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Sample records for adolescent smoking behaviors

  1. Maternal Smoking in Pregnancy, Child Behavior Problems, and Adolescent Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griesler, Pamela C.; Kandel, Denise B.; Davies, Mark

    1998-01-01

    Used longitudinal sample of 187 mother-child dyads to examine the role of child behavior problems in explaining the effect of maternal prenatal smoking on adolescent daughters' smoking. Found that maternal prenatal smoking retained a unique effect on girls' current smoking with controls for current maternal smoking, child behavior problems, and…

  2. Adolescents' Smoking Behavior and Attitudes: The Influence of Mothers' Smoking Communication, Behavior and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbert, Diane F.; Schiaffino, Kathleen M.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated adolescents' and parents' perceptions regarding smoking behavior, attitudes toward smoking, and smoking communication. Instruments were developed to measure multidimensional smoking communication messages and smoking attitudes in 140 mother-adolescent dyads. The prediction of relevant adolescent smoking variables is…

  3. Adolescent cigarette smoking and health risk behavior.

    PubMed

    Busen, N H; Modeland, V; Kouzekanani, K

    2001-06-01

    During the past 30 years, tobacco use among adolescents has substantially increased, resulting in major health problems associated with tobacco consumption. The purpose of this study was to identify adolescent smoking behaviors and to determine the relationship among smoking, specific demographic variables, and health risk behaviors. The sample consisted of 93 self-selecting adolescents. An ex post facto design was used for this study and data were analyzed by using nonparametric statistics. Findings included a statistically significant relationship between lifetime cigarette use and ethnicity. Statistically significant relationships were also found among current cigarette use and ethnicity, alcohol use, marijuana use, suicidal thoughts, and age at first sexual intercourse. Nurses and other providers must recognize that cigarette smoking may indicate other risk behaviors common among adolescents.

  4. Risk Factors for Smoking Behaviors among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Many students in Korea begin to use tobacco and develop a regular smoking habit before they reach adulthood. Yet, little is known about various signs contributing to the transition of the student smoking behaviors. This study used a national sample to explore and compare risk factors for smoking behaviors. Three types of smoking behaviors were…

  5. Readiness to change smoking behavior in adolescents with psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Apodaca, Timothy R; Abrantes, Ana M; Strong, David R; Ramsey, Susan E; Brown, Richard A

    2007-06-01

    There has been recent increased interest in utilizing motivational interviewing (MI) to increase adolescent readiness to quit smoking, but attempts to impact quit rates have thus far been discouraging. A better understanding of factors associated with adolescent readiness to quit smoking prior to receiving any intervention may provide guidance when tailoring future MI interventions in order to increase their effectiveness with this population. Adolescent smokers (N=191) who had been admitted to a psychiatric hospital and enrolled in a clinical trial evaluating MI completed questionnaires that assessed smoking behavior and variables thought to be related to smoking. Confidence to quit smoking and negative beliefs about smoking were significant predictors of adolescents' baseline readiness to quit smoking. The failure to demonstrate relationships between health consequences and readiness suggest that caution may be warranted in the use of feedback, a common component of MI-based interventions. Such feedback tends to focus on health consequences, which was unrelated to adolescent baseline readiness to change smoking behavior in the current study. Parallels between current results and the Theory of Planned Behavior are discussed in consideration of developing more effective MI-based interventions for adolescent smokers.

  6. Are Anti-Smoking Parenting Practices Related to Adolescent Smoking Cognitions and Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huver, Rose M. E.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; de Vries, Hein

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explain the effects of anti-smoking parenting practices on adolescent smoking cognitions and behavior by showing the mediating effects of cognitions. Data were gathered among Dutch high school students in the control condition of the European Smoking prevention Framework Approach (ESFA). Anti-smoking parenting…

  7. Systematic Review of Social Network Analysis in Adolescent Cigarette Smoking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Huang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Social networks are important in adolescent smoking behavior. Previous research indicates that peer context is a major causal factor of adolescent smoking behavior. To date, however, little is known about the influence of peer group structure on adolescent smoking behavior. Methods: Studies that examined adolescent social networks with…

  8. Measurement of adolescent smoking behavior: rationale and methods.

    PubMed

    Pechacek, T F; Murray, D M; Luepker, R V; Mittelmark, M B; Johnson, C A; Shutz, J M

    1984-03-01

    The initiation of cigarette smoking among adolescents is a health problem which has been the subject of discussion and study for many years. The evaluation of strategies to deter the adoption of smoking has long been hampered by the problems of measuring adolescent smoking behavior. Recently, interest has increased in biochemical measures of smoking under the assumption that they are more objective measures. The validity of this assumption is addressed for several ages of adolescents. This paper presents saliva thiocyanate levels, expired air carbon monoxide levels, and smoking self-reports from a sample of 2200 junior and senior high-school students. Interrelationships among the biochemical and behavioral measures are strong among the total population, ranging from 0.48 to 0.95 (Pearson r) but are much weaker at the younger age levels. Normative levels of carbon monoxide and saliva thiocyanate are presented by age (11-13, 14-15, and 16-17 years old). These data indicate that habitual smoking appears to develop in a gradual fashion and that several years may pass between initial experimentation and adult levels of smoking. Younger students consistently display lower levels of thiocyanate and carbon monoxide than older students of the same self-reported levels of smoking, suggesting that inhalation patterns may vary as a function of age or years smoking.

  9. Adolescents' Smoking Behaviors, Beliefs on the Risks of Smoking, and Exposure to ETS in Juarez, Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Yelena; Moraros, John; Olsen, Larry K.; Coronado, Gloria D.; Thompson, Beti

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess the smoking behaviors, beliefs about the risks of smoking, and exposure to ETS among adolescents in Juarez, Mexico. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with sixth-grade students (N=506), aged 11-13 years old, attending 6 randomly selected schools. Schools were classified by school setting and SES. Results:…

  10. The Theory of Planned Behavior, Domain Specific Self-Efficacy and Adolescent Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Robynne A.; Rickwood, Debra

    1997-01-01

    Used the theory of planned behavior in a sample of 15- and 16-year-old students (N=285), to create a comprehensive model for predictors of adolescent smoking. Students with lower conduct/morality self-efficacy had more positive attitudes toward smoking. Discusses results in terms of potential interventions to discourage adolescent smoking. (RJM)

  11. Adolescent Pathways to Adult Smoking: Ethnic Identity, Peer Substance Use, and Antisocial Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Judith S.; Zhang, Chenshu; Finch, Stephen J.; Brook, David W.

    2010-01-01

    African-Americans and Puerto Ricans were interviewed during adolescence, in their early twenties, and then again in their mid-twenties. Results indicated that earlier adolescent smoking, family conflict, and weak ethnic identity were significantly related to antisocial behavior, which in turn was related to associating with friends who smoked and/or used illegal drugs, and ultimately, to their own smoking. Results further indicate that early interventions in the development of tobacco use should focus on decreasing parental and adolescent smoking and parent-child conflict. If intervention occurs at a later time point, the emphasis should be on increasing ethnic identity and decreasing antisocial behavior. PMID:20163390

  12. Adolescents' Perceptions of Parental Influences on Their Smoking Behavior: A Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maggi, Stefania; Lovato, Chris Y.; Hill, Erin M.; Johnson, Joy L.; Ratner, Pamela A.; Shoveller, Jean A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe adolescents' perceptions of parental influences on their smoking behavior. Thirty-five adolescents, 14 to 18 years old, provided narrative accounts of their smoking histories in semistructured interviews. Most of the participants recognized that their parents played an important role in shaping their…

  13. Cigarette Smoking by Adolescent Females: Implications for Health and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gritz, Ellen R.

