results The prevalence of each outcome was significantly higher among LGB adolescents than heterosexual adolescents and among those who lacked an adult connection at school than among those who did have such a connection. Even when LGB adolescents had an adult connection at school, their odds of most outcomes were significantly higher than for heterosexual adolescents. Those LGB adolescents who lacked a school adult connection had the poorest outcomes (about 45% reported suicide ideation; 31% suicide attempt). Conclusions Adolescents who are LGB, particularly those who lack a connection with school adults, are at high risk for substance use and poorer mental health outcomes. Interventions should focus on boosting social support and improving outcomes for this vulnerable group. PMID:25121812

  17. Sexual Orientation, Adult Connectedness, Substance Use, and Mental Health Outcomes Among Adolescents: Findings From the 2009 New York City Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    PubMed Central

    Seil, Kacie S.; Desai, Mayur M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined associations between identifying as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) and lacking a connection with an adult at school on adolescent substance use and mental health outcomes including suicidality. Methods. We analyzed data from the 2009 New York City Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n = 8910). Outcomes of interest included alcohol use, marijuana use, illicit drug use, depressive symptomatology, suicide ideation, and suicide attempt. Results. The prevalence of each outcome was significantly higher among LGB adolescents than heterosexual adolescents and among those who lacked an adult connection at school than among those who did have such a connection. Even when LGB adolescents had an adult connection at school, their odds of most outcomes were significantly higher than for heterosexual adolescents. Those LGB adolescents who lacked a school adult connection had the poorest outcomes (about 45% reported suicide ideation; 31% suicide attempt). Conclusions. Adolescents who are LGB, particularly those who lack a connection with school adults, are at high risk for substance use and poorer mental health outcomes. Interventions should focus on boosting social support and improving outcomes for this vulnerable group. PMID:25121812

  18. The Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Sexual Health Practices of Homeless Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Regina Jones; Rew, Lynn; Sternglanz, R. Weylin

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the gender differences in sexual self-concept, personal resources for sexual health, safe sex behaviors, and risky sexual behaviors among homeless adolescents with and without histories of sexual abuse. Data for this secondary analysis were collected in 2003 to 2004 in the first phase of a larger repeated-measures sexual health…

  19. Stability and change in self-reported sexual orientation identity in young people: application of mobility metrics.

    PubMed

    Ott, Miles Q; Corliss, Heather L; Wypij, David; Rosario, Margaret; Austin, S Bryn

    2011-06-01

    This study investigated stability and change in self-reported sexual orientation identity over time in youth. We describe gender- and age-related changes in sexual orientation identity from early adolescence through emerging adulthood in 13,840 youth ages 12-25 employing mobility measure M, a measure we modified from its original application for econometrics. Using prospective data from a large, ongoing cohort of U.S. adolescents, we examined mobility in sexual orientation identity in youth with up to four waves of data. Ten percent of males and 20% of females at some point described themselves as a sexual minority, while 2% of both males and females reported ever being "unsure" of their orientation. Two novel findings emerged regarding gender and mobility: (1) Although mobility scores were quite low for the full cohort, females reported significantly higher mobility than did males. (2) As expected, for sexual minorities, mobility scores were appreciably higher than for the full cohort; however, the gender difference appeared to be eliminated, indicating that changing reported sexual orientation identity throughout adolescence occurred at a similar rate in female and male sexual minorities. In addition, we found that, of those who described themselves as "unsure" of their orientation identity at any point, 66% identified as completely heterosexual at other reports and never went on to describe themselves as a sexual minority. Age was positively associated with endorsing a sexual-minority orientation identity. We discuss substantive and methodological implications of our findings for understanding development of sexual orientation identity in young people.

  20. Mediation by Peer Violence Victimization of Sexual Orientation Disparities in Cancer-Related Tobacco, Alcohol, and Sexual Risk Behaviors: Pooled Youth Risk Behavior Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Corliss, Heather L.; Everett, Bethany G.; Russell, Stephen T.; Buchting, Francisco O.; Birkett, Michelle A

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the role of adolescent peer violence victimization (PVV) in sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related tobacco, alcohol, and sexual risk behaviors. Methods. We pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. We classified youths with any same-sex sexual attraction, partners, or identity as sexual minority and the remainder as heterosexual. We had 4 indicators of tobacco and alcohol use and 4 of sexual risk and 2 PVV factors: victimization at school and carrying weapons. We stratified associations by gender and race/ethnicity. Results. PVV was related to disparities in cancer-related risk behaviors of substance use and sexual risk, with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 1.6) to 11.3 (95% CI = 6.2, 20.8), and to being a sexual minority, with ORs of 1.4 (95% CI = 1.1, 1.9) to 5.6 (95% CI = 3.5, 8.9). PVV mediated sexual orientation disparities in substance use and sexual risk behaviors. Findings were pronounced for adolescent girls and Asian/Pacific Islanders. Conclusions. Interventions are needed to reduce PVV in schools as a way to reduce sexual orientation disparities in cancer risk across the life span. PMID:24825215

  1. Abortion and the ethics of genetic sexual orientation research.

    PubMed

    Murphy, T F

    1995-01-01

    Research is being conducted to determine whether there is a genetic basis for homoerotic sexual orientation in adults. Reports indicate that such a basis may exist. Some homosexual men and women have welcomed the possibility of biological confirmation of their sexual orientation and subsequent behavior. If human sexual orientation were proven to be genetically determined, many homosexuals would not feel compelled to justify their sexuality. One would simply be born either homosexual or heterosexual. Others, however, worry that the ability to identify homosexuality through genetic markers may be used prejudicially against homosexuals. German sexologist Gunter Schmidt has argued that since society has yet to fully accept homosexuals and homosexuality, research into the possible causes of homosexuality is potentially dangerous to gay men and women. In the same vein, gay studies scholar David Halperin argues that the search for a scientific etiology of sexual orientation is a homophobic venture which should be clearly seen as such. Considerable concern therefore exists that sexual orientation research may lead to genocide against homosexuals through the practice of selective abortion on the basis of a fetus's genetically identified sexual orientation. The author, however, is skeptical that a simple genetic test is on the horizon which is capable of determining an individual's sexual orientation, and were such a test available, that it would necessarily be used only to the detriment of homosexuals. He does acknowledge that such a test could be used prejudicially with regard to access to employment, insurance, and other social goods, but it nonetheless remains unjustified to completely forbid genetic sexual orientation research. A sexual orientation test and abortion, and the ethics of sexual orientation research are discussed.

  2. Sexual Orientation and the Auditory System

    PubMed Central

    McFadden, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    The auditory system exhibits differences by sex and by sexual orientation, and the implication is that relevant auditory structures are altered during prenatal development, possibly by exposure to androgens. The otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) of newborn male infants are weaker than those of newborn females, and these sex differences persist through the lifespan. The OAEs of nonheterosexual females also are weaker than those of heterosexual females, suggesting an atypically strong exposure to androgens some time early in development. Auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) also exhibit sex differences beginning early in life. Some AEPs are different for heterosexual and nonheterosexual females, and other AEPs are different for heterosexual and nonheterosexual males. Research on non-humans treated with androgenic or anti-androgenic agents also suggests that OAEs are masculinized by prenatal exposure to androgens late in gestation. Collectively, the evidence suggests that prenatal androgens, acting globally or locally, affect both nonheterosexuality and the auditory system. PMID:21310172

  3. Sexual Orientation and Music Education: Continuing a Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergonzi, Louis

    2014-01-01

    This article offers an overview of sexual orientation and music education, in particular how sexual orientation--specifically, heterosexuality--has been dominant in the teaching of music in the United States. Scenarios of heterosexual privilege related to music students, music teachers, and instructional content are presented. After acknowledging…

  4. Sexual Orientation Topics in Educational Leadership Programmes across the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Todd

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examines the inclusion of sexual orientation topics within the formal curriculum of 55 public college and university educational administration/leadership programmes across the USA. The findings indicate that programmes place a low priority upon sexual orientation compared to other diversity topics and that 59.5% of programmes…

  5. Within-Group Differences in Sexual Orientation and Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthington, Roger L.; Reynolds, Amy L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine within-group differences among self-identified sexual orientation and identity groups. To understand these within-group differences, 2 types of analysis were conducted. First, a sample of 2,732 participants completed the Sexual Orientation and Identity Scale. Cluster analyses were used to identify 3…

  6. Discussing adolescent sexual health in African-American churches.

    PubMed

    Williams, Terrinieka T; Dodd, Darcy; Campbell, Bettina; Pichon, Latrice C; Griffith, Derek M

    2014-04-01

    This study describes the ways in which two African-American churches discuss adolescent sexual health topics. Six focus groups were conducted in two churches in Flint, Michigan, that reported no formal sexual health programming for their congregants. Three themes emerged to highlight the different perspectives about the role of churches in adolescent sexual decision-making and sexual health education: (1) churches as sources of sexual information, (2) churches as complex communities, and (3) recommendations for sexual education in churches. Participant responses suggest that churches can and should serve a resource for sexual health information. Implications for practice and research are discussed.

  7. Adolescents' Exposure to Sexually Explicit Internet Material and Sexual Satisfaction: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Jochen; Valkenburg, Patti M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate, within a social comparison framework, the causal relationship between adolescents' use of sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) and their sexual satisfaction. In addition, we tested which adolescents were most susceptible to a potential influence of SEIM on sexual satisfaction. Between May 2006 and…

  8. Initiating Sexual Experiences: How Do Young Adolescents Make Decisions Regarding Early Sexual Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michels, Tricia M.; Kropp, Rhonda Y.; Eyre, Stephen L.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding how young adolescents make decisions to engage in early sexual activities is vital for intervention efforts aimed at fostering positive youth development and reducing the negative outcomes of adolescent sexual behavior. In-depth interviews with 42 suburban, mostly White, ninth-grade adolescents (52% females, mean age=14.1, SD=.45)…

  9. Sexual abuse of children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sugar, M

    1983-01-01

    Parents, relatives, and friends may inflict their passions on children of the same or opposite sex. This is often initiated by sleeping together. Sexual abuse contributes to and causes emotional trauma, although the child's turmoil, confusion, wish for acceptance, and anxiety may be overlooked by the parent and professional. Mutual silence aided by threats adds to the anxiety. Despite the notion that reports of parental sexual exploitation of their children are usually fantasies, there appear to be increasing data that incest and sexual abuse are frequent traumata. At present, there is increased risk of lowering the incest barrier because of increased rates of divorce and step- or surrogate parenthood, since they provide additional potential for being sexually and emotionally traumatized. Sexual abuse seems to be part of a constellation involving neglect and a pathological symbiosis. That sexual abuse is emotionally traumatic is apparent, but it needs emphasizing. Children's defensive reactions may cloud this, and it may be years before such incidents are connected to symptomatic behavior, even when the child is in intensive therapy. In the reported cases, there appears to be a pattern of reactions and defenses related to the traumata that are embedded in imprinting and identification with the aggressor. This leads to sexual abuse being a legacy passed on to the next generation of victims, as the victim becomes the molester through identification. Adolescent self-destructive behavior may stem from guilt about sexually abusing younger children. Therapists may be better able to understand and deal with some of their patients' symptoms if sexual abuse is considered as a possible factor in one or both directions. PMID:6677153

  10. [Sexually transmitted diseases in adolescence: study of risk factors].

    PubMed

    Taquette, Stella R; de Vilhena, Marília Mello; de Paula, Mariana Campos

    2004-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases are frequent in adolescence and facilitates HIV contamination. The early age limit of the first sexual intercourse, the diversity of partners, the habit of not using condoms and illicit drug abuse are pointed out as risk factors for sexual transmitted disease. We interviewed 356 adolescents who sought medical attendance at the Adolescent Health Study Center of The State University of Rio de Janeiro between August/2001 and July/2002 regarding their sexuality and to identify risk behaviors. Periodical analysis and chi-square tests were performed on the collected data. We observed statistically significant correlations between Sexual transmitted diseases and the variables of: slow learning, alcohol, tobacco and drug abuse, sexual abuse and the habit of not using condoms during sexual intercourse. The results indicate multiple Sexually transmitted disease risk behaviors in adolescence, and the failure to use condoms is the factor which is most possibly influenced by programs run by health workers.

  11. [The sexuality of HIV-infected-adolescents: literature review and thinking on the unthinkables of sexuality].

    PubMed

    Mergui, A; Giami, A

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this review was to analyze the scientific literature on the sexuality of HIV-positive adolescents. The first point was to identify how sexuality is addressed and secondly the impact of HIV infection on HIV-positive adolescents. Fifty-four articles were selected for this review. The review demonstrates that sexuality is mainly considered under the angle of sexual and reproductive behavior and preventive practices (condom use and contraception), based on questionnaire studies. Some studies investigated the physiological impact of HIV and its treatment, especially in relation to puberty. On the other hand, the subjective experience of an HIV-positive status among adolescents was rarely studied. Overall, HIV has a negative impact on the sexual life of HIV-positive adolescents. The vast majority of them practice sexual abstinence, notably adolescents infected through mother-to-child contamination, for whom the access to sexuality seems to be delayed. Among those who are sexually active, nearly one-half continue having unprotected sex. The problems related to living with HIV induce a climate of anxiety and dissatisfaction that affects behaviors and sexual practices, and disrupts the quality of sexual life. Some results suggest that the type and mode of contamination has an effect on the general sexual experience of being an HIV-positive adolescent. More research should be developed to study the subjective experience of HIV-positive adolescent sexuality and its impact on sexual experience according to the type of contamination in this population.

  12. Transgender Transitioning and Change of Self-Reported Sexual Orientation

    PubMed Central

    Höhne, Nina; Stalla, Günter K.; Sievers, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sexual orientation is usually considered to be determined in early life and stable in the course of adulthood. In contrast, some transgender individuals report a change in sexual orientation. A common reason for this phenomenon is not known. Methods We included 115 transsexual persons (70 male-to-female “MtF” and 45 female-to-male “FtM”) patients from our endocrine outpatient clinic, who completed a questionnaire, retrospectively evaluating the history of their gender transition phase. The questionnaire focused on sexual orientation and recalled time points of changes in sexual orientation in the context of transition. Participants were further asked to provide a personal concept for a potential change in sexual orientation. Results In total, 32.9% (n =  23) MtF reported a change in sexual orientation in contrast to 22.2% (n =  10) FtM transsexual persons (p =  0.132). Out of these patients, 39.1% (MtF) and 60% (FtM) reported a change in sexual orientation before having undergone any sex reassignment surgery. FtM that had initially been sexually oriented towards males ( = androphilic), were significantly more likely to report on a change in sexual orientation than gynephilic, analloerotic or bisexual FtM (p  =  0.012). Similarly, gynephilic MtF reported a change in sexual orientation more frequently than androphilic, analloerotic or bisexual MtF transsexual persons (p  =  0.05). Conclusion In line with earlier reports, we reveal that a change in self-reported sexual orientation is frequent and does not solely occur in the context of particular transition events. Transsexual persons that are attracted by individuals of the opposite biological sex are more likely to change sexual orientation. Qualitative reports suggest that the individual's biography, autogynephilic and autoandrophilic sexual arousal, confusion before and after transitioning, social and self-acceptance, as well as concept of sexual orientation itself may

  13. Television viewing and adolescents' sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Brown, J D; Newcomer, S F

    1991-01-01

    Over the past two decades the sexual content on television has increased in frequency and explicitness but has seldom included depiction of the use of contraceptives. Concurrently, the age of initiation of heterosexual intercourse has decreased and the number of teenaged pregnancies has remained high. Are these trends related? This survey of 391 adolescents found that those who chose heavier diets of sexy television shows were more likely than those who viewed a smaller proportion of sexual content on television to have had sexual intercourse. This relationship held regardless of perceived peer encouragement to engage in sex and across race and gender groups. While causal direction is not clear from these data, the relationship suggests that either sexual activity results in increased interest in sexual content in the media and/or that viewing such content leads to sexual activity. In either case, the finding points to the need for further research and increased discussion and portrayal of the use of contraceptives on television.

  14. Discovering Sexual Health Conversations between Adolescents and Youth Development Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Niodita; Chandak, Aastha; Gilson, Glen; Pelster, Aja Kneip; Schober, Daniel J.; Goldsworthy, Richard; Baldwin, Kathleen; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Fisher, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Youth development professionals (YDPs), working at community-based organizations are in a unique position to interact with the adolescents as they are neither parents/guardians nor teachers. The objectives of this study were to explore qualitatively what sexual health issues adolescents discuss with YDPs and to describe those issues using the framework of the Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States (SIECUS) comprehensive sexuality education guidelines. YDPs reported conversations with adolescents that included topics related to the SIECUS key concepts of human development, relationships, personal skills, sexual behavior, and sexual health. PMID:27081375

  15. Longitudinal Disparities of Hazardous Drinking between Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Individuals from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Dermody, Sarah S.; Marshal, Michael P.; Cheong, JeeWon; Burton, Chad; Hughes, Tonda; Aranda, Frances; Friedman, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual minority (lesbian and gay, bisexual, mostly heterosexual) individuals are at an increased risk for hazardous drinking than heterosexual individuals, but little is known about the nature of the disparities as adolescents reach adulthood. We used four waves of a nationally representative data set, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), to examine disparities of hazardous drinking outcomes between sexual minority and heterosexual men and women from adolescence to young adulthood. Participants were 14 to 18 years old at the first assessment (N = 12,379; 53% female) and 27 to 31 years old at the fourth assessment. At the fourth assessment, 13% self-identified as sexual minority individuals, 16% were Hispanic, and 36% were of minority race, including primarily African Americans (60%) and Asian Americans (18%). There were clear hazardous drinking disparities between sexual minority individuals and heterosexual individuals over time. During adolescence, sexual minority individuals, particularly females, reported higher levels of hazardous drinking. As study participants reached adulthood, the magnitude of the hazardous drinking disparities increased among sexual minorities, sexual minority men in particular. Additional research is needed to better understand the developmental mechanisms that underlie the emerging sexual orientation related disparities of hazardous drinking in young adulthood. PMID:23325141

  16. Sex and sexual orientation disparities in adverse childhood experiences and early age at sexual debut in the United States: results from a nationally representative sample.

    PubMed

    Brown, Monique J; Masho, Saba W; Perera, Robert A; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A

    2015-08-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to early sexual debut, which has been found to be associated with multiple adverse health outcomes. Sexual minorities and men tend to have earlier sexual debut compared to heterosexual populations and women, respectively. However, studies examining the association between ACEs and early sexual debut among men and sexual minorities are lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the sex and sexual orientation disparities in the association between ACEs and age at sexual debut. Data were obtained from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic and linear regression models were used to obtain crude and adjusted estimates and 95% confidence intervals adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, insurance and marital status for the association between ACEs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology) and early sexual debut. Analyses were stratified by sex and sexual orientation. Larger effect estimates depicting the association between ACEs and sexual debut were seen for women compared to men, and among sexual minorities, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) and women who have sex with women (WSW), compared to heterosexuals. Sexual health education programs with a focus on delaying sexual debut among children and adolescents should also consider addressing ACEs, such as neglect, physical, psychological and sexual abuse, witnessing parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology. Public health practitioners, researchers and sexual health education curriculum coordinators should consider these differences by sex and sexual orientation when designing these programs.

  17. Sex and sexual orientation disparities in adverse childhood experiences and early age at sexual debut in the United States: Results from a nationally representative sample☆

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Monique J.; Masho, Saba W.; Perera, Robert A.; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to early sexual debut, which has been found to be associated with multiple adverse health outcomes. Sexual minorities and men tend to have earlier sexual debut compared to heterosexual populations and women, respectively. However, studies examining the association between ACEs and early sexual debut among men and sexual minorities are lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the sex and sexual orientation disparities in the association between ACEs and age at sexual debut. Data were obtained from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic and linear regression model were used to obtain crude and adjusted estimates and 95% confidence intervals adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, insurance and marital status for the association between ACEs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology) and early sexual debut. Analyses were stratified by sex and sexual orientation. Larger effect estimates depicting the association between ACEs and sexual debut were seen for women compared to men, and among sexual minorities, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) and women who have sex with women (WSW), compared to heterosexuals. Sexual health education programs with a focus on delaying sexual debut among children and adolescents should also consider addressing ACEs, such as neglect, physical, psychological and sexual abuse, witnessing parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology. Public health practitioners, researchers and sexual health education curriculum coordinators should consider these differences by sex and sexual orientation when designing these programs. PMID:25804435

  18. Differences between Sexually Victimized and Nonsexually Victimized Male Adolescent Sexual Abusers: Developmental Antecedents and Behavioral Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, David L.; Duty, Kerry Jo; Leibowitz, George S.

    2011-01-01

    This study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers on a number of variables. Self-report measures were administered to 325 male sexually abusive youth (average age 16) in six residential facilities in the Midwest, 55% of whom reported sexual victimization. The results indicate that the sexually…

  19. Factors associated with the sexual experiences of underprivileged Mexican adolescents.

    PubMed

    Huerta-Franco, R; Malacara, J M

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated factors associated with the sexual experiences of 523 underprivileged Mexican adolescents. Approximately 41% of the males and 24% of the females were sexually active, with more than half not using contraceptives. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that sexual activity was strongly associated with age, knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases, and attitudes toward sexuality. Positive affective responsiveness in the family was associated with sexual activity and number of sexual partners. Family problem solving and roles were also associated with sexual activity. The use of contraceptives was negatively related to affective involvement between parents, and being a victim of sexual abuse was negatively associated with number of persons in the family. These findings support the notion that affective environment within the family is a factor in adolescent sexuality. PMID:10494985

  20. Factors associated with the sexual experiences of underprivileged Mexican adolescents.

    PubMed

    Huerta-Franco, R; Malacara, J M

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated factors associated with the sexual experiences of 523 underprivileged Mexican adolescents. Approximately 41% of the males and 24% of the females were sexually active, with more than half not using contraceptives. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that sexual activity was strongly associated with age, knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases, and attitudes toward sexuality. Positive affective responsiveness in the family was associated with sexual activity and number of sexual partners. Family problem solving and roles were also associated with sexual activity. The use of contraceptives was negatively related to affective involvement between parents, and being a victim of sexual abuse was negatively associated with number of persons in the family. These findings support the notion that affective environment within the family is a factor in adolescent sexuality.

  1. The benefits of sexual orientation diversity in sport organizations.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, George B; Melton, E Nicole

    2011-01-01

    While sexual orientation diversity can potentially serve as a source of competitive advantage, researchers have largely failed to fully articulate the theoretical linkage between this diversity form and organizational effectiveness. As such, we propose a theoretical framework to understand these dynamics. Sexual orientation diversity is posited to positively contribute to organizational effectiveness through three mechanisms: enhanced decision making capabilities, improved marketplace understanding, and goodwill associated with engaging in socially responsible practices. We also propose two approaches to leveraging the benefits of sexual orientation diversity: targeting the categorization process and creating a proactive and inclusive diversity culture. Contributions and implications are discussed.

  2. The benefits of sexual orientation diversity in sport organizations.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, George B; Melton, E Nicole

    2011-01-01

    While sexual orientation diversity can potentially serve as a source of competitive advantage, researchers have largely failed to fully articulate the theoretical linkage between this diversity form and organizational effectiveness. As such, we propose a theoretical framework to understand these dynamics. Sexual orientation diversity is posited to positively contribute to organizational effectiveness through three mechanisms: enhanced decision making capabilities, improved marketplace understanding, and goodwill associated with engaging in socially responsible practices. We also propose two approaches to leveraging the benefits of sexual orientation diversity: targeting the categorization process and creating a proactive and inclusive diversity culture. Contributions and implications are discussed. PMID:21534075

  3. Same-sex sexual attraction does not spread in adolescent social networks.

    PubMed

    Brakefield, Tiffany A; Mednick, Sara C; Wilson, Helen W; De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Christakis, Nicholas A; Fowler, James H

    2014-02-01

    Peers have a powerful effect on adolescents' beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. Here, we examine the role of social networks in the spread of attitudes towards sexuality using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Although we found evidence that both sexual activity (OR = 1.79) and desire to have a romantic relationship (OR = 2.69) may spread from person to person, attraction to same sex partners did not spread (OR = 0.96). Analyses of comparable power to those that suggest positive and significant peer-to-peer influence in sexual behavior fail to demonstrate a significant relationship on sexual attraction between friends or siblings. These results suggest that peer influence has little or no effect on the tendency toward heterosexual or homosexual attraction in teens, and that sexual orientation is not transmitted via social networks.

  4. Sexual Attraction and Trajectories of Mental Health and Substance Use during the Transition from Adolescence to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needham, Belinda L.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that sexual minority youth have poorer health-related outcomes than their heterosexual peers. The purpose of this study is to determine whether sexual orientation disparities in mental health and substance use increase, decrease, or remain the same during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Data are from Waves…

  5. Student-on-Student Sexual Orientation Harassment: Legal Protections for Sexual Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stader, David L.; Graca, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    Like all teens, sexual minority youths (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) face many challenges, including student-on-student sexual orientation harassment. The authors examine recent research into the relative frequency, the potential impact, and school district responsibility to protect sexual minority youths from ongoing…

  6. Relationships Between Future Orientation, Impulsive Sensation Seeking, and Risk Behavior Among Adjudicated Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Reuben N.; Bryan, Angela

    2004-01-01

    Because of high levels of risk behavior, adjudicated adolescents are at high risk for negative health outcomes such as nicotine and drug addiction and sexually transmitted diseases. The goal of this article is to examine relationships between future orientation and impulsive-sensation-seeking personality constructs to risk behaviors among 300…

  7. Family Sources of Sexual Health Information, Primary Messages, and Sexual Behavior of At-Risk, Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosengard, Cynthia; Tannis, Candace; Dove, David C.; van den Berg, Jacob J.; Lopez, Rosalie; Stein, L. A. R.; Morrow, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sources of sexual health information exert strong influence on adolescents' sexual behavior. Purpose: The current study was undertaken to understand how family serve as sexual information sources, the messages adolescents recall from family, and how family learning experiences affect sexual behavior among at-risk adolescents. Methods:…

  8. School Social Workers' Needs in Supporting Adolescents with Disabilities toward Dating and Sexual Health: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams Rueda, Heidi; Linton, Kristen F.; Williams, Lela Rankin

    2014-01-01

    School social workers approach their direct practice from ecological systems and justice-oriented perspectives. As such, they may hold a critical role in providing needed sexual health and dating education and services to adolescents with disabilities. Thirteen high school social workers who work closely with adolescents with disabilities were…

  9. Detection of sexual orientation ("gaydar") by homosexual and heterosexual women.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Minna; Lynch, Aoife; Brewer, Gayle; Bruno, Davide

    2014-02-01

    Although there has been considerable research investigating the ability to identify sexual orientation from static images, or "gaydar," few studies have considered the role of female sexual orientation or sexual interest (for example, sociosexual orientation) in judgment accuracy. In two studies, we investigated the sexuality detection ability, and masculinity and femininity as cues used in judgment. In Study 1, we recruited heterosexual (N = 55) and homosexual (N = 71) women to rate the sexual orientation of homosexual and heterosexual male and female targets (N = 80: 20 heterosexual men, 20 homosexual men, 20 heterosexual women, and 20 homosexual women). We found that detection accuracy was better than chance levels for both male and female targets and that male targets were more likely to be falsely labeled as homosexual than female targets were. Overall, female faces were more accurately identified as heterosexual or homosexual than male faces and homosexual female raters were biased towards labeling targets as homosexual. Sociosexuality did not influence the accuracy with which targets were identified as heterosexual or homosexual. In Study 2, 100 heterosexual and 20 homosexual women rated the stimulus for masculinity and femininity. Heterosexual women were rated as more feminine and less masculine than homosexual women and homosexual men were rated as more feminine and less masculine than heterosexual men. Sexual orientation of the judges did not affect the ratings. The results were discussed with a reference to evolutionary and cultural influences affecting sexual orientation judgment accuracy.

  10. Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity/Expression (Sexual Minority Students): School Nurse Practice. Position Statement. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Beverly

    2012-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses that all students, regardless of their sexual orientation or the sexual orientation of their parents and family members, are entitled to a safe school environment and equal opportunities for a high level of academic achievement and school participation/involvement. Establishment of…

  11. A Longitudinal Investigation of Peer Sexual Harassment Victimization in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Jennifer L.; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2009-01-01

    The current study describes longitudinal trends in sexual harassment by adolescent peers and highlights gender, pubertal status, attractiveness, and power as predictors of harassment victimization. At the end of 5th, 7th, and 9th grades, 242 adolescents completed questionnaires about sexual harassment victimization, pubertal status, and perceived…

  12. Adolescent Sexuality Special Subject Bibliography, 1988-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc., New York, NY.

    This document consists of three annual issues of a special subject bibliography combining adolescent sexuality, for the years 1988, 1989, and 1990, respectively. Citations for books, journal articles, and reports concerned with adolescent sexuality are grouped under such topics as: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and Human Immunodeficiency…

  13. Delinquent Histories of Adolescents Adjudicated for Criminal Sexual Conduct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Way, Ineke; Urbaniak, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    A content analysis of closed case records from family court examined personal and family history variables for adolescents with sexually abusive behaviors who had been adjudicated for criminal sexual conduct and compared sub-groups of adolescents with (n = 72) and without (n = 80) prior other delinquent behavior. The study's findings indicate that…

  14. Parenting Practices and Adolescent Sexual Behavior: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bersamin, Melina; Todd, Michael; Fisher, Deborah A.; Hill, Douglas L.; Grube, Joel W.; Walker, Samantha

    2008-01-01

    The effects of parental attitudes, practices, and television mediation on adolescent sexual behaviors were investigated in a study of adolescent sexuality and media (N = 887). Confirmatory factor analyses supported an eight-factor parenting model with television mediation factors as constructs distinct from general parenting practices. Logistic…

  15. Adolescents' Perceptions of Reasons for Postponing Sexual Intercourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Cheryl L.; Surmann, Amy

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sexually active adolescents' perceptions of which factors they believe could have influenced postponement of their first and current sexual intercourse experiences, and to explore demographic differences by using a diverse sample. Design and methods were descriptive. Many adolescents reported that "nothing"…

  16. Bothersome Exposure to Online Sexual Content among Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ševcíková, Anna; Simon, Laura; Daneback, Kristian; Kvapilík, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Prior research suggests that adolescent girls may react more negatively to online sexual content than boys. This study explored the qualitative experiences of adolescent girls who encountered bothersome or disturbing sexual content online. Fourteen girls (aged 15-17 years) were interviewed online about the context in which they saw bothersome…

  17. The Core Competencies for Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elfers, John; Carlton, Lidia; Gibson, Paul; Puffer, Maryjane; Smith, Sharla; Todd, Kay

    2014-01-01

    The Adolescent Sexual Health Work Group commissioned the development of core competencies that define the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for all providers of adolescent sexual and reproductive health. This article describes the background and rationale for this set of competencies, the history and use of competencies, and the process…

  18. Adolescents' Views regarding Uses of Social Networking Websites and Text Messaging for Adolescent Sexual Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selkie, Ellen M.; Benson, Meghan; Moreno, Megan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Adolescents frequently report barriers to obtaining sexual health education. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine adolescents' views regarding how new technologies could be used for sexual health education. Methods: Focus group interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of adolescents between 14 and 19 years old.…

  19. NASN position statement: Sexual orientation and gender identity/expression (sexual minority students): school nurse practice.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Beverly; Kelts, Susan; Robarge, Deb; Davis, Catherine; Delger, Suzey; Compton, Linda

    2013-03-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses that all students, regardless of their sexual orientation or the sexual orientation of their parents and family members, are entitled to a safe school environment and equal opportunities for a high level of academic achievement and school participation/involvement. Sexual minority persons are those who identify themselves as gay, lesbian, or bisexual (LGB) or are unsure of their sexual orientation, or those who have had sexual contact with persons of the same sex or both sexes (Kann et al., 2011). Sexual minority is thought to be a more inclusive and neutral term. For the purposes of this statement, the term sexual minority will be used in lieu of LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or questioning).

  20. Using the Integrative Model to explain how exposure to sexual media content influences adolescent sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Bleakley, Amy; Hennessy, Michael; Fishbein, Martin; Jordan, Amy

    2011-10-01

    Published research demonstrates an association between exposure to media sexual content and a variety of sex-related outcomes for adolescents. What is not known is the mechanism through which sexual content produces this "media effect" on adolescent beliefs, attitudes, and behavior. Using the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction, this article uses data from a longitudinal study of adolescents ages 16 to 18 (N = 460) to determine how exposure to sexual media content influences sexual behavior. Path analysis and structural equation modeling demonstrated that intention to engage in sexual intercourse is determined by a combination of attitudes, normative pressure, and self-efficacy but that exposure to sexual media content only affects normative pressure beliefs. By applying the Integrative Model, we are able to identify which beliefs are influenced by exposure to media sex and improve the ability of health educators, researchers, and others to design effective messages for health communication campaigns and messages pertaining to adolescents' engaging in sexual intercourse.

