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Sample records for adolescent sexual risk-taking

  1. Disentangling Adolescent Pathways of Sexual Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookmeyer, Kathryn A.; Henrich, Christopher C.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the authors aimed to describe the pathways of risk within sexual risk taking, alcohol use, and delinquency, and then identify how the trajectory of sexual risk is linked to alcohol use and delinquency. Risk trajectories were measured with adolescents aged 15-24 years (N = 1,778). Using…

  2. School Sexuality Education and Adolescent Risk-Taking Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Cecilia Dine; Wolf, Eve M.

    1995-01-01

    Examines and critiques research that measures the effects of school sexuality education programs on adolescent sexual risk-taking behavior. Discusses common methodological problems and examines studies measuring program effectiveness. Research suggests participation in school sexuality education does not promote increased or earlier sexual…

  3. Factors Associated with Sexual Risk-Taking Behaviors among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, Tom; Small, Stephen A.

    1994-01-01

    Describes investigation examining factors that distinguish between sexually active adolescents who are at risk for pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases and those who are at lower risk for these outcomes. Suggests factors associated with sexual risk taking include low GPA, frequent alcohol consumption, and low levels of parental…

  4. Pathways to Sexual Risk Taking among Female Adolescent Detainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Vera; Kopak, Albert; Robillard, Alyssa; Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Holliday, Rhonda C.; Braithwaite, Ronald L.

    2011-01-01

    Sexual risk taking among female delinquents represents a significant public health problem. Research is needed to understand the pathways leading to sexual risk taking among this population. This study sought to address this issue by identifying and testing two pathways from child maltreatment to non-condom use among 329 White and 484 African…

  5. Pathways to Sexual Risk Taking Among Female Adolescent Detainees

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Vera; Kopak, Albert; Robillard, Alyssa; Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Holliday, Rhonda C.; Braithwaite, Ronald L.

    2011-01-01

    Sexual risk taking among female delinquents represents a significant public health problem. Research is needed to understand the pathways leading to sexual risk taking among this population. This study sought to address this issue by identifying and testing two pathways from child maltreatment to non-condom use among 329 White and 484 African American female adolescent detainees: a relational pathway and a substance use coping pathway. The relational pathway indicated that child maltreatment would be related to non-condom use via depressive self-concept and condom use self-efficacy. The substance use coping pathway suggested that depressive self-concept and alcohol-based expectancies for sexual enhancement would mediate the relationship between child maltreatment and non-condom use. As hypothesized, the relational pathway variables were associated with one another in the expected directions; however, evidence of mediation was not found. Support for mediation was found for the substance use coping pathway. Exploratory across group comparison analysis indicated that the relational pathway was significant for White girls whereas the substance use coping pathway was significant for African American girls. Limitations and implications for future research are discussed. PMID:21188488

  6. The Association of Childhood Personality on Sexual Risk Taking during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkins, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Background: Sexual risk taking during adolescence such as failure to use contraception or condoms is associated with premature parenthood and high rates of sexually transmitted infection. The relation of childhood personality to sexual risk taking during adolescence has been largely unexplored. Methods: Using data collected from participants in…

  7. Substance use and sexual risk taking among black adolescents and white adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cooper, M L; Peirce, R S; Huselid, R F

    1994-05-01

    Analyses of data from a random sample of 1,259 sexually active adolescents revealed that substance use was associated with increased sexual risk taking on 2 occasions of intercourse (1st intercourse ever and 1st intercourse with most recent partner), even after controlling for demographic experiential, and dispositional confounders. Within-persons analyses yielded similar results, indicating that adolescents who used substances, on 1 of the 2 occasions, reported higher levels of risk taking on the occasion when substances were used than on the no-substance use occasion. However, substance use was both more common and more strongly linked to risk taking among White than Black adolescents, suggesting that White adolescents are a greater risk of negative consequences related to substance use proximal to intercourse. PMID:8055860

  8. Bidirectional Associations Between Alcohol Use and Sexual Risk-taking Behavior from Adolescence into Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    O’Hara, Ross E.; Cooper, M. Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Overwhelming evidence indicates that sexual risk-taking behavior and alcohol use are linked, but the nature, strength, and timing of these relations may differ between gender and racial subgroups. These issues were addressed by examining the course and interrelations of both behaviors from adolescence into young adulthood, as well as how these patterns differed between both men and women and between Blacks and Whites. Data came from a representative, community-based sample of 1867 urban participants surveyed up to 5 times over a 15-year period. Although both prospective and trajectory analyses showed that adolescent involvement in one behavior predicted later involvement in the other, most patterns were moderated by gender, race, or both. In general, positive, bidirectional associations were discovered among men and Whites. Among women, adolescent sexual risk-taking behavior positively predicted later drinking, but not vice versa. For Blacks, adolescent alcohol use was inconsistently related to later sexual risk-taking behavior, and adolescent sexual risk-taking negatively predicted later alcohol use. Results suggest that associations between sexual risk-taking behavior and alcohol use are more complex than previously thought and that an adequate understanding of these links must account for both gender and racial differences. PMID:25808720

  9. A Latent Class Analysis of Maternal Responsiveness and Autonomy-Granting in Early Adolescence: Prediction to Later Adolescent Sexual Risk-Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanza, H. Isabella; Huang, David Y. C.; Murphy, Debra A.; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2013-01-01

    The present study sought to extend empirical inquiry related to the role of parenting on adolescent sexual risk-taking by using latent class analysis (LCA) to identify patterns of adolescent-reported mother responsiveness and autonomy-granting in early adolescence and examine associations with sexual risk-taking in mid- and late-adolescence.…

  10. Exploring sexual risk taking among American Indian adolescents through protection motivation theory.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Rachel; Tingey, Lauren; Mullany, Britta; Parker, Sean; Lee, Angelita; Barlow, Allison

    2016-09-01

    This paper examines decision-making around sexual behavior among reservation-based American Indian youth. Focus group discussions were conducted with youth ages 13-19 years old. Through these discussions, we explored youth's knowledge, attitudes and behaviors related to sexual risk taking through the lens of the protection motivation theory to inform the adaptation of an evidence-based HIV prevention intervention. Findings suggest that condom use self-efficacy and HIV prevention knowledge is low, vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections is lacking and alcohol plays a significant role in sexual risk taking in this population. In addition, parental monitoring and peer influence may contribute to or protect against sexual risk taking. Results suggest that future HIV prevention interventions should be delivered to gender-specific peer groups, include a parental component, teach sexual health education and communication skills, integrate substance-use prevention, and work to remove stigma around obtaining and using condoms. PMID:27064364

  11. A Latent Class Analysis of Maternal Responsiveness and Autonomy-Granting in Early Adolescence: Prediction to Later Adolescent Sexual Risk-Taking

    PubMed Central

    Lanza, H. Isabella; Huang, David Y. C.; Murphy, Debra A.; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2013-01-01

    The present study sought to extend empirical inquiry related to the role of parenting on adolescent sexual risk-taking by using latent class analysis (LCA) to identify patterns of adolescent-reported mother responsiveness and autonomy-granting in early adolescence and examine associations with sexual risk-taking in mid- and late-adolescence. Utilizing a sample of 12- to 14-year-old adolescents (N = 4,743) from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97), results identified a four-class model of maternal responsiveness and autonomy-granting: low responsiveness/high autonomy-granting, moderate responsiveness/moderate autonomy-granting, high responsiveness/low autonomy-granting, high responsiveness/moderate autonomy-granting. Membership in the low responsiveness/high autonomy-granting class predicted greater sexual risk-taking in mid- and late-adolescence compared to all other classes, and membership in the high responsiveness/ moderate autonomy-granting class predicted lower sexual risk-taking. Gender and ethnic differences in responsiveness and autonomy-granting class membership were also found, potentially informing gender and ethnic disparities of adolescent sexual risk-taking. PMID:23828712

  12. Risk and protective factors for sexual risk taking among adolescents involved in Prime Time.

    PubMed

    Garwick, Ann; Nerdahl, Peggy; Banken, Rachel; Muenzenberger-Bretl, Lynn; Sieving, Renee

    2004-10-01

    This article describes a preliminary qualitative evaluation of risk and protective factors associated with consistent contraceptive use and healthy sexual decision-making among ten of the first participants in the Prime Time intervention study. Prime Time is an 18-month intervention including one-on-one case management and peer educator training targeting sexually active 13-17-year-old girls who are recruited from health care clinics. Using an approach grounded in findings from previous research, social cognitive theory, and the social development model, Prime Time aims to improve participants' contraceptive use consistency, reduce number of sexual partners, and reduce unwanted sexual activity. Findings from this preliminary evaluation alert health care providers to the complex and dynamic nature of adolescent girls' sexual behaviors and to a broad range of risk and protective factors within individuals and their environments that may influence adolescent girls' sexual behaviors and contraceptive use. Findings suggest that an ongoing, supportive relationship with a case manager who is able to pace and tailor an intervention to the individual young person can have positive effects on adolescent girls' sexual behaviors and contraceptive use. PMID:15614258

  13. Adolescents' AIDS Risk Taking: A Rational Choice Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, William; Herman, Janna

    1990-01-01

    Discounts the belief in adolescents' irrational behavior, and proposes a rational choice decision-making theory of adolescent risk-taking behavior. Suggests that social ecology affects risk-taking choices. Proposals for AIDS education concern delayed initiation of sexual activity, promotion of condom use, and counseling of high-risk adolescents.…

  14. Theoretically motivated interventions for reducing sexual risk taking in adolescence: a randomized controlled experiment applying fuzzy-trace theory.

    PubMed

    Reyna, Valerie F; Mills, Britain A

    2014-08-01

    Fuzzy-trace theory is a theory of memory, judgment, and decision making, and their development. We applied advances in this theory to increase the efficacy and durability of a multicomponent intervention to promote risk reduction and avoidance of premature pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Seven hundred and thirty-four adolescents from high schools and youth programs in 3 states (Arizona, Texas, and New York) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 curriculum groups: RTR (Reducing the Risk), RTR+ (a modified version of RTR using fuzzy-trace theory), and a control group. We report effects of curriculum on self-reported behaviors and behavioral intentions plus psychosocial mediators of those effects: namely, attitudes and norms, motives to have sex or get pregnant, self-efficacy and behavioral control, and gist/verbatim constructs. Among 26 outcomes, 19 showed an effect of at least 1 curriculum relative to the control group: RTR+ produced improvements for 17 outcomes and RTR produced improvements for 12 outcomes. For RTR+, 2 differences (for perceived parental norms and global benefit perception) were confined to age, gender, or racial/ethnic subgroups. Effects of RTR+ on sexual initiation emerged 6 months after the intervention, when many adolescents became sexually active. Effects of RTR+ were greater than RTR for 9 outcomes, and remained significantly greater than controls at 1-year follow-up for 12 outcomes. Consistent with fuzzy-trace theory, results suggest that by emphasizing gist representations, which are preserved over long periods and are key memories used in decision making, the enhanced intervention produced larger and more sustained effects on behavioral outcomes and psychosocial mediators of adolescent risk taking. PMID:24773191

  15. Theoretically Motivated Interventions for Reducing Sexual Risk Taking in Adolescence: A Randomized Controlled Experiment Applying Fuzzy-trace Theory

    PubMed Central

    Reyna, Valerie F.; Mills, Britain A.

    2014-01-01

    Fuzzy-trace theory is a theory of memory, judgment, and decision-making, and their development. We applied advances in this theory to increase the efficacy and durability of a multicomponent intervention to promote risk reduction and avoidance of premature pregnancy and STIs. 734 adolescents from high schools and youth programs in three states (Arizona, Texas, and New York) were randomly assigned to one of three curriculum groups: RTR (Reducing the Risk), RTR+ (a modified version of RTR using fuzzy-trace theory), and a control group. We report effects of curriculum on self-reported behaviors and behavioral intentions plus psychosocial mediators of those effects, namely, attitudes and norms, motives to have sex or get pregnant, self-efficacy and behavioral control, and gist/verbatim constructs. Among 26 outcomes, 19 showed an effect of at least one curriculum relative to the control group: RTR+ produced improvements for 17 outcomes and RTR produced improvements for 12 outcomes. For RTR+, two differences (for perceived parental norms and global benefit perception) were confined to age, gender, or racial/ethnic subgroups. Effects of RTR+ on sexual initiation emerged six months after the intervention, when many adolescents became sexually active. Effects of RTR+ were greater than RTR for nine outcomes, and remained significantly greater than controls at one-year follow-up for 12 outcomes. Consistent with fuzzy-trace theory, results suggest that, by emphasizing gist representations, which are preserved over long time periods and are key memories used in decision-making, the enhanced intervention produced larger and more sustained effects on behavioral outcomes and psychosocial mediators of adolescent risk-taking. PMID:24773191

  16. Sexual risk taking among Taiwanese youth.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chao-Hsing

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to understand sexual risk-taking behavior among Taiwanese youth. Thirty-six participants were purposively selected for two to three semistructured, in-depth individual interviews. The constant comparative method and coding process were used for data analysis. The core category of preserving the fantasy of romantic innocence emerged from the initial data analysis to explain how and why young people engage in sexual risk taking. Accordingly, the subcategories of suppressing carnal knowledge and being swept away by love were developed. Suppressing carnal knowledge consisted of keeping silent, having an inadequate sexual education, and having stereotypical thinking and was identified as an explanation as to why young people cannot relate knowledge to actual practice. Being swept away by love included a false knowledge of one's sexual partner, shifting levels of intimacy, and nonacceptance of one's own sexuality. This conceptualization emphasizes the reasons why young people engage in sexual risk taking; that is, cultural reluctance to discuss sexuality openly. The implication of this theorizing is that interventions to reduce sexual risk taking should be done on an individual basis and should consider one's developmental context in order to increase one's skills in effectively discussing sex and sexuality. PMID:11841684

  17. Gender and the Effects of an Economic Empowerment Program on Attitudes Toward Sexual Risk-Taking Among AIDS-Orphaned Adolescent Youth in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Ssewamala, Fred; Ismayilova, Leyla; McKay, Mary; Sperber, Elizabeth; Bannon, William; Alicea, Stacey

    2009-01-01

    Purpose This paper examines gender differences in attitudes towards sexual risk-taking behaviors of AIDS-orphaned youth participating in a randomized control trial testing an economic empowerment intervention in rural Uganda. Methods Adolescents (average age 13.7 years) who had lost one or both parents to AIDS from fifteen comparable schools were randomly assigned to either an experimental (n=135) or control condition (n=142). Adolescents in the experimental condition, in addition to usual care, also received support and incentives to save money toward secondary education. Results Findings indicate that although adolescent boys and girls within the experimental condition saved comparable amounts, the intervention appears to have benefited girls, in regards to the attitudes towards sexual risk-taking behavior, in a different way and to a lesser extent than boys. Conclusions Future research should investigate the possibility that adolescent girls might be able to develop equally large improvements in protective attitudes towards sexual risk-taking through additional components that address gendered social norms. PMID:20307827

  18. How Are Self-Efficacy and Family Involvement Associated with Less Sexual Risk Taking among Ethnic Minority Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Campen, Kali S.; Romero, Andrea J.

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigates the protective influences of family involvement (i.e., parental monitoring, communication, closeness, and family proximity) and sexual self-efficacy on the risky sexual behavior of ethnic minority (predominantly Mexican-origin) adolescents in the southwestern United States (N = 122). Results indicate that whereas…

  19. Sex Differences in Associations of School Connectedness with Adolescent Sexual Risk-Taking in Nova Scotia, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langille, Donald B.; Asbridge, Mark; Azagba, Sunday; Flowerdew, Gordon; Rasic, Daniel; Cragg, Amber

    2014-01-01

    Background: Associations of lower school connectedness have been seen with adolescent sexual risk behaviors, but little is known about gender differences with respect to these relationships. Understanding any such differences could contribute to better supporting the school environment to promote youth sexual health. Methods: We used provincially…

  20. Intuitive Risk Taking during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, James D.; Klaczynski, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents frequently engage in risky behaviors that endanger both themselves and others. Critical to the development of effective interventions is an understanding of the processes adolescents go through when deciding to take risks. This article explores two information processing systems; a slow, deliberative, analytic system and a quick,…

  1. Reducing sexual risk taking behaviors among adolescents who engage in transactional sex in post-conflict Liberia

    PubMed Central

    Atwood, Katharine A.; Kennedy, Stephen B.; Shamblen, Steve; Taylor, Curtis H.; Quaqua, Monica; Bee, Ernree M.; Gobeh, Mawen E.; Woods, Daisajou V.; Dennis, Barclay

    2013-01-01

    Transactional sex (TS) has been correlated with HIV/STD infection, pregnancy, early marriage, and sexual violence in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Few Western-based HIV prevention programs adapted for SSA have examined intervention impacts for this group. This article examines whether an HIV prevention intervention, delivered to sixth-grade students in Liberia (age range 14–17) and found to increase condom use and other mediators for the larger sample, significantly impacted sexual behaviors and mediators for those who engaged in TS. Using an attention-matched, group-randomized controlled design, four matched pairs of elementary schools in Monrovia, Liberia, were randomly assigned to an adapted eight-module HIV prevention or a general health curriculum. Nine-month impacts of the intervention on sexual risk behaviors and mediators for those who engaged in TS, when compared with other study participants, are presented. Twelve percent of our sample of sixth graders (n = 714) ever engaged in TS. The majority of females reported being promised something in exchange for sex (52%), whereas the majority of males (52%) reported being both the giver and recipient of gifts in exchange for sex. Compared with other students, those who engaged in TS reported greater increases in the number of sex partners, reported greater frequency of sexual intercourse, were more likely to try to get pregnant or someone else pregnant, and reported greater reductions in protective sexual attitudes and HIV risk perception at the nine month follow-up, in both the intervention and the control groups. Our intervention, although successful for the general in-school adolescent sample, did not impact risk behaviors or mediators for adolescents who engaged in TS. Future research should explore the complex sexual economy in which TS is embedded and consider adapting HIV prevention interventions to the needs of this high-risk group. PMID:23626654

  2. A Social Neuroscience Perspective on Adolescent Risk-Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    This article proposes a framework for theory and research on risk-taking that is informed by developmental neuroscience. Two fundamental questions motivate this review. First, why does risk-taking increase between childhood and adolescence? Second, why does risk-taking decline between adolescence and adulthood? Risk-taking increases between…

  3. Sexual Self-Concept and Sexual Risk-Taking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breakwell, Glynis M.; Millward, Lynne J.

    1997-01-01

    Presents data from a survey of randomly selected adolescents (N=474) which examined differences between male and female sexual identities. Results indicate two main dimensions in male sexual self-concept: socioemotional and the relational. Female sexual self-concept revolved around concerns with assertiveness, such as controlling when sex occurs.…

  4. Measurement of sexual risk taking among college students.

    PubMed

    Turchik, Jessica A; Garske, John P

    2009-12-01

    Current measures of sexual risk taking are either too narrowly focused to be used with college students or do not have adequate psychometric properties. The goal of the current study was to develop a broad and psychometrically sound measure of sexual risk taking. A total of 613 undergraduate students (302 men, 311 women) at a mid-sized Midwestern university in the U.S. were surveyed to develop and gather reliability and validity information on a new measure of sexual risk, the Sexual Risk Survey (SRS). The measure was found to be multifactorial with five factors. The measure was found to have good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The SRS also demonstrated evidence of convergent and concurrent validity by its relationships with reported number of sexual partners and history of infidelity as well as measures of sensation seeking, sexual desire, substance use, sexual excitation and inhibition, and sexual health consequences. Social desirability was not found to be related to sexual risk taking scores and threat of sexual disclosure was only weakly related. An investigation of sex differences revealed that men reported greater intentions to engage in sexual risk behaviors and greater overall sexual risk taking behavior compared to women. The SRS provides researchers with a valid and comprehensive measure of sexual risk taking that can be used to clarify inconsistent findings in the literature and to assess outcome in programs designed to prevent and reduce sexual risk behaviors among college students. PMID:18563548

  5. Sexual Risk Taking: For Better or Worse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Tammy

    2009-01-01

    Risk assessment can be an effective pedagogical strategy for sexuality education. Objectives: After learning about the modes of transmission and prevention strategies of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), students engaged in this teaching technique will define sexual intercourse and sexual activity, assess the level of STI risk associated…

  6. Greater exposure to sexual content in popular movies predicts earlier sexual debut and increased sexual risk taking.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Ross E; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D

    2012-09-01

    Early sexual debut is associated with risky sexual behavior and an increased risk of unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections later in life. The relations among early movie sexual exposure (MSE), sexual debut, and risky sexual behavior in adulthood (i.e., multiple sexual partners and inconsistent condom use) were examined in a longitudinal study of U.S. adolescents. MSE was measured using the Beach method, a comprehensive procedure for media content coding. Controlling for characteristics of adolescents and their families, analyses showed that MSE predicted age of sexual debut, both directly and indirectly through changes in sensation seeking. MSE also predicted engagement in risky sexual behaviors both directly and indirectly via early sexual debut. These results suggest that MSE may promote sexual risk taking both by modifying sexual behavior and by accelerating the normal rise in sensation seeking during adolescence. PMID:22810165

  7. Adolescents' Perceptions of Their Risk-Taking Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Jeanette; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Assessed 440 high and low sports and danger risk-taking adolescents. Sports risk takers reported more danger-related risk taking, more drug use, and higher self-esteem than non-risk takers. Danger risk takers reported greater sports-related risk taking, more drug use, less intimacy with their mothers, less family responsibility taking, and less…

  8. Homelessness Experiences, Sexual Orientation, and Sexual Risk Taking among High School Students in Los Angeles

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Eric; Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey; Fulginiti, Anthony; Astor, Roee; Montoya, Jorge; Plant, Aaron; Kordic, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Prior studies reported homeless adolescents engage in more sexual risk than their housed peers. However, these comparisons are typically made post hoc by comparing homeless adolescent community-based samples with high school probability samples. This study utilizes a random sample of high school students to examine homelessness experiences and sexual risk behaviors. Methods A supplemental survey to the Youth Risk Behavior Survey containing questions regarding homelessness and sexual health was administered to Los Angeles high school students (N=1,839). Multivariate logistic regressions assessed the associations between demographics, past year homelessness experiences (i.e., place of nighttime residence), and being sexually active and condom use at last intercourse. Results Homelessness experiences consisted of staying in a shelter (10.4%), a public place (10.1%), and with a stranger (5.6%). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, questioning (LGBTQ), younger, and male adolescents were more likely to experience homelessness. LGBTQ adolescents were also more likely to report staying with a stranger and less likely to report staying in a shelter. Compared to adolescents who stayed in shelters, adolescents who stayed with strangers and in public places were more likely to engage in unprotected sex at last intercourse. Conclusions Adolescents who report sexual activity and sexual risk taking are more likely to report homelessness experiences. With regard to sexual health, staying with strangers could be a particularly risky form of homelessness; LGBTQ and Black adolescents are more likely to experience this form of homelessness. Efforts to reduce homelessness and sexual risk-taking need to recognize the specific vulnerabilities faced by these populations. PMID:23360897

  9. Religiosity and Sexual Risk-Taking Behavior during the Transition to College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaleski, Ellen H.; Schiaffino, Kathleen M.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the degree to which religious identity acts as a protective buffer against sexual risk-taking in late adolescence in 230 first-year college students. Results indicate that greater intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity were associated with less sexual activity and condom use. (Contains 21 references and 1 table.) (Author/GCP)

  10. Neuromaturation and Adolescent Risk Taking: Why Development Is Not Determinism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sara B.; Sudhinaraset, May; Blum, Robert Wm.

    2010-01-01

    In the January 2009 issue of this journal, Males argues that adolescent brain science perpetuates the "myth of adolescent risk taking." He contends that those who study adolescent neuromaturation are biological determinists who ignore the profound social and environmental forces that influence adolescent behavior to further their own agendas.…

  11. The Development of Reproductive Strategy in Females: Early Maternal Harshness [right arrow] Earlier Menarche [right arrow] Increased Sexual Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Jay; Steinberg, Laurence; Houts, Renate M.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.

    2010-01-01

    To test a proposition central to J. Belsky, L. Steinberg, and P. Draper's (1991) evolutionary theory of socialization--that pubertal maturation plays a role in linking early rearing experience with adolescent sexual risk taking (i.e., frequency of sexual behavior) and, perhaps, other risk taking (e.g., alcohol, drugs, delinquency)--the authors…

  12. A Developmental Perspective on Adolescent Risk Taking in Contemporary America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumrind, Diana

    1987-01-01

    Adolescent risk-taking behavior needs to be understood in the context of contemporary youth culture and normal development. To facilitate passage through adolescence, parents should sustain a climate of control and commitment balanced by respect for the adolescent's increased capacity for self-regulation. (Author)

  13. Adolescent tanning, disordered eating, and risk taking.

    PubMed

    Schwebel, David C

    2014-04-01

    Indoor tanning and eating disorder behaviors are both significant adolescent public health risks. Recent results by Amrock and Weitzman provocatively suggest a link between the two, perhaps because of a shared cause of dysfunctional cognition about body image. This commentary discusses a possible model to explain the association between indoor tanning and eating disorder behaviors among teenagers. It also presents various strategies to prevent the negative outcomes, with a focus on preventing adolescent tanning behavior. Prevention strategies worth consideration include counseling by pediatricians or other health professionals, improved parental supervision and monitoring, and policy change to prohibit adolescent use of tanning facilities. PMID:24695120

  14. A Social Neuroscience Perspective on Adolescent Risk-Taking

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Laurence

    2007-01-01

    This article proposes a framework for theory and research on risk-taking that is informed by developmental neuroscience. Two fundamental questions motivate this review. First, why does risk-taking increase between childhood and adolescence? Second, why does risk-taking decline between adolescence and adulthood? Risk-taking increases between childhood and adolescence as a result of changes around the time of puberty in the brain’s socio-emotional system leading to increased reward-seeking, especially in the presence of peers, fueled mainly by a dramatic remodeling of the brain’s dopaminergic system. Risk-taking declines between adolescence and adulthood because of changes in the brain’s cognitive control system – changes which improve individuals’ capacity for self-regulation. These changes occur across adolescence and young adulthood and are seen in structural and functional changes within the prefrontal cortex and its connections to other brain regions. The differing timetables of these changes make mid-adolescence a time of heightened vulnerability to risky and reckless behavior. PMID:18509515

  15. Adolescent Risk-Taking and Social Meaning: A Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunstein, Cass R.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent risk-taking can be illuminated through an understanding of the development of the brain, of dual-processing theories, and of social norms and meanings. When adolescents take unjustified risks, it is often because of the weakness of their analytic systems, which provide an inadequate check on impulsive or ill-considered decisions. Social…

  16. Personality, sexuality, and substance use as predictors of sexual risk taking in college students.

    PubMed

    Turchik, Jessica A; Garske, John P; Probst, Danielle R; Irvin, Clinton R

    2010-09-01

    Sexual risk taking among college students is common and can lead to serious consequences, such as unintended pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections. This study utilized responses from 310 undergraduate psychology students aged 18 to 23 to examine personality, sexuality, and substance use predictors of sexual risk behaviors over a six-month period. Data were collected from 2005 to 2006 at a medium-sized Midwestern U.S. university. Results indicated that greater alcohol and recreational drug use, higher extraversion, and lower agreeableness were related to sexual risk taking in men. For women, greater alcohol and drug use, higher sexual excitation, and lower sexual inhibition were predictive of sexual risk taking. Among women, but not men, sensation seeking was found to mediate the relationship between the four significant substance use, personality, and sexuality variables and sexual risk taking. Implications for sexual risk behavior prevention and intervention programming are discussed. PMID:19711220

  17. Sleep and risk-taking behavior in adolescents.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Erin M; Mindell, Jodi A

    2005-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between adolescents' sleep-wake patterns and risk-taking behavior. A second goal was to replicate the results obtained by Wolfson and Carskadon (1998) regarding adolescents' sleep habits. Three hundred eighty-eight adolescents (217 males, 171 females) completed the Sleep Habits Survey and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. The results indicated that adolescents who reported longer weekend delay and higher levels of sleep problems also reported significantly higher levels of risk-taking behaviors, and students' weekend delay was also related to their academic performance in this sample. As in the sample studied by Wolfson and Carskadon (1998), the adolescents in this study exhibited changes in both weekday and weekend sleep habits across grade/age. However in the present study, only school-night total sleep time and weekend delay were related to adolescents' daytime functioning, with no significant relationships being found between weekend oversleep and daytime functioning. This provides partial support for the findings of Wolfson and Carskadon (1998). Overall, sleep-wake patterns were found to relate to risk-taking behavior during adolescence in this study. PMID:15984914

  18. Sex-Specific Pathways to Early Puberty, Sexual Debut, and Sexual Risk Taking: Tests of an Integrated Evolutionary-Developmental Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Jenee; Ellis, Bruce J.; Schlomer, Gabriel L.; Garber, Judy

    2012-01-01

    The current study tested sex-specific pathways to early puberty, sexual debut, and sexual risk taking, as specified by an integrated evolutionary-developmental model of adolescent sexual development and behavior. In a prospective study of 238 adolescents (n = 129 girls and n = 109 boys) followed from approximately 12-18 years of age, we tested for…

  19. Risk-Taking Behavior among Adolescents with Prenatal Drug Exposure and Extrauterine Environmental Adversity

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Brittany L.; Bann, Carla M.; Bauer, Charles R.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S.; Lester, Barry M.; Whitaker, Toni M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Hammond, Jane; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective High-risk environments characterized by familial substance use, poverty, inadequate parental monitoring, and violence exposure are associated with an increased propensity for adolescents to engage in risk-taking behaviors (e.g., substance use, sexual behavior, and delinquency). However, additional factors such as drug exposure in utero and deficits in inhibitory control among drug-exposed youth may further influence the likelihood that adolescents in high-risk environments will engage in risk-taking behavior. This study examined the influence of prenatal substance exposure, inhibitory control, and sociodemographic/environmental risk factors on risk-taking behaviors in a large cohort of adolescents with and without prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE). Method Risk-taking behavior (delinquency, substance use, and sexual activity) was assessed in 963 adolescents (433 cocaine-exposed, 530 nonexposed) at 15 years of age. Results PCE predicted later arrests and early onset of sexual behavior in controlled analyses. Associations were partially mediated, however, by adolescent inhibitory control problems. PCE was not associated with substance use at this age. In addition, male gender, low parental involvement, and violence exposure were associated with greater odds of engaging in risk-taking behavior across the observed domains. Conclusions Study findings substantiate concern regarding the association between prenatal substance exposure and related risk factors and the long-term outcomes of exposed youth. Access to the appropriate social, educational, and medical services are essential in preventing and intervening with risk-taking behaviors and the potential consequences (e.g., adverse health outcomes, incarceration), especially among high-risk adolescent youth and their families. PMID:24220515

  20. Risk-taking behaviour is more frequent in teenage girls with multiple sexual partners

    PubMed Central

    Kuortti, Marjo; Kosunen, Elise

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations between sexual behaviour and risk-taking health behaviour among adolescent females in our changing sexual culture. Design A questionnaire study. Girls who had had multiple sexual partners (at least five in their lifetime or four during the last six months) were compared with those with fewer partners. Logistic regression was applied. Setting The Adolescent Clinic, a primary healthcare unit in the city of Tampere, Finland. Subjects A sample of 247 female clients aged 15–18 years who had experienced sexual intercourse. Main outcome measures Contraceptive practices, substance use, and sexual attitudes. Results Girls with multiple sexual partners (n = 69) and the reference group (n = 178) did not differ from each other significantly by age, age at menarche, or educational status. In univariate analysis, age at sexual debut, contraceptive practices, and various substance uses were strongly associated with having multiple sexual partners. Ever-use of emergency contraception was marginally associated, while ever-use of conventional hormonal contraception or condoms was not. In multivariate analysis, low age at sexual debut (OR 8.75 for age 11–13), omitting contraception at the most recent intercourse (OR 3.48), ever-use of withdrawal as a contraceptive method (OR 2.34), and repeated use of drugs (OR 4.10) were associated with having multiple sexual partners. Conclusion Different types of risk-taking behaviour are still interlinked. In discussions with adolescents showing one type of risk behaviour health service providers should make an effort to identify other modes of risk-taking. PMID:19221934

  1. The Personal Fable and Risk-Taking in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberts, Amy; Elkind, David; Ginsberg, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Elkind's (1967) theory of adolescent egocentrism proposes two distinct, but related, constructs--the "imaginary audience" and the "personal fable." A corollary to the imaginary audience, the personal fable (PF) yields a sense of invulnerability and speciality commonly associated with behavioral risk-taking. When regarded as a developmental…

  2. Adolescents' perceptions of their risk-taking behavior.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, J; Field, T; Yando, R; Gonzalez, K; Lasko, D; Bendell, D

    1994-01-01

    A questionnaire comprised of several self-report scales was administered to 440 adolescents to assess differences between high and low sports and danger risk takers on relationship and personality variables. Sports risk takers reported more danger-related risk taking and more drug use but higher self-esteem than did nonrisk takers. Danger risk takers reported greater sports-related risk taking and more drug use as well as less intimacy with their mothers, less family responsibility taking, and less depression than did their nonrisk-taking counterparts. PMID:7832034

  3. Adolescent and adult risk-taking in virtual social contexts

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Anneke D. M.; Norman, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of experimental data addressing how peers influence adolescent risk-taking. Here, we examined peer effects on risky decision-making in adults and adolescents using a virtual social context that enabled experimental control over the peer “interactions.” 40 adolescents (age 11–18) and 28 adults (age 20–38) completed a risk-taking (Wheel of Fortune) task under four conditions: in private; while being observed by (fictitious) peers; and after receiving ‘risky’ or ‘safe’ advice from the peers. For high-risk gambles (but not medium-risk or even gambles), adolescents made more risky decisions under peer observation than adults. Adolescents, but not adults, tended to resist ‘safe’ advice for high-risk gambles. Although both groups tended to follow ‘risky’ advice for high-risk gambles, adults did so more than adolescents. These findings highlight the importance of distinguishing between the effects of peer observation and peer advice on risky decision-making. PMID:25566150

  4. Frequency of Sex after an Intervention to Decrease Sexual Risk-Taking among African-American Adolescent Girls: Results of a Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milhausen, Robin R.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Lang, Delia L.; Spitalnick, Josh S.; Sales, Jessica McDermott; Hardin, James W.

    2008-01-01

    Many controversies surround sex education in the United States. One particular issue of contention is whether comprehensive sexuality education increases frequency of sexual intercourse among program participants. The current investigation examined frequency of vaginal sexual intercourse in a sample of 522 sexually experienced African-American…

  5. A Longitudinal Study of Risk-Taking Behavior in Adolescents with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, John K.; Willoughby, Teena

    2010-01-01

    Risk taking may be regarded as a normative behavior in adolescence. Risk-taking behaviors may include alcohol, smoking, drug use, delinquency, and acts of aggression. Many studies have explored the relationship between adolescents and risk-taking behavior; however, only a few studies have examined this link in adolescents with learning…

  6. Risky Business: Exploring Adolescent Risk-Taking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Tammy Jordan; Peterson, Fred L.

    2005-01-01

    Ongoing behavioral research has documented the growing prevalence of adolescent health risk behaviors, such as tobacco use, sexual activity, alcohol and other substance use, nutritional behavior, physical inactivity, and intentional injury. Newer youth risk behaviors, such as pathological gambling, are emerging as threats to public health. Risk,…

  7. Influence of risk-taking health behaviours of adolescents on cervical cancer prevention: a Hungarian survey.

    PubMed

    Marek, E; Berenyi, K; Dergez, T; Kiss, I; D'Cruz, G

    2016-01-01

    An anonymous questionnaire survey was conducted among the Hungarian adolescents to establish their use of tobacco, alcohol and drugs in relation to sexual behaviours, knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer, and beliefs and attitudes towards screening and vaccination. Results indicated that adolescent risk-taking health behaviours correlate with risky sexual behaviours. As risk-taking behaviours do not correlate with a better awareness of the risk associated with HPV infection, it is of crucial importance that HPV/cervical cancer preventing educational programmes shall be sensitive to this 'vulnerable' population and draw the attention of these adolescents to their increased risk of sexually transmitted diseases and undesired pregnancies. Well-designed behavioural change interventions may be effective when in addition to providing adolescents (both men and women) with clear information about the implications of an HPV infection, they also aim to improve safer sex behaviours: consistent condom usage, limiting the number of sex partners, as well as encouraging regular participation in gynaecological screenings and uptake of the HPV vaccine. As this study population demonstrated positive attitudes towards the primary and secondary prevention of cervical cancer, the free HPV vaccination for the 12-13-year-old girls in Autumn 2014 will hopefully increase the currently low uptake of the vaccine in Hungary. PMID:26059166

  8. Brief Report: Risk-Taking Behaviors in a Non-Western Urban Adolescent Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayar, Nalan; Sayil, Melike

    2005-01-01

    This study analyzes the age and gender related risk-taking behaviors of Turkish adolescents in an urban sample. A self-report risk taking scale was administered to 280 adolescents between the ages of 12-21. Results revealed that both the type and the frequency of risk-taking behaviors were changed according to age and gender. All risky behaviors…

  9. Do Thai parents really know about the sexual risk taking of their children? A qualitative study in Bangkok

    PubMed Central

    Fongkaew, Warunee; Cupp, Pamela K.; Miller, Brenda A.; Atwood, Katharine A.; Chamratrithirong, Apichat; Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Rosati, Michael J.; Chookhare, Warunee; Byrnes, Hilary F.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the perceptions of parents and adolescents toward sexual risk-taking behaviors. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 parents and 30 adolescents (aged 13–14 years) in Bangkok, and were analyzed by using coding and thematic analysis. The results showed that although parents generally believed that Thai teens begin to have sex at an early age and engage in sexual risk-taking behaviors, they trusted that their teens would follow parental guidance and rules and not engage in sexual activity at this age. Most of the Thai teens in the present study reported that their parents were not really aware of their sexual behaviors because of their tendency to keep their sexual stories secret for fear of being scolded, blamed, and punished. The teens also reported that they wanted their parents to listen, give them warmth and more freedom, and be more in touch with their activities. Parents expressed their need for knowledge and skills so that they could help guide their adolescent children to avoid sexual risk-taking behaviors. A family intervention specifically aimed at empowering Thai urban parents is needed. PMID:22950618

  10. Adolescent Risk-Taking: Integrating Personal, Cognitive, and Social Aspects of Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Ty W.; Byrnes, James P.

    2009-01-01

    Developmental research has examined individual differences, cognitive developmental bases, and psychosocial factors of adolescent risk-taking. The current paper presents a general adolescent risk-taking model that adopts aspects of each of these primarily independent areas. This model is based on the premise that adolescents take risks when (a)…

  11. Peers Increase Adolescent Risk Taking by Enhancing Activity in the Brain's Reward Circuitry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chein, Jason; Albert, Dustin; O'Brien, Lia; Uckert, Kaitlyn; Steinberg, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    The presence of peers increases risk taking among adolescents but not adults. We posited that the presence of peers may promote adolescent risk taking by sensitizing brain regions associated with the anticipation of potential rewards. Using fMRI, we measured brain activity in adolescents, young adults, and adults as they made decisions in a…

  12. Gender Differences in Adolescent Risk Taking: Are They Diminishing?--An Australian Intergenerational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott-Chapman, Joan; Denholm, Carey; Wyld, Colin

    2008-01-01

    Research investigating patterns of intergenerational risk taking has produced evidence of increased risk taking of female adolescents compared with their mother's generation and a reduction in the traditional gap between levels of teenage male and female risk taking. The research is part of a larger, multistage project on factors affecting…

  13. Adolescent contraceptive risk-taking behavior: a social psychological model of females' use of and compliance with birth control.

    PubMed

    Durant, R H; Sanders Jm; Jay, S; Levinson, R

    1990-01-01

    Assuming that contraceptives are readily available and affordable to most adolescents, but that insufficient contraceptive use and high pregnancy rates stem from adolescent female risk-taking, a multivariate model of adolescent female contraceptive risk-taking behavior is described. Derived from behavioral science theory and empirical research, the model postulates direct and indirect associations between relevant variables. It also assumes behavior is comprised of deciding to initiate birth control, choosing a contraceptive method, complying with the method, and deciding to change methods or discontinue birth control. Premarital sexual standards and experiences, length of sexual relationship, religiosity and traditional values, and physical and sexual development are discussed as variables that directly affect the frequency of sexual intercourse. The frequency of sexual intercourse and perceived risk of pregnancy, and the perceived probability of pregnancy and outcome experiences of sexual activity are also examined. Variables that mediate the impact of coital frequency on contraceptive risk-taking include the cognitive assessment of pregnancy and contraception, support by significant others, personality development, and experience with contraceptives. Empirical tests of the model are discussed. PMID:12317634

  14. Brief Report: Classification of Adolescent Suicide and Risk-Taking Deaths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sankey, Melissa; Lawrence, Ruth

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the suicide and risk-taking deaths of adolescents aged 12-17 years between January 1996 and December 2000. The methodology consisted of a case file review of government records. One hundred and eighty-seven adolescents (133 males, 54 females) died by suicide and risk-taking and could be classified into three distinct groups:…

  15. Risk-Taking and the Adolescent Brain: Who Is at Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvan, Adriana; Hare, Todd; Voss, Henning; Glover, Gary; Casey, B. J.

    2007-01-01

    Relative to other ages, adolescence is described as a period of increased impulsive and risk-taking behavior that can lead to fatal outcomes (suicide, substance abuse, HIV, accidents, etc.). This study was designed to examine neural correlates of risk-taking behavior in adolescents, relative to children and adults, in order to predict who may be…

  16. In Their Own Words: Adolescents Strategies to Prevent Friend's Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Lisa; Chapman, Rebekah L.; Sheehan, Mary C.; Reveruzzi, Bianca N.

    2014-01-01

    Injury is a significant public health problem among youth. A primary cause of adolescent injury is risk-taking behavior, including alcohol use, interpersonal violence and road-related risks. A novel approach to prevention is building on friendships by encouraging adolescents to intervene into their friends' risk taking. Fifty-one early…

  17. Risk-Taking among Adolescents: Associations with Social and Affective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Keren; Ben-Zur, Hasida

    2007-01-01

    The research investigated the associations of social and affective factors with risk-taking in male and female adolescents. A sample of 269 Israeli adolescents completed questionnaires measuring frequency of involvement in risk-taking behaviours, relationships with parents, orientation towards peer group, depressive mood, and aggressive behaviour.…

  18. Peers Increase Adolescent Risk Taking Even When the Probabilities of Negative Outcomes Are Known

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ashley R.; Chein, Jason; Steinberg, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    The majority of adolescent risk taking occurs in the presence of peers, and recent research suggests that the presence of peers may alter how the potential rewards and costs of a decision are valuated or perceived. The current study further explores this notion by investigating how peer observation affects adolescent risk taking when the…

  19. Relationship Status, Psychological Orientation, and Sexual Risk Taking in a Heterosexual African American College Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winfield, Evelyn B.; Whaley, Arthur L.