    Cigarette smoking is a behavior with profound biomedical and psychosocial consequences across the life span. Although it is advertised in terms of youth, beauty, sexual appeal, success and independence, smoking is intimately linked with addiction, disease and death. Smoking has been shown to be a leading contributer to several kinds of cancer,…

  14. Predictors of Adolescent Cigarette Smoking Behavior: A Sociological Case Study in Ankara, Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasapoglu, Aytul; Ozerkmen, Necmettin

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss important predictors of adolescent cigarette smoking behavior, such as their sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender, socioeconomic status, mother's and father's educational level, and school type), health-promoting behavior (healthy nutrition, physical activities), risk behavior (cigarette smoking and alcohol…

  15. Reading, demographic, social and psychological factors related to pre-adolescent smoking and non-smoking behaviors and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Sunseri, A J; Alberti, J M; Kent, N D; Schoenberger, J A; Sunseri, J K; Amuwo, S; Vickers, P

    1983-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine reading, demographic, social and psychological factors related to pre-adolescent smoking and non-smoking behaviors and attitudes. The school-home humanistic education program was implemented in a large, urban public school system. It stressed responsible decision-making, increased self-esteem and the inter-relationships among the acquisition of knowledge of the consequences of smoking, personal feelings, family relationships and behavior. The results showed that family involvement was necessary to affect smoking attitudes and behaviors. Of all the variables studied, reading had a most pervasive relationship. Peer influence and self-esteem also were related to smoking knowledge, smoking attitude, future smoking intentions and the "purchase" of cigarettes. Two of several conclusions drawn from the results are: 1. Family involvement is necessary to affect attitudes and behaviors. 2. Health education research that does not investigate the relationship between program outcomes and reading achievement may be misleading. PMID:6552341

  16. An Ecological System Approach to Adolescent Smoking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiium, Nora; Wold, Bente

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to simultaneously examine the effect of factors related to school, leisure, family and the individual on adolescent smoking. These determining factors occupy the micro- and mesosystems of Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Theory. Data were collected using questionnaires from a nationally representative sample of…

  17. A longitudinal test of the theory of planned behavior predicting smoking onset among asthmatic and non-asthmatic adolescents.

    PubMed

    Van De Ven, Monique O M; Engels, Rutger C M E; Otten, Roy; Van Den Eijnden, Regina J J M

    2007-10-01

    Despite the particularly detrimental health risks of smoking for adolescent with asthma, several studies demonstrated higher smoking rates among asthmatic adolescents than among healthy adolescents. To gain insight into underlying mechanisms, longitudinal studies on differences in smoking predictors between asthmatic and non-asthmatic adolescents are essential. This longitudinal study with two waves with an 18 months interval tests the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) among 346 asthmatic adolescents and 3,733 non-asthmatic adolescents aged 12-16 years. Structural equation models were used to test the predictive value of the TPB in these two groups. The results show, consistent with the TPB, that smoking-related cognitions (attitude, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norm) predict smoking onset via intention among both asthmatic and non-asthmatic adolescents. The TPB predicted smoking onset even stronger among adolescents with asthma. These findings may contribute to the development of tailored interventions for the prevention of smoking among asthmatic adolescents.

  18. Influences of Tobacco Advertising Exposure and Conduct Problems on Smoking Behaviors Among Adolescent Males and Females

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Adolescents with conduct problems are more likely to smoke, and tobacco advertising exposure may exacerbate this risk. Males’ excess risk for conduct problems and females’ susceptibility to advertising suggest gender-specific pathways to smoking. We investigated the associations between gender, conduct problems, and lifetime smoking and adolescents’ exposure to tobacco advertising, and we examined prospective relationships with smoking behaviors. Methods: Adolescents completed baseline (2001–2004; n = 541) and 5-year follow-up (2007–2009; n =320) interviews for a family study of smoking risk. Baseline interviews assessed conduct problems and tobacco advertising exposure; smoking behavior was assessed at both timepoints. Generalized linear models analyzed gender differences in the relationship between conduct problems, advertising exposure, and smoking behavior at baseline and longitudinally. Results: At baseline, among males, conduct problems were associated with greater advertising exposure independent of demographics and lifetime smoking. Among females at baseline, conduct problems were associated with greater advertising exposure only among never-smokers after adjusting for demographics. In longitudinal analyses, baseline advertising exposure predicted subsequent smoking initiation (i.e., smoking their first cigarette between baseline and follow-up) for females but not for males. Baseline conduct problems predicted current (i.e., daily or weekly) smoking at follow-up for all adolescents in adjusted models. Conclusions: The findings of this study reinforce that conduct problems are a strong predictor of subsequent current smoking for all adolescents and reveal important differences between adolescent males and females in the relationship between conduct problems, tobacco advertising behavior, and smoking behavior. The findings suggest gender-specific preventive interventions targeting advertising exposure may be warranted. PMID:24590388

  19. Adolescent Attributes and Young Adult Smoking Cessation Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Judith S.; Marcus, Stephen E.; Zhang, Chenshu; Stimmel, Matthew A.; Balka, Elinor B.; Brook, David W.

    2010-01-01

    This study collected data five times between 1983–2002 from 400 participants who originally came from upstate New York. These participants completed structured interviews as did their mothers three times. LISREL analysis generally supported the hypothesized model. The results indicated that having parents who smoked and having low educational aspirations and expectations were associated with being unconventional, which, in turn, was related to having low emotional control and reporting more internalizing behaviors. Internalizing behaviors were directly associated with a lower likelihood of smoking cessation, as was parental smoking. Research and clinical implications are discussed and the limitations noted. PMID:20482339

  20. Relationship of Acculturation and Family Functioning to Smoking Attitudes and Behaviors among Asian-American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, JieWu; Garbanati, James A.

    2004-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine the combination of acculturation, family functioning, and parental smoking as predictors of smoking attitudes and behaviors among Asian-American adolescents. The participants were 106 Asian-American high school students whose ages ranged from 15 to 19 (51 male and 55 female, mean age = 16.30…

  1. Household and School-Level Influences on Smoking Behavior among Korean Adolescents: A Multilevel Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Jongho; Oh, Juhwan; Subramanian, S. V.; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Background Trends in adolescent smoking rates in South Korea have not shown substantial progress due to a lack of effective anti-smoking interventions and policies in school settings. Methods and Findings We examined individual- and school-level determinants of adolescent smoking behavior (ever smoking, current smoking, and daily smoking) using the nationally representative fifth Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey conducted in 2009. We found that students in coeducation schools or vocational high schools had greater risks of smoking for each type of smoking behavior than those in single-sex schools or general high schools, respectively even after controlling for individual-level factors. Higher family affluence and higher weekly allowances were associated with greater risks of ever smoking, current smoking and daily smoking even after controlling for parental education and other confounders. Conclusions Whilst caution is required in interpreting results given the cross-sectional nature of the study, our findings suggest that in addition to raising the price of cigarettes, youth anti-smoking interventions in South Korea may benefit from focusing on coeducation schools and vocational high schools. PMID:24896251

  2. Parental Smoking-Specific Communication, Adolescents' Smoking Behavior and Friendship Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Leeuw, Rebecca N. H.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Harakeh, Zeena; van Leeuwe, Jan F. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether parental smoking-specific communication is related to adolescents' friendship-selection processes. Furthermore, we investigated whether adolescents and their best friends influence each other over time, and what role parents play in this process. In the present study we used data from the Family and Health…

  3. Early-Emerging Nicotine Dependence Has Lasting and Time-Varying Effects on Adolescent Smoking Behavior.

    PubMed

    Selya, Arielle S; Dierker, Lisa; Rose, Jennifer S; Hedeker, Donald; Mermelstein, Robin J

    2016-08-01

    Novice and light adolescent smokers can develop symptoms of nicotine dependence, which predicts smoking behavior several years into the future. However, little is known about how the association between these early - emerging symptoms and later smoker behaviors may change across time from early adolescence into young adulthood. Data were drawn from a 7-year longitudinal study of experimental (<100 cigarettes/lifetime; N = 594) and light (100+ cigarettes/lifetime, but ≤5 cigarettes/day; N = 152) adolescent smokers. Time-varying effect models were used to examine the relationship between baseline nicotine dependence (assessed at age 15 ± 2 years) and future smoking frequency through age 24, after controlling for concurrent smoking heaviness. Baseline smoking status, race, and sex were examined as potential moderators of this relationship. Nicotine dependence symptoms assessed at approximately age 15 significantly predicted smoking frequency through age 24, over and above concurrent smoking heaviness, though it showed declining trends at older ages. Predictive validity was weaker among experimenters at young ages (<16), but stronger at older ages (20-23), relative to light smokers. Additionally, nicotine dependence was a stronger predictor of smoking frequency for white smokers around baseline (ages 14.5-16), relative to nonwhite smokers. Nicotine dependence assessed in mid-adolescence predicts smoking frequency well into early adulthood, over and above concurrent smoking heaviness, especially among novice smokers and nonwhite smokers. Early-emerging nicotine dependence is a promising marker for screening and interventions aimed at preventing smoking progression. PMID:27312479