  1. Understanding normal development of adolescent sexuality: A bumpy ride

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Sujita Kumar; Choudhury, Ananya; Singh, Abhishek Pratap

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence, derived from the Latin word “adolescere” meaning “to grow up” is a critical developmental period. During adolescence, major biological as well as psychological developments take place. Development of sexuality is an important bio-psycho-social development, which takes an adult shape during this period. During adolescence, an individual's thought, perception as well as response gets colored sexually. Puberty is an important landmark of sexuality development that occurs in the adolescence. The myriad of changes that occurs in adolescents puts them under enormous stress, which may have adverse physical, as well as psychological consequences. Understanding adolescent sexuality has important clinical, legal, social, cultural, as well as educational implications. PMID:26157296

  2. Characteristics of sexual violence against adolescent girls and adult women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sexual violence is considered a serious violation of human rights which affects mainly young women and adolescents. There is little information about the conditions under which sexual offences occur. We evaluated characteristics of sexual violence against adolescent girls and adult women. Method This is a quantitative, retrospective, descriptive study of sexual violence against adolescent girls and adult women. Analyses were carried out on data collected from 1118 women, 546 adolescents (10-19 years) and 572 adults (≥ 20 years), with a complaint of rape treated at Hospital Pérola Byington, São Paulo, between 1994 and 1999. The age limit of the adolescent sample met the World Health Organization’s (WHO) criteria. We analyzed the type of sexual contact, degree of intimidation, perpetrator and activity of the victim during the approach. Results Crimes without penetration were five times more frequent in adolescents and use of threats of death or intimidation was common in both groups. Mental illness was more prevalent in adult victims and the majority of adolescent victims were aged <14 years. Uncle and stepfather perpetrators were more frequent among adolescents and partners or former intimate partners in adult women. In most cases the approach occurred in public places, although sex crimes at the perpetrator’s residence were more frequent amongst adolescents. Conclusions Although children and adolescents require the same intervention measures and legal protection, a considerable proportion of adolescent sex offenders can face conditions similar to those of adult women. PMID:24450307

  3. Retrospective Recall of Sexual Orientation Identity Development Among Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Adults

    PubMed Central

    Calzo, Jerel P.; Antonucci, Toni C.; Mays, Vickie M.; Cochran, Susan D.

    2011-01-01

    Although recent attention has focused on the likelihood that contemporary sexual minority youth (i.e., gay, lesbian, bisexual [GLB]) are “coming out” at younger ages, few studies have examined if early sexual orientation identity development is also present in older GLB cohorts. We analyze retrospective data on the timing of sexual orientation milestones in a sample of sexual minorities drawn from the California Quality of Life Surveys. Latent profile analysis of 1,260 GLB adults, ages 18-84 years identified three trajectories of development: Early (n = 951, milestones spanning ages 12 to 20), Middle (n = 239, milestones spanning ages 18 to 31), and Late (n = 70, milestones spanning ages 32 to 43). Motivated by previous research on variability in adolescent developmental trajectories, post-hoc analyses of the Early Profile group identified two sub-groups: Child-Onset (n = 284, milestones spanning ages 8 to 18), and Teen-Onset (n = 667, milestones spanning ages 14 to 22). Nearly all patterns of development were identity-centered, with average age of self-identification as GLB preceding average age of first same-sex sexual activity. Overall, younger participants and the majority of older participants were classified to the Early Profile, suggesting that early development is common regardless of age cohort. The additional gender differences observed in the onset and pace of sexual orientation identity development warrant future research. PMID:21942662

  4. Retrospective recall of sexual orientation identity development among gay, lesbian, and bisexual adults.

    PubMed

    Calzo, Jerel P; Antonucci, Toni C; Mays, Vickie M; Cochran, Susan D

    2011-11-01

    Although recent attention has focused on the likelihood that contemporary sexual minority youth (i.e., gay, lesbian, bisexual [GLB]) are "coming out" at younger ages, few studies have examined whether early sexual orientation identity development is also present in older GLB cohorts. We analyzed retrospective data on the timing of sexual orientation milestones in a sample of sexual minorities drawn from the California Quality of Life Surveys. Latent profile analysis of 1,260 GLB adults, ages 18-84 years, identified 3 trajectories of development: early (n = 951; milestones spanning ages 12-20), middle (n = 239; milestones spanning ages 18-31), and late (n = 70; milestones spanning ages 32-43). Motivated by previous research on variability in adolescent developmental trajectories, we identified 2 subgroups in post hoc analyses of the early profile group: child onset (n = 284; milestones spanning ages 8-18) and teen onset (n = 667; milestones spanning ages 14-22). Nearly all patterns of development were identity centered, with average age of self-identification as GLB preceding average age of first same-sex sexual activity. Overall, younger participants and the majority of older participants were classified to the early profile, suggesting that early development is common regardless of age cohort. The additional gender differences observed in the onset and pace of sexual orientation identity development warrant future research.

  5. Incorporating Sexual Orientation into MFT Training Programs: Infusion and Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Janie K.; Serovich, Julianne M.

    2003-01-01

    Many authors have questioned the preparedness of family therapists to deal with sexual minority clients. Even though the Commission on Accreditation for Marriage and Family Therapy Education (COAMFTE) has called for the integration of sexual orientation into the curriculum of marriage and family therapy training programs, the subject continues to…

  6. Eating Concerns in College Women across Sexual Orientation Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloch, Janelle K.; Bieschke, Kathleen J.; McAleavey, Andrew A.; Locke, Benjamin D.

    2013-01-01

    This study found that treatment-seeking sexual minority college women evidenced serious eating concerns. Regardless of sexual orientation and compared with those with low levels of eating concerns, women with high levels of eating concerns evidenced increased depression, increased generalized anxiety, and a greater likelihood of experiencing…

  7. Media and technology in adolescent sexual education and safety.

    PubMed

    Harris, Allyssa L

    2011-01-01

    Media play an important role in the lives of adolescents, providing them with opportunities for education and socialization. Media content is increasingly permeated with violence and sexual references that can be highly influential as adolescents continue the developmental process. Providing patient education is one of the cornerstones of nursing practice, and nurses are ideally suited to affect adolescent and parental education about the sexual and violent content of media.

  8. Media and technology in adolescent sexual education and safety.

    PubMed

    Harris, Allyssa L

    2011-01-01

    Media play an important role in the lives of adolescents, providing them with opportunities for education and socialization. Media content is increasingly permeated with violence and sexual references that can be highly influential as adolescents continue the developmental process. Providing patient education is one of the cornerstones of nursing practice, and nurses are ideally suited to affect adolescent and parental education about the sexual and violent content of media. PMID:21284726

  9. Neural mechanisms of impulse control in sexually risky adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Goldenberg, Diane; Telzer, Eva H.; Lieberman, Matthew D.; Fuligni, Andrew; Galván, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    The consequences of risky sexual behavior are of public concern. Adolescents contribute disproportionately to negative consequences of risky sexual behavior. However, no research has examined the neural correlates of impulse control and real-world engagement in risky sexual behavior in this population. The aim of the present study was to examine this question. Twenty sexually active adolescents performed an impulse control task during a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan and risky sexual behaviors were assessed through self-report. Sexual riskiness ratings were negatively associated with activation in the prefrontal cortex during response inhibition. These results suggest that diminished engagement of impulse control circuitry may contribute to sexual riskiness in adolescents. PMID:23835204

  10. Rethinking Adolescent Peer Sexual Harassment: Contributions of Feminist Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, Nicole E.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an integrative review of the literature on adolescent sexual harassment and highlights potential contributions of feminist theory for research. Although developmental theories for studying sexual harassment are useful in their own right, the discussion focuses on how they fail to address the ways in which sexual harassment…

  11. Child Sexual Abuse and Adolescent Prostitution: A Comparative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seng, Magnus J.

    1989-01-01

    Explored relationship between sexual abuse and adolescent prostitution by comparing 70 sexually abused children with 35 prostitution-involved children on 22 variables. Findings suggest that relationship is not direct, but involves runaway behavior as intervening variable. Concludes that it is not so much sexual abuse that leads to prostitution, as…

  12. Parent-Child Communication and Adolescents' Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Terri D.; Pollack, Robert H.

    Although the benefits of sex education are often questioned, numerous studies have shown that the more knowledgeable a person is about sexuality, the less likely he or she is to engage in early sexual activities. To compare the differences in sexual knowledge, attitudes, and contraceptive choice between those adolescents who talk to their parents…

  13. Sexuality Education for Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullis, Christopher A.; Zangrillo, Amanda N.

    2013-01-01

    As people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) mature from adolescents into adults, social deficits may become more pronounced and apparent in new areas (e.g., social functioning and sexuality). Like neurotypicals, sexuality may be directly related to quality of life for people with ASD. Current practice for addressing sexuality in the ASD…

  14. 14 and Younger: The Sexual Behavior of Young Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Bill, Ed.; Brown, Sarah, Ed.; Flanigan, Christine M., Ed.

    This collection of papers on early adolescent sexual behavior includes seven papers in two parts. Part 1, "Papers from Nationally Representative Data Sets," includes (1) "Dating and Sexual Experiences among Middle School Youth: Analyses of the NLSY97" (Elizabeth Terry-Humen and Jennifer Manlove); "(2) "Dating Behavior and Sexual Activity of Young…

  15. Area Specific Self-Esteem, Values, and Adolescent Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michael; Donnelly, Joseph; Denny, George

    2004-01-01

    This study examined area-specific self-esteem scores by sexual behavior relative to adolescents' values concerning participation in sexual intercourse as an unmarried teenager. The sample consisted of 332 students in grades 7-12 from a Southern rural school district. Students were asked if they had ever had sexual intercourse (yes/no) and if they…

  16. Assessment and Treatment of Sexually Abused Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, H. Elizabeth; And Others

    These papers on child and adolescent sexual abuse address the psychological consequences, psychological assessment techniques, and clinical issues in group therapy with sexually abused girls. In the first paper. H. Elizabeth King discusses the psychological consequences of sexual assault and incest on minors particularly in regard to family…

  17. Perceptions of Child Support and Sexual Activity of Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chien-Chung; Han, Wen-Jui

    2004-01-01

    Using the 1995 new cohort of the National Survey of Adolescent Males, this paper examines the association between perceptions of child support and adolescent males' sexual activity. The results indicate that adolescent males who expect the chance of being required to pay child support is high if one becomes a non-resident father or who has a…

  18. The Prevalence of Sexual Abuse among Adolescents in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saewyc, Elizabeth M.; Pettingell, Sandra; Magee, Lara L.

    2003-01-01

    Sexual abuse is a profound stressor that complicates the development and health of adolescents, yet its prevalence has been difficult to estimate among adolescents in school populations. This study explored the prevalence of both incest and nonfamily abuse in 2 cohorts of adolescents in Minnesota in the 1990s (1992: N = 77,374; 1998: N = 81,247).…

  19. Sexuality-Related Outcomes of Adolescent Children of Teen Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshbaugh, Elaine M.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between being an adolescent child of a teen mother and sexuality-related outcomes was investigated using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Adolescents whose mothers were teenagers at first birth were more likely to have had sex by age 16 than other adolescents. Gender moderated this effect, as this relationship…

  20. The Developmental Association of Sexual Self-Concept with Sexual Behavior among Adolescent Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensel, Devon J.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; O'Sullivan, Lucia F.; Orr, Donald P.

    2011-01-01

    Developing a sexual self-concept is an important developmental task of adolescence; however, little empirical evidence describes this development, nor how these changes are related to development in sexual behavior. Using longitudinal cohort data from adolescent women, we invoked latent growth curve analysis to: (1) examine reciprocal development…

  1. Using the Integrative Model to Explain How Exposure to Sexual Media Content Influences Adolescent Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleakley, Amy; Hennessy, Michael; Fishbein, Martin; Jordan, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Published research demonstrates an association between exposure to media sexual content and a variety of sex-related outcomes for adolescents. What is not known is the mechanism through which sexual content produces this "media effect" on adolescent beliefs, attitudes, and behavior. Using the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction, this…

  2. Differences in Sexual Orientation Diversity and Sexual Fluidity in Attractions Among Gender Minority Adults in Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Reisner, Sari L; Hughto, Jaclyn White; Keo-Meier, Colton L

    2016-01-01

    This study characterized sexual orientation identities and sexual fluidity in attractions in a community-based sample of self-identified transgender and gender-nonconforming adults in Massachusetts. Participants were recruited in 2013 using bimodel methods (online and in person) to complete a one-time, Web-based quantitative survey that included questions about sexual orientation identity and sexual fluidity. Multivariable logistic regression models estimated adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) to examine the correlates of self-reported changes in attractions ever in lifetime among the whole sample (n = 452) and after transition among those who reported social gender transition (n = 205). The sample endorsed diverse sexual orientation identities: 42.7% queer, 19.0% other nonbinary, 15.7% bisexual, 12.2% straight, and 10.4% gay/lesbian. Overall, 58.2% reported having experienced changes in sexual attractions in their lifetime. In adjusted models, trans masculine individuals were more likely than trans feminine individuals to report sexual fluidity in their lifetime (aRR = 1.69; 95% CI = 1.34, 2.12). Among those who transitioned, 64.6% reported a change in attractions posttransition, and trans masculine individuals were less likely than trans feminine individuals to report sexual fluidity (aRR = 0.44; 95% CI = 0.28, 0.69). Heterogeneity of sexual orientation identities and sexual fluidity in attractions are the norm rather than the exception among gender minority people. PMID:26156113

  3. Psychoanalytically Oriented Psychotherapy with Sexually Abused Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElroy, Linda Provus; McElroy, Ross A.

    1989-01-01

    Describes use of individual psychodynamic treatment for child victims of intrafamily sexual abuse. Presents symptoms and psychological consequences of sexual abuse. Discusses specific techniques emphasizing communicative value of defense mechanisms and roles of clarification, confrontation, and interpretation. Provides three case examples to…

  4. Influences on Sexual Partnering Among African American Adolescents With Concurrent Sexual Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Sarah J.; Bangi, Audrey; Sheon, Nicolas; Harper, Gary W.; Catania, Joseph A.; Richards, Kimberly A. M.; Dolcini, M. Margaret; Boyer, Cherrie B.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents often engage in concurrent sexual partnerships as part of a developmental process of gaining experience with sexuality. The authors qualitatively examined patterns of concurrency and variation in normative and motivational influences on this pattern of sexual partnering among African American adolescents (31 males; 20 females), ages 15 to 17 years. Using content analysis, gender and contextual differences in social norms and motivations for concurrency were explored. Findings describe the normative influences on adolescent males and females with regard to sexual concurrency and the transfer of these norms from one generation to the next. PMID:22505843

  5. Strategic behavior in adolescent sexual offenses against children: linking modus operandi to sexual behaviors.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Benoit; Tremblay, Pierre

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, the modus operandi of 103 adolescents involved in sexual offenses against children (12 year old or less) is analyzed. Modus operandi strategies were measured by the participants' responses to the Modus Operandi Questionnaire. Findings indicate that the degree of intrusiveness of the sexual behaviors committed by the adolescents is contingent on the participation of their victims during the sexual episodes. Moreover, the more strategic adolescents may be more likely to secure compliance. This study shows the relevance of analyzing adolescent modus operandi as purposeful behavior and discusses some implications of the findings for crime-commission or offending process models. PMID:17235700

  6. Sexual and Ethnic Identity Development among Gay/Bisexual/Questioning (GBQ) Male Ethnic Minority Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jamil, Omar B.; Harper, Gary W.; Fernandez, M. Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Identity development is a critical task of adolescence and occurs across multiple areas of self identification. Though research on the identity development process among individuals who are ethnic and sexual minorities has been conducted for individuals who have one minority status or the other, few studies have examined these processes in persons who are both ethnic and sexual minorities. This qualitative study examined the dual identity development processes related to ethnic and sexual identity among gay/bisexual/questioning (GBQ) Latino and African American male adolescents. Results indicated that the processes associated with the development of sexual orientation and ethnic identity occur concurrently. However, the actual processes involved with the development of each identity not only differed, but seemed to be independent of each other since neither process was referenced in the development of the other. Overall, the process of ethnic identity development involved the process of becoming aware of one’s ethnic and cultural heritage, while sexual identity development involved finding one’s own personally relevant sexual orientation label and connecting to that community. The implications of these findings for the development of interventions to assist in the healthy development of GBQ adolescents are discussed. PMID:19594249

  7. Adolescents' Views Regarding Uses of Social Networking Websites and Text Messaging for Adolescent Sexual Health Education.

    PubMed

    Selkie, Ellen M; Benson, Meghan; Moreno, Megan

    2011-07-01

    BACKGROUND: Adolescents frequently report barriers to obtaining sexual health education. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine adolescents' views regarding how new technologies could be used for sexual health education. METHODS: Focus groups were conducted with a purposeful sample of adolescents between 14 and 19 years old. Facilitators asked participants for their views regarding use of social networking web sites (SNSs) and text messaging for sexual health education. Tape-recorded data was transcribed; transcripts were manually evaluated then discussed to determine thematic consensus. RESULTS: A total of 29 adolescents participated in 5 focus groups. Participants were 65.5% female. Three themes emerged from our data. First, adolescents preferred sexual health education resources that are accessible. Second, adolescents preferred online resources that are trustworthy. Third, adolescents discussed preference for "safe" resources. DISCUSSION: Adolescents were enthusiastic and insightful regarding technology for enhancing sexual health education. The themes that influence adolescents' preferences in sexual health education using technology are similar to barriers that exist in other aspects of adolescent health communication. TRANSLATION TO HEALTH EDUCATION PRACTICE: Findings suggest ways in which health organizations can understand adolescents' views and concerns about how their interactions with professionals take place regarding sexual health.

  8. Adolescents' Views Regarding Uses of Social Networking Websites and Text Messaging for Adolescent Sexual Health Education.

    PubMed

    Selkie, Ellen M; Benson, Meghan; Moreno, Megan

    2011-07-01

    BACKGROUND: Adolescents frequently report barriers to obtaining sexual health education. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine adolescents' views regarding how new technologies could be used for sexual health education. METHODS: Focus groups were conducted with a purposeful sample of adolescents between 14 and 19 years old. Facilitators asked participants for their views regarding use of social networking web sites (SNSs) and text messaging for sexual health education. Tape-recorded data was transcribed; transcripts were manually evaluated then discussed to determine thematic consensus. RESULTS: A total of 29 adolescents participated in 5 focus groups. Participants were 65.5% female. Three themes emerged from our data. First, adolescents preferred sexual health education resources that are accessible. Second, adolescents preferred online resources that are trustworthy. Third, adolescents discussed preference for "safe" resources. DISCUSSION: Adolescents were enthusiastic and insightful regarding technology for enhancing sexual health education. The themes that influence adolescents' preferences in sexual health education using technology are similar to barriers that exist in other aspects of adolescent health communication. TRANSLATION TO HEALTH EDUCATION PRACTICE: Findings suggest ways in which health organizations can understand adolescents' views and concerns about how their interactions with professionals take place regarding sexual health. PMID:22229150

  9. Characteristics of Sexual Abuse in Childhood and Adolescence Influence Sexual Risk Behavior in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Senn, Theresa E.; Vanable, Peter A.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia; Urban, Marguerite

    2006-01-01

    Childhood and adolescent sexual abuse has been associated with subsequent (adult) sexual risk behavior, but the effects of force and type of sexual abuse on sexual behavior outcomes have been less well-studied. The present study investigated the associations between sexual abuse characteristics and later sexual risk behavior, and explored whether gender of the child/adolescent moderated these relations. Patients attending an STD clinic completed a computerized survey that assessed history of sexual abuse as well as lifetime and current sexual behavior. Participants were considered sexually abused if they reported a sexual experience (1) before age 13 with someone 5 or more years older, (2) between the ages of 13 and 16 with someone 10 or more years older, or (3) before the age of 17 involving force or coercion. Participants who were sexually abused were further categorized based on two abuse characteristics, namely, use of penetration and force. Analyses included 1177 participants (n=534 women; n=643 men). Those who reported sexual abuse involving penetration and/or force reported more adult sexual risk behavior, including the number of lifetime partners and number of previous STD diagnoses, than those who were not sexually abused and those who were abused without force or penetration. There were no significant differences in sexual risk behavior between nonabused participants and those who reported sexual abuse without force and without penetration. Gender of the child/adolescent moderated the association between sexual abuse characteristics and adult sexual risk behavior; for men, sexual abuse with force and penetration was associated with the greatest number of episodes of sex trading, whereas for women, those who were abused with penetration, regardless of whether the abuse involved force, reported the most episodes of sex trading. These findings indicate that more severe sexual abuse is associated with riskier adult sexual behavior. PMID:17192833

  10. Issues and dynamics of sexually assaulted adolescents and their families.

    PubMed

    Clements, Paul T; Speck, Patricia M; Crane, Patricia A; Faulkner, Martha J

    2004-12-01

    Interpersonal violence such as sexual assault creates a variety of traumatic responses. Adolescents encounter a significantly high rate of exposure to sexual assault. In the aftermath of sexual assault, issues and dynamics related to traumatic responses include ongoing fear and threats to personal safety, stability, and structure of the family and environment. Each issue is of concern for community and health care practitioners. Sexual assault has a detrimental effect on adolescent intrapsychic development and interpersonal relationships. Symptoms are disturbing and disruptive to daily routines, negatively affect adolescent normal growth and development, and can result in post-traumatic stress disorder. Issues and dynamics regarding sexual assault are explored, with suggestions on how to help adolescents avoid developing a negative world view and long-term negative health consequences.

  11. Examining the Development and Sexual Behavior of Adolescent Males

    PubMed Central

    Ott, Mary A.

    2010-01-01

    A careful examination of young men's sexuality by health professionals in pediatrics, primary care and reproductive health is foundational to adolescent male sexual health and healthy development. Through a review of existing literature, this article provides background and a developmental framework for sexual health services for adolescent boys. The article first defines and provides an overview of adolescent boys’ sexual health, and then discusses developmentally focused research on the following topics: (1) early romantic relationships and the evolution of power and influence within these relationships; (2) developmental “readiness” for sex and curiosity; (3) boys’ need for closeness and intimacy; (4) adopting codes of masculinity; (5) boys’ communicating about sex; and (6) contextual influences from peers, families, and providers. This article concludes by examining the implications of these data for sexual health promotion efforts for adolescent males, including HPV vaccination. PMID:20307842

  12. Executive Dysfunction Predicts Delinquency But Not Characteristics of Sexual Aggression Among Adolescent Sexual Offenders.

    PubMed

    Burton, David; Demuynck, Sophia; Yoder, Jamie R

    2014-11-25

    Our aim in this study was to evaluate executive function and its relationship to delinquency and sexual crime in adolescents incarcerated for sexual crimes. Based on self-report data, 196 male adolescent sexual offenders from a Midwest state reported high rates of executive dysfunction. Although such deficits did not relate to the number of victims of sexual abuse, severity, or degree of force used in commission of the sexual crimes, poor executive function was significantly predictive of both general delinquency and felony theft. In both measures of delinquent conduct, behavioral regulation dysfunction was predictive of the frequency of commission of the crimes, whereas metacognition was not. Research and treatment implications are offered.

  13. Adolescent Sexual Risk Behaviors and School-Based Sexually Transmitted Infection/HIV Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walcott, Christy M.; Meyers, Adena B.; Landau, Steven

    2007-01-01

    Many adolescents are susceptible to negative outcomes associated with sexual behavior. This is particularly true for those who initiate sexual intercourse at an early age, have many sex partners, or engage in unprotected sex because these behaviors put one at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. This article reviews the…

  14. Mexican-American Adolescent Sexuality and Sexual Knowledge: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Amado M.; Baird, Traci L.

    1991-01-01

    Examines sexual knowledge, attitudes and practices of 84 Mexican-American adolescents. Findings show low sexual knowledge for all subgroups. Few sexually active subjects practiced contraception. Majority indicated birth control makes sex seem preplanned. Respondents appeared traditional in sex attitudes, with virginity and birth-control…

  15. Handbook for Educating on Adolescent Reproductive and Sexual Health. Book One, Understanding the Adolescents and Their Reproductive and Sexual Health: Guide to Better Educational Strategies [and] Book Two, Strategies and Materials on Adolescent Reproductive and Sexual Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Clearing House on Population Education and Communication.

    This two-part handbook presents information on educating adolescents about reproductive and sexual health issues. "Book One, Understanding the Adolescents and Their Reproductive and Sexual Health: Guide to Better Educational Strategies" focuses on the demographic profile of adolescents as well as their fertility, sexual behavior, incidence of…

  16. A Study on the Effect of a Program Teaching Healthy Sexuality Values on Adolescent Sexual Awareness and Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Sang Huy

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the effectiveness of a program teaching healthy sexuality values on adolescent sexual awareness and sexual behavior. For this study, the present researcher, along with two other professors, developed a 4-h program on 4 different subjects, and conducted the full education program through four different 4-h…

  17. Beyond Controversies: Sexuality Education for Adolescents in India

    PubMed Central

    Khubchandani, Jagdish; Clark, Jeffrey; Kumar, Raman

    2014-01-01

    Sexuality education for adolescents is one of the most controversial topics in the field of child health. In the past decade, policymakers in India have also struggled with the issue and there has been greater public discourse. However, policymaking and public discussions on adolescent sexuality education are frequently fueled by religious, social, and cultural values, while receiving scant scientific attention. To meet the needs of an expanding young population in India, scientific evidence for best practices must be kept at the core of policymaking in the context of sexuality education for adolescents. PMID:25374847

  18. Mental health in violent crime victims: Does sexual orientation matter?

    PubMed

    Cramer, Robert J; McNiel, Dale E; Holley, Sarah R; Shumway, Martha; Boccellari, Alicia

    2012-04-01

    The present study investigates victim sexual orientation in a sample of 641 violent crime victims seeking emergency medical treatment at a public-sector hospital. Victim sexual orientation was examined as it: (a) varies by type of violent crime and demographic characteristics, (b) directly relates to psychological symptoms, and (c) moderates the relationship between victim and crime characteristics (i.e., victim gender, victim trauma history, and type of crime) and psychological symptoms (i.e., symptoms of acute stress, depression, panic, and general anxiety). Results showed that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) victims were more likely to be victims of sexual assault. Heterosexual victims were more likely to be victims of general assault and shootings. LGBT victims demonstrated significantly higher levels of acute stress and general anxiety. Moreover, victim sexual orientation moderated the association of type of crime with experience of panic symptoms. Also, victim sexual orientation moderated the relation of victim trauma history and general anxiety symptoms. Results are discussed in relation to victimization prevalence rates, sexual prejudice theory, and assessment and treatment of violent crime victims.

  19. Mental health in violent crime victims: Does sexual orientation matter?

    PubMed

    Cramer, Robert J; McNiel, Dale E; Holley, Sarah R; Shumway, Martha; Boccellari, Alicia

    2012-04-01

    The present study investigates victim sexual orientation in a sample of 641 violent crime victims seeking emergency medical treatment at a public-sector hospital. Victim sexual orientation was examined as it: (a) varies by type of violent crime and demographic characteristics, (b) directly relates to psychological symptoms, and (c) moderates the relationship between victim and crime characteristics (i.e., victim gender, victim trauma history, and type of crime) and psychological symptoms (i.e., symptoms of acute stress, depression, panic, and general anxiety). Results showed that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) victims were more likely to be victims of sexual assault. Heterosexual victims were more likely to be victims of general assault and shootings. LGBT victims demonstrated significantly higher levels of acute stress and general anxiety. Moreover, victim sexual orientation moderated the association of type of crime with experience of panic symptoms. Also, victim sexual orientation moderated the relation of victim trauma history and general anxiety symptoms. Results are discussed in relation to victimization prevalence rates, sexual prejudice theory, and assessment and treatment of violent crime victims. PMID:22471413

  20. Time Out from Sex or Romance: Sexually Experienced Adolescents' Decisions to Purposefully Avoid Sexual Activity or Romantic Relationships.

    PubMed

    Byers, E Sandra; O'Sullivan, Lucia F; Brotto, Lori A

    2016-05-01

    Researchers have given significant attention to abstinence among adolescents, but far less is known about purposeful avoidance of sexual activity (and relationship involvement). Typically, it is assumed that, once adolescents have initiated sexual activity, they will thereafter engage in sexual activity if given the opportunity. However, it is unclear whether that is true as some research indicates that many adolescents engage in sexual activity intermittently. Sexually experienced adolescents may purposefully avoid engaging in sexual activity for a period of time and, if so, this has implications for understanding their sexual decision-making. We used a mixed methods approach to investigate sexually experienced adolescents' decisions to purposefully avoid further sexual activity and/or romantic relationships with a focus on how common these decisions are and factors influencing them. Participants were 411 (56 % female) adolescents (16-21 years old) who completed an on-line survey that assessed reasons for each type of avoidance, religiosity, sexual esteem, sexual distress, sexual coercion, and dysfunctional sexual beliefs. Overall, 27 % of participants had engaged in sexual avoidance and 47 % had engaged in romantic avoidance. Significantly more female than male adolescents reported sexual and romantic avoidance. Adolescents' reasons for sexual avoidance included: lack of sexual pleasure or enjoyment, relationship reasons, negative emotions, values, fear of negative outcomes, negative physical experience, and other priorities. Reasons for romantic avoidance included: effects of previous relationship, not interested in commitment, wrong time, other priorities, negative emotions, no one was good enough, and sexual concerns. Logistical regressions were used to assess associations between age, religiosity, sexual esteem, sexual distress, experience of sexual coercion, and dysfunctional sexual beliefs and having engaged in romantic and/or sexual avoidance. The

  1. Time Out from Sex or Romance: Sexually Experienced Adolescents' Decisions to Purposefully Avoid Sexual Activity or Romantic Relationships.

    PubMed

    Byers, E Sandra; O'Sullivan, Lucia F; Brotto, Lori A

    2016-05-01

    Researchers have given significant attention to abstinence among adolescents, but far less is known about purposeful avoidance of sexual activity (and relationship involvement). Typically, it is assumed that, once adolescents have initiated sexual activity, they will thereafter engage in sexual activity if given the opportunity. However, it is unclear whether that is true as some research indicates that many adolescents engage in sexual activity intermittently. Sexually experienced adolescents may purposefully avoid engaging in sexual activity for a period of time and, if so, this has implications for understanding their sexual decision-making. We used a mixed methods approach to investigate sexually experienced adolescents' decisions to purposefully avoid further sexual activity and/or romantic relationships with a focus on how common these decisions are and factors influencing them. Participants were 411 (56 % female) adolescents (16-21 years old) who completed an on-line survey that assessed reasons for each type of avoidance, religiosity, sexual esteem, sexual distress, sexual coercion, and dysfunctional sexual beliefs. Overall, 27 % of participants had engaged in sexual avoidance and 47 % had engaged in romantic avoidance. Significantly more female than male adolescents reported sexual and romantic avoidance. Adolescents' reasons for sexual avoidance included: lack of sexual pleasure or enjoyment, relationship reasons, negative emotions, values, fear of negative outcomes, negative physical experience, and other priorities. Reasons for romantic avoidance included: effects of previous relationship, not interested in commitment, wrong time, other priorities, negative emotions, no one was good enough, and sexual concerns. Logistical regressions were used to assess associations between age, religiosity, sexual esteem, sexual distress, experience of sexual coercion, and dysfunctional sexual beliefs and having engaged in romantic and/or sexual avoidance. The

  2. Gender and sexual orientation differences in sexual response to sexual activities versus gender of actors in sexual films.

    PubMed

    Chivers, Meredith L; Seto, Michael C; Blanchard, Ray

    2007-12-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the hypothesis that women's sexual orientation and sexual responses in the laboratory correlate less highly than do men's because women respond primarily to the sexual activities performed by actors, whereas men respond primarily to the gender of the actors. The participants were 20 homosexual women, 27 heterosexual women, 17 homosexual men, and 27 heterosexual men. The videotaped stimuli included men and women engaging in same-sex intercourse, solitary masturbation, or nude exercise (no sexual activity); human male-female copulation; and animal (bonobo chimpanzee or Pan paniscus) copulation. Genital and subjective sexual arousal were continuously recorded. The genital responses of both sexes were weakest to nude exercise and strongest to intercourse. As predicted, however, actor gender was more important for men than for women, and the level of sexual activity was more important for women than for men. Consistent with this result, women responded genitally to bonobo copulation, whereas men did not. An unexpected result was that homosexual women responded more to nude female targets exercising and masturbating than to nude male targets, whereas heterosexual women responded about the same to both sexes at each activity level.

  3. The OPTIONS model of sexual risk assessment for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lusczakoski, Kathryn D; Rue, Lisa A

    2012-03-01

    Typically, clinical evaluations of adolescents' sexual risk is based on inquiring about past sexual activity, which is limited by not including an adolescent's cognitive decision making regarding their past sexual decisions. This study describes the novel OPTIONS framework for assessing adolescent sexual risk including three general categories of risk (e.g., primary, secondary, and tertiary risk), which is designed to overcome the limitation of action-based assessment of risk and improve practitioners' ability to assess the levels of sexual risk. A convenience sample of 201 older adolescents (18-19 years of age) completed an online version of the Relationship Options Survey (ROS), designed to measure the OPTIONS sexual risk assessment. Bivariate correlation among the subscales functioned in the hypothesized manner, with all correlations being statistically significant. Using the OPTIONS model, 22.4% participants were classified as high risk primary, 7.0% participants were classified as high risk secondary, and 27.4% participants were classified as high risk tertiary. The study provided preliminary evidence for OPTIONS model of sexual assessment, which provides a more tailored evaluation by including cognitive decisions regarding an adolescent's sexual actions.

  4. Accessing sexual health information online: use, motivations and consequences for youth with different sexual orientations

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Kimberly J.; Ybarra, Michele L.; Korchmaros, Josephine D.; Kosciw, Joseph G.