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined relationship status, psychological orientation toward sexual risk taking, and other characteristics as potential correlates of risky sexual behavior in a sample of 223 heterosexual African American college students. Risky sexual behavior was investigated as a multinomial variable (i.e., abstinence, consistent condom use,…

  20. Longitudinal Changes in Prefrontal Cortex Activation Underlie Declines in Adolescent Risk Taking

    PubMed Central

    Galvan, Adriana; Fuligni, Andrew J.; Lieberman, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical developmental phase during which risk-taking behaviors increase across a variety of species, raising the importance of understanding how brain changes contribute to such behaviors. While the prefrontal cortex is thought to influence adolescent risk taking, the specific ways in which it functions are unclear. Using longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging in human adolescents, we found that ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) activation decreased during an experimental risk-taking task over time, with greater declines in VLPFC associated with greater declines in self-reported risky behavior. Furthermore, greater decreases in functional coupling between the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and ventral striatum over time were associated with decreases in self-reported risky behavior. Thus, disparate roles of the VLPFC and MPFC modulate longitudinal declines in adolescent risk taking. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Adolescence is a developmental period marked by steep increases in risk-taking behavior coupled with dramatic brain changes. Although theories propose that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) may influence adolescent risk taking, the specific ways in which it functions remain unclear. We report the first longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging study to examine how neural activation during risk taking changes over time and contributes to adolescents' real-life risk-taking behavior. We find that longitudinal declines in activation of the ventrolateral PFC are linked to declines in adolescent risk taking, whereas the medial PFC influences adolescent risk taking via its functional neural coupling with reward-related regions. This is the first study to identify the mechanism by which different regions of the PFC disparately contribute to declines in risk taking. PMID:26269638

  1. Childhood Maltreatment and Sexual Risk Taking: The Mediating Role of Alexithymia.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Austin M; Simons, Raluca M; Simons, Jeffrey S

    2016-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment is a significant predictor of sexual risk taking. The nature of this relationship is not fully understood; however, emotion dysregulation may play an important role. We tested the role of difficulty identifying and describing feelings (i.e., alexithymia) on the relationship between childhood maltreatment and sexual risk taking. Specifically, we hypothesized two mechanisms, one in which alexithymia is related to sexual risk taking via negative urgency and alcohol use and a second one in which alexithymia is related to sexual risk taking via neediness. The participants for this study were 425 sexually active college undergraduates (303 females, 122 males) between the ages of 18 and 25 years. The results of a structural equation model indicated that alexithymia accounted for a significant part of the relationship between child maltreatment and sexual risk behavior. Moreover, the relationship between alexithymia and sexual risk taking was fully accounted for by two separate paths. First, negative urgency and subsequent alcohol use partially mediated the relationship, and the second effect was accounted for by needy interpersonal style. Adverse experiences during childhood can impair emotional functioning and contribute to behavioral and interpersonal dysregulation. PMID:26318149

  2. Adolescent Risk Taking, Cocaine Self-Administration, and Striatal Dopamine Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Marci R; Weiss, Virginia G; Beas, B Sofia; Morgan, Drake; Bizon, Jennifer L; Setlow, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Poor decision making and elevated risk taking, particularly during adolescence, have been strongly linked to drug use; however the causal relationships among these factors are not well understood. To address these relationships, a rat model (the Risky Decision-making Task; RDT) was used to determine whether individual differences in risk taking during adolescence predict later propensity for cocaine self-administration and/or whether cocaine self-administration causes alterations in risk taking. In addition, the RDT was used to determine how risk taking is modulated by dopamine signaling, particularly in the striatum. Results from these experiments indicated that greater risk taking during adolescence predicted greater intake of cocaine during acquisition of self-administration in adulthood, and that adult cocaine self-administration in turn caused elevated risk taking that was present following 6 weeks of abstinence. Greater adolescent risk taking was associated with lower striatal D2 receptor mRNA expression, and pharmacological activation of D2/3 receptors in the ventral, but not dorsal, striatum induced a decrease in risk taking. These findings indicate that the relationship between elevated risk taking and cocaine self-administration is bi-directional, and that low striatal D2 receptor expression may represent a predisposing factor for both maladaptive decision making and cocaine use. Furthermore, these findings suggest that striatal D2 receptors represent a therapeutic target for attenuating maladaptive decision making when choices include risk of adverse consequences. PMID:24145852

  3. Adolescent risk taking, cocaine self-administration, and striatal dopamine signaling.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Marci R; Weiss, Virginia G; Beas, B Sofia; Morgan, Drake; Bizon, Jennifer L; Setlow, Barry

    2014-03-01

    Poor decision making and elevated risk taking, particularly during adolescence, have been strongly linked to drug use; however the causal relationships among these factors are not well understood. To address these relationships, a rat model (the Risky Decision-making Task; RDT) was used to determine whether individual differences in risk taking during adolescence predict later propensity for cocaine self-administration and/or whether cocaine self-administration causes alterations in risk taking. In addition, the RDT was used to determine how risk taking is modulated by dopamine signaling, particularly in the striatum. Results from these experiments indicated that greater risk taking during adolescence predicted greater intake of cocaine during acquisition of self-administration in adulthood, and that adult cocaine self-administration in turn caused elevated risk taking that was present following 6 weeks of abstinence. Greater adolescent risk taking was associated with lower striatal D2 receptor mRNA expression, and pharmacological activation of D2/3 receptors in the ventral, but not dorsal, striatum induced a decrease in risk taking. These findings indicate that the relationship between elevated risk taking and cocaine self-administration is bi-directional, and that low striatal D2 receptor expression may represent a predisposing factor for both maladaptive decision making and cocaine use. Furthermore, these findings suggest that striatal D2 receptors represent a therapeutic target for attenuating maladaptive decision making when choices include risk of adverse consequences. PMID:24145852

  4. Depressive Symptoms and Health-Related Risk-Taking in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testa, C. Rylann; Steinberg, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between symptoms and a variety of health-related risk-taking behaviors during adolescence. A survey of 20,745 adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health provided data for analysis. Adolescents who reported more depressive symptoms were found to wear seatbelts less often, wear…

  5. Sexual Attitudes and Risk-Taking Behaviors of High School Students in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aras, Sahbal; Semin, Semih; Gunay, Turkan; Orcin, Esmahan; Ozan, Sema

    2007-01-01

    Background: The risk of sexually transmitted diseases is high but opportunities of sexual education for adolescents are limited in Turkey. The aim of this study was to evaluate sexual attitudes and behaviors and to determine the predictors of sexual initiation among adolescents. Methods: A questionnaire designed by the researchers was administered…

  6. The quality of adolescents' peer relationships modulates neural sensitivity to risk taking.

    PubMed

    Telzer, Eva H; Fuligni, Andrew J; Lieberman, Matthew D; Miernicki, Michelle E; Galván, Adriana

    2015-03-01

    Adolescents' peer culture plays a key role in the development and maintenance of risk-taking behavior. Despite recent advances in developmental neuroscience suggesting that peers may increase neural sensitivity to rewards, we know relatively little about how the quality of peer relations impact adolescent risk taking. In the current 2-year three-wave longitudinal study, we examined how chronic levels of peer conflict relate to risk taking behaviorally and neurally, and whether this is modified by high-quality peer relationships. Forty-six adolescents completed daily diaries assessing peer conflict across 2 years as well as a measure of peer support. During a functional brain scan, adolescents completed a risk-taking task. Behaviorally, peer conflict was associated with greater risk-taking behavior, especially for adolescents reporting low peer support. High levels of peer support buffered this association. At the neural level, peer conflict was associated with greater activation in the striatum and insula, especially among adolescents reporting low peer support, whereas this association was buffered for adolescents reporting high peer support. Results are consistent with the stress-buffering model of social relationships and underscore the importance of the quality of adolescents' peer relationships for their risk taking. PMID:24795443

  7. Social Science Theories on Adolescent Risk-Taking: The Relevance of Behavioral Inhibition and Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeersch, Hans; T'Sjoen, Guy; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2013-01-01

    The major social science theories on adolescent risk-taking--strain, social control, and differential association theories--have received substantial empirical support. The relationships between variables central to these theories and individual differences in temperament related to risk-taking, however, have not been adequately studied. In a…

  8. Effects of Alcohol and Blood Alcohol Concentration Limb on Sexual Risk-Taking Intentions*

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Kelly Cue; George, William H.; Norris, Jeanette; Schacht, Rebecca L.; Stoner, Susan A.; Hendershot, Christian S.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Although there have been numerous investigations of alcohol's relationship to sexual risk taking, the vast majority of these studies have not examined whether the biphasic nature of alcohol intoxication differentially influences risky sexual decisions. Thus, a laboratory study was conducted to investigate the effects of alcohol consumption and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limb on sexual risk-taking intentions. Method: Participants (N = 150; 51.3% male) were randomly assigned to consume alcoholic drinks (target peak BAC = .08%) or nonalcoholic drinks and then completed a hypothetical sexual risk assessment involving an opposite-gender new partner while on either the ascending BAC limb or descending BAC limb. Results: Alcohol intoxication resulted in increased sexual risk-taking intentions indirectly through its influence on perceived intoxication and, subsequently, sexual arousal. An interaction of beverage condition and BAC limb condition indicated that alcohol's effects on perceived intoxication varied significantly by limb, with those on the ascending limb reporting greater perceived intoxication than those on the descending limb. Conclusions: Findings suggest that future research and prevention efforts would be better informed through a more comprehensive consideration of BAC limb effects on sexual risk behaviors. Moreover, results indicate that prevention programs should address in-the-moment states, such as perceived intoxication and sexual arousal, in interventions targeting risky sexual decision-making processes. PMID:19515289

  9. Does Adolescent Risk Taking Imply Weak Executive Function? A Prospective Study of Relations between Working Memory Performance, Impulsivity, and Risk Taking in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romer, Daniel; Betancourt, Laura M.; Brodsky, Nancy L.; Giannetta, Joan M.; Yang, Wei; Hurt, Hallam

    2011-01-01

    Studies of brain development suggest that the increase in risk taking observed during adolescence may be due to insufficient prefrontal executive function compared to a more rapidly developing subcortical motivation system. We examined executive function as assessed by working memory ability in a community sample of youth (n = 387, ages 10 to 12…

  10. Adolescent Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Thomasina H.

    2003-01-01

    This article offers a medical and psychosocial perspective of adolescent sexual development. Sub-types of sexual development are discussed as well as treatment implications for allied health providers. (Contains 38 references.) (Author)

  11. Modernization, Sexual Risk-Taking, and Gynecological Morbidity among Bolivian Forager-Horticulturalists

    PubMed Central

    Stieglitz, Jonathan; Blackwell, Aaron D.; Quispe Gutierrez, Raúl; Cortez Linares, Edhitt; Gurven, Michael; Kaplan, Hillard

    2012-01-01

    Sexual risk-taking and reproductive morbidity are common among rapidly modernizing populations with little material wealth, limited schooling, minimal access to modern contraception and healthcare, and gendered inequalities in resource access that limit female autonomy in cohabiting relationships. Few studies have examined how modernization influences sexual risk-taking and reproductive health early in demographic transition. Tsimane are a natural fertility population of Bolivian forager-farmers; they are not urbanized, reside in small-scale villages, and lack public health infrastructure. We test whether modernization is associated with greater sexual risk-taking, report prevalence of gynecological morbidity (GM), and test whether modernization, sexual risk-taking and parity are associated with greater risk of GM. Data were collected from 2002–2010 using interviews, clinical exams, and laboratory analysis of cervical cells. We find opposing effects of modernization on both sexual risk-taking and risk of GM. Residential proximity to town and Spanish fluency are associated with greater likelihood of men’s infidelity, and with number of lifetime sexual partners for men and women. However, for women, literacy is associated with delayed sexual debut after controlling for town proximity. Fifty-five percent of women present at least one clinical indicator of GM (n = 377); 48% present inflammation of cervical cells, and in 11% the inflammation results from sexually transmitted infection (trichomoniasis). Despite having easier access to modern healthcare, women residing near town experience greater likelihood of cervical inflammation and trichomoniasis relative to women in remote villages; women who are fluent in Spanish are also more likely to present trichomoniasis relative to women with moderate or no fluency. However, literate women experience lower likelihood of trichomoniasis. Parity has no effect on risk of GM. Our results suggest a net increase in risk of

  12. Risk-Taking and Sensation Seeking Propensity in Post-Institutionalized Early Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Loman, Michelle M.; Johnson, Anna E.; Quevedo, Karina; Lafavor, Theresa L.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Youth with histories of institutional/orphanage care are at increased risk for externalizing and internalizing problems during childhood and adolescence. Although these problems have been well described, the related adolescent behaviors of risk-taking and sensation seeking have not yet been explored in this population. This study examined risk-taking and sensation seeking propensity, and associations with conduct problems and depressive symptoms, in early adolescents who were adopted as young children from institutional care. Methods Risk-taking and sensation seeking propensities of 12- and 13-year-old post-institutionalized (PI; n=54) adolescents were compared to two groups: youth internationally adopted early from foster care (PFC; n=44) and non-adopted youth (NA; n=58). Participants were recruited to equally represent pre/early- and mid/late-pubertal stages within each group. Participants completed the youth version of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (Lejuez et al., 2007) and the Sensation Seeking Scale for Children (Russo et al., 1991). Parents completed clinical ratings of participants’ conduct problems and depressive symptoms. Results PI adolescents demonstrated lower risk-taking than PFC and NA peers. Pre/early-pubertal PI youth showed lower sensation seeking, while mid/late pubertal PI youth did not differ in from other groups. PI adolescents had higher levels of conduct problems but did not differ from the other youth in depressive symptoms. In PI youth only, conduct problems were negatively correlated with risk-taking and positively correlated with sensation seeking, while depressive symptoms were negatively correlated with both risk-taking and sensation seeking. Conclusions Early institutional care is associated with less risk-taking and sensation seeking during adolescence. The deprived environment of an institution likely contributes to PI youth having a preference for safe choices, which may only be partially reversed with puberty. Whether

  13. Social network composition and sexual risk-taking among gay and bisexual men in Atlanta, GA.

    PubMed

    Finneran, Catherine; Stephenson, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Social network composition is known to effect patterns of reported sexual risk-taking among men who have sex with men (MSM); however, consensus as to the directionality and size of these effects is lacking. We examined the relationships between novel aspects of social network composition and sexual risk-taking using a cross-sectional survey of 870 MSM. Social network composition was found to have mixed effects on reported sexual risk-taking: reporting proportionally more lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB)-identified friends and reporting friends who were on average significantly older than the respondent were both associated with reporting increased sexual risk, while reporting proportionally more LGB-identified friends in relationships and reporting a social network proportionally more aware of the respondent's homosexuality/bisexuality were both associated with reporting decreased sexual risk. The support structures created by differing social network compositions-and particularly the presence of LGB couples-may be a potential area for targeting sexual risk-reduction interventions for MSM. PMID:23904146

  14. Social Network Composition and Sexual Risk-Taking among Gay and Bisexual Men in Atlanta, GA

    PubMed Central

    Finneran, Catherine; Stephenson, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Social network composition is known to effect patterns of reported sexual risk-taking among men who have sex with men (MSM); however, consensus as to the directionality and size of these effects is lacking. We examined the relationships between novel aspects of social network composition and sexual risk-taking using a cross-sectional survey of 870 MSM. Social network composition was found to have mixed effects on reported sexual risk-taking: reporting proportionally more LGB-identified friends and reporting friends who were on average significantly older than the respondent were both associated with reporting increased sexual risk, while reporting proportionally more LGB-identified friends in relationships and reporting a social network proportionally more aware of the respondent’s homosexuality/bisexuality were both associated with reporting decreased sexual risk. The support structures created by differing social network compositions – and particularly the presence of LGB couples -- may be a potential area for targeting sexual risk-reduction interventions for MSM. PMID:23904146

  15. Risk Taking under the Influence: A Fuzzy-Trace Theory of Emotion in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivers, Susan E.; Reyna, Valerie F.; Mills, Britain

    2008-01-01

    Fuzzy-trace theory explains risky decision making in children, adolescents, and adults, incorporating social and cultural factors as well as differences in impulsivity. Here, we provide an overview of the theory, including support for counterintuitive predictions (e.g., when adolescents "rationally" weigh costs and benefits, risk taking increases,…

  16. Sexual Risk-taking Mediates the Association between Impulsivity and Acquisition of Sexually Transmitted Infections among Hazardously Drinking Incarcerated Women

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Bradley J.; Stein, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Background A growing literature has identified associations between impulsivity and negative behaviors such as sexual risk-taking among high-risk and/or vulnerable populations, but few studies have linked impulsivity to biological outcomes of sexual risk-taking. The main purpose of this study was to document associations among impulsivity, sexual risk-taking, and biological measures of sexually transmitted infection (STI+) in a sample of hazardously drinking incarcerated women. Methods Two hundred forty-five hazardously drinking incarcerated women self-reported alcohol consumption and consequences, impulsivity, and sexual behavior. Results Biological testing revealed a 22.9% prevalence rate for STI+. In this sample, sexual risk-taking fully mediated the association between impulsivity and likelihood of STI+. In addition, individuals reporting sexual activity with multiple partners were significantly more likely to test STI+ than those reporting sexual activity with a primary partner. Conclusion These results support previous research on impulsivity by demonstrating that impulsivity leads to STI+ through risky behavioral choices. These findings also extend prior work by documenting this association using biologically confirmed measures in a vulnerable female population that carries multiple risk factors and thus warrants increased research attention. PMID:23786513

  17. Low mate encounter rate increases male risk taking in a sexually cannibalistic praying mantis.

    PubMed

    Brown, William D; Muntz, Gregory A; Ladowski, Alexander J

    2012-01-01

    Male praying mantises are forced into the ultimate trade-off of mating versus complete loss of future reproduction if they fall prey to a female. The balance of this trade-off will depend both on (1) the level of predatory risk imposed by females and (2) the frequency of mating opportunities for males. We report the results of a set of experiments that examine the effects of these two variables on male risk-taking behavior and the frequency of sexual cannibalism in the praying mantis Tenodera sinensis. We experimentally altered the rate at which males encountered females and measured male approach and courtship behavior under conditions of high and low risk of being attacked by females. We show that male risk taking depends on prior access to females. Males with restricted access to females showed greater risk-taking behavior. When males were given daily female encounters, they responded to greater female-imposed risk by slowing their rate of approach and remained a greater distance from a potential mate. In contrast, males without recent access to mates were greater risk-takers; they approached females more rapidly and to closer proximity, regardless of risk. In a second experiment, we altered male encounter rate with females and measured rates of sexual cannibalism when paired with hungry or well-fed females. Greater risk-taking behavior by males with low mate encounter rates resulted in high rates of sexual cannibalism when these males were paired with hungry females. PMID:22558146

  18. The Impact of Sexual Arousal on Sexual Risk-Taking and Decision-Making in Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Skakoon-Sparling, Shayna; Cramer, Kenneth M; Shuper, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    Sexual arousal has emerged as an important contextual feature in sexual encounters that can impact safer-sex decision-making. We conducted two experiments that investigated the effects of sexual arousal among male and female participants. Experiment 1 (N = 144) examined the impact of sexual around on sexual health decision-making. Sexually explicit and neutral video clips as well as hypothetical romantic scenarios were used to evaluate the effects of sexual arousal on sexual risk-taking intentions. Men and women who reported higher levels of sexual arousal also displayed greater intentions to participate in risky sexual behavior (e.g., unprotected sex with a new sex partner). Experiment 2 (N = 122) examined the impact of sexual arousal on general risk-taking, using the same videos clips as in Experiment 1 and a modified version of a computerized Blackjack card game. Participants were offered a chance to make either a risky play or a safe play during ambiguous conditions. Increased sexual arousal in Experiment 2 was associated with impulsivity and a greater willingness to make risky plays in the Blackjack game. These findings suggest that, in situations where there are strong sexually visceral cues, both men and women experiencing strong sexual arousal may have lower inhibitions and may experience impaired decision-making. This phenomenon may have an impact during sexual encounters and may contribute to a failure to use appropriate prophylactic protection. PMID:26310879

  19. Brain Structural Correlates of Risk-Taking Behavior and Effects of Peer Influence in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Myoung Soo; Vorobyev, Victor; Moe, Dagfinn; Parkkola, Riitta; Hämäläinen, Heikki

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents are characterized by impulsive risky behavior, particularly in the presence of peers. We discriminated high and low risk-taking male adolescents aged 18–19 years by assessing their propensity for risky behavior and vulnerability to peer influence with personality tests, and compared structural differences in gray and white matter of the brain with voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), respectively. We also compared the brain structures according to the participants' actual risk-taking behavior in a simulated driving task with two different social conditions making up a peer competition situation. There was a discrepancy between the self-reported personality test results and risky driving behavior (running through an intersection with traffic lights turning yellow, chancing a collision with another vehicle). Comparison between high and low risk-taking adolescents according to personality test results revealed no significant difference in gray matter volume and white matter integrity. However, comparison according to actual risk-taking behavior during task performance revealed significantly higher white matter integrity in the high risk-taking group, suggesting that increased risky behavior during adolescence is not necessarily attributed to the immature brain as conventional wisdom says. PMID:25389976

  20. Determinants of sexual risk-taking among young HIV-negative gay and bisexual men.

    PubMed

    Strathdee, S A; Hogg, R S; Martindale, S L; Cornelisse, P G; Craib, K J; Montaner, J S; O'Shaughnessy, M V; Schechter, M T

    1998-09-01

    Data from a cohort of young HIV-negative gay and bisexual men were analyzed to identify determinants of sexual risk-taking at baseline. Gay/bisexual men aged between 18 and 30 completed a self-administered questionnaire including demographics, depression, social support, substance use, and consensual versus nonconsensual sex. Risk-takers were defined as those who had unprotected anal sex with casual male sex partners in the previous year; non-risk-takers were defined as those who reported consistent condom use during anal sex with all male partners in the previous year. Logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of sexual risk-taking. Of 439 men studied, risk-takers had less education, a higher depression score, less social support, and were more likely to report nonconsensual sex and recreational drug use relative to non-risk-takers. Independent predictors of sexual risk-taking were low education, nitrite use, low social support (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.65; 95% CI, 1.04-2.59), and nonconsensual sex experienced as a youth or adult (AOR=1.85; 95% CI, 1.15-2.96). Young gay/bisexual men reporting nonconsensual sex, low social support, or nitrite use were significantly more likely to have recently had unprotected anal sex with casual partners. HIV prevention programs aimed at young gay/bisexual men should include sexual abuse counselling and foster community norms supporting safer sex practices. PMID:9732071

  1. Depressive symptoms and health-related risk-taking in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Testa, C Rylann; Steinberg, Laurence

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated the relation between symptoms and a variety of health-related risk-taking behaviors during adolescence. A survey of 20,745 adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health provided data for analysis. Adolescents who reported more depressive symptoms were found to wear seatbelts less often, wear bike-helmets less often, and drive while drunk more frequently. Depressive symptoms did not correlate with reported condom use. The found relations were all mediated by reported levels of hopelessness. Reported levels of anhedonia and suicidality also mediated some of the found relations. Therefore, adolescents experiencing depressive symptoms, especially those reporting hopelessness, should be considered at jeopardy for a variety of health-related risk-taking behaviors. PMID:20560751

  2. Buspirone reduces sexual risk-taking intent but not cocaine self-administration.

    PubMed

    Bolin, B Levi; Lile, Joshua A; Marks, Katherine R; Beckmann, Joshua S; Rush, Craig R; Stoops, William W

    2016-06-01

    Impulsive sexual decision-making may underlie sexual risk-taking behavior that contributes to the disproportionately high prevalence of HIV infection among cocaine users. Delay-discounting procedures measure impulsive decision-making and may provide insight into the underlying mechanisms of sexual risk-taking behavior. The anxiolytic drug buspirone reduces delay discounting in rats and blunts the reinforcing effects of cocaine in some preclinical studies suggesting that it might have utility in the treatment of cocaine-use disorders. This study determined whether buspirone mitigates impulsive risky sexual decision-making in cocaine users on a sexual delay-discounting procedure. The effects of buspirone maintenance on the abuse-related and physiological effects of cocaine were also tested. Nine (N = 9) current cocaine users completed a repeated-measures, inpatient protocol in which sexual delay discounting was assessed after 3 days of maintenance on placebo and buspirone (30 mg/day) in counterbalanced order. The reinforcing, subject-rated, and physiological effects of placebo and intranasal cocaine (15 and 45 mg) were also assessed during buspirone and placebo maintenance. Buspirone increased the likelihood of condom use for hypothetical sexual partners that were categorized as most likely to have a sexually transmitted infection and least sexually desirable. Cocaine functioned as a reinforcer and increased positive subjective effects ratings, but buspirone maintenance did not impact these effects of cocaine. Buspirone was also safe and tolerable when combined with cocaine and may have blunted some its cardiovascular effects. The results from the sexual delay-discounting procedure indicate that buspirone may reduce preference for riskier sex in cocaine users. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27254258

  3. Risk Perception and Risk-Taking Behaviour during Adolescence: The Influence of Personality and Gender.

    PubMed

    Reniers, Renate L E P; Murphy, Laura; Lin, Ashleigh; Bartolomé, Sandra Para; Wood, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of personality characteristics and gender on adolescents' perception of risk and their risk-taking behaviour. Male and female participants (157 females: 116 males, aged 13-20) completed self-report measures on risk perception, risk-taking and personality. Male participants perceived behaviours as less risky, reportedly took more risks, were less sensitive to negative outcomes and less socially anxious than female participants. Path analysis identified a model in which age, behavioural inhibition and impulsiveness directly influenced risk perception, while age, social anxiety, impulsiveness, sensitivity to reward, behavioural inhibition and risk perception itself were directly or indirectly associated with risk-taking behaviour. Age and behavioural inhibition had direct relationships with social anxiety, and reward sensitivity was associated with impulsiveness. The model was representative for the whole sample and male and female groups separately. The observed relationship between age and social anxiety and the influence this may have on risk-taking behaviour could be key for reducing adolescent risk-taking behaviour. Even though adolescents may understand the riskiness of their behaviour and estimate their vulnerability to risk at a similar level to adults, factors such as anxiety regarding social situations, sensitivity to reward and impulsiveness may exert their influence and make these individuals prone to taking risks. If these associations are proven causal, these factors are, and will continue to be, important targets in prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:27100081

  4. Risk Taking in First and Second Generation Afro-Caribbean Adolescents: An Emerging Challenge for School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolly, Kim; Archibald, Cynthia; Liehr, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    School nurses are well positioned to address risk-taking behaviors for adolescents in their care. The purpose of this mixed-method exploratory study was to explore risk taking in Afro-Caribbean adolescents in South Florida, comparing first- to second-generation adolescents. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from an immigrant group…

  5. Differential associations between impulsivity and risk-taking and brain activations underlying working memory in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Panwar, Karni; Rutherford, Helena J V; Mencl, W Einar; Lacadie, Cheryl M; Potenza, Marc N; Mayes, Linda C

    2014-11-01

    Increased impulsivity and risk-taking are common during adolescence and relate importantly to addictive behaviors. However, the extent to which impulsivity and risk-taking relate to brain activations that mediate cognitive processing is not well understood. Here we examined the relationships between impulsivity and risk-taking and the neural correlates of working memory. Neural activity was measured in 18 adolescents (13-18 years) while they engaged in a working memory task that included verbal and visuospatial components that each involved encoding, rehearsal and recognition stages. Risk-taking and impulsivity were assessed using the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) and the adolescent version of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11A), respectively. We found overlapping as well as distinct regions subserving the different stages of verbal and visuospatial working memory. In terms of risk-taking, we found a positive correlation between BART scores and activity in subcortical regions (e.g., thalamus, dorsal striatum) recruited during verbal rehearsal, and an inverse correlation between BART scores and cortical regions (e.g., parietal and temporal regions) recruited during visuospatial rehearsal. The BIS-11A evidenced that motor impulsivity was associated with activity in regions recruited during all stages of working memory, while attention and non-planning impulsivity was only associated with activity in regions recruited during recognition. In considering working memory, impulsivity and risk-taking together, both impulsivity and risk-taking were associated with activity in regions recruited during rehearsal; however, during verbal rehearsal, differential correlations were found. Specifically, positive correlations were found between: (1) risk-taking and activity in subcortical regions, including the thalamus and dorsal striatum; and, (2) motor impulsivity and activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus, insula, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Therefore

  6. Adolescent Risk-Taking and the Five-Factor Model of Personality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullone, Eleonora; Moore, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the links between adolescent risk-taking and personality, as conceptualized using the Five-factor Model of personality (N=459). Results reveal that risk judgments, personality factors, age and sex were significant predictors of risk behaviors; however, the personality factor of significance was found to differ depending upon the risk…

  7. Does the Adolescent Brain Make Risk Taking Inevitable? A Skeptical Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Males, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly influential theories hold that the "teenage brain" suffers cognitive flaws that impel risk taking. Aside from warnings by leading researchers that brain science is insufficiently advanced to yield definitive findings that teenage behaviors are internally driven, the belief that adolescents take excessive risks has been developed using…

  8. Risk Taking in Late Adolescence: Relations between Sociomoral Reasoning, Risk Stance, and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Leigh A.; Amsel, Eric; Schillo, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    This study explored relations among late adolescents' sociomoral reasoning about risk taking, risk stance, and behavior. One-hundred and thirty-two participants (18-20-year-olds) were surveyed about their own risk stance (Avoidant, Opportunistic, Curious, Risk Seeking) and behavior in three realms (Alcohol Use, Drug Use, Reckless Driving), and…

  9. Motives for Risk-Taking in Adolescence: A Cross-Cultural Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloep, M.; Guney, N.; Cok, F.; Simsek, O. F.

    2009-01-01

    Most research on adolescent risk-taking has been conducted in Western societies, but it is as yet unknown whether motives to engage in risk behaviours show cultural variety. This study sets out to investigate differences in perceived motives to engage in perceived risks in Turkish and Welsh samples of young people (N = 922) between 14 and 20 years…

  10. Impact of Religious Education and Religiosity on Adolescent Alcohol Use and Risk-Taking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use and risk-taking behavior among 345 male adolescents from three Israeli secular (n = 168) and three religious (n = 177) high schools were studied from 2009 to 2013. Findings show the positive impact religious education and religiosity have on minimizing alcohol use, binge drinking, school underachievement, violence, weapons possession,…

  11. Teachers' Perceptions of School Connectedness and Risk-Taking in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Rebekah L.; Buckley, Lisa; Sheehan, Mary; Shochet, Ian M.

    2014-01-01

    School connectedness has been shown to be an important protective factor in adolescent development, which is associated with reduced risk-taking behavior. Interventions to increase students' connectedness to school commonly incorporate aspects of teacher training. To date, however, research on connectedness has largely been based on student…

  12. Why Risk Irrelevance? A Translational Research Model for Adolescent Risk-Taking Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Erica; Allen, Reg; Hogan, David; Martinez, Carissa

    2008-01-01

    Framed by the literature on research-policy transfer, this paper explores a "real world" task of translating adolescent risk-taking data into "whole-of-system" services development. It aims to explore challenges and opportunities in using large-N quantitative data analyses of such complex constructs to inform holistic policy-making. It offers a…

  13. The Risk-Taking and Self-Harm Inventory for Adolescents: Development and Psychometric Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrouva, Ioanna; Fonagy, Peter; Fearon, Pasco R. M.; Roussow, Trudie

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we report on the development and psychometric evaluation of the Risk-Taking (RT) and Self-Harm (SH) Inventory for Adolescents (RTSHIA), a self-report measure designed to assess adolescent RT and SH in community and clinical settings. 651 young people from secondary schools in England ranging in age from 11.6 years to 18.7 years and…

  14. Peers Increase Adolescent Risk Taking Even When the Probabilities of Negative Outcomes Are Known

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ashley R.; Chein, Jason; Steinberg, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    The majority of adolescent risk taking occurs in the presence of peers, and recent research suggests that the presence of peers may alter how the potential rewards and costs of a decision are valuated or perceived. The current study further explores this notion by investigating how peer observation affects adolescent risk taking when the information necessary to make an informed decision is explicitly provided. We used a novel probabilistic gambling task in which participants decided whether to play or pass on a series of offers for which the reward and loss outcome probabilities were made explicit. Adolescent participants completed the task either alone or under the belief that they were being observed by an unknown peer in a neighboring room. Participants who believed a peer was observing them chose to gamble more often than participants who completed the task alone, and this effect was most evident for decisions with a greater probability of loss. These results suggest that the presence of peers can increase risk taking among adolescents even when specific information regarding the likelihood of positive and negative outcomes is provided. The findings expand our understanding of how peers influence adolescent decision making and have important implications regarding the value of educational programs aimed at reducing risky behaviors during adolescence. PMID:24447118

  15. Risk Perception and Risk-Taking Behaviour during Adolescence: The Influence of Personality and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Reniers, Renate L. E. P.; Murphy, Laura; Lin, Ashleigh; Bartolomé, Sandra Para; Wood, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of personality characteristics and gender on adolescents’ perception of risk and their risk-taking behaviour. Male and female participants (157 females: 116 males, aged 13–20) completed self-report measures on risk perception, risk-taking and personality. Male participants perceived behaviours as less risky, reportedly took more risks, were less sensitive to negative outcomes and less socially anxious than female participants. Path analysis identified a model in which age, behavioural inhibition and impulsiveness directly influenced risk perception, while age, social anxiety, impulsiveness, sensitivity to reward, behavioural inhibition and risk perception itself were directly or indirectly associated with risk-taking behaviour. Age and behavioural inhibition had direct relationships with social anxiety, and reward sensitivity was associated with impulsiveness. The model was representative for the whole sample and male and female groups separately. The observed relationship between age and social anxiety and the influence this may have on risk-taking behaviour could be key for reducing adolescent risk-taking behaviour. Even though adolescents may understand the riskiness of their behaviour and estimate their vulnerability to risk at a similar level to adults, factors such as anxiety regarding social situations, sensitivity to reward and impulsiveness may exert their influence and make these individuals prone to taking risks. If these associations are proven causal, these factors are, and will continue to be, important targets in prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:27100081

  16. Alcohol Mixed with Energy Drink Use and Sexual Risk-Taking: Casual, Intoxicated, and Unprotected Sex

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study examined the confluence of several behaviors common to U.S. young adults: caffeinated energy drink use, alcohol use, and sexual risk-taking. The author examined relationships between the use of energy drinks mixed with alcohol (AmEDs) and three sexual risk behaviors: casual sex (i.e., intercourse with a nonexclusive and/or nonromantic partner), intoxicated sex (i.e., intercourse while under the influence of alcohol and/or illicit drugs), and unprotected sex (i.e., intercourse without use of a condom). Method Logistic regression analyses were employed to analyze data from a cross-sectional survey of 648 sexually active undergraduate students at a large public university. Results After controlling for risk-taking norms and frequency of noncaffeinated alcohol use, AmED use was associated with elevated odds of casual sex and intoxicated sex but not unprotected sex. Conclusions Although further studies are needed to test for event-level relationships, AmED use should be considered a possible risk factor for potentially health-compromising sexual behaviors. PMID:24761266

  17. Analogue Study of Peer Influence on Risk-Taking Behavior in Older Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; MacPherson, Laura; Schwartz, Sarah; Fox, Nathan A.; Lejuez, C. W.

    2013-01-01

    This experimental study aimed to examine whether adolescents act in a riskier manner in the presence of peers and whether peer presence alone influences risk behavior or if a direct influence process is necessary. Utilizing a behavioral task assessing risk-taking, 183 older adolescents (18–20 year olds) came to the laboratory alone once and then were randomized to one of three conditions: alone, peers present, peers encouraging. An interaction was found such that at baseline there were no significant differences between the three conditions but at the experimental session there was a significant increase in risk task scores particularly for the encouraging condition. These findings challenge proposed models of the interaction between peer influence and risk taking by providing evidence that adolescents take more risks when being encouraged by peers but that the presence of peers on its own does not lead to more risks than when completing the task alone. PMID:24122411

  18. Complicity or conflict over sexual cannibalism? Male risk taking in the praying mantis Tenodera aridifolia sinensis.

    PubMed

    Lelito, Jonathan P; Brown, William D

    2006-08-01

    Male complicity versus conflict over sexual cannibalism in mantids remains extremely controversial, yet few studies have attempted to establish a causal relationship between risk of cannibalism and male reproductive behavior. We studied male risk-taking behavior in the praying mantid Tenodera aridifolia sinensis by altering the risk imposed by females and measuring changes in male behavior. We show that males were less likely to approach hungrier, more rapacious females, and when they did approach, they moved more slowly, courted with greater intensity, and mounted from a greater distance. Similarly, when forced to approach females head-on, within better view and better reach of females, males also approached more slowly and courted with greater intensity. Thus, males behaved in a manner clearly indicative of risk avoidance, and we support the hypothesis of sexual conflict over sexual cannibalism. PMID:16874635

  19. The role of testosterone in aggressive and non-aggressive risk-taking in adolescent boys.

    PubMed

    Vermeersch, Hans; T'Sjoen, Guy; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Vincke, John

    2008-03-01

    While there exists increasing evidence of a relationship between testosterone (T) and risk-taking (RT), many issues remain unsolved. This paper tries to address two main-questions: (i) does T influence aggressive risk-taking (ART) and/or non-aggressive risk-taking (NART) behavior and (ii) is this relationship stable throughout age and pubertal development and how is the relationship affected by affiliations with peers that are highly involved in RT, referred to as differential association (DA)? For a sample of 301 third-grade adolescent boys (mean age 14.4 years), we assessed the relationship between serum levels of T and estradiol (E2), DA and ART/NART. Significant effects of SHBG (Beta=-0.15; p<0.029) and free testosterone (FT) (Beta=0.23; p<0.003) on NART were shown. No significant effects were found with respect to ART. Further analyses showed that the FT-NART and the FT-ART relations differed as to age but not as to pubertal development (PD) and that the relationship between FT and RT is mediated by DA as such that individuals with higher levels of FT have friends that are more involved in RT and their influence contributes to increased levels of RT. Our results indicate that hormone-related interests and predispositions may influence the development of affiliations with risk-taking peers, a factor which is crucial in understanding adolescent RT. PMID:18234200

  20. Locating and applying sociological theories of risk-taking to develop public health interventions for adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pound, Pandora; Campbell, Rona

    2015-01-01

    Sociological theories seldom inform public health interventions at the community level. The reasons for this are unclear but may include difficulties in finding, understanding or operationalising theories. We conducted a study to explore the feasibility of locating sociological theories within a specific field of public health, adolescent risk-taking, and to consider their potential for practical application. We identified a range of sociological theories. These explained risk-taking: (i) as being due to lack of social integration; (ii) as a consequence of isolation from mainstream society; (iii) as a rite of passage; (iv) as a response to social constraints; (v) as resistance; (vi) as an aspect of adolescent development; (vii) by the theory of the ‘habitus’; (viii) by situated rationality and social action theories; and (ix) as social practice. We consider these theories in terms of their potential to inform public health interventions for young people. PMID:25999784

  1. A systematic review of alcohol use and sexual risk-taking in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Vagenas, Panagiotis; Lama, Javier R.; Ludford, Kaysia T.; Gonzales, Pedro; Sanchez, Jorge; Altice, Frederick L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To provide an account of published literature on the association between alcohol use and sexual risk-taking, focusing on Latin America. Methods A search of MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, LILACS, and Cochrane databases identified 561 unique articles. After excluding those that were not directly relevant, 30 studies were retained for review. Results Twenty-seven studies showed direct or indirect associations between alcohol abuse and unprotected/risky sex. Three studies, however, showed no association between these variables, suggesting that the public health message of safer sex may have been effective. Conclusions Further research is needed to identify factors and behaviors that could be modified to reduce the association between alcohol use disorders and risky sexual behavior. PMID:24301738

  2. A Model Linking Diverse Women's Child Sexual Abuse History with Sexual Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Laurel B.; Matheny, Kenneth B.; Gagne, Phill; Brack, Greg; Ancis, Julie R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine the role that child sexual abuse may play in body surveillance and sexual risk behaviors among undergraduate women. First, a measured variable path analysis was conducted, which assessed the relations among a history of child sexual abuse, body surveillance, and sexual risk behaviors. Furthermore, body…

  3. [Adolescent sexuality].

    PubMed

    Calero, Juan del Rey

    2010-01-01

    The social Adolescent features are insecurity, narcissism, eroticism, more impetuosity than reason. 1/3 of adolescents have risk behaviour for health. The pregnancy rate in adolescent are 9/1,000 (11,720, the abort about 50 %). The total abort (2009) were 114,480. Increase the rate of 8,4 (1990) to 14,6/ 1,000 (2009). The sexual education fails. The consulting about contraceptives get pregnancy of the OR 3,2, condom OR 2,7. The adolescent are influenced in his matter: oeer have 70-75 % of influence, mother 30-40 %, father 15 %, for yhe environment and education Cyberspace access to information: 33 % exposed to unwanted sexual materials, 1 in 7 solicited sexual online. The argument have 4 central topic: Morality and Responsibility, Desire (responsibility vs gratification), Danger (fear related to pregnancy and STD/VIH), and Victimization. The prevention of STD: so called safe sex, delayed, and abstinence, Prevention HPV vaccine. The information is not enough, are necessary personal integral formation in values as self control, abstinence, mutual respect, responsibility, reasonable decisions. PMID:21877398

  4. Influence of social stress on risk-taking behavior in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Elizabeth K; Schreiber, Whitney M; Geisel, Kathy; MacPherson, Laura; Ernst, Monique; Lejuez, C W

    2013-04-01

    Risk-taking behavior involves making choices with uncertain positive or negative outcomes. Evidence suggests that risk-taking behavior is influenced by emotional state. One such emotional experience is social anxiety, which has been related to both risk-avoidant and risk-seeking decision making. The present study examined a community sample of 34 adolescents grouped into low (Low SA Group) and high (High SA Group) social anxiety (SA). Both groups were compared on changes in performance on a risk taking task (Balloon Analogue Risk Task) between a social threat condition (modified Trier Social Stress Test, High Stress) and a control condition (Low Stress). These conditions were administered on different days, and the order was counterbalanced across subjects. A group×condition interaction revealed that the High SA Group showed greater risk-taking behavior when exposed to the High Stress Condition compared to the Low Stress Condition, while the Low SA Group evidenced no difference between the two conditions. Interpretations for the increased risk behavior under the condition of social stress for those high in social anxiety are discussed as well as implications for understanding the complex relationship between social anxiety and risk behavior. PMID:23602940

  5. Exploring the role of parents and peers in young adolescents' risk taking on social networking sites.

    PubMed

    Shin, Wonsun; Ismail, Nurzali

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the role of parental and peer mediation in young adolescents' engagement in risk-taking in social networking sites (SNSs). A survey conducted in Malaysia with 469 SNS users aged 13-14 revealed that control-based parental mediation can cause boomerang effects, making young adolescents more inclined to taking risks in SNSs. While discussion-based parental mediation was found to be negatively related to young adolescents' befriending strangers in SNSs, it did not reduce privacy risks. Findings also suggested that peer influence could result in undesirable outcomes. In particular, the more young adolescents talked about Internet-related issues with peers, the more likely they were to disclose personally identifiable information on SNSs. PMID:25126969

  6. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Relationship Satisfaction, and Sexual Risk Taking in a Community Sample of Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testa, Maria; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol; Livingston, Jennifer A.

    2005-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been proposed to influence both women's adult sexual risk behaviors and the quality of their intimate relationships. Among a household sample of women (n = 732), good fit was obtained for a model in which CSA predicted Wave 1 male partner sexual risk and aggression characteristics, resulting in lower relationship…

  7. Gender specific effect of psychological stress and cortisol reactivity on adolescent risk taking.

    PubMed

    Daughters, Stacey B; Gorka, Stephanie M; Matusiewicz, Alexis; Anderson, Katelyn

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate how psychological stress, gender and cortisol response to stress relate to risk behavior among 132 14-18 year old adolescents. Participants completed a laboratory based risk task prior to and immediately after a computerized psychological stress task, and salivary cortisol was collected from pre-stress to 60 min following initial stress exposure. Results indicate that adolescent boys (n = 59) and girls (n = 73) demonstrate different patterns of risk taking (RT) in response to stress, such that boys evidenced an increase in RT following stress exposure, whereas girls evidenced a decrease in RT. In addition, a gender by cortisol interaction demonstrated that for boys, both a smaller total cortisol output (AUCg) and peak cortisol response to stress (PC) was associated with greater stress-induced RT. Both cortisol measures were unrelated to stress-induced RT among girls. Taken together, data suggest that among boys, a blunted cortisol response to stress underlies an increase in risk taking in the context of psychological stress. Further research with an additional behavioral stress task is needed prior to drawing conclusions regarding the relation between female gender, cortisol response to stress, and risk taking in the context of psychological stress. PMID:23338478

  8. Risk Taking Under the Influence: A Fuzzy-Trace Theory of Emotion in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Rivers, Susan E.; Reyna, Valerie F.; Mills, Britain

    2008-01-01

    Fuzzy-trace theory explains risky decision making in children, adolescents, and adults, incorporating social and cultural factors as well as differences in impulsivity. Here, we provide an overview of the theory, including support for counterintuitive predictions (e.g., when adolescents “rationally” weigh costs and benefits, risk taking increases, but it decreases when the core gist of a decision is processed). Then, we delineate how emotion shapes adolescent risk taking—from encoding of representations of options, to retrieval of values/principles, to application of those values/principles to representations of options. Our review indicates that: (i) Gist representations often incorporate emotion including valence, arousal, feeling states, and discrete emotions; and (ii) Emotion determines whether gist or verbatim representations are processed. We recommend interventions to reduce unhealthy risk-taking that inculcate stable gist representations, enabling adolescents to identify quickly and automatically danger even when experiencing emotion, which differs sharply from traditional approaches emphasizing deliberation and precise analysis. PMID:19255597

  9. Evaluation of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) as a Predictor of Adolescent Real-World Risk-Taking Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lejuez, C. W.; Aklin, Will M.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Pedulla, Christina M.

    2003-01-01

    A sample of 26 adolescents tested the utility of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) as a behavioral measure of risk-taking propensity. Data indicate that riskyness on the BART was related to self-reported engagement in real-world risk-taking behaviors. These data suggest that the BART may be a useful addition to self-report batteries for the…

  10. Effect of acculturation on the acceptability of potential microbicides and sexual risk-taking

    PubMed Central

    THURMAN, Andrea Ries; HOLDEN, Alan E C; SHAIN, Rochelle N; PERDUE, Sondra; PIPER, Jeanna M

    2009-01-01

    Background The objective was to determine the acceptability and use patterns of potential microbicides among African American (AA), Acculturated Hispanic (AH) and Less-Acculturated Hispanic (LAH) women. We measured baseline sexual risk-taking and the likelihood of behavioral change, given effective microbicides. Methods Interview of 506 Mexican American (MA) and AA women, all of whom have a sexually transmitted infection (STI) enrolled in Project Sexual Awareness for Everyone.. Results The 3 groups reported similarly high acceptance of potential microbicides (76 – 83% p = 0.24). LAHs were most likely to report they would use microbicides covertly (p = 0.03). Given the possibility of effective microbicides, AHs were consistently more likely to report risk disinhibition. AHs, as compared to LAHs and AAs respectively, were most likely to report that they would not use condoms, (53% vs. 33% vs. 30% p < 0.001), would have a one-night stand (18% vs. 8% vs. 6% p = 0.02), or would have sex with a man before they got to know him (18% vs. 8% vs. 6% p = 0.01). AHs were also most likely to say they would or probably would change from baseline safe sexual practices to unsafe sexual behaviors if potential microbicides were available. Age was controlled for in the analysis as AHs were younger than AAs and LAHs. Conclusions Future microbicides were acceptable among this at risk cohort. Acculturation was a predictor of risk disinhibition and should be considered when tailoring STI prevention messages, given the advent of effective microbicides. PMID:19556933

  11. Who are those "risk-taking adolescents"? Individual differences in developmental neuroimaging research.

    PubMed

    Bjork, James M; Pardini, Dustin A

    2015-02-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has illuminated the development of human brain function. Some of this work in typically-developing youth has ostensibly captured neural underpinnings of adolescent behavior which is characterized by risk-seeking propensity, according to psychometric questionnaires and a wealth of anecdote. Notably, cross-sectional comparisons have revealed age-dependent differences between adolescents and other age groups in regional brain responsiveness to prospective or experienced rewards (usually greater in adolescents) or penalties (usually diminished in adolescents). These differences have been interpreted as reflecting an imbalance between motivational drive and behavioral control mechanisms, especially in mid-adolescence, thus promoting greater risk-taking. While intriguing, we caution here that researchers should be more circumspect in attributing clinically significant adolescent risky behavior to age-group differences in task-elicited fMRI responses from neurotypical subjects. This is because actual mortality and morbidity from behavioral causes (e.g. substance abuse, violence) by mid-adolescence is heavily concentrated in individuals who are not neurotypical, who rather have shown a lifelong history of behavioral disinhibition that frequently meets criteria for a disruptive behavior disorder, such as conduct disorder, oppositional-defiant disorder, or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. These young people are at extreme risk of poor psychosocial outcomes, and should be a focus of future neurodevelopmental research. PMID:25176616

  12. Neural network development in late adolescents during observation of risk-taking action.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Miyuki; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Higuchi, Shigekazu; Hida, Akiko; Enomoto, Minori; Umezawa, Jun; Mishima, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Emotional maturity and social awareness are important for adolescents, particularly college students beginning to face the challenges and risks of the adult world. However, there has been relatively little research into personality maturation and psychological development during late adolescence and the neural changes underlying this development. We investigated the correlation between psychological properties (neuroticism, extraversion, anxiety, and depression) and age among late adolescents (n = 25, from 18 years and 1 month to 22 years and 8 months). The results revealed that late adolescents became less neurotic, less anxious, less depressive and more extraverted as they aged. Participants then observed video clips depicting hand movements with and without a risk of harm (risk-taking or safe actions) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The results revealed that risk-taking actions elicited significantly stronger activation in the bilateral inferior parietal lobule, temporal visual regions (superior/middle temporal areas), and parieto-occipital visual areas (cuneus, middle occipital gyri, precuneus). We found positive correlations of age and extraversion with neural activation in the insula, middle temporal gyrus, lingual gyrus, and precuneus. We also found a negative correlation of age and anxiety with activation in the angular gyrus, precentral gyrus, and red nucleus/substantia nigra. Moreover, we found that insula activation mediated the relationship between age and extraversion. Overall, our results indicate that late adolescents become less anxious and more extraverted with age, a process involving functional neural changes in brain networks related to social cognition and emotional processing. The possible neural mechanisms of psychological and social maturation during late adolescence are discussed. PMID:22768085

  13. Neural Network Development in Late Adolescents during Observation of Risk-Taking Action

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, Shigekazu; Hida, Akiko; Enomoto, Minori; Umezawa, Jun; Mishima, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Emotional maturity and social awareness are important for adolescents, particularly college students beginning to face the challenges and risks of the adult world. However, there has been relatively little research into personality maturation and psychological development during late adolescence and the neural changes underlying this development. We investigated the correlation between psychological properties (neuroticism, extraversion, anxiety, and depression) and age among late adolescents (n = 25, from 18 years and 1 month to 22 years and 8 months). The results revealed that late adolescents became less neurotic, less anxious, less depressive and more extraverted as they aged. Participants then observed video clips depicting hand movements with and without a risk of harm (risk-taking or safe actions) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The results revealed that risk-taking actions elicited significantly stronger activation in the bilateral inferior parietal lobule, temporal visual regions (superior/middle temporal areas), and parieto-occipital visual areas (cuneus, middle occipital gyri, precuneus). We found positive correlations of age and extraversion with neural activation in the insula, middle temporal gyrus, lingual gyrus, and precuneus. We also found a negative correlation of age and anxiety with activation in the angular gyrus, precentral gyrus, and red nucleus/substantia nigra. Moreover, we found that insula activation mediated the relationship between age and extraversion. Overall, our results indicate that late adolescents become less anxious and more extraverted with age, a process involving functional neural changes in brain networks related to social cognition and emotional processing. The possible neural mechanisms of psychological and social maturation during late adolescence are discussed. PMID:22768085

  14. Blunted Feedback Processing During Risk-Taking in Adolescents with Features of Problematic Internet Use

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Yvonne H. C.; Potenza, Marc N.; Mayes, Linda C.; Crowley, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    While the conceptualization of problematic Internet use (PIU) as a ‘behavioral addiction’ resembling substance-use disorders is debated, the neurobiological underpinnings of PIU remain understudied. This study examined whether adolescents displaying features of PIU (at-risk PIU; ARPIU) are more impulsive and exhibit blunted responding in the neural mechanisms underlying feedback processing and outcome evaluation during risk-taking. Event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by positive (i.e. reward) and negative (i.e. loss) feedback were recording during performance on a modified version of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) among ARPIU (n=39) and non-ARPIU subjects (n=27). Compared to non-ARPIU, ARPIU adolescents displayed higher levels of urgency and lack of perseverance on the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale. Although no between-group difference in BART performance was observed, ERPs demonstrated overall decreased sensitivity to feedback in ARPIU compared to non-ARPIU adolescents, as indexed by blunted feedback-related negativity (FRN) and P300 amplitudes to both negative and positive feedback. The present study provides evidence for feedback processing during risk-taking as a neural correlate of ARPIU. Given recent concerns regarding the growing prevalence of PIU as a health concern, future work should examine the extent to which feedback processing may represent a risk factor for PIU, a consequence of PIU, or possibly both. PMID:25679363

  15. Blunted feedback processing during risk-taking in adolescents with features of problematic Internet use.

    PubMed

    Yau, Yvonne H C; Potenza, Marc N; Mayes, Linda C; Crowley, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    While the conceptualization of problematic Internet use (PIU) as a "behavioral addiction" resembling substance-use disorders is debated, the neurobiological underpinnings of PIU remain understudied. This study examined whether adolescents displaying features of PIU (at-risk PIU; ARPIU) are more impulsive and exhibit blunted responding in the neural mechanisms underlying feedback processing and outcome evaluation during risk-taking. Event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by positive (i.e. reward) and negative (i.e. loss) feedback were recorded during performance on a modified version of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) among ARPIU (n=39) and non-ARPIU subjects (n=27). Compared to non-ARPIU, ARPIU adolescents displayed higher levels of urgency and lack of perseverance on the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale. Although no between-group difference in BART performance was observed, ERPs demonstrated overall decreased sensitivity to feedback in ARPIU compared to non-ARPIU adolescents, as indexed by blunted feedback-related negativity (FRN) and P300 amplitudes to both negative and positive feedback. The present study provides evidence for feedback processing during risk-taking as a neural correlate of ARPIU. Given recent concerns regarding the growing prevalence of PIU as a health concern, future work should examine the extent to which feedback processing may represent a risk factor for PIU, a consequence of PIU, or possibly both. PMID:25679363

  16. The Impact of School Connectedness on Violent Behavior, Transport Risk-Taking Behavior, and Associated Injuries in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Rebekah L.; Buckley, Lisa; Sheehan, Mary C.; Shochet, Ian M.; Romaniuk, Madeline

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents engage in many risk-taking behaviors that have the potential to lead to injury. The school environment has a significant role in shaping adolescent behavior, and this study aimed to provide additional information about the benefits associated with connectedness to school. Early adolescents aged 13 to 15 years (N=509, 49% boys) were…

  17. Effects of Familial Attachment, Social Support, Involvement, and Self-Esteem on Youth Substance Use and Sexual Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Christina Hamme; Buser, Trevor J.; Westburg, Nancy G.