  4. Are you in or out? Recruitment of adolescent smokers into a behavioral smoking cessation intervention

    PubMed Central

    Thrul, Johannes; Stemmler, Mark; Goecke, Michaela; Bühler, Anneke

    2015-01-01

    Even though many adolescent smokers want to quit, it is difficult to recruit them into smoking cessation interventions. Little is known about which adolescent smokers are currently reached by these measures. In this study we compare participants of a group-based, cognitive behavioral smoking cessation intervention with adolescent smokers who decided against participating. Within a non-randomized controlled trial, data of 1053 smokers (age 11–19) from 42 German secondary schools were analyzed. Of these smokers, 272 were recruited into 47 courses of the intervention. An in-class information session, individually addressing potential participants, and incentives were used as means of recruitment. Personal predictors of participation were analyzed using regression analyses and multivariate path analyses to test for mediation. In the path analysis model, nicotine dependence, quit motivation, and a previous quit attempt were directly positively related to participation. Heavier smoking behavior was indirectly positively associated with participation through nicotine dependence and negatively through quit motivation, yielding an overall positive indirect effect. The positive effect of a previous quit attempt on participation was partially mediated through nicotine dependence and quit motivation. The proportion of smoking friends were indirectly positively related to participation, mediated through nicotine dependence. Since adolescents with heavier smoking behavior and stronger nicotine dependence are less likely to undertake a successful unassisted quit attempt, the reach of these young smokers with professional cessation interventions is desirable. Further measures to improve the recruitment of those currently not motivated to quit have to be examined in future studies. PMID:25678303

  5. Social Influences, Social Norms, Social Support, and Smoking Behavior among Adolescent Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Pebbles; Eisenberg, Marla; Stoddard, Anne M.; Frazier, Lindsay; Sorensen, Glorian

    2001-01-01

    Examined relationships between worksite influences and smoking and quitting behavior among adolescent grocery employees. Surveys on interpersonal, intrapersonal, and organizational factors indicated that regular smokers were 30 percent more likely to receive co-worker encouragement to quit than occasional and experimental smokers. Compared to…

  6. Different Forms of Bullying and Their Association to Smoking and Drinking Behavior in Italian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieno, Alessio; Gini, Gianluca; Santinello, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Background: Using data from the 2006 Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey, the prevalence of 6 forms of bullying (physical, verbal, relational, sexual, cyber, and racist), and the role of smoking and drinking in bullying was examined among Italian adolescents for this study. Methods: The sample was composed of 2667 Italian middle…

  7. Affective behavior and temperament predict the onset of smoking in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Cheetham, Ali; Allen, Nicholas B; Schwartz, Orli; Simmons, Julian G; Whittle, Sarah; Byrne, Michelle L; Sheeber, Lisa; Lubman, Dan I

    2015-06-01

    Earlier use of tobacco in adolescence is associated with numerous adverse outcomes later in life. Although a number of studies have linked individual differences in affective functioning to adolescent smoking, these have relied primarily on self-report measures, and the contribution of different dimensions of affect to the onset of tobacco use during this period remains unclear. The current study examined these issues in a sample of 180 adolescents recruited from an ongoing prospective, longitudinal study examining emotional development. At approximately age 12, participants completed a questionnaire measure of affective temperament and took part in a family interaction task that was coded observationally to provide measures of dysphoric, aggressive, and positive behaviors. At 2 subsequent assessments, which took place approximately 2.5 years and 4 years after the initial assessment, participants completed a questionnaire measure of substance use. In total, 70 participants initiated smoking between the ages of 12 and 17. An earlier onset of smoking was predicted by more aggressive and less positive observed behavior during the interaction task, as well as lower levels of self-reported temperamental Effortful Control. There were no associations between dysphoric behaviors, or temperamental measures of negative affectivity or surgency and the onset of smoking. The findings add to a small body of literature demonstrating that behavioral components of affect can prospectively predict substance use in adolescence and suggest that different dimensions of affect show unique relationships with early substance use. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Does it matter what friends think, say, or do? The role of friends' smoking attitudes and behavior for Dutch adolescents' smoking behavior.

    PubMed

    Huisman, Chip

    2014-05-01

    Using stochastic actor-based models for longitudinal network analysis, this study examines the role of friends' smoking attitudes and behavior for Dutch adolescents' smoking behavior in four secondary schools (N = 875). The data were collected in two waves in two small suburban towns under second graders in 2008 to 2009 by means of a standardized questionnaire. Stochastic actor-based models for longitudinal network analysis can control for friendship selection while examining the effect of friends' attitudes and smoking behavior on the smoking behavior of a student. The findings suggest that friends tend to select each other on similar smoking behavior. Influence of friends' smoking behavior seems to play no role. In one school, an effect of friends' attitudes towards smoking on the smoking behavior is found. The implications for future research are to consider attitudes when examining the influence of friendship network on smoking behavior. The main limitation of this study lies in the limited sample, which makes generalizations to the general population difficult.

  9. Factors that Influence Adolescents to Smoke.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karen H.; Stutts, Mary Ann

    1999-01-01

    A survey of the factors that influence adolescents (n=246) to smoke found that family smoking behavior, peer pressure, and prior beliefs were more important in predicting smoking level than were advertising and antismoking information. (Author/JOW)

  10. Cognitions about smoking and not smoking in adolescence.

    PubMed

    ter Doest, Laura; Dijkstra, Arie; Gebhardt, Winifred A; Vitale, Salvatore

    2009-08-01

    The theory of planned behavior identifies important proximal determinants of behavior, including attitude toward the behavior, perception of subjective norms exerted by significant others, and perception of perceived control over performance of the behavior. Because research in the planned behavior tradition has focused on desirable target behaviors, it is not clear how these determinants can best be conceptualized to account for adolescents' acquisition of health risk behaviors such as smoking. This cross-sectional study compared the explanatory power of planned behavior constructs assessed in relation to "smoking" and "not smoking" in a sample of 248 Dutch secondary students (aged 12 to 17 years; 56% girls). The results indicated that four variables--attitude toward smoking, perceived subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control over both smoking and not smoking--best explained the adolescents' smoking intentions and smoking behavior. Methodological and practical implications for smoking interventions are discussed.

  11. Coevolution of adolescent friendship networks and smoking and drinking behaviors with consideration of parental influence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng; Hipp, John R; Butts, Carter T; Jose, Rupa; Lakon, Cynthia M

    2016-05-01

    Friendship tie choices in adolescent social networks coevolve simultaneously with youths' cigarette smoking and drinking. We estimate direct and multiplicative relationships between both peer influence and peer selection with salient parental factors affecting both friendship tie choice and the use of these 2 substances. We utilize 1 sample of 12 small schools and a single large school extracted from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Using a Stochastic Actor-Based modeling approach over 3 waves, we find: (a) a peer selection effect, as adolescents nominated others as friends based on cigarette and alcohol use levels across samples; (b) a peer influence effect, as adolescents adapted their smoking and drinking behaviors to those of their best friends across samples; (c) reciprocal effect between cigarette and alcohol usage in the small school sample; (d) a direct effect of parental support and the home smoking environment on adolescent friendship tie choice in the small school sample; (e) a direct effect of the home smoking environment on smoking across samples; (f) a direct effect of the home drinking environment on alcohol use across samples; and (g) a direct effect of parental monitoring on alcohol use across samples. We observed an interaction between parental support and peer influence in affecting drinking, and an interaction between the home drinking environment and peer influence on drinking, in the small school sample. Our findings suggested the importance of delineating direct and synergistic pathways linking network processes and parental influence as they affect concurrent cigarette and alcohol use. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Coevolution of adolescent friendship networks and smoking and drinking behaviors with consideration of parental influence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng; Hipp, John R; Butts, Carter T; Jose, Rupa; Lakon, Cynthia M

    2016-05-01

    Friendship tie choices in adolescent social networks coevolve simultaneously with youths' cigarette smoking and drinking. We estimate direct and multiplicative relationships between both peer influence and peer selection with salient parental factors affecting both friendship tie choice and the use of these 2 substances. We utilize 1 sample of 12 small schools and a single large school extracted from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Using a Stochastic Actor-Based modeling approach over 3 waves, we find: (a) a peer selection effect, as adolescents nominated others as friends based on cigarette and alcohol use levels across samples; (b) a peer influence effect, as adolescents adapted their smoking and drinking behaviors to those of their best friends across samples; (c) reciprocal effect between cigarette and alcohol usage in the small school sample; (d) a direct effect of parental support and the home smoking environment on adolescent friendship tie choice in the small school sample; (e) a direct effect of the home smoking environment on smoking across samples; (f) a direct effect of the home drinking environment on alcohol use across samples; and (g) a direct effect of parental monitoring on alcohol use across samples. We observed an interaction between parental support and peer influence in affecting drinking, and an interaction between the home drinking environment and peer influence on drinking, in the small school sample. Our findings suggested the importance of delineating direct and synergistic pathways linking network processes and parental influence as they affect concurrent cigarette and alcohol use. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26962975