    2014-01-01

    We examine reasons why youth of different sexual orientations look for sexual health information online, and what, if anything, they do with it. The Teen Health and Technology study involved online surveys of 5542 Internet users, ages 13 through 18 in the United States. Searching for sexual health information online was reported frequently and varied significantly by sexual orientation: from 19% of heterosexual youth to 78% of gay/lesbian/queer youth. The most common reasons youth look for sexual health information is for privacy and curiosity. Sexual minority youth are more likely than heterosexual youth to report that they looked for information online because they did not have anyone to ask. Once youth have the information, no differences by sexual orientation were noted as to what they did with it. Instead, seeking out the information for privacy-related reasons and having no one to ask were related to taking some action on the information received. Findings indicate that online information is most valuable to those youth who lack alternatives. Care needs to be taken to help ensure that the sexual health information online is accurate and includes topics specific to sexual minority youth. PMID:23861481

  5. Ecological influences of sexuality on early adolescent African American females.

    PubMed

    Aronowitz, Teri; Rennells, Rachel E; Todd, Erin

    2006-01-01

    African Americans make up the greater proportion of AIDS cases in adolescent girls but little is understood about the development of sexual risk behaviors during the early adolescent years. This article will explore ecological factors influencing adolescent sexual risk behaviors. In the focus groups, which were conducted using 28 African American mothers and their early adolescent daughters, 2 major themes emerged: exposure and support systems. Mothers described the impact community had on their daughters and how monitoring and support systems worked together to control exposure. The girls detailed the different ways they were impacted by the community. Attitudes the girls adopted from their exposures resulted in risk-taking behaviors or a determination to positively impact the community. Community was shown to be the context of the acquisition of sexual knowledge and attitudes. These findings support the development of interventions to address the impact of community on the participation of sexual risk behaviors. PMID:16643100

  6. Ecological influences of sexuality on early adolescent African American females.

    PubMed

    Aronowitz, Teri; Rennells, Rachel E; Todd, Erin

    2006-01-01

    African Americans make up the greater proportion of AIDS cases in adolescent girls but little is understood about the development of sexual risk behaviors during the early adolescent years. This article will explore ecological factors influencing adolescent sexual risk behaviors. In the focus groups, which were conducted using 28 African American mothers and their early adolescent daughters, 2 major themes emerged: exposure and support systems. Mothers described the impact community had on their daughters and how monitoring and support systems worked together to control exposure. The girls detailed the different ways they were impacted by the community. Attitudes the girls adopted from their exposures resulted in risk-taking behaviors or a determination to positively impact the community. Community was shown to be the context of the acquisition of sexual knowledge and attitudes. These findings support the development of interventions to address the impact of community on the participation of sexual risk behaviors.

  7. Chinese adolescents' attitudes toward sexual relationships and premarital sex: implications for promoting sexual health.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Ting; Hayter, Mark; Lin, Mei-Ling

    2014-12-01

    This study was designed to explore Taiwanese school students' attitudes toward sexual relationships and premarital sex. This was an exploratory descriptive, qualitative study. Focus groups (N = 8) were conducted with 47 adolescents from three high schools in Taiwan. Transcripts were transcribed and thematically analyzed using Atlas V 5.0. Adolescent attitudes toward sexual relationships and premarital sexual behavior comprise the following three dimensions: (1) external incentives, (2) the developmental process, and (3) internal control. External incentives include the normalization of sexual behavior between peers, the desire to feel included in a group, parental influence, and media influence. The developmental process includes imagining the sexual experience and onset of sexual activity. Internal control includes the fear of pregnancy, the fear of parental rejection, and the fear of being judged. These findings can provide a reference for designing future sex education curricula and counseling programs for adolescents.

  8. Heterosexual students' experiences in sexual orientation intergroup dialogue courses.

    PubMed

    Dessel, Adrienne B; Woodford, Michael R; Routenberg, Robbie; Breijak, Duane P

    2013-01-01

    Heterosexism contributes to an unsafe campus climate for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) college students. Intergroup dialogue courses about sexual orientation seek to build awareness, cross-group relationships, and commitment to social action to address anti-LGB prejudice and discrimination. Although dialogue courses are growing in popularity, few courses address sexual orientation. To advance knowledge of these dialogues, this qualitative study explores heterosexual students' motivations and expectations, challenges, and learning outcomes related to their participation in intergroup dialogue courses on sexual orientation. Core themes include desire to learn about the LGB community, concerns about offending classmates, anxiety around LGB stigma, conflict with classmates around controversial topics, affirming LGB people, and learning about heterosexism, privilege, and intersectionality of identity. Implications for intergroup dialogue pedagogy and research are discussed.

  9. Adult sexual orientation and attraction to underage persons.

    PubMed

    Groth, A N; Birnbaum, H J

    1978-05-01

    A random sample of 175 males convicted of sexual assault against children was screened with reference to their adult sexual orientation and the sex of their victims. The sample divided fairly evenly into two groups based on whether they were sexually fixated exclusively on children or had regressed from peer relationships. Female children were victimized nearly twice as often as male children. All regressed offenders, whether their victims were male or female children, were heterosexual in their adult orientation. There were no examples of regression to child victims among peer-oriented, homosexual males. The possibility emerges that homosexuality and homosexual pedophilia may be mutually exclusive and that the adult heterosexual male constitutes a greater risk to the underage child than does the adult homosexual male.

  10. Avoiding experiences: sexual dysfunction in women with a history of sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Staples, Jennifer; Rellini, Alessandra H; Roberts, Sarah P

    2012-04-01

    Women with a history of sexual abuse during childhood/adolescence experience a high rate of sexual dysfunction. Evidence also suggests that they often use avoidant coping strategies, such as substance abuse, dissociation, and emotional suppression, which are likely factors implicated with their psychopathology. There is a dearth of information on potential psychological mechanisms affecting the sexuality of these women. Therefore, it is relevant to investigate whether avoidance, an important cognitive mechanism associated with anxiety disorders, relates to sexual functioning in this population. In this study, participants with (N = 34) and without (N = 22) a history of sexual abuse prior to age 16 years completed questionnaires on severity of sexual abuse, sexual functioning, and a tendency to avoid experiences. A three-step hierarchical regression investigated the effects of childhood/adolescent sexual abuse and avoidance tendencies on different aspects of sexual functioning. A significant interaction between childhood/adolescent sexual abuse and avoidance tendencies was found for orgasm function, with the combination of sexual abuse and avoidance tendencies explaining lower orgasm function. These findings suggest that, for women with a history of early sexual abuse, the tendency to avoid interpersonal closeness and avoid emotional involvement predicts orgasm functioning. PMID:21667232

  11. Avoiding experiences: sexual dysfunction in women with a history of sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Staples, Jennifer; Rellini, Alessandra H; Roberts, Sarah P

    2012-04-01

    Women with a history of sexual abuse during childhood/adolescence experience a high rate of sexual dysfunction. Evidence also suggests that they often use avoidant coping strategies, such as substance abuse, dissociation, and emotional suppression, which are likely factors implicated with their psychopathology. There is a dearth of information on potential psychological mechanisms affecting the sexuality of these women. Therefore, it is relevant to investigate whether avoidance, an important cognitive mechanism associated with anxiety disorders, relates to sexual functioning in this population. In this study, participants with (N = 34) and without (N = 22) a history of sexual abuse prior to age 16 years completed questionnaires on severity of sexual abuse, sexual functioning, and a tendency to avoid experiences. A three-step hierarchical regression investigated the effects of childhood/adolescent sexual abuse and avoidance tendencies on different aspects of sexual functioning. A significant interaction between childhood/adolescent sexual abuse and avoidance tendencies was found for orgasm function, with the combination of sexual abuse and avoidance tendencies explaining lower orgasm function. These findings suggest that, for women with a history of early sexual abuse, the tendency to avoid interpersonal closeness and avoid emotional involvement predicts orgasm functioning.

  12. Sexual orientation in United States and Canadian college students.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Lee; Robb, Brian; Burke, Donald

    2005-10-01

    Based on a sample of nearly 8,000 college students, this study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of non-heterosexuality using four different measures of sexual orientation: a self-identity measure, an attraction measure, a fantasy measure, and an experiential measure. Over 97% of both males and females labeled themselves as heterosexual, with the proportion of homosexuals and bisexuals combined constituting nearly 3% of the male sample and about 2% of the female sample. Roughly 80-85% of both sexes would be classified as exclusively heterosexual, with about 10% of both sexes having at least half of their sexual fantasies involving same-sex partners. In terms of sexual experiences, about 5% of non-virgin males and 0.5% of non-virgin females reported that all of their experiences had involved same-sex partners. After examining each of the sexual orientation measures separately, we compared them to one another. These comparisons revealed an unsettling number of apparent contradictions in the responses given by individual participants (e.g., participants who stated that they were homosexual but that all of their fantasies involved members of the opposite sex). By eliminating participants who provided these apparent contradictory responses, a post-hoc refined self-identified measure of sexual orientation was created. This refinement had essentially no effect on our estimates of the proportion of college students who were identified as heterosexual or homosexual, thus suggesting that the inconsistencies were largely due to random response error. Boosting our confidence in the post-hoc refined measure, we found that it exhibited slightly stronger links with several established childhood correlates of sexual orientation (such as the enjoyment of collecting dolls and playing dress-up) than was true for the original self-identified sexual orientation. PMID:16211478

  13. [Peer social pressure on the sexual debut of adolescents].

    PubMed

    Borges, Ana Luiza Vilela

    2007-12-01

    Considering that scientific articles have emphasized the link between the onset of sexual life and peer pressure, the aim of this study was to identify peer pressure in the adolescents' sexual initiation from the point of view of their relationship with the group of friends. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 363 15-19 year-old teens that represented a sample ofthe adolescents enrolled in a family health unit in Sao Paulo City, Brazil. Results showed a relation between sexual initiation and age, being involved in physical experience with someone without wishing, having the majority of friends with sexual experience and dating. Eventually, data show that peers might play some influence on adolescents' option for sexual debut.

  14. Arrest History among Men and Sexual Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Dennis G.; Milroy, Michael E.; Reynolds, Grace L.; Klahn, Jennifer A.; Wood, Michele M.

    2004-01-01

    This study explored associations between ever having been arrested and other variables among 490 male drug users. Participants were classified into three groups based on recent sexual history: men who had not had sex (NOSEX), men who had had sex with women (HETERO), and men who had had sex with men (MSM). We found that MSM who had been arrested…

  15. Sexual Orientation and Outcomes in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Christopher S.

    2009-01-01

    It has been well documented that sexual minority individuals are significantly more likely to be college educated than heterosexual individuals [Black, D., Gates, G., Sanders, S., & Taylor, L. (2000). Demographics of the gay and lesbian population in the United States: Evidence from available systematic data sources. "Demography," 37(2), 139-154;…

  16. Sexually Explicit Cell Phone Messaging Associated With Sexual Risk Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey; Sanchez, Monica; Montoya, Jorge; Plant, Aaron; Kordic, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Sexting (sending/receiving sexually explicit texts and images via cell phone) may be associated with sexual health consequences among adolescents. However, to date, no published data from a probability-based sample has examined associations between sexting and sexual activity. METHODS: A probability sample of 1839 students was collected alongside the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey in Los Angeles high schools. Logistic regressions were used to assess the correlates of sexting behavior and associations between sexting and sexual risk-taking. RESULTS: Fifteen percent of adolescents with cell phone access reported sexting, and 54% reported knowing someone who had sent a sext. Adolescents whose peers sexted were more likely to sext themselves (odds ratio [OR] = 16.87, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.62–29.59). Adolescents who themselves sexted were more likely to report being sexually active (OR = 7.17, 95% CI: 5.01–10.25). Nonheterosexual students were more likely to report sexting (OR = 2.74, 95% CI: 1.86–4.04), sexual activity (OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.07–2.15), and unprotected sex at last sexual encounter (OR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.17–2.89). CONCLUSIONS: Sexting, rather than functioning as an alternative to “real world” sexual risk behavior, appears to be part of a cluster of risky sexual behaviors among adolescents. We recommend that clinicians discuss sexting as an adolescent-friendly way of engaging patients in conversations about sexual activity, prevention of sexually transmitted infections, and unwanted pregnancy. We further recommend that discussion about sexting and its associated risk behavior be included in school-based sexual health curricula. PMID:22987882

  17. The biology of homosexuality: sexual orientation or sexual preference?

    PubMed

    De Cecco, J P; Parker, D A

    1995-01-01

    This paper begins with a summary of the biological research on homosexuality that occurred in the late 1980s and early 1990s. It then summarizes the treatment of this research chiefly by the print media. It then adumbrates the presuppositions about sexuality and gender upon which the reports were based. It is argued that the presuppositions, which are asserted without being examined, date back to the nineteenth century. They ignore the historical, sociocultural, and humanistic research of the last two decades that collectively comprise the field of gay, lesbian, and bisexual studies. The discussion of the issue of choice follows and it recognizes the various constraints on choice without eliminating it as an element of sexual expression. Finally, the paper sets forth a general conception of homosexuality that includes its psychological and socio-cultural dimensions along with the biological.

  18. Pedophiles: mental retardation, maternal age, and sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, R; Watson, M S; Choy, A; Dickey, R; Klassen, P; Kuban, M; Ferren, D J

    1999-04-01

    Intellectual functioning, parental age, and sexual orientation in 991 male sexual offenders were investigated. Sources of data included semistructured interviews, clinical charts, phallometric tests, and self-administered questionnaires. The results suggest two main conclusions: (i) Among pedophiles in general, erotic preference moves away from adult women along two dimensions: age and sex. The extent of this movement is greater, along both dimensions, for pedophiles with lower levels of intellectual functioning. (ii) High maternal age (or some factor it represents) increases the likelihood of exclusive sexual interest in boys. Intellectual deficiency (or some factor it represents) decreases the likelihood of exclusive sexual interest in girls. These two factors summate, so that a pedophile with both factors is more likely to be sexually interested in boys than a pedophile with only one.

  19. THE SEXUAL DOUBLE STANDARD AND ADOLESCENT PEER ACCEPTANCE*

    PubMed Central

    Kreager, Derek A.; Staff, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    The belief that women and men are held to different standards of sexual conduct is pervasive in contemporary American society. According to the sexual double standard, boys and men are rewarded and praised for heterosexual sexual contacts, whereas girls and women are derogated and stigmatized for similar behaviors. Although widely held by the general public, research findings on the sexual double standard remain equivocal, with qualitative studies and early attitudinal surveys generally finding evidence of the double standard and more recent experimental vignette designs often failing to find similar results. In this study, we extend prior research by directly measuring the social status of sexually permissive youth. We use data collected from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to relate adolescents’ self-reported numbers of sexual partners to a network measure of peer acceptance. Results suggest that the association between lifetime sexual partnerships and peer status varies significantly by gender, such that greater numbers of sexual partners are positively correlated with boys’ peer acceptance, but negatively correlated with girls’ peer acceptance. Moreover, the relationship between boys’ sexual behaviors and peer acceptance is moderated by socioeconomic origins; sexually permissive boys from disadvantaged backgrounds are predicted to have more friendships than permissive boys from more advantaged backgrounds. Our results thus support the existence of an adolescent sexual double standard and suggest that sexual norms vary by both gender and socioeconomic origins. PMID:25484478

  20. Sexual differentiation of the human brain: relation to gender identity, sexual orientation and neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Bao, Ai-Min; Swaab, Dick F

    2011-04-01

    During the intrauterine period a testosterone surge masculinizes the fetal brain, whereas the absence of such a surge results in a feminine brain. As sexual differentiation of the brain takes place at a much later stage in development than sexual differentiation of the genitals, these two processes can be influenced independently of each other. Sex differences in cognition, gender identity (an individual's perception of their own sexual identity), sexual orientation (heterosexuality, homosexuality or bisexuality), and the risks of developing neuropsychiatric disorders are programmed into our brain during early development. There is no evidence that one's postnatal social environment plays a crucial role in gender identity or sexual orientation. We discuss the relationships between structural and functional sex differences of various brain areas and the way they change along with any changes in the supply of sex hormones on the one hand and sex differences in behavior in health and disease on the other.

  1. Correlates of recidivism among adolescents who have sexually offended.

    PubMed

    Carpentier, Julie; Proulx, Jean

    2011-12-01

    The present study investigates the recidivism rates of a sample of 351 male adolescents who sexually offended, and were assessed at an outpatient psychiatric clinic in Montreal, Canada, between 1992 and 2002. The mean age of the participants was 15.8 years (SD=1.8). Data on adolescent and adult recidivism were collected in Summer 2005 from official criminality sources in Canada. Over an 8-year follow-up period, 45% (n=158) of the participants were charged with a new criminal offense, 30% (n=104) were charged with a violent offense, and 10% (n=36) were charged with a sexual offense. Cox regression results suggest that overall, violent, and sexual recidivism can be predicted by a variety of developmental, social, and criminological factors. Paternal abandonment, childhood sexual victimization, association with significantly younger children, and having victimized a stranger were associated with a higher risk of sexual recidivism. Previous delinquency, attention deficit disorder, and childhood sexual victimization were found to increase the risk for both violent and overall recidivism. Also, the use of violence during a sex crime and victimizing a stranger were associated with violent recidivism, and school delay and association with delinquent peers were predictive of overall recidivism. The results confirm that a significant proportion of adolescents who have sexually offended pursue a criminal activity beyond adolescence, although few specialize in sexual offending.

  2. Does Sex Education Affect Adolescent Sexual Behaviors and Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabia, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether offering sex education to young teenagers affects several measures of adolescent sexual behavior and health: virginity status, contraceptive use, frequency of intercourse, likelihood of pregnancy, and probability of contracting a sexually transmitted disease. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent…

  3. Pathways to Adolescent Substance Use among Sexually Abused Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Jennifer A.; McCloskey, Laura Ann

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the link between childhood sexual abuse and adolescent substance use among girls, and evaluated depressive self-concept and behavioral under-control (BUC) as pathways to substance use for sexually abused girls. Participants (n = 150) were drawn from a longitudinal study of the impact of domestic violence on the lives of women…

  4. A Curriculum for Teaching Human Sexuality to Mentally Impaired Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinckey, David Jason

    Presented is a developmentally sequenced curriculum designed for teaching human sexuality to mentally impaired adolescents. A brief objective is presented, teaching methods are listed, and materials needed are described (in terms of author, title, source, and price) for each of the following topic areas: vocabulary of sexuality; fact vs. myths;…

  5. Are Teens "Post-Gay"? Contemporary Adolescents' Sexual Identity Labels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Stephen T.; Clarke, Thomas J.; Clary, Justin

    2009-01-01

    Recent reports suggest that historically typical sexual identity labels--"gay," "lesbian" and "bisexual"--have lost meaning and relevance for contemporary adolescents. Yet there is little empirical evidence that contemporary teenagers are "post-gay." In this brief study we investigate youths' sexual identity labels. The Preventing School…

  6. Helping Mothers Discuss Sexuality and AIDS with Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Sigman, Marian; Au, Terry Kit-fong

    2000-01-01

    Examined impact of experimentally altering mothers' style when discussing sexuality and AIDS with adolescent children. Found that intervention group mothers reduced their amount of speaking, asked more open-ended questions, acted less judgmental, and discussed dating and sexuality more than did control group mothers. Intervention group adolescents…

  7. Sexually Abstinent Adolescents: An 18-Month Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blinn-Pike, Lynn; Berger, Thomas J.; Hewett, John; Oleson, Jacob

    2004-01-01

    This study was a longitudinal follow-up of 697 early adolescents from 20 schools in Missouri, investigating students who, in 1997, indicated on a survey of sexual attitudes and behaviors that they had not had sexual intercourse. They completed the Reasons for Abstinence Scale (RAS) by identifying those items that were reasons why they had not had…

  8. Sexual Harassment and Abuse of Adolescent Schoolgirls in South India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Fiona; Sitaram, Shashikala

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on a small exploratory study of adolescent girls' experiences of sexual harassment and abuse while attending secondary school in Karnataka State, South India. In South Asia, public discussion of sexual matters, especially relating to children, is largely taboo, and the study uncovers a hidden aspect of schooling, which…

  9. Gender-Specific Outcomes for Sexually Abused Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandy, Joseph M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A study of 370 male and 2,681 female adolescents with a history of sexual abuse found that males were at higher risk than females for poor school performance, delinquent activities, extreme use of alcohol and marijuana, and sexual risk taking. Female victims showed higher risk for suicidal ideation and behavior, frequent use of alcohol, and…

  10. Current Evolutionary Perspectives on Adolescent Romantic Relations and Sexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisfeld, Glenn E.; Woodward, Laura

    2004-01-01

    This article describes current evolutionary research on adolescent sexual and romantic behavior. It first reviews functional explanations for basic sex differences in behavior. As in other pair-bonding mammals, women seek dominant males, and men seek and guard young, fertile females. Recent work is then described on adolescent competitiveness,…

  11. Estimating Peer Effects in Sexual Behavior among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Mir M.; Dwyer, Debra S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we seek to empirically quantify the role of peer social networks in influencing sexual behavior among adolescents. Using data of a nationally representative sample of adolescents we utilize a multivariate structural model with school-level fixed effects to account for the problems of contextual effects, correlated effects and peer…

  12. Adolescent Birth Planning and Sexuality: Abstracts of the Literature 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Barbara B.

    This is an annotated bibliography on adolescent birth control and sexuality. Materials cited come from Index Medicus, Dissertation Abstracts, ERIC, Population Index, Psychological Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts. The bibliography is divided into six sections by subject: (1) "Adolescent Contraception: Laws and Public Opinion;" (2) "Adolescent…

  13. Mothers, Fathers, Peers, and Mexican-Origin Adolescents' Sexual Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killoren, Sarah E.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Christopher, F. Scott; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on a symbolic-interaction perspective and a compensation model, the processes linking mother- and father-adolescent relationship qualities, deviant peer affiliations, and adolescents' sexual intentions were investigated for 246 Mexican-origin youths born in the United States and in Mexico using multiple-group structural equation models.…

  14. Romantic and Sexual Activities, Parent-Adolescent Stress, and Depressive Symptoms among Early Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davila, Joanne; Stroud, Catherine B.; Starr, Lisa R.; Miller, Melissa Ramsay; Yoneda, Athena; Hershenberg, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Building on evidence that romantic experiences are associated with depressive symptoms in adolescence, we examined their bidirectional association, as well as the role of sexual activity and parent-adolescent stress in their association. Data were collected from 71 early adolescent girls (M age 13.45 years; SD = 0.68) and their primary caregiver…

  15. Children and adolescents as sexual beings: cross-cultural perspectives.

    PubMed

    Nieto, José A

    2004-07-01

    This article offers a broad perspective on child and adolescent behaviors, which are seen by different Western definitions as associated with sexual/erotic implications. This article also demonstrates that basic definitions or meanings that many modern Western societies consider important are viewed as unimportant in other societies. Topics such as masturbation, child-adult sexual activities or cross-generational marriages, same-sex activities, and sexual indoctrination are viewed differently among many groups.

  16. Children and adolescents as sexual beings: cross-cultural perspectives.

    PubMed

    Nieto, José A

    2004-07-01

    This article offers a broad perspective on child and adolescent behaviors, which are seen by different Western definitions as associated with sexual/erotic implications. This article also demonstrates that basic definitions or meanings that many modern Western societies consider important are viewed as unimportant in other societies. Topics such as masturbation, child-adult sexual activities or cross-generational marriages, same-sex activities, and sexual indoctrination are viewed differently among many groups. PMID:15183368

  17. A Multidimensional Model of Sexual Health and Sexual and Prevention Behavior Among Adolescent Women

    PubMed Central

    Hensel, Devon J.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Sexual health refers a state of lifespan well-being related to sexuality. Among young people, sexual health has multiple dimensions, including the positive developmental contributions of sexuality, as well as the acquisition of skills pertinent to avoiding adverse sexual outcomes such as unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Existing efforts to understand sexual health, however, have yet to empirically operationalize a multi-dimensional model of sexual health and to evaluate its association to different sexual/prevention behaviors. Methods Sexual health dimensions and sexual/prevention behaviors were drawn from a larger longitudinal cohort study of sexual relationships among adolescent women (N =387, 14–17 years). Second order latent variable modeling (AMOS/19.0) evaluated the relationship between sexual health and dimensions and analyzed the effect of sexual health to sexual/prevention outcomes. Results All first order latent variables were significant indicators of sexual health (β: 0.192 – 0.874, all p < .001). Greater sexual health was significantly associated with sexual abstinence, as well as with more frequent non-coital and vaginal sex, condom use at last sex, a higher proportion of condom-protected events, use of hormonal or other methods of pregnancy control and absence of STI. All models showed good fit. Conclusions Sexual health is an empirically coherent structure, in which the totality of its dimensions is significantly linked to a wide range of outcomes, including sexual abstinence, condom use and absence of STI. This means that, regardless of a young person’s experiences, sexual health is an important construct for promoting positive sexual development and for primary prevention. PMID:23332488

  18. Multidimensional characterization of sexual minority adolescents' sexual safety strategies.

    PubMed

    Masters, N Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Morrison, Diane M; Hoppe, Marilyn J; Wells, Elizabeth A

    2013-10-01

    Young adults have high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Sexual minority youths' risk for STIs, including HIV, is as high as or higher than sexual majority peers'. Sexual safety, while often treated as a single behavior such as condom use, can be best conceptualized as the result of multiple factors. We used latent class analysis to identify profiles based on ever-used sexual safety strategies and lifetime number of partners among 425 self-identified LGBTQ youth aged 14-19. Data collection took place anonymously online. We identified four specific subgroup profiles for males and three for females, with each subgroup representing a different level and type of sexual safety. Profiles differed from each other in terms of age and outness for males, and in outness, personal homonegativity, and amount of education received about sexual/romantic relationships for females. Youths' sexual safety profiles have practice implications for sexuality educators, health care professionals, and parents.

  19. Differential developmental profiles of adolescents using sexually explicit internet material.

    PubMed

    Doornwaard, Suzan M; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Overbeek, Geertjan; ter Bogt, Tom F M

    2015-01-01

    This study used a person-centered approach to examine whether different developmental trajectories of boys' and girls' use of sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) exist, which factors predict these trajectories, and whether sexual behavior develops differently for adolescents in these trajectories. A combination of latent class growth analysis on SEIM use and latent growth curve analysis on sexual behavior was used on four-wave longitudinal data of 787 eighth through tenth grade Dutch adolescents. Among boys, four SEIM use trajectories were identified, which were labeled Nonuse/Infrequent Use, Strongly Increasing Use, Occasional Use, and Decreasing Use. Among girls, a large Stable Nonuse/Infrequent Use and smaller Strongly Increasing Use and Stable Occasional Use trajectories were distinguished. Higher initial levels and/or stronger increases in SEIM use were predicted by demographic, social contextual, personal, and media use characteristics, including a stronger sexual interest, a higher degree of perceived realism regarding sexualized Internet content, and more permissive sexual attitudes. Moreover, initial levels of and, to some extent, developmental changes in sexual behavior varied for boys and girls in the different SEIM use trajectories. Whereas some adolescents showed concurrent low levels, or parallel strong increases in SEIM use and sexual behavior, a subgroup of boys decreased their SEIM use while increasing their sexual behavior.

  20. What do sexually active adolescent females say about relationship issues?

    PubMed

    Bralock, Anita; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah

    2009-04-01

    Many sexually active teenagers face risk for contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV. The purpose of our study was to gain an understanding about influences on condom use among sexually active adolescents in relationships. Data were collected through semi-structured openended interviews. The findings of this study suggest that many adolescents desired the love of a male partner, and were willing to concede to his request of practicing unprotected sex. Findings support the urgent need for interventions that will promote skill-building techniques to negotiate safer sex behaviors among youth who are most likely to be exposed to STIs through risky behaviors.

  1. What do sexually active adolescent females say about relationship issues?

    PubMed

    Bralock, Anita; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah

    2009-04-01

    Many sexually active teenagers face risk for contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV. The purpose of our study was to gain an understanding about influences on condom use among sexually active adolescents in relationships. Data were collected through semi-structured openended interviews. The findings of this study suggest that many adolescents desired the love of a male partner, and were willing to concede to his request of practicing unprotected sex. Findings support the urgent need for interventions that will promote skill-building techniques to negotiate safer sex behaviors among youth who are most likely to be exposed to STIs through risky behaviors. PMID:19268234

  2. Contextual influence of Taiwanese adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavioral intent.

    PubMed

    Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Neilands, Torsten B; Chan, Shu-Min; Lightfoot, Marguerita

    2016-09-01

    This study examined parental, peer, and media influences on Taiwanese adolescents' attitudes toward premarital sex and intent to engage in sexual behavior. Participants included a convenience sample of 186 adolescents aged 13-15 recruited from two middle schools in Taiwan. Parental influence was indicated by perceived parental disapproval toward premarital sex and perceived peer sexual behavior was used to measure peer influence. Media influence was measured by the adolescents' perception of whether the media promotes premarital sex. We conducted structural equation modeling to test a hypothesized model. The findings suggested that the perceived sexual behavior of peers had the strongest effect on Taiwanese adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavioral intent, while parental disapproval and media influence also significantly contributed to adolescents' sexual attitudes and intent to engage in sex. School nurses are in an ideal position to coordinate essential resources and implement evidence-based sexually transmitted infection and HIV/AIDS prevention interventions that address issues associated with the influence of parents, peers, and media. PMID:26991765

  3. Contextual influence of Taiwanese adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavioral intent.

    PubMed

    Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Neilands, Torsten B; Chan, Shu-Min; Lightfoot, Marguerita

    2016-09-01

    This study examined parental, peer, and media influences on Taiwanese adolescents' attitudes toward premarital sex and intent to engage in sexual behavior. Participants included a convenience sample of 186 adolescents aged 13-15 recruited from two middle schools in Taiwan. Parental influence was indicated by perceived parental disapproval toward premarital sex and perceived peer sexual behavior was used to measure peer influence. Media influence was measured by the adolescents' perception of whether the media promotes premarital sex. We conducted structural equation modeling to test a hypothesized model. The findings suggested that the perceived sexual behavior of peers had the strongest effect on Taiwanese adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavioral intent, while parental disapproval and media influence also significantly contributed to adolescents' sexual attitudes and intent to engage in sex. School nurses are in an ideal position to coordinate essential resources and implement evidence-based sexually transmitted infection and HIV/AIDS prevention interventions that address issues associated with the influence of parents, peers, and media.

  4. Sexual Orientation Discrimination: Teachers as Positive Role Models for Tolerance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenmenger, Michelle

    2002-01-01

    Discusses Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the proposed Employment Non-Discrimination Act in terms of their potential legal remedies for victims of sexual-orientation discrimination. Examines several relevant federal appellate and Supreme Court decisions and the role of homosexual teachers. (PKP)

  5. The Sound of Silence: Talking about Sexual Orientation and Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePalma, Renee; Atkinson, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    This paper arises from an online discussion project in the United Kingdom, funded by the Nuffield Foundation, in which higher education students and staff were invited to respond to a series of statements about sexual orientation in the context of schooling. This paper suggests that the silence of relative non-participation may have been…

  6. Research on Sexual Orientation and Human Development: A Commentary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Bonnie R.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of research over the past 25 years on sexual orientation and its effects on human development, concluding that gay and lesbian interests and behavior appear to result from a complex interplay of genetic, prenatal, and environmental influences. Notes that gender identity develops early, especially for males, and is difficult…

  7. Male Counselor Gender Role Identity: Sexual Orientation and Physical Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanone, Charles F., IV; And Others

    This study hypothesized that male counselors whose sexual orientation and physical characteristics do not conform to conventional notions of masculinity (those who have had homosexual experiences and who do not fit the mesomorphic ideal) will be less traditional in their gender role attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs than those who adhere to more…

  8. Parents Awareness of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youths Sexual Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugelli, Anthony R.; Grossman, Arnold H.; Starks, Michael T.

    2005-01-01

    This study used a sample of 293 lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth to examine factors that differentiated youth whose parents knew of their sexual orientation from youth whose parents did not know. Earlier awareness and disclosure of same-gender attractions, greater childhood gender atypicality, and less internalized homophobia were characteristic…

  9. [Sexual orientation in the school environment: fact or eagerness?].

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Sandra Aparecida; Nogueira, Jordana de Almeida; Silva, Antonia Oliveira; Torres, Gilson Vasconcelos

    2011-03-01

    This qualitative research aims to analyze how sexual orientation has been incorporated into pedagogic practices through the point of view of educators from public schools of fundamental teaching. Twenty three educators from Cajazeiras, Paralba, Brazil participated in the study. The focus group was elected as technique of investigation, and the empirical data obtained were organized according to the technique of analysis of content. It was realized that there is an effort of the actors to privilege contents related to sexual orientation in the school environment though they demand that a level of informative and subjective character about the "sexuality" be encouraged providing the educators with a space for re-significations of its internality of values. The information directed to self-care must transcend the limits of prevention and hygienisation, incorporating extensive, inclusive and reflective methodologies, which recognize human and social rights and promote the ethical construction of citizenship.

  10. Sexual differentiation of the human brain in relation to gender identity and sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Savic, Ivanka; Garcia-Falgueras, Alicia; Swaab, Dick F

    2010-01-01

    It is believed that during the intrauterine period the fetal brain develops in the male direction through a direct action of testosterone on the developing nerve cells, or in the female direction through the absence of this hormone surge. According to this concept, our gender identity (the conviction of belonging to the male or female gender) and sexual orientation should be programmed into our brain structures when we are still in the womb. However, since sexual differentiation of the genitals takes place in the first two months of pregnancy and sexual differentiation of the brain starts in the second half of pregnancy, these two processes can be influenced independently, which may result in transsexuality. This also means that in the event of ambiguous sex at birth, the degree of masculinization of the genitals may not reflect the degree of masculinization of the brain. There is no proof that social environment after birth has an effect on gender identity or sexual orientation. Data on genetic and hormone independent influence on gender identity are presently divergent and do not provide convincing information about the underlying etiology. To what extent fetal programming may determine sexual orientation is also a matter of discussion. A number of studies show patterns of sex atypical cerebral dimorphism in homosexual subjects. Although the crucial question, namely how such complex functions as sexual orientation and identity are processed in the brain remains unanswered, emerging data point at a key role of specific neuronal circuits involving the hypothalamus.