    2010-01-01

    A study of protective factors against substance use and sexual risk taking was conducted among 610 high-poverty urban youth. Higher levels of family attachment, social support, involvement, and self-esteem were associated with lower levels of risk behaviors. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  18. Motivational Systems in Adolescence: Possible Implications for Age Differences in Substance Abuse and Other Risk-Taking Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L.; Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Spear, Linda P.

    2010-01-01

    Adolescence is an evolutionarily conserved developmental phase characterized by hormonal, physiological, neural and behavioral alterations evident widely across mammalian species. For instance, adolescent rats, like their human counterparts, exhibit elevations in peer-directed social interactions, risk-taking/novelty seeking and drug and alcohol…

  19. Is Jumping off the Roof "Always" a Bad Idea? A Rejoinder on Risk Taking and the Adolescent Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Males, Mike A.

    2010-01-01

    Three respondents provide cogent commentary on the author's first article, "Does the Adolescent Brain Make Risk Taking Inevitable? A Skeptical Appraisal." Two respondent papers argue that the author mischaracterized valid and useful developmental and biological arguments affirming adolescents' singular risk propensities; the third response raises…

  20. Peer Influence on Risk Taking, Risk Preference, and Risky Decision Making in Adolescence and Adulthood: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Margo; Steinberg, Laurence

    2005-01-01

    In this study, 306 individuals in 3 age groups--adolescents (13-16), youths (18-22), and adults (24 and older)--completed 2 questionnaire measures assessing risk preference and risky decision making, and 1 behavioral task measuring risk taking. Participants in each age group were randomly assigned to complete the measures either alone or with 2…

  1. Adapting a Comprehensive Approach to African American Women's Sexual Risk Taking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Gail E.; Tucker, M. Belinda; Romero, Gloria J.; Carmona, Jennifer Vargas; Newcomb, Michael D.; Wayment, Heidi A.; Loeb, Tamra Burns; Solis, Beatriz M.; Mitchell-Kernan, Claudia

    1997-01-01

    Examined factors predicting the context of HIV-related sexual behaviors in African American women. Surveys investigated demographics; sexual history, behavior, attitudes, risk, and communication; drug use; contraception; and risk reduction efforts since Magic Johnson's HIV disclosure. Demographics, sexual communication, and past sexual experiences…

  2. Neural correlates of adolescents' viewing of parents' and peers' emotions: Associations with risk-taking behavior and risky peer affiliations.

    PubMed

    Saxbe, Darby; Del Piero, Larissa; Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Kaplan, Jonas; Margolin, Gayla

    2015-01-01

    Social reorientation from parents to same-age peers is normative in adolescence, but the neural correlates of youths' socioemotional processing of parents and peers have not been explored. In the current study, 22 adolescents (average age 16.98) underwent neuroimaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging) while viewing and rating emotions shown in brief video clips featuring themselves, their parents, or an unfamiliar peer. Viewing self vs. other and parents vs. the peer activated regions in the medial prefrontal cortex, replicating prior findings that this area responds to self-relevant stimuli, including familiar and not just similar others. Viewing the peer compared with parents elicited activation in posterior 'mentalizing' structures, the precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), bilateral posterior superior temporal sulcus and right temporoparietal junction, as well as the ventral striatum and bilateral amygdala and hippocampus. Relative activations in the PCC and precuneus to the peer vs. the parent were related both to reported risk-taking behavior and to affiliations with more risk-taking peers. The results suggest neural correlates of the adolescent social reorientation toward peers and away from parents that may be associated with adolescents' real-life risk-taking behaviors and social relationships. PMID:25874749

  3. Prevalence of Child and Adult Sexual Abuse and Risk Taking Practices Among HIV Serodiscordant African-American Couples

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    This study reports the prevalence of child (CSA) and adult (ASA) sexual abuse among 535 African American HIV serodiscordant couples from four major United State cities, and its relationship to personal and couple related vulnerabilities and HIV risk factors. As part of a randomized, clinical trial, CSA and ASA histories were obtained through face-to-face interviews. Results indicate that HIV positive women were significantly more likely to report one kind of abuse (32.32%), either before or since age 18 or both (32.6%). HIV-positive men (34.9%) were significantly more likely to report CSA than HIV-negative men (22.0%). Overall, 72% of couples reported that one or both had CSA histories. These findings underscore the heightened emotional vulnerability, and STI and HIV transmission risk taking practices, associated with sexual abuse. Sexual abuse histories among couples should be assessed to better understand how these histories may contribute to couples dynamics and risk-taking practices. PMID:20499150

  4. Depression, Compulsive Sexual Behavior, and Sexual Risk-Taking Among Urban Young Gay and Bisexual Men: The P18 Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Storholm, Erik David; Satre, Derek D; Kapadia, Farzana; Halkitis, Perry N

    2016-08-01

    Young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (YMSM) are at increased likelihood of experiencing depression and engaging in condomless sexual behaviors. The goal of the current investigation was to examine the relationship between negative mood and compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) and to assess for their individual and combined influence on sexual risk-taking behavior among a diverse sample of YMSM in New York City (the P18 Cohort Study). We first analyzed sociodemographic, depressive symptoms, CSB, and sexual risk-taking from the cross-sectional data of 509, 18- or 19-year-old YMSM recruited using non-probability sampling. We found a significant positive correlation between CSB and depression and between CSB and frequency of condomless anal sex acts reported over the last 30 days. Multivariate results found that the presence of both depression and CSB contributed to elevated sexual risk-taking among these urban YMSM. Clinical implications include the importance of assessing for CSB when depression is present and vice versa in order to improve HIV prevention. Informed by minority stress theory and syndemic theory, our results suggest that interventions focused on the health of YMSM recognize that mental health and social context all interact to increase physical health vulnerability vis-a-vis sexual behaviors, depression, and CSB. Thus, HIV prevention and intervention programs need to incorporate mental health components and services that address these needs. PMID:26310878

  5. Childhood Behavior Problems Linked to Sexual Risk Taking in Young Adulthood: A Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramrakha, Sandhya; Bell, Melanie L.; Paul, Charlotte; Dickson, Nigel; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Caspi, Avshalom

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study whether behavioral and emotional problems during childhood predicted early sexual debut, risky sex at age 21 years, and sexually transmitted infections up to age 21 years. Some possible mediational pathways were also explored. Method: Participants were enrolled in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (n =…

  6. Sociosexual Identity Development and Sexual Risk Taking of Acculturating Collegiate Gay and Bisexual Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkerson, J. Michael; Brooks, Ann K.; Ross, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    How collegiate gay and bisexual men acquire a sociosexual identity appears to affect their sexual health. Analysis of interview data from 25 self-identified collegiate gay or bisexual men resulted in the development of a collective sexual script for men acquiring a sociosexual identity. Changes in an individual's acting out of a cultural scenario…

  7. Social Environment and Sexual Risk-Taking among Gay and Transgender African American Youth

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Robin; Bernadini, Stephen; Jemmott, John B.

    2014-01-01

    More prevention effort is required as the HIV epidemic increases among gay and transgender African American youth. Using ecological systems theory and an integrative model of behaviour change, this study examines the sexual behaviour of gay and transgender African American young people as embedded within the unique social and structural environments affecting this population. Also examined is the important role played by mobile technology in the social and sexual lives of individuals. Seven focus groups were conducted with 54 African American young adults in a northeastern U.S. city. The findings provide a rich examination of the social and sexual lives of gay and transgender African American youth, focusing on the social environment and the impact of the environment on sexual risk behaviour. PMID:23889233

  8. Black men who have sex with men, sexual risk-taking, and willingness to use rapid home HIV tests.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Lisa A; Driffin, Daniel D; Smith, Harlan; Conway-Washington, Christopher; White, Denise; Cherry, Chauncey

    2015-02-01

    The availability of rapid home-based HIV testing (RHT) in the USA has provided us with a valuable, new option in our efforts to identify more people living with HIV and to do so sooner. Furthermore, it is possible that RHT will be or is currently being used as a means of learning one's own and one's partner's HIV status prior to engaging in condomless intercourse. Data regarding knowledge and willingness to use RHT, however, is very limited. In particular, no studies have investigated RHT use among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM). Understanding RHT use among BMSM is critical as we have observed alarming rates of HIV prevalence among this group, and RHT may provide an opportunity to slow HIV transmission among BMSM. In order to better understand RHT, we assessed knowledge, willingness to use and actual use of RHT, HIV testing history, substance use, and sexual risk-taking among 387 HIV-negative BMSM and 157 HIV-positive BMSM attending a community event in the southeastern USA. We used generalized linear modeling to assess factors associated with their willingness to use RHT. Although familiarity with the availability of RHT was somewhat limited among these men, a substantial portion of BMSM did report an interest in using RHT, including with their sex partners. Among HIV-negative BMSM, however, we found a negative relationship between willingness to use RHT and sexual risk-taking, i.e., higher numbers of condomless anal sex acts were associated with a reduction in willingness to use RHT. It appears that men who report the greatest risk-taking for HIV are least interested in RHT. Future research should focus on better understanding concerns regarding RHT among at-risk HIV-negative men and should investigate the usefulness of using RHT as a HIV prevention method. PMID:24906999

  9. Gender-Specific Outcomes for Sexually Abused Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandy, Joseph M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A study of 370 male and 2,681 female adolescents with a history of sexual abuse found that males were at higher risk than females for poor school performance, delinquent activities, extreme use of alcohol and marijuana, and sexual risk taking. Female victims showed higher risk for suicidal ideation and behavior, frequent use of alcohol, and…

  10. Community-Level Gender Equity and Extramarital Sexual Risk-Taking Among Married Men in Eight African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Rob

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT In many parts of Africa, women are most likely to become infected with HIV by having unprotected sex with their husbands, who may have acquired the virus through extramarital sex. However, the ways in which aspects of community environments—particularly those related to gender equity—shape men’s extramarital sexual risk-taking are not well understood. METHODS Demographic and Health Survey data from eight African countries (Chad, Ghana, Malawi, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe) were used to examine associations between married men’s engaging in risky extramarital sex (i.e., having had both unprotected sex and extramarital sex) and indicators of gender equity and other community characteristics. Separate multilevel logistic regression models that incorporated individual, household and community measures were created for each country. RESULTS In five countries, men who lived in communities with more equal ratios of women to men with at least a primary education were less likely to report risky extramarital sexual activity (odds ratios, 0.4–0.6). A similar relationship was found in four countries for the ratio of women to men who were employed (0.4–0.5). In three countries, men who lived in communities with more conservative attitudes toward wife-beating or male decision making had elevated odds of extramarital sexual risk-taking (1.1–1.5). CONCLUSIONS While HIV prevention programs should focus on reducing gender inequities, they also need to recognize the conservative cultural factors that influence the formation of men’s masculine identities and, in turn, affect their sexual behavior. PMID:21245024

  11. Social Capital and Sexual Risk-Taking Behaviors Among Older Adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Amin, Iftekhar

    2016-09-01

    Using the General Social Survey (GSS) 2012, a national household-based probability sample of non-institutionalized U.S. adults, this study examined the association of social capital and sexual risk behaviors among older adults aged 55 years and older. Of the 547 respondents, 87% reported not using condoms during their last intercourse, and nearly 15% reported engaging in sexual risk behaviors, such as casual sex, paid sex, male to male sex, and drug use. Binary logistic regression results showed that age, gender, marital status, education, race, sexual orientation, and sexual frequencies were significant predictors of older adults' unprotected sex. Social capital was not a predictor of unprotected sex but was positively associated with other human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted disease (HIV/STD) risk behaviors such as sex with strangers, having multiple sex partners, injecting drugs, and having male to male sex. Findings of this study highlight the importance of HIV/STD prevention programs for older adults. PMID:25245384

  12. The Experience of Daily Hassles, Cardiovascular Reactivity and Adolescent Risk Taking and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeersch, Hans; T'Sjoen, Guy; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Vincke, John; Bracke, Piet

    2010-01-01

    Based on Boyce and Ellis's model on "context" and "biological sensitivity to the context", this article analyzes the interaction between the experience of daily hassles and experimentally induced cardiovascular reactivity as an indicator of stress reactivity, in explaining risk taking and self-esteem. This study found, in a sample of 599…

  13. Risk-taking propensity and sensitivity to punishment in adolescents with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder symptoms and/or reading disability.

    PubMed

    Poon, Kean; Ho, Connie Suk-Han

    2016-01-01

    Many studies reported that adolescents with ADHD/RD more frequently engage in risk-taking behaviors. Very few have examined their risk taking patterns and the impact of their comorbidity. The present study compared the risk-taking propensity, sensitivity to punishment and delinquency outcome in Chinese adolescents with ADHD symptoms (AS) and/or RD using a simulated risk task, the Balloon Analogous Risk Task (BART). Adolescents with AS (n=37), RD (n=35), AS+RD (n=35), and control (n=36) were recruited from local secondary schools. Results showed that adolescents with ADHD, despite their great risk-taking propensity, were sensitive to immediate punishment whereas adolescents with RD were found to display normal risk-taking propensity, yet showed a tendency of being less sensitive to punishment. The comorbidity ADHD+RD group had the highest delinquency score, and exhibited greatest risk taking and least sensitivity to punishment, which provided further support that comorbid condition might have stronger impact on risk taking or even delinquency than the pure groups. The present findings provides a useful picture of the risk taking pattern associated with different groups, allowing for effective matching for future prevention and intervention program. PMID:26969810

  14. Sexual Risk Taking among HIV-Positive Injection Drug Users: Contexts, Characteristics, and Implications for Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Kelly R.; Purcell, David; Dawson-Rose, Carol; Halkitis, Perry N.; Gomez, Cynthia A.

    2005-01-01

    HIV-positive injection drug users (IDUs) (N = 161) were recruited to complete a qualitative interview and a quantitative survey about sexual behavior and transmission risk. We identified two contexts in which exposure encounters occurred most commonly for HIV-positive IDUs: in intimate serodiscordant relationships and in the drug/sex economy.…

  15. Using a Pattern-Centered Approach to Assess Sexual Risk-Taking in Study Abroad Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcantonio, Tiffany; Angelone, D. J.; Sledjeski, Eve

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of several potential factors related to sexually risky behaviors in study abroad students. The authors utilized a pattern-centered analysis to identify specific groups that can be targeted for intervention. Participants: The sample consisted of 173 students who studied abroad in a…

  16. Sexual Health for America's Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haffner, Debra W.

    1996-01-01

    The National Commission on Adolescent Sexual Health developed a professional consensus statement about adolescent sexual health. Its report for policymakers recommends that adults face the facts about adolescent sexuality and that public policies on adolescent sexual health be based on appropriate knowledge, accurate data, current theory, ongoing…

  17. Condom Use among Sexually Active Rural High School Adolescents: Personal, Environmental, and Behavioral Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Tammy; Puskar, Kathryn; Terhorst, Lauren; Terry, Martha Ann; Charron-Prochownik, Denise

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents who engage in unprotected intercourse are at risk of pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI). Although adolescents in rural areas participate in levels of sexual risk taking similar to that of nonrural youth, few data are available identifying factors that influence condom use among rural adolescents. The purpose of this…

  18. Sexual risk taking in a community sample of international backpackers visiting Brisbane, Australia.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Jane A; Debattista, Joseph; Rostami, Soulmaz; Peet, Anthony R; Dean, Judith A; Allen, Kate E; Stewart, Mary

    2015-03-01

    We sought to examine correlations between international backpackers' alcohol consumption and sexual behaviors and determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoea in this population. A cross-sectional study design consisting of a convenience sample (N = 168) of non-treatment-seeking international backpackers visiting Brisbane, Australia was recruited. Participants were asked to self-complete a questionnaire on sexual behavior and to undertake a urine-based polymerase chain reaction test for C trachomatis and N gonorrhoea. Since arriving in Australia, 73.2% reported having had sex, with a median number of 2 different sex partners (range = 0-21). Most participants had consumed alcohol (53.7%) and used condoms (46.3%) the last time they had sex. In our sample, there was a 4.3% prevalence of C trachomatis and a 0% prevalence of N gonorrhoea. This study identified a variable pattern of risk among backpackers, with those spending longer periods in the country more likely to have sex with Australians. PMID:23572374

  19. Brief Report: Sexual Sensation Seeking and Its Relationship to Risky Sexual Behaviour among African-American Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitalnick, Joshua S.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Crosby, Richard A.; Milhausen, Robin R.; Sales, Jessica M.; McCarty, Frances; Rose, Eve; Younge, Sinead N.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between sexual sensation seeking and sexual risk taking has been investigated among adult populations. There are limited data, however, regarding this relationship for adolescents. Since African-American adolescent females continue to be disproportionately diagnosed with STDs, including HIV, we examined this association among a…

  20. An assessment of HIV/STI vulnerability and related sexual risk-taking in a nationally representative sample of young Croatian adults.

    PubMed

    Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Graham, Cynthia; Bozicević, Ivana; Kufrin, Kresimir; Ajduković, Dean

    2009-04-01

    Despite the recent increase in the number of HIV infections in Central and Eastern Europe, patterns of sexual behavior have not been extensively researched, particularly among young people. The aim of the present study was to provide a comprehensive assessment of HIV/AIDS-related vulnerability and sexual risk-taking among young adults in Croatia. Data were collected in 2005 using a nationally representative, multi-stage stratified probability sample (n = 1,093) of women and men aged 18-24 years. The focus in this article was on predictors of sexual risk-taking measured by a composite risky sexual behaviors scale. Using hierarchical regression models, we analyzed gendered effects of community, family, peer group, and individual level factors. For both men and women, peer pressure, sensation seeking, personal risk-assessment, behavioral intention, condom use at first sexual intercourse, and sexual victimization were significant predictors of sexual risk-taking behaviors. A number of predictors were gender-specific: sexual assertiveness and condom self-efficacy for women and parental monitoring, traditional morality, HIV knowledge, and talking about sex with partner for men. Documenting substantial prevalence of potentially risky sexual behaviors among young people in Croatia, the findings call for prevention and intervention efforts that should focus on individual capacity building for responsible sexual behavior. PMID:17922182

  1. [Adolescence and sexuality].

    PubMed

    Kjellberg, G

    2006-03-22

    Different pathological states occurring during adolescence, such as anorexia, bulimia and suicidal attempts are seen as possible manifestations of psychological defence mechanisms against the anxiety-provoking bodily changes of puberty and the necessary psychological transformations inherent to adolescence and sexual maturation. The changes of object of desire and some sexual risk behaviours are illustrated by clinical vignettes. Music is suggested to play a role in the mobilisation of emotions, bodily sensations and in the construction of an imaginary world and thus to be a factor--a part from biological and psycho-social ones--influencing the sexual behaviour of adolescents. Some communication techniques are suggested enabling access to adolescents on sexual matters - a domain of increasing public health importance. PMID:16615726

  2. Prospective Analysis of the Transition to Sexual Experience and Changes in Sexual Self-Esteem among Adolescents Attending Therapeutic Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swenson, Rebecca R.; Houck, Christopher D.; Barker, David; Zeanah, Paula D.; Brown, Larry K.

    2012-01-01

    Given increased sexual risk-taking among youth with mental health problems, this study sought to understand the developmental trajectory of sexual self-esteem (SSE) among this vulnerable population and how it is impacted by sexual experiences. Participants were 185 adolescents who attended therapeutic/alternative schools in southern New England.…

  3. Life Satisfaction and Risk-taking Behavior in Secondary Schools Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Music, Miralem; Abidovic, Amela; Babic, Nermina; Mujaric, Ekrema; Dervisevic, Senad; Slatina, Enes; Salibasic, Mirhan; Tuna, Enes

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Life satisfaction involves cognitive component that allows evaluation of the life and accomplishments of life, and emotional component that includes an evaluation of emotions and mood that followed these accomplishments. Goal: To examine the life satisfaction of young people who attend secondary school, examine the level of satisfaction with life according to sex, to academic achievement, the presence of siblings and to examine the relationship between levels of life satisfaction and risk-taking behaviors. Results and Discussion: The results showed that there was no relationship between life satisfaction and preferences of delinquency, as well as life satisfaction and achieved academic success. The results confirmed the relationship between life satisfaction and sex as well as the relationship between life satisfaction and the presence of siblings in the family. PMID:24167431

  4. Parent-Adolescent Sexual Communication.

    PubMed

    Harris, Allyssa L

    2016-01-01

    Risky sexual behavior among adolescents is a major public health concern with potentially long-lasting consequences, including pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and HIV/AIDS. Researchers have demonstrated that parent-adolescent sexual communication can mitigate adolescent risky sexual behaviors; the development of interventions that support this process are vital. This column examines a recent study that evaluated a parent-adolescent sexual communication intervention. PMID:27067937

  5. Sexual Behavior of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Hilmar

    1978-01-01

    Confined to discussion of heterosexual activities, this article examines adolescent sexual behavior in terms of promiscuity; the search for a sexual behavior code; the impact of the media; and the influence of peer groups, religious identification, and the adult double standard. (JC)

  6. Sexual Knowledge among Norwegian Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Pal

    1993-01-01

    Studied sexual knowledge among Norwegian adolescents (n=1,855) aged 17-19 years. Found knowledge gaps among adolescents on sexual physiology and anatomy, sexually transmitted diseases, and fecundation/contraception. Level of sexual knowledge was higher among girls than boys and increased with increasing age. Sexual knowledge did not predict…

  7. Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Risk-taking among Men Who Have Sex with Men in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Rob; de Voux, Alex; Sullivan, Patrick S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: A growing body of literature suggests that men who have sex with men (MSM) represent a high risk group for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Africa, but are often overlooked in the development of HIV interventions and programming. Little attention has been paid to the presence of intimate partner violence (IPV) among MSM in African settings. This paper examines reporting of IPV among a sample of predominantly white, gay internet-recruited MSM in South Africa and examines associations between IPV and sexual risk-taking. Methods: Internet-using MSM were recruited through selective placement of banner advertisements on Facebook.com. Eligibility criteria were over 18-years-old, residence in South Africa and self-reporting of recent male-male sexual behavior. There were 777 eligible respondents, of which 521 MSM with complete data are included in the final analysis. Ninety percent of the sample reported a White/ European race, and 96% self-identified as gay. Results: The prevalence of IPV, both experienced and perpetrated, was relatively high, with 8% of men reporting having experienced recent physical IPV and 4.5% of men reporting recent experiences of sexual IPV. Approximately 4.5% of MSM reported recently perpetrating physical IPV, while the reporting of perpetration of recent sexual IPV was much lower at 0.45%. Reporting of experiencing and perpetration of physical IPV was significantly associated with race, level of education and reporting recent unprotected anal sex. Reporting of experiencing recent sexual IPV was significantly associated with reported experiences of homophobia. Conclusion: There is a limited amount of data on IPV within same-sex relationships in South Africa, and the results presented here suggest that the prevalence of IPV within this White/European and gay population is cause for concern. Collection of IPV data through surveys administered via social networking sites is feasible and represents a way of reaching

  8. [Sexual disorders in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Scheer, P J

    2014-02-01

    Numerous sexual disorders, which were previously in the foreground, have in fact disappeared due to our changing society. This broad field today includes repressed sexual disorders of adolescents who cannot or do not want to go along with the changes either for familial or personal reasons. Immigrant background, religious beliefs, and peer pressure may play a role here. As a dialog partner for adolescents, the competent physician must take into consideration the interplay of sexual desire, ethical beliefs, morals, and parental expectations, which requires interest, intuition, and tact. PMID:24535205

  9. School-Level Application of a Social Bonding Model to Adolescent Risk-Taking Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Colleen M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a study that tested a model that included individual and environmental indicators of bonding to predict smoking, substance use, and sexual activity among secondary students. Individuals reporting high levels of bonding were less likely to exhibit high-risk behavior, regardless of gender. School environment directly influenced ninth…

  10. Rethinking Adolescent Risk-Taking Behavior and the Peer Leader Dynamic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, D. S. G.; And Others

    The nature of the interactions that occur among peer leaders, peer influence, and the dynamics of the peer reference group in the context of health, interpersonal relations and lifestyle choice were the subjects of this study. Its first stage (of two) employed a case study of a single metropolitan senior high school in Australia. Adolescent peer…

  11. Adolescent Transitions: Risk-Taking and Health. Growing Up Well. Focus on Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brindis, Claire

    This report, fifth of eight in a series, highlights the views of California parents and other adults about issues affecting the health of adolescents, the role communities play in helping young people grow up well, and policies to address behaviors that undermine their health. Six in 10 parents surveyed by the California Center for Health…

  12. Risk of Suicidal Ideation in Adolescents with Both Self-Asphyxial Risk-Taking Behavior and Non-Suicidal Self-Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brausch, Amy M.; Decker, Kristina M.; Hadley, Andrea G.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined adolescent participation in self-asphyxial risk-taking behaviors (SAB), sometimes known as the "choking game," and its relationship with other adolescent risk behaviors, including non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). Researchers proposed that participation in SAB and NSSI would be associated with suicidal behavior, disordered…

  13. [Adolescent sexuality in Peru].

    PubMed

    Loli, A; Aramburu, C; Paxman, J M

    1987-01-01

    22% of the population of Peru, or 4.25 million individuals, is between the ages of 11 and 19 years. A survey was performed on a sample of 6,000 adolescents living in Lima, Cajamarca, Huarez, and Supe. Surveys were performed in a variety of locations, including school classrooms, maternity wards, schools, and work places. The questionnaire was constructed based on a format that had been tested in Nigeria; questions dealt with socioeconomic background, sex behavior, contraceptive behavior, pregnancy history, and health practices and knowledge. 60% of the adolescents were women and 40% were men. 41% had had at least 1 sexual experience; among 18-year-olds, this % rose to 55. Only 10% were in stable union. Married adolescents tended to have begun sexual relations sooner in life. Early sexual relations were more common among men than among women, and more common among non-religious adolescents than among Catholics. Fewer than 12% of the adolescents had at 1 time used contraceptives. Contraceptive use was more prevalent among adolescents from wealthier socioeconomic groups, and more prevalent in Lima than in other regions surveyed. Of adolescents using contraceptives, 38% used condoms, 24% used oral contraceptives, and 15% used rhythm methods. Most adolescents who did not use contraceptives failed to do so because of lack of knowledge. Almost 1/4 of the young women had had a pregnancy. 18.5 of these had abortions, usually in a hospital. The importance of supporting educational prevention programs is underlined. PMID:12269059

  14. The Impact of Body Image and Afrocentric Appearance on Sexual Refusal Self-Efficacy in Early Adolescent African American Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plybon, Laura E.; Holmer, Heidi; Hunter, Alexis; Sheffield, Charity; Stephens, Christopher; Cavolo, Lucas

    2009-01-01

    Research examining the association between body image and sexual risk-taking has been mostly limited to clinical and/or White female samples. It is unclear whether body image plays a role in sexual risk-taking among African American early adolescent females. Moreover, research has neglected to consider body image within a cultural and ethnic…

  15. Project genesis: self-reported religiosity and spirituality and sexual risk-taking in young African-American women attending a historically African-American college.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Tami L; Freeman, Arin

    2011-07-01

    This pilot study explored the relationship between self-reported religiosity, spirituality, and sexual risk-taking. The participants were a convenience sample of (N = 100) female students attending a historically African-American college (HBCU) in the south. On this predominantly female campus, students completed an anonymous health-risk survey, plus additional items, to measure their religiosity and spirituality. Correlation analysis revealed that although these students reported a high degree of religiosity and spirituality, these characteristics did not predict a decrease in sexual risk-taking behavior. Over six million new cases of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including the human papilloma virus (HPV), are projected in young Americans despite primary prevention measures. Although no predictive relationships were noted, self-reported spirituality or religiosity were not protective factors against high-risk sexual behavior. These findings are relevant to developing effective interventions in this population in order to decrease STI/HPV rates. PMID:21888148

  16. Exploring the relationships among food insecurity, alcohol use, and sexual risk taking among men and women living in South African townships

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Lisa A.; Cain, Demetria N.; Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.; Mehlomakulu, Vuyelwa; Simbayi, Leickness C.; Mwaba, Kelvin; Kalichman, Seth C.

    2014-01-01

    South African townships have among the highest rates of HIV infection in the world. Considerable research on understanding the high rates of HIV transmission in this country has identified alcohol use as a critical factor in driving the HIV epidemic. Although the relationship between alcohol use and sexual risk-taking is well documented, less is known about how other factors, such as food insecurity, might be important in understanding alcohol’s role in sexual risk-taking. Furthermore, prior research has highlighted how patterns of alcohol use and sexual risk-taking tend to vary by gender. We examined how food insecurity is related to both alcohol use and sexual risk-taking. We administered anonymous community surveys to men (n=1137) and women (n=458) residing within four contiguous Black African townships outside of Cape Town, South Africa. In multivariate linear regression, we found that food insecurity was related to having higher numbers of male sex partners and condom-protected sex acts among women only. These relationships, however, were fully mediated by women’s alcohol use. Among men, we found that food insecurity was negatively related to unprotected sex; that is, men with greater food security reported more unprotected sex acts. Unlike the results found among women, this relationship was not mediated by alcohol use. Food insecurity appears to be an important factor in understanding patterns of sexual risk-taking in regards to gender and alcohol use, and may serve as an important point of intervention for reducing HIV transmission rates. PMID:24806889

  17. The social context for risky sexual behavior among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Metzler, C W; Noell, J; Biglan, A; Ary, D; Smolkowski, K

    1994-08-01

    This study supports a model of adolescents' risky sexual behavior in which this behavior is seen as a product of the same peer and family factors which influence a wide range of problem behaviors. The Patterson et al. (1992) model of peer and parental factors associated with adolescents' sexual risk-taking behavior was tested on three independent samples of adolescents, ages 14 through 18. Adolescents whose peers were reported to engage in diverse problem behaviors were more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior. Poor parental monitoring and parent-child coercive interactions were associated having deviant peers, and poor parental monitoring also had a direct relationship to risky sexual behavior. Family involvement was associated with fewer parent-child coercive interactions. Less availability of parental figures in the family was directly associated with risky sexual behavior and was also associated with poorer parental monitoring. PMID:7966262

  18. Television and adolescent sexuality.

    PubMed

    Brown, J D; Childers, K W; Waszak, C S

    1990-01-01

    Existing studies of the sexual content of television programming and advertising and the effects of this content on adolescent viewers are reviewed. Content studies show that the frequency of sexual references have increased in the past decade and are increasingly explicit. Studies of the effects of this content, while scarce, suggest that adolescents who rely heavily on television for information about sexuality will have high standards of female beauty and will believe that premarital and extramarital intercourse with multiple partners is acceptable. They are unlikely to learn about the need for contraceptives as a form of protection against pregnancy or disease. Suggestions for future research and trends in television programming policies are explored. PMID:2307597

  19. Risk-Taking Behavior in a Computerized Driving Task: Brain Activation Correlates of Decision-Making, Outcome, and Peer Influence in Male Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Vorobyev, Victor; Kwon, Myoung Soo; Moe, Dagfinn; Parkkola, Riitta; Hämäläinen, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    Increased propensity for risky behavior in adolescents, particularly in peer groups, is thought to reflect maturational imbalance between reward processing and cognitive control systems that affect decision-making. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate brain functional correlates of risk-taking behavior and effects of peer influence in 18–19-year-old male adolescents. The subjects were divided into low and high risk-taking groups using either personality tests or risk-taking rates in a simulated driving task. The fMRI data were analyzed for decision-making (whether to take a risk at intersections) and outcome (pass or crash) phases, and for the influence of peer competition. Personality test-based groups showed no difference in the amount of risk-taking (similarly increased during peer competition) and brain activation. When groups were defined by actual task performance, risk-taking activated two areas in the left medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) significantly more in low than in high risk-takers. In the entire sample, risky decision-specific activation was found in the anterior and dorsal cingulate, superior parietal cortex, basal ganglia (including the nucleus accumbens), midbrain, thalamus, and hypothalamus. Peer competition increased outcome-related activation in the right caudate head and cerebellar vermis in the entire sample. Our results suggest that the activation of the medial (rather than lateral) PFC and striatum is most specific to risk-taking behavior of male adolescents in a simulated driving situation, and reflect a stronger conflict and thus increased cognitive effort to take risks in low risk-takers, and reward anticipation for risky decisions, respectively. The activation of the caudate nucleus, particularly for the positive outcome (pass) during peer competition, further suggests enhanced reward processing of risk-taking under peer influence. PMID:26052943

  20. Risk-Taking Behavior in a Computerized Driving Task: Brain Activation Correlates of Decision-Making, Outcome, and Peer Influence in Male Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vorobyev, Victor; Kwon, Myoung Soo; Moe, Dagfinn; Parkkola, Riitta; Hämäläinen, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    Increased propensity for risky behavior in adolescents, particularly in peer groups, is thought to reflect maturational imbalance between reward processing and cognitive control systems that affect decision-making. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate brain functional correlates of risk-taking behavior and effects of peer influence in 18-19-year-old male adolescents. The subjects were divided into low and high risk-taking groups using either personality tests or risk-taking rates in a simulated driving task. The fMRI data were analyzed for decision-making (whether to take a risk at intersections) and outcome (pass or crash) phases, and for the influence of peer competition. Personality test-based groups showed no difference in the amount of risk-taking (similarly increased during peer competition) and brain activation. When groups were defined by actual task performance, risk-taking activated two areas in the left medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) significantly more in low than in high risk-takers. In the entire sample, risky decision-specific activation was found in the anterior and dorsal cingulate, superior parietal cortex, basal ganglia (including the nucleus accumbens), midbrain, thalamus, and hypothalamus. Peer competition increased outcome-related activation in the right caudate head and cerebellar vermis in the entire sample. Our results suggest that the activation of the medial (rather than lateral) PFC and striatum is most specific to risk-taking behavior of male adolescents in a simulated driving situation, and reflect a stronger conflict and thus increased cognitive effort to take risks in low risk-takers, and reward anticipation for risky decisions, respectively. The activation of the caudate nucleus, particularly for the positive outcome (pass) during peer competition, further suggests enhanced reward processing of risk-taking under peer influence. PMID:26052943

  1. The relationship between attending alcohol serving venues nearby versus distant to one’s residence and sexual risk taking in a South African township

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Lisa A.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Cain, Demetria N.; Watt, Melissa H.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Skinner, Donald; Pieterse, Desiree

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND South Africa remains a country with one of the highest prevalence rates of HIV/AIDS at 18% among 15–49 year olds. Underdeveloped urban areas, or townships, are particularly hard hit by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Alcohol use in these townships has been established as an important risk factor for HIV transmission. Likewise, alcohol serving venues (shebeens) have been identified as sites where substance abuse and sexual risk taking occur. However, little is known about how proximity of alcohol serving establishments (shebeens) to one's residence may be related to sexual risk-taking. METHODS We surveyed 3,261 men and women attending shebeens in a township located in Cape Town, South Africa. We investigated the relationships between attending nearby (< 15 minute walk) versus distant (>15 minute walk) shebeens, and sex and substance abuse related risk-taking. RESULTS Women who attended distant shebeens versus nearby shebeens relative to their residence were approximately twice as likely to report HIV positive status. Bivariate analyses demonstrated that these women were also more likely to report other sexually transmitted infections, greater numbers of sex partners, higher rates of alcohol and drug use, and seeking out new sex partners at shebeen. No differences in sex behavior, substance use or HIV/STI were identified among men. DISCUSSION Proximity of shebeens appears to be an important contextual factor in explaining HIV/STI transmission risk-taking. Future studies should focus on how anonymity may be related to sexual risk and substance use behaviors among women in South African townships. PMID:23404137

  2. Structuring the Future: Anticipated Life Events, Peer Networks, and Adolescent Sexual Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Soller, Brian; Haynie, Dana L.

    2013-01-01

    While prior research has established associations between individual expectations of future events and risk behavior among adolescents, the potential effects of peers’ future perceptions on risk-taking have been overlooked. We extend prior research by testing whether peers’ anticipation of college completion is associated with adolescent sexual risk-taking. We also examine whether adolescents’ perceptions of the negative consequences of pregnancy and idealized romantic relationship scripts mediate the association between peers’ anticipation of college completion and sexual risk-taking. Results from multivariate regression models with data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) indicate peers’ anticipation of college completion is negatively associated with a composite measure of sexual risk-taking and positively associated with the odds of abstaining from sexual intercourse and only engaging in intercourse with a romantic partner (compared to having intercourse with a non-romantic partner). In addition, perceptions of the negative consequences of pregnancy and sexualized relationship scripts appear to mediate a large portion of the association between peers’ anticipation of future success and sexual risk-taking and the likelihood of abstaining (but not engaging in romantic-only intercourse). Results from our study underscore the importance of peers in shaping adolescent sexual behavior. PMID:24223438

  3. Dual Trajectories of Reactive and Proactive Aggression from Mid-childhood to Early Adolescence: Relations to Sensation Seeking, Risk Taking, and Moral Reasoning.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lixian; Colasante, Tyler; Malti, Tina; Ribeaud, Denis; Eisner, Manuel P

    2016-05-01

    We examined the roles of sensation seeking, risk taking, and moral reasoning in the development of reactive and proactive aggression. Data were drawn from a multiethnic, longitudinal study of children from Switzerland (N = 1571; 52 % male; assessed annually over 6 years; 7-years-old at Time 1). At all 6 time points, teachers reported children's reactive and proactive aggression via questionnaire. Children's sensation seeking (at Time 1) and risk taking (at Time 2) were assessed with two interactive computer tasks and their moral reasoning was assessed at Time 2 in response to four hypothetical vignettes depicting moral transgressions. Parallel process Latent Class Growth Analysis (PP-LCGA) identified six dual trajectories of reactive and proactive aggression. Children with either childhood-limited or adolescent-onset aggression showed high sensation seeking. Children with persistent, high levels of both reactive and proactive aggression across time showed high levels of sensation seeking and risk taking, as well as low levels of moral reasoning. Children with only high risk taking were more likely to display moderate levels of aggression across time. These findings highlight the shared and differential roles of sensation seeking, risk taking, and moral reasoning in the dual development of reactive and proactive aggression from mid-childhood to early adolescence. We discuss implications for common and tailored strategies to combat these aggression subtypes. PMID:26370547

  4. Gender/Racial Differences in Jock Identity, Dating, and Adolescent Sexual Risk

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kathleen E.; Farrell, Michael P.; Barnes, Grace M.; Melnick, Merrill J.; Sabo, Don

    2005-01-01

    Despite recent declines in overall sexual activity, sexual risk-taking remains a substantial danger to US youth. Existing research points to athletic participation as a promising venue for reducing these risks. Linear regressions and multiple analyses of covariance were performed on a longitudinal sample of nearly 600 Western New York adolescents in order to examine gender- and race-specific relationships between “jock” identity and adolescent sexual risk-taking, including age of sexual onset, past-year and lifetime frequency of sexual intercourse, and number of sexual partners. After controlling for age, race, socioeconomic status, and family cohesion, male jocks reported more frequent dating than nonjocks but female jocks did not. For both genders, athletic activity was associated with lower levels of sexual risk-taking; however, jock identity was associated with higher levels of sexual risk-taking, particularly among African American adolescents. Future research should distinguish between subjective and objective dimensions of athletic involvement as factors in adolescent sexual risk. PMID:16429602

  5. Adolescent sexuality and public policy.

    PubMed

    Olsen, J A; Jensen, L C; Greaves, P M

    1991-01-01

    In recent decades, various attempts have been made to determine the level of sexual activity among adolescents. This information has been used in the planning and evaluation of sex-related programs. However, there is a flaw in using only the initial estimates of the behavior--that a sexually active person is defined as one who has had sexual intercourse. This narrow definition distorts the perception of adolescent sexual behavior. Sexual activity can more accurately be designated by focusing on the actual frequency with which teenagers have sex. In this research report, adolescents were considered sexually active if they had had sex within the last four weeks. Using this definition, adolescents were found to be substantially less sexually active than has been previously reported. This finding was then used to look at various policy decisions in the areas of sex education, family planning, and sexually transmitted disease prevention. PMID:1927672

  6. Female adolescent sexuality. Promoting healthy sexual development.

    PubMed

    Blythe, M J; Rosenthal, S L

    2000-03-01

    Health care providers must recognize the specific challenges and rewards of providing services for adolescents. Quality care begins with the establishment of trust, respect, and confidentiality between the health care provider and the adolescent. Data suggest that the normal age for beginning puberty is decreasing, which has important clinical, educational, and social implications. The health care provider should be aware of the broad range of potential sexual behaviors involving adolescents, as well as the teen's acceptance of such behaviors, often dictated by age, gender, culture, and education. When providing gynecologic care to adolescent girls, the physician should not only provide contraception and screen for sexually transmitted diseases but should contribute to the development of the patient's sexual health. Especially when providing care for the younger teen, the health care provider must focus on involving a member of the family or another significant adult to provide needed support and guidance. Anticipatory guidance for parents should focus on assessing their parenting styles and promoting supervision. Although parents should strive to maintain open communication with their adolescents, they may not accurately estimate the sexual activity of and the sexual risk for their teenage children. Parents need to be encouraged to consider the implications of their own sexual behaviors. The provider should attempt to foster a comfortable environment in which youth may seek help and support for appropriate medical care while reserving the right to disclose their sexual identity when ready. Health care professionals cannot exclude heterosexual behavior on the basis that a young woman self-identifies as homosexual. Her reported sexual behaviors may not indicate her sexual orientation. Self-definition of sexual orientation is a dynamic process including factors such as fantasies, desires, and behaviors. Self-definition of sexual identity is affected by individual

  7. Teenagers and Risk-Taking at Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Ann

    2002-01-01

    Teen risk-taking is normal, healthy developmental behavior. Teens act out their fantasies--good and bad--at camp because it is a safe place away from parents. Signs of unhealthy risk-taking, camp staff responses, and how the September 11 tragedy might affect risk-taking are discussed. Sidebars describe tips for understanding adolescent behavior…

  8. Early Adolescent Sexual Debut: The Mediating Role of Working Memory Ability, Sensation Seeking, and Impulsivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khurana, Atika; Romer, Daniel; Betancourt, Laura M.; Brodsky, Nancy L.; Giannetta, Joan M.; Hurt, Hallam

    2012-01-01

    Although deficits in working memory ability have been implicated in suboptimal decision making and risk taking among adolescents, its influence on early sexual initiation has so far not been examined. Analyzing 2 waves of panel data from a community sample of adolescents (N = 347; Mean age[subscript baseline] = 13.4 years), assessed 1 year apart,…

  9. Associations of Body Mass Index with Sexual Risk-Taking and Injection Drug Use among US High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Lowry, Richard; Robin, Leah; Kann, Laura; Galuska, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if body mass index (BMI) is associated with behaviors that may increase risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among US high school students. We analyzed nationally representative data from the 2005–2011 national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBS) to examine associations of BMI categories with sexual risk behaviors and injection drug use among sexually active high school students, using sex-stratified logistic regression models. Controlling for race/ethnicity and grade, among female and male students, both underweight (BMI < 5th percentile) and obesity (BMI ≥ 95th percentile) were associated with decreased odds of being currently sexually active (i.e., having had sexual intercourse during the past 3 months). However, among sexually active female students, obese females were more likely than normal weight females to have had 4 or more sex partners (odds ratio, OR = 1.59), not used a condom at last sexual intercourse (OR = 1.30), and injected illegal drugs (OR = 1.98). Among sexually active male students, overweight (85th percentile ≤ BMI < 95th percentile) was associated with not using a condom at last sexual intercourse (OR = 1.19) and obesity was associated with injection drug use (OR = 1.42). Among sexually active students, overweight and obesity may be indicators of increased risk for HIV and other STDs. PMID:25105024

  10. Adolescent sexual counseling.

    PubMed

    Shen, J T

    1982-05-01

    The physician provides a much-needed service to teenagers by counseling them regarding sexuality. A series of conferences during adolescence and use of questionnaires can facilitate discussion and point up potential problems. When the patient is confronted with a problem such as a need for contraception or an unwanted pregnancy, the physician should present all the options available and leave the final choice up to the patient. The physician is not obligated to participate in a solution that is counter to his or her moral values. PMID:7071042

  11. Sexual Behavior Disorders in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, William D.

    The paper reviews the literature on sexual delinquency in male and female adolescents and considers guidelines for effective intervention in nonspecialized treatment programs. A section on sexual delinquency in females touches on prostitution and incest, while a section on males notes the changing composition of the sexually delinquent population.…

  12. Changes in sexual risk taking with antiretroviral treatment: influence of context and gender norms in Mombasa, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Sarna, Avina; Chersich, Matthew; Okal, Jerry; Luchters, Stanley M F; Mandaliya, Kishorchandra N; Rutenberg, Naomi; Temmerman, Marleen

    2009-11-01

    In-depth interviews were conducted with 23 sexually-active adults receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Mombasa Kenya to understand changes in sexual behaviour after treatment initiation and factors influencing condom use. Advanced HIV disease had previously led to marked decreases in sexual desire and function. After HIV testing, numbers of partners reduced and monogamous relationships began to predominate. Receipt of ART strengthened these changes, while improving sexual health. However, concurrent sexual partnerships continue within polygamous marriage and unprotected sex occurs with regular partners, even those who are HIV-negative. Those who used condoms inconsistently prior to ART often remained inconsistent users thereafter. While disclosure of HIV status appeared to support condom use, this does not always predict protected sex. In addition to classic perceptions about condom's effect on intimacy and trust, traditional gender roles, misconceptions about potential harm from condoms and fertility desires hinder condom use. PMID:19557584

  13. Sexually Explicit Cell Phone Messaging Associated With Sexual Risk Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey; Sanchez, Monica; Montoya, Jorge; Plant, Aaron; Kordic, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Sexting (sending/receiving sexually explicit texts and images via cell phone) may be associated with sexual health consequences among adolescents. However, to date, no published data from a probability-based sample has examined associations between sexting and sexual activity. METHODS: A probability sample of 1839 students was collected alongside the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey in Los Angeles high schools. Logistic regressions were used to assess the correlates of sexting behavior and associations between sexting and sexual risk-taking. RESULTS: Fifteen percent of adolescents with cell phone access reported sexting, and 54% reported knowing someone who had sent a sext. Adolescents whose peers sexted were more likely to sext themselves (odds ratio [OR] = 16.87, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.62–29.59). Adolescents who themselves sexted were more likely to report being sexually active (OR = 7.17, 95% CI: 5.01–10.25). Nonheterosexual students were more likely to report sexting (OR = 2.74, 95% CI: 1.86–4.04), sexual activity (OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.07–2.15), and unprotected sex at last sexual encounter (OR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.17–2.89). CONCLUSIONS: Sexting, rather than functioning as an alternative to “real world” sexual risk behavior, appears to be part of a cluster of risky sexual behaviors among adolescents. We recommend that clinicians discuss sexting as an adolescent-friendly way of engaging patients in conversations about sexual activity, prevention of sexually transmitted infections, and unwanted pregnancy. We further recommend that discussion about sexting and its associated risk behavior be included in school-based sexual health curricula. PMID:22987882

  14. Late Adolescent Girls' Sexual Experiences and Sexual Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Impett, Emily A.; Tolman, Deborah L.