  13. Smoking and adolescent health

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    With the Westernization and opening of our society, adolescents' smoking is increasing and being popularized. Many adolescents start smoking at an early age out of curiosity and venturesomeness, and earlier start of smoking makes it more difficult to quit smoking. Adolescents' habitual smoking not only becomes a gateway to all kinds of substance abuse but also causes various health problems including upper respiratory infection, immature lung development, reduced maximum vital capacity, and lung cancer. Therefore, it is quite important to prevent adolescents from smoking. The lowering of adolescents' smoking rate cannot be achieved only through social restrictions such as stereotyped education on the harms of smoking and ID checking. In order to lower adolescents' smoking rate substantially, each area of society should develop standardized programs and make related efforts. As adolescents' smoking is highly influenced by home environment or school life, it is necessary to make efforts in effective education and social reinforcement in school, to establish related norms, and to execute preventive education using peer groups. When these efforts are spread throughout society in cooperation with homes and communities, they will be helpful to protect adolescents' health and improve their quality of life. PMID:22232621

  14. Gambling behaviors and attitudes in adolescent high-school students: Relationships with problem-gambling severity and smoking status

    PubMed Central

    Weinberger, Andrea H.; Franco, Christine A.; Hoff, Rani A.; Pilver, Corey E.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Wampler, Jeremy; Cavallo, Dana A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Smoking is associated with more severe/extensive gambling in adults. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between smoking and gambling in adolescents. Methods Analyses utilized survey data from 1,591 Connecticut high-school students. Adolescents were classified by gambling (Low-Risk Gambling [LRG], At Risk/Problem Gambling [ARPG]) and smoking (current smoker, non-smoker). The main effects of smoking and the smoking-by-gambling interactions were examined for gambling behaviors (e.g., type, location), and gambling attitudes. Data were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression; the latter controlled for gender, race/ethnicity, grade, and family structure. Results For APRG adolescents, smoking was associated with greater online, school, and casino gambling; gambling due to anxiety and pressure; greater time spent gambling; early gambling onset; perceived parental approval of gambling; and decreased importance of measures to prevent teen gambling. For LRG adolescents, smoking was associated with non-strategic gambling (e.g., lottery gambling); school gambling; gambling in response to anxiety; gambling for financial reasons; greater time spent gambling; and decreased importance of measures to prevent teen gambling. Stronger relationships were found between smoking and casino gambling, gambling due to pressure, earlier onset of gambling, and parental perceptions of gambling for ARPG versus LRG adolescents. Discussion Smoking is associated with more extensive gambling for both low- and high-risk adolescent gamblers. Conclusion Smoking may be a marker of more severe gambling behaviors in adolescents and important to consider in gambling prevention and intervention efforts with youth. PMID:25959617

  15. Parenting practices and adolescent smoking in mainland China: the mediating effect of smoking-related cognitions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Krishnakumar, Ambika; Narine, Lutchmie

    2014-08-01

    This study examined the direct and indirect associations of general and smoking-specific parenting practices with Chinese adolescents' smoking behaviors. Adolescents aged 14-17 years (N = 658) and their parents were recruited from three high schools in mainland China. Adolescents completed an anonymous online survey on their smoking behaviors, perceptions of parenting behaviors, and smoking-related cognitions including attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control. Parents completed a paper-and-pencil questionnaire on their parenting behaviors. Results indicated that psychological control and frequency of communication about smoking were positively linked to adolescent smoking through the mediation of two smoking-related cognitions-attitude and subjective norm. Parental knowledge of adolescent activities, disapproval of adolescent smoking, and home rules were negatively linked to adolescent smoking through the mediation of attitude and subjective norm. Results suggest that parenting practices and smoking-related cognitions are critical components to be incorporated in prevention and intervention programs for adolescent smoking in China.

  16. Association of smokeless tobacco use and smoking in adolescents in the US: Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, R. Constance

    2014-01-01

    Background Using smokeless tobacco and smoking are risk behaviors for oral cancer, soft tissue lesions, caries, periodontal disease and other oral conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine adolescent smokeless tobacco use and smoking. Methods The study was a cross-sectional analysis of participants with complete data on smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and other variables of interest in the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n=9655). Descriptive analysis and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed. Results The unadjusted odds ratio for smokeless tobacco use and smoking was 9.68 (95% CI: 7.72, 12.13, p<.0001); the adjusted odds ratio was 3.92 (95%CI: 2.89, 5.31, p<.0001). Adolescents using smokeless tobacco were more likely to be male, to smoke, and to have engaged in binge drinking. Conclusions Adolescents who are using smokeless tobacco are more likely to also be engaging in concomitant smoking and are participating in other risk-taking behaviors. Practice implications Dentists are involved in helping patients in tobacco cessation. The strong association of smoking with smokeless tobacco needs to be considered in designing cessation programs for adolescents. PMID:23904581

  17. The Effects of Antismoking Messages From Family, School, and Mass Media on Smoking Behavior and Smoking Intention Among Chinese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shaohua; Koplan, Jeffrey; Eriksen, Michael P; Yao, Shuo; Redmon, Pamela; Song, Julia; Uretsky, Elanah; Huang, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of adolescent smoking has been increasing rapidly in China. Expanding adolescent exposure to antismoking messages may be an effective approach to prevent tobacco use among this population. Using a cross-sectional sample of 8,444 high school students in four Chinese cities, this study assessed the relation between self-reported exposure to antismoking messages from families, schools, and mass media and the rate of past 30-day smoking and smoking intention among junior and senior high school students. Results from logistic regression suggested that antismoking messages delivered via school and media inhibited both tobacco use and the intention to smoke. The effects of familial warnings about harmful effects of smoking, in contrast, were at best insignificant.

  18. Beliefs and attitudes of male and female adolescents and the risk of smoking behavior

    PubMed Central

    Kasim, K; Al-Zalabani, A; Abd El-Moneim, ES; Amer, S

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adolescent smoking relates to numerous risk factors, of which beliefs and attitudes toward smoking may play a role. The study aimed to investigate the association between beliefs and attitudes and the risk of adolescent smoking. Materials and Methods: In a school-based cross-sectional study, 3,400 students were recruited from 34 intermediate and secondary schools in Madinah City, Al Madinah Region, Saudi Arabia. Data about sociodemographics, smoking-related factors, and beliefs and attitudes toward smoking were collected using a valid and reliable self-administered questionnaire. Prevalence of smoking was estimated and the studied beliefs and attitudes were compared by smoking status and sex using appropriate statistical analyses including multivariate logistic regression. Results: Of the 3,322 respondents, 33.02% (38.9% males and 26.4% females) were current smokers. Beliefs and attitudes toward smoking significantly differed between smokers and nonsmokers in the studied male and female students. The adjusted risk of smoking was significantly increased among female adolescents who believed that male smokers were more attractive [odds ratio (OR) = 2.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.6-2.9] and among male smokers who believed that female smokers are more attractive (OR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.2-2.2). The risk was also increased among all adolescents who believed that smoking lent comfort in social gatherings. Belief that smoking is harmful, however, was negatively associated with the risk of smoking, particularly among females (OR = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.35-0.91). Conclusions: The study revealed a considerable high prevalence of smoking among male and female adolescents. Addressing the beliefs and knowledge about smoking during childhood is crucial in any antismoking program. PMID:27089105

  19. Parenting practices and adolescent risk behavior: rules on smoking and drinking also predict cannabis use and early sexual debut.

    PubMed

    de Looze, Margaretha; van den Eijnden, Regina; Verdurmen, Jacqueline; Vermeulen-Smit, Evelien; Schulten, Ingrid; Vollebergh, Wilma; ter Bogt, Tom

    2012-12-01

    Previous research has provided considerable support for idea that increased parental support and control are strong determinants of lower prevalence levels of adolescent risk behavior. Much less is known on the association between specific parenting practices, such as concrete rules with respect to smoking and drinking and adolescent risk behavior. The present paper examined whether such concrete parental rules (1) have an effect on the targeted behaviors and (2) predict other, frequently co-occurring, risk behaviors (i.e., cannabis use and early sexual intercourse). These hypotheses were tested in a nationally representative sample of 12- to 16-year-old adolescents in the Netherlands. We found that both types of rules were associated with a lower prevalence of the targeted behaviors (i.e., smoking and drinking). In addition, independent of adolescent smoking and drinking behaviors, parental rules on smoking predicted a lower prevalence of cannabis use and early sexual intercourse, and parental rules on alcohol use also predicted a lower prevalence of early sexual intercourse. This study showed that concrete parental rule setting is more strongly related to lower levels of risk behaviors in adolescents compared to the more general parenting practices (i.e., support and control). Additionally, the effects of such rules do not only apply to the targeted behavior but extend to related behaviors as well. These findings are relevant to the public health domain and suggest that a single intervention program that addresses a limited number of concrete parenting practices, in combination with traditional support and control practices, may be effective in reducing risk behaviors in adolescence.