  11. Sexting and Sexual Behavior in At-Risk Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Barker, David; Rizzo, Christie; Hancock, Evan; Norton, Alicia; Brown, Larry K.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the prevalence of sexting behaviors (sexually explicit messages and/or pictures) among an at-risk sample of early adolescents as well as the associations between sexting behaviors and sexual behaviors, risk-related cognitions, and emotional regulation skills. It also aimed to determine whether differences in risk were associated with text-based versus photo-based sexts. METHODS: Seventh-grade adolescents participating in a sexual risk prevention trial for at-risk early adolescents completed a computer-based survey at baseline regarding sexting behavior (having sent sexually explicit messages and/or pictures), sexual activities, intentions to have sex, perceived approval of sexual activity, and emotional regulation skills. RESULTS: Twenty-two percent of the sample reported having sexted in the past 6 months; sexual messages were endorsed by 17% (n = 71), sexual messages and photos by 5% (n = 21). Pictures were endorsed significantly more often by females (χ2[2] = 7.33, P = .03) and Latinos (χ2[2] = 7.27, P = .03). Sexting of any kind was associated with higher rates of engaging in a variety of sexual behaviors, and sending photos was associated with higher rates of sexual activity than sending text messages only. This was true for a range of behaviors from touching genitals over clothes (odds ratio [OR] = 1.98, P = .03) to oral sex (OR = 2.66, P < .01) to vaginal sex (OR = 2.23, P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Sexting behavior (both photo and text messages) was not uncommon among middle school youth and co-occurred with sexual behavior. These data suggest that phone behaviors, even flirtatious messages, may be an indicator of risk. Clinicians, parents, and health programs should discuss sexting with early adolescents. PMID:24394678

  12. Masculine Ideology, Sexual Communication, and Sexual Self-Efficacy Among Parenting Adolescent Couples.

    PubMed

    Norton, Melanie K; Smith, Megan V; Magriples, Urania; Kershaw, Trace S

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the relationship between traditional masculine role norms (status, toughness, anti-femininity) and psychosocial mechanisms of sexual risk (sexual communication, sexual self-efficacy) among young, low-income, and minority parenting couples. Between 2007 and 2011, 296 pregnant adolescent females and their male partners were recruited from urban obstetrics clinics in Connecticut. Data regarding participants' beliefs in masculine role norms, frequency of general sex communication and sexual risk communication, and sexual self-efficacy were collected via computer-assisted self-interviews. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used to test for actor effects (whether a person's masculine role norms at baseline influence the person's own psychosocial variables at 6-month follow-up) and partner effects (whether a partner's masculine role norms at baseline influence an actor's psychosocial variables at 6-month follow-up). Results revealed that higher actor status norms were significantly associated with more sexual self-efficacy, higher actor toughness norms were associated with less sexual self-efficacy, and higher actor anti-femininity norms were significantly associated with less general sex communication, sexual risk communication, and sexual self-efficacy. No partner effects were found. These results indicate a need for redefining masculine role norms through family centered approaches in pregnant or parenting adolescent couples to increase sexual communication and sexual self-efficacy. Further research is needed to understand partner effects in the context of a relationship and on subsequent sexual risk behavior.

  13. Masculine Ideology, Sexual Communication, and Sexual Self-Efficacy Among Parenting Adolescent Couples.

    PubMed

    Norton, Melanie K; Smith, Megan V; Magriples, Urania; Kershaw, Trace S

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the relationship between traditional masculine role norms (status, toughness, anti-femininity) and psychosocial mechanisms of sexual risk (sexual communication, sexual self-efficacy) among young, low-income, and minority parenting couples. Between 2007 and 2011, 296 pregnant adolescent females and their male partners were recruited from urban obstetrics clinics in Connecticut. Data regarding participants' beliefs in masculine role norms, frequency of general sex communication and sexual risk communication, and sexual self-efficacy were collected via computer-assisted self-interviews. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used to test for actor effects (whether a person's masculine role norms at baseline influence the person's own psychosocial variables at 6-month follow-up) and partner effects (whether a partner's masculine role norms at baseline influence an actor's psychosocial variables at 6-month follow-up). Results revealed that higher actor status norms were significantly associated with more sexual self-efficacy, higher actor toughness norms were associated with less sexual self-efficacy, and higher actor anti-femininity norms were significantly associated with less general sex communication, sexual risk communication, and sexual self-efficacy. No partner effects were found. These results indicate a need for redefining masculine role norms through family centered approaches in pregnant or parenting adolescent couples to increase sexual communication and sexual self-efficacy. Further research is needed to understand partner effects in the context of a relationship and on subsequent sexual risk behavior. PMID:27539234

  14. Adolescence, sexual behavior and risk factors to health

    PubMed Central

    de Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Gomes, Romeu; Pires, Thiago de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the relationships between sexual behavior and risk factors to physical and mental health in adolescents. METHODS Study of 3,195 pupils aged 15 to 19 in secondary education, in public and private schools in 10 state capitals in Brazil between 2007 and 2008. Multi-stage (schools and pupils) cluster sampling was used in each city and public and private educational network. All of the students selected completed a questionnaire on the following items: socioeconomic and demographic data; sexual behavior; having sex with those of the same sex, the opposite sex, or both; alcohol and cannabis use; using condoms; traumatic sexual experiences as a child or adolescent; suicidal thoughts. The analysis included describing frequencies, Chi-square test, analysis of multiple and cluster correspondence. Responses to an open ended question in which the adolescent expressed general comments about themselves and their lives were qualitatively analyzed using content analysis. RESULTS Around 3.0% of adolescents reported homosexual or bisexual behavior, with no difference according to sex, age, skin color, social status family structure or educational network. Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior, compared to their heterosexual peers, reported: (p < 0.05): getting drunk (18.7% and 10.5%, respectively), frequent cannabis use (6.1% and 2.1%, respectively), suicidal thoughts (42.5% and 18.7%, respectively), and having been the victim of sexual violence (11.7% and 1.5%; respectively). Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior reported that they used condoms less frequently (74.2%) than their heterosexual peers (48.6%, p < 0.001). In the correspondence analysis, three groups were found, one composed of adolescents with homosexual/bisexual behavior and experiencing risk factors; suffering sexual violence, never using a condom, suicidal thoughts, frequent cannabis use; another composed of occasional cannabis and condom users, who got drunk

  15. Associations between Sexually Experienced Adolescents' Sources of Information about Sex and Sexual Risk Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Secor-Turner, Molly; Sieving, Renee E.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Skay, Carol

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe prevalent informal sources of information about sex and examine associations between informal sources of information about sex and sexual risk outcomes among sexually experienced adolescents. Work involved the secondary analysis of data from the Minnesota Student Survey, a statewide survey to monitor…

  16. Protective and Risk Factors Associated with Adolescent Boys' Early Sexual Debut and Risky Sexual Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohman, Brenda J.; Billings, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    Protective and risk factors associated with rates of early sexual debut and risky sexual behaviors for a sample of low-income adolescent boys were examined using bioecological theory framed by a resiliency perspective. Protective processes examined include a close mother-son and father-son relationship, parental monitoring and family routines, as…

  17. [Interest of school children and adolescents about the body and sexuality].

    PubMed

    Brêtas, José Roberto; da Silva, Conceição Vieira

    2002-01-01

    The present exploratory study aims at analysing a population of 493 male and female schoolchildren and adolescents, with age ranging from 7 to 18 years old, attending three Youth Centers and a Professional Training Center located in the south region of São Paulo, Brazil. The interest on body function and sexuality disclosed by those subjects led to the developing of a Sexual Orientation Program by the University Extension Project "Corporality and Health", fostered by the Universidade Federal de São Paulo-UNIFESP.

  18. Signs of resilience in sexually abused adolescent girls in the foster care system.

    PubMed

    Edmond, Tonya; Auslander, Wendy; Elze, Diane; Bowland, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    In a sample of 99 sexually abused adolescent girls in the foster care system (64% in congregate living situations and 36% in family/foster care homes), nearly half were psychologically functioning well despite having experienced moderate-to-severe emotional, physical, and sexual abuse. It was hypothesized that these girls with resilient trajectories would differ from the currently symptomatic girls on several protective factors: education, future orientation, family support, peer influence, and religion. The results revealed that the girls with resilient trajectories were significantly more certain of their educational plans and optimistic about their future and had more positive peer influences.

  19. Contextualising sexual harassment of adolescent girls in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Papreen; van Reeuwijk, Miranda; Reis, Ria

    2013-05-01

    Violence against women is a social mechanism confirming women's subordination in many societies. Sexual violence and harassment have various negative psychological impacts on girls, including a persistent feeling of insecurity and loss of self-esteem. This article aims to contextualize a particular form of sexual harassment, namely "eve teasing", experienced by Bangladeshi adolescent girls (12-18 years) which emerged from a study of adolescent sexual behaviour carried out by young people. The study used qualitative methods and a participatory approach, including focus group discussions, key informant interviews and observation. Despite taboos, unmarried adolescents actively seek information about sex, erotic pleasure and romance. Information was easily available from videos, mobile phone clips and pornographic magazines, but reinforced gender inequality. "Eve teasing" was one outlet for boys' sexual feelings; they gained pleasure from it and could show their masculinity. The girls disliked it and were afraid of being blamed for provoking it. Thus, "eve teasing" is a result of socio-cultural norms relating to sexuality, as well as a lack of access to sexual and reproductive health information and services in Bangladesh. These findings underscore the importance of comprehensive sexuality education that goes beyond a mere health focus and addresses gender norms and helps youth to gain social-sexual interaction skills. PMID:23684190

  20. Contextualising sexual harassment of adolescent girls in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Papreen; van Reeuwijk, Miranda; Reis, Ria

    2013-05-01

    Violence against women is a social mechanism confirming women's subordination in many societies. Sexual violence and harassment have various negative psychological impacts on girls, including a persistent feeling of insecurity and loss of self-esteem. This article aims to contextualize a particular form of sexual harassment, namely "eve teasing", experienced by Bangladeshi adolescent girls (12-18 years) which emerged from a study of adolescent sexual behaviour carried out by young people. The study used qualitative methods and a participatory approach, including focus group discussions, key informant interviews and observation. Despite taboos, unmarried adolescents actively seek information about sex, erotic pleasure and romance. Information was easily available from videos, mobile phone clips and pornographic magazines, but reinforced gender inequality. "Eve teasing" was one outlet for boys' sexual feelings; they gained pleasure from it and could show their masculinity. The girls disliked it and were afraid of being blamed for provoking it. Thus, "eve teasing" is a result of socio-cultural norms relating to sexuality, as well as a lack of access to sexual and reproductive health information and services in Bangladesh. These findings underscore the importance of comprehensive sexuality education that goes beyond a mere health focus and addresses gender norms and helps youth to gain social-sexual interaction skills.

  1. Investing in very young adolescents' sexual and reproductive health

    PubMed Central

    Igras, Susan M.; Macieira, Marjorie; Murphy, Elaine; Lundgren, Rebecka

    2014-01-01

    Very young adolescents (VYAs) between the ages of 10 and 14 represent about half of the 1.2 billion adolescents aged 10–19 in the world today. In lower- and middle-income countries, where most unwanted pregnancies, unsafe abortions, maternal deaths and sexually transmitted infections occur, investment in positive youth development to promote sexual and reproductive health (SRH) is increasing. Most interventions, though, focus on older adolescents, overlooking VYAs. Since early adolescence marks a critical transition between childhood and older adolescence and adulthood, setting the stage for future SRH and gendered attitudes and behaviours, targeted investment in VYAs is imperative to lay foundations for healthy future relationships and positive SRH. This article advocates for such investments and identifies roles that policy-makers, donors, programme designers and researchers and evaluators can play to address the disparity. PMID:24824757

  2. Sexual differentiation of the human brain in relation to gender identity and sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Swaab, Dick F; Garcia-Falgueras, Alicia

    2009-01-01

    During the intrauterine period the fetal brain develops in the male direction through a direct action of testosterone on the developing nerve cells, or in the female direction through the absence of this hormone surge. In this way, our gender identity (the conviction of belonging to the male or female gender) and sexual orientation are programmed into our brain structures when we are still in the womb. However, since sexual differentiation of the genitals takes place in the first two months of pregnancy and sexual differentiation of the brain starts in the second half of pregnancy, these two processes can be influenced independently, which may result in transsexuality. This also means that in the event of ambiguous sex at birth, the degree of masculinization of the genitals may not reflect the degree of masculinization of the brain. There is no proof that social environment after birth has an effect on gender identity or sexual orientation.

  3. Adolescent sexuality education and sources of information.

    PubMed

    Maitra, N; Baxi, R K; Hazra, M

    1994-01-01

    A survey of 959 young females (ages 10-21 years) from India highlighted the importance of educational attainment to fertility-related behaviors. Respondents represented a spectrum of educational levels: school drop-outs (32%), primary and secondary school attendees (41%), and college students (27%). The mean age at menarche was 13.6 years. School drop-outs were most likely to have obtained information about sexuality from films and other mass media, while students cited friends and neighbors as primary sources. There was an positive association between educational level and both preferred age at marriage and intended interval from marriage to first birth. 42% of adolescents with a secondary or college education planned to marry after 23 years of age and 84% wanted to defer childbearing for at least two years after marriage. The desire for formal sex education was strong in all educational subgroups (about 62%), however. It has been estimated that postponement of the marriage age from 16 years to 20-21 years would result in a 20-30% decrease in the annual number of births in India. School-based sex education represents a feasible mechanism for helping to achieve this goal.

  4. Toward Global Comparability of Sexual Orientation Data in Official Statistics: A Conceptual Framework of Sexual Orientation for Health Data Collection in New Zealand's Official Statistics System

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Alistair; Veale, Jaimie F.; Binson, Diane; Sell, Randell L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Effectively addressing health disparities experienced by sexual minority populations requires high-quality official data on sexual orientation. We developed a conceptual framework of sexual orientation to improve the quality of sexual orientation data in New Zealand's Official Statistics System. Methods. We reviewed conceptual and methodological literature, culminating in a draft framework. To improve the framework, we held focus groups and key-informant interviews with sexual minority stakeholders and producers and consumers of official statistics. An advisory board of experts provided additional guidance. Results. The framework proposes working definitions of the sexual orientation topic and measurement concepts, describes dimensions of the measurement concepts, discusses variables framing the measurement concepts, and outlines conceptual grey areas. Conclusion. The framework proposes standard definitions and concepts for the collection of official sexual orientation data in New Zealand. It presents a model for producers of official statistics in other countries, who wish to improve the quality of health data on their citizens. PMID:23840231

  5. The Association Between Sexual Orientation Identity and Behavior Across Race/Ethnicity, Sex, and Age in a Probability Sample of High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Mustanski, Brian; Birkett, Michelle; Greene, George J.; Rosario, Margaret; Bostwick, Wendy; Everett, Bethany G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the prevalence and associations between behavioral and identity dimensions of sexual orientation among adolescents in the United States, with consideration of differences associated with race/ethnicity, sex, and age. Methods. We used pooled data from 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys to estimate prevalence of sexual orientation variables within demographic sub-groups. We used multilevel logistic regression models to test differences in the association between sexual orientation identity and sexual behavior across groups. Results. There was substantial incongruence between behavioral and identity dimensions of sexual orientation, which varied across sex and race/ethnicity. Whereas girls were more likely to identify as bisexual, boys showed a stronger association between same-sex behavior and a bisexual identity. The pattern of association of age with sexual orientation differed between boys and girls. Conclusions. Our results highlight demographic differences between 2 sexual orientation dimensions, and their congruence, among 13- to 18-year-old adolescents. Future research is needed to better understand the implications of such differences, particularly in the realm of health and health disparities. PMID:24328662

  6. The Impact of Sexual Orientation on Women's Midlife Experience: A Transition Model Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Carol Anderson

    2007-01-01

    Sexual orientation is an integral part of identity affecting every stage of an individual's development. This literature review examines women's cultural experiences based on sexual orientation and their effect on midlife experience. A developmental model is offered that incorporates sexual orientation as a contextual factor in this developmental…

  7. Patterns of Body Image Concerns and Disordered Weight- and Shape-Related Behaviors in Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calzo, Jerel P.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Corliss, Heather L.; Scherer, Emily A.; Field, Alison E.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates body image concerns and disordered weight- and shape-related behaviors across adolescence and young adulthood in males and how patterns vary by sexual orientation. Participants were 5,388 males from the U.S. national Growing Up Today Study. In 2001, 2003, and 2005 (spanning ages 15-20 years), participants reported sexual…

  8. ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOR AMONG RURAL THAI ADOLESCENTS REGARDING SEXUAL INTERCOURSE.

    PubMed

    Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai; Guptarak, Marisa; Wichajarn, Monjun; Yungyuankul, Sawang; Khampan, Ratchaneekorn; Grimes, Deanna E; Grimes, Richard M

    2014-11-01

    Early initiation of sexual intercourse has been associated with negative consequences, such as higher rates of unwanted pregnancy and HIV infection. This study examined the attitudes and behavior of rural Thai adolescent students aged 16 to 20 years from northern Thailand regarding sexual intercourse. Differences between participants who previously had sexual intercourse and those who had not were explored. Those who had not previously had sexual intercourse were asked about the reasons why they had not had sex, their future plans for having sex and their dating experiences. More than 70% of participants stated they had not previously had sexual intercourse but one third of this group reported engaging in other sexual behavior. There were significant differences by gender, religion, ethnicity, and household income between those who had previously had sex and those who had not. Among those who had not previously had sexual intercourse, concern for their parents' feelings was the most common reason for delaying intercourse. About two-thirds of this group had plans not to have sexual intercourse until after marriage; nearly half of them reported currently having a boyfriend/girlfriend. Interventions aimed at delaying sexual intercourse should involve adolescents in their design and include their attitudes for delaying intercourse. Because of many gender differences seen in our study, interventions should be designed differently for males and females in rural northern Thailand.

  9. Parental Awareness of Sexual Experience in Adolescent Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewinter, J.; Vermeiren, R.; Vanwesenbeeck, I.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.

    2016-01-01

    Parent report and adolescent self-report data on lifetime sexual experience in adolescents with ASD were compared in 43 parent-adolescent dyads. Parents tended to underestimate the lifetime sexual experience of their sons, particularly solo sexual experiences such as masturbation and experience with orgasm. Parental underestimation and unawareness…

  10. Engagement in Risky Sexual Behavior: Adolescents' Perceptions of Self and the Parent-Child Relationship Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerpelman, Jennifer L.; McElwain, Alyssa D.; Pittman, Joe F.; Adler-Baeder, Francesca M.

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined associations among parenting practices, adolescents' self-esteem and dating identity exploration, and adolescents' sexual behaviors. Participants were 680 African American and European American sexually experienced adolescents attending public high schools in the southeast. Results indicated that risky sexual behavior…

  11. Normative Sexuality Development in Adolescence: A Decade in Review, 2000-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Deborah L.; McClelland, Sara I.

    2011-01-01

    This review details a key innovation across the field of adolescent sexuality research over the last decade--conceptualizing sexuality as a normative aspect of adolescent development. Anchored in a growing articulation of adolescent sexuality as having positive qualities and consequences, we provide an organizing framework for understanding…

  12. Predicting Early Sexual Activity with Behavior Problems Exhibited at School Entry and in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schofield, Hannah-Lise T.; Bierman, Karen L.; Heinrichs, Brenda; Nix, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Youth who initiate sexual intercourse in early adolescence (age 11-14) experience multiple risks, including concurrent adjustment problems and unsafe sexual practices. The current study tested two models describing the links between childhood precursors, early adolescent risk factors, and adolescent sexual activity: a cumulative model and a…

  13. Relationships Between Future Orientation, Impulsive Sensation Seeking, and Risk Behavior Among Adjudicated Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Reuben N.; Bryan, Angela

    2005-01-01

    Because of high levels of risk behavior, adjudicated adolescents are at high risk for negative health outcomes such as nicotine and drug addiction and sexually transmitted diseases. The goal of this article is to examine relationships between future orientation and impulsive-sensation-seeking personality constructs to risk behaviors among 300 adjudicated adolescents. Significant relationships between impulsive sensation seeking and future orientation were found for several risk behaviors. Individuals with more positive future orientation were less likely to use marijuana, hard drugs, alcohol during sex, had fewer alcohol problems, had lower levels of alcohol frequency and quantity of use, and perceived greater risks associated with such behaviors. Higher impulsivity reliably predicted alcohol problems, alcohol use, condom use, and cigarette smoking. PMID:16429605

  14. Relationships Between Future Orientation, Impulsive Sensation Seeking, and Risk Behavior Among Adjudicated Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Reuben N; Bryan, Angela

    2004-07-01

    Because of high levels of risk behavior, adjudicated adolescents are at high risk for negative health outcomes such as nicotine and drug addiction and sexually transmitted diseases. The goal of this article is to examine relationships between future orientation and impulsive-sensation-seeking personality constructs to risk behaviors among 300 adjudicated adolescents. Significant relationships between impulsive sensation seeking and future orientation were found for several risk behaviors. Individuals with more positive future orientation were less likely to use marijuana, hard drugs, alcohol during sex, had fewer alcohol problems, had lower levels of alcohol frequency and quantity of use, and perceived greater risks associated with such behaviors. Higher impulsivity reliably predicted alcohol problems, alcohol use, condom use, and cigarette smoking. PMID:16429605

  15. Are teens "post-gay"? Contemporary adolescents' sexual identity labels.

    PubMed

    Russell, Stephen T; Clarke, Thomas J; Clary, Justin

    2009-08-01

    Recent reports suggest that historically typical sexual identity labels-"gay," "lesbian" and "bisexual"-have lost meaning and relevance for contemporary adolescents. Yet there is little empirical evidence that contemporary teenagers are "post-gay." In this brief study we investigate youths' sexual identity labels. The Preventing School Harassment survey included 2,560 California secondary school students administered over 3 years: 2003-2005. We examined adolescents' responses to a closed-ended survey question that asked for self-reports of sexual identity, including an option to write-in a response; we content analyzed the write-in responses. Results suggest that historically typical sexual identity labels are endorsed by the majority (71%) of non-heterosexual youth. Some non-heterosexual youth report that they are "questioning" (13%) their sexual identities or that they are "queer" (5%); a small proportion (9%) provided alternative labels that describe ambivalence or resistance to sexual identity labels, or fluidity in sexual identities. Our results show that lesbian, gay, and bisexual identities remain relevant for contemporary adolescents.

  16. Comparison of adolescents' reports of sexual behavior on a survey and sexual health history calendar.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Colleen M; Lee, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    Assessing sexual risk is critical for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention with adolescents. This article compares sexual risk reports from two self-administered instruments, a standard survey and a sexual health history calendar (SHHC), among racially diverse youth (n = 232) ages 14 to 21 seeking services at a public health clinic. Agreement between methods was assessed using Lin's concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) and Bland-Altman plots. Lin's CCC showed poor to moderate agreement between instruments on reports of sexual partners in the past 3 (0.47), 6 (0.55), and 12 (0.49) months. While individual sexual partner questions were refused a total of 179 times on the survey, youth reported having sexual partners during the same time period on the SHHC in most (77.1%) of these instances. Poor agreement was also found for condom use frequency (CCC = 0.17), with youth's frequency of condom use on the SHHC differing from that reported on the survey for more than half (55.6%) of the months they were sexually active. While lack of objective sexual behavior measures limits conclusions about the accuracy of reports, the ways in which youth's responses varied across instruments may offer insight into the complexity of adolescent sexual risk taking as well as have important implications for development of HIV/STI preventive interventions.

  17. Executive Dysfunction Predicts Delinquency But Not Characteristics of Sexual Aggression Among Adolescent Sexual Offenders.

    PubMed

    Burton, David; Demuynck, Sophia; Yoder, Jamie R

    2014-11-25

    Our aim in this study was to evaluate executive function and its relationship to delinquency and sexual crime in adolescents incarcerated for sexual crimes. Based on self-report data, 196 male adolescent sexual offenders from a Midwest state reported high rates of executive dysfunction. Although such deficits did not relate to the number of victims of sexual abuse, severity, or degree of force used in commission of the sexual crimes, poor executive function was significantly predictive of both general delinquency and felony theft. In both measures of delinquent conduct, behavioral regulation dysfunction was predictive of the frequency of commission of the crimes, whereas metacognition was not. Research and treatment implications are offered. PMID:25428928

  18. The influence of sexually explicit Internet material on sexual risk behavior: a comparison of adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Peter, Jochen; Valkenburg, Patti M

    2011-08-01

    This study had three goals: first, to investigate whether sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) affects sexual risk behavior; second, to study whether these effects differ between adolescents and adults; and third, to analyze, separately for adolescents and adults, whether gender and age moderate an influence of SEIM on sexual risk behavior. The authors conducted a 2-wave panel survey among nationally representative random samples of 1,445 Dutch adolescents and 833 Dutch adults. SEIM use increased sexual risk behavior among adults, but not among adolescents. More specifically, moderator analyses showed that SEIM use increased sexual risk behavior only among male adults, but not among female adults. In the adolescent sample, no moderating gender effect occurred. Neither among adolescents nor among adults did age moderate the effects. Our study shows that SEIM may influence outcomes related to people's sexual health. It also suggests that male adults may present a potential risk group for adverse effects of SEIM. PMID:21476164

  19. Correlates of sexual abstinence and sexual activity of low-income African American adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Childs, Gwendolyn; Moneyham, Linda; Felton, Gwen

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this predictive correlational study was to examine antecedent (knowledge of HIV and spirituality) and psychosocial (attitude toward abstinence, attitude toward condom use, sexual self-efficacy, and perceived parental attitudes toward premarital sex) factors derived from the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior as correlates and predictors of both sexual abstinence and sexual activity. Additionally, this study identified the sexual practices (vaginal-penile, oral, and/or anal sex) in which African American adolescent females were most likely to engage. A sample of 94 African American adolescent females from low-income housing communities completed questionnaires. Major results included the following: (a) a high rate of sexual abstinence was reported, (b) age was the only significant predictor of condom use, and (c) sexual self-efficacy was not a significant predictor of engaging in sexual activity. The study results contribute to the development of HIV risk reduction programs and extend health care providers' knowledge of sexual counseling for adolescents.

  20. Does positive youth development predict adolescent attitudes about sexuality?

    PubMed

    Chapman, Erin N; Werner-Wilson, Ronald Jay

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among individual factors, parental factors, involvement in activities, and adolescent attitudes regarding sex (the outcome variable). We suggest that Positive Youth Development (PYD) research and programming should include promoting healthy sexuality as an important developmental outcome for youth. PYD philosophy and theory, bioecological theory (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 1998), and identity development theory (Erikson, 1983, 1968; Marcia, 1980, 1993) provided the foundation for this study and were used to make the connections between PYD, adolescent sexuality (including attitudes and behavior), and aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship. Both self-esteem and sexual experience were significant predictors of attitudes regarding sex, but overall, parents contributed the most influence on the outcome variable. (It should be noted, however, that parental influence was the only factor that was a significant predictor.) Only one of the two involvements in activities variables was a significant predictor of attitudes regarding sex.

  1. Constrained choices: adolescents speak on sexuality in Peru.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Angela M; Tsui, Amy O; Hindin, Michelle J

    2010-10-01

    While numerous studies have explored young people's sexual behaviour in Peru, to date few have explored how adolescents situate sexuality within the context of their broader lives. This information is needed to inform policies and programmes. Life history interviews were conducted with 20 12-17-year-old young women and men from a low-income settlement near Lima, Peru. Data were analysed using holistic content analysis and grounded theory. Sexuality had a strong presence in respondents' lives. However, interviewees viewed the full expression of their sexuality as a constrained choice. Particular constraints derive from the belief that sexual intercourse always results in pregnancy; the nature of sex education; the provision of proscriptive advice; and the family tensions, economic problems, racism and violence present in young people's lives. The results of this study can inform policies and programmes to support young people as they make sexuality-related decisions.

  2. Children and adolescents as sexual beings: a historical overview.

    PubMed

    Bullough, Vern L

    2004-07-01

    This article provides a historical overview of attitudes toward the sexual and erotic behavior of children and adolescents. It includes an examination of the conflicting attitudes of historians toward childhood and the living conditions and attitudes that influenced childhood sexual development. Attitudes have varied from an emphasis on childhood innocence to fears of childhood sinfulness, from children being regarded as asexual creatures to being extremely sexual, and from being little adults to regarding childhood as unique and different. Although there have always been observers of childhood sexuality, and much adult interest in it, research into the topic mainly is a twentieth century development. Sigmund Freud was a pioneer in recognizing children as sexual beings; however, research since his time has challenged and modified his assumptions. Whatever their discipline, however, there is general agreement that sexuality is part of childhood development. PMID:15183367

  3. Family Sex Communication and the Sexual Desire, Attitudes, and Behavior of Late Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamboni, Brian D.; Silver, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Parental sex education might promote healthy sexual behavior among adolescents, but some parents assume that family communication about sex will lead to sexual activity. Family sex communication has been studied with a limited range of adolescent sexual behaviors but not sexual fantasy or desire. Two measures of family sex communication were…

  4. Exploring Family Factors and Sexual Behaviors in a Group of Black and Hispanic Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucibwa, Naphtal Kaberege; Modeste, Naomi; Montgomery, Susan; Fox, Curtis A.

    2003-01-01

    Examined family factors influencing sexual behavior among black and Hispanic adolescent males from San Bernardino County, California's 1996 Youth Survey. Family structure, parent sexual behaviors, and peer sexual norms closely associated with adolescent sexual attitudes and behaviors. Having a sibling who was a teen parent significantly associated…

  5. Cell Phone Internet Access, Online Sexual Solicitation, Partner Seeking, and Sexual Risk Behavior among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Eric; Winetrobe, Hailey; Holloway, Ian W.; Montoya, Jorge; Plant, Aaron; Kordic, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Online partner seeking is associated with sexual risk behavior among young adults (specifically men who have sex with men), but this association has yet to be explored among a probability sample of adolescents. Moreover, cell phone internet access and sexual risk taking online and offline have not been explored. A probability sample (N = 1,831) of Los Angeles Unified School District high school students was collected in 2011. Logistic regression models assessed relationships between specific sexual risk behaviors (online sexual solicitation, seeking partners online, sex with internet-met partners, condom use) and frequency of internet use, internet access points, and demographics. Students with cell phone internet access were more likely to report being solicited online for sex, being sexually active, and having sex with an internet-met partner. Bisexual-identifying students reported higher rates of being approached online for sex, being sexually active, and not using condoms at last sex. Gay, lesbian, and questioning (GLQ) students were more likely to report online partner seeking and unprotected sex at last sex with an internet-met partner. Additionally, having sex with an internet-met partner was associated with being male, online sexual solicitation, and online partner seeking. Internet- and school-based sexual health programs should incorporate safety messages regarding online sexual solicitation, seeking sex partners online, and engaging in safer sex practices with all partners. Programs must target adolescents of all sexual identities, as adolescents may not yet be “out,” and bisexual and GLQ adolescents are more likely to engage in risky sex behaviors. PMID:25344027

  6. Cell phone internet access, online sexual solicitation, partner seeking, and sexual risk behavior among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rice, Eric; Winetrobe, Hailey; Holloway, Ian W; Montoya, Jorge; Plant, Aaron; Kordic, Timothy

    2015-04-01

    Online partner seeking is associated with sexual risk behavior among young adults (specifically men who have sex with men), but this association has yet to be explored among a probability sample of adolescents. Moreover, cell phone internet access and sexual risk taking online and offline have not been explored. A probability sample (N = 1,831) of Los Angeles Unified School District high school students was collected in 2011. Logistic regression models assessed relationships between specific sexual risk behaviors (online sexual solicitation, seeking partners online, sex with internet-met partners, condom use) and frequency of internet use, internet access points, and demographics. Students with cell phone internet access were more likely to report being solicited online for sex, being sexually active, and having sex with an internet-met partner. Bisexual-identifying students reported higher rates of being approached online for sex, being sexually active, and not using condoms at last sex. Gay, lesbian, and questioning (GLQ) students were more likely to report online partner seeking and unprotected sex at last sex with an internet-met partner. Additionally, having sex with an internet-met partner was associated with being male, online sexual solicitation, and online partner seeking. Internet- and school-based sexual health programs should incorporate safety messages regarding online sexual solicitation, seeking sex partners online, and engaging in safer sex practices with all partners. Programs must target adolescents of all sexual identities, as adolescents may not yet be "out," and bisexual and GLQ adolescents are more likely to engage in risky sex behaviors.