    2006-01-01

    This study presented and tested a model of sexual satisfaction for late adolescent girls. In this model, sexual self-concept and approach sexual motives were tested as predictors of adolescent girls' sexual satisfaction with their most recent experience of sexual intercourse. A total of 116 girls in 12th grade (ages 16-19) completed measures of…

  15. Sexual At-Risk Behaviors of Sexually Abused Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinq-Mars, Caroline; Wright, John; Cyr, Mireille; McDuff, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigated sexual at-risk behaviors of sexually abused adolescent girls. Variables of interest were presence of consensual sexual activity, age at first consensual intercourse, number of sexual partners, condom use, and pregnancies. Participants were 125 sexually abused adolescent girls aged 12 to 17 years. Results showed that…

  16. Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Young Adults: Prevalence, Perceived Risk, and Risk-Taking Behaviors. Research Brief. Publication #2010-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildsmith, Elizabeth; Schelar, Erin; Peterson, Kristen; Manlove, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the United States is among the highest in the western industrialized world. Nearly 19 million new STDs are diagnosed each year, and more than 65 million Americans live with an incurable STD, such as herpes and human papillomavirus (HPV). Young people, in particular, are at a heightened risk…

  17. The Validity of Truant Youths' Marijuana Use and Its Impact on Alcohol Use and Sexual Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Barrett, Kimberly; Winters, Ken C.; Ungaro, Rocío; Karas, Lora; Belenko, Steven; Wareham, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Few studies investigating the validity of marijuana use have used samples of truant youths. In the current study, self-reports of marijuana use are compared with urine test results for marijuana to identify marijuana underreporting among adolescents participating in a longitudinal brief intervention for drug-involved truant youths. It was…

  18. Do Psychiatric Disorders Moderate the Relationship Between Psychological Distress and Sexual Risk-Taking Behaviors in Young Men Who Have Sex with Men? A Longitudinal Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Beidas, Rinad S.; Birkett, Michelle; Newcomb, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) account for two-thirds of new HIV infections in young people in the United States. Identifying between-person and within-person correlates of sexual risk-taking provides critical information for developing behavioral prevention efforts for this group. Possible predictors of sexual-risk behavior in YMSM include major depressive disorder (MDD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and variation in psychological distress over time. To date, research has been equivocal with regard to the relationship between psychiatric disorders, psychological distress, and sexual risk behaviors. Participants included 119 16–20-year-old YMSM. Ethnicity/race of the participants included: black/African-American (46.2%), white (19.3%), Latino/Hispanic (12.6%), multiracial (11.8%), Asian/Pacific Islander (2.5%), and other (5.9%). Sexual risk outcomes included total number of male partners and unprotected anal sex acts across four waves of data collection (24 months). The study found that the between-person correlates, including ethnicity and age, predicted total male partners. Between-person correlates, including ethnicity, MDD, and a moderating effect of PTSD on psychological distress emerged as determinants of unprotected anal sex acts. PMID:22680282

  19. Do psychiatric disorders moderate the relationship between psychological distress and sexual risk-taking behaviors in young men who have sex with men? A longitudinal perspective.

    PubMed

    Beidas, Rinad S; Birkett, Michelle; Newcomb, Michael E; Mustanski, Brian

    2012-06-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) account for two-thirds of new HIV infections in young people in the United States. Identifying between-person and within-person correlates of sexual risk-taking provides critical information for developing behavioral prevention efforts for this group. Possible predictors of sexual-risk behavior in YMSM include major depressive disorder (MDD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and variation in psychological distress over time. To date, research has been equivocal with regard to the relationship between psychiatric disorders, psychological distress, and sexual risk behaviors. Participants included 119 16-20-year-old YMSM. Ethnicity/race of the participants included: black/African-American (46.2%), white (19.3%), Latino/Hispanic (12.6%), multiracial (11.8%), Asian/Pacific Islander (2.5%), and other (5.9%). Sexual risk outcomes included total number of male partners and unprotected anal sex acts across four waves of data collection (24 months). The study found that the between-person correlates, including ethnicity and age, predicted total male partners. Between-person correlates, including ethnicity, MDD, and a moderating effect of PTSD on psychological distress emerged as determinants of unprotected anal sex acts. PMID:22680282

  20. Sexually transmitted infections and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Ljubojević, Suzana; Lipozenčić, Jasna

    2010-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remain a public health problem of major significance in most of the world. Adolescents make up about 20% of the world population, of whom 85% live in developing countries. They are at a greater risk of STIs because they frequently have unprotected intercourse, biologically may be more susceptible to infection, often are engaged in multiple monogamous relationships of limited duration, and face multiple obstacles in accessing confidential health care services. Young people who begin to have sexual intercourse in early or middle adolescence are more likely to develop an STI than those who postpone intercourse until later adolescence or adulthood. The most common STIs among adolescents are chlamydia, gonorrhea, human papillomavirus infection, and trichomoniasis. Unfortunately, lately the incidence of HIV/AIDS and syphilis among adolescents is growing. Comprehensive sex education programs in schools can increase STI knowledge and prevent risky sexual behaviors. Health care providers can promote STI prevention methods, including counseling about safe sex. PMID:21251451

  1. Measuring Youth Sexual Risk-Taking in Port-au-Prince, Haiti: Programmatic Recommendations from Different Methodological Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Speizer, Ilene S.; Beauvais, Harry; Gómez, Anu Manchikanti; Outlaw, Theresa Finn; Roussel, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    No studies have examined the applicability of varying methods for identifying youth at high risk of unintended pregnancies and contracting HIV. This study compares sociodemographic characteristics and sexual behaviors of youth (ages 15-24) in Port-au-Prince, Haiti surveyed using three different study methodologies. The three study methodologies are compared in terms of their utility for identifying high risk youth and utility for program planning. The three study methodologies are: a representative sample of youth from the 2005/6 Demographic and Health Survey (HDHS); a 2004 facility-based study; and a 2006/7 venue-based study that used the Priorities for Local AIDS Control Efforts (PLACE) method. The facility-based and PLACE studies included larger proportions of single, sexually experienced youth and youth who knew someone with HIV/AIDS than the HDHS. More youth in the PLACE study had multiple sexual partners in the last year and received money or gifts for sex compared to youth in facilities. At first and last sex, more PLACE youth used contraception including condoms. Pregnancy experience was most common in the facility-based data; however, more ever-pregnant PLACE youth reported ever terminating a pregnancy. Program managers seeking to target prevention activities should consider using facility- or venue-based methods to identify and understand the behaviors of high-risk youth. PMID:23012724

  2. Parental Sexual Attitudes, Family Sexual Communication, and Adolescent Sexual Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Terri D.

    Some researchers have reported that when parents are the main source of sex education, their adolescent children are less likely to engage in premarital sexual activity and are more likely to use effective contraception. This study used the variables of gender and parental sexual attitudes (liberal or conservative) to categorize 349 college…

  3. Clackamas Adolescent Sexual Offender Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Richard B.

    The Clackamas Adolescent Sexual Offender Intervention program is designed to interrupt and change behavior of clients who are juvenile sexual offenders at risk to re-offend. Intervention is scheduled for each offender over a 52-week period with groups meeting each week for 2 hours, and an all day session each 6-week period on Saturday. The…

  4. Parenting and Adolescents' Sexual Initiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longmore, Monica A.; Eng, Abbey L.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Manning, Wendy D.

    2009-01-01

    This study draws on social control and social learning theories to examine the role of dating-specific attitudes and practices as predictors of adolescents' sexual initiation. We include attention to the adolescent's reaction to control attempts as a further means of assessing family dynamics (i.e., frequency of dating disagreements). The study…

  5. Relationship of Alcohol Use and Sexual Risk Taking Among Hazardously Drinking Incarcerated Women: An Event-Level Analysis*

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Michael D.; Anderson, Bradley J.; Caviness, Celeste M.; Rosengard, Cynthia; Kiene, Susan; Friedmann, Peter; Clarke, Jennifer G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To understand the association of alcohol use with sex and unprotected sex among hazardously drinking incarcerated women, we examined the relationship of these behaviors on any given day. Method: Participants endorsed unprotected sex and hazardous alcohol consumption (four or more drinks at a time on at least 3 separate days in the previous 3 months or a score of 8 or above on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test). Participants recalled behaviors in the 90 days before incarceration using the Timeline Followback method. Generalized estimating equation models estimated the effect of daily alcohol use and selected covariates on the odds of sexual-risk behavior. Results: The 245 participants averaged 34 years of age and were 71.4% white; 67.8% used cocaine. On most (84.7%) drinking days, women consumed four or more drinks. One hundred forty-one participants (57.6%) reported sex with only main partners, 10.6% with only casual partners, and 30.6% with both casual and main partners. The likelihood of having any sex (odds ratio = 1.78, p < .01) and unprotected sex (odds ratio = 1.95, p < .01) was higher on days when participants consumed alcohol compared with nondrinking days. However, when the analysis was restricted to days on which participants reported having sex, the odds of having unprotected sex was not significantly associated with drinking. Conclusions: Among incarcerated women who reported hazardous drinking, alcohol use was associated with an increased likelihood of sexual activity and a concomitant increase in unprotected sex. However, use of alcohol was not significantly associated with condom use on days when participants were sexually active. PMID:19515290

  6. Treatment of sexually compulsive adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gerber, James

    2008-12-01

    We clarified the nature of sexual compulsivity in adolescence, addressed who is labeled as "sexually compulsive youth," conceptualized the underlying factors of sexual compulsivity, and outlined a treatment format. We focused on trauma, dissociation, attachment, and self-concept. We questioned the conventional perceptions of who is included in this group. We reiterated that the belief that sexually compulsive adolescents are abusive males is no longer considered accurate. The evolution and accessibility of the Internet only raises greater concerns about compulsive sexual behavior, as more adolescents are brought into therapy because of Internet use to seek sexual interaction or stimulation. The sexually compulsive youth is as likely to be the clean-cut, high-achieving, intelligent student as is the economically deprived, juvenile delinquent on the street. This article began with the observation that adolescents rarely receive any direct, accurate information about sexuality and intimacy. The messages taken in through music, television, movies, politicians, popular press, clergy, and school are polarizing and contradictory. Beyond this are the implications as to how we, as a society, treat the youths that do present with sexual behavior problems. We have tended to treat these youth (as well as adults) with disdain and to designate sexually abusive youth the same as adult offenders with harsher, more punitive treatment interventions. Research and clinical experience now strongly question this type of response. This article is consistent with this leaning. Early psychological injury, from sexual abuse, physical abuse, exposure to violence, attachment trauma, or early sexualization, is at the root of sexually compulsive behavior. While it is necessary to reign in out-of-control and destructive behaviors, if we acknowledge that the source of the behavior is psychological injury, then it is cruel and inconsistent to treat the individual with disdain or as a pariah. The

  7. An evaluation of factors associated with sexual risk taking among Black men who have sex with men: a comparison of younger and older populations.

    PubMed

    Maksut, Jessica L; Eaton, Lisa A; Siembida, Elizabeth J; Driffin, Daniel D; Baldwin, Robert

    2016-08-01

    In the United States, rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are highest among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM). Prior research indicates that younger BMSM in particular (i.e., BMSM 29 years of age and younger) are most at risk for HIV infection, and that HIV incidence in this subpopulation has risen in recent years. It remains unclear, however, why younger BMSM, relative to BMSM 30 years of age and older, are at increased risk for HIV infection. For the current study, we surveyed 450 BMSM located in the Atlanta, GA metropolitan and surrounding areas. We assessed BMSM's depressive symptoms, substance use during sex, psycho-social risk factors (i.e., HIV risk perceptions, condom use self-efficacy, internalized homophobia, and perceived HIV stigmatization), and sexual risk taking (i.e., condomless anal intercourse [CAI]). We found that younger BMSM (YBMSM) and older BMSM (OBMSM) differed with respect to factors associated with CAI. In multivariable models, alcohol use before or during sex, lower educational attainment, and sexual orientation (i.e., bisexual sexual orientation) were significantly associated with increased CAI for YBMSM, while HIV risk perceptions and internalized homophobia were significantly, negatively associated with CAI among OBMSM. Rates of engaging in CAI were similar across the two age cohorts; however, factors related to CAI varied by these two groups. Findings emphasize the need to consider targeted interventions for different generational cohorts of BMSM. PMID:27001255

  8. A social network typology and sexual risk-taking among men who have sex with men in Cape Town and Port Elizabeth, South Africa.

    PubMed

    de Voux, Alex; Baral, Stefan D; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Beyrer, Chris; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Siegler, Aaron J; Sullivan, Patrick S; Winskell, Kate; Stephenson, Rob

    2016-05-01

    Despite the high prevalence of HIV among men who have sex with men in South Africa, very little is known about their lived realities, including their social and sexual networks. Given the influence of social network structure on sexual risk behaviours, a better understanding of the social contexts of men who have sex with men is essential for informing the design of HIV programming and messaging. This study explored social network connectivity, an understudied network attribute, examining self-reported connectivity between friends, family and sex partners. Data were collected in Cape Town and Port Elizabeth, South Africa, from 78 men who have sex with men who participated in in-depth interviews that included a social network mapping component. Five social network types emerged from the content analysis of these social network maps based on the level of connectivity between family, friends and sex partners, and ranged from disconnected to densely connected networks. The ways in which participants reported sexual risk-taking differed across the five network types, revealing diversity in social network profiles. HIV programming and messaging for this population can greatly benefit from recognising the diversity in lived realities and social connections between men who have sex with men. PMID:26569376

  9. A Risk-Taking "Set" in a Novel Task among Adolescents with Serious Conduct and Substance Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Thomas J.; Raymond, Kristen M.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; Thompson, Laetitia L.; Lejuez, Carl W.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Adolescent patients' conduct disorder and substance use disorder symptoms are "risky behaviors" with unpredictable rewards and punishments. The authors asked whether such youths also take excessive risks in new situations without prior learning, peer pressure, or intoxication. Method: Subjects were 20 adolescent patients in a program…

  10. Preventing Sexual Risk Behaviors among Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Adolescents: The Benefits of Gay-Sensitive HIV Instruction in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Susan M.; Ledsky, Rebecca; Lehman, Thomas; Goodenow, Carol; Sawyer, Richard; Hack, Tim

    2001-01-01

    Compared the sexual risk taking behaviors of gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) and heterosexual adolescents, evaluating associations between gay-sensitive school HIV instruction and GLB adolescents' risk behaviors. Surveys indicated that GLB students had more high risk behaviors than heterosexual students, and those in schools with gay-sensitive…

  11. Monitoring challenges: a closer look at parental monitoring, maternal psychopathology, and adolescent sexual risk.

    PubMed

    Hadley, Wendy; Hunter, Heather L; Tolou-Shams, Marina; Lescano, Celia; Thompson, Ariel; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph; Brown, Larry K

    2011-04-01

    The present study sought to examine associations between maternal psychopathology, parental monitoring, and adolescent sexual activity among adolescents in mental health treatment. Seven hundred ninety mother-adolescent dyads recruited from adolescent mental health treatment settings completed audio computer-assisted structured interview assessments examining parent psychiatric symptoms, parental monitoring, and adolescent sexual risk behavior. Path analysis was used to examine the associations between variables of interest. Maternal caregivers who reported more mental health symptoms were more likely to have adolescents who reported recent sex and this relationship was mediated by less parental monitoring. These findings suggest that maternal caregivers with mental health symptoms may need specific interventions that provide assistance and support in monitoring their teens in order to reduce sexual risk taking among adolescents in mental health treatment. PMID:21417519

  12. Adolescent Sexuality in a Changing American Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilman, Catherine S.

    All aspects of adolescent sexuality may be viewed as primarily sexual. The primary fact about adolescence is that the young person becomes capable of reproduction. Biological changes interact with psychological ones; the cognitive, motivational, social and emotional aspects are all directed toward becoming a sexual human being. In adolescence,…

  13. The use of alcohol by Miami's adolescent public school students 1992: peers, risk-taking, and availability as central forces.

    PubMed

    Yarnold, B M

    1998-01-01

    This analysis examines the use of alcohol by 535 adolescents in Dade County Public Schools during 1992. Statistically significant factors which tend to increase the probability of alcohol use by adolescents include: the fact that their friends drink, their awareness of the risks associated with the use of alcohol, and their ease in obtaining alcohol. Hence, the typical adolescent who uses alcohol seems to be a risk-taker, who may enjoy the dangers involved with alcohol use; friends are also users of alcohol. Not significantly related to alcohol use are a number of other variables, including family-related variables (whether adolescents live with their mothers, fathers, or alone; and whether someone in the family has a problem with drugs or alcohol). Similarly, early cigarette smoking did not serve as a gateway to later alcohol use. Religion, gender, race, academic performance, and extracurricular school activities (athletics, music, school clubs, and other activities) were all unrelated to the use of alcohol by adolescents. Although the typical adolescent who consumed alcohol was older (in grades 9 through 12), this was not a significant variable. PMID:9816807

  14. Sexual Risk-Taking among High-Risk Urban Women with and without Histories of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Mediating Effects of Contextual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosack, Katie E.; Randolph, Mary E.; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Abbott, Maryann; Smith, Ellen; Weeks, Margaret R.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the mechanisms of risk for urban women at high risk for HIV with and without childhood sexual abuse histories. Childhood sexual abuse survivors reported more unprotected intercourse and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The association of STI locus of control with frequency of unprotected sex was fully mediated by…

  15. The Courtship Process and Adolescent Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Arland

    1990-01-01

    Examined sexuality of 18-year-old adolescents (n=916) within context of life-course developmental model. Found adolescents who began dating early and developed steady relations early were more likely to be sexually experienced, to have had sexual relations with more partners, to have been more sexually active during late teenage years, and to have…

  16. Adolescent Development and Sexuality. Adolescent Decisions Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brion-Meisels, Steven; And Others

    This teacher's manual is one volume in a six volume curriculum for the secondary level, designed to provide a systematic, group-oriented approach to decision-making in areas crucial to adolescent development: sexuality and social relationships, drug (substance) use and abuse, work, juvenile law, and people and government. An introductory section…

  17. Prospective analysis of the transition to sexual experience and changes in sexual self-esteem among adolescents attending therapeutic schools.

    PubMed

    Swenson, Rebecca R; Houck, Christopher D; Barker, David; Zeanah, Paula D; Brown, Larry K

    2012-02-01

    Given increased sexual risk-taking among youth with mental health problems, this study sought to understand the developmental trajectory of sexual self-esteem (SSE) among this vulnerable population and how it is impacted by sexual experiences. Participants were 185 adolescents who attended therapeutic/alternative schools in southern New England. Changes in five domains of SSE identified by Zeanah and Schwarz (1996) were examined across adolescents who either: 1) were sexually active at baseline, 2) transitioned to activity during the study, and 3) remained inexperienced at follow-up. In support of the hypothesis that changes in SSE precede onset of experience, youth who transitioned reported higher baseline scores in the Skills domain than those who remained inexperienced. SSE was subsequently impacted by sexual activity, with differences in several domains found at baseline and follow-up across level of experience. Changes in SSE following sexual experience depended, in part, on the percentage of casual partners teens reported. PMID:21726896

  18. [Adolescents who sexually abuse children].

    PubMed

    Boden, S; Malchair, A; Bertrand, J

    1999-06-01

    The adolescents responsible for sexual abuses on children confront the medico-psycho-social workers with many questions. In this article, thanks to a bibliographical approach, we first discuss the definitions concerning sexual abuses and paedophilia as well as family, psychodynamic and legal specificities of adolescents. We then mention a few epidemiological facts as well as the different behavioural cognitive, psychodynamic and family hypotheses related to that problem. We finally illustrate all this through two clinical cases encountered during our ambulatory exercise and submit some thinking to readers. PMID:10446522

  19. The Use of Alcohol by Miami's Adolescent Public School Students 1992: Peers, Risk-Taking, and Availability as Central Forces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarnold, Barbara M.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the use of alcohol by adolescents (N=535) in Dade County Public Schools during 1992. Significant factors that increase the probability of alcohol use are friends who drink, awareness of risks associated with alcohol use, and ease in obtaining alcohol. Family-related variables, smoking, religion, gender, race, academic performance, and…

  20. Sexual risk-taking among high-risk urban women with and without histories of childhood sexual abuse: mediating effects of contextual factors.

    PubMed

    Mosack, Katie E; Randolph, Mary E; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Abbott, Maryann; Smith, Ellen; Weeks, Margaret R

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the mechanisms of risk for urban women at high risk for HIV with and without childhood sexual abuse histories. Childhood sexual abuse survivors reported more unprotected intercourse and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The association of STI locus of control with frequency of unprotected sex was fully mediated by being intoxicated during sex and engaging in sex work, whereas the association between relational control and unprotected sex was not mediated by contextual factors for the childhood sexual abuse group. The mechanisms of risk are different for those with divergent childhood sexual abuse histories and thus interventions should be developed to educate women with a history of childhood sexual abuse about ways to avoid revictimization, particularly within a context of poverty, prostitution, and drug use. PMID:20390778

  1. Cell Phone Internet Access, Online Sexual Solicitation, Partner Seeking, and Sexual Risk Behavior among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Eric; Winetrobe, Hailey; Holloway, Ian W.; Montoya, Jorge; Plant, Aaron; Kordic, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Online partner seeking is associated with sexual risk behavior among young adults (specifically men who have sex with men), but this association has yet to be explored among a probability sample of adolescents. Moreover, cell phone internet access and sexual risk taking online and offline have not been explored. A probability sample (N = 1,831) of Los Angeles Unified School District high school students was collected in 2011. Logistic regression models assessed relationships between specific sexual risk behaviors (online sexual solicitation, seeking partners online, sex with internet-met partners, condom use) and frequency of internet use, internet access points, and demographics. Students with cell phone internet access were more likely to report being solicited online for sex, being sexually active, and having sex with an internet-met partner. Bisexual-identifying students reported higher rates of being approached online for sex, being sexually active, and not using condoms at last sex. Gay, lesbian, and questioning (GLQ) students were more likely to report online partner seeking and unprotected sex at last sex with an internet-met partner. Additionally, having sex with an internet-met partner was associated with being male, online sexual solicitation, and online partner seeking. Internet- and school-based sexual health programs should incorporate safety messages regarding online sexual solicitation, seeking sex partners online, and engaging in safer sex practices with all partners. Programs must target adolescents of all sexual identities, as adolescents may not yet be “out,” and bisexual and GLQ adolescents are more likely to engage in risky sex behaviors. PMID:25344027

  2. Adolescent sexuality: the gender gap.

    PubMed

    Moreau-Gruet, F; Ferron, C; Jeannin, A; Dubois-Arber, F

    1996-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine gender differences as regards adolescent sexuality, in order to improve the adjustment of prevention programmes to boys' and girls' specific needs. Data were collected as part of the Swiss Multicentric Adolescent Survey on Health. Anonymous questionnaires were distributed in school classes among a national representative sample of about 9,300 adolescents (15 to 20 years old). About 45% of the total sample reported a previous sexual experience. Differences between boys and girls were identified by means of bivariate and multivariate analyses. A higher proportion of Swiss girls report intra-family discussions about sexuality, having had a previous sexual experience, having sexual intercourse regularly, having had only one partner, and using contraception regularly. A higher proportion of Swiss boys report positive attitudes towards condoms and using condoms regularly. Variables independently associated with the occurrence of first sexual intercourse before 15 years old also show gender differences, notably as regards health behaviours and social adjustment. The findings suggest that prevention programmes should emphasize, among boys, responsibility in contraception and the need for protection in situations of multipartnership, and among girls, a positive attitude towards condom use and an increased familiarity with condoms presented both in a perspective of contraception and prevention of STDs. PMID:8993715

  3. Sexuality Education for Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Breuner, Cora C; Mattson, Gerri

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this clinical report is to provide pediatricians updated research on evidence-based sexual and reproductive health education conducted since the original clinical report on the subject was published by the American Academy of Pediatrics in 2001. Sexuality education is defined as teaching about human sexuality, including intimate relationships, human sexual anatomy, sexual reproduction, sexually transmitted infections, sexual activity, sexual orientation, gender identity, abstinence, contraception, and reproductive rights and responsibilities. Developmentally appropriate and evidence-based education about human sexuality and sexual reproduction over time provided by pediatricians, schools, other professionals, and parents is important to help children and adolescents make informed, positive, and safe choices about healthy relationships, responsible sexual activity, and their reproductive health. Sexuality education has been shown to help to prevent and reduce the risks of adolescent pregnancy, HIV, and sexually transmitted infections for children and adolescents with and without chronic health conditions and disabilities in the United States. PMID:27432844

  4. Effect of emergency oral contraceptive use on condom utilization and sexual risk taking behaviours among university students, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Young people between the ages of 15 and 24 years are both the most at risk of HIV and the greatest hope for turning the tide against HIV/AIDS. Although various surveys have been done on sexual behaviour of youth in Ethiopia, studies assessing the effect of emergency oral contraceptives on condom utilization of university students are lacking. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in two major universities of Ethiopia from January to May 2011 using structured self administered questionnaire with the aim to assess the effect of introducing oral emergency contraceptive pills on condom utilization and sexual risk taking behaviours among female university students. Study participants were selected by simple random sampling using the list from the associate registrars of each University. Data were entered, cleaned and analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine factors associated with condom utilization. Results a total of 623 students out of 660 were included giving response rate of 94.4%. A total of 103(16.5%) had history of sexual intercourse and nearly half (45.6%) of them had sex before the age of 20 years. Forty (6.4%) students had history of sexually transmitted infections (STI). Sixty seven percent of students had heard about emergency oral contraceptives. One hundred and ninety one (45.7%) of students believe that EOC is effective in preventing pregnancy. Believing that EOC is effective in preventing pregnancy (adjusted Odds ratio, AOR = 0.22 95% CI 0.06, 0.87), condom prevents STI (AOR = 10.37, 95% CI 1.73, 62.24) and younger age below 20 years (AOR = 11.68 95% CI 1.25, 109.19) were statistically significantly associated with condom use. Conclusion a significant number of students had history of sexual intercourse and used emergency contraception. The belief in the effectiveness of EOC negatively affects condom use. The preference for the pill may make

  5. “Sexting” and its relation to sexual activity and sexual risk behavior in a national survey of adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ybarra, Michele L.; Mitchell, Kimberly J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the relation between “sexting,” (sending and sharing sexual photos online via text messaging and in-person) with sexual risk behaviors and psychosocial challenge in adolescence. Methods Data were collected online between 2010 and 2011 with 3,715 randomly selected 13- to 18-year-old youth across the United States. Results Seven percent of youth reported sending or showing someone sexual pictures of themselves, where they were nude or nearly nude, online, via text messaging, or in-person, during the past year. Although females and older youth were more likely to share sexual photos than males and younger youth, the profile of psychosocial challenge and sexual behavior was similar for all youth. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, sharing sexual photos was associated with all types of sexual behaviors assessed (e.g., oral sex, vaginal sex) as well as some of the risky sexual behaviors examined—particularly having concurrent sexual partners and having more past-year sexual partners. Adolescents who shared sexual photos also were more likely to use substances and less likely to have high self-esteem than their demographically similar peers. Conclusions While the media has portrayed “sexting” as a problem caused by new technology, health professionals may be more effective by approaching it as an aspect of adolescent sexual development and exploration and, in some cases, risk-taking and psychosocial challenge. PMID:25266148

  6. Helping Families Deal With Adolescent Sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Pavilanis, Alan V.

    1985-01-01

    Developing an independent sexual identity is one of the psychosocial tasks of adolescence. The only recent change in adolescent sexual activity is an increased percentage of teenage girls having intercourse. Coitus carries the risk of pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. It is also an area of conflict with parents. There are healthy and unhealthy approaches to these problems. Family physicians must demystify adolescent sexuality. They must give the adolescent non-judgmental, confidential, and comprehensive care. They must pursue the many possible underlying causes for parental conflict with their teenagers over sexuality. Community involvement is very important in this aspect of practice. PMID:21274175

  7. Types of Empathy and Adolescent Sexual Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varker, Tracey; Devilly, Grant J.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine general empathy, general victim empathy and own victim empathy in adolescent sexual offenders. Sixteen adolescent sexual offenders completed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), the Personal Reaction Inventory, a "general sexual abuse victim" form of the Victim Empathy Distortions Scale (VEDS) and an…

  8. Female Adolescents of Alcohol Misusers: Sexual Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandy, Joseph M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Impact of parent alcohol misuse on the sexual behavior of female adolescents was studied with 1,134 teenagers of alcohol-misusing parents. Index adolescents were more likely to report sexual intercourse and greater frequency of intercourse. Gender of the drinking parent was related to a number of factors related to sexuality. (SLD)

  9. Cognitive development and aspects of adolescent sexuality.

    PubMed

    Pestrak, V A; Martin, D

    1985-01-01

    Difficulty with adjustment to sexuality by adolescents has been of increasing concern to both educators and human service professionals in recent years. The cognitive development and behavior of adolescents as it pertains to sexuality and the implications for helping them overcome maladaptive sexual behavior is discussed. PMID:4083149

  10. Adolescent sexuality and the media.

    PubMed

    Strasburger, V C

    1989-06-01

    Teenagers spend more time with the media than they do in any other activity except sleeping. Is it mere coincidence that the rises in rates of adolescent sexual intercourse during the past 30 years have coincided with the new era of electronic media? Do the media merely reflect society's changes, or do they have the capacity to influence human behavior as well? Although currently part of the problem of teenage pregnancy, the media could become part of the solution, if they were to portray human sexuality responsibly and allow the advertising of contraception. PMID:2660095

  11. Sexual activities of Malaysian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zulkifli, S N; Low, W Y; Yusof, K

    1995-03-01

    This paper examines data on the sexual activities of 1,200 Malaysian adolescents aged 15-21 years based on a probability household sampled survey carried out in Kuala Lumpur in 1986. Sexual behaviours like premarital sexual intercourse, contraceptive usage and masturbation were presented. Of the 1,181 unmarried respondents, 9% (105) reported having had sexual intercourse; males were significantly more experienced compared to females. Older age groups were also found to be more sexually active than the younger ones. Among those who had experience dating (n = 521), 20% (105) have experienced sexual intercourse, 44% (228) have kissed and necked, and 35% (183) have experienced petting, while 24% (130) have had no physical intimacies. Poor use of contraception was also revealed. The most commonly used were condoms, oral contraceptives and withdrawal. With regard to masturbation, males begin this practice relatively earlier than females. Almost half of those who indulged in masturbation were worried by the act, especially the females. Implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:7752975

  12. Televised sexual content and parental mediation: Influences on adolescent sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Deborah A.; Hill, Douglas L.; Grube, Joel W.; Bersamin, Melina M.; Walker, Samantha; Gruber, Enid L.

    2011-01-01

    Little research has been conducted to examine the influence of exposure to televised sexual content on adolescent sexuality or how parental intervention may reduce negative effects of viewing such content. This study uses self-report data from 1,012 adolescents to investigate the relations among exposure to sexually suggestive programming, parental mediation strategies, and three types of adolescent sexuality outcomes: participation in oral sex and sexual intercourse, future intentions to engage in these behaviors, and sex expectancies. As predicted, exposure to sexual content was associated with an increased likelihood of engaging in sexual behaviors, increased intentions to do so in the future, and more positive sex expectancies. Often, parental mediation strategies were a significant factor in moderating these potential media influences. PMID:21546986

  13. Adolescent Sexuality and Parent-Adolescent Processes: Promoting Healthy Teen Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meschke, Laurie L.; Bartholomae, Suzanne; Zentall, Shannon R.

    2000-01-01

    Reports on trends in adolescent sexual health, the relation between parenting and adolescent sexual outcomes, and adolescent sexuality interventions. Discusses parenting efforts related to adolescent sexual behavior. Examines adolescent sexuality programs with a parent component. Review of 19 programs supports the incorporation of theory and the…

  14. Meanings of Sexual Intercourse for Italian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giannotta, Fabrizia; Ciairano, Silvia; Spruijt, Rob; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate meanings of sexual intercourse in adolescence, and the relationships between meanings, gender, age, and sexual behaviors. Subjects were 201 Italian adolescents (107 boys and 94 girls), aged 14-19 (M=17.44, SD=1.65). Participants completed a battery of questionnaires on meanings of sex, sexual…

  15. A Closer Look at Adolescent Sexual Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Gaston, Jacqueline F.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study surveyed 1,228 parochial students about adolescent sexuality. Approximately 75% of these adolescents were virgins. Those reporting sexual experiences seldom claimed that it was forced or even pressured, and half reported that they were "going steady" with their first partner. Implications for sex education programs are discussed. (SLD)

  16. Towards a Sexual Ethics for Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steutel, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Which moral principles should guide us in evaluating sexual contacts of adolescents? This paper tries to answer this question by taking two steps. First, the implications of a liberal sexual ethics for adolescence are spelled out, assessed and refuted. The core principle of the liberal ethical view, the principle of valid consent, takes competence…

  17. Predicting Resilience in Sexually Abused Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Javonda; Nelson-Gardell, Debra

    2012-01-01

    This research examined factors that predicted resilience in sexually abused adolescents. Using Bronfenbrenner's Process-Person-Context-Time (PPCT) ecological model, this study considered the proximal and distal factors that would contribute to adolescents' reactions to sexual victimization. This correlational study used hierarchical regression…

  18. [Adolescents engaging in sexually offending behavior].

    PubMed

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Työläjärvi, Marja; Eronen, Markku

    2015-01-01

    Sexually offending behavior by adolescents may be directed towards children, age-mates and adults. Neurocognitive and psychiatric disorders and the associated inability to age-related interpersonal relationships and inability to control the sexual desires activated during adolescence may lead a young person to seek inappropriate sexual satisfaction from children. Sometimes the offenses are part of antisocial development. Interventions should be focused on the distorted cognitions and attitudes maintaining the injurious sexual behavior, and on the risk of criminal behavior in general. Pharmacological therapy, mainly with SSRI drugs, has also been tested in adolescents. PMID:26233982

  19. The role of sexually explicit material in the sexual development of same-sex-attracted Black adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Arrington-Sanders, Renata; Harper, Gary W; Morgan, Anthony; Ogunbajo, Adedotun; Trent, Maria; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2015-04-01

    Sexually explicit material (SEM) (including Internet, video, and print) may play a key role in the lives of Black same-sex sexually active youth by providing the only information to learn about sexual development. There is limited school- and/or family-based sex education to serve as models for sexual behaviors for Black youth. We describe the role SEM plays in the sexual development of a sample of Black same-sex attracted (SSA) young adolescent males ages 15-19. Adolescents recruited from clinics, social networking sites, and through snowball sampling were invited to participate in a 90-min, semi-structured qualitative interview. Most participants described using SEM prior to their first same-sex sexual experience. Participants described using SEM primarily for sexual development, including learning about sexual organs and function, the mechanics of same-gender sex, and to negotiate one's sexual identity. Secondary functions were to determine readiness for sex; to learn about sexual performance, including understanding sexual roles and responsibilities (e.g., "top" or "bottom"); to introduce sexual performance scripts; and to develop models for how sex should feel (e.g., pleasure and pain). Youth also described engaging in sexual behaviors (including condom non-use and/or swallowing ejaculate) that were modeled on SEM. Comprehensive sexuality education programs should be designed to address the unmet needs of young, Black SSA men, with explicit focus on sexual roles and behaviors that may be inaccurately portrayed and/or involve sexual risk-taking (such as unprotected anal intercourse and swallowing ejaculate) in SEM. This work also calls for development of Internet-based HIV/STI prevention strategies targeting young Black SSA men who may be accessing SEM. PMID:25677334

  20. Sexual Coercion among Adolescents: Victims and Perpetrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacasse, Anne; Mendelson, Morton J.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescence is a transitional period when the pressure to engage in romantic and sexual relationships can leave teenagers feeling confused and at risk for sexual coercion. Our studies investigated characteristics of male and female perpetrators and victims of peer sexual coercion, focusing on self-esteem, sexist attitudes, and involvement in…

  1. Adolescent Sexuality: Values, Morality and Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhasz, Anne McCreary; Sonnenshein-Schneider, Mary

    1987-01-01

    Analyzed adolescents' (N=500) evaluations of factors which would influence their sexual decisions. Results idetified six factors (family establishment competence, external morality, consequences of childbearing, self-enhancement through sexual intercourse, intimacy considerations regarding sexual intercourse, consequence of marriage) which were…

  2. Adolescent Sexual Education: Designing Curriculum That Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quincy, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this review paper, "Adolescent Sexual Education: Designing Curriculum That Works", is to present some basic curriculum necessities for developing an in-school sexual education program that results in decreasing the number of teenagers initiating sex, thus reducing the number of teen pregnancies and cases of sexually transmitted…

  3. [Risk-taking behaviors among young people].

    PubMed

    Le Breton, David

    2004-01-01

    Risk-taking behaviors are often an ambivalent way of calling for help from close friends or family - those who count. It is an ultimate means of finding meaning and a system of values; it is a sign of an adolescent's active resistance and attempts to re-establish his or her place in the world. It contrasts with the far more incisive risk of depression and the radical collapse of meaning. In spite of the suffering it engenders, risk-taking nevertheless has a positive side, fostering independence in adolescents and a search for reference points. It leads to a better self-image and is a means of developing one's identity. It is nonetheless painful in terms of its repercussions in terms of injuries, death or addiction. The turbulence caused by risk-taking behaviors illustrates a determination to be rid of one's suffering and to fight on so that life can, at last, be lived. PMID:15918660

  4. Understanding sexuality among Indian urban school adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ramadugu, Shashikumar; Ryali, VSSR; Srivastava, K.; Bhat, P. S.; Prakash, J.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Adolescence is a very exciting phase of life fraught with many challenges like sexuality. Understanding them is important in helping the adolescents grow up healthily. Aims: To ascertain the attitudes and knowledge about sexuality among school-going adolescents. Settings and Design: Students in two urban schools of an Indian city from class IX to XII were administered a self-reporting questionnaire on matters related to sexuality. Materials and Methods: Requisite ethical clearances were taken as also the consent of the parents and students before administration of the questionnaire. The authors clarified doubts to adolescents. Statistical analysis: Statistical package for social sciences. Results: The incidence of having sexual contact was 30.08% for boys and 17.18% for girls. 6.31% boys and 1.31% girls reported having had experienced sexual intercourse. Friends constituted the main sexual partners for both boys and girls. Sexual abuse had been reported by both girls and boys. These and other findings are discussed in the article. Conclusions: Adolescent school students are involved in sexual activity, but lack adequate knowledge in this regard. Students, teachers, and parents need to understand various aspects of sexuality to be able to help adolescents’ healthy sexual development. PMID:22969181

  5. Sexuality Talk During Adolescent Health Maintenance Visits

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Stewart C.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Pollak, Kathryn I.; Bravender, Terrill; Davis, J. Kelly; Østbye, Truls; Tulsky, James A.; Dolor, Rowena J.; Shields, Cleveland G.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Physicians may be important sources of sexuality information and preventive services, and one-on-one confidential time during health maintenance visits is recommended to allow discussions of sexual development, behavior, and risk reduction. However, little is known about the occurrence and characteristics of physician-adolescent discussions about sexuality. Objective To examine predictors of time spent discussing sexuality, level of adolescent participation, and physician and patient characteristics associated with sexuality discussions during health maintenance visits by early and middle adolescents. Design, Setting, and Participants Observational study of audio-recorded conversations between 253 adolescents (mean age, 14.3 years; 53% female; 40% white; 47% African American) and 49 physicians (82% pediatricians; 84% white; 65% female; mean age, 40.9 years; mean [SD] duration in practice, 11.8 [8.7] years) coded for sexuality content at 11 clinics (3 academic and 8 community-based practices) located throughout the Raleigh/Durham, North Carolina, area. Main Outcomes and Measures Total time per visit during which sexuality issues were discussed. Results One hundred sixty-five (65%) of all visits had some sexual content within it. The average time of sexuality talk was 36 seconds (35% 0 seconds; 30% 1-35 seconds; and 35% ≥36 seconds). Ordinal logistic regression (outcome of duration: 0, 1-35, or ≥36 seconds), adjusted for clustering of patients within physicians, found that female patients (odds ratio [OR] = 2.58; 95% CI, 1.53-4.36), older patients (OR = 1.37; 95% CI, 1.13-1.65), conversations with explicit confidentiality discussions (OR = 4.33; 95% CI, 2.58-7.28), African American adolescents (OR = 1.58; 95% CI, 1.01-2.48), and longer overall visit (OR = 1.07; 95% CI, 1.03-1.11) were associated with more sexuality talk, and Asian physicians were associated with less sexuality talk (OR = 0.13; 95% CI, 0.08-0.20). In addition, the same significant

  6. Assessing Sexual Interest in Adolescents Who Have Sexually Offended.

    PubMed

    Mackaronis, Julia E; Byrne, Peter M; Strassberg, Donald S

    2016-03-01

    Adolescents who have sexually offended have unique treatment needs. For mental health professionals to adequately address these unique needs, further research is necessary. To that end, we explored the assessment of sexual interest (which may play an integral role in understanding potential for sexual reoffending) in a sample of 103 male adolescents who have sexually offended. We compared results from a physiological assessment (MONARCH 21 penile plethysmography [PPG]) and an actuarial assessment (Screening Scale for Pedophilic Interest [SSPI]), plus data from an unobstrusive assessment (Affinity, a viewing time measure) in a smaller subsample of 16 male adolescents. One finding that has particular relevance for clinical assessment is that the SSPI may have limited utility with adolescents. We also found evidence for some overlap between data from PPG and viewing time assessments, although whether or not PPG data are ipsatized may affect relationships with other assessment modalities. PMID:24879092

  7. Sexual Learning, Sexual Experience, and Healthy Adolescent Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2014-01-01

    This chapter is organized around the question "How do adolescents learn to have healthy sex?" The chapter assumes that sexual learning derives from a broad range of both informal and formal sources that contribute to learning within the context of neurocognitive brain systems that modulate sexual motivations and self-regulation. The…

  8. Sexuality among Adolescents with Moderate Disabilities: Promoting Positive Sexual Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harader, Dana L.; Fullwood, Harry; Hawthorne, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents with moderate disabilities are not being given vital information regarding their sexuality and ways to behave responsibly with their peers. This article examines the laws that govern the education of all persons with disabilities, how societal norms and attitudes have contributed to this lack of sexuality knowledge, how these…

  9. [Internet use and adolescents' sexual health].

    PubMed

    Tseng, Ying-Hua; Wang, Ruey-Hsia; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Chou, Fan-Hao

    2012-12-01

    Internet use is an important part of the daily life of adolescents. The ease of searching the internet for information makes finding information on sex, a topic of particular interest to adolescents, easy. Although the internet is replete with sexual information, the influence of internet use on adolescents' sexual health is analogous to a double-edged sword. This article identifies the four main sexual dilemmas facing Taiwan adolescents and analyzes the pros and cons of internet use with regard to adolescents' sexual health. Cons include the predominance of internet pornography and the potential risks of making friends online. Pros include the internet's role as an optimal communications platform and tool for sex-related research. We suggest that nurses have a unique role and functions to play in promoting adolescent sexual health. We also offer recommendations for school health nursing and clinical nursing. Further internet-based quantitative and qualitative research is necessary to clarify relevant sexual health issues. Finally, we offer design suggestions for sexual education homepages. PMID:23212259

  10. Trajectories of Sexual Risk from Middle Adolescence to Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moilanen, Kristin L.; Crockett, Lisa J.; Raffaelli, Marcela; Jones, Bobby L.

    2010-01-01

    Developmental trajectories of risky sexual behavior were identified in a multiethnic sample of 1,121 youth drawn from the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data set (NLSY79). Group-based trajectory modeling of a composite index of sexual risk taking revealed four sexual risk groups from ages 16 to 22: low risk, decreasing risk,…

  11. Adolescence, Sexual Conflict, and Anorexia Nervosa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romeo, Felicia F.

    1984-01-01

    Suggests that the high incidence of anorexia nervosa in adolescent girls may be related to developmental sexual pressure. Symptoms appear with the onset of puberty and are related to physiological and psychological changes. (JAC)

  12. Predicting resilience in sexually abused adolescents.

    PubMed

    Williams, Javonda; Nelson-Gardell, Debra

    2012-01-01

    This research examined factors that predicted resilience in sexually abused adolescents. Using Bronfenbrenner's Process-Person-Context-Time (PPCT) ecological model, this study considered the proximal and distal factors that would contribute to adolescents' reactions to sexual victimization. This correlational study used hierarchical regression analysis (n=237) with cross-sectional data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being Wave I (NSCAW, Dowd et al., 2002). This study found that school engagement, caregiver social support, hope and expectancy, caregiver education and SES predicted resilience. In line with the PPCT model, findings suggest that placing a greater emphasis on the contextual environment could improve support for adolescent resilience. Augmenting interventions that focus on individual change with those that address environmental factors may increase the benefits to adolescents affected by sexual abuse. PMID:22265933

  13. Predictors of Sexual Intercourse among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryu, Eunjung; Kim, Kyunghee; Kwon, Hyejin

    2007-01-01

    Background: The proportion of adolescents experiencing unwanted pregnancy and abortion caused by the premature initiation of sexual intercourse is increasing at an alarming rate in Korea. This study aimed at developing a theoretical model for identifying individual and environmental risk factors affecting the initiation of sexual intercourse by…

  14. Adolescent Survivors of Sexual Abuse: Developmental Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banyard, Victoria L.; Williams, Linda M.

    2007-01-01

    Using an ecological model as a guiding framework, this article reviews key factors which put adolescent survivors of sexual abuse at risk for negative outcomes, as well as resources which might enhance positive outcomes and recovery. Throughout the article, quotes from women who experienced sexual abuse during their youth highlight opportunities…

  15. Power, Consent, and Adolescent Sexual Harassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, Elizabeth

    This paper reviews the literature and case law related to the issue of sexual harassment of females and specifically focuses on the adolescent female in the public middle school setting. The controversial thesis statement the researcher explored was: "sexual harassment is a manifestation of the ubiquitous power imbalance between men and women that…

  16. Adolescents Engaging in Risky Sexual Behavior: Sexual Activity and Associated Behavioral Risk Factors in Bolivian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novilla, M. Lelinneth B.; Dearden, Kirk A.; Crookston, Benjamin T.; De La Cruz, Natalie; Hill, Susan; Torres, Scott B.

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence of risky sexual activities among Bolivian adolescents within the context of other behavioral factors that contribute to compromised health outcomes, unintended pregnancies, and sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS. Data was collected from 576 adolescents, 13-18 years of age, from six schools in La…

  17. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Adolescent Sexual Behaviors and Sexual Revictimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Lynskey, Michael T.

    1997-01-01

    An 18-year longitudinal study of 520 New Zealand women found that those reporting childhood sexual abuse, particularly severe abuse involving intercourse, had significantly higher rates of early onset consensual sexual activity, teenage pregnancy, multiple sexual partners, unprotected intercourse, sexually transmitted disease, and sexual assault…

  18. Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes of Institutionalized and Noninstitutionalized Retarded Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Judy E.; Morris, Helen L.