  20. An examination of exposure and avoidance behavior related to second-hand cigarette smoke among adolescent girls in Canada

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although rates of tobacco use and exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) are declining in Canada, SHS exposure among non-smoking adolescents remains high. This study aimed to describe frequency, locations, and avoidance behavior related to SHS exposure among adolescent girls in British Columbia, Canada. Methods Data were analyzed from 841 adolescent girls aged 13 to 15 years old who completed an internet-delivered survey as part of a cohort study examining SHS exposure and substance use. Measures assessed demographics, smoking behavior and intentions, frequency and locations of SHS exposure, and avoidance behavior related to SHS. Results Excluding their own smoking, 27% of girls reported exposure at least once a week and an additional 17% reported daily or almost daily exposure over the past month. Among girls who reported daily or almost daily exposure, the locations of most frequent levels of high exposure were in the home, at or near school, inside a vehicle, and outdoor public places. Avoidance behavior related to SHS exposure significantly differed by overall SHS exposure in the past month. Conclusions Despite historically low smoking rates, many adolescent girls continue to report regular SHS exposure in multiple locations in British Columbia. Girls with the most frequent exposure were significantly less likely to report habitual avoidance behavior related to SHS compared to those less frequently exposed. This study elucidates settings of high SHS exposure among adolescent girls that could be targeted in future policy interventions. Additionally, future interventions could target adolescent girls who are frequently exposed to SHS and report infrequent avoidance behavior around their SHS exposure. PMID:24885176

  1. Subjective Invulnerability and Perceptions of Tobacco-Related Benefits Predict Adolescent Smoking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, Holly E. R.; Lapsley, Daniel K.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying factors that influence adolescents' decisions to start smoking is necessary to improve interventions for reducing tobacco use. The current longitudinal study was designed to determine the direction of influence between feelings of invulnerability to harm and cigarette smoking, and to test whether the perceived risks and benefits of…

  2. Onset of Smoking Behaviors and Participation in Leisure Physical Activities of Turkish Adolescents Attending Vocational Health Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subasi, Feryal; Hey, William; Mumcu, Gonca; Koksal, Leyla; Luleci, Emel; Sur, Haydar

    2006-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted with the aim of examining the relationships between smoking behavior and leisure physical activity habits of adolescents (n=170, 85F & 85M, mean age= 15.42 [plus or minus] 0.58, age range=15-17 years) attending vocational health schools in Turkey. Participants were randomly selected from four provinces of…

  3. Explaining adolescents' smoking and drinking behavior: the concept of smoker and drinker prototypes in relation to variables of the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Spijkerman, Renske; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Vitale, Salvatore; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2004-11-01

    Research has demonstrated that social image factors play an important role in the course of adolescent's substance use, that is, smoking and drinking. The concept of social images or prototypes is embedded into a theoretical model called the prototype/willingness model. The present study addresses the relative value of the prototype/willingness model in relation to the theory of planned behavior. To study relations between prototypes and adolescents' willingness and intention to engage in smoking and drinking behavior, cross-sectional data among 2814 adolescents (12-16 years) were gathered. Results show that adolescents describe daily-smoking and weekly-drinking peers generally as slightly well adjusted, slightly rebellious, not really cool, and not really attractive. Positive relations were observed between smoker and drinker prototypes and adolescents' intention and willingness to smoke and drink in the future. Furthermore, regression analyses showed that prototypes of daily-smoking and weekly-drinking peers explained a significant part of the variance in intention and willingness to smoke and drink, and added significantly to the variance explained by the variables of the theory of planned behavior.

  4. Estimating the Transitional Probabilities of Smoking Stages with Cross-sectional Data and 10-Year Projection for Smoking Behavior in Iranian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Ahmad; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Mahmoodi, Mahmood; Pouyan, Ali Akbar; Holakouie-Naieni, Kourosh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking is one of the most important health-related risk factors in terms of morbidity and mortality. In this study, we introduced a new method for deriving the transitional probabilities of smoking stages from a cross-sectional study and simulated a long-term smoking behavior for adolescents. Methods: In this study in 2010, a total of 4853 high school students were randomly selected and were completed a self-administered questionnaire about cigarette smoking. We used smoothed age- and sex-specific prevalence of smoking stages in a probabilistic discrete event system for estimating of transitional probabilities. A nonhomogenous discrete time Markov chain analysis was used to model the progression of the smoking in 10 years ahead in the same population. The mean age of the students was 15.69 ± 0.73 years (range: 14–19). Results: The smoothed prevalence proportion of current smoking varies between 3.58 and 26.14%. The age-adjusted odds of initiation in boys is 8.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.9–10.0) times of the odds of initiation of smoking in girls. Our study predicted that the prevalence proportion of current smokers increased from 7.55% in 2010 to 20.31% (95% CI: 19.44–21.37) for 2019. Conclusions: The present study showed a moderately but concerning prevalence of current smoking in Iranian adolescents and introduced a novel method for estimation of transitional probabilities from a cross-sectional study. The increasing trend of cigarette use among adolescents indicated the necessity of paying more attention to this group. PMID:27625766

  5. Estimating the Transitional Probabilities of Smoking Stages with Cross-sectional Data and 10-Year Projection for Smoking Behavior in Iranian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Ahmad; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Mahmoodi, Mahmood; Pouyan, Ali Akbar; Holakouie-Naieni, Kourosh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking is one of the most important health-related risk factors in terms of morbidity and mortality. In this study, we introduced a new method for deriving the transitional probabilities of smoking stages from a cross-sectional study and simulated a long-term smoking behavior for adolescents. Methods: In this study in 2010, a total of 4853 high school students were randomly selected and were completed a self-administered questionnaire about cigarette smoking. We used smoothed age- and sex-specific prevalence of smoking stages in a probabilistic discrete event system for estimating of transitional probabilities. A nonhomogenous discrete time Markov chain analysis was used to model the progression of the smoking in 10 years ahead in the same population. The mean age of the students was 15.69 ± 0.73 years (range: 14–19). Results: The smoothed prevalence proportion of current smoking varies between 3.58 and 26.14%. The age-adjusted odds of initiation in boys is 8.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.9–10.0) times of the odds of initiation of smoking in girls. Our study predicted that the prevalence proportion of current smokers increased from 7.55% in 2010 to 20.31% (95% CI: 19.44–21.37) for 2019. Conclusions: The present study showed a moderately but concerning prevalence of current smoking in Iranian adolescents and introduced a novel method for estimation of transitional probabilities from a cross-sectional study. The increasing trend of cigarette use among adolescents indicated the necessity of paying more attention to this group.

  6. Community-level adult daily smoking prevalence moderates the association between adolescents' cigarette smoking and perceived smoking by friends.

    PubMed

    Thrul, Johannes; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Grube, Joel W; Friend, Karen B

    2014-09-01

    Few studies have investigated the complex interactions among the individual- and community-level social risk factors that underlie adolescents' smoking behaviors. This study investigated whether community-level adult daily smoking prevalence is associated with adolescents' smoking and whether it moderates the associations between perceived friends' smoking approval and smoking behavior and adolescents' own smoking. Self-reported data from 1,190 youths (50.3% female; 13-18 years old) in 50 midsized Californian cities were obtained through telephone interviews. Community characteristics were obtained from 2010 GeoLytics data. Community adult daily smoking prevalence was ascertained from telephone interviews with 8,918 adults conducted in the same 50 cities. Multilevel analyses, controlling for individual and city characteristics, were used to predict adolescents' past 12-month smoking from perceived friends' smoking approval and smoking behavior and from community adult daily smoking prevalence. Results showed that perceived friends' smoking approval and behavior were associated positively with adolescents' smoking, as was the community-level prevalence of adult daily smoking. Furthermore, the association between perceived friends' smoking behavior and adolescents' own smoking was moderated by the prevalence of adult daily smokers in the community. Specifically, the association was stronger in cities with higher prevalence of adult smokers. These results suggest that adult community norms that are more supportive of smoking may enhance the influence of friends' smoking behavior. Therefore, interventions designed to prevent or reduce youths' smoking should also focus on reducing smoking by adults.

  7. Utility of the theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior for predicting Chinese adolescent smoking.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qian; Johnson, C Anderson; Unger, Jennifer B; Lee, Liming; Xie, Bin; Chou, Chih-Ping; Palmer, Paula H; Sun, Ping; Gallaher, Peggy; Pentz, MaryAnn

    2007-05-01

    One third of smokers worldwide live in China. Identifying predictors of smoking is important for prevention program development. This study explored whether the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) predict adolescent smoking in China. Data were obtained from 14,434 middle and high school students (48.6% boys, 51.4% girls) in seven geographically varied cities in China. TRA and TPB were tested by multilevel mediation modeling, and compared by multilevel analyses and likelihood ratio tests. Perceived behavioral control was tested as a main effect in TPB and a moderation effect in TRA. The mediation effects of smoking intention were supported in both models (p<0.001). TPB accounted for significantly more variance than TRA (p<0.001). Perceived behavioral control significantly interacted with attitudes and social norms in TRA (p<0.001). Therefore, TRA and TPB are applicable to China to predict adolescent smoking. TPB is superior to TRA for the prediction and TRA can better predict smoking among students with lower than higher perceived behavioral control.