  7. Sexuality and AIDS: Attitudes and Behaviors of Adolescents in East and West Berlin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, Hans; Pforr, Petra

    1992-01-01

    Study conducted in 1990 compared 2 samples of 542 adolescents from west Berlin and 340 adolescents from east Berlin. Findings suggest that general trend toward sexual liberality among adolescents is continuing and that necessary processes of adolescent sexual development appear not to be influenced by the threat of Acquired Immune Deficiency…

  8. Facial features influence the categorization of female sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Tskhay, Konstantin O; Feriozzo, Melissa M; Rule, Nicholas O

    2013-01-01

    Social categorization is a rapid and automatic process, and people rely on various facial cues to accurately categorize each other into social groups. Recently, studies have demonstrated that people integrate different cues to arrive at accurate impressions of others' sexual orientations. The amount of perceptual information available to perceivers could affect these categorizations, however. Here, we found that, as visual information decreased from full faces to internal facial features to just pairs of eyes, so did the accuracy of judging women's sexual orientation. Yet and still, accuracy remained significantly greater than chance across all conditions. More important, however, participants' response bias varied significantly depending on the facial feature judged. Perceivers were significantly more likely to consider that a target may be lesbian as they viewed less of the faces. Thus, although facial features may be continuously integrated in person construal, they can differentially affect how people see each other. PMID:24494440

  9. Adjustment and Sex-Role Orientation in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamke, Leanne K.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between sex-role orientation and self-esteem in adolescence was reexamined. The results revealed that androgynous individuals had higher levels of self-esteem than masculine, feminine, and undifferentiated adolescents. When the independent contributions of masculinity and femininity were assessed, both significantly predicted…

  10. Sexual orientation change efforts and the search for authenticity.

    PubMed

    Fjelstrom, Jo

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on structured interviews of a sample of 15 former participants in sexual orientation change efforts (SOCE), who currently identify as gay or lesbian. The primary research question for this study was, "What was the experience of self-identified gay men and lesbians who went through some type of SOCE and eventually asserted themselves as gay or lesbian?" The research concludes that participants sometimes identified as heterosexual during SOCE, but never changed their underlying homosexual orientation, and that suppression, disconnection, and a sense of inauthenticity were significant phenomena of this process. PMID:23688310

  11. Self-Reported Mental Disorders and Distress by Sexual Orientation

    PubMed Central

    Przedworski, Julia M.; VanKim, Nicole A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; McAlpine, Donna D.; Lust, Katherine A.; Laska, Melissa N.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sexual minority college students (i.e., those not identifying as heterosexual, or those reporting same-sex sexual activity) may be at increased risk of poor mental health, given factors such as minority stress, stigma, and discrimination. Such disparities could have important implications for students’ academic achievement, future health, and social functioning. This study compares reports of mental disorder diagnoses, stressful life events, and frequent mental distress across five gender-stratified sexual orientation categories. Methods Data were from the 2007–2011 College Student Health Survey, which surveyed a random sample of college students (N=34,324) at 40 Minnesota institutions. Data analysis was conducted in 2013–2014. The prevalence of mental disorder diagnoses, frequent mental distress, and stressful life events were calculated for heterosexual, discordant heterosexual, gay or lesbian, bisexual, and unsure students. Logistic regression models were fit to estimate the association between sexual orientation and mental health outcomes. Results Lesbian, gay, and bisexual students were more likely to report any mental health disorder diagnosis than heterosexual students (p<0.05). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and unsure students were significantly more likely to report frequent mental distress compared to heterosexual students (OR range, 1.6–2.7). All sexual minority groups, with the exception of unsure men, had significantly greater odds of experiencing two or more stressful life events (OR range, 1.3–2.8). Conclusions Sexual minority college students experience worse mental health than their heterosexual peers. These students may benefit from interventions that target the structural and social causes of these disparities, and individual-level interventions that consider their unique life experiences. PMID:25997903

  12. Adolescent Sexual Health Education: Parents Benefit Too!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Deveaux, Lynette; Wang, Bo; Lunn, Sonya; Marshall, Sharon; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of parents in adolescent-targeted interventions is intended to benefit the adolescent. Limited research has explored whether parents participating in these programs also benefit directly. We examined the impact of Caribbean Informed Parents and Children Together, the parenting portion of an adolescent-targeted HIV prevention…

  13. An Extension of the Findings of Moore, Peterson, and Furstenberg (1986) regarding Family Sexual Communication and Adolescent Sexual Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Terri D.

    1989-01-01

    Used variables of gender and parental sexual attitudes to categorize college students (N=349) and their parents to examine relationship between family communication about sexuality and adolescent sexual behavior, attitudes, knowledge and contraception use. Found sexual behavior of females correlated with parent-child communication; sexual…

  14. An Ethnographic Analysis of Adolescent Sexual Minority Website Usage: Exploring Notions of Information Seeking and Sexual Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulfridge, Rocky M.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation explores the website usage of adolescent sexual minorities, examining notions of information seeking and sexual identity development. Sexual information seeking is an important element within human information behavior and is uniquely problematic for young sexual minorities. Utilizing a contemporary gay teen website, this…

  15. Sexual Assault Disclosure in Relation to Adolescent Mental Health: Results from the National Survey of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broman-Fulks, Joshua J.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Hanson, Rochelle F.; Smith, Daniel W.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Saunders, Benjamin E.

    2007-01-01

    Child sexual assault is a risk factor for a wide range of emotional and behavioral problems. Little is known about mental health functioning in relation to victims' decisions to tell someone (or not) about their assault. This study used data from a nationally representative sample of 4,023 adolescents to examine the relation between sexual assault…

  16. Parental Monitoring during Early Adolescence Deters Adolescent Sexual Initiation: Discrete-Time Survival Mixture Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, David Y. C.; Murphy, Debra A.; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2011-01-01

    We used discrete-time survival mixture modeling to examine 5,305 adolescents from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth regarding the impact of parental monitoring during early adolescence (ages 14-16) on initiation of sexual intercourse and problem behavior engagement (ages 14-23). Four distinctive parental-monitoring groups were…

  17. Urban American Indian Adolescent Girls: Framing Sexual Risk Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Martyn, Kristy K.; Momper, Sandra L.; Loveland-Cherry, Carol J.; Low, Lisa Kane

    2014-01-01

    Purpose American Indian (AI) adolescent girls have higher rates of sexual activity, births and STIs compared to the national average. The purpose of this study was to explore factors that influence urban adolescent AI girls' sexual risk behavior (SRB). Design A qualitative study was conducted using grounded theory methodology to reveal factors and processes that influence SRB. Methods Talking circles, individual interviews, and event history calendars were used with 20 urban AI 15-19 year old girls to explore influences on their sexual behavior. Findings The generated theory, Framing Sexual Risk Behavior, describes both social and structural factors and processes that influenced the girls' sexual behaviors. The theory extends Bronfenbrenner's ecological model by identifying microsystem, mesosystem, and macrosystem influences on sexual behavior, including: Microsystem: Being “Normal,” Native, and Having Goals; Mesosystem: Networks of Family and Friends, Environmental Influences, and Sex Education; and Macrosystem: Tribal Traditions/History and Federal Policy. Discussion Urban AI girls reported similar social and structural influences on SRB as urban adolescents from other racial and ethnic groups. However, differences were noted in the family structure, cultural heritage, and unique history of AIs. Implications for Practice This theory can be used in culturally responsive practice with urban AI girls. PMID:24803532

  18. Sexual Orientation- and Race-Based Discrimination and Sexual HIV Risk Behavior Among Urban MSM

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Victoria; Nandi, Vijay; Egan, James; Cerda, Magdalena; Greene, Emily; Van Tieu, Hong; Ompad, Danielle C.; Hoover, Donald R.; Lucy, Debbie; Baez, Eduardo; Koblin, Beryl A.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding what social factors are associated with risk of HIV acquisition and transmission among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) is a critical public health goal. Experiencing discrimination may increase risk of HIV infection among MSM. This analysis assessed relations between experiences of sexual orientation- and race-based discrimination and sexual HIV risk behavior among MSM in New York City. 1,369 MSM completed a self-administered computerized assessment of past 3-month sexual behavior, experience of social discrimination and other covariates. Regression models assessed relations between recent experience of discrimination and sexual HIV risk behavior. Mean age was 32 years; 32 % were white; 32 % Latino/Hispanic; 25 % African American/Black. Of MSM who self-reported HIV-positive or unknown status (377), 7 % (N = 27) reported having unprotected insertive anal intercourse with an HIV-negative or unknown status partner (“HIV transmission risk”). Of MSM who self-reported HIV-negative status (992), 11 % (110) reported unprotected receptive anal intercourse with an HIV-positive or unknown status partner (“HIV acquisition risk”). HIV acquisition risk was positively associated with sexual orientation-based discrimination in home or social neighborhoods, but not race-based discrimination. We observed that sexual orientation-based discrimination was associated with sexual HIV risk behavior among urban-dwelling MSM. Addressing environmental sources of this form of discrimination, as well as the psychological distress that may result, should be prioritized in HIV prevention efforts. PMID:25381561

  19. Sexual orientation- and race-based discrimination and sexual HIV risk behavior among urban MSM.

    PubMed

    Frye, Victoria; Nandi, Vijay; Egan, James; Cerda, Magdalena; Greene, Emily; Van Tieu, Hong; Ompad, Danielle C; Hoover, Donald R; Lucy, Debbie; Baez, Eduardo; Koblin, Beryl A

    2015-02-01

    Understanding what social factors are associated with risk of HIV acquisition and transmission among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) is a critical public health goal. Experiencing discrimination may increase risk of HIV infection among MSM. This analysis assessed relations between experiences of sexual orientation- and race-based discrimination and sexual HIV risk behavior among MSM in New York City. 1,369 MSM completed a self-administered computerized assessment of past 3-month sexual behavior, experience of social discrimination and other covariates. Regression models assessed relations between recent experience of discrimination and sexual HIV risk behavior. Mean age was 32 years; 32 % were white; 32 % Latino/Hispanic; 25 % African American/Black. Of MSM who self-reported HIV-positive or unknown status (377), 7 % (N = 27) reported having unprotected insertive anal intercourse with an HIV-negative or unknown status partner ("HIV transmission risk"). Of MSM who self-reported HIV-negative status (992), 11 % (110) reported unprotected receptive anal intercourse with an HIV-positive or unknown status partner ("HIV acquisition risk"). HIV acquisition risk was positively associated with sexual orientation-based discrimination in home or social neighborhoods, but not race-based discrimination. We observed that sexual orientation-based discrimination was associated with sexual HIV risk behavior among urban-dwelling MSM. Addressing environmental sources of this form of discrimination, as well as the psychological distress that may result, should be prioritized in HIV prevention efforts.

  20. Sexual orientation- and race-based discrimination and sexual HIV risk behavior among urban MSM.

    PubMed

    Frye, Victoria; Nandi, Vijay; Egan, James; Cerda, Magdalena; Greene, Emily; Van Tieu, Hong; Ompad, Danielle C; Hoover, Donald R; Lucy, Debbie; Baez, Eduardo; Koblin, Beryl A

    2015-02-01

    Understanding what social factors are associated with risk of HIV acquisition and transmission among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) is a critical public health goal. Experiencing discrimination may increase risk of HIV infection among MSM. This analysis assessed relations between experiences of sexual orientation- and race-based discrimination and sexual HIV risk behavior among MSM in New York City. 1,369 MSM completed a self-administered computerized assessment of past 3-month sexual behavior, experience of social discrimination and other covariates. Regression models assessed relations between recent experience of discrimination and sexual HIV risk behavior. Mean age was 32 years; 32 % were white; 32 % Latino/Hispanic; 25 % African American/Black. Of MSM who self-reported HIV-positive or unknown status (377), 7 % (N = 27) reported having unprotected insertive anal intercourse with an HIV-negative or unknown status partner ("HIV transmission risk"). Of MSM who self-reported HIV-negative status (992), 11 % (110) reported unprotected receptive anal intercourse with an HIV-positive or unknown status partner ("HIV acquisition risk"). HIV acquisition risk was positively associated with sexual orientation-based discrimination in home or social neighborhoods, but not race-based discrimination. We observed that sexual orientation-based discrimination was associated with sexual HIV risk behavior among urban-dwelling MSM. Addressing environmental sources of this form of discrimination, as well as the psychological distress that may result, should be prioritized in HIV prevention efforts. PMID:25381561

  1. The prevalence of bisexual and homosexual orientation and related health risks among adolescents in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    van Griensven, Frits; Kilmarx, Peter H; Jeeyapant, Supaporn; Manopaiboon, Chomnad; Korattana, Supaporn; Jenkins, Richard A; Uthaivoravit, Wat; Limpakarnjanarat, Khanchit; Mastro, Timothy D

    2004-04-01

    Homo- or bisexual (HB) adolescents may have greater and different health risks than the population of heterosexual adolescents. We assessed sexual orientation and health risk behaviors in 1,725 consenting 15- to 21-year-old vocational school students in northern Thailand. Data were collected using audio-computer-assisted self-interviewing. Nine percent of males and 11.2% of females identified themselves as homo- or bisexual. HB males had an earlier mean age at sexual debut (14.7 years) and a higher mean number of lifetime sexual partners (7.9) than did heterosexual males (16.8 years and 5.8 partners, respectively). HB males (25.9%) and females (32.2%) were sexually coerced more often than were heterosexual males (4.6%) and females (19.6%). Drug use was reported significantly more frequently by HB females and significantly less frequently by HB males than by their heterosexual counterparts. HB males showed more signs of social isolation and depression than did heterosexual males. We conclude that HB adolescents in northern Thailand are at greater and different health risks than are their heterosexual counterparts. Differential health education messages for HB and heterosexual youth are warranted. PMID:15146146

  2. Effects of defendant sexual orientation on jurors' perceptions of child sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Tisha R A; Bottoms, Bette L

    2009-02-01

    We examined mock jurors' reactions to a sexual abuse case involving a male teacher and a 10-year-old child. Because gay men are sometimes stereotyped as child molesters, we portrayed defendant sexual orientation as either gay or straight and the victim as either a boy or girl. Jurors made more pro-prosecution decisions in cases involving a gay versus straight defendant, particularly when the victim was a boy. In boy-victim cases, jurors' emotional feelings of moral outrage toward the defendant mediated these effects. On average, women jurors were more pro-prosecution than were men. Results have implications for understanding social perceptions of cross- and same-gender child sexual abuse and juror decision making in child sexual assault cases perpetrated by homosexual and heterosexual men. PMID:18404363

  3. Adolescent sexual matricide following repetitive mother-son incest.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, L B

    1999-07-01

    A case of a 16-year-old male who committed a sexual matricide following years of mother-son incest is reported. After murdering his mother by strangulation, which itself was sexually arousing, the youngster engaged in both vaginal and anal necrophilia. The homicide occurred while the perpetrator was in a dissociative state and experiencing what has been referred to as a catathymic crisis: the sudden release of emotionally charged psychic conflict and tension, resulting in extreme violence within an interpersonal bond. Discussion of maternal image and maternal sexual conduct in relationship to the psychosexual development of adolescent males offers insight into the motivation in this extremely rare case.

  4. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience of Adolescent Sexual Risk and Alcohol Use.

    PubMed

    Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W; Ryman, Sephira G; Gillman, Arielle S; Weiland, Barbara J; Thayer, Rachel E; Bryan, Angela D

    2016-01-01

    Human adolescents engage in very high rates of unprotected sex. This behavior has a high potential for unintended, serious, and sustained health consequences including HIV/AIDS. Despite these serious health consequences, we know little about the neural and cognitive factors that influence adolescents' decision-making around sex, and their potential overlap with behaviorally co-occurring risk behaviors, including alcohol use. Thus, in this review, we evaluate the developmental neuroscience of sexual risk and alcohol use for human adolescents with an eye to relevant prevention and intervention implications.

  5. Estimating the Longitudinal Association Between Adolescent Sexual Behavior and Exposure to Sexual Media Content

    PubMed Central

    Hennessy, Michael; Bleakley, Amy; Fishbein, Martin; Jordan, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the association between adolescent sexual behavior and exposure to sexual media content. Methods A three wave longitudinal survey sample (N = 506) of 14-16 year olds at baseline is analyzed using growth curves. Results Growth trajectories are linear for sexual behavior but not for exposure to sexual media content. The signs of the exposure slopes are not uniformly positive: Hispanic and African-American respondents show declines of exposure to sexual media content over the age range investigated here. Conclusions While changes in exposure to sex content are highly associated with changes in sexual behavior among Whites, there is little or no association between changes in these variables among Blacks. PMID:19382030

  6. Estimating the longitudinal association between adolescent sexual behavior and exposure to sexual media content.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Michael; Bleakley, Amy; Fishbein, Martin; Jordan, Amy

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the association between adolescent sexual behavior and exposure to sexual media content. A three-wave, longitudinal survey sample (N = 506) of 14- to 16-year-olds at baseline is analyzed using growth curves. Growth trajectories are linear for sexual behavior but not for exposure to sexual media content. The signs of the exposure slopes are not uniformly positive: Hispanic and African American respondents show declines of exposure to sexual media content over the age range investigated here. Although changes in exposure to sex content are highly associated with changes in sexual behavior among Whites, there is little or no association between changes in these variables among Blacks. PMID:19382030

  7. Estimating the longitudinal association between adolescent sexual behavior and exposure to sexual media content.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Michael; Bleakley, Amy; Fishbein, Martin; Jordan, Amy

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the association between adolescent sexual behavior and exposure to sexual media content. A three-wave, longitudinal survey sample (N = 506) of 14- to 16-year-olds at baseline is analyzed using growth curves. Growth trajectories are linear for sexual behavior but not for exposure to sexual media content. The signs of the exposure slopes are not uniformly positive: Hispanic and African American respondents show declines of exposure to sexual media content over the age range investigated here. Although changes in exposure to sex content are highly associated with changes in sexual behavior among Whites, there is little or no association between changes in these variables among Blacks.

  8. Parenting practices and styles associated with adolescent sexual health in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kajula, Lusajo J; Darling, Nancy; Kaaya, Sylvia F; De Vries, Hein

    2016-11-01

    Parenting styles and practices are suggested to be important predictors of adolescent sexual health, mostly in Europe and North America. Limited research has been conducted on these processes in Sub-Saharan Africa, which has different patterns of adolescent sexual behavior and family traditions. This study qualitatively explored parenting practices and styles associated with adolescent sexual health in Tanzania, with 12 adolescents and 12 parents of adolescents. The themes we identified from the data included parental monitoring, preventive, and punitive behaviors. Parents were reported to use mostly punitive behaviors to correct or prohibit sexual behavior; parents also set clear rules about appropriate sexual behavior (e.g., modesty and abstinence). Parents were also reported to closely monitor their adolescent children's friendships and sexual behavior to minimize sexual behavior. However, some parents also engaged in positive preventive practices aimed at protecting their adolescent children.

  9. How can parents make a difference? Longitudinal associations with adolescent sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Deptula, Daneen P; Henry, David B; Schoeny, Michael E

    2010-12-01

    Parents have the potential to protect against adolescent sexual risk, including early sexual behavior, inconsistent condom use, and outcomes such as pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Identification of the specific parenting dimensions associated with sexual risk in adolescence and young adulthood is necessary to inform and focus prevention efforts. The current study examined the relation of proximal (e.g., discussions of sexual costs) and distal (e.g., parental involvement, relationship quality) parenting variables with concurrent and longitudinal adolescent sexual behavior. The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) provided a nationally representative sample with information about the family using adolescent and parent informants. Longitudinal information about sexual risk included adolescent condom use and adolescent sexual initiation, as well as young adult unintended pregnancy, reports of STIs, and biological assay results for three STIs. Higher parent-adolescent relationship quality was associated with lower levels of adolescent unprotected intercourse and intercourse initiation. Better relationship quality was also associated with lower levels of young adult STIs, even when accounting for prior sexual activity. Unexpectedly, more parent reports of communication regarding the risks associated with sexual activity were negatively associated with condom use and greater likelihood of sexual initiation. These results demonstrate that parents play an important role, both positive and negative, in sexual behavior, which extends to young adulthood, and underscores the value of family interventions in sexual risk prevention.

  10. Perfectionism and Achievement Goal Orientations in Adolescent School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damian, Lavinia E.; Stoeber, Joachim; Negru, Oana; Baban, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Perfectionism has been shown to predict individual differences in achievement goal orientations in university students, but research on perfectionism and goal orientations in school students is still very limited. Investigating 584 adolescent school students in a cross-sectional correlational design, the present study examined how self-oriented…

  11. Sexual minority status, peer harassment, and adolescent depression.

    PubMed

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2012-08-01

    The well-documented higher rates of depression among sexual minority youth are increasingly viewed by developmentalists as a byproduct of the stigmatization of sexual minority status in American society and of the negative impact this stigma has on the processes associated with depression. This study attempted to spur future research by testing Hatzenbuehler's (2009) psychological mediation framework to investigate the ways in which peer harassment related to sexuality puts young people at risk by influencing the cognitive, social, and regulatory factors associated with depression. Analyses of 15 year olds in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development revealed that sexual minority status was largely associated with depressive outcomes via harassment, which was subsequently associated with depression via cognitive and social factors. Results point to various avenues for exploring the importance of the social world and self-concept for the outcomes of sexual minority adolescents in the future.

  12. School socioeconomic composition and adolescent sexual initiation in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinho

    2015-01-01

    While numerous studies have documented the determinants of sexual behavior among adolescents in less developed countries, relatively little is known about the influence of social contexts such as school and neighborhood. Using two waves of data from a school-based longitudinal survey conducted in Malawi from 2011 to 2013, this study advances our understanding of the relationship between school-level socioeconomic contexts and adolescents’ sexual activity. The results from two-level multinomial logistic regression models suggest that high socioeconomic composition of the student body in school decreases the odds of initiating sexual activity, independently of other important features of schools as well as individual-level characteristics. This study also finds that the association between school socioeconomic composition and sexual activity is statistically significant only among males, but not females, suggesting that school’s socioeconomic contexts may be more relevant to male adolescents’ initiation of sexual activity. PMID:26347090

  13. Public policy and adolescent sexual behavior in the United States.

    PubMed

    Finkel, M L; Finkel, D J

    1983-01-01

    Legislative acts and judicial rulings in the US in the last 2 decades have gradually broadened the rights of teenagers to obtain family planning services, abortion services, and sexual information. Despite this progress, adolescent pregnancy continues to be a major problem, and sex education for teenagers is highly inadequate. During the 1960s some progress was made concerning the rights of minors in sexual matters, but it was not until the 1970s that the courts fully recognized that mature minors had the right to obtain reproduction health services and family planning information without parental consent and that immature minors also had a right to these services, with the consent of an alternate adult, in the absence of parental consent. During the 1970s the federal government expanded its role in providing assistance for pregnant adolescents and in financing sex related programs for teenagers. In 1978 the Adolescent Health Services and Pregnancy Prevention and Care Act provided for the establishment of the Office of Adolescent Pregnancy Programs in the Public Health Service. The new office was assigned the task of coordinating the 85 federal programs aimed at helping pregnant teenagers and adolescent parents. By the late 1970s family planning services were available for most teenagers, and this improved accessibility led to a decrease in the adolescent pregnancy rate, most notably among black teenagers, and a reduction in the number of illegitimate births, especially among white adolescents. Although the courts recognized the rights of teenagers to receive sex education, progress in providing sex education programs in the public school has been minimal. Most states permit local jurisdictions to decide whether or not to provide sex education courses in their public schools. At the present time, only 31 states have policy statements concerning sex education, and only 4 states require sex education course. A recent sample survey of public high schools found that

  14. Adaptation to Sexual Orientation Stigma: A Comparison of Bisexual and Lesbian/Gay Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsam, Kimberly F.; Mohr, Jonathan J.

    2007-01-01

    This study extends research on dimensions of sexual minority experience by examining differences between bisexual and lesbian/gay adults in adaptation to sexual orientation stigma. The authors investigated sexual orientation self-disclosure, connection to community, and 4 identity-related variables (internalized homonegativity, stigma…

  15. Individual and Family Correlates of Adolescents' Sexual Behavior: Multiethnic Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anagurthi, Claudia; Johnson, Ashley Cahill; Somers, Cheryl L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine correlates of adolescent sexual activity, including age of first date, family composition, clarity of long term goals, and maternal and paternal views about premarital sex. There were 672 males and females, three races/ethnicities, both urban and suburban settings, and socioeconomic diversity. Sexual…

  16. Adolescent Sexuality and the Risk of Marital Dissolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paik, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates whether first sexual intercourse during adolescence is associated with increased risk of first marriage dissolution and tests whether the results are consistent with causal or selection explanations. Drawing on a sample of 3,793 ever-married women from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth, this study estimated…

  17. Adolescent Patterns of Communication about Sexually Related Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Sandra K.

    1989-01-01

    Examined familial patterns in amounts of information received about menstrual cycle, sex, and contraception among Black adolescent daughters, mothers, and grandmothers (N=179) representing 53 family units. Results indicated that mothers were most likely to be source of information. Found much information necessary for sexual health and informed…

  18. Dating, Sexual Activity, and Well-Being in Italian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciairano, Silvia; Bonino, Silvia; Kliewer, Wendy; Miceli, Renato; Jackson, Sandy

    2006-01-01

    Associations among dating, sexual activity, gender, and adjustment were investigated in 2,273 Italian adolescents (54% female, ages 14 to 19 years) attending public high schools. After controlling for age and type of school attended, both being in a dating relationship and being male were associated with less alienation, more positive views of the…

  19. Parental Support, Depressed Affect, and Sexual Experience among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitbeck, Les B.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examines the effect of unsupportive family relations and low self-esteem on teenage sexual activity and alcohol use. Data from a telephone survey of 301 male and 242 female adolescents in Iowa suggested significant gender differences, with young women in unsupportive contexts seeking compensatory intimacy outside the family. (JB)

  20. Adolescents' Sexual Inferences about Girls Who Consume Alcohol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Amy M.; McCabe, Sean Esteban; Boyd, Carol J.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to document whether adolescents make inferences regarding male and female vignette characters in terms of the characters' sexuality, social skills, impairment, and aggressiveness when the characters consume alcohol. A Web-based survey of 1,691 middle and high school students (grades 6-11) from diverse socioeconomic…

  1. Does Positive Youth Development Predict Adolescent Attitudes about Sexuality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Erin N.; Werner-Wilson, Ronald Jay

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among individual factors, parental factors, involvement in activities, and adolescent attitudes regarding sex (the outcome variable). We suggest that Positive Youth Development (PYD) research and programming should include promoting healthy sexuality as an important developmental outcome…

  2. Young Adolescents' Perceptions of Romantic Relationships and Sexual Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royer, Heather R.; Keller, Mary L.; Heidrich, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe young adolescents' perceptions of romantic relationships, ratings of important romantic partner characteristics, and acceptability of sexual activity with romantic relationships. Fifty-seven eighth-grade participants (average age = 13.8 years) from one urban US public middle school completed an anonymous…

  3. Dating and Sexual Attitudes in Asian-American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, May; Markham, Christine; Lin, Hua; Flores, Glenn; Chacko, Mariam R.

    2009-01-01

    Dating behaviors and sexual attitudes of Asian-American youth were examined in a cross-sectional, mixed-methods study in the context of adherence to Asian values, measured by the Asian Values Scale (AVS). In all, 31 Asian-American adolescents (age 14-18 years old) from a Houston community center were interviewed regarding dating behaviors and…

  4. Teenage Pregnancy Prevention and Adolescents' Sexual Outcomes: An Experiential Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Cheryl L.

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of an experiential approach to teen pregnancy (TP) prevention called "Baby Think It Over," a computerized infant simulator, on adolescents' attitudes and behaviors regarding teen pregnancy and sexuality. Recently, a more realistic model called "Real Care Baby" was developed. The small amount of research on…

  5. Images from Purgatory: Art Therapy with Male Adolescent Sexual Abusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazloomian, Hoda; Moon, Bruce L.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the clinical practice of two male art therapists and their work with male adolescent sex offenders in a residential treatment facility. The authors share experiences of working with clients who, in addition to being offenders, were diagnosed with a mental illness and were themselves victims of sexual abuse. The function of…

  6. The impact of future expectations on adolescent sexual risk behavior.

    PubMed

    Sipsma, Heather L; Ickovics, Jeannette R; Lin, Haiqun; Kershaw, Trace S

    2015-01-01

    Rates of STIs, HIV, and pregnancy remain high among adolescents in the US, and recent approaches to reducing sexual risk have shown limited success. Future expectations, or the extent to which one expects an event to actually occur, may influence sexual risk behavior. This prospective study uses longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (n = 3,205 adolescents; 49.8% female) to examine the impact of previously derived latent classes of future expectations on sexual risk behavior. Cox regression and latent growth models were used to determine the effect of future expectations on age at first biological child, number of sexual partners, and inconsistent contraception use. The results indicate that classes of future expectations were uniquely associated with each outcome. The latent class reporting expectations of drinking and being arrested was consistently associated with the greatest risks of engaging in sexual risk behavior compared with the referent class, which reported expectations of attending school and little engagement in delinquent behaviors. The class reporting expectations of attending school and drinking was associated with having greater numbers of sexual partners and inconsistent contraception use but not with age at first biological child. The third class, defined by expectations of victimization, was not associated with any outcome in adjusted models, despite being associated with being younger at the birth of their first child in the unadjusted analysis. Gender moderated specific associations between latent classes and sexual risk outcomes. Future expectations, conceptualized as a multidimensional construct, may have a unique ability to explain sexual risk behaviors over time. Future strategies should target multiple expectations and use multiple levels of influence to improve individual future expectations prior to high school and throughout the adolescent period.

  7. The Impact of Future Expectations on Adolescent Sexual Risk Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Sipsma, Heather L.; Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Lin, Haiqun; Kershaw, Trace S.

    2014-01-01

    Rates of STIs, HIV, and pregnancy remain high among adolescents in the US, and recent approaches to reducing sexual risk have shown limited success. Future expectations, or the extent to which one expects an event to actually occur, may influence sexual risk behavior. This prospective study uses longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (n = 3,205 adolescents; 49.8 % female) to examine the impact of previously derived latent classes of future expectations on sexual risk behavior. Cox regression and latent growth models were used to determine the effect of future expectations on age at first biological child, number of sexual partners, and inconsistent contraception use. The results indicate that classes of future expectations were uniquely associated with each outcome. The latent class reporting expectations of drinking and being arrested was consistently associated with the greatest risks of engaging in sexual risk behavior compared with the referent class, which reported expectations of attending school and little engagement in delinquent behaviors. The class reporting expectations of attending school and drinking was associated with having greater numbers of sexual partners and inconsistent contraception use but not with age at first biological child. The third class, defined by expectations of victimization, was not associated with any outcome in adjusted models, despite being associated with being younger at the birth of their first child in the unadjusted analysis. Gender moderated specific associations between latent classes and sexual risk outcomes. Future expectations, conceptualized as a multidimensional construct, may have a unique ability to explain sexual risk behaviors over time. Future strategies should target multiple expectations and use multiple levels of influence to improve individual future expectations prior to high school and throughout the adolescent period. PMID:24357042

  8. Beyond "born this way?" reconsidering sexual orientation beliefs and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Grzanka, Patrick R; Zeiders, Katharine H; Miles, Joseph R

    2016-01-01

    Previous research on heterosexuals' beliefs about sexual orientation (SO) has been limited in that it has generally examined heterosexuals' beliefs from an essentialist perspective. The recently developed Sexual Orientation Beliefs Scale (SOBS; Arseneau, Grzanka, Miles, & Fassinger, 2013) assesses multifarious "lay beliefs" about SO from essentialist, social constructionist, and constructivist perspectives. This study used the SOBS to explore latent group-based patterns in endorsement of these beliefs in 2 samples of undergraduate students: a mixed-gender sample (n = 379) and an all-women sample (n = 266). While previous research has posited that essentialist beliefs about the innateness of SO predict positive attitudes toward sexual minorities, our research contributes to a growing body of scholarship that suggests that biological essentialism should be considered in the context of other beliefs. Using a person-centered analytic strategy, we found that that college students fell into distinct patterns of SO beliefs that are more different on beliefs about the homogeneity, discreteness, and informativeness of SO categories than on beliefs about the naturalness of SO. Individuals with higher levels of endorsement on all 4 SOBS subscales (a group we named multidimensional essentialism) and those who were highest in discreteness, homogeneity, and informativeness beliefs (i.e., high-DHI) reported higher levels of homonegativity when compared with those who were high only in naturalness beliefs. We discuss the implications of these findings for counseling and psychotherapy about SO, as well educational and social interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26575349

  9. The relationship between suicide risk and sexual orientation: results of a population-based study.

    PubMed Central

    Remafedi, G; French, S; Story, M; Resnick, M D; Blum, R

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the relationship between sexual orientation and suicide risk in a population-based sample of adolescents. METHODS: Participants were selected from a cross-sectional, statewide survey of junior and senior public high school students. All males (n = 212) and females (n = 182) who described themselves as bisexual/homosexual were compared with 336 gender-matched heterosexual respondents on three outcome measures: suicidal ideation, intent, and self-reported attempts. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between sexual orientation and outcome measures with adjustment for demographic characteristics. RESULTS: Suicide attempts were reported by 28. 1 % of bisexual/homosexual males, 20.5% of bisexual/homosexual females, 14.5% of heterosexual females, and 4.2% of heterosexual males. For males, but not females, bisexual/homosexual orientation was associated with suicidal intent (odds ratio [OR] = 3.61 95% confidence interval [CI = 1.40, 9.36) and attempts (OR=7.10; 95% CI=3.05, 16.53). CONCLUSIONS: There is evidence of a strong association between suicide risk and bisexuality or homosexuality in males. PMID:9584034

  10. Alcohol and drug usage; and adolescents' sexual behaviour in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nwagu, Evelyn N

    2016-06-01

    This study determined students' perception of the influence of alcohol and drug usage on adolescents' sexual behaviours in Nigeria. The instrument for data collection was a researcher-made questionnaire. The population for the study comprised all students in government secondary schools in Enugu state, Nigeria. The sample was made up of 600 students randomly selected from the population. Means, t-test and ANOVA were used for data analysis. The result of the study revealed that there were significant differences at 0.05 level of significance in the mean perception of the students of the influence of alcohol and drug usage on adolescents' sexual behaviours when they were classified by gender and class. All the students irrespective of age agreed that alcohol and drug usage negatively influence sexual behaviour. The students perceived that students who do not take alcohol usually control their sexual desires while rape is common with students who are drug users. It was recommended among others that preventive health programmes meant to address adolescents' sexuality should be combined with appropriate drug education for maximum benefit.

  11. Sexuality Education: A Curriculum for Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Pamela; Kirby, Douglas

    This document is the third volume of a six-volume report on sexuality education. This volume contains 132 teaching activities selected from programs evaluated as among the most effective being taught in the United States. The curriculum consists of 11 units: (1) Introduction to Sexuality; (2) Communication Skills; (3) Anatomy and Physiology; (4)…

  12. Treatment for Sexually Abused Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saywitz, Karen J.; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Berliner, Lucy; Cohen, Judith A.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews research demonstrating the variable effects of childhood sexual abuse, need for intervention, and effectiveness of available treatment. Proposes extending and modifying treatment from mainstream clinical child psychology to sexually abused children. Interventions range from psychoeducation and screening, to short-term, abuse-focused…

  13. [Survey on risky sexual behavior and sexually transmitted diseases among adolescent students from Havana City, 1996].

    PubMed

    Cortés Alfaro, A; García Roche, R G; Hernández Sánchez, M; Monterrey Gutiérrez, P; Fuentes Abreu, J

    1999-01-01

    The observed increase of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in Cuba aroused the interest of carrying out a study aimed at exploring risky sexual behaviours and attitudes, and histories of STD. A crosswise descriptive study was undertaken using a randomized sample taken from the universe of adolescent students in the City of Havana during 1995-96 school year. The sample was made up by 2,793 teenagers aged 11-19 years (1,370 females and 1,423 males). Previously trained experts linked to this field collected data by means of a structured interview which had been drawn up for this end. It was confirmed that more than half of adolescent students did not use condom in their sexual intercourse 57% had more than one sexual partner along the year, 40% believed it was difficult to keep only one partner whereas 35% had more than one sexual partner at the same time. Risk and protected sexual habits were noticed, with 39% for oral-genital and 21.4% for genital-anal. 22% for the interviewed adolescent said they had histories of STD.