    1976-01-01

    Sixty-one noninstitutionalized and 61 institutionalized educable mentally retarded adolescents were psychometrically assessed on three measures: sexual knowledge, sexual attitudes, and self-concept. (Author)

  19. Affective differences in Iowa Gambling Task performance associated with sexual risk taking and substance use among HIV-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Golub, Sarit A.; Thompson, Louisa I.; Kowalczyk, William J.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between emotional distress and decision-making in sexual risk and substance use behavior among 174 (ages 25 to 50, 53% black) men who have sex with men (MSM), a population at increased risk for HIV. The sample was stratified by HIV status. Measures of affective decision-making (Iowa Gambling Task, IGT, Bechara et al., 1994), depression, anxiety, sex acts, and substance use during the past 60 days were collected at our research center. Negative binomial regression models were used to examine the relationship between age, HIV status, anxiety, depression, and IGT performance in the prediction of number of risky sex acts and substance use days. Among those without anxiety or depression, both number of risky sex acts and drug use days decreased with better performance during risky trials (i.e., last two blocks) of the IGT. For those with higher rates of anxiety, but not depression, IGT risk trial performance and risky sex acts increased concomitantly. Anxiety also interacted with IGT performance across all trials to predict substance use, such that anxiety was associated with greater substance use among those with better IGT performance. The opposite was true for those with depression, but only during risk trials. HIV-positive participants reported fewer substance use days than HIV-negative participants, but there was no difference in association between behavior and IGT performance by HIV status. Our findings suggest that anxiety may exacerbate risk-taking behavior when affective decision-making ability is intact. The relationship between affective decision-making and risk taking may be sensitive to different profiles of emotional distress, as well as behavioral context. Investigations of affective decision-making in sexual risk taking and substance use should examine different distress profiles separately, with implications for HIV prevention efforts. PMID:26745769

  20. Older Adolescents' Positive Attitudes toward Younger Adolescents as Sexual Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegna, Kristinn; Mossige, Svein; Wichstrom, Lars

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of older adolescents' positive attitudes toward younger sexual partners was investigated through three measures of self-reported hypothetical likelihood of having sex with preadolescents and younger adolescents (LSA), using a school-based cluster sample of 710 Norwegian 18- to 19-year-olds attending nonvocational high schools in…

  1. Adolescent sexual behavior and childbearing.

    PubMed

    Zabin, L S

    1994-01-01

    Low self esteem does not explain problems of adolescence, particularly unwanted pregnancy and early childbearing. This intimates that their root causes are personal rather than structural and socioeconomic, thereby allowing us to blame the victim. Contrary to popular opinion, few teens (10%) want to conceive and most teens want something other than pregnancy, indicating a need for effective intervention. Teens who were ambivalent about childbearing 2 years earlier are just as likely to have given birth as those who wanted to conceive. Teens self-concept is based on the reality of their environment, which, for most teens who have given birth, involves chronic unemployment, a culture of single parenthood in which men play no supportive role in the home, and the knowledge that teens who choose to continue to attend school despite having given birth fare the same as those who drop out of school. Structural changes (jobs and career goals), long term intervention, and continuous social support are needed to improve a teen's capacity to make choices, especially those concerning contraception. In other words, motivation must be so strong that conceptions are avoided. No family wants to go on welfare and no woman wants to have a baby while a teenager, but when teens become pregnant, they tend not to choose abortion. If welfare reform creates true opportunity for jobs, it will create the motivation to avoid pregnancy but not reduce the childbearing rate among teens that conceive. Very early maturation is correlated with very early onset of sexual activity. The very best sex education and services are unlikely to be offered at a young enough age in schools. US society is obsessed with and unwilling to talk about sex. The notion of choice is not part of poor America. Interactive interventions providing continuing support are needed to make a difference in adolescent pregnancy. PMID:8086816

  2. A multi-level analysis of risk perception, poverty and sexual risk-taking among young people in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Tenkorang, Eric Y; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor; Rajulton, Fernando

    2011-03-01

    Various studies have underscored the relevance of community-level factors to sexual behavior and HIV/AIDS prevention efforts in Africa. However, there is a paucity of research and theorizing in this area compared to the preponderance of prevention models that focus solely on individual-level factors. Using data from the Cape Area Panel Survey and hierarchical linear models, this study examines the effects of a combination of individual-level factors and community-level poverty on sexual behaviors. Male and female respondents who perceived themselves to be at great risk of HIV infection were less likely to indulge in risky sexual behaviors. For females, race and community-level poverty were confounded such that race mediated the effects of community-level poverty. Results from this study indicate that multiple rationalities affect sexual behaviors in Cape Town, South Africa and that there is a need to consider both the social embeddedness of sexual behaviors and the rational components of decision making when designing HIV/AIDS prevention programs. PMID:21195013

  3. Psychosexual Correlates of Sexual Double Standard Endorsement in Adolescent Sexuality.

    PubMed

    Emmerink, Peggy M J; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Ter Bogt, Tom F M

    2016-01-01

    Endorsement and enactment of the (hetero)sexual double standard (SDS), prescribing sexual modesty for girls and sexual prowess for boys, has been shown to be negatively related to sexual and mental health. To be able to challenge the SDS, more insight is needed into the conditions that shape gendered sexual attitudes. A survey was conducted among 465 heterosexual adolescents (aged 16-20 years), examining the relationship between a number of relevant demographic and psychosexual variables and SDS endorsement. SDS endorsement was assessed using a newly developed instrument, the Scale for the Assessment of Sexual Standards Among Youth (SASSY). Gender (being male) and religiousness were significantly associated with increased SDS endorsement. For both boys and girls, increased feelings of entitlement to self-induced sexual pleasure (e.g., masturbation) were significantly associated with reduced SDS endorsement, whereas higher gender investment was significantly associated with increased SDS endorsement. Furthermore, increased feelings of entitlement to partner-induced sexual pleasure and more frequent talking about sexuality with peers were associated with increased SDS endorsement among boys but not among girls. We conclude that future research should explore peer influence processes through peer communication about sex, gender investment, and feelings of entitlement to both self and partner-induced sexual pleasure. PMID:26327361

  4. Psychosexual Correlates of Sexual Double Standard Endorsement in Adolescent Sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Emmerink, Peggy M. J.; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; van den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Endorsement and enactment of the (hetero)sexual double standard (SDS), prescribing sexual modesty for girls and sexual prowess for boys, has been shown to be negatively related to sexual and mental health. To be able to challenge the SDS, more insight is needed into the conditions that shape gendered sexual attitudes. A survey was conducted among 465 heterosexual adolescents (aged 16–20 years), examining the relationship between a number of relevant demographic and psychosexual variables and SDS endorsement. SDS endorsement was assessed using a newly developed instrument, the Scale for the Assessment of Sexual Standards Among Youth (SASSY). Gender (being male) and religiousness were significantly associated with increased SDS endorsement. For both boys and girls, increased feelings of entitlement to self-induced sexual pleasure (e.g., masturbation) were significantly associated with reduced SDS endorsement, whereas higher gender investment was significantly associated with increased SDS endorsement. Furthermore, increased feelings of entitlement to partner-induced sexual pleasure and more frequent talking about sexuality with peers were associated with increased SDS endorsement among boys but not among girls. We conclude that future research should explore peer influence processes through peer communication about sex, gender investment, and feelings of entitlement to both self and partner-induced sexual pleasure. PMID:26327361

  5. Exposure to Sexual Lyrics and Sexual Experience Among Urban Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; Douglas, Erika L.; Fine, Michael J.; Dalton, Madeline A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Two thirds of all sexual references in music are degrading in nature, yet it remains uncertain whether these references promote earlier sexual activity. The purpose of this study was to determine if exposure to lyrics describing degrading sex in popular music is independently associated with sexual behavior in a cohort of urban adolescents. Methods All ninth-grade health students at three large urban high schools completed in-school surveys in 2006 and 2007. Participants’ exposure to lyrics describing degrading sex was computed with overall music exposure and content analyses of their favorite artists’ songs. Outcomes included sexual intercourse and progression along a noncoital sexual continuum. Multivariable regression was used to assess independent associations between exposure to lyrics describing degrading sex and outcomes. Results The 711 participants were exposed to 14.7 hours each week of songs with lyrics describing degrading sex (SD=17.0). Almost one third of participants (n=216) had previously been sexually active. Compared to those with the least exposure to lyrics describing degrading sex, those with the most exposure were more than twice as likely to have had sexual intercourse (OR=2.07; 95% CI=1.26, 3.41), even after adjusting for all covariates. Similarly, among those who had not had sexual intercourse, those in the highest tertile of exposure to lyrics describing degrading sex were nearly twice as likely to have progressed along a noncoital sexual continuum (OR=1.88; 95% CI=1.23, 2.88) compared to those in the lowest tertile. Finally, the relationships between exposure to lyrics describing nondegrading sex and sexual outcomes were not significant. Conclusions This study supports an association between exposure to lyrics describing degrading sex in popular music and early sexual experience among adolescents. PMID:19285196

  6. Defining Sexuality among Female Black Inner-City Young Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gershenson, Harold P.; Handler, Arden

    Adolescents are able to respond correctly to questions about pregnancy risk and contraceptive use, yet still engage in risk-taking behavior. One explanation for this phenomenon may be the existence of a personal fable. To explore the existence of the personal fable in inner-city female adolescents, 22 eighth grade black females in Chicago…

  7. Adolescent Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors: A Developmental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.; Reznik, Yana

    2009-01-01

    Understanding adolescents' attitudes regarding sexual behavior is key to understanding why they choose to engage or not engage in sex, which sexual behavior(s) they initiate and continue, and the outcomes experienced during and following sexual behavior. This article briefly explores adolescent sexual behavior, positive and negative outcomes…

  8. Phenomenological Research and Adolescent Female Sexuality: Discoveries and Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrissey, Gabrielle; Higgs, Joy

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents research in female first sexual intercourse in Australia. Previous research in adolescent sexual behavior, particularly issues around first sexual intercourse behavior, has mainly utilized quantitative methodology. Our research adopted a qualitative approach to provide unique insight into adolescent sexual behavior, attitudes,…

  9. Sexual self-schemas of female child sexual abuse survivors: relationships with risky sexual behavior and sexual assault in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Niehaus, Ashley F; Jackson, Joan; Davies, Stephanie

    2010-12-01

    Childhood sexual trauma has been demonstrated to increase survivors' risk for engaging in unrestricted sexual behaviors and experiencing adolescent sexual assault. The current study used the sexual self-schema construct to examine cognitive representations of sexuality that might drive these behavioral patterns. In Study 1 (N = 774), we attempted to improve the content validity of the Sexual Self Schema Scale for child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors, introducing a fourth sexual self-schema factor titled the "immoral/irresponsible" factor. In Study 2 (N = 1150), the potential differences in sexual self-views, as assessed by the four sexual self-schema factors, between CSA survivors and non-victims were explored. In addition, Study 2 evaluated how these sexual self-schema differences may contribute to participation in unrestricted sexual behaviors and risk for sexual assault in adolescence. Results indicated that a history of CSA impacted the way women viewed themselves as a sexual person on each of the four factors. CSA survivors were found to view themselves as more open and possessing more immoral/irresponsible cognitions about sexuality as compared to women who did not have a CSA history. In addition, the CSA survivors endorsed less embarrassment and passionate/romantic views of their sexual selves. The interaction of CSA severity and the sexual self-schemas explained variance in adolescent sexual assault experiences above and beyond the severity of CSA history and participation in risky sexual behaviors. The findings suggest that sexual self-views may serve to moderate the relationship between CSA and adolescent sexual assault. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:20229148

  10. Adolescent Sexual Activity: An Ecological, Risk-Factor Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Stephen A.; Luster, Tom

    1994-01-01

    Examined relationship between adolescent sexual intercourse and history of physical abuse, neighborhood monitoring, and adolescent's attachment to school. Findings from 2,108 adolescents suggest that there are many significant risk factors related to whether adolescents are sexually experienced and that importance of some factors vary by gender.…

  11. Measurement and Design Issues in the Study of Adolescent Sexual Behavior and the Evaluation of Adolescent Sexual Health Behavior Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michael; Palacios, Rebecca; Penhollow, Tina M.

    2012-01-01

    To improve the quality of research and commentary concerning adolescent sexuality and evaluation of both comprehensive sexuality education and abstinence education programs, this article aims to help readers (1) select appropriate measures to study adolescent sexual behavior, (2) develop appropriate study designs to evaluate adolescent sexual…

  12. [The handicapped adolescents and their sexuality].

    PubMed

    García Arrigoni, Patricia; Nastri, Mariana

    2011-10-01

    Adolescents with different types of motor handicapping have desires, needs, and feelings, and have the right to express them in the best possible and acceptable way. Sexual education provided to young people with these handicaps is generally more limited than that offered to their normal peers. These adolescents are inadvertently excluded, and some may find difficult to establish a steady couple relationship. Health-care professionals should bear in mind the needs and worries of their handicapped patients and include the topic of sexuality in their visits from the start insisting on the fact that it is a normal activity in the context of a variety of associated problems. PMID:22042077

  13. A Sex-Positive Framework for Research on Adolescent Sexuality.

    PubMed

    Harden, K Paige

    2014-09-01

    In this article, I propose a sex-positive framework for research on adolescent sexuality in which I consider consensual sexual activities in adolescence as developmentally normative and potentially healthy. The sex-positive framework is contrasted with the predominant "risk" perspective that presumes that abstinence from sexual activity is the ideal behavioral outcome for teenagers. Evidence from longitudinal and behavioral genetic studies indicates that engaging in sexual intercourse in adolescence does not typically cause worse psychological functioning. The relationship context of sexual experience may be a critical moderator of its psychological impact. Moreover, cross-cultural data on adolescents' contraception usage, unintended pregnancy, and sexually transmitted infections suggest that, despite the unacceptably high rate of negative health consequences among U.S. teenagers, adolescents can have the developmental capacity to regulate the health risks inherent in sexual activity. Understanding adolescent sexuality can be fostered by considering sexual well-being, a multidimensional construct that incorporates an adolescent's sexual self-efficacy, sexual self-esteem, feelings of sexual pleasure and satisfaction, and freedom from pain and negative affect regarding sexuality. New research is necessary to understand the development of adolescent sexual well-being, including its normative age trends, its reciprocal links with sexual behavior, and its impact on psychological and physical health. PMID:26186753

  14. A Synthesis of 20 Years of Research on Sexual Risk Taking Among Asian/Pacific Islander Men Who Have Sex With Men in Western Countries.

    PubMed

    Shi Shiu, Chen; Voisin, Dexter R; Chen, Wet-Ti; Lo, Yi-An; Hardestry, Melissa; Nguyen, Huong

    2016-05-01

    Over the past two decades, there has emerged a body of literature documenting a number of risk factors associated with Asian/Pacific Islander men who have sex with men's unsafe sexual behaviors. This study aims to systematically review existing empirical studies and synthesize research results into a social-ecological framework using a mixed research synthesis. Empirical research articles published in peer-reviewed journals between January 1990 and June 2013 were identified in six databases, including PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Social Work Abstract, CINAL, and Web of Knowledge. Both quantitative and qualitative studies were included. Two analysts independently reviewed the articles, and findings were organized on a social-ecological framework. Twenty-two articles were included in the analysis; among these 13 were quantitative, 8 were qualitative, and 1 was mixed-methods research. Results indicated that demographic characteristics, psychological resources, behavioral patterns, relationships with family and friends, dynamics with romantic or sexual partners, community involvement, culture, discrimination, and institutional factors were related to unprotected anal intercourse. This article presents a critique of this literature and discusses implications for future research with this population. It concludes with prevention/intervention initiatives based on review findings. PMID:25563383

  15. Sexual abuse of children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sinal, S H

    1994-12-01

    Increasingly, clinicians are being asked to help determine whether a child or adolescent has been a victim of sexual abuse. Since the late 1970s numerous articles about sexual abuse have appeared in the literature. This review article will acquaint the clinician with the definition and incidence of sexual abuse and the characteristics of the abused and the abuser. Practical guidelines are included for interviewing the victim, performing the physical examination, appropriate laboratory testing, treatment, reporting to appropriate authorities, and court testimony. PMID:7973924

  16. Vulnerable Adolescent Participants' Experience in Surveys on Sexuality and Sexual Abuse: Ethical Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priebe, Gisela; Backstrom, Martin; Ainsaar, Mare

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this research was to study the discomfort experienced by adolescents when answering questions in a survey about sexuality and sexual abuse and to investigate factors that may determine possible experience of discomfort. The research focused particularly on vulnerable adolescents--sexually abused and sexually inexperienced.…

  17. Delinquent histories of adolescents adjudicated for criminal sexual conduct.

    PubMed

    Way, Ineke; Urbaniak, Danielle

    2008-09-01

    A content analysis of closed case records from family court examined personal and family history variables for adolescents with sexually abusive behaviors who had been adjudicated for criminal sexual conduct and compared subgroups of adolescents with ( n = 72) and without (n = 80) prior other delinquent behavior. The study's findings indicate that adolescents with and without prior delinquent behaviors differed on a majority of the variables measured in this study. Adolescents with sexual offending behaviors who also had prior delinquent behaviors were older and had higher rates of documented childhood maltreatment, and drug and alcohol use. These adolescents had caregivers with more substance use and abuse problems and more extensive criminal histories. These findings have a number of practice implications when working with adolescents with sexually abusive behaviors. The findings also suggest that comparisons between adolescents with sexually abusive behaviors and other delinquents may be misleading if these subgroups of adolescents with sexually abusive behaviors are not distinguished. PMID:18309043

  18. ONGOING SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASE ACQUISTION AND RISK TAKING BEHAVIOR AMONG U.S. HIV-INFECTED PATIENTS IN PRIMARY CARE: IMPLICATIONS FOR PREVENTION INTERVENTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Kenneth H; Bush, Timothy; Henry, Keith; Overton, Turner; Hammer, John; Richardson, Jean; Wood, Kathy; Conley, Lois; Papp, John; Caliendo, Angela M.; Patel, Pragna; Brooks, John T

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY A study of HIV-infected persons in primary care in four U.S. found that 13% had a prevalent STD at enrollment and 7% an incident STD six months later. Background To better understand the factors associated with HIV and STD transmitting behavior among HIV-infected persons, we estimated STD prevalence and incidence and associated risk factors among a diverse sample of HIV-infected patients in primary care. Methods We analyzed data from 557 participants in the SUN study, a prospective observational cohort of HIV-infected persons in primary care in four U.S. cities. At enrollment and six months thereafter, participants completed an audio computer-assisted self interview about their sexual behavior, and were screened for genitourinary, rectal and pharyngeal N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis infections by nucleic acid amplification testing, and for serologic evidence of syphilis. Women provided cervicovaginal samples and men provided urine to screen for T. vaginalis by polymerase chain reaction. Results Thirteen percent of participants had a prevalent STD at enrollment and 7% an incident STD six months later. The most commonly diagnosed infections were rectal chlamydia, oropharyngeal gonorrhea, and chlamydial urethritis among the men, and trichomoniasis among the women. Other than trichomoniasis, 94% of incident STDs were identified in MSM. Polysubstance abuse other than marijuana, and having ≥ 4 sex partners in the six months prior to testing were associated with diagnosis of an incident STD. Conclusions STDs were commonly diagnosed among contemporary HIV-infected patients receiving routine outpatient care, particularly among sexually active MSM who used recreational drugs. These findings underscore the need for frequent STD screening, prevention counseling, and substance abuse treatment for HIV-infected persons in care. PMID:22183836

  19. Eating Disorders and Sexual Abuse among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Jeanne

    This study was conducted to examine the list of identifying factors and predictors of childhood physical abuse, extrafamilial sexual abuse, and incest among male and female adolescents in the general population. In 1989, a survey was administered to 6,224 9th and 12th grade students in public schools in Minnesota. The findings revealed that more…

  20. Early adolescent sexual debut: the mediating role of working memory ability, sensation seeking, and impulsivity.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Atika; Romer, Daniel; Betancourt, Laura M; Brodsky, Nancy L; Giannetta, Joan M; Hurt, Hallam

    2012-09-01

    Although deficits in working memory ability have been implicated in suboptimal decision making and risk taking among adolescents, its influence on early sexual initiation has so far not been examined. Analyzing 2 waves of panel data from a community sample of adolescents (N = 347; Mean age[baseline] = 13.4 years), assessed 1 year apart, the present study tested the hypothesis that weak working memory ability predicts early sexual initiation and explored whether this relationship is mediated by sensation seeking and 2 forms of impulsivity, namely acting-without-thinking and temporal discounting. The 2 forms of impulsivity were expected to be positively associated with early sexual initiation, whereas sensation seeking was hypothesized to be unrelated or to have a protective influence, due to its positive association with working memory. Results obtained from structural equation modeling procedures supported these predictions and in addition showed that the effects of 3 prominent risk factors (Black racial identity, low socioeconomic background, and early pubertal maturation) on early sexual initiation were entirely mediated by working memory and impulsivity. The findings are discussed in regard to their implications for preventing early sexual onset among adolescents. PMID:22369334

  1. Adolescents' perceptions of sexual coercion in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Birungi, Ruth; Nabembezi, Dennis; Kiwanuka, Julius; Ybarra, Michele; Bull, Sheana

    2011-12-01

    In Uganda, HIV prevalence remains high with young people at higher risk of infection than adults. Much is known about the sexual risk factors for HIV transmission among youths, including sexual encounters that are coerced. On the other hand, relatively little is known about the barriers to preventing sexual coercion and what strategies may overcome those barriers with adolescents. We conducted three focus group discussions with adolescents in an urban area in Uganda to understand their perceptions of sexual coercion, and to identify, from their point of view, how coercion can be addressed. Data were collected to inform the development of an Internet-based programme for young people, tailored to their HIV-information, motivation and behavioural-skills needs. The findings suggest that the participants perceived adults' coercion of young people as common. The secondary school participants also expressed confusion over what exactly constituted coercion. They acknowledged that young people lack skills to avoid coerced sex and felt it would be critical to give youths information on the circumstances in which coercion may occur and its links to HIV risk. Finally, the youths wanted specific skills and to be empowered to avoid sexual coercion and to report rape. The findings suggest that adolescents are open to discussions about this topic and they support the call for greater integration of coercion-reduction strategies in HIV-prevention programmes targeted at their age group. PMID:25865380

  2. Socio-cultural and economic antecedents of adolescent sexual decision-making and HIV-risk in rural Uganda.

    PubMed

    Katz, Ingrid T; Ybarra, Michele L; Wyatt, Monique A; Kiwanuka, Julius P; Bangsberg, David R; Ware, Norma C

    2013-01-01

    With more than half of new infections occurring among youth, HIV/AIDS remains a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in Uganda. Semi-structured interviews were performed with 48 adolescents and 15 adult key informants in a rural Ugandan community to identify influences on adolescent sexual decision-making. Inductive data analytic methods revealed five thematic influences: (1) social pressure, (2) decline of the Senga (a familial figure who traditionally taught female adolescents about how to run a household), (3) cultural barriers to condom use, (4) knowledge of HIV transmission and modes of prevention, and (5) a moral injunction against sex before marriage. Influences were classified as HIV/AIDS risk and protective factors and organized to form an explanatory framework of adolescent sexual risk-taking. Risk factors pull youth toward risky behavior, while protective factors push them away. Predominance of risk over protective influences explains persistent sexual risk-taking by Ugandan youth. HIV prevention programs designed for Ugandan adolescents should take competing factors and sociocultural and economic influences into account. PMID:22835224

  3. Common sexual problems of children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Satterfield, S

    1975-08-01

    The pediatrician is often expected by families to deal with sexual problems of children and adolescents. The physician should be able to identify problems and to guide parents in more meaningful communication and education of their children. Hopefully, he will be able to identify family conflicts and make the appropriate intervention or referral. He should be aware of his own sexual attitudes so as to avoid having his bias interfere with treatment. The childs behavior should not be isolated, but considered in the context of his family, his peers, and his own growth and development. Often, it is more useful to advise the family than to work with a young child. Adolescents present particular problems because of their conflicts over sexual identity, their reluctance to admit to problems, and frequently a mistrust of adults. They often feel a need for a trusting relationship with an adult, however, and are able to relate to a sensitive, non-judgmental professional. PMID:1101177

  4. Developmental Trajectories of Religiosity, Sexual Conservatism and Sexual Behavior among Female Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Aalsma, Matthew C.; Woodrome, Stacy E.; Downs, Sarah M.; Hensel, Devon; Zimet, Gregory D.; Orr, Don P.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the role of socio-sexual cognitions and religiosity on adolescent sexual behavior could guide adolescent sexual health efforts. The present study utilized longitudinal data from 328 young women to assess the role of religion and socio-sexual cognitions on sexual behavior accrual (measuring both coital and non-coital sexual behavior). In the final triple conditional trajectory structural equation model, religiosity declined over time and then increased to baseline levels. Additionally, religiosity predicted decreased sexual conservatism and decreased sexual conservatism predicted increased sexual behavior. The final models are indicative of young women's increasing accrual of sexual experience, decreasing sexual conservatism and initial decreasing religiosity. The results of this study suggest that decreased religiosity affects the accrual of sexual experience through decreased sexual conservatism. Effective strategies of sexual health promotion should include an understanding of the complex role of socio-sexual attitudes with religiosity. PMID:24215966

  5. Dying for romance: risk taking as purposive behavior.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Jason T

    2011-12-01

    Many approaches have been utilized to understand adolescent risk taking. The current research frames risk taking as a purposive behavior enacted with a specific goal in mind. Rather than assuming adolescent risk taking to be the result of arrogance or perceived invulnerability, adolescent risk taking is interpreted as a means to an end. Stemming from a Tolmanian framework, an alternative explanation for adolescent risk taking is tested: adolescents are willing to take risks to the extent that the risk is associated with a needed outcome - the greater the need for the outcome, the greater the willingness to take risks. To test the proposed hypothesis, 192 participants completed a survey about their need for a romantic relationship and their willingness to endure harm to obtain a romantic relationship. Data were collected at two time points. A hierarchical regression revealed that need for romance is a significant predictor of willingness to endure harm for romance, even after gender and sensation seeking are statistically controlled. Moreover, need for romance at T1 was shown to be predictive of harm for romance at T2. Results are supportive of taking a purposive - that is, Tolmanian - approach, as a means for interpreting adolescent behavior. PMID:21745031

  6. Improving Sexual Risk Communication with Adolescents Using Event History Calendars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martyn, Kristy K.; Darling-Fisher, Cynthia; Pardee, Michelle; Ronis, David L.; Felicetti, Irene L.; Saftner, Melissa A.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the effects of an event history calendar (EHC) approach on adolescent sexual risk communication and sexual activity. Adolescent school-linked health clinic patients (n = 30) who reported sexual activity self-administered the EHC that was used by nurse practitioners (NPs; n = 2) during a clinic visit. Immediately…

  7. Adolescent Sexuality, Masculinity-Femininity, and Educational Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harry, Joseph

    The role of adolescent sexual behavior in educational attainment has been overlooked. Homosexual and heterosexual men were interviewed to test for a correlation between adolescent sexual activeness and educational attainment, as well as any link between childhood masculine sex roles and early sexual activity. Approximately 1,000 volunteers,…

  8. Extent Matters: Exposure to Sexual Material among Czech Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ševcíková, Anna; Šerek, Jan; Machácková, Hana; Šmahel, David

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents use media that exposes them to sexual material. This study focused on adolescents in the Czech Republic, a country with relatively high rates of exposure to sexual material (ESM). A sample of adolescents aged 11 to 15 years ("N" = 495) taken from the project EU Kids Online II was examined for predictors of the following:…

  9. Childhood Sexual Abuse in Pregnant and Parenting Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilson, Kathryn J.; Lancaster, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine childhood sexual abuse in Australian childbearing adolescents and the contribution of abuse variables (sexual and physical abuse) to antenatal and postpartum depression and anxiety in adolescents. Methods: Seventy-nine adolescents proceeding with a pregnancy for the first time were surveyed about abuse experiences and were…

  10. South African Adolescents: Pathways to Risky Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, David W.; Morojele, Neo K.; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, Judith S.

    2006-01-01

    This study tested a developmental model of pathways to risky sexual behavior among South African adolescents. Participants comprised 633 adolescents, 12-17 years old, recruited from households in Durban, South Africa. Data were collected using in-person interviews. Topics included adolescents' sexual behaviors, household poverty levels, vulnerable…

  11. Adolescents Define Sexual Orientation and Suggest Ways to Measure It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, M. S. Mark S.; Silvestre, Anthony J.; Gold, Melanie A.; Markovic, Nina; Savin-Williams, Ritch C.; Huggins, James; Sell, Randal L.

    2004-01-01

    Researchers disagree on how to assess adolescent sexual orientation. The relative importance of various dimensions (e.g. attraction, relationships, behavior, self-labeling) is unknown, which calls into question the validity of studies assessing adolescent sexual orientation. To address this issue, 50 male and female adolescents of varied sexual…

  12. The developmental association of sexual self-concept with sexual behavior among adolescent women.

    PubMed

    Hensel, Devon J; Fortenberry, J Dennis; O'Sullivan, Lucia F; Orr, Donald P

    2011-08-01

    Developing a sexual self-concept is an important developmental task of adolescence; however, little empirical evidence describes this development, nor how these changes are related to development in sexual behavior. Using longitudinal cohort data from adolescent women, we invoked latent growth curve analysis to: (1) examine reciprocal development in sexual self-concept (sexual openness, sexual esteem and sexual anxiety) over a four year time frame; (2) describe the relationship of these trajectories with changes in sexual behavior. We found significant transactional effects between these dimensions and behavior: sexual self-concept evolved during adolescence in a manner consistent with less reserve, less anxiety and greater personal comfort with sexuality and sexual behavior. Moreover, we found that sexual self-concept results from sexual behavior, as well as regulates future behavior. PMID:20970178

  13. The Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Sexual Health Practices of Homeless Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Regina Jones; Rew, Lynn; Sternglanz, R. Weylin

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the gender differences in sexual self-concept, personal resources for sexual health, safe sex behaviors, and risky sexual behaviors among homeless adolescents with and without histories of sexual abuse. Data for this secondary analysis were collected in 2003 to 2004 in the first phase of a larger repeated-measures sexual health…

  14. Failure Is Not an Option: Risk-Taking Is Moderated by Anxiety and Also by Cognitive Ability in Children and Adolescents Diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South, Mikle; Dana, Julianne; White, Sarah E.; Crowley, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding hetereogeneity in symptom expression across the autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is a major challenge for identifying causes and effective treatments. In 40 children and adolescents diagnosed with ASD and 37 IQ--and age-matched comparison participants (the TYP group), we found no differences in summary measures on an experimental…

  15. The Role of Supporters in Facilitating the Use of Technologies by Adolescents and Adults with Learning Disabilities: A Place for Positive Risk-Taking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seale, Jane

    2014-01-01

    The role of supporters in facilitating access to and use of technology by people (adolescents and adults) with learning disabilities has not been the primary focus of much of the research that has been undertaken to date. The review of literature presented in this paper suggests, however, that issues of support, risk and safety are emerging as…

  16. Discussing Adolescent Sexual Health in African American Churches

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Terrinieka T.; Dodd, Darcy; Campbell, Bettina; Pichon, Latrice C.; Griffith, Derek M.

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the ways in which two African American churches discuss adolescent sexual health topics. Six focus groups were conducted in two churches in Flint, Michigan that reported no formal sexual health programming for their congregants. Three themes emerged to highlight the different perspectives about the role of churches in adolescent sexual decision-making and sexual health education 1) churches as sources of sexual information; 2) churches as complex communities; and 3) recommendations for sexual education in churches. Participant responses suggest that churches can and should serve a resource for sexual health information. Implications for practice and research are discussed. PMID:22814618

  17. Adolescents' Exposure to Sexually Explicit Internet Material and Sexual Satisfaction: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Jochen; Valkenburg, Patti M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate, within a social comparison framework, the causal relationship between adolescents' use of sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) and their sexual satisfaction. In addition, we tested which adolescents were most susceptible to a potential influence of SEIM on sexual satisfaction. Between May 2006 and…

  18. Initiating Sexual Experiences: How Do Young Adolescents Make Decisions Regarding Early Sexual Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michels, Tricia M.; Kropp, Rhonda Y.; Eyre, Stephen L.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding how young adolescents make decisions to engage in early sexual activities is vital for intervention efforts aimed at fostering positive youth development and reducing the negative outcomes of adolescent sexual behavior. In-depth interviews with 42 suburban, mostly White, ninth-grade adolescents (52% females, mean age=14.1, SD=.45)…

  19. Sexual abuse of children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sugar, M

    1983-01-01

    Parents, relatives, and friends may inflict their passions on children of the same or opposite sex. This is often initiated by sleeping together. Sexual abuse contributes to and causes emotional trauma, although the child's turmoil, confusion, wish for acceptance, and anxiety may be overlooked by the parent and professional. Mutual silence aided by threats adds to the anxiety. Despite the notion that reports of parental sexual exploitation of their children are usually fantasies, there appear to be increasing data that incest and sexual abuse are frequent traumata. At present, there is increased risk of lowering the incest barrier because of increased rates of divorce and step- or surrogate parenthood, since they provide additional potential for being sexually and emotionally traumatized. Sexual abuse seems to be part of a constellation involving neglect and a pathological symbiosis. That sexual abuse is emotionally traumatic is apparent, but it needs emphasizing. Children's defensive reactions may cloud this, and it may be years before such incidents are connected to symptomatic behavior, even when the child is in intensive therapy. In the reported cases, there appears to be a pattern of reactions and defenses related to the traumata that are embedded in imprinting and identification with the aggressor. This leads to sexual abuse being a legacy passed on to the next generation of victims, as the victim becomes the molester through identification. Adolescent self-destructive behavior may stem from guilt about sexually abusing younger children. Therapists may be better able to understand and deal with some of their patients' symptoms if sexual abuse is considered as a possible factor in one or both directions. PMID:6677153

  20. Adolescent Sexuality: Promoting the Search for Hidden Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiBlasio, Frederick A.

    1989-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy and AIDS warrant a reexamination of child welfare workers' professional values toward adolescent sexuality. Presents an exercise designed to assist practitioners in understanding the hidden values that influence intervention. (SAK)

  1. Discovering Sexual Health Conversations between Adolescents and Youth Development Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Niodita; Chandak, Aastha; Gilson, Glen; Pelster, Aja Kneip; Schober, Daniel J.; Goldsworthy, Richard; Baldwin, Kathleen; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Fisher, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Youth development professionals (YDPs), working at community-based organizations are in a unique position to interact with the adolescents as they are neither parents/guardians nor teachers. The objectives of this study were to explore qualitatively what sexual health issues adolescents discuss with YDPs and to describe those issues using the framework of the Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States (SIECUS) comprehensive sexuality education guidelines. YDPs reported conversations with adolescents that included topics related to the SIECUS key concepts of human development, relationships, personal skills, sexual behavior, and sexual health. PMID:27081375

  2. The association of sexual interest and sexual behaviors among adolescent women: A daily diary perspective

    PubMed Central

    Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Hensel, Devon J.

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical linkages of adult women’s sexual interest and sexual behaviors are relatively well-established, but few data address similar issues in adolescent women. This paper reviews data from published reports of associations of adolescent women’s sexual interest and various sexual behaviors. All of the papers reported data collected from a single longitudinal cohort of young women. The primary source of data collection was daily diaries, allowing close temporal pairing of sexual interest with sexual behaviors. Young women’s sexual interest on a given day was consistently and independently associated with sexual activity on that day, whether the behavior was first lifetime coitus, coitus, fellatio, cunnilingus, anal intercourse, or coitus during menses. We also found no evidence of influence of hormonal contraceptives on young women’s sexual interest. Taken together, these data demonstrate the relevance of sexual interest as a key factor in young women’s sexuality and sexual behavior. PMID:21397605

  3. The Sexual Communication Scale: A Measure of Frequency of Sexual Communication between Parents and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Cheryl L.; Canivez, Gary L.

    2003-01-01

    Study reports on the psychometric properties of a brief instrument, the Sexual Communication Scale, used to measure the frequency of communication about sexual matters between parents and adolescents. Instrument addresses sexual topics ranging from dating to sexual intercourse to homosexuality to HIV/AIDS. Analyses showed that the SCS demonstrated…

  4. Differences between Sexually Victimized and Nonsexually Victimized Male Adolescent Sexual Abusers: Developmental Antecedents and Behavioral Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, David L.; Duty, Kerry Jo; Leibowitz, George S.

    2011-01-01

    This study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers on a number of variables. Self-report measures were administered to 325 male sexually abusive youth (average age 16) in six residential facilities in the Midwest, 55% of whom reported sexual victimization. The results indicate that the sexually…

  5. Differences by Gender and Sexual Experience in Adolescent Sexual Behavior: Implications for Education and HIV Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahom, Deborah; Wells, Elizabeth; Morrison, Diane M.; Wilsdon, Anthony; Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Archibald, Matthew; Graham, Laurie; Hoppe, Marilyn; Murowchick, Elise.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated individual characteristics and peer influences related to adolescents' sexual behavior, considering gender and sexual experience. Students reported on intentions to engage in sexual activity and use condoms in the next year, amount of pressure to engage in sexual activity, and perceptions about the number of their peers engaging in…

  6. Bidirectional Linkages between Psychological Symptoms and Sexual Activities among African- American Adolescent Girls in Psychiatric Care

    PubMed Central

    Starr, Lisa R.; Donenberg, Geri R.; Emerson, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Objective The current study examines longitudinal associations between light and heavy sexual experiences and psychiatric symptoms in African-American girls receiving mental health care. Research supports bidirectional associations between adolescent romantic and sexual behaviors and depression and other mental health problems, but this finding has not been examined among African-American youth or in clinical samples. African-American girls in psychiatric treatment suffer disparities in HIV/AIDS vulnerability, and understanding the context of girls’ risk-taking (and how psychological symptoms contribute) may aid prevention efforts. Method 265 African-American girls seeking psychiatric care were assessed for mental health symptoms and light and heavy sexual behaviors. Participants completed a six-month follow-up. Results Baseline light sexual activity predicted increased internalizing and externalizing symptoms and substance use at follow-up. Internalizing and externalizing symptoms predicted increased heavy sexual behaviors over time, including HIV-risk behaviors. Conclusions Results support the association between romantic involvement and depression. Psychological symptoms may play a key role in the emergence of risky sexual behaviors among African-American girls in psychiatric care, and should be considered in prevention program development. PMID:22742458

  7. Specificity of early movie effects on adolescent sexual behavior and alcohol use.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Ross E; Gibbons, Frederick X; Li, Zhigang; Gerrard, Meg; Sargent, James D

    2013-11-01

    Adolescents' movie sex exposure (MSE) and movie alcohol exposure (MAE) have been shown to influence later sexual behavior and drinking, respectively. No study to date, however, has tested whether these effects generalize across behaviors. This study examined the concurrent influences of early (i.e., before age 16) MSE and MAE on subsequent risky sex and alcohol use among a national sample of 1228 U.S. adolescents. Participants reported their health behaviors and movie viewing up to six times between 2003 and 2009 in telephone interviews. The Beach method was used to create a population-based estimate of each participant's MSE and MAE, which were then entered into a structural equation model (SEM) to predict lifetime risky sex and past month alcohol use at ages 18-21. For both men and women, MAE predicted alcohol use, mediated by age of initiation of heavy episodic drinking (HED) and age of sexual debut; MAE also predicted risky sex via age of sexual debut. Among men only, MSE indirectly predicted risky sex and alcohol use. Findings indicated that early exposure to risk content from movies had both specific and general effects on later risk-taking, but gender differences were evident: for men, MSE was a stronger predictor than MAE, but for women, only MAE predicted later risk behavior. These results have implications for future media research, prevention programs for adolescent sex and alcohol use, and movie ratings that can guide parents' decisions as to which movies are appropriate for their children. PMID:24034968

  8. Family Sources of Sexual Health Information, Primary Messages, and Sexual Behavior of At-Risk, Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosengard, Cynthia; Tannis, Candace; Dove, David C.; van den Berg, Jacob J.; Lopez, Rosalie; Stein, L. A. R.; Morrow, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sources of sexual health information exert strong influence on adolescents' sexual behavior. Purpose: The current study was undertaken to understand how family serve as sexual information sources, the messages adolescents recall from family, and how family learning experiences affect sexual behavior among at-risk adolescents. Methods:…

  9. Adolescents' Views regarding Uses of Social Networking Websites and Text Messaging for Adolescent Sexual Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selkie, Ellen M.; Benson, Meghan; Moreno, Megan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Adolescents frequently report barriers to obtaining sexual health education. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine adolescents' views regarding how new technologies could be used for sexual health education. Methods: Focus group interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of adolescents between 14 and 19 years old.…

  10. Predictors of African American Adolescent Sexual Activity: An Ecological Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandara, Jelani; Murray, Carolyn B.; Bangi, Audrey K.

    2003-01-01

    Investigated predictors of African American adolescent sexual activity, testing an ecological model of risk factors influencing sexual activity. Data collected over three years indicated that risk factors at the personal, familial, and extrafamilial levels of adolescents' social ecology related to being a virgin or not. Males and older adolescents…

  11. Sexuality of Deviant Females: Adolescent and Adult Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitaliano, Peter Paul; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Suggests an association between negative sexual experiences in adolescents, low self-image, and subsequent deviant adult life styles. Results of a survey of prostitutes and a corresponding sample of female offenders showed that the prostitutes reported significantly more negative sexual experiences in adolescence. (Author/JAC)

  12. Working with Parents to Promote Healthy Adolescent Sexual Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Bouris, Alida

    2009-01-01

    Although parents play a vital role in fostering healthy sexuality-related attitudes and behaviors among adolescents, many parents struggle with how to address sexuality-related topics with their adolescent child. This article provides practitioners with evidence-based frameworks and guidelines on how to work with parents in order to improve their…

  13. Parenting Practices and Adolescent Sexual Behavior: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bersamin, Melina; Todd, Michael; Fisher, Deborah A.; Hill, Douglas L.; Grube, Joel W.; Walker, Samantha

    2008-01-01

    The effects of parental attitudes, practices, and television mediation on adolescent sexual behaviors were investigated in a study of adolescent sexuality and media (N = 887). Confirmatory factor analyses supported an eight-factor parenting model with television mediation factors as constructs distinct from general parenting practices. Logistic…

  14. The Core Competencies for Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elfers, John; Carlton, Lidia; Gibson, Paul; Puffer, Maryjane; Smith, Sharla; Todd, Kay

    2014-01-01

    The Adolescent Sexual Health Work Group commissioned the development of core competencies that define the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for all providers of adolescent sexual and reproductive health. This article describes the background and rationale for this set of competencies, the history and use of competencies, and the process…

  15. Adolescents' Perceptions of Reasons for Postponing Sexual Intercourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Cheryl L.; Surmann, Amy

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sexually active adolescents' perceptions of which factors they believe could have influenced postponement of their first and current sexual intercourse experiences, and to explore demographic differences by using a diverse sample. Design and methods were descriptive. Many adolescents reported that "nothing"…

  16. Delinquent Histories of Adolescents Adjudicated for Criminal Sexual Conduct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Way, Ineke; Urbaniak, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    A content analysis of closed case records from family court examined personal and family history variables for adolescents with sexually abusive behaviors who had been adjudicated for criminal sexual conduct and compared sub-groups of adolescents with (n = 72) and without (n = 80) prior other delinquent behavior. The study's findings indicate that…

  17. Some Research and Clinical Perspectives on Adolescent Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilman, Catherine S.

    This paper selects and emphasizes some of the concepts and findings to be found in the author's book, Adolescent Sexuality in a Changing Society. This paper limits itself to various aspects of premarital intercourse among adolescents, including the personality traits of virgins and non-virgins, and the effects of education upon sexual attitudes.…

  18. Bothersome Exposure to Online Sexual Content among Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ševcíková, Anna; Simon, Laura; Daneback, Kristian; Kvapilík, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Prior research suggests that adolescent girls may react more negatively to online sexual content than boys. This study explored the qualitative experiences of adolescent girls who encountered bothersome or disturbing sexual content online. Fourteen girls (aged 15-17 years) were interviewed online about the context in which they saw bothersome…

  19. A Longitudinal Investigation of Peer Sexual Harassment Victimization in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Jennifer L.; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2009-01-01

    The current study describes longitudinal trends in sexual harassment by adolescent peers and highlights gender, pubertal status, attractiveness, and power as predictors of harassment victimization. At the end of 5th, 7th, and 9th grades, 242 adolescents completed questionnaires about sexual harassment victimization, pubertal status, and perceived…

  20. Adolescent Sexual Activity: Links between Relational Context and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Kathryn C.; Lee, Joanna M.

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of the relational context of adolescent sexual activity on depressive symptoms. The present study examined trajectories of depressive symptoms among 6,602 adolescents (44% male, 60% White) taken from a nationally representative study (Add Health). Sexually active youth in romantic and casual relationships were…

  1. Adolescent Sexuality Special Subject Bibliography, 1988-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc., New York, NY.

    This document consists of three annual issues of a special subject bibliography combining adolescent sexuality, for the years 1988, 1989, and 1990, respectively. Citations for books, journal articles, and reports concerned with adolescent sexuality are grouped under such topics as: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and Human Immunodeficiency…

  2. Factor Structure of the Adolescent Clinical Sexual Behavior Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wherry, Jeffrey N.; Berres, Ashley K.; Sim, Leslie; Friedrich, William N.

    2009-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to determine if the Adolescent Clinical Sexual Behavior Inventory-Self-Report conformed to the five-factor scale format that was initially used with a clinical sample that included adolescents referred for sexual abuse evaluations. Participants were 141 teenagers, ages 12-19 (M = 15.11, SD = 1.4), and their…

  3. Adolescent Sexual Health Education: Parents Benefit Too!

    PubMed

    Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Deveaux, Lynette; Wang, Bo; Lunn, Sonya; Marshall, Sharon; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-10-01

    The inclusion of parents in adolescent-targeted interventions is intended to benefit the adolescent. Limited research has explored whether parents participating in these programs also benefit directly. We examined the impact of Caribbean Informed Parents and Children Together, the parenting portion of an adolescent-targeted HIV prevention intervention, on parent-reported measures. Bahamian parent-youth dyads (N = 1,833) participating in the randomized control trial were assigned to receive one of four conditions. Parents were assessed longitudinally at baseline and 6 and 12 months later. Through 12 months follow-up, parents exposed to Caribbean Informed Parents and Children Together showed higher knowledge of condom use skills, perceptions of improved condom use competence on the part of their youth, and perceived improved parent-child communication about sex-related information. Although youth were the targeted beneficiary, parents also benefited directly from the sexual risk reduction parenting program. Parents demonstrated improved perceptions and knowledge that would enable them to more effectively guide their child and also protect themselves from sexual risk. PMID:25636315

  4. School Socioeconomic Composition and Adolescent Sexual Initiation in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinho

    2015-09-01

    Numerous studies have documented the determinants of sexual behavior among adolescents in less-developed countries, yet relatively little is known about the influence of social contexts such as school and neighborhood. Using two waves of data from a school-based longitudinal survey conducted in Malawi from 2011-13, this study advances our understanding of the relationship between school-level socioeconomic contexts and adolescents' sexual activity. The results from two-level multinomial logistic regression models suggest that high socioeconomic composition of the student body in school decreases the odds of initiation of sexual activity, independent of other important features of schools and individual-level characteristics. This study also finds that the association between school socioeconomic composition and sexual activity is statistically significant among male adolescents but not female adolescents, suggesting that schools' socioeconomic contexts may be more relevant to male adolescents' initiation of sexual activity. PMID:26347090

  5. Perceived safety and teen risk taking in online chat sites.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Cheryl; Prawitz, Aimee D; Derscheid, Linda E; Montgomery, Bette

    2011-03-01

    Framed by theories of adolescent development, this study explored relationships among adolescents' perceptions of chat-site safety, time spent chatting, and risky online behaviors. Tenth graders (N = 139) in rural Midwestern U.S. schools completed surveys. Factor analysis produced three factors each for perception of safety and risk-taking behaviors. Regression analyses revealed that perception of safety factors were useful in predicting online risk-taking behaviors. Teens with more social discomfort and those who thought it was safe to reveal personal information and trust chat-site "friends" were more likely to take risks. As time spent in chat sites increased, so did risk-taking behaviors. Implications for educators and parents are discussed, such as initiation of conversations about safe Internet use, parental participation in chat sites as teens' invited "friends," and school programs to teach safe online practices. PMID:20677982

  6. Understanding normal development of adolescent sexuality: A bumpy ride

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Sujita Kumar; Choudhury, Ananya; Singh, Abhishek Pratap

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence, derived from the Latin word “adolescere” meaning “to grow up” is a critical developmental period. During adolescence, major biological as well as psychological developments take place. Development of sexuality is an important bio-psycho-social development, which takes an adult shape during this period. During adolescence, an individual's thought, perception as well as response gets colored sexually. Puberty is an important landmark of sexuality development that occurs in the adolescence. The myriad of changes that occurs in adolescents puts them under enormous stress, which may have adverse physical, as well as psychological consequences. Understanding adolescent sexuality has important clinical, legal, social, cultural, as well as educational implications. PMID:26157296

  7. Characteristics of sexual violence against adolescent girls and adult women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sexual violence is considered a serious violation of human rights which affects mainly young women and adolescents. There is little information about the conditions under which sexual offences occur. We evaluated characteristics of sexual violence against adolescent girls and adult women. Method This is a quantitative, retrospective, descriptive study of sexual violence against adolescent girls and adult women. Analyses were carried out on data collected from 1118 women, 546 adolescents (10-19 years) and 572 adults (≥ 20 years), with a complaint of rape treated at Hospital Pérola Byington, São Paulo, between 1994 and 1999. The age limit of the adolescent sample met the World Health Organization’s (WHO) criteria. We analyzed the type of sexual contact, degree of intimidation, perpetrator and activity of the victim during the approach. Results Crimes without penetration were five times more frequent in adolescents and use of threats of death or intimidation was common in both groups. Mental illness was more prevalent in adult victims and the majority of adolescent victims were aged <14 years. Uncle and stepfather perpetrators were more frequent among adolescents and partners or former intimate partners in adult women. In most cases the approach occurred in public places, although sex crimes at the perpetrator’s residence were more frequent amongst adolescents. Conclusions Although children and adolescents require the same intervention measures and legal protection, a considerable proportion of adolescent sex offenders can face conditions similar to those of adult women. PMID:24450307

  8. Media and technology in adolescent sexual education and safety.

    PubMed

    Harris, Allyssa L

    2011-01-01

    Media play an important role in the lives of adolescents, providing them with opportunities for education and socialization. Media content is increasingly permeated with violence and sexual references that can be highly influential as adolescents continue the developmental process. Providing patient education is one of the cornerstones of nursing practice, and nurses are ideally suited to affect adolescent and parental education about the sexual and violent content of media. PMID:21284726

  9. Sexual violence against adolescent girls: influences of immigration and acculturation.

    PubMed

    Decker, Michele R; Raj, Anita; Silverman, Jay G

    2007-05-01

    This study investigates associations between immigration and acculturation with sexual assault among a large, representative sample of high school girls. The analysis utilized data from the Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Surveys conducted in 1999, 2001, and 2003 (N = 5,919). Adjusted logistic regression analyses were conducted among the full sample and a sexually active subsample. Being an immigrant was associated with recurring sexual assault victimization; this effect was not consistent across age and racial/ethnic groups. Immigrant status conferred risk among adolescent girls aged 15 and younger, Black adolescent girls, and sexually active Hispanic girls. No differences were detected in sexual assault victimization based on acculturation. PMID:17478674

  10. Parent-Child Communication and Adolescents' Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Terri D.; Pollack, Robert H.