  8. Smoking in Movies and Adolescent Smoking Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Sargent, James D.; Engels, Rutger C.M.E.; Scholte, Ron H.J.; Florek, Ewa; Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen; Mathis, Federica; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2013-01-01

    Background Longitudinal studies from the U.S. suggest a causal relationship between exposure to images of smoking in movies and adolescent smoking onset. Purpose This study investigates whether adolescent smoking onset is predicted by the amount of exposure to smoking in movies across six European countries with various cultural and regulatory approaches to tobacco. Methods Longitudinal survey of 9987 adolescent never-smokers recruited in the years 2009–2010 (mean age 13.2 years) in 112 state-funded schools from Germany, Iceland, Italy, The Netherlands, Poland, and the United Kingdom (UK), and followed-up in 2011. Exposure to movie smoking was estimated from 250 top-grossing movies in each country. Multilevel mixed-effects Poisson regressions were performed in 2012 to assess the relationship between exposure at baseline and smoking status at follow-up. Results During the observation period (M=12 months), 17% of the sample initiated smoking. The estimated mean exposure to on-screen tobacco was 1560 occurrences. Overall, and after controlling for age; gender; family affluence; school performance; TVscreen time; personality characteristics; and smoking status of peers, parents, and siblings, exposure to each additional 1000 tobacco occurrences increased the adjusted relative risk for smoking onset by 13% (95% CI=8%, 17%, p<0.001). The crude relationship between movie smoking exposure and smoking initiation was significant in all countries; after covariate adjustment, the relationship remained significant in Germany, Iceland, The Netherlands, Poland, and UK. Conclusions Seeing smoking in movies is a predictor of smoking onset in various cultural contexts. The results confirm that limiting young people’s exposure to movie smoking might be an effective way to decrease adolescent smoking onset. PMID:23498098

  9. Intergenerational Patterns of Smoking and Nicotine Dependence Among US Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Griesler, Pamela C.; Hu, Mei-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined associations between parental and adolescent smoking and nicotine dependence in the United States. Methods. We used data from the 2004 to 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, which ascertained smoking behaviors of 1 parent and 1 adolescent aged 12 to 17 years in 35 000 dyads. We estimated associations between parental and adolescent smoking behaviors, adjusted for covariates. Results. Parental current dependence was strongly associated with adolescents’ lifetime smoking (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.96; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.47, 3.55), whereas parental current nondependent smoking (AOR = 2.26; 95% CI = 1.92, 2.67) and former smoking (AOR = 1.51; 95% CI = 1.31, 1.75) were less strongly associated. Only parental nicotine dependence was associated with adolescent nicotine dependence (AOR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.00, 2.74). Associations between parental and adolescent smoking did not differ by race/ethnicity. Parents’ education, marital status, and parenting and adolescents' mental health, beliefs about smoking, perception of schoolmates’ smoking, and other substance use predicted adolescent smoking and dependence. Conclusions. Reducing parental smoking would reduce adolescent smoking. Prevention efforts should encourage parental smoking cessation, improve parenting, address adolescent mental health, and reinforce adolescents' negative beliefs about smoking. PMID:26378847

  10. The Home Smoking Environment: Influence on Behaviors and Attitudes in a Racially Diverse Adolescent Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muilenburg, Jessica Legge; Latham, Teaniese; Annang, Lucy; Johnson, William D.; Burdell, Alexandra C.; West, Sabra J.; Clayton, Dixie L.

    2009-01-01

    Although studies indicate that public policy can influence the decrease in smoking behaviors, these policies have not necessarily transferred to home environments at the same rate. The authors surveyed 4,296 students in a southern urban area. African American students were 76.3% of the respondents and Caucasians accounted for 23.7%. African…

  11. Perceptions of Second-hand Smoke Risks Predict Future Adolescent Smoking Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Anna V.; Glantz, Stanton A.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To directly test whether perceptions of second-hand smoke risks deter adolescent smoking initiation. Methods A longitudinal survey design was utilized in this study. Baseline surveys measuring perceptions of tobacco-related risks and smoking behaviors were administered to 395 high school students, with three follow-up assessments every 6 months. Results Perceptions of personal second-hand smoke risks and parental second-hand smoke risks significantly deterred adolescent smoking initiation. Perceptions of personal second-hand smoke risks reduced the odds of smoking by a factor of 0.63 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.42–0.94) for each quartile increase in perceptions of personal second-hand smoke risks. Adolescents who provided the highest estimates of risks for personal second-hand smoke were 0.25 as likely to smoke as adolescents who provided the lowest estimates of risk. Perceptions of parental second-hand smoke risks reduced the odds of smoking by a factor of 0.64 (95% CI = 0.43–0.93) for each quartile increase. Adolescents who perceived the highest estimates of risks associated with parental second-hand smoke were 0.26 as likely to smoke in the future compared to adolescents who provided the lowest estimates of risk. These effects are over three times as large as a smoking peer’s influence on a nonsmoking adolescents’ risk for smoking initiation, odds ratio [OR] = 1.18 (95% CI = 1.02–1.35). Conclusions Adolescent perceptions of risks of second-hand smoke are strongly associated with smoking initiation. Encouraging adolescents to express their objections to second-hand smoke, as well as encouraging parents to create smoke-free homes, may be powerful tobacco control strategies against adolescent smoking. PMID:19931835

  12. Smoking cessation programs for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Donovan, K A

    2000-10-01

    Many smoking cessation programs for adult smokers are described in the medical and nursing literature. Programs designed to prevent smoking among adolescents and children also are prevalent in the literature. Despite these prevention programs, many adolescents choose to start smoking. Once adolescents begin smoking, it is difficult to find ways to help them quit. Few programs exist that are targeted to help this population with smoking cessation. This article provides an in-depth review of 5 smoking cessation programs designed for adolescents. Each of the programs presents unique strategies for helping teenage smokers quit. Techniques used in these programs include peer leadership, nicotine patch therapy, peer support, computer instruction, and one-on-one counseling with a nurse practitioner. Each program was studied for efficacy with adolescents. Although none of the programs reviewed showed remarkable success, they serve as guides for future program development. Additional programs need to be developed and studied with larger, more diverse populations. Nurses must identify or develop smoking cessation programs that meet the needs of all types of adolescents and are effective in helping them to quit. Once designed, these smoking cessation programs should be made accessible to adolescents in a variety of settings.

  13. Exposure to Smoking Imagery in Popular Films and Adolescent Smoking in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F.; Jackson, Christine; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Sargent, James D.

    2008-01-01

    Background Exposure to smoking imagery in films is consistently associated with smoking behavior and its psychological antecedents among adolescents in high-income countries, but its association with adolescent smoking in middle-income countries is unknown. Methods In 2006, a cross-sectional sample of 3876 Mexican adolescents in secondary school was surveyed on smoking behavior, smoking risk factors, and exposure to 42 popular films that contained smoking. Participants were classified into quartiles of exposure to smoking imagery across all films they reported having seen. Models were estimated to determine associations among quartiles of film-smoking exposure, smoking behavior, and the psychological antecedents of smoking, adjusting for age, gender, sensation seeking, self-esteem, parental smoking, sibling smoking, best-friend smoking, having a bedroom TV, and private versus public school attendance. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Results Adolescents were exposed to an average of 51.7 (SE=1.3) minutes of smoking in the films they viewed. Crude and adjusted ORs indicated positive associations between quartiles of film-smoking exposure and both current smoking (AOR4v1=3.13; p<0.0001) and having ever smoked (AOR4v1=2.42; p<0.0001). Data from never-smokers (n=2098) were analyzed to determine associations between film-smoking exposure and psychological antecedents of smoking uptake. Crude and adjusted coefficients indicated significant, positive associations between exposure and susceptibility to smoking (AOR4v1=1.66; p<0.05); favorable attitudes toward smoking (Adjusted B4v1=0.44; p<0.0001); and perceived peer prevalence of smoking (Adjusted B4v1=0.26; p<0.0001). Conclusions Exposure to smoking in films appears associated with smoking among Mexican adolescents. Policies could aim to decrease youth exposure to smoking in nationally and internationally distributed films. PMID:18617078

  14. Young Adult Smoking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Pamela M.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the U.S., and new strategies to decrease young adult smoking are needed. The objective of the current study was to identify psychographic and demographic factors associated with current smoking and quitting behaviors among young adults. Methods Attitudes, social groups, and self-descriptors, including supporting action against the tobacco industry, advertising receptivity, depression, alcohol use, and other factors associated with smoking were tested for associations with smoking behaviors in a 2005 cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults (aged 18–25 years) from a web-enabled panel. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Results Being older was associated with current smoking, whereas having some higher education and being African American or Hispanic were negatively associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with smoking (AOR=0.34 [95% CI=0.22, 0.52]). Perceived usefulness of smoking, exposure to smokers, increased perceived smoking prevalence, receptivity to tobacco advertising, binge drinking, and exposure to tobacco advertising in bars and clubs were associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was associated with intentions to quit smoking (AOR= 4.43 [95% CI=2.18, 8.60]). Conclusions Young adults are vulnerable to tobacco-industry advertising. Media campaigns that denormalize the tobacco industry and appeal to young adults appear to be a powerful intervention to decrease young adult smoking. PMID:19269128

  15. "Deviance Proneness" and Adolescent Smoking 1980 versus 2001: Has There Been a "Hardening" of Adolescent Smoking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio; Sherman, Steven J.