  14. [Survey on risky sexual behavior and sexually transmitted diseases among adolescent students from Havana City, 1996].

    PubMed

    Cortés Alfaro, A; García Roche, R G; Hernández Sánchez, M; Monterrey Gutiérrez, P; Fuentes Abreu, J

    1999-01-01

    The observed increase of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in Cuba aroused the interest of carrying out a study aimed at exploring risky sexual behaviours and attitudes, and histories of STD. A crosswise descriptive study was undertaken using a randomized sample taken from the universe of adolescent students in the City of Havana during 1995-96 school year. The sample was made up by 2,793 teenagers aged 11-19 years (1,370 females and 1,423 males). Previously trained experts linked to this field collected data by means of a structured interview which had been drawn up for this end. It was confirmed that more than half of adolescent students did not use condom in their sexual intercourse 57% had more than one sexual partner along the year, 40% believed it was difficult to keep only one partner whereas 35% had more than one sexual partner at the same time. Risk and protected sexual habits were noticed, with 39% for oral-genital and 21.4% for genital-anal. 22% for the interviewed adolescent said they had histories of STD. PMID:10887571

  15. [Sexual health in adolescents: how to approach it in consultation?].

    PubMed

    Launay, Magali; Demierre, Maria; Jacot-Guillarmod, Martine

    2016-06-01

    Adolescent's sexual health, in particular the risk of unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), is a complex topic that deserves special attention. Confidential care and non-stigmatizing attitude as well as working with sexual health counsellors are strongly recommended. If an adolescent consults with an adult, it is beneficial to proceed stepwise in order to promote patient's autonomy and to build a relationship of trust with both of them. A focused approach of the teenager, adapted to its needs, as well as techniques such as Quick start and bridging, can improve compliance to contraception. Regarding the risk of STIs, primary prevention remains essential. The most effective prevention currently consists in systematic condom use. PMID:27451513

  16. Preventing the sexual transmission of AIDS during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Remafedi, G J

    1988-03-01

    In order to be effective, the national effort to contain the spread of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) must include a youth focus. Knowledge of adolescent sexual behavior, drug use, and sexually transmitted diseases suggests that many adolescents are in jeopardy of acquiring Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infections; and they are among those most likely to benefit from preventative efforts as they explore adult roles and lifestyles. Preventative education should particularly target gay and other homosexually active young men. Effective teaching uses a variety of approaches and media, both inside and outside the classroom. Learning about AIDS is most likely to effect behavioral change when accompanied by other programs to build social supports, self-esteem, and positive identity. The ethical and rational use of HIV antibody testing may be a helpful adjunct to education for certain adolescents. Ultimately, our society's ability to address complex, associated social issues will determine our ability to control AIDS.

  17. Goal Orientations and Adolescent Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keys, Tran Dang

    2013-01-01

    Motivation is a fundamental educational challenge for adolescents in the United States, and particularly for immigrant youth. The motivation to achieve, especially in mathematics, declines during adolescence. Most of what is known about motivation is based on studies of predominately middle-class White students; yet the influx of immigrants over…

  18. The Role of Beliefs in Sexual Behavior of Adolescents: Development and Validation of an Adolescent Sexual Expectancies Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourdeau, Beth; Grube, Joel W.; Bersamin, Melina M.; Fisher, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the development and psychometric properties of the Adolescent Sexual Expectancies Scale (ASEXS). Data were obtained from three annual longitudinal surveys of youth aged 10-17 at the first administration (N = 932 at Wave 3). Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that 4 correlated factors corresponding to Social Risk, Social…

  19. Sexual abuse predicts functional somatic symptoms: an adolescent population study.

    PubMed

    Bonvanie, Irma J; van Gils, Anne; Janssens, Karin A M; Rosmalen, Judith G M

    2015-08-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of childhood sexual abuse on medically not well explained or functional somatic symptoms (FSSs) in adolescents. We hypothesized that sexual abuse predicts higher levels of FSSs and that anxiety and depression contribute to this relationship. In addition, we hypothesized that more severe abuse is associated with higher levels of FSSs and that sexual abuse is related to gastrointestinal FSSs in particular. This study was part of the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS): a general population cohort which started in 2001 (N=2,230; 50.8% girls, mean age 11.1 years). The current study uses data of 1,680 participants over four assessment waves (75% of baseline, mean duration of follow-up: 8 years). FSSs were measured by the Somatic Complaints subscale of the Youth Self-Report at all waves. Sexual abuse before the age of sixteen was assessed retrospectively with a questionnaire at T4. To test the hypotheses linear mixed models were used adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, anxiety and depression. Sexual abuse predicted higher levels of FSSs after adjustment for age sex and socioeconomic status (B=.06) and after additional adjustment for anxiety and depression (B=.03). While sexual abuse involving physical contact significantly predicted the level of FSSs (assault; B=.08, rape; B=.05), non-contact sexual abuse was not significantly associated with FSSs (B=.04). Sexual abuse was not a stronger predictor of gastrointestinal FSSs (B=.06) than of all FSSs. Further research is needed to clarify possible mechanisms underlying relationship between sexual abuse and FSSs. PMID:26142915

  20. Brief Report: Sexual Sensation Seeking and Its Relationship to Risky Sexual Behaviour among African-American Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitalnick, Joshua S.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Crosby, Richard A.; Milhausen, Robin R.; Sales, Jessica M.; McCarty, Frances; Rose, Eve; Younge, Sinead N.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between sexual sensation seeking and sexual risk taking has been investigated among adult populations. There are limited data, however, regarding this relationship for adolescents. Since African-American adolescent females continue to be disproportionately diagnosed with STDs, including HIV, we examined this association among a…

  1. Gender differences in sexual risk behaviours and sexually transmissible infections among adolescents in mental health treatment

    PubMed Central

    Seth, Puja; Lang, Delia L.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Braxton, Nikia D.; Crosby, Richard A.; Brown, Larry K.; Hadley, Wendy; Donenberg, Geri R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescents with a history of psychiatric disorder(s) are particularly vulnerable to contracting sexually transmissible infections (STIs) as a result of psychological and emotional states associated with higher rates of risky sexual behaviour. The present study examined gender differences in sexual risk behaviours and STI among adolescents in mental health treatment. Methods Three hundred and seventy nine sexually active adolescents, aged 13–18 years, from a larger multisite study, who received mental health treatment during the past year, completed an audio computer-assisted self interview assessing sociodemographics, psychiatric symptomatology and HIV/STI risk behaviours, and provided urine specimens tested for STI. Results After controlling for covariates, multivariate logistic regression models indicated that female adolescents were more likely to have had an HIV test (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.2, P = 0.0001), obtain their HIV test results (AOR = 2.9, P = 0.03), refuse sex out of fear for STI acquisition (AOR = 1.7, P = 0.04), or avoid a situation that might lead to sex (AOR = 2.4, P = 0.001), and were less likely to have a casual sex partner (AOR = 0.40, P = 0.002). Additionally, females were more likely to report inconsistent condom use (AOR = 2.60, P = 0.001) and have a STI (AOR = 9.1, P = 0.0001) than their male counterparts. Conclusions Female adolescents receiving mental health treatment were more than nine times as likely to have an STI and more likely to use condoms inconsistently. The standard of care for mental health practice for adolescents should include referrals for STI screening and treatment as well as assessment and discussion of risky sexual behaviours as part of the treatment plan when indicated. Effective programs should address gender-specific communication and behavioural skills. PMID:22697141

  2. Race, gender, and sexual orientation in hate crime victimization: identity politics or identity risk?

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Edward

    2006-06-01

    This study examined the impact of hate crimes upon gay and lesbian victims, reviewing 1538 hate crimes committed in Los Angeles County. Differences between sexual orientation and other hate crime categories were considered for offense severity, reportage to law enforcement, and victim impact. The type of offense varied between crimes classified for sexual orientation (n=551) and other bias-motivated crimes (n=987). Assault, sexual assault, sexual harassment, and stalking were predictive of sexual orientation hate crimes. Sexual orientation bias crimes evidenced greater severity of violence to the person and impact upon victim level of functioning. More violent forms of aggression were predictive of gay and lesbian victim's underreportage to law enforcement. For sexual orientation offenses, victim gender and race/ethnicity differences were predictive of the base rates of crime reportage as well. These findings are considered in terms of a group-risk hypothesis, encountered by multiple outgroup persons, that influences help-seeking behavior and ingroup identity.

  3. Gender and sexual orientation in relation to hypothalamic structures.

    PubMed

    Swaab, D F; Gooren, L J; Hofman, M A

    1992-01-01

    Animal experiments have provided evidence for the presence of sex differences from the synaptic level up to behaviour. Although sex differences in the human brain may have been presumed implicitly since the days of Aristotle, research on the presence of functional and structural sex differences of the human brain started only relatively recently. The most conspicuous sex difference in the mammalian brain was described by Gorski et al. [1978] in the preoptic area (POA) of the rat hypothalamus. We found that the volume of a putative homologue of this sexually dimorphic nucleus (SDN) in the adult human hypothalamus was more than twice as large in men as in women and contained about twice as many cells. Recently a similar sex difference and volume has been described for the human bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and 'interstitial nuclei of the hypothalamus' (INAH). Sexual differentiation of the hypothalamus was generally believed to take place between 4 and 7 months of gestation. A life span study on the SDN of more than 100 subjects revealed, however, that only after the age of 2-4 years postnatally sexual differentiation becomes manifest by a decrease in volume and cell number in the female SDN. If sexual differentiation of the brain indeed takes place postnatally, not only chemical and hormonal factors may influence this process but also social factors. A prominent theory on the development of sexual orientation is that it develops as a result of an interaction between the developing brain and sex hormones. According to Dörner's hypothesis, male homosexuals have a female differentiation of the hypothalamus. This hypothesis was not supported by our observations on the SDN. Neither the SDN volume nor the cell number in the hypothalamus of homosexual men differed from that of heterosexual men. However, a difference in SCN cell number was observed in relation to sexual orientation. The volume and cell number of the SCN of homosexual men was twice as large as that of

  4. Development of an attachment-informed measure of sexual behavior in late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Szielasko, Alicia L; Symons, Douglas K; Lisa Price, E

    2013-04-01

    There is considerable interest in relations between sexual behavior and romantic attachment styles in adolescence as attachment needs are increasingly met through intimate partners rather than parents. The objectives of this research were to organize a measure of sexual behavior within an attachment theory framework, and then show that this new measure uniquely predicted sexual approach styles and invasive sexual experiences. 190 18- and 19-year-old university students in late adolescence completed sexual behavior items that were provided ambivalent (anxious) and avoidant dimensions. These were systematically related to the romantic attachment dimensions of the Experiences in Close Relationships - Revised. However, even after romantic relationship style, gender, and social desirability were controlled, avoidance in sexual relationships predicted lifetime sexual partner number and negatively predicted positive sexual strategies, and ambivalence in sexual relationships predicted invasive and coercive sexual behaviors. A measure specific to sexual relationships informs the attachment and romantic context of sex in late adolescence.

  5. Adolescents' Sexually Transmitted Disease Protective Attitudes Predict Sexually Transmitted Disease Acquisition in Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Richard A.; Danner, Fred

    2008-01-01

    Background: Estimates suggest that about 48% of nearly 19 million cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) occurring annually in the United States are acquired by persons aged 15-24 years. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that adolescents' attitudes about protecting themselves from STDs predict their laboratory-confirmed…

  6. Chinese Adolescents' Attitudes toward Sexual Relationships and Premarital Sex: Implications for Promoting Sexual Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yu-Ting; Hayter, Mark; Lin, Mei-Ling

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to explore Taiwanese school students' attitudes toward sexual relationships and premarital sex. This was an exploratory descriptive, qualitative study. Focus groups (N = 8) were conducted with 47 adolescents from three high schools in Taiwan. Transcripts were transcribed and thematically analyzed using Atlas V 5.0.…

  7. The Association of Childhood Personality on Sexual Risk Taking during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkins, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Background: Sexual risk taking during adolescence such as failure to use contraception or condoms is associated with premature parenthood and high rates of sexually transmitted infection. The relation of childhood personality to sexual risk taking during adolescence has been largely unexplored. Methods: Using data collected from participants in…

  8. Do Parents Blame or Doubt Their Child More when Sexually Abused by Adolescents versus Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Wendy A.; Cross, Theodore P.; Jones, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    Although the importance of parental support for child sexual abuse victims is well documented, the nature of parental support for victims sexually abused by adolescents is less understood. In this exploratory study, we examine whether parents differ in their levels of blame or doubt for their child when sexually abused by adolescents versus…

  9. [Gender relations and sexual initiation among adolescent women].

    PubMed

    Borges, Ana Luiza Vilela

    2007-12-01

    This is a cross-sectional study conducted with 222 15 to 19 year-old female adolescents who lived in the area of a family health unit in the East part of the city of São Paulo. The aim was to describe their motivation for starting sexual life or remaining virgin, as well as the associated factors to the onset of sexual life. The girls that had already initiated their sexual life were older, did not cohabitate with both parents, were out of school, lived in illegally-occupied houses and were dating in a higher proportion than the virgin ones. It was also observed a decrease in the value of virginity, but the first intercourse independently of marriage seemed to be acceptable only when there was a romantic relationship with the partner, showing that traditional gender relations continue to be the basis for those girls' sexual behavior.

  10. Communication of sexual risk behavior among late adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lock, S E; Ferguson, S L; Wise, C

    1998-06-01

    A grounded theory approach was used to describe how males and females in late adolescence communicate with their sexual partners about sexual risk behaviors. Interviews were audiotaped with 18 women and 15 men from a university in the southeastern United States. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using constant comparative analysis. Building trust was identified as the core variable for both men and women. For women, prerequisites for building trust were being involved in caring relationships and indirectly gathering information about potential sexual partners. For men, prerequisites were being involved in caring relationships and using their instincts. Women usually initiated safe-sex talk, but men were willing to discuss it, once the conversation was initiated. Findings can serve as a guide for developing nursing strategies that promote more effective communication about sexual risk behavior in this age group. PMID:9615598

  11. Exploring Differences in Youth and Parent Reports of Antisociality among Adolescent Sexual and Nonsexual Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skilling, Tracey A.; Doiron, James M.; Seto, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the extent of, and explored several possible explanations for, the discrepancies found between adolescent and parent reports of conduct problems in adolescent sexual and nonsexual offenders. We found that adolescent sexual offenders scored lower on measures of conduct problems than did nonsexual offenders, whether on the basis…

  12. Adolescent Sexual Behavior, Pregnancy, and Parenting: Research through the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Brent C.; Moore, Kristin A.

    1990-01-01

    Summarizes research from the 1980s on topics of adolescent sexual activity, contraception, abortion, marriage, adoption, and childrearing. Emphasizes research about antecedents of adolescent sexual and contraceptive behavior because they are key risk factors in adolescent pregnancy. Notes advances in data and methods and highlights research gaps.…

  13. Hmong American Parents' Views on Promoting Adolescent Sexual Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meschke, Laurie L.; Peter, Christina R.

    2014-01-01

    Parents play an important role in the promotion of adolescent sexual health, but little is known about parents' attitudes and beliefs in immigrant families. We examine Hmong American parents' attitudes about adolescent sexual health using survey data from 202 parents of adolescents with attention to parental gender differences. Breaking…

  14. Condom Use among Sexually Active Rural High School Adolescents: Personal, Environmental, and Behavioral Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Tammy; Puskar, Kathryn; Terhorst, Lauren; Terry, Martha Ann; Charron-Prochownik, Denise

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents who engage in unprotected intercourse are at risk of pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI). Although adolescents in rural areas participate in levels of sexual risk taking similar to that of nonrural youth, few data are available identifying factors that influence condom use among rural adolescents. The purpose of this…

  15. Adolescent Perceptions of Maternal Approval of Birth Control and Sexual Risk Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaccard, James; Dittus, Patricia J.

    2000-01-01

    Used data from the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent health to examine the relationship between adolescent perception of maternal approval of the use of birth control and sexual outcomes over 12 months. Overall, adolescents' perceptions of maternal approval related to an increased likelihood of sexual intercourse in the next year and an increase in…

  16. The Impact of Religiosity on Adolescent Sexual Behavior: A Review of the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostosky, Sharon Scales; Wilcox, Brian L.; Wright, Margaret Laurie Comer; Randall, Brandy A.

    2004-01-01

    Longitudinal studies published between 1980 and 2001 (N = 10) are reviewed for evidence that the religiosity of adolescents is causally related to their sexual behaviors. Results indicate that religiosity delays the sexual debut of adolescent females. Findings are mixed for adolescent males. Although only half of the studies examined the effects…

  17. Childhood Abuse and Adolescent Sexual Re-Offending: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallie, Adana L.; Viljoen, Jodi L.; Mordell, Sarah; Spice, Andrew; Roesch, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Recent research indicates that adolescents who have sexually offended are more likely than other adolescents to have a history of sexual and physical abuse. However, it is unclear whether abuse predicts re-offending among these adolescents. To examine this relationship, a meta-analysis was conducted which included 29 effect sizes drawn from 11…

  18. Sexual Health and Risk Behaviour among East Asian Adolescents in British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Homma, Yuko; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.; Wong, Sabrina T.; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the large number of adolescents of East Asian origin in Canada, there is limited research on sexual health among this population. A first step to develop strategies for sexual health promotion for adolescents is to document the prevalence of sexual behaviours. This study thus estimated the prevalence of sexual health and risk behaviours among East Asian adolescents in grades 7 to 12, using the province-wide, school-based 2008 British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey (unweighted N = 4,311). Less than 10% of East Asian adolescents have ever had sexual intercourse. However, most of these sexually active adolescents have engaged in risky sexual behaviours, including multiple sexual partners and non-condom use at last intercourse. In particular, nearly half of sexually active girls reported not using a condom at last intercourse. Compared to immigrant students whose primary language at home was not English, immigrant and Canadian-born students speaking English at home were more likely to experience sexual intercourse. Among students who have never had sexual intercourse, two most common reasons for sexual abstinence were not feeling ready and waiting to meet the right person. Findings suggest the need for sexual health interventions tailored to gender and sociocultural contexts in which adolescents live. PMID:27087776

  19. Jamaican Mothers’ Influences of Adolescent Girls’ Sexual Beliefs and Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, M. Katherine; Kahwa, Eulalia; Waldron, Norman; Brown, Cerese Hepburn; Hamilton, Pansy I.; Hewitt, Hermi H.; Aiken, Joyette; Cederbaum, Julie; Alter, Emily; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to identify the ways in which urban Jamaican mothers influence their adolescent daughters’ sexual beliefs and behaviors in order to incorporate them into the design of a family-based human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk reduction intervention program. Design Focus groups were conducted with 46 14- to 18-year-old adolescent girls and 30 mothers or female guardians of adolescent girls recruited from community-based organizations in and around Kingston and St. Andrew, Jamaica. Separate focus groups were held with mothers and daughters; each included 6 to 10 participants. Focus group sessions were scripted, led by teams that included trained Jamaican and American facilitators and note-takers, and audio-taped to ensure data accuracy. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Findings Four major maternal influences were identified: mother-daughter relationship quality, mother-daughter sexual communication, monitoring or supervision, and maternal sexual role modeling. Mothers’ and daughters’ reports were consistent; both groups identified positive and negative influences within each category. Conclusions Some maternal influences were positive and health promoting; others were negative and promoted unsafe sexual activity and risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. These influences were incorporated into the design of a culture-specific family-based HIV risk reduction intervention tailored to the needs of urban Jamaican adolescent girls and their mothers. Clinical Relevance In order to be effective, family-based HIV risk reduction interventions should be theory based and tailored to the target audience. The four maternal influences identified in this formative study were incorporated into the subsequent intervention design. PMID:22339731

  20. Sexual Victimization among African American Adolescent Females: Examination of the Reliability and Validity of the Sexual Experiences Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cecil, Heather; Matson, Steven C.

    2006-01-01

    Adolescent females are disproportionately represented among reported cases of sexual victimization. Because sexual victimization is associated with an array of negative sequelae (e.g., depression, alcohol abuse), psychometrically sound instruments are urgently needed to assess sexual victimization or coercion. The investigation conducts a…

  1. Adolescents' Use of Sexually Explicit Internet Material and Their Sexual Attitudes and Behavior: Parallel Development and Directional Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doornwaard, Suzan M.; Bickham, David S.; Rich, Michael; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; van den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Although research has repeatedly demonstrated that adolescents' use of sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) is related to their endorsement of permissive sexual attitudes and their experience with sexual behavior, it is not clear how linkages between these constructs unfold over time. This study combined 2 types of longitudinal modeling,…

  2. The Influence of Sexual Orientation and Sexual Role on Male Grooming-Related Injuries and Infections

    PubMed Central

    Gaither, Thomas W.; Truesdale, Matthew; Harris, Catherine R.; Alwaal, Amjad; Shindel, Alan W.; Allen, Isabel E.; Breyer, Benjamin N.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Pubic hair grooming is a common practice in the United States and coincides with prevalence of grooming-related injuries. Men who have sex with men (MSM) groom more frequently than men who have sex with women (MSW). We aim to characterize the influence of sexual orientation and sexual role on grooming behavior, injuries, and infections in men in the United States. Methods We conducted a nationally representative survey of noninstitutionalized adults aged 18–65 residing in the United States. We examined the prevalence and risk factors of injuries and infections that occur as a result of personal grooming. Results Of the 4,062 men who completed the survey, 3,176 (78.2%) report having sex with only women (MSW), 198 (4.9%) report sex with men (MSM), and 688 (16.9%) report not being sexually active. MSM are more likely to groom (42.5% vs. 29.0%, P < 0.001) and groom more around the anus, scrotum, and penile shaft compared with MSW. MSM receptive partners groom more often (50.9% vs. 26.9%, P = 0.005) and groom more for sex (85.3% vs. 51.9%, P < 0.001) compared with MSM insertive partners. MSM report more injuries to the anus (7.0% vs. 1.0%, P < 0.001), more grooming-related infections (7.0% vs. 1.0%, P < 0.001) and abscesses (8.8% vs. 2.5%, P = 0.010), as well as lifetime sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (1.65 vs. 1.45, P = 0.038) compared with MSW. More receptive partners report grooming at the time of their STI infection (52.2% vs. 14.3%, P < 0.001) compared with insertive partners. Conclusions Sexual orientation, and in particular sexual role, may influence male grooming behavior and impact grooming-related injuries and infections. Anogenital grooming may put one at risk for an STI. Healthcare providers should be aware of different grooming practices in order to better educate safe depilatory practices (i.e., the use of electric razors for anogenital grooming) in patients of all sexual orientations. PMID:25442701

  3. Sexual orientation microaggressions: the experience of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer clients in psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Kimber; Delgado-Romero, Edward A

    2011-04-01

    Psychological research has shown the detrimental effects that overt heterosexism have on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) clients and on the psychotherapeutic relationship. However, the effects of subtle forms of discrimination, specifically sexual orientation microaggressions, have on LGBQ clients and the therapeutic relationship have not been addressed. This study used qualitative methodology to explore the phenomenon of sexual orientation microaggressions with 16 self-identified LGBQ psychotherapy clients. Results of this study support the existence of sexual orientation microaggressions within the therapeutic environment and provide a descriptive account of 7 sexual orientation microaggression themes, channels of microaggression communication, and the impact microaggressions have on therapy and clients.

  4. Sexual orientation and sexual behavior among Latino and Asian Americans: implications for unfair treatment and psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Chae, David H; Ayala, George

    2010-09-01

    Research on the sexuality of Asians and Latinos in the United States has been sparse, and the studies that have been done suffer from a number of limitations. Using data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (2002-2003), this study examined self-identified sexual orientation and self-reported sexual behavior among Latinos (n = 2,554; age: M = 38.1, SE = 0.5) and Asians (n = 2,095; age: M = 41.5, SE = 0.8). This study also investigated implications for unfair treatment and psychological distress among sexual minorities identified in the sample. Results indicated heterogeneity in responses to items assessing sexual orientation and sexual behavior including differences in the adoption of lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) identity by gender, ethnicity, nativity, and socioeconomic status. LGB sexual minorities reported higher levels of unfair treatment and psychological distress compared to their non-LGB-identified sexual minority counterparts, and unfair treatment was positively associated with psychological distress. Results highlight the need to consider multiple demographic factors in assessing sexuality, and also suggest that measures of both self-identified sexual orientation and sexual behavior should be collected. In addition, findings provide support for the deleterious influence of unfair treatment among Asians and Latinos in the United States.

  5. Delay Discounting Mediates Parent-Adolescent Relationship Quality and Risky Sexual Behavior for Low Self-Control Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Rachel E.; Holmes, Christopher; Farley, Julee P.; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen

    2015-01-01

    Parent-adolescent relationship quality and delay discounting may play important roles in adolescents’ sexual decision making processes, and levels of self-control during adolescence could act as a buffer within these factors. This longitudinal study included 219 adolescent (55% male; mean age = 12.66 years at Wave 1; mean age = 15.10 years at Wave 2) and primary caregiver dyads. Structural equation modeling was utilized to determine whether delay discounting mediated the association between parent-adolescent relationship quality and adolescents’ risky sexual behavior and how this mediated association may differ between those with high versus low self-control. The results revealed parent-adolescent relationship quality plays a role in the development of risky sexual behavior indirectly through levels of delay discounting, but only for adolescents with low self-control. These findings could inform sex education policies and health prevention programs that address adolescent risky sexual behavior. PMID:26202153

  6. Victim blame in a hate crime motivated by sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Plumm, Karyn M; Terrance, Cheryl A; Henderson, Vanessa R; Ellingson, Heather

    2010-01-01

    A jury simulation paradigm was employed for two studies exploring levels of victim blame in a case of bias-motivated assault based on sexual orientation. In the first study, participants were grouped according to their score on the Index of Homophobia (IHP) scale as either reporting high or low support for gay and lesbian community members. The label of the crime (i.e., bias-motivated assault versus first-degree assault) as well as the gender of the victim were systematically varied. Results indicated that attributions of blame against the victim varied as a function of participants' attitudes toward minority sexual orientation. As extra-legal factors likely contribute to victim blame in these cases, the second study explored such factors as location and "provocation." Jurors in the second study read a transcript depicting an attack on a gay man by a man in either a local bar (i.e., not a gay bar) or a gay bar. Within location conditions, jurors were presented with either "provocation" by the victim (i.e., asking the perpetrator to dance and putting his arm around him) or alternatively no provocation was presented. Results revealed significant differences of victim blame depending on condition. Participants in both the local bar and provocation present conditions were more likely to blame the victim for the attack than those in the gay bar or provocation-absent conditions. Implications for hate crime law and attribution theory within the courtroom are discussed.

  7. Assessment of a sexual coercion prevention program for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fuertes Martín, Antonio; Orgaz Baz, M Begoña; Vicario-Molina, Isabel; Martínez Alvarez, José Luis; Fernández Fuertes, Andrés; Carcedo González, Rodrigo J

    2012-07-01

    This study's focus is to evaluate a sexual coercion prevention program in adolescents. Using a before-and-after design with both a treatment group (n = 93) and a control group (n = 76), an intervention of seven sessions was completed. Said sessions included such content as conceptualizing sexual freedom, sexual coercion and voluntary consent, analyzing different sexual coercion tactics and the contexts in which they occur, empathy toward the victim, and developing abilities to avoid risky situations. Other risk factors for coercive behavior and sexual victimization are explored as well, such as alcohol use, sexist attitudes and inadequate communication, among others. The intervention's results include a decrease in stereotypical beliefs about the opposite sex and increased empathy toward victims of sexual coercion. These changes were maintained with the passage of time. Also, in the treatment group, a more acute decline was observed in the proportion of young people engaging in sexually coercive behaviors, This article emphasizes the importance, necessity and efficacy of such interventions, and discusses and analyzes possible improvements to the program for its future implementation.

  8. Pubertal timing and adolescent sexual behavior in girls.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sarah R; Harden, K Paige; Mendle, Jane

    2014-06-01

    Girls who experience earlier pubertal timing relative to peers also exhibit earlier timing of sexual intercourse and more unstable sexual relationships. Although pubertal development initiates feelings of physical desire, the transition into romantic and sexual relationships involves complex biological and social processes contributing both to physical maturation and to individual interpretations of pubertal experiences. Using a sample of female sibling pairs (n = 923 pairs) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the present study investigated associations among menarche and perceived pubertal timing, age of first sexual intercourse (AFI), and adolescent dating and sexual behavior using a behavioral genetic approach. Genetic factors influencing age at menarche and perceived pubertal timing predicted AFI through shared genetic pathways, whereas genetic factors related only to perceived pubertal timing predicted engagement in dating, romantic sex, and nonromantic sex in the previous 18 months. These results suggest that a girl's interpretation of her pubertal timing beyond objective timing is important to consider for the timing and the contexts of romantic and reproductive behavior.

  9. ERICA: sexual initiation and contraception in Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Borges, Ana Luiza Vilela; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina Caetano; Chofakian, Christiane Borges do Nascimento; de Moraes, Ana Júlia Pantoja; Azevedo, George Dantas; dos Santos, Karine Ferreira; de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of sexual initiation and contraceptive use at the last sexual intercourse of Brazilian adolescents, according to sociodemographic features. METHODS The data were obtained from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), a national school-based cross-sectional study. We included 74,589 adolescents from 32 geographic strata (27 capitals and five sets of municipalities with more than 100,000 inhabitants of each of the five macro-regions of the Country). Information on sexual initiation and contraceptive use at the last sexual intercourse (male condom and oral contraceptive pill) has been used. We have estimated prevalence and confidence intervals (95%CI) considering sample weights according to sex, age, type of school, residence status, macro-region and capitals. RESULTS We observed that 28.1% (95%CI 27.0-29.2) of the adolescents had already initiated sexual life, with higher prevalence among those aged 17 years (56.4%, 95%CI 53.9-58.9), males (33.5%, 95%CI 31.8-35.2), studying at public schools (29.9%, 95%CI 28.5-31.4), and from the Northern region (33.9%, 95%CI 32.3-35.4), mainly from Macapa, Manaus, and Rio Branco. Among those who had started their sexual life, 82.3% (95%CI 81.1-83.4) reported the use of contraceptive methods at the last intercourse, and the prevalence of use was higher among adolescents aged 17 years (85.3%, 95%CI 82.7-87.6), females (85.2%, 95%CI 83.8-86.5) and those living in the Southern region (85.9%, 95%CI 82.9-88.5). Male condom was used by 68.8% (95%CI 66.9-70.7), with no difference by type of school or macro-regions; the contraceptive pill was used by 13.4% (CI95% 12.2-14.6), and more frequently used among women (24.7%, 95%CI 22.5-27,0) and 17-year-old adolescents (20.8%, 95%CI 18.2-23.6) from urban settings(13.7%, 95%CI 12.5-14.9) and from the Southern region (22.6%, 95%CI 19.0-26.8), and less often in the Northern region. CONCLUSIONS ERICA's data analysis on sexuality and contraception

  10. ERICA: sexual initiation and contraception in Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Ana Luiza Vilela; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina Caetano; Chofakian, Christiane Borges do Nascimento; de Moraes, Ana Júlia Pantoja; Azevedo, George Dantas; dos Santos, Karine Ferreira; de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of sexual initiation and contraceptive use at the last sexual intercourse of Brazilian adolescents, according to sociodemographic features. METHODS The data were obtained from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), a national school-based cross-sectional study. We included 74,589 adolescents from 32 geographic strata (27 capitals and five sets of municipalities with more than 100,000 inhabitants of each of the five macro-regions of the Country). Information on sexual initiation and contraceptive use at the last sexual intercourse (male condom and oral contraceptive pill) has been used. We have estimated prevalence and confidence intervals (95%CI) considering sample weights according to sex, age, type of school, residence status, macro-region and capitals. RESULTS We observed that 28.1% (95%CI 27.0-29.2) of the adolescents had already initiated sexual life, with higher prevalence among those aged 17 years (56.4%, 95%CI 53.9-58.9), males (33.5%, 95%CI 31.8-35.2), studying at public schools (29.9%, 95%CI 28.5-31.4), and from the Northern region (33.9%, 95%CI 32.3-35.4), mainly from Macapa, Manaus, and Rio Branco. Among those who had started their sexual life, 82.3% (95%CI 81.1-83.4) reported the use of contraceptive methods at the last intercourse, and the prevalence of use was higher among adolescents aged 17 years (85.3%, 95%CI 82.7-87.6), females (85.2%, 95%CI 83.8-86.5) and those living in the Southern region (85.9%, 95%CI 82.9-88.5). Male condom was used by 68.8% (95%CI 66.9-70.7), with no difference by type of school or macro-regions; the contraceptive pill was used by 13.4% (CI95% 12.2-14.6), and more frequently used among women (24.7%, 95%CI 22.5-27,0) and 17-year-old adolescents (20.8%, 95%CI 18.2-23.6) from urban settings(13.7%, 95%CI 12.5-14.9) and from the Southern region (22.6%, 95%CI 19.0-26.8), and less often in the Northern region. CONCLUSIONS ERICA’s data analysis on sexuality and

  11. Sexually transmitted infections in adolescents: Maximizing opportunities for optimal care

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Upton D; MacDonald, Noni E

    2014-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections are a growing public health concern in Canada, with rates of Chlamydia trachomatis infection, gonorrhea and syphilis increasing among adolescents and young adults. The present practice point outlines epidemiology, risk factors, laboratory testing and management for C trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Treponema pallidum, with a lesser focus on HIV. The need for test-of-cure and indications for further investigations are also discussed. The importance of maximizing opportunities to screen for and treat sexually transmitted infections in this age group is highlighted. PMID:25383001

  12. Validity of Self-reported Sexual Behavior Among Adolescents: Where Do We Go from Here?

    PubMed

    DiClemente, Ralph J

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents have high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Adolescents consuming alcohol and using drugs have markedly greater HIV/STI risk and are a priority population for intervention. Accurate measurement of sexual risk behavior is critical for understanding individual's risk for HIV/STI, transmission dynamics of HIV/STI, and evaluating the efficacy of interventions designed reduce HIV/STI risk. However, significant challenges to accurately measuring adolescents' self-reported sexual behavior are well-documented. Recent advances in microbiology, such as the use of less invasive specimen collection for DNA assays, can assist researchers in more accurately measuring adolescents' sexual risk behavior. However, the majority of studies of adolescents' sexual risk rely solely on self-reported behavior; therefore, methods to improve the validity of adolescents' self-reported sexual behavior are needed. In addition, integrating biologic measures to complement self-reported measures are recommended, when appropriate and feasible.