    Although the benefits of sex education are often questioned, numerous studies have shown that the more knowledgeable a person is about sexuality, the less likely he or she is to engage in early sexual activities. To compare the differences in sexual knowledge, attitudes, and contraceptive choice between those adolescents who talk to their parents…

  11. Sexuality Education for Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullis, Christopher A.; Zangrillo, Amanda N.

    2013-01-01

    As people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) mature from adolescents into adults, social deficits may become more pronounced and apparent in new areas (e.g., social functioning and sexuality). Like neurotypicals, sexuality may be directly related to quality of life for people with ASD. Current practice for addressing sexuality in the ASD…

  12. Rethinking Adolescent Peer Sexual Harassment: Contributions of Feminist Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, Nicole E.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an integrative review of the literature on adolescent sexual harassment and highlights potential contributions of feminist theory for research. Although developmental theories for studying sexual harassment are useful in their own right, the discussion focuses on how they fail to address the ways in which sexual harassment…

  13. Child Sexual Abuse and Adolescent Prostitution: A Comparative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seng, Magnus J.

    1989-01-01

    Explored relationship between sexual abuse and adolescent prostitution by comparing 70 sexually abused children with 35 prostitution-involved children on 22 variables. Findings suggest that relationship is not direct, but involves runaway behavior as intervening variable. Concludes that it is not so much sexual abuse that leads to prostitution, as…

  14. 14 and Younger: The Sexual Behavior of Young Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Bill, Ed.; Brown, Sarah, Ed.; Flanigan, Christine M., Ed.

    This collection of papers on early adolescent sexual behavior includes seven papers in two parts. Part 1, "Papers from Nationally Representative Data Sets," includes (1) "Dating and Sexual Experiences among Middle School Youth: Analyses of the NLSY97" (Elizabeth Terry-Humen and Jennifer Manlove); "(2) "Dating Behavior and Sexual Activity of Young…

  15. Assessment and Treatment of Sexually Abused Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, H. Elizabeth; And Others

    These papers on child and adolescent sexual abuse address the psychological consequences, psychological assessment techniques, and clinical issues in group therapy with sexually abused girls. In the first paper. H. Elizabeth King discusses the psychological consequences of sexual assault and incest on minors particularly in regard to family…

  16. Sexual harassment victimization in adolescence: Associations with family background.

    PubMed

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Fröjd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri

    2016-06-01

    Sexual harassment has been studies as a mechanism reproducing inequality between sexes, as gender based discrimination, and more recently, as a public health problem. The role of family-related factors for subjection to sexual harassment in adolescent has been little studied. Our aim was to study the role of socio-demographic family factors and parental involvement in adolescent's persona life for experiences of sexual harassment among 14-18-year-old population girls and boys. An anonymous cross-sectional classroom survey was carried out in comprehensive and secondary schools in Finland. 90953 boys and 91746 girls aged 14-18 participated. Sexual harassment was elicited with five questions. Family structure, parental education, parental unemployment and parental involvement as perceived by the adolescent were elicited. The data were analyzed using cross-tabulations with chi-square statistics and logistic regressions. All types of sexual harassment experiences elicited were more common among girls than among boys. Parental unemployment, not living with both parents and low parental education were associated with higher likelihood of reporting experiences of sexual harassment, and parental involvement in the adolescent's personal life was associated with less reported sexual harassment. Parental involvement in an adolescent's life may be protective of perceived sexual harassment. Adolescents from socio-economically disadvantaged families are more vulnerable to sexual harassment than their more advantaged peers. PMID:27131452

  17. Perceptions of Child Support and Sexual Activity of Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chien-Chung; Han, Wen-Jui

    2004-01-01

    Using the 1995 new cohort of the National Survey of Adolescent Males, this paper examines the association between perceptions of child support and adolescent males' sexual activity. The results indicate that adolescent males who expect the chance of being required to pay child support is high if one becomes a non-resident father or who has a…

  18. The Prevalence of Sexual Abuse among Adolescents in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saewyc, Elizabeth M.; Pettingell, Sandra; Magee, Lara L.

    2003-01-01

    Sexual abuse is a profound stressor that complicates the development and health of adolescents, yet its prevalence has been difficult to estimate among adolescents in school populations. This study explored the prevalence of both incest and nonfamily abuse in 2 cohorts of adolescents in Minnesota in the 1990s (1992: N = 77,374; 1998: N = 81,247).…

  19. Sexuality-Related Outcomes of Adolescent Children of Teen Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshbaugh, Elaine M.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between being an adolescent child of a teen mother and sexuality-related outcomes was investigated using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Adolescents whose mothers were teenagers at first birth were more likely to have had sex by age 16 than other adolescents. Gender moderated this effect, as this relationship…

  20. Intervening on Conflict, Parental Bonds, and Sexual Risk Acts among Adolescent Children of Mothers Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Stein, Judith A.; Rice, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Objective In 1993–1994, a psychosocial intervention conducted in New York City significantly improved outcomes for parents living with HIV and their adolescent children over six years. We examine if the intervention benefits are similar for adolescents of mothers living with HIV (MLH) in 2004–2005 in Los Angeles when MLH’s survival had increased substantially. Methods Adolescents of MLH in Los Angeles (N = 256) aged 12–20 years old were randomized with their MLH to either: 1) a standard care condition (n = 120 adolescent-MLH dyads); or 2) an intervention condition consisting of small group activities to build coping skills (n = 136 adolescent-MLH dyads, 78% attended the intervention). At 18 months, 94.7% of adolescents were reassessed. Longitudinal structural equation modeling examined if intervention participation impacted adolescents’ relationships with parents and their sexual risk behaviors. Results Compared to the standard care, adolescents in the intervention condition reported significantly more positive family bonds 18 months later. Greater participation by MLH predicted fewer family conflicts, and was indirectly associated with less adolescent sexual risk behavior at the 18 month follow-up assessment. Anticipated developmental patterns were observed - sexual risk acts increased with age. Reports were also consistent with anticipated gender roles; girls reported better bonds with their mothers at 18 months, compared to boys. Conclusions Adolescents of MLH have better bonds with their mothers as a function of participating in a coping skills intervention and reduced sexual risk-taking as a function of MLH intervention involvement. PMID:25010119

  1. Using the Integrative Model to Explain How Exposure to Sexual Media Content Influences Adolescent Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleakley, Amy; Hennessy, Michael; Fishbein, Martin; Jordan, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Published research demonstrates an association between exposure to media sexual content and a variety of sex-related outcomes for adolescents. What is not known is the mechanism through which sexual content produces this "media effect" on adolescent beliefs, attitudes, and behavior. Using the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction, this…

  2. The Developmental Association of Sexual Self-Concept with Sexual Behavior among Adolescent Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensel, Devon J.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; O'Sullivan, Lucia F.; Orr, Donald P.

    2011-01-01

    Developing a sexual self-concept is an important developmental task of adolescence; however, little empirical evidence describes this development, nor how these changes are related to development in sexual behavior. Using longitudinal cohort data from adolescent women, we invoked latent growth curve analysis to: (1) examine reciprocal development…

  3. Influences on Sexual Partnering Among African American Adolescents With Concurrent Sexual Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Sarah J.; Bangi, Audrey; Sheon, Nicolas; Harper, Gary W.; Catania, Joseph A.; Richards, Kimberly A. M.; Dolcini, M. Margaret; Boyer, Cherrie B.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents often engage in concurrent sexual partnerships as part of a developmental process of gaining experience with sexuality. The authors qualitatively examined patterns of concurrency and variation in normative and motivational influences on this pattern of sexual partnering among African American adolescents (31 males; 20 females), ages 15 to 17 years. Using content analysis, gender and contextual differences in social norms and motivations for concurrency were explored. Findings describe the normative influences on adolescent males and females with regard to sexual concurrency and the transfer of these norms from one generation to the next. PMID:22505843

  4. Sexually Explicit Internet Material and Adolescents' Sexual Uncertainty: The Role of Disposition-Content Congruency.

    PubMed

    van Oosten, Johanna M F

    2016-05-01

    Previous research has suggested that adolescents' exposure to sexually explicit internet material (SEIM) may result in sexual uncertainty because the content of SEIM may conflict with what adolescents have learned about sex. However, research on which type of adolescent is most susceptible to the relation between SEIM use and sexual uncertainty is lacking. This study therefore investigated whether the relationship between SEIM use and sexual uncertainty depends on within-gender differences in sexual dispositions (i.e., impersonal sex orientation and hypergendered orientation). Using data from a representative two-wave panel survey among 1765 Dutch adolescents (aged 13-17), I found that SEIM use predicted sexual uncertainty only among girls with a low hypergendered orientation and girls with a relatively high impersonal sex orientation. PMID:26373650

  5. "Sexuality? A million things come to mind": reflections on gender and sexuality by Chilean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Macintyre, Anna K-J; Montero Vega, Adela R; Sagbakken, Mette

    2015-11-01

    Although Chile is a traditionally conservative country, considerable legal advances in sexual and reproductive rights over the past decade have brought discourses on sexuality into mainstream political, social and media agendas. In light of these changes it is important to explore how adolescents conceptualize sexuality, which in turn influences their understanding of sexual rights. This study is based on four focus group discussions and 20 semi-structured interviews with adolescents, and seven interviews with key informants in Santiago, Chile. Findings indicate that adolescent conceptualizations of sexuality are diverse, often expressed as attitudes or observations of their social context, and primarily shaped by peers, parents and teachers. Attitudes towards individuals with non-heterosexual orientations ranged from support to rejection, and conceptualizations of sexual diversity were also influenced by media, medicalization and biological explanations. Gender differences in sexual expression were described through gendered language and behaviour, in particular observations of gender stereotypes, censored female sexuality and discourses highlighting female risk. Many adolescents described social change towards greater equality regarding gender and sexuality. To optimize this change and help bridge the gap between legal and social recognition of sexual rights, adolescents should be encouraged to reflect critically on issues of gender equality and sexual diversity in Chile. PMID:26719000

  6. Examining the Development and Sexual Behavior of Adolescent Males

    PubMed Central

    Ott, Mary A.

    2010-01-01

    A careful examination of young men's sexuality by health professionals in pediatrics, primary care and reproductive health is foundational to adolescent male sexual health and healthy development. Through a review of existing literature, this article provides background and a developmental framework for sexual health services for adolescent boys. The article first defines and provides an overview of adolescent boys’ sexual health, and then discusses developmentally focused research on the following topics: (1) early romantic relationships and the evolution of power and influence within these relationships; (2) developmental “readiness” for sex and curiosity; (3) boys’ need for closeness and intimacy; (4) adopting codes of masculinity; (5) boys’ communicating about sex; and (6) contextual influences from peers, families, and providers. This article concludes by examining the implications of these data for sexual health promotion efforts for adolescent males, including HPV vaccination. PMID:20307842

  7. Issues and dynamics of sexually assaulted adolescents and their families.

    PubMed

    Clements, Paul T; Speck, Patricia M; Crane, Patricia A; Faulkner, Martha J

    2004-12-01

    Interpersonal violence such as sexual assault creates a variety of traumatic responses. Adolescents encounter a significantly high rate of exposure to sexual assault. In the aftermath of sexual assault, issues and dynamics related to traumatic responses include ongoing fear and threats to personal safety, stability, and structure of the family and environment. Each issue is of concern for community and health care practitioners. Sexual assault has a detrimental effect on adolescent intrapsychic development and interpersonal relationships. Symptoms are disturbing and disruptive to daily routines, negatively affect adolescent normal growth and development, and can result in post-traumatic stress disorder. Issues and dynamics regarding sexual assault are explored, with suggestions on how to help adolescents avoid developing a negative world view and long-term negative health consequences. PMID:15660596

  8. The prevalence of sexual abuse among adolescents in school.

    PubMed

    Saewyc, Elizabeth M; Pettingell, Sandra; Magee, Lara L

    2003-10-01

    Sexual abuse is a profound stressor that complicates the development and health of adolescents, yet its prevalence has been difficult to estimate among adolescents in school populations. This study explored the prevalence of both incest and nonfamily abuse in 2 cohorts of adolescents in Minnesota in the 1990s (1992: N = 77374; 1998: N = 81247). Findings indicate that sexual abuse was reported by both boys and girls and among students of all ethnic groups. Approximately 10% of adolescents reported sexual abuse in each cohort, with girls 5 times more likely to report abuse than boys. Ethnic variation was minor, with African American, Native American, and Hispanic teens slightly more likely to report abuse than White or Asian American youth. School nurses should routinely assess for a history of sexual abuse in adolescents and should be prepared to provide support and referral for abused students and their families. PMID:14498771

  9. Handbook for Educating on Adolescent Reproductive and Sexual Health. Book One, Understanding the Adolescents and Their Reproductive and Sexual Health: Guide to Better Educational Strategies [and] Book Two, Strategies and Materials on Adolescent Reproductive and Sexual Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Clearing House on Population Education and Communication.

    This two-part handbook presents information on educating adolescents about reproductive and sexual health issues. "Book One, Understanding the Adolescents and Their Reproductive and Sexual Health: Guide to Better Educational Strategies" focuses on the demographic profile of adolescents as well as their fertility, sexual behavior, incidence of…

  10. A Study on the Effect of a Program Teaching Healthy Sexuality Values on Adolescent Sexual Awareness and Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Sang Huy

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the effectiveness of a program teaching healthy sexuality values on adolescent sexual awareness and sexual behavior. For this study, the present researcher, along with two other professors, developed a 4-h program on 4 different subjects, and conducted the full education program through four different 4-h…

  11. THE SEXUAL DOUBLE STANDARD AND ADOLESCENT PEER ACCEPTANCE.

    PubMed

    Kreager, Derek A; Staff, Jeremy

    2009-06-01

    The belief that women and men are held to different standards of sexual conduct is pervasive in contemporary American society. According to the sexual double standard, boys and men are rewarded and praised for heterosexual sexual contacts, whereas girls and women are derogated and stigmatized for similar behaviors. Although widely held by the general public, research findings on the sexual double standard remain equivocal, with qualitative studies and early attitudinal surveys generally finding evidence of the double standard and more recent experimental vignette designs often failing to find similar results. In this study, we extend prior research by directly measuring the social status of sexually permissive youth. We use data collected from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to relate adolescents' self-reported numbers of sexual partners to a network measure of peer acceptance. Results suggest that the association between lifetime sexual partnerships and peer status varies significantly by gender, such that greater numbers of sexual partners are positively correlated with boys' peer acceptance, but negatively correlated with girls' peer acceptance. Moreover, the relationship between boys' sexual behaviors and peer acceptance is moderated by socioeconomic origins; sexually permissive boys from disadvantaged backgrounds are predicted to have more friendships than permissive boys from more advantaged backgrounds. Our results thus support the existence of an adolescent sexual double standard and suggest that sexual norms vary by both gender and socioeconomic origins. PMID:25484478

  12. Beyond Controversies: Sexuality Education for Adolescents in India

    PubMed Central

    Khubchandani, Jagdish; Clark, Jeffrey; Kumar, Raman

    2014-01-01

    Sexuality education for adolescents is one of the most controversial topics in the field of child health. In the past decade, policymakers in India have also struggled with the issue and there has been greater public discourse. However, policymaking and public discussions on adolescent sexuality education are frequently fueled by religious, social, and cultural values, while receiving scant scientific attention. To meet the needs of an expanding young population in India, scientific evidence for best practices must be kept at the core of policymaking in the context of sexuality education for adolescents. PMID:25374847

  13. Examining links between sexual risk behaviors and dating violence involvement as a function of sexual orientation

    PubMed Central

    Hipwell, A.E.; Stepp, S.D.; Keenan, K.; Allen, A.; Hoffmann, A.; Rottingen, L.; McAloon, R.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objective To examine the association between dating violence perpetration and victimization and sexually risky behaviors among sexual minority and heterosexual adolescent girls. Design Adolescent girls reported on sexual orientation, sexual behaviors and risk-taking, and their use of and experience with dating violence in the past year. Data were analyzed using multinomial regression adjusted for race, poverty, living in a single parent household, and gender of current partner to examine (1) whether sexual minority status was associated with sexual risk behaviors after sociodemographic correlates of sexual risk were controlled; and (2) whether dating violence context accounted for elevated risk. Setting Urban, population-based sample of girls interviewed in the home. Participants 1,647 adolescent girls (38% European American, 57% African American, and 5% other) aged 17 years. Over one third of the sample lived in poverty. Interventions None. Main Outcome Measure Sexual risk-taking. Results Sexual minority status differentiated girls engaging in high sexual risk-taking from those reporting none, after controlling for sociodemographic and relationship characteristics. Dating violence perpetration and victimization made unique additional contributions to this model, and did not account for the elevated risk conferred by sexual minority status. Conclusions Sexual minority girls (SMGs) were more likely than heterosexual girls to report high sexual risk-taking and teen dating violence victimization. As with heterosexual girls, sexual risk-taking among SMGs was compounded by dating violence, which was not explained by partner gender. Adolescent girls’ risky sexual behavior may be reduced by interventions for teen dating violence regardless of sexual minority status. PMID:23726138

  14. Time Out from Sex or Romance: Sexually Experienced Adolescents' Decisions to Purposefully Avoid Sexual Activity or Romantic Relationships.

    PubMed

    Byers, E Sandra; O'Sullivan, Lucia F; Brotto, Lori A

    2016-05-01

    Researchers have given significant attention to abstinence among adolescents, but far less is known about purposeful avoidance of sexual activity (and relationship involvement). Typically, it is assumed that, once adolescents have initiated sexual activity, they will thereafter engage in sexual activity if given the opportunity. However, it is unclear whether that is true as some research indicates that many adolescents engage in sexual activity intermittently. Sexually experienced adolescents may purposefully avoid engaging in sexual activity for a period of time and, if so, this has implications for understanding their sexual decision-making. We used a mixed methods approach to investigate sexually experienced adolescents' decisions to purposefully avoid further sexual activity and/or romantic relationships with a focus on how common these decisions are and factors influencing them. Participants were 411 (56 % female) adolescents (16-21 years old) who completed an on-line survey that assessed reasons for each type of avoidance, religiosity, sexual esteem, sexual distress, sexual coercion, and dysfunctional sexual beliefs. Overall, 27 % of participants had engaged in sexual avoidance and 47 % had engaged in romantic avoidance. Significantly more female than male adolescents reported sexual and romantic avoidance. Adolescents' reasons for sexual avoidance included: lack of sexual pleasure or enjoyment, relationship reasons, negative emotions, values, fear of negative outcomes, negative physical experience, and other priorities. Reasons for romantic avoidance included: effects of previous relationship, not interested in commitment, wrong time, other priorities, negative emotions, no one was good enough, and sexual concerns. Logistical regressions were used to assess associations between age, religiosity, sexual esteem, sexual distress, experience of sexual coercion, and dysfunctional sexual beliefs and having engaged in romantic and/or sexual avoidance. The

  15. Addressing diversity in adolescent sexual and reproductive health services.

    PubMed

    Laski, Laura; Wong, Sylvia

    2010-07-01

    The social, economic, and biological events that mark adolescence profoundly influence and shape future adult lives. Sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services, education, and other social programs are needed to support young people for a healthy start. As adolescents transition into adulthood, SRH programs and services that have skilled health providers, in combination with other social services including comprehensive sexuality education, can help prevent unwanted pregnancies, maternal mortality and morbidity, as well as sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS. Programs and services can also provide counseling to prevent sexual violence and abuse and deal with its consequences. Adolescent SRH programs can be more effective if the demographic diversity of this age group is studied. Vulnerable adolescents should be targeted as priority recipients of youth-friendly SRH and other social support services. Data demonstrate that adolescent girls living in rural areas who are not in school and who are often married as children are vulnerable to maternal mortality and morbidity, unwanted pregnancies, unsafe abortion, HIV infection, and sexual violence and abuse. Building adolescent capacities and opportunities requires programs that support adolescent social, economic, and health assets so that they can contribute socially and economically to their societies. A healthy adolescent population is critical for low-resource countries, where a rising proportion of the population is under 24 years of age. Recommendations for strengthening the effectiveness of SRH programs detailed at the FIGO World Congress in 2009 are discussed. PMID:20423736

  16. Sexual Behavior of a Group of Normal Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offer, Daniel

    1971-01-01

    The author contends that the sexual revolution" is not yet with us. He notes that the findings stress that the majority of normal adolescent subjects move slowly in the direction of heterosexuality. (Author)

  17. Risk-taking and decision-making in youth: relationships to addiction vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Balogh, Kornelia N.; Mayes, Linda C.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Decision-making and risk-taking behavior undergo developmental changes during adolescence. Disadvantageous decision-making and increased risk-taking may lead to problematic behaviors such as substance use and abuse, pathological gambling and excessive internet use. Methods Based on MEDLINE searches, this article reviews the literature on decision-making and risk-taking and their relationship to addiction vulnerability in youth. Results Decision-making and risk-taking behaviors involve brain areas that undergoing developmental changes during puberty and young adulthood. Individual differences and peer pressure also relate importantly to decision-making and risk-taking. Conclusions Brain-based changes in emotional, motivational and cognitive processing may underlie risk-taking and decision-making propensities in adolescence, making this period a time of heightened vulnerability for engagement in additive behaviors. PMID:24294500

  18. Avoiding experiences: sexual dysfunction in women with a history of sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Staples, Jennifer; Rellini, Alessandra H; Roberts, Sarah P

    2012-04-01

    Women with a history of sexual abuse during childhood/adolescence experience a high rate of sexual dysfunction. Evidence also suggests that they often use avoidant coping strategies, such as substance abuse, dissociation, and emotional suppression, which are likely factors implicated with their psychopathology. There is a dearth of information on potential psychological mechanisms affecting the sexuality of these women. Therefore, it is relevant to investigate whether avoidance, an important cognitive mechanism associated with anxiety disorders, relates to sexual functioning in this population. In this study, participants with (N = 34) and without (N = 22) a history of sexual abuse prior to age 16 years completed questionnaires on severity of sexual abuse, sexual functioning, and a tendency to avoid experiences. A three-step hierarchical regression investigated the effects of childhood/adolescent sexual abuse and avoidance tendencies on different aspects of sexual functioning. A significant interaction between childhood/adolescent sexual abuse and avoidance tendencies was found for orgasm function, with the combination of sexual abuse and avoidance tendencies explaining lower orgasm function. These findings suggest that, for women with a history of early sexual abuse, the tendency to avoid interpersonal closeness and avoid emotional involvement predicts orgasm functioning. PMID:21667232

  19. Adolescent Male Peer Sexual Abuse: An Issue Often Neglected

    PubMed Central

    Banwari, Girish H.

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, sexual abuse is under-reported and under-recognized when the victims are boys. A study carried out by the Government of India in 2007 suggests that every second child/adolescent in the country faces some form of sexual abuse and it is nearly equally prevalent in both sexes. The significance of the problem is undermined all the more when the abuse is perpetrated by a peer. Sexual activity between children and adolescents that occurs without consent or as a result of coercion is tantamount to abuse. A majority of the victims do not disclose the occurrence to anyone. This often neglected issue of adolescent male peer sexual abuse in a sexually conservative country like India is highlighted and discussed through this case, which came to light only after the victim developed a venereal disease. PMID:24379502

  20. Social contagion and adolescent sexual behavior: a developmental EMOSA model.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, J L; Rowe, D C

    1993-07-01

    Epidemic Models of the Onset of Social Activities (EMOSA models) describe the spread of adolescent transition behaviors (e.g., sexuality, smoking, and drinking) through an interacting adolescent network. A theory of social contagion is defined to explain how social influence affects sexual development. Contacts within a network can, with some transition rate or probability, result in an increase in level of sexual experience. Five stages of sexual development are posited. One submodel proposes a systematic progression through these stages; a competing submodel treats each as an independent process. These models are represented in sets of dynamically interacting recursive equations, which are fit to empirical prevalence data to estimate parameters. Model adjustments are substantively interpretable and can be used to test for and better understand social interaction processes that affect adolescent sexual behavior. PMID:8356187

  1. Routine Activities Preceding Adolescent Sexual Abuse of Younger Children.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Benoit; Felson, Marcus

    2016-03-01

    Adolescent abuse of younger children has long been recognized, but empirical research on the circumstances of this phenomenon is rare. This article examines how adolescent offenders find and gain access to victims, work out time alone with them, and set up or exploit settings for sexual contact. Prior researchers learned that adult sex offenders use certain routine activities to perform these tasks. The current research inquires whether adolescent offenders are similar. We administered Kaufman's Modus Operandi Questionnaire to a sample of 116 Canadian adolescent males undergoing treatment for a sexual offense against a child. Adolescent offenders follow routines similar to adults but are better able to use games and activities as a prelude to sexual abuse. We discuss how routine legal activities set the stage for activities and should be considered when devising situational prevention strategies. PMID:25060598

  2. The Drinkers Degree: Risk Taking Behaviours amongst Undergraduate Student Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Gillian; Martin, Neil; Birch, Jennifer; Oldam, Alison; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To examine risk taking behaviours associated with alcohol consumption amongst UK undergraduate students. Design and Methods. A cross-sectional web survey was used to assess attitudes and health behaviours. The survey included the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Students were also asked about why they drank alcohol; about their preferred alcoholic beverage; and if they had experienced any consequences associated with drinking alcohol as well as questions relating to sexual risk taking, drug use, and smoking. Results. 2779 (65% female; 84% White British) students completed some part of the survey. Of these, 98% (n = 2711) completed the AUDIT. Of the 92% that drank 66% (n = 1,643) were categorised as being AUDIT positive. 8% (n = 224) were categorised as probably alcohol dependent. Higher AUDIT scores were significantly associated with negative consequences such as unplanned sexual activity, physical injuries, and arguments. Other risk taking behaviours such as drug use and smoking were also found to be positively correlated with higher AUDIT scores; drug use; and smoking. Conclusions. The results from this study provide insight into students' alcohol consumption and associated risk taking. University policies need to protect students' overall health and wellbeing to ensure academic potential is maximised. PMID:26713168

  3. THE SEXUAL DOUBLE STANDARD AND ADOLESCENT PEER ACCEPTANCE*

    PubMed Central

    Kreager, Derek A.; Staff, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    The belief that women and men are held to different standards of sexual conduct is pervasive in contemporary American society. According to the sexual double standard, boys and men are rewarded and praised for heterosexual sexual contacts, whereas girls and women are derogated and stigmatized for similar behaviors. Although widely held by the general public, research findings on the sexual double standard remain equivocal, with qualitative studies and early attitudinal surveys generally finding evidence of the double standard and more recent experimental vignette designs often failing to find similar results. In this study, we extend prior research by directly measuring the social status of sexually permissive youth. We use data collected from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to relate adolescents’ self-reported numbers of sexual partners to a network measure of peer acceptance. Results suggest that the association between lifetime sexual partnerships and peer status varies significantly by gender, such that greater numbers of sexual partners are positively correlated with boys’ peer acceptance, but negatively correlated with girls’ peer acceptance. Moreover, the relationship between boys’ sexual behaviors and peer acceptance is moderated by socioeconomic origins; sexually permissive boys from disadvantaged backgrounds are predicted to have more friendships than permissive boys from more advantaged backgrounds. Our results thus support the existence of an adolescent sexual double standard and suggest that sexual norms vary by both gender and socioeconomic origins. PMID:25484478

  4. Pathways to Adolescent Substance Use among Sexually Abused Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Jennifer A.; McCloskey, Laura Ann

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the link between childhood sexual abuse and adolescent substance use among girls, and evaluated depressive self-concept and behavioral under-control (BUC) as pathways to substance use for sexually abused girls. Participants (n = 150) were drawn from a longitudinal study of the impact of domestic violence on the lives of women…

  5. A Curriculum for Teaching Human Sexuality to Mentally Impaired Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinckey, David Jason

    Presented is a developmentally sequenced curriculum designed for teaching human sexuality to mentally impaired adolescents. A brief objective is presented, teaching methods are listed, and materials needed are described (in terms of author, title, source, and price) for each of the following topic areas: vocabulary of sexuality; fact vs. myths;…

  6. Sexually Abstinent Adolescents: An 18-Month Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blinn-Pike, Lynn; Berger, Thomas J.; Hewett, John; Oleson, Jacob

    2004-01-01

    This study was a longitudinal follow-up of 697 early adolescents from 20 schools in Missouri, investigating students who, in 1997, indicated on a survey of sexual attitudes and behaviors that they had not had sexual intercourse. They completed the Reasons for Abstinence Scale (RAS) by identifying those items that were reasons why they had not had…

  7. Are Teens "Post-Gay"? Contemporary Adolescents' Sexual Identity Labels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Stephen T.; Clarke, Thomas J.; Clary, Justin

    2009-01-01

    Recent reports suggest that historically typical sexual identity labels--"gay," "lesbian" and "bisexual"--have lost meaning and relevance for contemporary adolescents. Yet there is little empirical evidence that contemporary teenagers are "post-gay." In this brief study we investigate youths' sexual identity labels. The Preventing School…

  8. Does Sex Education Affect Adolescent Sexual Behaviors and Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabia, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether offering sex education to young teenagers affects several measures of adolescent sexual behavior and health: virginity status, contraceptive use, frequency of intercourse, likelihood of pregnancy, and probability of contracting a sexually transmitted disease. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent…

  9. Constrained Choices: Adolescents Speak on Sexuality in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Bayer, Angela M.; Tsui, Amy O.; Hindin, Michelle J.

    2011-01-01

    While numerous studies have explored adolescent sexual behavior in Peru, to date, none have explored how adolescents situate sexuality within the context of their broader lives. This information is needed to inform policies and programs. Life history interviews were conducted with 20 12–17 year-old females and males from a low-income settlement near Lima, Peru. Data were analyzed using holistic content analysis and grounded theory. Sexuality had a strong presence in adolescents’ lives. However, adolescents viewed the complete expression of their sexuality as a constrained choice. Constraints are due to the belief that sexual intercourse always results in pregnancy; the nature of sex education; the provision of proscriptive advice; and the family tensions, economic problems, racism and violence present in adolescents’ lives. Social and cultural factors seem to surpass and often suppress the physical and psychological dimensions of adolescents’ sexuality. The results of this study can inform policies and programs to support adolescents as they construct their sexuality and make sexuality-related decisions. PMID:20526920

  10. Correlates of recidivism among adolescents who have sexually offended.

    PubMed

    Carpentier, Julie; Proulx, Jean

    2011-12-01

    The present study investigates the recidivism rates of a sample of 351 male adolescents who sexually offended, and were assessed at an outpatient psychiatric clinic in Montreal, Canada, between 1992 and 2002. The mean age of the participants was 15.8 years (SD=1.8). Data on adolescent and adult recidivism were collected in Summer 2005 from official criminality sources in Canada. Over an 8-year follow-up period, 45% (n=158) of the participants were charged with a new criminal offense, 30% (n=104) were charged with a violent offense, and 10% (n=36) were charged with a sexual offense. Cox regression results suggest that overall, violent, and sexual recidivism can be predicted by a variety of developmental, social, and criminological factors. Paternal abandonment, childhood sexual victimization, association with significantly younger children, and having victimized a stranger were associated with a higher risk of sexual recidivism. Previous delinquency, attention deficit disorder, and childhood sexual victimization were found to increase the risk for both violent and overall recidivism. Also, the use of violence during a sex crime and victimizing a stranger were associated with violent recidivism, and school delay and association with delinquent peers were predictive of overall recidivism. The results confirm that a significant proportion of adolescents who have sexually offended pursue a criminal activity beyond adolescence, although few specialize in sexual offending. PMID:21960517

  11. Sexual Harassment and Abuse of Adolescent Schoolgirls in South India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Fiona; Sitaram, Shashikala

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on a small exploratory study of adolescent girls' experiences of sexual harassment and abuse while attending secondary school in Karnataka State, South India. In South Asia, public discussion of sexual matters, especially relating to children, is largely taboo, and the study uncovers a hidden aspect of schooling, which…

  12. Affective and Deliberative Processes in Risky Choice: Age Differences in Risk Taking in the Columbia Card Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figner, Bernd; Mackinlay, Rachael J.; Wilkening, Friedrich; Weber, Elke U.

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated risk taking and underlying information use in 13- to 16- and 17- to 19-year-old adolescents and in adults in 4 experiments, using a novel dynamic risk-taking task, the Columbia Card Task (CCT). The authors investigated risk taking under differential involvement of affective versus deliberative processes with 2 versions of…

  13. Romantic and Sexual Activities, Parent-Adolescent Stress, and Depressive Symptoms among Early Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davila, Joanne; Stroud, Catherine B.; Starr, Lisa R.; Miller, Melissa Ramsay; Yoneda, Athena; Hershenberg, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Building on evidence that romantic experiences are associated with depressive symptoms in adolescence, we examined their bidirectional association, as well as the role of sexual activity and parent-adolescent stress in their association. Data were collected from 71 early adolescent girls (M age 13.45 years; SD = 0.68) and their primary caregiver…

  14. Current Evolutionary Perspectives on Adolescent Romantic Relations and Sexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisfeld, Glenn E.; Woodward, Laura

    2004-01-01

    This article describes current evolutionary research on adolescent sexual and romantic behavior. It first reviews functional explanations for basic sex differences in behavior. As in other pair-bonding mammals, women seek dominant males, and men seek and guard young, fertile females. Recent work is then described on adolescent competitiveness,…

  15. Adolescent sexuality: promoting the search for hidden values.

    PubMed

    DiBlasio, F A

    1989-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy and AIDS, and their implications for health risk, warrant a reexamination of professional values of child welfare workers toward adolescent sexuality. This article presents an exercise designed to assist practitioners in understanding the hidden values that influence intervention. PMID:2721295

  16. "Cuidate Sin Pena": Mexican Mother-Adolescent Sexuality Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moncloa, Fe; Wilkinson-Lee, Ada M.; Russell, Stephen T.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores perceptions of Mexican mother-adolescent communication about sexuality. Participants interviewed included four mother-expecting son pairs and four mother-pregnant daughter pairs. Our interviews revealed important adolescent gender differences. Pena (shame/embarrassment) played a major role vis-a-vis indirect communication about…

  17. Rural Mexican-American Adolescent Sexual Risk Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Kelly, Pat; Shain, Rochelle N.; Piper, Jeanna M.

    2004-01-01

    There is a need for community-based, culturally sensitive, cognitive-behavioral interventions to reduce sexual risk behavior among minority adolescents. Studies of adolescent risk and protective behaviors have focused on identifying modifiable psychosocial variables that predict differential outcomes for subsequent intervention efforts. Research…

  18. Estimating Peer Effects in Sexual Behavior among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Mir M.; Dwyer, Debra S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we seek to empirically quantify the role of peer social networks in influencing sexual behavior among adolescents. Using data of a nationally representative sample of adolescents we utilize a multivariate structural model with school-level fixed effects to account for the problems of contextual effects, correlated effects and peer…

  19. Mothers, Fathers, Peers, and Mexican-Origin Adolescents' Sexual Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killoren, Sarah E.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Christopher, F. Scott; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on a symbolic-interaction perspective and a compensation model, the processes linking mother- and father-adolescent relationship qualities, deviant peer affiliations, and adolescents' sexual intentions were investigated for 246 Mexican-origin youths born in the United States and in Mexico using multiple-group structural equation models.…

  20. Children and adolescents as sexual beings: cross-cultural perspectives.

    PubMed

    Nieto, José A

    2004-07-01

    This article offers a broad perspective on child and adolescent behaviors, which are seen by different Western definitions as associated with sexual/erotic implications. This article also demonstrates that basic definitions or meanings that many modern Western societies consider important are viewed as unimportant in other societies. Topics such as masturbation, child-adult sexual activities or cross-generational marriages, same-sex activities, and sexual indoctrination are viewed differently among many groups. PMID:15183368

  1. Differences between sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers: developmental antecedents and behavioral comparisons.

    PubMed

    Burton, David L; Duty, Kerry Jo; Leibowitz, George S

    2011-01-01

    This study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers on a number of variables. Self-report measures were administered to 325 male sexually abusive youth (average age 16) in six residential facilities in the Midwest, 55% of whom reported sexual victimization. The results indicate that the sexually victimized sexual abusers have more severe developmental antecedents (trauma, family characteristics, early exposure to pornography and personality) and recent behavioral difficulties (characteristics of sexual aggression, sexual arousal, use of pornography, and nonsexual criminal behavior) than the nonsexually victimized group. Results are contrasted with recent typological research, which found no relationship between sexual victimization and subtype membership. Treatment, research, and theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:21259148

  2. A Multidimensional Model of Sexual Health and Sexual and Prevention Behavior Among Adolescent Women

    PubMed Central

    Hensel, Devon J.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Sexual health refers a state of lifespan well-being related to sexuality. Among young people, sexual health has multiple dimensions, including the positive developmental contributions of sexuality, as well as the acquisition of skills pertinent to avoiding adverse sexual outcomes such as unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Existing efforts to understand sexual health, however, have yet to empirically operationalize a multi-dimensional model of sexual health and to evaluate its association to different sexual/prevention behaviors. Methods Sexual health dimensions and sexual/prevention behaviors were drawn from a larger longitudinal cohort study of sexual relationships among adolescent women (N =387, 14–17 years). Second order latent variable modeling (AMOS/19.0) evaluated the relationship between sexual health and dimensions and analyzed the effect of sexual health to sexual/prevention outcomes. Results All first order latent variables were significant indicators of sexual health (β: 0.192 – 0.874, all p < .001). Greater sexual health was significantly associated with sexual abstinence, as well as with more frequent non-coital and vaginal sex, condom use at last sex, a higher proportion of condom-protected events, use of hormonal or other methods of pregnancy control and absence of STI. All models showed good fit. Conclusions Sexual health is an empirically coherent structure, in which the totality of its dimensions is significantly linked to a wide range of outcomes, including sexual abstinence, condom use and absence of STI. This means that, regardless of a young person’s experiences, sexual health is an important construct for promoting positive sexual development and for primary prevention. PMID:23332488

  3. Sexual Orientation and Substance Use Among Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tillman, Kathryn Harker

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined interrelationships among the 3 dimensions of sexual orientation—self-identity, sexual attraction, and sexual experience—and their associations with substance use among adolescents and young adults. Methods. To estimate total and net associations of sexual identity, attraction, and experience with use of tobacco, drugs, and alcohol, we applied logistic regression to cross-sectional data from the National Survey of Family Growth Cycle 6. Results. We found a lack of concordance among the different dimensions of sexual orientation. More youths reported same-gender sexual attraction and same-gender sexual experiences than identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual. Estimates of substance use prevalence differed significantly by gender and across dimensions of sexual orientation. Sexual experience was the most consistent predictor of substance use. Women and men with no sexual experience had the lowest odds of all forms of substance use; those reporting sexual experience with partners of both genders had the highest odds. Conclusions. Our findings indicate that sexual identity was less strongly associated with substance use than sexual experience and attraction were, pointing to the need for more nuanced indicators of sexual orientation in public health studies. PMID:22021322

  4. Are Tattooing and Body Piercing Indicators of Risk-Taking Behaviours among High School Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deschesnes, Marthe; Fines, Phillipe; Demers, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To date, studies pertaining to possible links between body modification and risk-taking behaviours have been conducted mainly among targeted groups. The objective of this study is to examine the influence of a number of risk-taking behaviours on the probability of being pierced or tattooed among a general adolescent population. Methods:…

  5. Differential developmental profiles of adolescents using sexually explicit internet material.

    PubMed

    Doornwaard, Suzan M; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Overbeek, Geertjan; ter Bogt, Tom F M

    2015-01-01

    This study used a person-centered approach to examine whether different developmental trajectories of boys' and girls' use of sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) exist, which factors predict these trajectories, and whether sexual behavior develops differently for adolescents in these trajectories. A combination of latent class growth analysis on SEIM use and latent growth curve analysis on sexual behavior was used on four-wave longitudinal data of 787 eighth through tenth grade Dutch adolescents. Among boys, four SEIM use trajectories were identified, which were labeled Nonuse/Infrequent Use, Strongly Increasing Use, Occasional Use, and Decreasing Use. Among girls, a large Stable Nonuse/Infrequent Use and smaller Strongly Increasing Use and Stable Occasional Use trajectories were distinguished. Higher initial levels and/or stronger increases in SEIM use were predicted by demographic, social contextual, personal, and media use characteristics, including a stronger sexual interest, a higher degree of perceived realism regarding sexualized Internet content, and more permissive sexual attitudes. Moreover, initial levels of and, to some extent, developmental changes in sexual behavior varied for boys and girls in the different SEIM use trajectories. Whereas some adolescents showed concurrent low levels, or parallel strong increases in SEIM use and sexual behavior, a subgroup of boys decreased their SEIM use while increasing their sexual behavior. PMID:24670248

  6. Risky Sexual Behavior in Adolescent Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    PubMed Central

    Klosky, James L.; Foster, Rebecca H.; Li, Zhenghong; Peasant, Courtney; Howell, Carrie; Mertens, Ann C.; Robison, Leslie L.; Ness, Kirsten K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify correlates of risky sexual behavior among adolescents surviving childhood cancer. Methods The Child Health and Illness Profile - Adolescent Edition (CHIP-AE) was completed by 307 survivors of childhood cancer aged 15–20 years (M age at diagnosis 1.53 years; range 0–3.76). Univariate analyses were performed using Chi-square and Fischer’s exact tests, and multivariable logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals for risky sexual behaviors. Results Diagnosis of central nervous system cancer (OR =.13, 95% CI: .02–.96, p<.05), no history of beer/wine consumption (OR =.20, CI: .06–.68, p =.01), and fewer negative peer influences (OR =.28, CI: .09–.84, p =.02) associated with decreased likelihood of sexual intercourse. Good psychological health (scores ≥ −1.5 SD on the CHIP-AE Emotional Discomfort scale) associated with decreased risk of early intercourse (OR =.19, CI: .05–.77, p= .02), whereas high parental education (≥ college degree) associated with decreased risk of multiple lifetime sexual partners (OR =.25, CI: .09–.72, p =.01). Increased time from diagnosis (OR =.27, CI: .10–.78, p = .02) and psychological health (OR =.09, CI: .02–.36, p < .01) associated with decreased risk of unprotected sex at last intercourse, whereas high parent education associated with increased risk (OR = 4.27, CI: 1.46–12.52, p =.01). Conclusions Risky sexual behavior in adolescents surviving childhood cancer is associated with cancer type, time since diagnosis, psychological health, alcohol use, and peer influences. Consideration of these factors may provide direction for future interventions designed to reduce adolescent sexual risk-taking. PMID:24364376

  7. Multidimensional characterization of sexual minority adolescents' sexual safety strategies.

    PubMed

    Masters, N Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Morrison, Diane M; Hoppe, Marilyn J; Wells, Elizabeth A

    2013-10-01

    Young adults have high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Sexual minority youths' risk for STIs, including HIV, is as high as or higher than sexual majority peers'. Sexual safety, while often treated as a single behavior such as condom use, can be best conceptualized as the result of multiple factors. We used latent class analysis to identify profiles based on ever-used sexual safety strategies and lifetime number of partners among 425 self-identified LGBTQ youth aged 14-19. Data collection took place anonymously online. We identified four specific subgroup profiles for males and three for females, with each subgroup representing a different level and type of sexual safety. Profiles differed from each other in terms of age and outness for males, and in outness, personal homonegativity, and amount of education received about sexual/romantic relationships for females. Youths' sexual safety profiles have practice implications for sexuality educators, health care professionals, and parents. PMID:24011111

  8. What do sexually active adolescent females say about relationship issues?

    PubMed

    Bralock, Anita; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah

    2009-04-01

    Many sexually active teenagers face risk for contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV. The purpose of our study was to gain an understanding about influences on condom use among sexually active adolescents in relationships. Data were collected through semi-structured openended interviews. The findings of this study suggest that many adolescents desired the love of a male partner, and were willing to concede to his request of practicing unprotected sex. Findings support the urgent need for interventions that will promote skill-building techniques to negotiate safer sex behaviors among youth who are most likely to be exposed to STIs through risky behaviors. PMID:19268234

  9. Adolescent sexual intercourse. Strategies for promoting abstinence in teens.

    PubMed

    Kay, L E

    1995-06-01

    As sex, drugs, and rock 'n' roll have given way to STDs, HIV, and AIDS, adolescent sex has become an increasingly high-risk behavior. Dr Kay strongly believes that primary care physicians can have a prominent role in educating teens and their parents about the consequences of premature sexual activity and in promoting healthy living. In this article, he presents the case against adolescent sexual intercourse and outlines a concrete approach to dealing with adolescent patients at risk and their families. PMID:7777440

  10. Academic Risk Taking, Development, and External Constraint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Margaret M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Academic risk taking--the selection of schoollike tasks ranging in difficulty and probability of success--was examined for 602 students in grades 4, 6, and 8 in Taiwan. Results of a self-report measure of tolerance for failure and a risk-taking task are discussed concerning self-enhancement versus self-assessment goals, metacognitive skills, and…

  11. Does Anticipation Training Affect Drivers' Risk Taking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Frank P.; Horswill, Mark S.; Alexander, Jane L.

    2006-01-01

    Skill and risk taking are argued to be independent and to require different remedial programs. However, it is possible to contend that skill-based training could be associated with an increase, a decrease, or no change in risk-taking behavior. In 3 experiments, the authors examined the influence of a skill-based training program (hazard…

  12. Risk Taking Transfer in Development Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Kathy; Priest, Simon

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-seven corporate managers completed the Priest Attarian Risk Taking Inventory before and after a day of rappelling. Subjects also completed a business version of the inventory a few weeks before and a few weeks after the experience. Subjects appeared to transfer some of their new risk-taking behaviors to their jobs. (KS)

  13. Contextual influence of Taiwanese adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavioral intent.

    PubMed

    Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Neilands, Torsten B; Chan, Shu-Min; Lightfoot, Marguerita

    2016-09-01

    This study examined parental, peer, and media influences on Taiwanese adolescents' attitudes toward premarital sex and intent to engage in sexual behavior. Participants included a convenience sample of 186 adolescents aged 13-15 recruited from two middle schools in Taiwan. Parental influence was indicated by perceived parental disapproval toward premarital sex and perceived peer sexual behavior was used to measure peer influence. Media influence was measured by the adolescents' perception of whether the media promotes premarital sex. We conducted structural equation modeling to test a hypothesized model. The findings suggested that the perceived sexual behavior of peers had the strongest effect on Taiwanese adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavioral intent, while parental disapproval and media influence also significantly contributed to adolescents' sexual attitudes and intent to engage in sex. School nurses are in an ideal position to coordinate essential resources and implement evidence-based sexually transmitted infection and HIV/AIDS prevention interventions that address issues associated with the influence of parents, peers, and media. PMID:26991765

  14. Forced sexual intercourse, suicidality, and binge drinking among adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Behnken, Monic P; Le, Yen-Chi L; Temple, Jeff R; Berenson, Abbey B

    2010-05-01

    Although sexual assault victimization has been shown to predict suicidality, little is known about the mechanisms linking these two factors. Using cross-sectional data (N=6364) from the 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, binge drinking significantly mediated the relationship between forced sexual intercourse and suicide for Hispanic (n=1915) and Caucasian (n=2928) adolescent females, but not for African American adolescent females (n=1521). Results suggest the need for closer monitoring of adolescent victims of sexual assault who also abuse alcohol to intervene in early suicide behaviors. Treatment and intervention programs should also be culturally sensitive to account for differences in reaction to sexual trauma among race/ethnicity. Implications for suicide prevention and alcohol intervention strategies as well as suggestions to clinical providers are discussed. PMID:20074862

  15. Sexting and Sexual Behavior in At-Risk Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Barker, David; Rizzo, Christie; Hancock, Evan; Norton, Alicia; Brown, Larry K.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the prevalence of sexting behaviors (sexually explicit messages and/or pictures) among an at-risk sample of early adolescents as well as the associations between sexting behaviors and sexual behaviors, risk-related cognitions, and emotional regulation skills. It also aimed to determine whether differences in risk were associated with text-based versus photo-based sexts. METHODS: Seventh-grade adolescents participating in a sexual risk prevention trial for at-risk early adolescents completed a computer-based survey at baseline regarding sexting behavior (having sent sexually explicit messages and/or pictures), sexual activities, intentions to have sex, perceived approval of sexual activity, and emotional regulation skills. RESULTS: Twenty-two percent of the sample reported having sexted in the past 6 months; sexual messages were endorsed by 17% (n = 71), sexual messages and photos by 5% (n = 21). Pictures were endorsed significantly more often by females (χ2[2] = 7.33, P = .03) and Latinos (χ2[2] = 7.27, P = .03). Sexting of any kind was associated with higher rates of engaging in a variety of sexual behaviors, and sending photos was associated with higher rates of sexual activity than sending text messages only. This was true for a range of behaviors from touching genitals over clothes (odds ratio [OR] = 1.98, P = .03) to oral sex (OR = 2.66, P < .01) to vaginal sex (OR = 2.23, P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Sexting behavior (both photo and text messages) was not uncommon among middle school youth and co-occurred with sexual behavior. These data suggest that phone behaviors, even flirtatious messages, may be an indicator of risk. Clinicians, parents, and health programs should discuss sexting with early adolescents. PMID:24394678

  16. Current health issues in Korean adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    During the adolescent period, they experience rapid physical, emotional, cognitive developments while they establish their lifestyle and habitual routines that strongly influence adult health and life. Recent rapid economic growth in Korea, and the earlier onset of physical, sexual, and psychological maturation of adolescents, has resulted in changes in the health status of adolescents from many years ago. Risk-taking behaviors such as drinking alcohol, smoking, and sexual experiences are critical issues that affect the health of, adolescents. Therefore, it is important for pediatricians to note the that risk-taking behaviors of adolescents in Korea that are caused by individual psychosocial factors. This review article illustrates the current health status of Korean adolescents and provides an overview of risk-taking behaviors, to inform pediatricians about some of the key issues. PMID:22232620

  17. Adolescence, sexual behavior and risk factors to health

    PubMed Central

    de Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Gomes, Romeu; Pires, Thiago de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the relationships between sexual behavior and risk factors to physical and mental health in adolescents. METHODS Study of 3,195 pupils aged 15 to 19 in secondary education, in public and private schools in 10 state capitals in Brazil between 2007 and 2008. Multi-stage (schools and pupils) cluster sampling was used in each city and public and private educational network. All of the students selected completed a questionnaire on the following items: socioeconomic and demographic data; sexual behavior; having sex with those of the same sex, the opposite sex, or both; alcohol and cannabis use; using condoms; traumatic sexual experiences as a child or adolescent; suicidal thoughts. The analysis included describing frequencies, Chi-square test, analysis of multiple and cluster correspondence. Responses to an open ended question in which the adolescent expressed general comments about themselves and their lives were qualitatively analyzed using content analysis. RESULTS Around 3.0% of adolescents reported homosexual or bisexual behavior, with no difference according to sex, age, skin color, social status family structure or educational network. Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior, compared to their heterosexual peers, reported: (p < 0.05): getting drunk (18.7% and 10.5%, respectively), frequent cannabis use (6.1% and 2.1%, respectively), suicidal thoughts (42.5% and 18.7%, respectively), and having been the victim of sexual violence (11.7% and 1.5%; respectively). Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior reported that they used condoms less frequently (74.2%) than their heterosexual peers (48.6%, p < 0.001). In the correspondence analysis, three groups were found, one composed of adolescents with homosexual/bisexual behavior and experiencing risk factors; suffering sexual violence, never using a condom, suicidal thoughts, frequent cannabis use; another composed of occasional cannabis and condom users, who got drunk

  18. Associations between Sexually Experienced Adolescents' Sources of Information about Sex and Sexual Risk Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Secor-Turner, Molly; Sieving, Renee E.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Skay, Carol

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe prevalent informal sources of information about sex and examine associations between informal sources of information about sex and sexual risk outcomes among sexually experienced adolescents. Work involved the secondary analysis of data from the Minnesota Student Survey, a statewide survey to monitor…

  19. Attitudes, Knowledge, and Sexual Behavior of High-Risk Adolescents: Implications for Counseling and Sexuality Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melchert, Tim; Burnett, Kent F.