    2007-01-01

    In a midwestern community sample, we tested for evidence of "hardening" of adolescent cigarette smoking between 1980 and 2001 by comparing adolescent smokers and nonsmokers at these two times on measures indicative of "deviance proneness" in Jessor and Jessor's [Jessor, R., & Jessor, S. L. (1977). "Problem behavior and psychosocial development: A…

  16. Program Strategies for Adolescent Smoking Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritz, Deborah J.; Wider, Lottchen Crane; Hardin, Sally B.; Horrocks, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    School nurses who work with adolescents are in an ideal position to promote smoking cessation. This opportunity is important because research suggests teens who smoke are likely to become habitual smokers. This study characterizes adolescents' patterns and levels of smoking, describes adolescents' perceptions toward smoking, and delineates quit…

  17. Reducing Smoking among Pregnant Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Joanne; Coates, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes psychosocial intervention designed to reduce smoking in a group of pregnant teenagers. Five modules are presented, each being designed to heighten awareness of the issue; provide motivational messages; enhance the adolescent's social skills; and teach specific smoking-cessation skills. (Author/NB)

  18. Smoking in Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Richard I.; And Others

    Intended primarily for researchers and prevention program personnel, this booklet provides current background information on the continuing problem of smoking among children and adolescents. In the first brief section, research findings concerning American youth's current smoking patterns and beliefs are described. The second section considers…

  19. Smoking in film and impact on adolescent smoking: with special reference to European adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sargent, J D

    2006-02-01

    This review examines the evidence supporting an association between seeing smoking depictions in movies and adolescent smoking. The portrayal of tobacco use is common in movies and often modeled by movie stars who, from a social influences standpoint, should be powerful behavior change agents. The results of studies assessing audience responses to tobacco portrayal in movies are remarkably consistent in showing a moderate to strong association between seeing movie smoking and more positive attitudes toward smoking and adolescent smoking initiation. The population-based data include cross sectional samples from different regions of the United States, all supporting a movie smoking-teen smoking link. The 2 published longitudinal studies show an independent link between exposure to movie smoking at baseline and initiation in the future, with estimates of the effect size being remarkably consistent with their cross-sectional counterparts. Experimental research adds support by showing that scene depictions of smoking enhance positive views of smokers and increase intent to smoke in the future. Taken as a whole, this rich research base provides very strong support for the notion that movie smoking plays a role in smoking initiation among adolescents that warrants action at the individual and societal level. A major gap in our understanding is the impact of Hollywood movies on adolescents outside the United States. There is a real need for studies to be conducted in European and other populations to better understand the global reach of smoking in American film, since over half of box office revenues come from outside the United States.

  20. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Non-Smoking Adolescents' Intentions to Smoke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Brian N.; Bean, Melanie K.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Speizer, Ilene S.; Fries, Elizabeth A.

    2007-01-01

    Smoking is the most preventable cause of death in the United States. Most adult smokers began smoking during adolescence, making youth tobacco prevention an especially important public health goal. Guided by an extension of the theory of planned behavior (TPB), this study examined the role of psychosocial factors in accounting for adolescents'…

  1. Own and Friends' Smoking Attitudes and Social Preference as Early Predictors of Adolescent Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otten, Roy; Wanner, Brigitte; Vitaro, Frank; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the role of friends' attitudes in adolescent smoking (N = 203). Growth mixture modeling was used to identify three trajectories of smoking behavior from ages 12 to 14 years: a "low-rate" group, an "increasing-rate" group, and a "high-rate" group. Adolescents' own and their friends' attitudes at age 11 years were not…

  2. Time-varying effects of smoking quantity and nicotine dependence on adolescent smoking regularity

    PubMed Central

    Selya, Arielle S.; Dierker, Lisa C.; Rose, Jennifer S.; Hedeker, Donald; Tan, Xianming; Li, Runze; Mermelstein, Robin J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about time-varying effects of smoking quantity and nicotine dependence on the regularity of adolescent smoking behavior. Methods The sample was drawn from the Social and Emotional Contexts of Adolescent Smoking Patterns Study which followed adolescent smokers over 5 assessment waves spanning 48 months. Participants included former experimenters (smoked <100 cigarettes/lifetime but did not smoke in past 90 days), recent experimenters (smoked <100 cigarettes/lifetime and smoked in past 90 days), and current smokers (smoked >100 cigarettes/lifetime and smoked in past 30 days). Mixed-effects regression models were run to examine the time-varying effects of smoking quantity and nicotine dependence on regularity of smoking behavior, as measured by number of days smoked. Results Smoking quantity and nicotine dependence were each found to be significantly associated with regularity of adolescent smoking and the size of each effect exhibited significant variation over time. The effect of smoking quantity decreased across time for each smoking group, while the effect of nicotine dependence increased across time for former and recent experimenters. By the 48-month follow-up, the effects of smoking quantity and nicotine dependence had each stabilized across groups. Conclusions This study reveals that smoking quantity and nicotine dependence are not static risk factors for the development of more regular smoking patterns. At low levels of smoking when nicotine dependence symptoms are less common, smoking quantity is a stronger predictor of increased regularity of smoking, while for more experienced smokers, nicotine dependence predicts further increases in regularity. PMID:22995764

  3. Does allowing adolescents to smoke at home affect their consumption and dependence?

    PubMed

    Luther, Emily J; Parzynski, Craig S; Jaszyna-Gasior, Maria; Bagot, Kara S; Royo, Marc B; Leff, Michelle K; Moolchan, Eric T

    2008-06-01

    Negative parental attitudes towards smoking decrease adolescent smoking initiation but limited research explores the relationship between parental attitudes and degree of adolescent smoking among established smokers. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between parental allowance of smoking in the home and adolescent smoking behavior and level of dependence. Interviews from 408 youths seeking assistance to quit smoking showed that adolescents who were allowed to smoke at home smoked more cigarettes per day and had higher scores on the Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence than those not allowed to smoke at home. Studies that additionally evaluate parental smoking status and the temporal relationship of parental allowance of smoking with changes in adolescent smoking behavior are warranted to clarify public health implications of parental smoking interdictions. PMID:18272294

  4. Adolescents and Smoking: Evidence from France and Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosanquet, Nick; Magee, Jayne

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on recent evidence now available from France and Spain on the smoking behavior of adolescents and young people. Evidence indicates that it will be a massive challenge to reduce smoking among young people. Argues that public awareness of the threat to health from smoking should be raised and that public health measures require further…

  5. Smoking Media Literacy in Vietnamese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; Huong, Nguyen T.; Chi, Hoang K.; Tien, Truong Q.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Smoking media literacy (SML) has been found to be independently associated with reduced current smoking and reduced susceptibility to future smoking in a sample of American adolescents, but not in other populations of adolescents. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess SML in Vietnamese adolescents and to determine the…

  6. Peer, parent and media influences on adolescent smoking by developmental stage.

    PubMed

    Villanti, Andrea; Boulay, Marc; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies of social influences on adolescent smoking have focused on peers and parents, using data collected prior the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement. This study used the 2004 wave of the National Youth Tobacco Survey to examine associations between peer smoking, smoking at home, tobacco-related media exposure, and smoking behavior during early and middle adolescence. Findings indicate that peer smoking and smoking at home remain strongly associated with current smoking among early and middle adolescents, controlling for gender, race/ethnicity and exposure to tobacco industry and anti-tobacco media. The magnitude of the association between peer smoking and current smoking decreases from early adolescence to middle adolescence while the association between smoking at home and current smoking is static across developmental stage. Exposure to tobacco-related media is associated with increased current and former smoking in both early and middle adolescence.