  13. Validity of Self-reported Sexual Behavior Among Adolescents: Where Do We Go from Here?

    PubMed

    DiClemente, Ralph J

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents have high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Adolescents consuming alcohol and using drugs have markedly greater HIV/STI risk and are a priority population for intervention. Accurate measurement of sexual risk behavior is critical for understanding individual's risk for HIV/STI, transmission dynamics of HIV/STI, and evaluating the efficacy of interventions designed reduce HIV/STI risk. However, significant challenges to accurately measuring adolescents' self-reported sexual behavior are well-documented. Recent advances in microbiology, such as the use of less invasive specimen collection for DNA assays, can assist researchers in more accurately measuring adolescents' sexual risk behavior. However, the majority of studies of adolescents' sexual risk rely solely on self-reported behavior; therefore, methods to improve the validity of adolescents' self-reported sexual behavior are needed. In addition, integrating biologic measures to complement self-reported measures are recommended, when appropriate and feasible. PMID:26459333

  14. Is Sexual Behavior Healthy for Adolescents? A Conceptual Framework for Research on Adolescent Sexual Behavior and Physical, Mental, and Social Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasilenko, Sara A.; Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Welsh, Deborah P.

    2014-01-01

    Although research has increasingly emphasized how adolescent sexual behavior may be associated with aspects of health beyond unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, no current theoretical or conceptual model fully explains associations between sexual behavior and multiple facets of health. We provide a conceptual model that…

  15. Adolescents' Sexual Behavior and Academic Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisco, Michelle L.

    2008-01-01

    High school students have high ambitions but do not always make choices that maximize their likelihood of educational success. This was the motivation for investigating the relationships between high school sexual behavior and two important milestones in academic attainment: earning a high school diploma and enrolling in distinct postsecondary…

  16. Adolescent sexual and reproductive health: The global challenges.

    PubMed

    Morris, Jessica L; Rushwan, Hamid

    2015-10-01

    Adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH) has been overlooked historically despite the high risks that countries face for its neglect. Some of the challenges faced by adolescents across the world include early pregnancy and parenthood, difficulties accessing contraception and safe abortion, and high rates of HIV and sexually transmitted infections. Various political, economic, and sociocultural factors restrict the delivery of information and services; healthcare workers often act as a barrier to care by failing to provide young people with supportive, nonjudgmental, youth-appropriate services. FIGO has been working with partners and its member associations to break some of these barriers-enabling obstetricians and gynecologists to effect change in their countries and promote the ASRH agenda on a global scale. PMID:26433504

  17. Body Image and First Sexual Intercourse in Late Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Vasilenko, Sara A.; Ram, Nilam; Lefkowitz, Eva S.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual behavior is associated with body image, but the directionality of this association is unclear. This study used longitudinal data from a sample of previously abstinent college students (N = 100, 45% female, 49% European American, 26% Latino American, 25% African American) to test whether satisfaction with appearance changed after first intercourse. Male students were more satisfied with their appearance after first intercourse, whereas female students became slightly less satisfied with their appearance. These findings demonstrate that first intercourse can lead to changes in well-being, even if the transition takes places in late adolescence. In addition, they suggest that gendered cultural expectations regarding sexual behavior are associated with differing psychological outcomes for male and female adolescents. PMID:20488512

  18. Bisexual Invisibility and the Sexual Health Needs of Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Celia B.; Macapagal, Kathryn; Mustanski, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze bisexual female youth perspectives on their experiences accessing sexual health information and services provided by a doctor, nurse, or counselor. Specifically, we sought to: (1) understand how youth perceptions of providers' attitudes and behaviors affect their seeking and obtaining sexual health information and services; (2) examine how social stigmas within the family context might be associated with barriers to sexual health information and services; and (3) assess school-based sources of sexual health information. Method: We utilized a mixed-method study design. Data from bisexual female youth were collected through an online questionnaire and asynchronous online focus groups addressing lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender health and HIV prevention. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. Results: Barriers to sexual healthcare included judgmental attitudes and assumptions of patient heterosexuality among healthcare providers, and missed opportunities for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI) testing. Bisexual stigma within families was associated with restricted youth openness with providers, suggesting fear of disclosure to parent or guardian. School-based sexual health education was limited by a restrictive focus on abstinence and condoms and the exclusion of STI risk information relevant to sex between women. Conclusion: We recommend that practitioners integrate nonjudgmental questions regarding bisexuality into standard contraceptive and sexual health practices involving female youth, including discussion of HIV and STI risk reduction methods. Further support for bisexual health among adolescent girls can come through addressing stigmas of female bisexuality, increasing sensitivity to privacy while engaging parents, and expanding the reach of school-based sexual health education. PMID:27604053

  19. Positive Sexual Communication and Socialization in the Parent-Adolescent Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Stoppa, Tara M.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter provides an expanded view of parent- adolescent sexual communication and socialization in an effort to move beyond risk perspectives toward a consideration of other important aspects of sexual socialization.

  20. Exploring associations between exposure to sexy online self-presentations and adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavior.

    PubMed

    van Oosten, Johanna M F; Peter, Jochen; Boot, Inge

    2015-05-01

    Previous research suggests that adolescents' social network site use is related to their sexual development. However, the associations between adolescents' exposure to sexy self-presentations of others on social network sites and their sexual attitudes and experience have not yet been empirically supported. This study investigated reciprocal longitudinal relationships between adolescents' exposure to others' sexy self-presentations on social network sites and their sexual attitudes (i.e., sexual objectification of girls and instrumental attitudes towards sex) and sexual experience. We further tested whether these associations depended on adolescents' age and gender. Results from a representative two-wave panel study among 1,636 Dutch adolescents (aged 13-17, 51.5 % female) showed that exposure to sexy online self-presentations of others predicted changes in adolescents' experience with oral sex and intercourse 6 months later, but did not influence their sexual attitudes. Adolescents' instrumental attitudes towards sex, in turn, did predict their exposure to others' sexy online self-presentations. Sexual objectification increased such exposure for younger adolescents, but decreased exposure for older adolescents. In addition, adolescents' experience with genital touching as well as oral sex (only for adolescents aged 13-15) predicted their exposure to sexy self-presentations of others. These findings tentatively suggest that the influence on adolescents' sexual attitudes previously found for sexual media content may not hold for sexy self-presentations on social network sites. However, exposure to sexy self-presentations on social network sites is motivated by adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavior, especially among young adolescents.

  1. Exploring associations between exposure to sexy online self-presentations and adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavior.

    PubMed

    van Oosten, Johanna M F; Peter, Jochen; Boot, Inge

    2015-05-01

    Previous research suggests that adolescents' social network site use is related to their sexual development. However, the associations between adolescents' exposure to sexy self-presentations of others on social network sites and their sexual attitudes and experience have not yet been empirically supported. This study investigated reciprocal longitudinal relationships between adolescents' exposure to others' sexy self-presentations on social network sites and their sexual attitudes (i.e., sexual objectification of girls and instrumental attitudes towards sex) and sexual experience. We further tested whether these associations depended on adolescents' age and gender. Results from a representative two-wave panel study among 1,636 Dutch adolescents (aged 13-17, 51.5 % female) showed that exposure to sexy online self-presentations of others predicted changes in adolescents' experience with oral sex and intercourse 6 months later, but did not influence their sexual attitudes. Adolescents' instrumental attitudes towards sex, in turn, did predict their exposure to others' sexy online self-presentations. Sexual objectification increased such exposure for younger adolescents, but decreased exposure for older adolescents. In addition, adolescents' experience with genital touching as well as oral sex (only for adolescents aged 13-15) predicted their exposure to sexy self-presentations of others. These findings tentatively suggest that the influence on adolescents' sexual attitudes previously found for sexual media content may not hold for sexy self-presentations on social network sites. However, exposure to sexy self-presentations on social network sites is motivated by adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavior, especially among young adolescents. PMID:25287000

  2. Sexual Behavior in High-Functioning Male Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellemans, Hans; Colson, Kathy; Verbraeken, Christine; Vermeiren, Robert; Deboutte, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    Group home caregivers of 24 institutionalized, male, high-functioning adolescents and young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder, were interviewed with the Interview Sexuality Autism. Most subjects were reported to express sexual interest and to display some kind of sexual behavior. Knowledge of socio-sexual skills existed, but practical use was…

  3. Adolescent Sexuality and Positive Well-Being: A Group-Norms Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrangalova, Zhana; Savin-Williams, Ritch C.

    2011-01-01

    The link between adolescent sexual activity and psychological well-being is a controversial issue in developmental psychology. This cross-sectional study investigated the association between three aspects of teenage sexuality (genital sexual experience, age of sexual onset, and number of sex partners) and positive well-being (hedonic, eudaimonic,…

  4. Association of "Macho Man" Sexual Attitudes and Behavioral Risks in Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Ellen Johnson; Bauman, Laurie J.

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether sexual attitudes of adolescents were related to their self-reported sexual risk behavior by analyzing survey data from 1,052 boys and girls aged 14 to 17 years from a low income, urban community. Sexual behavior norms that may increase sexually transmitted infection/HIV risks in youth were sanctioned more by males and by…

  5. Alternative methods in the investigation of adolescents' sexual life.

    PubMed

    Michaud, P A; Narring, F; Ferron, C

    1999-07-01

    This is a study, conducted among 4283 teenagers aged 16-20 years, describing two methodological approaches in surveying adolescents' sexual life, which were combined within a national survey. A computerized questionnaire was used. The sequence, contents, and wordings of the questions were based on the analysis of role-playing by 10 adolescents in a 5-day workshop. The tree-like structure of the questionnaire led each respondent from one module to another as questions were adjusted according to respondent's stage of development and type of sexual experiences. 2075 of the respondents were girls; 2208 were boys. 7.6% did not finish the questionnaire due to its length. It was found that by age 18 more than 50% of the sample were sexually active. Half of this segment discussed contraception before engaging in their first act of sexual intercourse, and a majority of them used condoms. However, only 14-35% discussed issues concerning HIV transmission. The participation of young people in the design of the questionnaire produced an enormous amount of usable information and increased the acceptability of the survey to the respondents. Moreover, it reduced the influence of professionals' perceptions, which tends to bias the concept of the survey as well as the sequence and wording of the questions. Role-playing produced more creative and spontaneous materials for the survey. This kind questionnaire is advantageous as a general model. Firstly, it strengthens the feeling of confidentiality; secondly, the focus group and role-playing approach in association with computerization favors a qualitative, flexible, and contextual approach to adolescents' sexuality.

  6. Starting young: sexual initiation and HIV prevention in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Dixon-Mueller, Ruth

    2009-02-01

    The rising numbers of new HIV infections among young people ages 15-24 in many developing countries, especially among young women, signal an urgent need to identify and respond programmatically to behaviors and situations that contribute to the spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in early adolescence. Quantitative and qualitative studies of the sexual knowledge and practices of adolescents age 14 and younger reveal that substantial numbers of boys and girls in many countries engage in unprotected heterosexual vaginal intercourse--by choice or coercion--before their 15th birthdays. Early initiation into male-male or male-female oral and/or anal sex is also documented in some populations. Educational, health, and social programs must reach 10-14-year-olds as well as older adolescents with the information, skills, services, and supplies (condoms, contraceptives) they need to negotiate their own protection from unwanted and/or unsafe sexual practices and to respect the rights of others. PMID:18389362

  7. Gender Role Orientation and Anxiety Symptoms among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palapattu, Anuradha G.; Kingery, Julie Newman; Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2006-01-01

    The present study evaluated gender role theory as an explanation for the observed gender differences in anxiety symptoms among adolescents. Specifically, the relation between gender, gender role orientation (i.e., masculinity and femininity), self-esteem, and anxiety symptoms was examined in a community sample of 114 African Americans aged 14 to…

  8. Young women's narratives of same-sex sexual desire in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Logan, Corinne; Buchanan, Marla

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate young women's retrospective narratives of their experiences of same-sex sexual desire in adolescence. Seven women aged 19-25 were interviewed. An across-narrative analysis was conducted, producing five major themes. It is anticipated that this research will help to redress the missing discourse of desire in social constructions of younger women's sexuality and contribute to the development of knowledge and research related to queer female adolescent sexuality and sexual health.

  9. Safer sexual decision making in adolescent women: perspectives from the conflict theory of decision-making.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Kathryn B; Rew, Lynn

    2003-01-01

    Adolescent women are at risk for unintended pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases, including human immune deficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency deficiency syndrome (AIDS), if they do not engage in safer sexual practices. Adolescent women are biologically, behaviorally, and socially more at risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and HIV than adolescent men. Although abstinence is the safest sexual health practice for adolescent women, once sexual activity begins, safer sexual practices involve condom and contraceptive use, and communicating with sexual partners to negotiate condom use. A number of implicit and explicit decisions are involved in these activities. A number of researchers have examined safer sexual decisions of adolescent women, some of whom have used theory models such as the Transtheoretical Model of Change. Although these findings have contributed to the knowledge base about safer sexual decision making, many questions remain unanswered about how adolescent women make safer sexual decisions. The Conflict Model of Decision Making is presented and discussed as a framework for enhanced understanding of safer sexual decision making by adolescent women.

  10. Sexual decision making in young black adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Pete, J M; DeSantis, L

    1990-01-01

    Participant observation and a questionnaire guide were used to conduct in-depth interviews with five 14-year-old, black, pregnant or recently delivered girls to obtain a broad and detailed view of perceptions and interpretations of the factors that led to the initiation of sexual activity and the decision to maintain the pregnancy that resulted. Four key and several supporting factors that influenced the girls' sexual decisions emerged from the data. The key factors centered around the girls' attempt to establish a relationship based on trust, a belief in their lack of vulnerability to become pregnant, family structure, and their beliefs about the alternatives available once a pregnancy was confirmed. Some of the findings were consistent with those reported in the literature, while others were not. Further research is needed on the father of the infant as well as the mother of the adolescent girl to assess their perceptions of the factors they believe influence teenagers' sexual decisions. PMID:2333793

  11. “Sexting” and its relation to sexual activity and sexual risk behavior in a national survey of adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ybarra, Michele L.; Mitchell, Kimberly J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the relation between “sexting,” (sending and sharing sexual photos online via text messaging and in-person) with sexual risk behaviors and psychosocial challenge in adolescence. Methods Data were collected online between 2010 and 2011 with 3,715 randomly selected 13- to 18-year-old youth across the United States. Results Seven percent of youth reported sending or showing someone sexual pictures of themselves, where they were nude or nearly nude, online, via text messaging, or in-person, during the past year. Although females and older youth were more likely to share sexual photos than males and younger youth, the profile of psychosocial challenge and sexual behavior was similar for all youth. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, sharing sexual photos was associated with all types of sexual behaviors assessed (e.g., oral sex, vaginal sex) as well as some of the risky sexual behaviors examined—particularly having concurrent sexual partners and having more past-year sexual partners. Adolescents who shared sexual photos also were more likely to use substances and less likely to have high self-esteem than their demographically similar peers. Conclusions While the media has portrayed “sexting” as a problem caused by new technology, health professionals may be more effective by approaching it as an aspect of adolescent sexual development and exploration and, in some cases, risk-taking and psychosocial challenge. PMID:25266148

  12. Teachers' perspectives on sexual and reproductive health interventions for in-school adolescents in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Aransiola, Joshua O; Asa, Sola; Obinjuwa, Patience; Olarewaju, Oluseyi; Ojo, Olubukola O; Fatusi, Adesegun O

    2013-12-01

    High prevalence of early and unprotected sex, resulting in adverse reproductive health outcomes, has been reported among adolescents in Nigeria. While school-based sexual and reproductive health interventions for in-school adolescents is widely recognized, little is known on the kind of involvements desired by teachers and their perceptions of handling students' reproductive health concerns. In this study, the teachers favoured school-based reproductive health education (RHE), but have divers' opinions on what should be included in such RHE. Majority was not willing or comfortable in personal counseling of students but can teach RHE in classroom environment. They support the current approach of expelling pregnant school girls. The article advocates for gender-sensitive and developmental-oriented approaches that will ensure rehabilitation and re-integration of pregnant girls into the school system after their delivery, and recommend the need to build teachers skills and promote students-teachers dialogue in order to optimize school environment for addressing ASRH.

  13. Mostly Heterosexual as a Distinct Sexual Orientation Group: A Systematic Review of the Empirical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savin-Williams, Ritch C.; Vrangalova, Zhana

    2013-01-01

    We reviewed empirical evidence regarding whether mostly heterosexual exists as a sexual orientation distinct from two adjacent groups on a sexual continuum--exclusively heterosexual and substantially bisexual. We addressed the question: Do mostly heterosexuals show a unique profile of sexual and romantic characteristics that distinguishes them as…

  14. Sexual Socialisation in Life Orientation Manuals versus Popular Music: Responsibilisation versus Pleasure, Tension and Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macleod, Catriona; Moodley, Dale; Young, Lisa Saville

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares two forms of sexual socialisation to which learners are exposed: the sexuality education components of the Life Orientation (LO) manuals and the lyrical content and videos of popular songs. We performed a textual analysis of the sexual subject positions made available in, first, the LO manuals used in Grade 10 classes and,…

  15. Relationship Status, Psychological Orientation, and Sexual Risk Taking in a Heterosexual African American College Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winfield, Evelyn B.; Whaley, Arthur L.

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined relationship status, psychological orientation toward sexual risk taking, and other characteristics as potential correlates of risky sexual behavior in a sample of 223 heterosexual African American college students. Risky sexual behavior was investigated as a multinomial variable (i.e., abstinence, consistent condom use,…

  16. Anxiety and Depression in Breast Cancer Survivors of Different Sexual Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehmer, Ulrike; Glickman, Mark; Winter, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We conducted a study comparing anxiety and depression by sexual orientation in long-term breast cancer survivors, testing the hypothesis that sexual minority women (e.g., lesbian and bisexual women) have greater levels of anxiety and depression. Method: From a state cancer registry, we recruited 257 heterosexual and 69 sexual minority…

  17. The influence of sexual orientation on vowel production (L)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierrehumbert, Janet B.; Bent, Tessa; Munson, Benjamin; Bradlow, Ann R.; Bailey, J. Michael

    2004-10-01

    Vowel production in gay, lesbian, bisexual (GLB), and heterosexual speakers was examined. Differences in the acoustic characteristics of vowels were found as a function of sexual orientation. Lesbian and bisexual women produced less fronted /u/ and /opena/ than heterosexual women. Gay men produced a more expanded vowel space than heterosexual men. However, the vowels of GLB speakers were not generally shifted toward vowel patterns typical of the opposite sex. These results are inconsistent with the conjecture that innate biological factors have a broadly feminizing influence on the speech of gay men and a broadly masculinizing influence on the speech of lesbian/bisexual women. They are consistent with the idea that innate biological factors influence GLB speech patterns indirectly by causing selective adoption of certain speech patterns characteristic of the opposite sex. .

  18. Sexual Orientation Biases Attentional Control: A Possible Gaydar Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Colzato, Lorenza S.; van Hooidonk, Linda; van den Wildenberg, Wery P. M.; Harinck, Fieke; Hommel, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    Homosexuals are believed to have a “sixth sense” for recognizing each other, an ability referred to as gaydar. We considered that being a homosexual might rely on systematic practice of processing relatively specific, local perceptual features, which might lead to a corresponding chronic bias of attentional control. This was tested by comparing male and female homosexuals and heterosexuals – brought up in the same country and culture and matched in terms of race, intelligence, sex, mood, age, personality, religious background, educational style, and socio-economic situation – in their efficiency to process global and local features of hierarchically-constructed visual stimuli. Both homosexuals and heterosexuals showed better performance on global features – the standard global precedence effect. However, this effect was significantly reduced in homosexuals, suggesting a relative preference for detail. Findings are taken to demonstrate chronic, generalized biases in attentional control parameters that reflect the selective reward provided by the respective sexual orientation. PMID:21607070

  19. Expanding the Concept of Diversity: Discussing Sexual Orientation in the Management Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuarrie, Fiona A. E.

    1998-01-01

    Versions of a case study with a homosexual and a heterosexual protagonist in an organizational behavior course resulted in different student reactions to issues of sexual orientation in the workplace. Misconceptions about AIDS/HIV and discomfort in talking about sexual orientation and homophobia were evident. (SK)

  20. The Acoustic Correlates of Perceived Masculinity, Perceived Femininity, and Perceived Sexual Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munson, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that a subset of gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) and heterosexual adults produce distinctive patterns of phonetic variation that allow listeners to detect their sexual orientation from audio-only samples of read speech. The current investigation examined the extent to which judgments of sexual orientation from speech…

  1. Multilevel Analysis of the Effects of Antidiscrimination Policies on Earnings by Sexual Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klawitter, Marieka

    2011-01-01

    This study uses the 2000 U.S. Census data to assess the impact of antidiscrimination policies for sexual orientation on earnings for gays and lesbians. Using a multilevel model allows estimation of the effects of state and local policies on earnings and of variation in the effects of sexual orientation across local labor markets. The results…

  2. Teachers, Sexual Orientation, and the Law in Canada: A Human Rights Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Elizabeth J.

    2010-01-01

    Teacher expression on the subject of sexual orientation is a hotly contested topic that has led to many recent legal challenges in the United States and Canada. The purpose of this article is to offer readers an introduction to Canadian cases regarding teacher expression and sexual orientation and demonstrate how the application of a human rights…

  3. Implementing School Policies That Include Sexual Orientation: A Case Study in School and Community Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macgillivray, Ian K.

    This paper highlights factors that either facilitated or hampered the work of a local Safe Schools Coalition in a Rocky Mountain state in advocating adoption and implementation of their school district's policies that include sexual orientation. Non-discrimination policies that include sexual orientation and gender identity are needed to help stop…

  4. The Impact of Sexual of Orientation and Gender Expression Bias on African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majied, Kamilah F.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses sexual orientation and gender expression bias as they impact the educational experience of African American students. Sexual orientation and gender expression bias have a unique presentation in Black educational settings. The climate in such settings can be metagrobolized by the combination of distorted notions of Black…

  5. Sex, Sexual Orientation, and Identification of Positive and Negative Facial Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Qazi; Wilson, Glenn D.; Abrahams, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    Sex and sexual orientation related differences in processing of happy and sad facial emotions were examined using an experimental facial emotion recognition paradigm with a large sample (N=240). Analysis of covariance (controlling for age and IQ) revealed that women (irrespective of sexual orientation) had faster reaction times than men for…

  6. Science Meets Practice in Determining Effectiveness of Sexual Orientation Change Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Kristin A.; Gock, Terry S.; Haldeman, Douglas C.

    2012-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Guidelines for psychological practice with lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients," by the American Psychological Association. Guideline 3 of the acknowledges the diversity of human sexual orientation and that "efforts to change sexual orientation have not been shown to be effective or safe" (p. 14). As noted in the…

  7. Role of Sexual Orientation and Gender-Related Traits in Disordered Eating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakkis, Jacqueline; Ricciardelli, Lina A.; Williams, Robert J.

    1999-01-01

    Examined the role of sexual orientation and gender-related personality traits in disordered eating attitudes and behavior in Australia. Self-report measures of homosexual and heterosexual males and females indicated that both sexual orientation and gender traits affected disordered eating in men and women. For both genders, irrespective of sexual…

  8. Nonmedical Use of Prescription Drugs by College Students with Minority Sexual Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duryea, Daniel G.; Calleja, Nancy G.; MacDonald, Douglas A.

    2015-01-01

    Results from the 2009 "National College Health Assessment" were analyzed by gender and sexual orientation for college students' nonmedical use of prescription drugs. Male and female students identified as having a minority sexual orientation (gay or bisexual) were significantly more likely to use nonmedical prescription drugs than…

  9. Feared, Forgotten, or Forbidden: Sexual Orientation Topics in Secondary Teacher Preparation Programs in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherwin, Gary; Jennings, Todd

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the coverage of sexual orientation topics within 77 public university secondary teacher preparation programs across seven US states, and represented programs preparing 8,300-11,500 teachers annually. Findings indicated that 40% of programs did not address sexual orientation as a diversity topic. Further, even programs that did…

  10. Out of the Closet and into the Network: Sexual Orientation and the Computerized Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Jonathon

    1997-01-01

    Examines ways that issues of sexual orientation can successfully be taught in the computer-assisted composition classroom. Shows how both gay and straight students can benefit from online and networked discussions of sexual orientation. Suggests that computerized learning-spaces offer possibilities for open discussion not available in conventional…

  11. Effects of sex, sexual orientation, infidelity expectations, and love on distress related to emotional and sexual infidelity.

    PubMed

    Leeker, Olivia; Carlozzi, Al

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of participant sex, sexual orientation, infidelity expectations, and love on emotional responses to emotional and sexual infidelity. Participants (72 lesbian women, 114 heterosexual women, 53 gay men, and 57 heterosexual men) completed a demographic form, continuous emotion ratings in response to hypothetical infidelity scenarios, the Infidelity Expectations Questionnaire (IEQ), and the Triangular Love Scale. Sex, sexual orientation, and commitment and intimacy among partners were significant predictors of various emotional responses to sexual and emotional infidelity. Alternatively, passion among partners and expectations about a partner's likelihood of committing infidelity were not significant predictors of emotional reactions to infidelity. Across participants, sexual infidelity elicited more distressing feelings than emotional infidelity. Group differences were also found, with women responding with stronger emotions to emotional and sexual infidelity than men, and heterosexuals rating emotional and sexual infidelity as more emotionally distressing than lesbian and gay individuals. Sex and sexual orientation differences emerged regarding the degree to which specific emotions were reported in response to sexual and emotional infidelity. Clinical implications are offered, including how mental health professionals might use these findings to help clients cope with the negative effects of infidelity on romantic relationships.

  12. [Sexual education of adolescents: a role for the family or the school?].

    PubMed

    Janeiro, José Manuel da Silva Vilelas

    2008-09-01

    The change from extended to nuclear families, the growing influence of the media on masses, the unhealthy lifestyles adopted by adolescents, weakened family ties stress the important role of education, particularly sexual education, today. A descriptive-correlational study was carried out to analyze the influence of the school and the family on the process of adolescent sexual education. A sample of 109 individuals was assessed. The following instruments were used: semi-structured interview, Parental Bonding Instrumen, and Sexual Attitude Scale. The results showed that the first sexual intercourse was by the age of 14, and that teachers and adolescents believed that the family is a safe and sufficient source of sexual education. These data highlight the need of schools and families to work together with the adolescents, providing information and skills for responsible sexual health in adolescence.

  13. Age of Partner at First Adolescent Intercourse and Adult Sexual Risk Behavior Among Women

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Adolescent females who have early sexual experiences with older male partners report high rates of sexual risk behavior during adolescence, but little is known about whether these early sexual experiences are associated with adult sexual risk behavior. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether having first consensual sex with an older partner was associated with sexual risk behavior in adulthood. Methods Participants were 292 women (66% African American, mean age = 26 years) attending a public sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic who reported having voluntary vaginal sex before age 18. Participants completed a computerized survey assessing child/adolescent sexual experiences and current adult sexual risk behavior. Results Participants were, on average, 14.6 years at first vaginal intercourse; their partners were, on average, 17.5 years. After controlling for covariates, a greater partner age difference at first intercourse was associated with more episodes of unprotected sex with a steady partner and a greater proportion of episodes of unprotected sex with a steady partner in the past 3 months. Conclusions Having an older first sex partner during adolescence was associated with sexual risk behavior in adulthood. Early sexual experiences may be important life events that influence subsequent sexual behavior. Sexual health interventions need to target female adolescents before they initiate sexual intercourse to reduce risk for STDs and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. PMID:21128817

  14. Is sexual behavior healthy for adolescents? A conceptual framework for research on adolescent sexual behavior and physical, mental, and social health.

    PubMed

    Vasilenko, Sara A; Lefkowitz, Eva S; Welsh, Deborah P

    2014-01-01

    Although research has increasingly emphasized how adolescent sexual behavior may be associated with aspects of health beyond unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, no current theoretical or conceptual model fully explains associations between sexual behavior and multiple facets of health. We provide a conceptual model that explicates possible processes of how adolescent sexual behavior may influence physical, mental, and social health. Next, we review the current literature consistent with this conceptual model, demonstrating that although early sexual behavior can be associated with some negative outcomes, sex may be, on average, a positive experience in late adolescence. Finally, we discuss important future directions for research in these areas, including how individuals' attitudes about and perceptions of sexual behavior influence outcomes of sex.

  15. Training for the challenges of sexual violence against children and adolescents in four Brazilian capitals.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza; Silva, Raimunda Magalhães da; Cavalcanti, Ludmila Fontenele; Deslandes, Suely Ferreira

    2015-11-01

    This article analyzes the training offered to municipal public employees to confront sexual violence against children and adolescents in four Brazilian capitals. Based on a multiple case study, it focuses on the training programs offered in the 2010-2011 biennium by the municipal government for professionals and managers in the public health network. We analyzed 66 semi-structured interviews and written documents pertaining to the training actions. We observed an unequal investment among the capitals and a lack of specificity in the treatment of the themes. There is a considerable lack of institutional memory which complicates the analysis of professional training strategies. Healthcare was the field which trained their professionals the most, including the subject of notification in training content. We noted little investment in training oriented toward the prevention of violence and the promotion of protective relationships and links. We emphasized the inductive role of federal and state programs in the areas of Tourism and Education. Few initiatives included the participation of more than one public sector. We suggest the creation of a training plan about violence and the sexual rights of children and adolescents, and in particular about sexual violence.

  16. How women's sexual orientation guides accuracy of interpersonal judgements of other women.

    PubMed

    Ruben, Mollie A; Hill, Krista M; Hall, Judith A

    2014-01-01

    This research examines how women's sexual orientation guides the accuracy of judgements of other women. One hundred ten judges (67 straight and 43 lesbian women) watched videotapes of 9 targets (4 straight and 5 lesbian) and made judgements about the targets' thoughts, emotions, personality, and sexual orientation. Accuracy scores were created for each judge by comparing judgements to criterion data gathered about targets. Straight judges were significantly more accurate at judging thoughts and marginally more accurate at judging emotions compared to lesbian judges. There were no significant differences in judging personality. Straight targets' thoughts and personality were more easily assessed than lesbian targets' while lesbians' emotions were more easily judged than straight targets'. Lesbian judges were more accurate at judging sexual orientation regardless of their tendency to categorize women as lesbian compared to straight judges. Findings support past research on the accurate perception of sexual orientation and contribute to understanding how sexual orientation guides person perception.

  17. Strategies employed by sexual minority adolescents to cope with minority stress

    PubMed Central

    Goldbach, J.T.; Gibbs, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual minority adolescents (SMA) experience disparities in health and behavioral health outcomes, including high rates of depression, anxiety, self-harm, substance use, HIV risk behavior, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts. These outcomes are commonly attributed to minority stress. Stress experiences are different for SMA than their adult counterparts. For example, disclosing their sexual orientation may be more likely to result in homelessness because these youth more often live with parents or other family members. Although stress in this population has been explored in previous research, very little is known about how SMA cope. Relying upon an adolescent coping model, this study examined the coping strategies, responses, and resources of SMA related to stress. Forty-eight racially and ethnically diverse SMA (age 14–19) were recruited for 90-minute tape-recorded interviews. The semi-structured interviews were guided by a life history calendar. Recordings were transcribed verbatim and entered into QSR NVivo. All transcripts were coded by two members of the research team and went through a consensus process. Forty-three unique coping statements emerged that fit with the Compas model of adolescent coping. SMA cope with minority stress in similar ways to heterosexual youth coping with general stress, but findings suggest that SMA may also use different kinds of coping resources. Although further research is needed, the present study identified a variety of ways SMA cope with stress and can inform future research on the development interventions. PMID:26634221

  18. Somatic symptoms among US adolescent females: associations with sexual and physical violence exposure.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Tucker, Christine M; Bengtson, Angela; Kupper, Lawrence L; McLean, Samuel A; Martin, Sandra L

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the association between physical and sexual violence exposure and somatic symptoms among female adolescents. We studied a nationally representative sample of 8,531 females, aged 11-21 years, who participated in the 1994-1995 Wave I of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Female adolescents were asked how often they had experienced 16 specific somatic symptoms during the past 12 months. Two summary categorical measures were constructed based on tertiles of the distributions for the entire female sample: (a) total number of different types of symptoms experienced, and (b) number of frequent (once a week or more often) different symptoms experienced. Groups were mutually exclusive. We examined associations between adolescents' violence exposure and somatic symptoms using multinomial logistic regression analyses. About 5 % of adolescent females reported both sexual and non-sexual violence, 3 % reported sexual violence only, 36 % reported non-sexual violence only, and 57 % reported no violence. Adolescents who experienced both sexual and non-sexual violence were the most likely to report many different symptoms and to experience very frequent or chronic symptoms. Likelihood of high symptomatology was next highest among adolescents who experienced sexual violence only, followed by females who experienced non-sexual violence only. Findings support an exposure-response association between violence exposure and somatic symptoms, suggesting that symptoms can be markers of victimization. Treating symptoms alone, without addressing the potential violence experienced, may not adequately improve adolescents' somatic complaints and well-being.