    1990-01-01

    Examined high-risk sexual behavior in adolescents (N=212) involved in juvenile justice system. Found that youth were at high risk for unintended pregnancy, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome and other sexually transmitted disease. Compared to national norms, sample reported very early mean age at first intercourse and high rate of pregnancy. Most…

  20. Protective and Risk Factors Associated with Adolescent Boys' Early Sexual Debut and Risky Sexual Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohman, Brenda J.; Billings, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    Protective and risk factors associated with rates of early sexual debut and risky sexual behaviors for a sample of low-income adolescent boys were examined using bioecological theory framed by a resiliency perspective. Protective processes examined include a close mother-son and father-son relationship, parental monitoring and family routines, as…

  1. Contextualising sexual harassment of adolescent girls in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Papreen; van Reeuwijk, Miranda; Reis, Ria

    2013-05-01

    Violence against women is a social mechanism confirming women's subordination in many societies. Sexual violence and harassment have various negative psychological impacts on girls, including a persistent feeling of insecurity and loss of self-esteem. This article aims to contextualize a particular form of sexual harassment, namely "eve teasing", experienced by Bangladeshi adolescent girls (12-18 years) which emerged from a study of adolescent sexual behaviour carried out by young people. The study used qualitative methods and a participatory approach, including focus group discussions, key informant interviews and observation. Despite taboos, unmarried adolescents actively seek information about sex, erotic pleasure and romance. Information was easily available from videos, mobile phone clips and pornographic magazines, but reinforced gender inequality. "Eve teasing" was one outlet for boys' sexual feelings; they gained pleasure from it and could show their masculinity. The girls disliked it and were afraid of being blamed for provoking it. Thus, "eve teasing" is a result of socio-cultural norms relating to sexuality, as well as a lack of access to sexual and reproductive health information and services in Bangladesh. These findings underscore the importance of comprehensive sexuality education that goes beyond a mere health focus and addresses gender norms and helps youth to gain social-sexual interaction skills. PMID:23684190

  2. Investing in very young adolescents' sexual and reproductive health

    PubMed Central

    Igras, Susan M.; Macieira, Marjorie; Murphy, Elaine; Lundgren, Rebecka

    2014-01-01

    Very young adolescents (VYAs) between the ages of 10 and 14 represent about half of the 1.2 billion adolescents aged 10–19 in the world today. In lower- and middle-income countries, where most unwanted pregnancies, unsafe abortions, maternal deaths and sexually transmitted infections occur, investment in positive youth development to promote sexual and reproductive health (SRH) is increasing. Most interventions, though, focus on older adolescents, overlooking VYAs. Since early adolescence marks a critical transition between childhood and older adolescence and adulthood, setting the stage for future SRH and gendered attitudes and behaviours, targeted investment in VYAs is imperative to lay foundations for healthy future relationships and positive SRH. This article advocates for such investments and identifies roles that policy-makers, donors, programme designers and researchers and evaluators can play to address the disparity. PMID:24824757

  3. Associations Between a Dopamine D4 Receptor Gene, Alcohol Use, and Sexual Behaviors among Female Adolescent African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Sales, Jessica M.; Smearman, Erica; Brown, Jennifer L.; Brody, Gene H.; Philibert, Robert A.; Rose, Eve; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent African-American females are disproportionately impacted by HIV, thus there is a clear need to understand factors associated with increased HIV-risk behaviors among this vulnerable population. We sought to explore the association between a dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4), a genetic marker associated with natural variations in rewarding behaviors, and self-reported alcohol-use and sexual risk-behaviors, while controlling for other known correlates of risk-taking such as impulsivity, sensation seeking, and peer norms among a group of high-risk African American female adolescents to evaluate whether this biological factor enhances our understanding of patterns of risk in this vulnerable group. PMID:27087792

  4. Oxytocin and vasopressin modulate risk-taking.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nilam; Grillon, Christian; Pavletic, Nevia; Rosen, Dana; Pine, Daniel S; Ernst, Monique

    2015-02-01

    The modulation of risk-taking is critical for adaptive and optimal behavior. This study examined how oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) influence risk-taking in function of three parameters: sex, risk-valence, and social context. Twenty-nine healthy adults (14 males) completed a risk-taking task, the Stunt task, both in a social-stress (evaluation by unfamiliar peers) and non-social context, in three separate drug treatment sessions. During each session, one of three drugs, OT, AVP, or placebo (PLC), was administered intra-nasally. OT and AVP relative to PLC reduced betting-rate (risk-averse effect). This risk-averse effect was further qualified: AVP reduced risk-taking in the positive risk-valence (high win-probability), and regardless of social context or sex. In contrast, OT reduced risk-taking in the negative risk-valence (low win-probability), and only in the social-stress context and men. The reduction in risk-taking might serve a role in defensive behavior. These findings extend the role of these neuromodulators to behaviors beyond the social realm. How the behavioral modulation of risk-taking maps onto the function of the neural targets of OT and AVP may be the next step in this line of research. PMID:25446228

  5. Adolescent sexuality education and sources of information.

    PubMed

    Maitra, N; Baxi, R K; Hazra, M

    1994-01-01

    A survey of 959 young females (ages 10-21 years) from India highlighted the importance of educational attainment to fertility-related behaviors. Respondents represented a spectrum of educational levels: school drop-outs (32%), primary and secondary school attendees (41%), and college students (27%). The mean age at menarche was 13.6 years. School drop-outs were most likely to have obtained information about sexuality from films and other mass media, while students cited friends and neighbors as primary sources. There was an positive association between educational level and both preferred age at marriage and intended interval from marriage to first birth. 42% of adolescents with a secondary or college education planned to marry after 23 years of age and 84% wanted to defer childbearing for at least two years after marriage. The desire for formal sex education was strong in all educational subgroups (about 62%), however. It has been estimated that postponement of the marriage age from 16 years to 20-21 years would result in a 20-30% decrease in the annual number of births in India. School-based sex education represents a feasible mechanism for helping to achieve this goal. PMID:12290542

  6. Eveningness is associated with higher risk-taking, independent of sex and personality.

    PubMed

    Ponzi, Davide; Wilson, M Claire; Maestripieri, Dario

    2014-12-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that eveningness is associated with higher risk-taking propensities across different domains of risk and that this association is not the result of sex differences or confounding covariation with particular personality traits. Study participants were 172 men and women between 20 and 40 years of age. Surveys assessed chronotype, domain-specific risk-taking and risk-perception, and Big Five personality dimensions. Eveningness was associated with greater general risk-taking in the specific domains of financial, ethical, and recreational decision making. Although risk-taking was associated with both risk perception and some personality dimensions, eveningness predicted risk-taking independent of these factors. Higher risk-taking propensities among evening types may be causally or functionally linked to their propensities for sensation- and novelty-seeking, impulsivity, and sexual promiscuity. PMID:25457099

  7. The Development of the Sexual Self-Concept Inventory for Early Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Lucia F.; Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F. L.; McKeague, Ian W.

    2006-01-01

    The Sexual Self-Concept Inventory (SSCI) was developed to assess sexual self-concept in an ethnically diverse sample of urban early adolescent girls. Three scales (Sexual Arousability, Sexual Agency, and Negative Sexual Affect) were shown to be distinct and reliable dimensions of girls' sexual self-concepts. Validity was established through…

  8. Normative Sexuality Development in Adolescence: A Decade in Review, 2000-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Deborah L.; McClelland, Sara I.

    2011-01-01

    This review details a key innovation across the field of adolescent sexuality research over the last decade--conceptualizing sexuality as a normative aspect of adolescent development. Anchored in a growing articulation of adolescent sexuality as having positive qualities and consequences, we provide an organizing framework for understanding…

  9. Sexual Abuse History and Problems in Adolescence: Exploring the Effects of Moderating Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, Tom; Small, Stephen A.

    1997-01-01

    Explores the relationship between sexual abuse and two problem outcomes in adolescents (N=42,568): binge drinking and suicidal ideation. Focused on factors related to problem behaviors among adolescents reporting sexual abuse. Results indicate that adolescents who endured sexual and physical abuse exhibited more problems than those experiencing…

  10. Engagement in Risky Sexual Behavior: Adolescents' Perceptions of Self and the Parent-Child Relationship Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerpelman, Jennifer L.; McElwain, Alyssa D.; Pittman, Joe F.; Adler-Baeder, Francesca M.

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined associations among parenting practices, adolescents' self-esteem and dating identity exploration, and adolescents' sexual behaviors. Participants were 680 African American and European American sexually experienced adolescents attending public high schools in the southeast. Results indicated that risky sexual behavior…

  11. Predicting Early Sexual Activity with Behavior Problems Exhibited at School Entry and in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schofield, Hannah-Lise T.; Bierman, Karen L.; Heinrichs, Brenda; Nix, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Youth who initiate sexual intercourse in early adolescence (age 11-14) experience multiple risks, including concurrent adjustment problems and unsafe sexual practices. The current study tested two models describing the links between childhood precursors, early adolescent risk factors, and adolescent sexual activity: a cumulative model and a…

  12. Parental Awareness of Sexual Experience in Adolescent Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewinter, J.; Vermeiren, R.; Vanwesenbeeck, I.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.

    2016-01-01

    Parent report and adolescent self-report data on lifetime sexual experience in adolescents with ASD were compared in 43 parent-adolescent dyads. Parents tended to underestimate the lifetime sexual experience of their sons, particularly solo sexual experiences such as masturbation and experience with orgasm. Parental underestimation and unawareness…

  13. Are teens "post-gay"? Contemporary adolescents' sexual identity labels.

    PubMed

    Russell, Stephen T; Clarke, Thomas J; Clary, Justin

    2009-08-01

    Recent reports suggest that historically typical sexual identity labels-"gay," "lesbian" and "bisexual"-have lost meaning and relevance for contemporary adolescents. Yet there is little empirical evidence that contemporary teenagers are "post-gay." In this brief study we investigate youths' sexual identity labels. The Preventing School Harassment survey included 2,560 California secondary school students administered over 3 years: 2003-2005. We examined adolescents' responses to a closed-ended survey question that asked for self-reports of sexual identity, including an option to write-in a response; we content analyzed the write-in responses. Results suggest that historically typical sexual identity labels are endorsed by the majority (71%) of non-heterosexual youth. Some non-heterosexual youth report that they are "questioning" (13%) their sexual identities or that they are "queer" (5%); a small proportion (9%) provided alternative labels that describe ambivalence or resistance to sexual identity labels, or fluidity in sexual identities. Our results show that lesbian, gay, and bisexual identities remain relevant for contemporary adolescents. PMID:19636733

  14. Fear, excitement, and financial risk-taking.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chan Jean; Andrade, Eduardo B

    2015-01-01

    Can fear trigger risk-taking? In this paper, we assess whether fear can be reinterpreted as a state of excitement as a result of contextual cues and promote, rather than discourage, risk-taking. In a laboratory experiment, the participants' emotional states were induced (fear vs. control), followed by a purportedly unrelated financial task. The task was framed as either a stock market investment or an exciting casino game. Our results showed that incidental fear (vs. control) induced risk-averse behaviour when the task was framed as a stock investment decision. However, fear encouraged risk-taking when the very same task was framed as an exciting casino game. The impact of fear on risk-taking was partially mediated by the excitement felt during the financial task. PMID:24661027

  15. The influence of sexually explicit Internet material on sexual risk behavior: a comparison of adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Peter, Jochen; Valkenburg, Patti M

    2011-08-01

    This study had three goals: first, to investigate whether sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) affects sexual risk behavior; second, to study whether these effects differ between adolescents and adults; and third, to analyze, separately for adolescents and adults, whether gender and age moderate an influence of SEIM on sexual risk behavior. The authors conducted a 2-wave panel survey among nationally representative random samples of 1,445 Dutch adolescents and 833 Dutch adults. SEIM use increased sexual risk behavior among adults, but not among adolescents. More specifically, moderator analyses showed that SEIM use increased sexual risk behavior only among male adults, but not among female adults. In the adolescent sample, no moderating gender effect occurred. Neither among adolescents nor among adults did age moderate the effects. Our study shows that SEIM may influence outcomes related to people's sexual health. It also suggests that male adults may present a potential risk group for adverse effects of SEIM. PMID:21476164

  16. Executive Dysfunction Predicts Delinquency But Not Characteristics of Sexual Aggression Among Adolescent Sexual Offenders.

    PubMed

    Burton, David; Demuynck, Sophia; Yoder, Jamie R

    2014-11-25

    Our aim in this study was to evaluate executive function and its relationship to delinquency and sexual crime in adolescents incarcerated for sexual crimes. Based on self-report data, 196 male adolescent sexual offenders from a Midwest state reported high rates of executive dysfunction. Although such deficits did not relate to the number of victims of sexual abuse, severity, or degree of force used in commission of the sexual crimes, poor executive function was significantly predictive of both general delinquency and felony theft. In both measures of delinquent conduct, behavioral regulation dysfunction was predictive of the frequency of commission of the crimes, whereas metacognition was not. Research and treatment implications are offered. PMID:25428928

  17. The Effectiveness of Participatory Theatre with Early Adolescents in School-Based Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponzetti, James J., Jr.; Selman, Jan; Munro, Brenda; Esmail, Shaniff; Adams, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    Public concern about adolescent sexuality has garnered considerable interest in recent decades. Most teenagers are either thinking about or acting on their sexual impulses. Yet notable controversy exists regarding sexual education among youth. Adolescents report sexuality education must speak to issues of interest to them and be delivered in a…

  18. Exploring Family Factors and Sexual Behaviors in a Group of Black and Hispanic Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucibwa, Naphtal Kaberege; Modeste, Naomi; Montgomery, Susan; Fox, Curtis A.

    2003-01-01

    Examined family factors influencing sexual behavior among black and Hispanic adolescent males from San Bernardino County, California's 1996 Youth Survey. Family structure, parent sexual behaviors, and peer sexual norms closely associated with adolescent sexual attitudes and behaviors. Having a sibling who was a teen parent significantly associated…

  19. Family Sex Communication and the Sexual Desire, Attitudes, and Behavior of Late Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamboni, Brian D.; Silver, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Parental sex education might promote healthy sexual behavior among adolescents, but some parents assume that family communication about sex will lead to sexual activity. Family sex communication has been studied with a limited range of adolescent sexual behaviors but not sexual fantasy or desire. Two measures of family sex communication were…

  20. Children and adolescents as sexual beings: a historical overview.

    PubMed

    Bullough, Vern L

    2004-07-01

    This article provides a historical overview of attitudes toward the sexual and erotic behavior of children and adolescents. It includes an examination of the conflicting attitudes of historians toward childhood and the living conditions and attitudes that influenced childhood sexual development. Attitudes have varied from an emphasis on childhood innocence to fears of childhood sinfulness, from children being regarded as asexual creatures to being extremely sexual, and from being little adults to regarding childhood as unique and different. Although there have always been observers of childhood sexuality, and much adult interest in it, research into the topic mainly is a twentieth century development. Sigmund Freud was a pioneer in recognizing children as sexual beings; however, research since his time has challenged and modified his assumptions. Whatever their discipline, however, there is general agreement that sexuality is part of childhood development. PMID:15183367

  1. Does positive youth development predict adolescent attitudes about sexuality?

    PubMed

    Chapman, Erin N; Werner-Wilson, Ronald Jay

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among individual factors, parental factors, involvement in activities, and adolescent attitudes regarding sex (the outcome variable). We suggest that Positive Youth Development (PYD) research and programming should include promoting healthy sexuality as an important developmental outcome for youth. PYD philosophy and theory, bioecological theory (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 1998), and identity development theory (Erikson, 1983, 1968; Marcia, 1980, 1993) provided the foundation for this study and were used to make the connections between PYD, adolescent sexuality (including attitudes and behavior), and aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship. Both self-esteem and sexual experience were significant predictors of attitudes regarding sex, but overall, parents contributed the most influence on the outcome variable. (It should be noted, however, that parental influence was the only factor that was a significant predictor.) Only one of the two involvements in activities variables was a significant predictor of attitudes regarding sex. PMID:19086667

  2. Self Concept of Adolescent Sexual Abuse Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Donald P.; Downes, Maureen C.

    1985-01-01

    To assess the self-concept and psychological profile associated with sexual abuse, 20 young female victims evaluated in a sexual abuse clinic completed the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire. (Author/LMO)

  3. Specificity of Early Movie Effects on Adolescent Sexual Behavior and Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    O’Hara, Ross E.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Li, Zhigang; Gerrard, Meg; Sargent, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents’ movie sex exposure (MSE) and movie alcohol exposure (MAE) have been shown to influence later sexual behavior and drinking, respectively. No study to date, however, has tested whether these effects generalize across behaviors. This study examined the concurrent influences of early (i.e., before age 16) MSE and MAE on subsequent risky sex and alcohol use among a national sample of 1,228 U.S. adolescents. Participants reported their health behaviors and movie viewing up to six times between 2003 and 2009 in telephone interviews. The Beach method was used to create a population-based estimate of each participant’s MSE and MAE, which were then entered into a structural equation model (SEM) to predict lifetime risky sex and past month alcohol use at ages 18–21. For both men and women, MAE predicted alcohol use, mediated by age of initiation of heavy episodic drinking (HED) and age of sexual debut; MAE also predicted risky sex via age of sexual debut. Among men only, MSE indirectly predicted risky sex and alcohol use. Findings indicated that early exposure to risk content from movies had both specific and general effects on later risk-taking, but gender differences were evident: for men, MSE was a stronger predictor than MAE, but for women, only MAE predicted later risk behavior. These results have implications for future media research, prevention programs for adolescent sex and alcohol use, and movie ratings that can guide parents’ decisions as to which movies are appropriate for their children. PMID:24034968

  4. Adolescent Sexuality Related Beliefs and Differences by Sexual Experience Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolma, Eleni L.; Oman, Roy F.; Vesely, Sara K.; Aspy, Cheryl B.; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna; Fluhr, Janene

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To examine if attitudes toward premarital sex, beliefs about peer influence, and family communication about sexual relationships differ by sexual experience status. Methods: Data were collected from a randomly selected ethnically diverse youth sample (N = 1,318) residing in two Midwestern cities. The primary method used in data analysis…

  5. Factors associated with sexual arousal, sexual sensation seeking, and sexual satisfaction among African-American adolescent females

    PubMed Central

    Sales, Jessica M.; Smearman, Erica; Brody, Gene H.; Milhausen, Robin; Philibert, Robert A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2013-01-01

    Sexuality-related constructs such as sexual arousal, sexual sensation seeking (SSS) and sexual satisfaction have been related to sexual behaviors that place one at risk for adverse consequences such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs), HIV, and unintended pregnancy. The biopsychosocial model posits an array of factors, ranging from social environmental factors, biological, and psychological predispositions that may be associated with these sexuality constructs in adolescent samples. African-American females aged 14-20 were recruited from reproductive health clinics for an HIV intervention. Baseline survey and follow-up DNA data (N=304) was used to assess biological, psychological and social environmental associations with the sexuality constructs of arousal, SSS, and sexual satisfaction. In multivariable linear regressions, a higher depressive symptom rating was associated with higher arousability while short serotonin allele(s) status was associated with lower arousability. Impulsivity and perceived peer norms supportive of unsafe sexual behaviors were associated with increased SSS, and short serotonin allele(s) status was associated with lower SSS. Higher social support was also associated with higher levels of sexual satisfaction while short serotonin allele(s) status was associated with lower satisfaction. The sexuality constructs were also significantly related to number of sex partners, frequency of vaginal sex, and number of unprotected vaginal sex acts in the past six months. These findings emphasize the importance of understanding biopsychosocial factors, including the role of serotonin as an indicator of natural variations in sexual inclination and behaviors, that influence sexuality constructs, which in turn are associated with sexual behaviors, to allow further refinement of sexual health clinical services and programs and promote the development of healthy sexuality. PMID:24262218

  6. An Ethnographic Analysis of Adolescent Sexual Minority Website Usage: Exploring Notions of Information Seeking and Sexual Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulfridge, Rocky M.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation explores the website usage of adolescent sexual minorities, examining notions of information seeking and sexual identity development. Sexual information seeking is an important element within human information behavior and is uniquely problematic for young sexual minorities. Utilizing a contemporary gay teen website, this…

  7. An Extension of the Findings of Moore, Peterson, and Furstenberg (1986) regarding Family Sexual Communication and Adolescent Sexual Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Terri D.

    1989-01-01

    Used variables of gender and parental sexual attitudes to categorize college students (N=349) and their parents to examine relationship between family communication about sexuality and adolescent sexual behavior, attitudes, knowledge and contraception use. Found sexual behavior of females correlated with parent-child communication; sexual…

  8. MMPI differences among adolescent inpatients, rapists, sodomists, and sexual abusers.

    PubMed

    Herkov, M J; Gynther, M D; Thomas, S; Myers, W C

    1996-02-01

    This study examined Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) responding among 61 adolescent sex offenders accused of Sexual Abuse (n = 22), Rape (n = 19), and Sodomy (n = 18) and 15 adolescents without a history of sexual offending admitted to an inpatient psychiatric unit. Results indicated significant differences between sex offenders and inpatients as well as among sex offender groups on both single-scale elevations and 2-point code types. Contrary to previous research, adolescents in the sex offender groups demonstrated significantly more psychopathology than those in the inpatient sample. Subjects in the Sodomy group achieved the highest clinical scale elevations and were more likely to have scales associated with significant psychopathology as one of their 2-point pairs. In general, increased psychopathology was associated with increased sexual deviancy. That is, subjects in the sexual offender groups evidenced more psychopathology than inpatients and the more deviant Sodomy and Rape groups evidenced more psychological disturbance on the MMPI than Sexual Abuser subjects. Results indicate that the MMPI can be useful in providing both quantitative and qualitative distinctions among adolescent sex offenders. PMID:8576837

  9. Adolescent Sexual Health Education: Parents Benefit Too!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Deveaux, Lynette; Wang, Bo; Lunn, Sonya; Marshall, Sharon; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of parents in adolescent-targeted interventions is intended to benefit the adolescent. Limited research has explored whether parents participating in these programs also benefit directly. We examined the impact of Caribbean Informed Parents and Children Together, the parenting portion of an adolescent-targeted HIV prevention…

  10. Sexual Assault Disclosure in Relation to Adolescent Mental Health: Results from the National Survey of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broman-Fulks, Joshua J.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Hanson, Rochelle F.; Smith, Daniel W.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Saunders, Benjamin E.

    2007-01-01

    Child sexual assault is a risk factor for a wide range of emotional and behavioral problems. Little is known about mental health functioning in relation to victims' decisions to tell someone (or not) about their assault. This study used data from a nationally representative sample of 4,023 adolescents to examine the relation between sexual assault…

  11. Parental Monitoring during Early Adolescence Deters Adolescent Sexual Initiation: Discrete-Time Survival Mixture Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, David Y. C.; Murphy, Debra A.; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2011-01-01

    We used discrete-time survival mixture modeling to examine 5,305 adolescents from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth regarding the impact of parental monitoring during early adolescence (ages 14-16) on initiation of sexual intercourse and problem behavior engagement (ages 14-23). Four distinctive parental-monitoring groups were…

  12. Urban American Indian Adolescent Girls: Framing Sexual Risk Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Martyn, Kristy K.; Momper, Sandra L.; Loveland-Cherry, Carol J.; Low, Lisa Kane

    2014-01-01

    Purpose American Indian (AI) adolescent girls have higher rates of sexual activity, births and STIs compared to the national average. The purpose of this study was to explore factors that influence urban adolescent AI girls' sexual risk behavior (SRB). Design A qualitative study was conducted using grounded theory methodology to reveal factors and processes that influence SRB. Methods Talking circles, individual interviews, and event history calendars were used with 20 urban AI 15-19 year old girls to explore influences on their sexual behavior. Findings The generated theory, Framing Sexual Risk Behavior, describes both social and structural factors and processes that influenced the girls' sexual behaviors. The theory extends Bronfenbrenner's ecological model by identifying microsystem, mesosystem, and macrosystem influences on sexual behavior, including: Microsystem: Being “Normal,” Native, and Having Goals; Mesosystem: Networks of Family and Friends, Environmental Influences, and Sex Education; and Macrosystem: Tribal Traditions/History and Federal Policy. Discussion Urban AI girls reported similar social and structural influences on SRB as urban adolescents from other racial and ethnic groups. However, differences were noted in the family structure, cultural heritage, and unique history of AIs. Implications for Practice This theory can be used in culturally responsive practice with urban AI girls. PMID:24803532

  13. Parental Awareness of Sexual Experience in Adolescent Boys With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Dewinter, J; Vermeiren, R; Vanwesenbeeck, I; Nieuwenhuizen, Ch Van

    2016-02-01

    Parent report and adolescent self-report data on lifetime sexual experience in adolescents with ASD were compared in 43 parent-adolescent dyads. Parents tended to underestimate the lifetime sexual experience of their sons, particularly solo sexual experiences such as masturbation and experience with orgasm. Parental underestimation and unawareness of adolescents’ sexual experience may influence communication and education about sex and sexuality in families. These findings have implications for the interpretation of earlier research, based on parent and caregiver reports, on sexuality in adolescents with ASD. PMID:26481386

  14. Adolescent sexual matricide following repetitive mother-son incest.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, L B

    1999-07-01

    A case of a 16-year-old male who committed a sexual matricide following years of mother-son incest is reported. After murdering his mother by strangulation, which itself was sexually arousing, the youngster engaged in both vaginal and anal necrophilia. The homicide occurred while the perpetrator was in a dissociative state and experiencing what has been referred to as a catathymic crisis: the sudden release of emotionally charged psychic conflict and tension, resulting in extreme violence within an interpersonal bond. Discussion of maternal image and maternal sexual conduct in relationship to the psychosexual development of adolescent males offers insight into the motivation in this extremely rare case. PMID:10432609

  15. Sexual preference, gender, and blame attributions in adolescent sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Davies, Michelle; Austen, Kerry; Rogers, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated the impact of victim sexual orientation, perpetrator gender, and participant gender on judgements toward a 15-year-old male victim of a depicted sexual assault. One hundred and eight-eight participants (97 male, 91 female) read a hypothetical scenario depicting the sexual assault of a 15-year-old male victim where the victim's sexual orientation and the perpetrator's gender were varied between subjects. Participants then completed a questionnaire assessing their attributions toward both the victim and the perpetrator. Results revealed that male participants blamed the victim more than female participants when the victim was both gay and attacked by a male perpetrator. All participants, regardless of gender, made more positive judgements toward the female as opposed to male perpetrator. Results are discussed in relation to gender role stereotypes and homophobia. PMID:22017075

  16. Estimating the Longitudinal Association Between Adolescent Sexual Behavior and Exposure to Sexual Media Content

    PubMed Central

    Hennessy, Michael; Bleakley, Amy; Fishbein, Martin; Jordan, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the association between adolescent sexual behavior and exposure to sexual media content. Methods A three wave longitudinal survey sample (N = 506) of 14-16 year olds at baseline is analyzed using growth curves. Results Growth trajectories are linear for sexual behavior but not for exposure to sexual media content. The signs of the exposure slopes are not uniformly positive: Hispanic and African-American respondents show declines of exposure to sexual media content over the age range investigated here. Conclusions While changes in exposure to sex content are highly associated with changes in sexual behavior among Whites, there is little or no association between changes in these variables among Blacks. PMID:19382030

  17. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience of Adolescent Sexual Risk and Alcohol Use.

    PubMed

    Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W; Ryman, Sephira G; Gillman, Arielle S; Weiland, Barbara J; Thayer, Rachel E; Bryan, Angela D

    2016-01-01

    Human adolescents engage in very high rates of unprotected sex. This behavior has a high potential for unintended, serious, and sustained health consequences including HIV/AIDS. Despite these serious health consequences, we know little about the neural and cognitive factors that influence adolescents' decision-making around sex, and their potential overlap with behaviorally co-occurring risk behaviors, including alcohol use. Thus, in this review, we evaluate the developmental neuroscience of sexual risk and alcohol use for human adolescents with an eye to relevant prevention and intervention implications. PMID:26290051

  18. Sexual Minority Status, Peer Harassment, and Adolescent Depression

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The well-documented higher rates of depression among sexual minority youth are increasingly viewed by developmentalists as a byproduct of the stigmatization of sexual minority status in American society and of the negative impact this stigma has on the processes associated with depression. This study attempted to spur future research by testing Hatzenbuehler’s (2009) psychological mediation framework to investigate the ways in which peer harassment related to sexuality puts young people at risk by influencing the cognitive, social, and regulatory factors associated with depression. Analyses of 15 year olds in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development revealed that sexual minority status was largely associated with depressive outcomes via harassment, which was subsequently associated with depression via cognitive and social factors. Results point to various avenues for exploring the importance of the social world and self-concept for the outcomes of sexual minority adolescents in the future. PMID:22401842

  19. Sexual minority status, peer harassment, and adolescent depression.

    PubMed

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2012-08-01

    The well-documented higher rates of depression among sexual minority youth are increasingly viewed by developmentalists as a byproduct of the stigmatization of sexual minority status in American society and of the negative impact this stigma has on the processes associated with depression. This study attempted to spur future research by testing Hatzenbuehler's (2009) psychological mediation framework to investigate the ways in which peer harassment related to sexuality puts young people at risk by influencing the cognitive, social, and regulatory factors associated with depression. Analyses of 15 year olds in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development revealed that sexual minority status was largely associated with depressive outcomes via harassment, which was subsequently associated with depression via cognitive and social factors. Results point to various avenues for exploring the importance of the social world and self-concept for the outcomes of sexual minority adolescents in the future. PMID:22401842

  20. Adolescent Patterns of Communication about Sexually Related Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Sandra K.

    1989-01-01

    Examined familial patterns in amounts of information received about menstrual cycle, sex, and contraception among Black adolescent daughters, mothers, and grandmothers (N=179) representing 53 family units. Results indicated that mothers were most likely to be source of information. Found much information necessary for sexual health and informed…

  1. An Experiential Adventure School for Sexually Abused Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Thomas E.

    The Fresh Start Program was an experiment in providing a comprehensive educational and therapeutic program for sexually abused and exploited adolescents. The program was based on the theory and practice of experiential, outdoor-challenge adventure education. The experiment involved 16 youth in a living and learning environment in the north woods…

  2. Does Positive Youth Development Predict Adolescent Attitudes about Sexuality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Erin N.; Werner-Wilson, Ronald Jay

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among individual factors, parental factors, involvement in activities, and adolescent attitudes regarding sex (the outcome variable). We suggest that Positive Youth Development (PYD) research and programming should include promoting healthy sexuality as an important developmental outcome…

  3. Social Support and Children's and Adolescents' Adaptation to Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiring, Candice; Taska, Lynn S.; Lewis, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes how social support helps explain variations in child and adolescent psychological distress at time of sexual-abuse discovery (N=154). Support from a parent was related to less psychological distress, whereas support from friends is related to increased adjustment difficulties. (Author/MKA)

  4. Gender Differences in Internalizing Problems among Sexually Abused Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coohey, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was twofold. First, we determined whether sexually abused adolescent boys or girls were more likely to have internalizing behavior scores in the clinical range. Second, after determining boys were more likely than girls to have an internalizing behavior problem, we tested whether this relationship would persist…

  5. Individual and Family Correlates of Adolescents' Sexual Behavior: Multiethnic Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anagurthi, Claudia; Johnson, Ashley Cahill; Somers, Cheryl L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine correlates of adolescent sexual activity, including age of first date, family composition, clarity of long term goals, and maternal and paternal views about premarital sex. There were 672 males and females, three races/ethnicities, both urban and suburban settings, and socioeconomic diversity. Sexual…

  6. Adolescent Sexuality and the Risk of Marital Dissolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paik, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates whether first sexual intercourse during adolescence is associated with increased risk of first marriage dissolution and tests whether the results are consistent with causal or selection explanations. Drawing on a sample of 3,793 ever-married women from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth, this study estimated…

  7. Young Adolescents' Perceptions of Romantic Relationships and Sexual Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royer, Heather R.; Keller, Mary L.; Heidrich, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe young adolescents' perceptions of romantic relationships, ratings of important romantic partner characteristics, and acceptability of sexual activity with romantic relationships. Fifty-seven eighth-grade participants (average age = 13.8 years) from one urban US public middle school completed an anonymous…

  8. Teenage Pregnancy Prevention and Adolescents' Sexual Outcomes: An Experiential Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Cheryl L.

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of an experiential approach to teen pregnancy (TP) prevention called "Baby Think It Over," a computerized infant simulator, on adolescents' attitudes and behaviors regarding teen pregnancy and sexuality. Recently, a more realistic model called "Real Care Baby" was developed. The small amount of research on…

  9. Dating and Sexual Attitudes in Asian-American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, May; Markham, Christine; Lin, Hua; Flores, Glenn; Chacko, Mariam R.

    2009-01-01

    Dating behaviors and sexual attitudes of Asian-American youth were examined in a cross-sectional, mixed-methods study in the context of adherence to Asian values, measured by the Asian Values Scale (AVS). In all, 31 Asian-American adolescents (age 14-18 years old) from a Houston community center were interviewed regarding dating behaviors and…

  10. Alcohol and drug usage; and adolescents' sexual behaviour in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nwagu, Evelyn N

    2016-06-01

    This study determined students' perception of the influence of alcohol and drug usage on adolescents' sexual behaviours in Nigeria. The instrument for data collection was a researcher-made questionnaire. The population for the study comprised all students in government secondary schools in Enugu state, Nigeria. The sample was made up of 600 students randomly selected from the population. Means, t-test and ANOVA were used for data analysis. The result of the study revealed that there were significant differences at 0.05 level of significance in the mean perception of the students of the influence of alcohol and drug usage on adolescents' sexual behaviours when they were classified by gender and class. All the students irrespective of age agreed that alcohol and drug usage negatively influence sexual behaviour. The students perceived that students who do not take alcohol usually control their sexual desires while rape is common with students who are drug users. It was recommended among others that preventive health programmes meant to address adolescents' sexuality should be combined with appropriate drug education for maximum benefit. PMID:25661666

  11. Peer Influences on Sexual Activity among Adolescents in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Bingenheimer, Jeffrey B.; Asante, Elizabeth; Ahiadeke, Clement

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the influences of peers on the sexual activity of adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. Better understanding of these issues could lead to more effective interventions promoting sexual and reproductive health. Using two waves survey data from adolescents (n=1275) in two towns in southeastern Ghana, we examined age, gender, and community differences in peer group characteristics. We also examine prospective associations between peer group characteristics and self-reported sexual initiation, multiple partnerships, and lack of consistent condom use with most recent partner over a 20-month follow-up period. Gender differences in peer context variables were small. Affiliation with antisocial peers and perceived peer norms favoring sex increased the odds of transition to first sex. Having more friends increased the odds of accruing multiple new sexual partners among younger respondents. Among males, perceived peer norms favoring sex increased the odds of accruing multiple partners. No peer context variables were significantly associated with condom use with most recent partner. We discuss the implications of these findings for adolescent sexual and reproductive health intervention strategies in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:25753056

  12. Sexuality Education: A Curriculum for Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Pamela; Kirby, Douglas

    This document is the third volume of a six-volume report on sexuality education. This volume contains 132 teaching activities selected from programs evaluated as among the most effective being taught in the United States. The curriculum consists of 11 units: (1) Introduction to Sexuality; (2) Communication Skills; (3) Anatomy and Physiology; (4)…

  13. Treatment for Sexually Abused Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saywitz, Karen J.; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Berliner, Lucy; Cohen, Judith A.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews research demonstrating the variable effects of childhood sexual abuse, need for intervention, and effectiveness of available treatment. Proposes extending and modifying treatment from mainstream clinical child psychology to sexually abused children. Interventions range from psychoeducation and screening, to short-term, abuse-focused…

  14. [Sexual health in adolescents: how to approach it in consultation?].

    PubMed

    Launay, Magali; Demierre, Maria; Jacot-Guillarmod, Martine

    2016-06-01

    Adolescent's sexual health, in particular the risk of unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), is a complex topic that deserves special attention. Confidential care and non-stigmatizing attitude as well as working with sexual health counsellors are strongly recommended. If an adolescent consults with an adult, it is beneficial to proceed stepwise in order to promote patient's autonomy and to build a relationship of trust with both of them. A focused approach of the teenager, adapted to its needs, as well as techniques such as Quick start and bridging, can improve compliance to contraception. Regarding the risk of STIs, primary prevention remains essential. The most effective prevention currently consists in systematic condom use. PMID:27451513

  15. Preventing the sexual transmission of AIDS during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Remafedi, G J

    1988-03-01

    In order to be effective, the national effort to contain the spread of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) must include a youth focus. Knowledge of adolescent sexual behavior, drug use, and sexually transmitted diseases suggests that many adolescents are in jeopardy of acquiring Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infections; and they are among those most likely to benefit from preventative efforts as they explore adult roles and lifestyles. Preventative education should particularly target gay and other homosexually active young men. Effective teaching uses a variety of approaches and media, both inside and outside the classroom. Learning about AIDS is most likely to effect behavioral change when accompanied by other programs to build social supports, self-esteem, and positive identity. The ethical and rational use of HIV antibody testing may be a helpful adjunct to education for certain adolescents. Ultimately, our society's ability to address complex, associated social issues will determine our ability to control AIDS. PMID:3283090

  16. Adolescent Development and the Emergence of Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Anne C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reviews changes in biopsychosocial development during adolescence. Addresses aspects of individual change during the adolescent decade as well as effects of context on normal development and responses to challenges. Predispositions or vulnerabilities present prior to a developmental transition may be exacerbated. Provides advice on encouraging a…

  17. Structural Stigma and Sexual Orientation Disparities in Adolescent Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Jun, Hee-Jin; Corliss, Heather L.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2015-01-01

    Although epidemiologic studies have established the existence of large sexual orientation disparities in illicit drug use among adolescents and young adults, the determinants of these disparities remain understudied. This study sought to determine whether sexual orientation disparities in illicit drug use are potentiated in states that are characterized by high levels of stigma surrounding sexual minorities. State-level structural stigma was coded using a previously established measure based on a 4-item composite index: (1) density of same-sex couples; (2) proportion of Gay-Straight Alliances per public high school; (3) 5 policies related to sexual orientation discrimination (e.g., same-sex marriage, employment non-discrimination); and (4) public opinion toward homosexuality (aggregated responses from 41 national polls). The index was linked to individual-level data from the Growing Up Today Study, a prospective community-based study of adolescents (2000–2010). Sexual minorities report greater illicit drug use than their heterosexual peers. However, for both men and women, there were statistically significant interactions between sexual orientation status and structural stigma, such that sexual orientation disparities in marijuana and illicit drug use were more pronounced in high-structural stigma states than in low-structural stigma states, controlling for individual- and state-level confounders. For instance, among men, the risk ratio indicating the association between sexual orientation and marijuana use was 24% greater in high- versus low-structural stigma states, and for women it was 28% greater in high- versus low-structural stigma states. Stigma in the form of social policies and attitudes may contribute to sexual orientation disparities in illicit drug use. PMID:25753931

  18. Sexual abuse predicts functional somatic symptoms: an adolescent population study.

    PubMed

    Bonvanie, Irma J; van Gils, Anne; Janssens, Karin A M; Rosmalen, Judith G M

    2015-08-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of childhood sexual abuse on medically not well explained or functional somatic symptoms (FSSs) in adolescents. We hypothesized that sexual abuse predicts higher levels of FSSs and that anxiety and depression contribute to this relationship. In addition, we hypothesized that more severe abuse is associated with higher levels of FSSs and that sexual abuse is related to gastrointestinal FSSs in particular. This study was part of the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS): a general population cohort which started in 2001 (N=2,230; 50.8% girls, mean age 11.1 years). The current study uses data of 1,680 participants over four assessment waves (75% of baseline, mean duration of follow-up: 8 years). FSSs were measured by the Somatic Complaints subscale of the Youth Self-Report at all waves. Sexual abuse before the age of sixteen was assessed retrospectively with a questionnaire at T4. To test the hypotheses linear mixed models were used adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, anxiety and depression. Sexual abuse predicted higher levels of FSSs after adjustment for age sex and socioeconomic status (B=.06) and after additional adjustment for anxiety and depression (B=.03). While sexual abuse involving physical contact significantly predicted the level of FSSs (assault; B=.08, rape; B=.05), non-contact sexual abuse was not significantly associated with FSSs (B=.04). Sexual abuse was not a stronger predictor of gastrointestinal FSSs (B=.06) than of all FSSs. Further research is needed to clarify possible mechanisms underlying relationship between sexual abuse and FSSs. PMID:26142915

  19. Structural stigma and sexual orientation disparities in adolescent drug use.

    PubMed

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Jun, Hee-Jin; Corliss, Heather L; Bryn Austin, S

    2015-07-01

    Although epidemiologic studies have established the existence of large sexual orientation disparities in illicit drug use among adolescents and young adults, the determinants of these disparities remain understudied. This study sought to determine whether sexual orientation disparities in illicit drug use are potentiated in states that are characterized by high levels of stigma surrounding sexual minorities. State-level structural stigma was coded using a previously established measure based on a 4-item composite index: (1) density of same-sex couples; (2) proportion of Gay-Straight Alliances per public high school; (3) 5 policies related to sexual orientation discrimination (e.g., same-sex marriage, employment non-discrimination); and (4) public opinion toward homosexuality (aggregated responses from 41 national polls). The index was linked to individual-level data from the Growing Up Today Study, a prospective community-based study of adolescents (2001-2010). Sexual minorities report greater illicit drug use than their heterosexual peers. However, for both men and women, there were statistically significant interactions between sexual orientation status and structural stigma, such that sexual orientation disparities in marijuana and illicit drug use were more pronounced in high-structural stigma states than in low-structural stigma states, controlling for individual- and state-level confounders. For instance, among men, the risk ratio indicating the association between sexual orientation and marijuana use was 24% greater in high- versus low-structural stigma states, and for women it was 28% greater in high- versus low-structural stigma states. Stigma in the form of social policies and attitudes may contribute to sexual orientation disparities in illicit drug use. PMID:25753931

  20. The Role of Beliefs in Sexual Behavior of Adolescents: Development and Validation of an Adolescent Sexual Expectancies Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourdeau, Beth; Grube, Joel W.; Bersamin, Melina M.; Fisher, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the development and psychometric properties of the Adolescent Sexual Expectancies Scale (ASEXS). Data were obtained from three annual longitudinal surveys of youth aged 10-17 at the first administration (N = 932 at Wave 3). Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that 4 correlated factors corresponding to Social Risk, Social…

  1. Sleepy Teens Are Risk-Taking Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158191.html Sleepy Teens Are Risk-Taking Teens Sleep deprivation leads to unsafe behaviors, CDC researchers ... than 50,000 students, researchers found that those teens who got seven hours of sleep or less ...

  2. Teen Risk-Taking: A Statistical Portrait.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindberg, Laura Duberstein; Boggess, Scott; Porter, Laura; Williams, Sean

    This report provides a statistical portrait of teen participation in 10 of the most prevalent risk behaviors. It focuses on the overall participation in each behavior and in multiple risk taking. The booklet presents the overall incidence and patterns of teen involvement in the following risk behaviors: (1) regular alcohol use; (2) regular tobacco…

  3. Gender differences in sexual risk behaviours and sexually transmissible infections among adolescents in mental health treatment

    PubMed Central

    Seth, Puja; Lang, Delia L.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Braxton, Nikia D.; Crosby, Richard A.; Brown, Larry K.; Hadley, Wendy; Donenberg, Geri R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescents with a history of psychiatric disorder(s) are particularly vulnerable to contracting sexually transmissible infections (STIs) as a result of psychological and emotional states associated with higher rates of risky sexual behaviour. The present study examined gender differences in sexual risk behaviours and STI among adolescents in mental health treatment. Methods Three hundred and seventy nine sexually active adolescents, aged 13–18 years, from a larger multisite study, who received mental health treatment during the past year, completed an audio computer-assisted self interview assessing sociodemographics, psychiatric symptomatology and HIV/STI risk behaviours, and provided urine specimens tested for STI. Results After controlling for covariates, multivariate logistic regression models indicated that female adolescents were more likely to have had an HIV test (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.2, P = 0.0001), obtain their HIV test results (AOR = 2.9, P = 0.03), refuse sex out of fear for STI acquisition (AOR = 1.7, P = 0.04), or avoid a situation that might lead to sex (AOR = 2.4, P = 0.001), and were less likely to have a casual sex partner (AOR = 0.40, P = 0.002). Additionally, females were more likely to report inconsistent condom use (AOR = 2.60, P = 0.001) and have a STI (AOR = 9.1, P = 0.0001) than their male counterparts. Conclusions Female adolescents receiving mental health treatment were more than nine times as likely to have an STI and more likely to use condoms inconsistently. The standard of care for mental health practice for adolescents should include referrals for STI screening and treatment as well as assessment and discussion of risky sexual behaviours as part of the treatment plan when indicated. Effective programs should address gender-specific communication and behavioural skills. PMID:22697141

  4. Adolescent Sexual Offenders: The Relationship Between Typology and Recidivism

    PubMed Central

    Chi Meng Chu; Thomas, Stuart D. M.