  19. The Influence of Parental Communication and Perception of Peers on Adolescent Sexual Behavior.

    PubMed

    Sneed, Carl D; Tan, Huey Peing; Meyer, Jacob C

    2015-08-01

    The authors used the theory of planned behavior to examine the influence of parents and peers on early adolescent sexual attitudes, self-efficacy to limit sexual behavior, and behavioral intentions to have vaginal intercourse. Adolescents (N = 212) provided self-reports of their perception of parent and peer attitudes regarding sexual behavior. The authors used bivariate and regression analyses to examine the relation between parent and peer attitudes with adolescent sexual attitudes, self-efficacy to limit sexual behavior, and behavioral intentions to have vaginal intercourse. Although there were gender differences, the analyses revealed the importance of both parents and peers on adolescent sexual attitudes, self-efficacy to limit sexual behavior, and intentions to have vaginal sex in the next year.

  20. Sexual behaviour in Ligurian (Northern Italy) adolescents and young people: suggestions for HPV vaccination policies.

    PubMed

    Panatto, Donatella; Amicizia, Daniela; Lugarini, Jessica; Sasso, Tiziana; Sormani, Maria Pia; Badolati, Giuseppe; Gasparini, Roberto

    2009-05-29

    Human papillomavirus is a common sexually transmitted virus, and persistent infection with high-risk types is the necessary factor for cervical cancer. We investigated sexual behaviour and the age of the first sexual intercourse among young people (14-24 years) in Liguria (Northern Italy) in order to provide information that might orient the country's future vaccination policy. The Italian Authorities offer free vaccination to 12-year-old females, however a better prevention of HPV would to be implemented by introducing the vaccine to new cohorts of females after the first year of the vaccination campaign. Our survey was carried out from 1st May 2006 to 31st December 2007 and involved 3474 volunteers. We administered a written questionnaire to students (14-24 years) and workers (20-24 years). The median age+/-MAD of the sexual debut was 15+/-1 for both females and males in students group and 16+/-1 for both males and females in workers group. This study provides evidence that many Ligurian adolescents have their first sexual experience at a very early age, and often without protection against sexually transmitted diseases. Furthermore, a large percentage of all age-groups are sexually active and have multiple partners. The aim of this study was to identify those cohorts of females to whom vaccination should be offered free of charge. To this end, we calculated the percentage of infections that could be avoided by vaccination in each age-class: the younger the subjects, the higher the number of preventable infections. Our findings suggest that current HPV vaccination should be implemented by introducing new cohorts, especially young girls (14-16 years).

  1. Patterns of Body Image Concerns and Disordered Weight- and Shape-Related Behaviors in Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Adolescent Males

    PubMed Central

    Calzo, Jerel P.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Corliss, Heather L.; Scherer, Emily A.; Field, Alison E.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates body image concerns and disordered weight- and shape-related behaviors across adolescence and young adulthood in males and how patterns vary by sexual orientation. Participants were 5,388 males from the US national Growing Up Today Study. In 2001, 2003, and 2005 (spanning ages 15–20 years) participants reported sexual orientation, past-year desire for toned/defined muscles and concerns with weight and shape, and past-year binge eating, restrictive dieting, purging (vomiting or laxative use) and use of products to increase muscularity (e.g., creatine, steroids). Latent class analyses identified two patterns at ages 15–16 years and three patterns at 17–18 and 19–20 years: Healthy (all ages; low body image concerns and weight-and shape-related behaviors; 54%–74% of observations), Muscle-Concerned (ages 17–18 and 19– 20; relatively high muscularity concern and product use; 18%–21% of observations), and Lean-Concerned (all ages; relatively high weight and shape concern, dieting, and binge eating; 19%– 28% of observations). Latent transition analyses revealed that sexual minority males (i.e., mostly heterosexual, gay, and bisexual) were more likely than completely heterosexual males to be Lean-Concerned at ages 17–18 and 19–20 years and to transition to the Lean-Concerned class from the Healthy class. There were no sexual orientation differences in odds of being Muscle-Concerned. Both heterosexual and sexual minority males are at risk for presenting body image concerns and weight- and shape-related behaviors that may have deleterious health consequences. Results suggest the need for screening for concerns and behaviors related to leanness and muscularity in early adolescence among all males, regardless of sexual orientation. PMID:26098578

  2. Sexual Orientation, Parental Support, and Health during the Transition to Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needham, Belinda L.; Austin, Erika L.

    2010-01-01

    Some recent studies suggest that sexual minorities may have worse health-related outcomes during adolescence because they report lower levels of family connectedness, a key protective resource. Using data from wave 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 11,153; 50.6% female; mean age = 21.8 years), this study extends prior…

  3. [Ethic evaluation of sexual health programs on adolescence].

    PubMed

    Jara Rascón, José; Alonso Sandoica, Esmeralda

    2011-01-01

    In public health services, the interest in sexuality seems to turning from traditional topics such as potential treatments for male erectile dysfunction, psychosomatic disorders, the control of premature ejaculation and contraception. Instead, an increasingly prominent role is being given to prevention strategies carried out by means of campaigns or through sexual health programme sin schools. The different teaching strategies that underlie these programmes, which in many cases lack social consensus but are often promoted by international organizations such as WHO or UNESCO, reveal not only divergent ethical conceptions and worldviews on the meaning of sexuality, but also conflicting starting points, means and goals, focusing either on barrier-contraceptive methods or on sexual abstinence and personal responsibility. There is therefore a pressing need to understand the scientific evidence underlying each educational approach and the ethical postulates of each pedagogical proposal. This paper presents an outline of a six-point adolescent sexuality education program, which is respectful of individuals' ethical convictions. Given that few works on preventive medicine issues include an ethical evaluation of the steps followed in their development, this article also proposes a systematic evaluation of strategies for sexual health in the community that is developed through four steps verifying the following aspects: 1) the accuracy of information, 2) the level of evidence, 3) efficiency and 4) non-maleficence about the target population of each health program. The methodology used in these sexual health programs is another aspect that will verify their ethical consistence or, conversely, their absence of ethical values. We emphasize the duty of designers of programme for children not to carry then out against the will of their parents or tutors, and not conceal sensitive and relevant information.

  4. [Ethic evaluation of sexual health programs on adolescence].

    PubMed

    Jara Rascón, José; Alonso Sandoica, Esmeralda

    2011-01-01

    In public health services, the interest in sexuality seems to turning from traditional topics such as potential treatments for male erectile dysfunction, psychosomatic disorders, the control of premature ejaculation and contraception. Instead, an increasingly prominent role is being given to prevention strategies carried out by means of campaigns or through sexual health programme sin schools. The different teaching strategies that underlie these programmes, which in many cases lack social consensus but are often promoted by international organizations such as WHO or UNESCO, reveal not only divergent ethical conceptions and worldviews on the meaning of sexuality, but also conflicting starting points, means and goals, focusing either on barrier-contraceptive methods or on sexual abstinence and personal responsibility. There is therefore a pressing need to understand the scientific evidence underlying each educational approach and the ethical postulates of each pedagogical proposal. This paper presents an outline of a six-point adolescent sexuality education program, which is respectful of individuals' ethical convictions. Given that few works on preventive medicine issues include an ethical evaluation of the steps followed in their development, this article also proposes a systematic evaluation of strategies for sexual health in the community that is developed through four steps verifying the following aspects: 1) the accuracy of information, 2) the level of evidence, 3) efficiency and 4) non-maleficence about the target population of each health program. The methodology used in these sexual health programs is another aspect that will verify their ethical consistence or, conversely, their absence of ethical values. We emphasize the duty of designers of programme for children not to carry then out against the will of their parents or tutors, and not conceal sensitive and relevant information. PMID:21692555

  5. [Ineffective sexuality pattern in an adolescent: nursing approach in primary health care].

    PubMed

    Martín-García, Angel; Oter-Quintana, Cristina; Brito-Brito, Pedro Ruymán; Martín-Iglesias, Susana; Alcolea-Cosín, M Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent is a phase of continual physiological, psychological and social adaptation. It is during this time that young people tend to have their first sexual experiences. Sexual dysfunctions are characterized by important clinical changes in sexual desire and/or by psycho-physiological changes in the sexual response cycle. Premature ejaculation is one of the most frequent sexual dysfunction amongst men, with a higher prevalence in the younger population compared to other populations. The clinical case is presented of a 17 year-old male who experienced difficulties during his sexual relations. It is discussed whether his condition was a sexual dysfunction or ineffective sexual pattern. The care plan which was developed in nursing consultation was described for ineffective sexual pattern; the pending nursing treatment incorporated activities recommended by scientific evidence. Finally, the role of primary health care nursing professionals is pointed out in the detection and approach of sexual problems in adolescents.

  6. A Survey of Current Knowledge on Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Sexual Behaviour in Italian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Drago, Francesco; Ciccarese, Giulia; Zangrillo, Francesca; Gasparini, Giulia; Cogorno, Ludovica; Riva, Silvia; Javor, Sanja; Cozzani, Emanuele; Broccolo, Francesco; Esposito, Susanna; Parodi, Aurora

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, 500 million people a year acquire a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Adolescents, accounting for 25% of the sexually active population, are the most affected. To analyze sexual behavior among Italian adolescents and their knowledge of STDs, with the goal of preventing their transmission, a questionnaire was administered to 2867 secondary school students (1271 males and 1596 females) aged 14–21 years. For the study, 1492 students were interviewed in Genoa (Northern Italy) and 1375 in Lecce (Southern Italy). For 37% of the respondents, parents and teachers were the main source of information on sex, and 95% believed that school should play the primary role in sex education. However, only 9% considered the sex education they received in school good. Noteworthy, only 0.5% of the teenagers recognized the sexually transmitted diseases from a list of diseases, and 54% of them did not know what a Pap test was. Confusion about the meaning of contraception and prevention was evident; only 22% knew that condoms and abstinence are the only methods for preventing STDs. Finally, a consistent number of students are exposed to risk factors for STDs transmission; e.g., alcohol and recreational drug use, promiscuity and improper condom use. On the basis of our study, there is an urgent need for the introduction of sex education as a proper subject in Italian schools. PMID:27089354

  7. A Latent Class Analysis of Maternal Responsiveness and Autonomy-Granting in Early Adolescence: Prediction to Later Adolescent Sexual Risk-Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanza, H. Isabella; Huang, David Y. C.; Murphy, Debra A.; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2013-01-01

    The present study sought to extend empirical inquiry related to the role of parenting on adolescent sexual risk-taking by using latent class analysis (LCA) to identify patterns of adolescent-reported mother responsiveness and autonomy-granting in early adolescence and examine associations with sexual risk-taking in mid- and late-adolescence.…

  8. Adolescent sexual risk and multiple contexts: interpersonal violence, parenting, and poverty.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Kathleen Boyce; McGuire, Jenifer K

    2012-07-01

    In this study we estimated the combined effects of violence experiences, parenting processes, and community poverty on sexual onset, alcohol or other drug (AOD) use at last sex, multiple sex partners, and prior pregnancy in a sample of 7th-, 9th-, and 11th-grade adolescents (n = 7,891), and the subsample of sexually experienced adolescents (n = 2,108). Multilevel multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that having experienced any interpersonal violence, and low levels of perceived parental warmth and parental knowledge predicted sexual onset. Adult sexual abuse or peer sexual coercion increased the odds for AOD use at last sex and having multiple sexual partners. When demographic, violence experiences and parenting behaviors were accounted for, poverty was not associated with sexual onset, AOD use at last sex, or multiple sex partners. Results suggest prevention efforts to reduce teen dating violence may be especially important to diminish sexually risky behaviors among adolescents.

  9. Non-disclosure of Sexual Orientation to Parents Associated with Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Gay and Bisexual MSM in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ye; Ma, Ying; Chen, Ren; Li, Feng; Qin, Xia; Hu, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between non-disclosure of sexual orientation to parents and sexual risk behaviors among gay and bisexual men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. A total of 295 eligible participants (gay n = 179, bisexual n = 116) were recruited from MSM venues and MSM organizations in Anhui Province, China. Overall, 16.6 % of participants chose to disclose their sexual orientation to parents. Fewer bisexual participants chose to disclose their sexual orientation than gay participants (9.5 vs. 21.2 %, p < 0.01). A multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that non-disclosers were more likely than disclosers to report having one or more female sex partners among gay and bisexual MSM (AOR = 2.91), non-disclosure of sexual orientation to parents was positively associated with the number of female sex partners (AOR = 3.40) and with engagement in unprotected anal intercourse with men (AOR = 2.49) among gay MSM, in the past 6 months. Our findings indicated that HIV/AIDS intervention programs should promote the disclosure of sexual orientation and should design interventions specific to gay and bisexual MSM separately.

  10. 77 FR 5661 - Equal Access to Housing in HUD Programs Regardless of Sexual Orientation or Gender Identity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... or sexual orientation. Those commenters proposed adding language that clearly prevents discrimination... experiences discrimination in the form of sexual harassment. Sexual harassment is illegal under the Fair... to prohibit harassment and disparate treatment on the basis of sexual orientation or gender...

  11. [Sexual and reproductive rights during adolescence: UN-Brazil interactions].

    PubMed

    de Moraes, Silvia Piedade; Vitalle, Maria Sylvia de Souza

    2015-08-01

    The scope of this article is to describe the international documents of the UN and laws passed in Brazil from 1950 onwards focusing on sexual and reproductive rights during adolescence. It involved a descriptive study by consulting the official website of the UN organ entitled the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean and sites of the President of the Republic, Ministry of Health and Education and the Virtual Health Library. The documents were organized from 1950 to 2010 with an emphasis on sexual and reproductive rights and adolescence. Ten conferences were found within the scope of the UN: six conferences on Population and Development, two on Human Rights, one on the Rights of the Child and another on the Millennium Development Goals. Thirty-two documents were found in the field of national legislation (four decrees, thirteen federal laws, three technical norms, two ordinances, three resolutions, a technical note and six programs). The role of the UN and Brazil in consolidating the broad concept of sexual and reproductive rights has made significant progress, however greater achievements in the area of reproductive rights still prevail.

  12. Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse by Adolescents: A Qualitative In-Depth Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonbucher, Verena; Maier, Thomas; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Schnyder, Ulrich; Landolt, Markus A.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to study the process of disclosure by examining adolescents from the general population who had experienced child sexual abuse (CSA). Twenty-six sexually victimized adolescents (23 girls, 3 boys; age: 15-18 years) participated in a qualitative face-to-face in-depth interview on different aspects of disclosure. A…

  13. An Exploratory Study of Practitioner Experiences of Sexual Addiction among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Jason D.

    2012-01-01

    Sexual addiction is increasingly being discussed by professionals and the lay public, and these conversations have begun to focus on adolescents as a special treatment population. At the same time, limited literature is available on the subject and practitioners currently working with sexual addiction among adolescents (SA-A) report the need for…

  14. Adolescent Sexual Risk and Multiple Contexts: Interpersonal Violence, Parenting, and Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Kathleen Boyce; McGuire, Jenifer K.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we estimated the combined effects of violence experiences, parenting processes, and community poverty on sexual onset, alcohol or other drug (AOD) use at last sex, multiple sex partners, and prior pregnancy in a sample of 7th-, 9th-, and 11th-grade adolescents (n = 7,891), and the subsample of sexually experienced adolescents (n =…

  15. Family Mediators of Acculturation and Adolescent Sexual Behavior among Latino Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Bouris, Alida; Jaccard, James; Lesesne, Catherine A.; Gonzalez, Bernardo; Kalogerogiannis, Kosta

    2009-01-01

    The present study develops and evaluates a theoretical framework of mediators of the relationship between acculturation and adolescent sexual behavior. Four hundred Latino mother-adolescent dyads from the Bronx, New York were interviewed. The study explored the relationship between intentions to have sexual intercourse and explanatory variables…

  16. Maltreatment and Depression in Adolescent Sexual Offenders with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Jessica Bleil; Hughes, Tammy L.; Sutton, Lawrence R.; Marshall, Stephanie N.; Crothers, Laura M.; Lehman, Cathryn; Paserba, Dave; Talkington, Vanessa; Taormina, Rochelle; Huang, Ann

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the self-reported presence and severity of abuse, neglect, and depressive symptoms for 43 adolescents adjudicated delinquent due to a sexual offense. Twenty-seven of the adolescent sexual offenders were also diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder, and 16 did not carry an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis. Both groups…

  17. Family Type as a Predictor of Sexual Intercourse and Alcohol Use in Young Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manners, Pamela; Smart, David

    Several authors have investigated the relationship among family variables and adolescent sexual behavior and young adolescents' use of alcohol has also been studied as it relates to family factors and sexual activity. This research is based on data from the second year of a six-year longitudinal study, which explores psychosocial and demographic…

  18. Correspondence between Gonadal Steroid Hormone Concentrations and Secondary Sexual Characteristics Assessed by Clinicians, Adolescents, and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Bin; Hillman, Jennifer; Biro, Frank M.; Ding, Lili; Dorn, Lorah D.; Susman, Elizabeth J.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent sexual maturation is staged using Tanner criteria assessed by clinicians, parents, or adolescents. The physiology of sexual maturation is driven by gonadal hormones. We investigate Tanner stage progression as a function of increasing gonadal hormone concentration and compare performances of different raters. Fifty-six boys (mean age,…

  19. You and Me and Human Sexuality: A Student Booklet Written for Deaf Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas School for the Deaf, Austin.

    This student booklet, designed to teach deaf adolescents about human sexuality, is written for students with a second- to fourth-grade reading level. Topics include: (1) relationships; (2) adolescent growth and development; (3) female and male anatomy; (4) conception, fetal development, and birth; (5) contraception; and (6) sexual intercourse and…

  20. Bidirectional Linkages between Psychological Symptoms and Sexual Activities among African American Adolescent Girls in Psychiatric Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Lisa R.; Donenberg, Geri R.; Emerson, Erin

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines longitudinal associations between light and heavy sexual experiences and psychiatric symptoms in African American adolescent girls receiving mental health care. Research supports bidirectional associations between adolescent romantic and sexual behaviors and depression and other mental health problems, but this finding…

  1. Methamphetamine Use Is Independently Associated with Recent Risky Sexual Behaviors and Adolescent Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zapata, Lauren B.; Hillis, Susan D.; Marchbanks; Polly A.; Curtis, Kathryn M.; Lowry, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Background: Lifetime methamphetamine use among adolescents is estimated to be between 5% and 10%. Youth substance use in general is known to be associated with risky sexual behaviors, but the effect of methamphetamine use on recent risky sexual behaviors and adolescent pregnancy has received little attention. The purpose of this analysis was to…

  2. Contextual and Intrapersonal Predictors of Adolescent Risky Sexual Behavior and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shneyderman, Yuliya; Schwartz, Seth J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to test a model of contextual and intrapersonal predictors of adolescent risky sexual behaviors and of sexually transmitted infection diagnoses. Using Waves I and II from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the authors estimated a structural model in which intrapersonal factors such as…

  3. A Theater-Based Approach to Primary Prevention of Sexual Behavior for Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Lisa D.; Berlin, Cydelle; Palen, Lori-Ann; Ashley, Olivia Silber

    2012-01-01

    Early adolescence is a crucial period for preventing teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. This study evaluated STAR LO, a theater-based intervention designed to affect antecedents of sexual activity among urban early adolescents (N = 1,143). Public elementary/middle schools received the intervention or served as a wait-listed…

  4. Sexuality in Adolescent Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-Reported Behaviours and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewinter, Jeroen; Vermeiren, Robert; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Lobbestael, Jill; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2015-01-01

    Differences in sexual functioning of adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are understudied. In the current study, self-reported sexual behaviours, interests and attitudes of 50 adolescent boys, aged 15-18, with at least average intelligence and diagnosed with ASD, were compared with a matched general population control group…

  5. Child Sexual Abuse Consequences in Community Samples of Latino and European American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcomb, Michael D.; Munoz, David T.; Carmona, Jennifer Vargas

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Research investigating the impact of child sexual abuse (CSA) in community samples of adolescents has been limited. This study aims to identify sexual abuse among ethnically diverse high school adolescents of both genders and evaluate their psycho-emotional consequences. Method: Through the use of self-report instruments, a sample of…

  6. Adolescents Who Have Sexually Harmed: An Evaluation of a Specialist Treatment Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Rachel; Whittaker, Mette Kristensen; Beckett, Richard; Bishopp, Daz; Bates, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Little research has been conducted to date exploring the extent to which treatment can impact upon dynamic factors thought to be related to sexually harmful behaviour in adolescents. This study explores the within-treatment change in a group of adolescent males who have sexually harmed. Pre- and post-treatment psychometric data for 34 participants…

  7. Prevalence and Psychosocial Correlates of Forced Sexual Intercourse among U.S. High School Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Donna E.; Wang, Min Qi; Yan, Fang

    2007-01-01

    Although a history of forced sexual intercourse affects a relatively small number of U.S. adolescents, it is a persistent and alarming public health problem. This study examined the robustness of the risk profile of adolescents who report a history of forced sexual intercourse using the most current and representative data from the national 2005…

  8. Mothers Who Do and Do Not Intend to Discuss Sexual Health with Their Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, E. Sandra; Sears, Heather A.

    2012-01-01

    This study distinguished two groups of mothers who have not communicated with their young adolescents about sexual health based on their intentions of having these discussions. We also compared these 2 groups to mothers who have had such communications. Overall, 29% of mothers had engaged in sexual discussions with their adolescent in some detail…

  9. Parent Communication about Sexual Issues with Adolescents in Vietnam: Content, Contexts, and Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trinh, Thang; Steckler, Allan; Ngo, Anh; Ratliff, Eric

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study examines parent-adolescent communication on sexual topics in Thai Binh province, Vietnam. Data were collected from 45 in-depth interviews and seven focus groups with parents and adolescents of high school age. Results indicate that parents were apprehensive when it comes to sexual communication. Parents warned their children…

  10. Family Homework and School-Based Sex Education: Delaying Early Adolescents' Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Jennifer M.; Frye, Alice; Charmaraman, Linda; Erkut, Sumru

    2013-01-01

    Background: Early sexual activity can undermine adolescents' future school success and health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of a family homework component of a comprehensive sex education intervention in delaying sexual initiation for early adolescents and to explore what social and contextual factors prevent…

  11. Self-Perceptions of Sexual Attractiveness: Satisfaction With Physical Appearance is Not of Primary Importance Across Gender and Sexual Orientation.

    PubMed

    Amos, Natalie; McCabe, Marita P

    2016-01-01

    Research on self-perceived sexual attractiveness has predominantly focused on the importance of physical appearance, overlooking nonphysical traits that may contribute to these self-perceptions. The present study examined and compared the importance of a variety of traits for self-perceived sexual attractiveness. Self-identified heterosexual, gay, and bisexual men (N = 1,801) and heterosexual, lesbian, and bisexual women (N = 1,092) completed an online questionnaire examining self-perceived sexual attractiveness, body esteem, sexual esteem, adherence to gender norms, and sexual experience. Body esteem and sexual esteem were significant predictors of self-perceived sexual attractiveness, regardless of gender and sexual orientation. Adhering to a masculine gender norm was a significant predictor among all groups (to varying extents) but heterosexual women. Adhering to a feminine gender norm was a significant predictor among heterosexual men and bisexual women. Finally, sexual experience was a significant predictor for all men and bisexual women. Furthermore, while body esteem was a predictor across all groups, for most individuals it did not appear to be of primary importance, with either sexual esteem or masculinity proving to be of greater importance. These findings suggest the need to consider traits related to both physical and nonphysical factors for improving an individual's self-perceived sexual attractiveness. PMID:26132883

  12. Factor analysis and psychometric properties of the Mother-Adolescent Sexual Communication (MASC) instrument for sexual risk behavior.

    PubMed

    Cox, Mary Foster; Fasolino, Tracy K; Tavakoli, Abbas S

    2008-01-01

    Sexual risk behavior is a public health problem among adolescents living at or below poverty level. Approximately 1 million pregnancies and 3 million cases of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are reported yearly. Parenting plays a significant role in adolescent behavior, with mother-adolescent sexual communication correlated with absent or delayed sexual behavior. This study developed an instrument examining constructs of mother-adolescent communication, the Mother-Adolescent Sexual Communication (MASC) instrument. A convenience sample of 99 mothers of middle school children completed the self-administered questionnaires. The original 34-item MASC was reduced to 18 items. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the 18-item scale, which resulted in four factors explaining 84.63% of the total variance. Internal consistency analysis produced Cronbach alpha coefficients of .87, .90, .82, and .71 for the four factors, respectively. Convergent validity via hypothesis testing was supported by significant correlations with several subscales of the Parent-Child Relationship Questionnaire (PCRQ) with MASC factors, that is, content and style factors with warmth, personal relationships and disciplinary warmth subscales of the PCRQ, the context factor with personal relationships, and the timing factor with warmth. In light of these findings, the psychometric characteristics and multidimensional perspective of the MASC instrument show evidence of usefulness for measuring and advancing knowledge of mother and adolescent sexual communication techniques. PMID:19886470

  13. Measuring deviant sexual interest in adolescents using the emotional Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Price, Shelley A; Beech, Anthony R; Mitchell, Ian; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2014-10-01

    Adolescent sexual abusers are a heterogeneous group of offenders that often receive generic assessment and treatment services that are modeled on research findings from adult sex offender samples. The emotional Stroop task has been used to measure deviant sexual interest in adult samples. The purpose of the present study was to test whether the emotional Stroop task could also be used to assess deviant sexual interest in adolescent samples. Three groups of adolescents (a) sexual abusers (n = 24); (b) offending controls (n = 21); and (c) nonoffending controls (n = 21) completed two emotional Stroop tasks related to deviant sexual interest and tests of executive function. Adolescent sexual abusers were significantly slower to color-name some word stimuli than both adolescent offending controls and adolescent nonoffending controls. However, the task was unable to differentiate between the groups on most of the Stroop word categories. Very little research has been conducted with adolescent offender samples and the emotional Stroop task. Reaction time (RT) and Stroop bias outcome data for adolescent samples appear to be more unsystematic and weaker than has been observed in previous adult data. Based on potential difficulties with reading and development, the emotional Stroop task may not be a task suitable for measuring deviant sexual interest in adolescent samples.

  14. The Eyes Have It: Sex and Sexual Orientation Differences in Pupil Dilation Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Rieger, Gerulf; Savin-Williams, Ritch C.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research suggests profound sex and sexual orientation differences in sexual response. These results, however, are based on measures of genital arousal, which have potential limitations such as volunteer bias and differential measures for the sexes. The present study introduces a measure less affected by these limitations. We assessed the pupil dilation of 325 men and women of various sexual orientations to male and female erotic stimuli. Results supported hypotheses. In general, self-reported sexual orientation corresponded with pupil dilation to men and women. Among men, substantial dilation to both sexes was most common in bisexual-identified men. In contrast, among women, substantial dilation to both sexes was most common in heterosexual-identified women. Possible reasons for these differences are discussed. Because the measure of pupil dilation is less invasive than previous measures of sexual response, it allows for studying diverse age and cultural populations, usually not included in sexuality research. PMID:22870196

  15. Coping and Survival Skills: The Role School Personnel Play Regarding Support for Bullied Sexual Minority-Oriented Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Alexandra; Yarber, William L.; Sherwood-Laughlin, Catherine M.; Gray, Mary L.; Estell, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research has shown that bullying has serious health consequences, and sexual minority-oriented youth are disproportionately affected. Sexual minority-oriented youth include lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, or questioning (LGBTQ) individuals. This study examined the bullying experiences of sexual minority-oriented youth in a…

  16. The importance of a positive approach to sexuality in sexual health programmes for unmarried adolescents in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    van Reeuwijk, Miranda; Nahar, Papreen

    2013-05-01

    This article explores the mismatch that exists between what unmarried adolescents in Bangladesh experience, want and need in regard to their sexuality and what they receive from their society, which negatively impacts on their understanding of sexuality and their well-being. The findings provide a picture of Bangladeshi adolescents' (12-18 years) sexual feelings, experiences, behaviours, anxieties and concerns - in particular in relation to desire, pleasure, sexual power, masturbation, virginity, romantic love and dating, and arranged marriage - and how socio-sexual norms and taboos influence these. Curiosity of boys and girls about sex was driven by a need and desire to know and understand, but also because it was exciting to read about and talk about sex. Young people are not just passive recipients of adult norms and messages around sexuality, but agents who actively construe meanings and navigate between what is expected from them and what they want, need and feel themselves. Adolescents have a need for information and support - long before they ever have sex. We call for a positive, rights-based approach to sexuality education for adolescents and a focus beyond health outcomes alone to support adolescents and young people to make sense of the multiplicity of messages they encounter and reduce unnecessary feelings of guilt and anxiety.

  17. Age-Related Physical Changes Interfere With Judgments of Male Sexual Orientation From Faces.

    PubMed

    Tskhay, Konstantin O; Krendl, Anne C; Rule, Nicholas O

    2016-09-01

    Although studies have shown that sexual orientation can be judged from faces, this research has not considered how age-related differences in perceivers or targets affect such judgments. In the current work, we evaluated whether accuracy differed among young adults (YA) and older adults (OA) for young and old men's faces by recruiting a sample of YA and OA in the lab, a community sample of sexual minority men, and a sample of online participants. We found that OA and YA judged sexual orientation with similar accuracy. Perceptions of gender atypicality mediated the difference in judging older and younger targets' sexual orientation. Although participants used positive affect to correctly discern sexual orientation regardless of target age, perceptions of masculinity were valid only for judgments of YA.

  18. Mostly heterosexual and mostly gay/lesbian: evidence for new sexual orientation identities.

    PubMed

    Vrangalova, Zhana; Savin-Williams, Ritch C

    2012-02-01

    A sample of 1,784 individuals responded to an online survey advertised on the Facebook social networking website. We explored the sexual orientation continuum by focusing on three components: self-reported sexual orientation identity, sexual attraction, and sexual partners. Results supported a 5-category classification of identity (heterosexual, mostly heterosexual, bisexual, mostly gay/lesbian, gay/lesbian) in that two added identity labels (mostly heterosexual and mostly gay/lesbian) were frequently chosen by participants and/or showed unique patterns of attraction and partners, distinct from their adjacent identities (heterosexual and bisexual, and bisexual and gay/lesbian, respectively). Those who reported an exclusive label (heterosexual, gay/lesbian) were not necessarily exclusive in other components; a significant minority of heterosexuals and the majority of gays/lesbians reported some attraction and/or partners toward their nonpreferred sex. The five identity groups differed in attraction and partners in a manner consistent with a continuous, rather than a categorical, distribution of sexual orientation. Findings also supported a sexual orientation continuum as consisting of two, rather than one, distinct dimensions (same- and other-sex sexuality). Having more same-sex sexuality did not necessarily imply having less other-sex sexuality, and vice versa. More men than women were at the exclusive ends of the continuum; however, men were not bimodally distributed in that a significant minority reported nonexclusivity in their sexuality. PMID:22327566

  19. On early starters and late bloomers: the development of sexual behavior in adolescence across personality types.

    PubMed

    Baams, Laura; Overbeek, Geertjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between personality and sexual development among mid-adolescents. In the current study, we used a person-centered approach to investigate the relation between personality types and the development of sexual behavior. We hypothesized that undercontrolling adolescents would engage in more advanced, casual, and risky sexual behavior compared to their resilient and overcontrolling peers. Data were used from 407 mid-adolescents (Mage = 14.5) followed across four measurement waves spanning 18 months. Results from latent class analyses (LCA) identified the three classical personality types: resilients, undercontrollers, and overcontrollers. Controlling for perceived pubertal timing and biological sex, latent growth curve analyses in Mplus showed that, at baseline, undercontrollers were more sexually experienced and engaged in more casual and risky sexual behavior than resilients and overcontrollers. Although initial levels of sexual behavior differed by personality types, over time increases in sexual behavior occurred at a similar rate across the types. Overall, the current study showed that undercontrolling adolescents are early sexual developers who engage in more advanced, casual, and risky sexual behavior than other adolescents. The implications of these findings for longer-term differences in sexual behavior between personality types in later adolescence are discussed.

  20. A cross-sectional study on attitudes toward gender equality, sexual behavior, positive sexual experiences, and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in Bolivia and Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    De Meyer, Sara; Jaruseviciene, Lina; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Decat, Peter; Vega, Bernardo; Cordova, Kathya; Temmerman, Marleen; Degomme, Olivier; Michielsen, Kristien

    2014-01-01

    Background It is widely agreed upon that gender is a key aspect of sexuality however, questions remain on how gender exactly influences adolescents’ sexual health. Objective The aim of this research was to study correlations between gender equality attitudes and sexual behavior, sexual experiences and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in 2 Latin American countries. Design In 2011, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 5,913 adolescents aged 14–18 in 20 secondary schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia) and 6 secondary schools in Cuenca (Ecuador). Models were built using logistic regressions to assess the predictive value of attitudes toward gender equality on adolescents’ sexual behavior, on experiences and on communication. Results The analysis shows that sexually active adolescents who consider gender equality as important report higher current use of contraceptives within the couple. They are more likely to describe their last sexual intercourse as a positive experience and consider it easier to talk with their partner about sexuality than sexually experienced adolescents who are less positively inclined toward gender equality. These correlations remained consistent whether the respondent was a boy or a girl. Non-sexually active adolescents, who consider gender equality to be important, are more likely to think that sexual intercourse is a positive experience. They consider it less necessary to have sexual intercourse to maintain a relationship and find it easier to communicate with their girlfriend or boyfriend than sexually non-active adolescents who consider gender equality to be less important. Comparable results were found for boys and girls. Conclusions Our results suggest that gender equality attitudes have a positive impact on adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and wellbeing. Further research is necessary to better understand the relationship between gender attitudes and specific SRH