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent sexual offending represents an ongoing social, judicial, clinical, and policy issue for services. The current study investigated the characteristics, criminal versatility, and rates of recidivism of a cohort of 156 male adolescent sexual offenders who were referred for psychological assessments by the courts between 1996 and 2007 in Singapore. Analyses revealed that specialists (sex-only offenders; n = 71, M follow-up = 56.99 months, SD follow-up = 31.33) and generalists (criminally versatile offenders; n = 77, M follow-up = 67.83 months, SD follow-up = 36.55) differed with respect to offense characteristics (e.g., sexually assaulting familial victims) and recidivistic outcomes. Although both groups sexually reoffended at roughly the same rate (14.3% vs. 9.9%), consistent with their typology, significantly more of the generalists reoffended violently (18.2% vs. 1.4%), sexually and/or violently (27.3% vs. 11.3%), nonviolently (37.7% vs. 16.9%), and engaged in any further criminal behaviors (45.5% vs. 23.9%) during follow-up. Adjusting for total number of offenses and age at first sexual offense, Cox regression analyses showed that generalists were significantly more likely than specialists to reoffend violently (hazard ratio = 9.31; 95% confidence interval = 1.15-76.39). The differences between generalists and specialists suggest a valid typological distinction with a higher risk trajectory for the generalists. These findings therefore have important clinical implications for assessment, management, and intervention planning for adolescent sexual offenders. PMID:20458125

  5. Adolescent sexual offenders: the relationship between typology and recidivism.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chi Meng; Thomas, Stuart D M

    2010-06-01

    Adolescent sexual offending represents an ongoing social, judicial, clinical, and policy issue for services. The current study investigated the characteristics, criminal versatility, and rates of recidivism of a cohort of 156 male adolescent sexual offenders who were referred for psychological assessments by the courts between 1996 and 2007 in Singapore. Analyses revealed that specialists (sex-only offenders; n = 71, M(follow-up) = 56.99 months, SD(follow-up) = 31.33) and generalists (criminally versatile offenders; n = 77, M (follow-up) = 67.83 months, SD(follow-up) = 36.55) differed with respect to offense characteristics (e.g., sexually assaulting familial victims) and recidivistic outcomes. Although both groups sexually reoffended at roughly the same rate (14.3% vs. 9.9%), consistent with their typology, significantly more of the generalists reoffended violently (18.2% vs. 1.4%), sexually and/or violently (27.3% vs. 11.3%), nonviolently (37.7% vs. 16.9%), and engaged in any further criminal behaviors (45.5% vs. 23.9%) during follow-up. Adjusting for total number of offenses and age at first sexual offense, Cox regression analyses showed that generalists were significantly more likely than specialists to reoffend violently (hazard ratio = 9.31; 95% confidence interval = 1.15-76.39). The differences between generalists and specialists suggest a valid typological distinction with a higher risk trajectory for the generalists. These findings therefore have important clinical implications for assessment, management, and intervention planning for adolescent sexual offenders. PMID:20458125

  6. The effects of childhood sexual abuse on minority adolescent mothers.

    PubMed

    Esparza, D V; Esperat, M C

    1996-05-01

    In 2 urban areas of Texas, 124 mothers, 13-20 years old, all but 6% of whom were Mexican American or African American, were recruited from 4 public agencies to a study designed to determine the incidence and effects of childhood sexual abuse on the lives of these adolescent mothers. The study used the Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory (MAPI) to compare the personality characteristics of those mothers who had experienced sexual abuse with their nonabused counterparts. Most adolescent mothers were single (80%), lived with their parents (63%), were pregnant for the first time (56%), currently attended school (84%), and lived in a family whose annual income was less than $12,000. 44% of the mothers had experienced some form of childhood sexual abuse. More than 50% reported oral, anal, or vaginal intercourse with their abusers. The abusers tended to be male (97%) and known to the victim (66%). Male strangers accounted for 19% of abusers. The researchers were able to use data from 111 subjects to compare the 2 groups. The abused adolescent mothers always had clinically and statistically significant poorer scores than nonabused mothers. Abused mothers had greater difficulties in self-concept (p 0.0001), self-esteem (p = 0.004), body comfort (p = 0.002), sexual acceptance (p = 0.002), peer security (p = 0.002), and family rapport (p = 0.002). They also had clinically significant lower levels of academic confidence (p = 0.018), social conformity (p = 0.035), scholastic achievement (p 0.0001), and attendance consistency (p = 0.002). When researchers controlled for the effect of the Life Event Scale-Adolescents, abused mothers had differences that were significantly different than those of nonabused mothers (p = 0.001). These findings suggest that nurses within prenatal or well-baby care agencies should guide adolescent mothers who experienced childhood sexual abuse as they learn to communicate with their family or refer them to existing support services. It is

  7. Nurse-midwives' attitudes towards adolescent sexual and reproductive health needs in Kenya and Zambia.

    PubMed

    Warenius, Linnéa U; Faxelid, Elisabeth A; Chishimba, Petronella N; Musandu, Joyce O; Ong'any, Antony A; Nissen, Eva B-M

    2006-05-01

    Adolescent sexuality is a highly charged moral issue in Kenya and Zambia. Nurse-midwives are the core health care providers of adolescent sexual and reproductive health services but public health facilities are under-utilised by adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate attitudes among Kenyan and Zambian nurse-midwives (n=820) toward adolescent sexual and reproductive health problems, in order to improve services for adolescents. Data were collected through a questionnaire. Findings revealed that nurse-midwives disapproved of adolescent sexual activity, including masturbation, contraceptive use and abortion, but also had a pragmatic attitude to handling these issues. Those with more education and those who had received continuing education on adolescent sexuality and reproduction showed a tendency towards more youth-friendly attitudes. We suggest that critical thinking around the cultural and moral dimensions of adolescent sexuality should be emphasised in undergraduate training and continuing education, to help nurse-midwives to deal more empathetically with the reality of adolescent sexuality. Those in nursing and other leadership positions could also play an important role in encouraging wider social discussion of these matters. This would create an environment that is more tolerant of adolescent sexuality and that recognises the beneficial public health effect for adolescents of greater access to youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health services. PMID:16713886

  8. Adolescent Sexual Activity and Mildly Deviant Behavior: Sibling and Friendship Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Rowe, David C.

    1990-01-01

    Examined the relationship between adolescent sexual activity and mildly deviant behavior. Analyzed data of 1,739 adolescents from the Carolina Population Center's Sexuality Project which contained linkable responses of siblings, best friends, and other friends. Results showed overlap between sexuality and mild deviance but also indicated that the…

  9. Adolescents' Sexual Self-Disclosure on the Internet: Deindividuation and Impression Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effect of anonymity on adolescents' sexual self-disclosure on the Internet and the impact of topic intimacy on their reply intent for sexual disclosure by conducting a survey with 1,347 adolescents. It was found that male participants were more likely than females to engage in sexual self-disclosure and to correspondingly…

  10. Do Parents Blame or Doubt Their Child More when Sexually Abused by Adolescents versus Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Wendy A.; Cross, Theodore P.; Jones, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    Although the importance of parental support for child sexual abuse victims is well documented, the nature of parental support for victims sexually abused by adolescents is less understood. In this exploratory study, we examine whether parents differ in their levels of blame or doubt for their child when sexually abused by adolescents versus…

  11. Perceptions of siblings’ sexual activity predict sexual attitudes among at-risk adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Almy, Brandon; Long, Kristin; Lobato, Debra; Plante, Wendy; Kao, Barbara; Houck, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Objective Most American youth have siblings. This study examined the influence of early adolescents’ perceptions of their older sibling’s sexual activity on their own sexual attitudes and behaviors. Method Early adolescents (ages 12–14) at risk for emotional/behavioral problems reported on attitudes towards sex, sexual behaviors, perception of older siblings’ and peers’ sexual activity, and perceived parental approval toward sex. The sample was divided into three groups: teens who thought their older sibling was not having sex (N = 119), teens who believed their sibling was sexually active (N = 55) and teens without an older sibling (N = 170). Results Teens who thought their older sibling was not having sex scored higher in valuing abstinence and lower on perceptions of peer sex and maternal approval toward sex than teens who perceived their sibling to be having sex and teens without an older sibling. With regard to behaviors, teens who thought their older sibling was not having sex were less likely to endorse making out, touching genitals, oral sex, and vaginal sex compared to teens who thought their older sibling was having sex. Conclusion Perceptions that older siblings abstain from sexual activity may be a protective factor for more conservative attitudes towards sex and decreased sexual activity among young, at-risk teens. A single question about perceptions of siblings’ sexual behaviors can be integrated into healthcare visits to introduce conversations about age-appropriate sexual decision-making. PMID:25741948

  12. Sexual Assault and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Adults, Adolescents, and Children.

    PubMed

    Seña, Arlene C; Hsu, Katherine K; Kellogg, Nancy; Girardet, Rebecca; Christian, Cindy W; Linden, Judith; Griffith, William; Marchant, Anne; Jenny, Carole; Hammerschlag, Margaret R

    2015-12-15

    Survivors of sexual assault are at risk for acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We conducted literature reviews and invited experts to assist in updating the sexual assault section for the 2015 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sexually transmitted diseases (STD) treatment guidelines. New recommendations for STI management among adult and adolescent sexual assault survivors include use of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis by vaginal swabs; NAATs for detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis from pharyngeal and rectal specimens among patients with a history of exposure or suspected extragenital contact after sexual assault; empiric therapy for gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis based on updated treatment regimens; vaccinations for human papillomavirus (HPV) among previously unvaccinated patients aged 9-26 years; and consideration for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis using an algorithm to assess the timing and characteristics of the exposure. For child sexual assault (CSA) survivors, recommendations include targeted diagnostic testing with increased use of NAATs when appropriate; routine follow-up visits within 6 months after the last known sexual abuse; and use of HPV vaccination in accordance with national immunization guidelines as a preventive measure in the post-sexual assault care setting. For CSA patients, NAATs are considered to be acceptable for identification of gonococcal and chlamydial infections from urine samples, but are not recommended for extragenital testing due to the potential detection of nongonococcal Neisseria species. Several research questions were identified regarding the prevalence, detection, and management of STI/HIV infections among adult, adolescent, and pediatric sexual assault survivors. PMID:26602623

  13. The Impact of Religiosity on Adolescent Sexual Behavior: A Review of the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostosky, Sharon Scales; Wilcox, Brian L.; Wright, Margaret Laurie Comer; Randall, Brandy A.

    2004-01-01

    Longitudinal studies published between 1980 and 2001 (N = 10) are reviewed for evidence that the religiosity of adolescents is causally related to their sexual behaviors. Results indicate that religiosity delays the sexual debut of adolescent females. Findings are mixed for adolescent males. Although only half of the studies examined the effects…

  14. Hmong American Parents' Views on Promoting Adolescent Sexual Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meschke, Laurie L.; Peter, Christina R.

    2014-01-01

    Parents play an important role in the promotion of adolescent sexual health, but little is known about parents' attitudes and beliefs in immigrant families. We examine Hmong American parents' attitudes about adolescent sexual health using survey data from 202 parents of adolescents with attention to parental gender differences. Breaking…

  15. Psychological, Behavioral, and Social Characteristics Associated with Early Forced Sexual Intercourse among Pregnant Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanz, Jean B.

    1995-01-01

    Explored patterns of substance use and sexual behavior among pregnant adolescents under age 18. Data were examined for associations between a history of early forced sexual intercourse and indicators of psychological, behavioral, and social problems during adolescence. Many pregnant adolescents were found to have experienced early forced sexual…

  16. Forces of Patriarchy: Adolescent Experiences of Sexuality and Conceptions of Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Roosmalen, Erica

    2000-01-01

    Examines the role of patriarchy and capitalism in shaping adolescent girls' experiences of sexuality and conceptions of relationships. Analysis of letters to a teen advice column highlights concerns and issues of sexuality, gender identity, and relationships for adolescent girls. Argues that during early adolescence, the power and contradictions…

  17. Childhood Abuse and Adolescent Sexual Re-Offending: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallie, Adana L.; Viljoen, Jodi L.; Mordell, Sarah; Spice, Andrew; Roesch, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Recent research indicates that adolescents who have sexually offended are more likely than other adolescents to have a history of sexual and physical abuse. However, it is unclear whether abuse predicts re-offending among these adolescents. To examine this relationship, a meta-analysis was conducted which included 29 effect sizes drawn from 11…

  18. Adolescents' Sexually Transmitted Disease Protective Attitudes Predict Sexually Transmitted Disease Acquisition in Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Richard A.; Danner, Fred

    2008-01-01

    Background: Estimates suggest that about 48% of nearly 19 million cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) occurring annually in the United States are acquired by persons aged 15-24 years. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that adolescents' attitudes about protecting themselves from STDs predict their laboratory-confirmed…

  19. Chinese Adolescents' Attitudes toward Sexual Relationships and Premarital Sex: Implications for Promoting Sexual Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yu-Ting; Hayter, Mark; Lin, Mei-Ling

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to explore Taiwanese school students' attitudes toward sexual relationships and premarital sex. This was an exploratory descriptive, qualitative study. Focus groups (N = 8) were conducted with 47 adolescents from three high schools in Taiwan. Transcripts were transcribed and thematically analyzed using Atlas V 5.0.…

  20. Adolescent and Parent Perceptions of Media Influence on Adolescent Sexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner-Wilson, Ronald Jay; Fitzharris, Jennifer Lynn; Morrissey, Kathleen M.

    2004-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that television and other media influence adolescents' attitudes and behaviors. Much of the research in this area is based on surveys in which adolescents are asked to rank the relative importance of a fixed set of factors such as parents, peers, and media. We reviewed data from focus groups conducted with adolescents…

  1. Sexual Health and Risk Behaviour among East Asian Adolescents in British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Homma, Yuko; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.; Wong, Sabrina T.; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the large number of adolescents of East Asian origin in Canada, there is limited research on sexual health among this population. A first step to develop strategies for sexual health promotion for adolescents is to document the prevalence of sexual behaviours. This study thus estimated the prevalence of sexual health and risk behaviours among East Asian adolescents in grades 7 to 12, using the province-wide, school-based 2008 British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey (unweighted N = 4,311). Less than 10% of East Asian adolescents have ever had sexual intercourse. However, most of these sexually active adolescents have engaged in risky sexual behaviours, including multiple sexual partners and non-condom use at last intercourse. In particular, nearly half of sexually active girls reported not using a condom at last intercourse. Compared to immigrant students whose primary language at home was not English, immigrant and Canadian-born students speaking English at home were more likely to experience sexual intercourse. Among students who have never had sexual intercourse, two most common reasons for sexual abstinence were not feeling ready and waiting to meet the right person. Findings suggest the need for sexual health interventions tailored to gender and sociocultural contexts in which adolescents live. PMID:27087776

  2. Puberty, sexual development and eating disorders in adolescent outpatients.

    PubMed

    Ruuska, Jaana; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Koivisto, Anna-Maija; Rantanen, Päivi

    2003-10-01

    This study examined puberty and psychosexual state in a clinical sample of adolescents attending for assessment because of eating disorders (ED). A total of 57 adolescents (girls) aged 14-21 years (mean age 16.9 years) having either anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN) were studied by semi-structured interviews and structured self-report questionnaires considering the timing of menarche, dating and attitudes to sexuality. The age at menarche did not differ statistically significantly between AN and BN. It was significantly lower in the BN group than in the normal population, but no statistically significant difference was found between the AN group and normal population. The general attitudes to sexuality were more negative in the AN group than in the BN group. In the AN group, there were also fewer dating experiences and interest in dating than in the BN group. After controlling for the effect of age, age at menarche and duration of ED, negative attitudes to sexuality and no dating experiences were still best predicted by AN. The results suggest different ways of coping with the developmental challenges in sexuality in AN and BN during adolescence. PMID:14667108

  3. Gendered norms, sexual exploitation and adolescent pregnancy in rural Tanzania.

    PubMed

    McCleary-Sills, Jennifer; Douglas, Zayid; Rwehumbiza, Annagrace; Hamisi, Aziza; Mabala, Richard

    2013-05-01

    Adolescent pregnancy places girls at increased risk for poor health and educational outcomes that limit livelihood options, economic independence, and empowerment in adulthood. In Tanzania, adolescent pregnancy remains a significant concern, with over half of all first births occurring before women reach the age of 20. A participatory research and action project (Vitu Newala) conducted formative research in a rural district on the dynamics of sexual risk and agency among 82 girls aged 12-17. Four major risk factors undermined girls' ability to protect their own health and well-being: poverty that pushed them into having sex to meet basic needs, sexual expectations on the part of older men and boys their age, rape and coercive sex (including sexual abuse from an early age), and unintended pregnancy. Transactional sex with older men was one of the few available sources of income that allowed adolescent girls to meet their basic needs, making this a common choice for many girls, even though it increased the risk of unintended (early) pregnancy. Yet parents and adult community members blamed the girls alone for putting themselves at risk. These findings were used to inform a pilot project aimed to engage and empower adolescent girls and boys as agents of change to influence powerful gender norms that perpetuate girls' risk. PMID:23684192

  4. Jamaican Mothers’ Influences of Adolescent Girls’ Sexual Beliefs and Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, M. Katherine; Kahwa, Eulalia; Waldron, Norman; Brown, Cerese Hepburn; Hamilton, Pansy I.; Hewitt, Hermi H.; Aiken, Joyette; Cederbaum, Julie; Alter, Emily; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to identify the ways in which urban Jamaican mothers influence their adolescent daughters’ sexual beliefs and behaviors in order to incorporate them into the design of a family-based human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk reduction intervention program. Design Focus groups were conducted with 46 14- to 18-year-old adolescent girls and 30 mothers or female guardians of adolescent girls recruited from community-based organizations in and around Kingston and St. Andrew, Jamaica. Separate focus groups were held with mothers and daughters; each included 6 to 10 participants. Focus group sessions were scripted, led by teams that included trained Jamaican and American facilitators and note-takers, and audio-taped to ensure data accuracy. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Findings Four major maternal influences were identified: mother-daughter relationship quality, mother-daughter sexual communication, monitoring or supervision, and maternal sexual role modeling. Mothers’ and daughters’ reports were consistent; both groups identified positive and negative influences within each category. Conclusions Some maternal influences were positive and health promoting; others were negative and promoted unsafe sexual activity and risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. These influences were incorporated into the design of a culture-specific family-based HIV risk reduction intervention tailored to the needs of urban Jamaican adolescent girls and their mothers. Clinical Relevance In order to be effective, family-based HIV risk reduction interventions should be theory based and tailored to the target audience. The four maternal influences identified in this formative study were incorporated into the subsequent intervention design. PMID:22339731

  5. Adolescents' Use of Sexually Explicit Internet Material and Their Sexual Attitudes and Behavior: Parallel Development and Directional Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doornwaard, Suzan M.; Bickham, David S.; Rich, Michael; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; van den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Although research has repeatedly demonstrated that adolescents' use of sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) is related to their endorsement of permissive sexual attitudes and their experience with sexual behavior, it is not clear how linkages between these constructs unfold over time. This study combined 2 types of longitudinal modeling,…

  6. Propensity Scoring and the Relationship between Sexual Media and Adolescent Sexual Behavior: Comment on Steinberg and Monahan (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Rebecca L.; Martino, Steven C.; Elliott, Marc N.

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal research has demonstrated a link between exposure to sexual content in media and subsequent changes in adolescent sexual behavior, including initiation of intercourse and various noncoital sexual activities. Based on a reanalysis of one of the data sets involved, Steinberg and Monahan (2011) have challenged these findings. However,…

  7. Sexual Victimization among African American Adolescent Females: Examination of the Reliability and Validity of the Sexual Experiences Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cecil, Heather; Matson, Steven C.

    2006-01-01

    Adolescent females are disproportionately represented among reported cases of sexual victimization. Because sexual victimization is associated with an array of negative sequelae (e.g., depression, alcohol abuse), psychometrically sound instruments are urgently needed to assess sexual victimization or coercion. The investigation conducts a…

  8. Latent Classes of Adolescent Sexual and Romantic Relationship Experiences: Implications for Adult Sexual Health and Relationship Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Vasilenko, Sara A; Kugler, Kari C; Lanza, Stephanie T

    2016-09-01

    Adolescents' sexual and romantic relationship experiences are multidimensional but often studied as single constructs. Thus, it is not clear how different patterns of sexual and relationship experience may interact to differentially predict later outcomes. In this study we used latent class analysis to model patterns (latent classes) of adolescent sexual and romantic experiences, and then examined how these classes were associated with young adult sexual health and relationship outcomes in data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). We identified six adolescent relationship classes: No Relationship (33%), Waiting (22%), Intimate (38%), Private (3%), Low Involvement (3%), and Physical (2%). Adolescents in the Waiting and Intimate classes were more likely to have married by young adulthood than those in other classes, and those in the Physical class had a greater number of sexual partners and higher rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Some gender differences were found; for example, women in the Low-Involvement and Physical classes in adolescence had average or high odds of marriage, whereas men in these classes had relatively low odds of marriage. Our findings identify more and less normative patterns of romantic and sexual experiences in late adolescence and elucidate associations between adolescent experiences and adult outcomes. PMID:26445133

  9. Sexual harassment among adolescents of different sexual orientations and gender identities.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Ybarra, Michele L; Korchmaros, Josephine D

    2014-02-01

    This article examines (a) variation in rates of sexual harassment across mode (e.g., in-person, online) and type of harassment, (b) the impact of sexual harassment (i.e., distressing vs. non-distressing), and (c) how sexual harassment is similarly and differently experienced across sexual orientation and gender identity groups. Data were collected as part of the Teen Health and Technology online survey of 5,907 13 to 18 year-old Internet users in the United States. Past year sexual harassment was reported by 23-72% of youth, depending upon sexual orientation, with the highest rates reported by lesbian/queer girls (72%), bisexual girls (66%), and gay/queer boys (66%). When examined by gender identity, transgender youth reported the highest rates of sexual harassment - 81%. Overall, the most common modes for sexual harassment were in-person followed by online. Distress in the form of interference with school, family, and/or friends; creating a hostile environment; or being very/extremely upset was reported by about half of the sexually harassed bisexual girls and lesbian/queer girls, 65% of the gender non-conforming/other gender youth, and 63% of the transgender youth. Youth with high social support and self-esteem were less likely to report sexual harassment. Findings point to the great importance of sexual harassment prevention for all adolescents, with particular emphasis on the unique needs and experiences of youth of different sexual orientations and gender identities. Socio-emotional programs that emphasize self-esteem building could be particularly beneficial for reducing the likelihood of victimization and lessen the impact when it occurs. PMID:24148274

  10. Reliability and Validity of the Youth Version of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART-Y) in the Assessment of Risk-Taking Behavior among Inner-City Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lejuez, C. W.; Aklin, Will; Daughters, Stacey; Zvolensky, Michael; Kahler, Christopher; Gwadz, Marya

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of the youth version of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART-Y) for assessing adolescent risk behaviors among a sample of 98 inner-city African American adolescents (M age = 14.8, SD = 1.5). In addition to a relation with sensation seeking, BART-Y responding evidenced a significant relation with a…

  11. Delay Discounting Mediates Parent-Adolescent Relationship Quality and Risky Sexual Behavior for Low Self-Control Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Rachel E.; Holmes, Christopher; Farley, Julee P.; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen

    2015-01-01

    Parent-adolescent relationship quality and delay discounting may play important roles in adolescents’ sexual decision making processes, and levels of self-control during adolescence could act as a buffer within these factors. This longitudinal study included 219 adolescent (55% male; mean age = 12.66 years at Wave 1; mean age = 15.10 years at Wave 2) and primary caregiver dyads. Structural equation modeling was utilized to determine whether delay discounting mediated the association between parent-adolescent relationship quality and adolescents’ risky sexual behavior and how this mediated association may differ between those with high versus low self-control. The results revealed parent-adolescent relationship quality plays a role in the development of risky sexual behavior indirectly through levels of delay discounting, but only for adolescents with low self-control. These findings could inform sex education policies and health prevention programs that address adolescent risky sexual behavior. PMID:26202153

  12. Experience of sexual coercion among adolescents in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ajuwon, A J; Olley, B O; Akin-Jimoh, I; Akintola, O

    2001-12-01

    This study surveyed 1,025 adolescent students and apprentices in Ibadan, Nigeria, to document their sexual behaviour and experience of sexual coercion including verbal threats, unwanted touch, unwanted kiss, assault, deception, drugging, attempted rape, and rape. Sixty five per cent of male and 48% of female apprentices were sexually experienced, compared to 32% of male and 24% of female students. More males than females reported sex with multiple partners and contact with a sex worker while females had exchanged sex for money and gifts. Fifty five per cent of all the subjects had been victims of at least one type of sexual coercion, the commonest being unwanted kiss and touch of breasts (47%). Although both males and females were victims of coercion, females were disproportionately affected--68% of female students and 70% of apprentices had experienced one coercive behaviour, compared to 42% of male students and 40% of apprentices. Female apprentices fared worst, with 19% of them raped. The main perpetrators of the coercion were persons well known to the victims including neighbours, peers and boy/girlfriends. We recommend multiple intervention programs including skills training for young persons, sensitisation workshop for training health workers, and media advocacy for the public to challenge stereotypes that favour sexual coercion of adolescents. PMID:12471936

  13. Nigerian secondary school adolescents' perspective on abstinence-only sexual education as an effective tool for promotion of sexual health.

    PubMed

    Inyang, Mfrekemfon P; Inyang, Obonganyie P

    2013-01-01

    The success of any type of sexual education programme depends on the knowledge and preparedness for practice by adolescents. A recent study has found that an 'abstinence-only' sexual education programme is effective in reducing sexual activity among adolescents. Knowledge of abstinence-only sexual education and preparedness for practice as an effective tool for promotion of sexual health among Nigerian secondary school adolescents was studied. An analytic descriptive survey design was used for the study. The research population comprised of all public secondary schools in three southern geopolitical zones of the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 2020 senior secondary school (SS1-SS3) students as sample for the study. A partially self-designed and partially adapted questionnaire from an 'abstinence-only versus comprehensive sex education' debate, from debatepedia (http://wiki.idebate.org/), entitled 'Questionnaire on Nigerian Secondary School Adolescents' Perspective on Abstinence-Only Sexual Education (QNSSAPAOSE)' was used in eliciting information from respondents. Hypotheses were formulated and tested. Frequency counts, percentage and Pearson Product Moment Correlation were used in analysing data. A greater proportion of secondary school adolescents in this study lacked knowledge of sexual education. About 80% of the respondents could not define sexual education. The general perspective on abstinence-only sexual education was negative, as revealed by the larger number of respondents who demonstrated unwillingness to practice abstinence-only sexual education. Specifically, of those who responded in favour of abstinence-only sexual education, the youngest group of adolescents (11-13 years) and the male respondents were more likely to accept this type of education than the other groups. Poor knowledge of sexual education could be responsible for unwillingness to practice abstinence-only sexual education. Sexual

  14. ERICA: sexual initiation and contraception in Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Borges, Ana Luiza Vilela; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina Caetano; Chofakian, Christiane Borges do Nascimento; de Moraes, Ana Júlia Pantoja; Azevedo, George Dantas; dos Santos, Karine Ferreira; de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of sexual initiation and contraceptive use at the last sexual intercourse of Brazilian adolescents, according to sociodemographic features. METHODS The data were obtained from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), a national school-based cross-sectional study. We included 74,589 adolescents from 32 geographic strata (27 capitals and five sets of municipalities with more than 100,000 inhabitants of each of the five macro-regions of the Country). Information on sexual initiation and contraceptive use at the last sexual intercourse (male condom and oral contraceptive pill) has been used. We have estimated prevalence and confidence intervals (95%CI) considering sample weights according to sex, age, type of school, residence status, macro-region and capitals. RESULTS We observed that 28.1% (95%CI 27.0-29.2) of the adolescents had already initiated sexual life, with higher prevalence among those aged 17 years (56.4%, 95%CI 53.9-58.9), males (33.5%, 95%CI 31.8-35.2), studying at public schools (29.9%, 95%CI 28.5-31.4), and from the Northern region (33.9%, 95%CI 32.3-35.4), mainly from Macapa, Manaus, and Rio Branco. Among those who had started their sexual life, 82.3% (95%CI 81.1-83.4) reported the use of contraceptive methods at the last intercourse, and the prevalence of use was higher among adolescents aged 17 years (85.3%, 95%CI 82.7-87.6), females (85.2%, 95%CI 83.8-86.5) and those living in the Southern region (85.9%, 95%CI 82.9-88.5). Male condom was used by 68.8% (95%CI 66.9-70.7), with no difference by type of school or macro-regions; the contraceptive pill was used by 13.4% (CI95% 12.2-14.6), and more frequently used among women (24.7%, 95%CI 22.5-27,0) and 17-year-old adolescents (20.8%, 95%CI 18.2-23.6) from urban settings(13.7%, 95%CI 12.5-14.9) and from the Southern region (22.6%, 95%CI 19.0-26.8), and less often in the Northern region. CONCLUSIONS ERICA's data analysis on sexuality and contraception

  15. ERICA: sexual initiation and contraception in Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Ana Luiza Vilela; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina Caetano; Chofakian, Christiane Borges do Nascimento; de Moraes, Ana Júlia Pantoja; Azevedo, George Dantas; dos Santos, Karine Ferreira; de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of sexual initiation and contraceptive use at the last sexual intercourse of Brazilian adolescents, according to sociodemographic features. METHODS The data were obtained from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), a national school-based cross-sectional study. We included 74,589 adolescents from 32 geographic strata (27 capitals and five sets of municipalities with more than 100,000 inhabitants of each of the five macro-regions of the Country). Information on sexual initiation and contraceptive use at the last sexual intercourse (male condom and oral contraceptive pill) has been used. We have estimated prevalence and confidence intervals (95%CI) considering sample weights according to sex, age, type of school, residence status, macro-region and capitals. RESULTS We observed that 28.1% (95%CI 27.0-29.2) of the adolescents had already initiated sexual life, with higher prevalence among those aged 17 years (56.4%, 95%CI 53.9-58.9), males (33.5%, 95%CI 31.8-35.2), studying at public schools (29.9%, 95%CI 28.5-31.4), and from the Northern region (33.9%, 95%CI 32.3-35.4), mainly from Macapa, Manaus, and Rio Branco. Among those who had started their sexual life, 82.3% (95%CI 81.1-83.4) reported the use of contraceptive methods at the last intercourse, and the prevalence of use was higher among adolescents aged 17 years (85.3%, 95%CI 82.7-87.6), females (85.2%, 95%CI 83.8-86.5) and those living in the Southern region (85.9%, 95%CI 82.9-88.5). Male condom was used by 68.8% (95%CI 66.9-70.7), with no difference by type of school or macro-regions; the contraceptive pill was used by 13.4% (CI95% 12.2-14.6), and more frequently used among women (24.7%, 95%CI 22.5-27,0) and 17-year-old adolescents (20.8%, 95%CI 18.2-23.6) from urban settings(13.7%, 95%CI 12.5-14.9) and from the Southern region (22.6%, 95%CI 19.0-26.8), and less often in the Northern region. CONCLUSIONS ERICA’s data analysis on sexuality and

  16. Understanding Sexual Abstinence in Urban Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Morrison-Beedy, Dianne; Carey, Michael P.; Côté-Arsenault, Denise; Seibold-Simpson, Susan; Robinson, Kerry Anne

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To gain insight into the context of sexual abstinence and identify potential determinants of abstinence in this population. Design Four focus groups. Participants and Setting Twenty-four, predominantly African American (88%) girls aged 14 to 19 years were recruited from urban health centers and youth development programs in Rochester, New York, between September and December 2006. Data Analysis Content analysis was used to analyze the four verbatim transcripts. Using analytic induction, groups were compared and contrasted at the micro (within-group) and macro (between-group) levels to identify themes. Results Four themes were identified that provided insight into how and why these girls remain abstinent despite being in sexually active social climates. They focused on the following: self-respect (I'm worth it), impact of mothers (Mama says … think before you let it go), influence of boys and other peers (Boys will be boys), and potential negative consequences of sex (Hold on, there's a catch). Conclusions Developing interventions to maintain abstinence, delay onset of sexual activity, and promote protected first and subsequent sexual contact in abstinent girls are key to decreasing future sexual risk. These findings suggest opportunities to develop HIV prevention strategies tailored to the needs of abstinent girls. PMID:18336442

  17. Fast thought speed induces risk taking.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Jesse J; Pronin, Emily

    2012-04-01

    In two experiments, we tested for a causal link between thought speed and risk taking. In Experiment 1, we manipulated thought speed by presenting neutral-content text at either a fast or a slow pace and having participants read the text aloud. In Experiment 2, we manipulated thought speed by presenting fast-, medium-, or slow-paced movie clips that contained similar content. Participants who were induced to think more quickly took more risks with actual money in Experiment 1 and reported greater intentions to engage in real-world risky behaviors, such as unprotected sex and illegal drug use, in Experiment 2. These experiments provide evidence that faster thinking induces greater risk taking. PMID:22395129

  18. Risk-taking and the media.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Peter; Vingilis, Evelyn; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Vogrincic, Claudia

    2011-05-01

    In recent years, media formats with risk-glorifying content, such as video games that simulate illegal street racing ("bang and crash" games), films about extreme sports, and risky stunts have emerged as top sellers of the media industry. A variety of recent studies conducted by several researchers revealed that exposure to risk-glorifying media content (e.g., video games that simulate reckless driving, smoking and drinking in movies, or depictions that glorify extreme sports) increases the likelihood that recipients will show increased levels of risk-taking inclinations and behaviors. The present article (1) reviews the latest research on the detrimental impact of risk-glorifying media on risk-taking inclinations (cognitions, emotions, behaviors), (2) puts these findings in the theoretical context of recent sociocognitive models on media effects, and (3) makes suggestions to science and policymakers on how to deal with these effects in the future. PMID:21155859

  19. Cost Discrepancy, Signaling, and Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemon, Jim

    2005-01-01

    If risk taking is in some measure a signal to others by the person taking risks, the model of "costly signaling" predicts that the more the apparent cost of the risk to others exceeds the perceived cost of the risk to the risk taker, the more attractive that risk will be as a signal. One hundred and twelve visitors to youth "drop-in" centers…

  20. The Role of Religiosity in the Relationship Between Parents, Peers, and Adolescent Risky Sexual Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.; Brody, Gene H.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2012-01-01

    Research has documented a negative relationship between religion and risky sexual behavior. Few studies, however, have examined the processes whereby religion exerts this effect. The present study develops and tests a model of various mechanisms whereby parental religiosity reduces the likelihood of adolescents’ participation in risky sexual behavior (early sexual debut, multiple sexual partners, and inconsistent condom use). Structural equation modeling, using longitudinal data from a sample of 612 African American adolescents (55% female), provided support for the model. The results indicated that parental religiosity influenced adolescent risky sexual behavior through its impact on authoritative parenting, adolescent religiosity, and adolescent affiliation with less sexually permissive peers. Some mediating mechanisms differed by the gender of the respondent, suggesting a “double-standard” for daughters but not for sons. Findings also indicated the importance of messages about sexual behavior that are transmitted to adolescents by their peers. Theoretical and policy implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:21052800

  1. Sexual victimization, alcohol intoxication, sexual-emotional responding, and sexual risk in heavy episodic drinking women.

    PubMed

    George, William H; Davis, Kelly Cue; Masters, N Tatiana; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J; Heiman, Julia R; Norris, Jeanette; Gilmore, Amanda K; Nguyen, Hong V; Kajumulo, Kelly F; Otto, Jacqueline M; Andrasik, Michele P

    2014-05-01

    This study used an experimental paradigm to investigate the roles of sexual victimization history and alcohol intoxication in young women's sexual-emotional responding and sexual risk taking. A nonclinical community sample of 436 young women, with both an instance of heavy episodic drinking and some HIV/STI risk exposure in the past year, completed childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adolescent/adult sexual assault (ASA) measures. A majority of them reported CSA and/or ASA, including rape and attempted rape. After random assignment to a high alcohol dose (.10 %) or control condition, participants read and projected themselves into an eroticized scenario of a sexual encounter involving a new partner. As the story protagonist, each participant rated her positive mood and her sexual arousal, sensation, and desire, and then indicated her likelihood of engaging in unprotected sex. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that ASA and alcohol were directly associated with heightened risk taking, and alcohol's effects were partially mediated by positive mood and sexual desire. ASA was associated with attenuated sexual-emotional responding and resulted in diminished risk taking via this suppression. These are the first findings indicating that, compared to non-victimized counterparts, sexually victimized women respond differently in alcohol-involved sexual encounters in terms of sexual-emotional responding and risk-taking intentions. Implications include assessing victimization history and drinking among women seeking treatment for either concern, particularly women at risk for HIV, and alerting them to ways their histories and behavior may combine to exacerbate their sexual risks. PMID:23857517

  2. Is Sexual Behavior Healthy for Adolescents? A Conceptual Framework for Research on Adolescent Sexual Behavior and Physical, Mental, and Social Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasilenko, Sara A.; Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Welsh, Deborah P.

    2014-01-01

    Although research has increasingly emphasized how adolescent sexual behavior may be associated with aspects of health beyond unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, no current theoretical or conceptual model fully explains associations between sexual behavior and multiple facets of health. We provide a conceptual model that…

  3. The Relationships between Emerging Adults' Expressed Desire to Marry and Frequency of Participation in Risk-Taking Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Brian J.; Dworkin, Jodi

    2009-01-01

    The impact that desire to marry has on risk-taking behaviors during emerging adulthood is examined in the current investigation using nationally representative data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Looking both at the simple relationships between desire to marry and risk-taking behaviors, as well as the…

  4. Adult and Middle School Girls' Perceptions of Risk-Taking Behavior: Implications for School Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Brett Johnson; Garibaldi, Mark

    2013-01-01

    There is an overwhelming disconnect between young adolescent girls and adults, in relationship to perceptions of middle schoolgirl risk taking. This mixed-methods study investigates the differences between adult practitioners and middle school girls' perceptions of risk taking, understanding of consequences, and needs among middle school…

  5. Alcohol and Sexual Risk Behaviors as Mediators of the Sexual Victimization - Revictimization Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Testa, Maria; Hoffman, Joseph H.; Livingston, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Women who experience sexual victimization, whether in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood, are at elevated risk of sexual revictimization. The mechanism responsible for this robust association is unclear, however. The present study proposed and tested a prospective, mediated model that posited that the association between adolescent and college victimization is mediated via two types of risk exposure in the first semester of college: alcohol-related and sexual risk behaviors. Method: Female adolescents (N = 469) were recruited from the community at the time of high school graduation. They completed baseline assessments as well as follow-ups at the end of the first and second semesters of college. Results: Consistent with hypotheses, adolescent sexual victimization was associated indirectly, via high school risk behaviors, with increased first semester college risk behaviors (i.e., sexual partners, hookups, heavy episodic drinking and heavy drinking contexts), which were, in turn, strongly predictive of sexual victimization experiences in the first year of college. College risk behaviors partially mediated the significant association between adolescent and first year college victimization; however, even women without prior victimization faced elevated risk of college victimization with higher levels of college risk behaviors. Conclusions: Women who have experienced adolescent sexual victimization engage in higher levels of risk-taking in college, thereby increasing vulnerability to college victimization. Intervention to reduce these primarily alcohol-related risk-taking behaviors may reduce vulnerability to college sexual victimization. PMID:20350035

  6. Exploring associations between exposure to sexy online self-presentations and adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavior.

    PubMed

    van Oosten, Johanna M F; Peter, Jochen; Boot, Inge

    2015-05-01

    Previous research suggests that adolescents' social network site use is related to their sexual development. However, the associations between adolescents' exposure to sexy self-presentations of others on social network sites and their sexual attitudes and experience have not yet been empirically supported. This study investigated reciprocal longitudinal relationships between adolescents' exposure to others' sexy self-presentations on social network sites and their sexual attitudes (i.e., sexual objectification of girls and instrumental attitudes towards sex) and sexual experience. We further tested whether these associations depended on adolescents' age and gender. Results from a representative two-wave panel study among 1,636 Dutch adolescents (aged 13-17, 51.5 % female) showed that exposure to sexy online self-presentations of others predicted changes in adolescents' experience with oral sex and intercourse 6 months later, but did not influence their sexual attitudes. Adolescents' instrumental attitudes towards sex, in turn, did predict their exposure to others' sexy online self-presentations. Sexual objectification increased such exposure for younger adolescents, but decreased exposure for older adolescents. In addition, adolescents' experience with genital touching as well as oral sex (only for adolescents aged 13-15) predicted their exposure to sexy self-presentations of others. These findings tentatively suggest that the influence on adolescents' sexual attitudes previously found for sexual media content may not hold for sexy self-presentations on social network sites. However, exposure to sexy self-presentations on social network sites is motivated by adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavior, especially among young adolescents. PMID:25287000

  7. Core Competencies and the Prevention of High-Risk Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Vignetta Eugenia; Blum, Robert Wm.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent sexual risk-taking behavior has numerous individual, family, community, and societal consequences. In an effort to contribute to the research and propose new directions, this chapter applies the core competencies framework to the prevention of high-risk sexual behavior. It describes the magnitude of the problem, summarizes explanatory…

  8. Adolescents' Sexual Behavior and Academic Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisco, Michelle L.

    2008-01-01

    High school students have high ambitions but do not always make choices that maximize their likelihood of educational success. This was the motivation for investigating the relationships between high school sexual behavior and two important milestones in academic attainment: earning a high school diploma and enrolling in distinct postsecondary…

  9. Sexual Behavior in High-Functioning Male Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellemans, Hans; Colson, Kathy; Verbraeken, Christine; Vermeiren, Robert; Deboutte, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    Group home caregivers of 24 institutionalized, male, high-functioning adolescents and young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder, were interviewed with the Interview Sexuality Autism. Most subjects were reported to express sexual interest and to display some kind of sexual behavior. Knowledge of socio-sexual skills existed, but practical use was…

  10. Perpetrators of Early Physical and Sexual Abuse among Homeless and Runaway Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Cauce, Ana Mari

    2002-01-01

    Interviews with 372 homeless and runaway adolescents found one-half reported being physically abused and almost one-third experienced sexual abuse. Females experienced significantly higher rates of sexual abuse. Sexual minority youth experienced more physical and sexual abuse compared to heterosexual youth. Nonfamily members most often perpetrated…

  11. Sexual Aggression among Adolescents: Prevalence and Predictors in a German Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krahe, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    Examined the prevalence of sexual aggression among 197 male and 194 female adolescents from the former East Germany and West Germany using the Sexual Experiences Survey (M. Koss and C. Oros, 1982). Data suggest that coercive sexuality must be acknowledged as a reality in the sexual experiences of young adults in Germany. (SLD)

  12. Association of "Macho Man" Sexual Attitudes and Behavioral Risks in Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Ellen Johnson; Bauman, Laurie J.

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether sexual attitudes of adolescents were related to their self-reported sexual risk behavior by analyzing survey data from 1,052 boys and girls aged 14 to 17 years from a low income, urban community. Sexual behavior norms that may increase sexually transmitted infection/HIV risks in youth were sanctioned more by males and by…

  13. Sexual Socialization during Early Adolescence: The Menarche.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amann-Gainotti, Merete

    1986-01-01

    Explored early socialization of beliefs and attitudes toward menarche in 258 adolescents, aged 11 to 14 years, male and female pre- and postmenarcheal, from southern Italy. Results showed a consistent lack of accurate information by a high percentage of subjects, both male and female; negative beliefs were held only by girls, boys tended to ignore…

  14. Sexual Orientation in Adolescents Who Commit Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, David; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined relationship between suicidal behavior and homosexuality in adolescence in an unselected, matched sample. Found no evidence that suicide is a common characteristic of gay youth, or that when suicide does occur among gay teenagers, that it is a direct consequence of stigmatization or lack of support. (JBJ)

  15. Teaching Efficacy, Innovation, School Culture and Teacher Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Margaret Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is an exploratory study of teacher risk taking. The risk-taking literature in education and other types of organizations is lacking in studies exploring the concept of healthy risk taking and how that risk taking is related to other concepts such as organizational culture, innovation, and efficacy. The purpose of this study was…

  16. Starting young: sexual initiation and HIV prevention in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Dixon-Mueller, Ruth

    2009-02-01

    The rising numbers of new HIV infections among young people ages 15-24 in many developing countries, especially among young women, signal an urgent need to identify and respond programmatically to behaviors and situations that contribute to the spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in early adolescence. Quantitative and qualitative studies of the sexual knowledge and practices of adolescents age 14 and younger reveal that substantial numbers of boys and girls in many countries engage in unprotected heterosexual vaginal intercourse--by choice or coercion--before their 15th birthdays. Early initiation into male-male or male-female oral and/or anal sex is also documented in some populations. Educational, health, and social programs must reach 10-14-year-olds as well as older adolescents with the information, skills, services, and supplies (condoms, contraceptives) they need to negotiate their own protection from unwanted and/or unsafe sexual practices and to respect the rights of others. PMID:18389362

  17. [Psychoanalytic therapy of sexually abused adolescents].

    PubMed

    Hirsch, M

    1997-12-01

    Sexual abuse as an extreme childhood trauma produces distorted object-images, introjects of violence which reproduce the trauma permanently through symptoms and acting-out. Although the traumatic power should be relived in transference, psychoanalytic therapy does not always mean permanent interpretation of transference, rather supporting, confirming, valuing activity is indicated. The following scopes can be differentiated: idealization, changing the therapeutic object into a triangulating one; negative transference of an archaic destructive mother imago, nevertheless also of the traumatic object, setting free hidden aggressive affects; emerging of the specific sexual trauma in transference and counter-transference. In the whole course of therapy, especially at the end, working through of guilt-feelings, shame and mourning permits the separation from the traumatic objects, although the danger of returning to them, often represented by the real actual objects, does not guarantee a full success in all cases. PMID:9499697

  18. Are adolescents who report prior sexual abuse at higher risk for pregnancy?

    PubMed

    Rainey, D Y; Stevens-Simon, C; Kaplan, D W

    1995-10-01

    Adolescents who report prior sexual abuse are at increased risk for adolescent pregnancy. This may result from earlier, more frequent, less well-protected sexual activity or from a greater desire to conceive. To determine the relative contribution of these two possible explanations to the reported association between sexual abuse and adolescent pregnancy, we studied the reproductive and sexual histories of 200 sexually active 13-18 year old females in relation to self-reported sexual abuse. Anonymous questionnaires revealed that 40 (20%) of the 200 subjects reported sexual abuse. Analyses revealed no group differences in the median age of first voluntary intercourse, the frequency of sexual intercourse, or the consistency of birth control use. Compared to their nonabused peers, however, teenagers reporting abuse were more likely to be trying to conceive (35% vs. 14% p < .01), to have boyfriends pressuring them to conceive (76% vs. 44% p < .01), and to have fears about infertility (38% vs. 16% p < .01). Our findings suggest that childhood sexual abuse may increase the risk of adolescent pregnancy by fostering the desire to conceive. Further study is needed to determine why a disproportionate number of sexually abused adolescents desire pregnancy. The efficacy of adolescent pregnancy prevention programs may be improved by identifying previously abused adolescents and by designing educational interventions that specifically address their desire to conceive. PMID:8556442

  19. Sexual sensation-seeking and worry about sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Martínez, Olga; Bermúdez, María Paz; Teva, Inmaculada; Buela-Casal, Gualberto

    2007-11-01

    The target of this study is to assess the relationship between sexual sensation-seeking, worry about STD/HIV infection, and risky sexual behaviours among 182 adolescents aged 13-18 years. Results showed that participants who engaged in a wider range of potentially risky behaviours (e.g., sexual experience, higher number of sexual partners in last six months, and the last sexual contact with a casual partner) obtained higher sensation-seeking scores. It was also found that adolescents who engaged in sex with a casual partner in their last sexual contact reported being worried about STD/HIV infection, but adolescents having sex with a steady partner underestimated their risk of STD/HIV infection. These results support the idea that preventive programmes may benefit from including components aimed at teaching adolescents to satisfy their preferences for sexual sensation-seeking through novel and stimulating sexual behaviours involving minimum risk. Similarly, the need to include components aimed at making adolescents become realistically aware of the STD/HIV risk involved in unprotected intercourse with steady love partners is highlighted. PMID:17959123

  20. Victim Age and the Generalist Versus Specialist Distinction in Adolescent Sexual Offending.

    PubMed

    Leroux, Elisabeth J; Pullman, Lesleigh E; Motayne, Gregory; Seto, Michael C

    2016-03-01

    More knowledge is needed about the etiology and treatment needs of adolescent sex offenders. The current study compared adolescents who had offended against children (defined as below the age of 12 and at least 5 years younger than the adolescent), adolescents who have offended against peers or adults, and adolescents who had victims in both age groups. Based on Seto and Lalumière's meta-analytic findings, participants were compared on theoretically derived factors, including childhood sexual abuse, atypical sexual interests, sexual experience, social competence, psychiatric history, and general delinquency factors (past criminal history, substance abuse history, and offense characteristics). The study sample consisted of 162 court-referred male adolescent sexual offenders aged 12 to 17 years. Of the six identified domains, groups significantly differed on five of them; the exceptions were variables reflecting social competence. The results further support the validity of distinguishing adolescent sex offenders by victim age. PMID:24906363