  7. The role of cognitive attributions for smoking in subsequent smoking progression and regression among adolescents in China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qian; Unger, Jennifer B; Palmer, Paula H; Chou, Chih-Ping; Johnson, C Anderson

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have documented that cognitive attributions are correlated with adolescent smoking. The present study further explored whether cognitive attributions for smoking influenced adolescents' future smoking behaviors, especially transitions to more advanced stages of smoking. Participants were 12,382 middle and high school students (48.5% males and 51.5% females) in seven large cities in China. They completed two waves of surveys one year apart. Cognitive attributions for smoking and three smoking behavior outcomes (lifetime smoking, past 30-day smoking, and daily smoking) were assessed. Changes in smoking, including progression from lower stages to higher stages and regression from higher stages to lower stages, over a one-year period, were defined longitudinally. Polychotomous logistic regression was used to examine associations between cognitive attributions for smoking and changes in smoking status over one year, adjusting for demographic characteristics and other plausible confounders. Seven out of eight cognitive attributions for smoking were associated with subsequent smoking behaviors (p<0.05). Curiosity, autonomy, social image, social belonging, and coping influenced earlier stages of smoking, whereas mental enhancement and engagement influenced later stages of smoking. Curiosity, autonomy, social image, and mental enhancement preceded smoking progression; social belonging prevented smoking regression; and coping and engagement both preceded smoking progression and prevented smoking regression. This study demonstrates that different cognitive attributions influence smoking at different stages in different ways. These findings could inform smoking prevention and cessation programs targeting Chinese adolescents.

  8. Family Structure, Family Processes, and Adolescent Smoking and Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Susan L.; Rinelli, Lauren N.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether family structure was associated with adolescent risk behaviors, including smoking and drinking. Family living arrangements have become increasingly diverse, yet research on adolescent risk behaviors has typically relied on measures of family structure that do not adequately capture this diversity. Data from the…

  9. Smoking Cessation Failure among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sung Reul; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Hye Young; Ko, Sung Hee; Park, Minyoung

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify smoking cessation failure subgroups among Korean adolescents. Participants were 379 smoking adolescents who joined a smoking cessation program. A questionnaire and a cotinine urine test were administered before the program began. Three months after the program ended, the cotinine urine test was repeated. A…

  10. Mass Media for Smoking Cessation in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Laura J.; Bunn, Janice Y.; Flynn, Brian S.; Pirie, Phyllis L.; Worden, John K.; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2009-01-01

    Theory-driven, mass media interventions prevent smoking among youth. This study examined effects of a media campaign on adolescent smoking cessation. Four matched pairs of media markets in four states were randomized to receive or not receive a 3-year television/radio campaign aimed at adolescent smoking cessation based on social cognitive theory.…

  11. Social Contexts of Regular Smoking in Adolescence: Towards a Multidimensional Ecological Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, Ming; Van Duker, Heather; Olson, Lenora M.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the Add Health, this study examined multilevel factors of adolescent smoking after controlling for the baseline smoking behavior and individual characteristics. Results showed that peer, family and school were all important life domains contextually influencing subsequent smoking behavior among adolescents. Time spent with peers,…

  12. Weaker Self-Esteem in Adolescence Predicts Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Saari, Antti J.; Kentala, Jukka; Mattila, Kari J.

    2015-01-01

    Background. To study whether weaker self-esteem in adolescence is connected with smoking behavior in adulthood. Methods. An age cohort born in 1979 responded to the Lawrence Self-Esteem Questionnaire (LAWSEQ) at the age of 16 (n = 1,072). Respondents' smoking behavior was monitored annually during adolescence and 75.3% (n = 813) of them remained nonsmokers during adolescence. A follow-up questionnaire eliciting smoking behavior was sent to the adolescent nonsmokers at the age of 29 years. Response rate at follow-up was 46.2% (n = 376). Results. Weaker self-esteem (LAWSEQ score ≥ 3) during the adolescence was not significantly associated with smoking in adulthood. However, those respondents who had weaker self-esteem in adolescence had increased risk of having been smoking regularly (adjusted OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1–3.0) although not all of them were smokers at the time of the follow-up. Conclusions. Those with weaker self-esteem in adolescence are more likely to smoke regularly in adulthood. PMID:26273640

  13. Movie Character Smoking and Adolescent Smoking: Who Matters More, Good Guys or Bad Guys?

    PubMed Central

    Tanski, Susanne E.; Stoolmiller, Mike; Cin, Sonya Dal; Worth, Keilah; Gibson, Jennifer; Sargent, James D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between smoking onset and exposure to movie smoking according to character type. Methods A longitudinal, random-digit-dial telephone survey of 6522 US adolescents was performed with movie exposure assessed at 4 time points over 24 months. Adolescents were asked whether they had seen a random subsample of recently released movies, for which we identified smoking by major characters and type of portrayal (divided into negative, positive, and mixed/neutral categories). Multivariate hazard regression analysis was used to assess the independent effects of these exposures on the odds of trying smoking. Results By the 24-month follow-up survey, 15.9% of baseline never-smokers had tried smoking. Within the sample of movies, 3848 major characters were identified, of whom 69% were male. Smokers represented 22.8% of 518 negative characters, 13.7% of 2486 positive characters, and 21.1% of 844 mixed/neutral characters. Analysis of the crude relationship showed that episodes of negative character smoking exposure had the strongest influence on smoking initiation. However, because most characters were portrayed as positive, exposure to this category was greatest. When the full population effect of each exposure was modeled, each type of character smoking independently affected smoking onset. There was an interaction between negative character smoking and sensation-seeking with stronger response for adolescents lower in sensation-seeking. Conclusions Character smoking predicts adolescent smoking initiation regardless of character type, which demonstrates the importance of limiting exposure to all movie smoking. Negative character portrayals of smoking have stronger impact on low risk-taking adolescents, undercutting the argument that greater exposure is a marker for adolescent risk-taking behavior. PMID:19564293

  14. Social Psychological Factors in Adolescent Cigarette Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Steven J.; And Others

    Results emanating from smoking cessation programs suggest the necessity for a greater commitment to research for primary smoking prevention. Because of the early onset of smoking, more research must focus on adolescents and preadolescents who have not yet begun to smoke regularly. Three areas of concentrated study are proposed: (1) the initiation…

  15. Mass media for smoking cessation in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Laura J; Bunn, Janice Y; Flynn, Brian S; Pirie, Phyllis L; Worden, John K; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2009-08-01

    Theory-driven, mass media interventions prevent smoking among youth. This study examined effects of a media campaign on adolescent smoking cessation. Four matched pairs of media markets in four states were randomized to receive or not receive a 3-year television/radio campaign aimed at adolescent smoking cessation based on social cognitive theory. The authors enrolled 2,030 adolescent smokers into the cohort (n = 987 experimental; n = 1,043 comparison) and assessed them via annual telephone surveys for 3 years. Although the condition by time interaction was not significant, the proportion of adolescents smoking in the past month was significantly lower in the experimental than comparison condition at 3-year follow-up when adjusted for baseline smoking status. The media campaign did not impact targeted mediating variables. A media campaign based on social cognitive constructs produced a modest overall effect on smoking prevalence among adolescents, but the role of theory-based constructs is unclear.

  16. Examination of a Process Model of Adolescent Smoking Self-Change Efforts in Relation to Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPherson, Laura; Myers, Mark G.

    2010-01-01

    Little information describes how adolescents change their smoking behavior. This study investigated the role of gender in the relationship of motivation and cognitive variables with adolescent smoking self-change efforts. Self-report and semi-structured interview data from a prospective study of smoking self-change efforts were examined among 98…

  17. Adolescent cancer survivors’ smoking intentions are associated with aggression, attention, and smoking history

    PubMed Central

    Tyc, Vida L.; Wilson, Stephanie J.; Nelms, Jenna; Hudson, Melissa M.; Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping; Hinds, Pamela S.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The present study examines behavioral and psychosocial factors associated with smoking intentions and experimentation among adolescent survivors of pediatric cancer. Methods Adolescent survivors of brain tumor and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n=99) provided information about their smoking histories and their intentions to smoke in the future. Behavior rating scales were completed by survivors, parents, and teachers. Results Past experimentation with smoking and higher levels of self-reported aggression were associated with intentions to smoke in the future (OR=4.18, 95%CI 1.02–17.04, and OR=1.08, 95% CI 1.01–1.15, respectively), while teacher-ratings of inattention in the classroom were negatively associated with intentions to smoke (OR=0.94, 95% CI.88–.99), all p<.05. Experimentation with smoking was more likely among older survivors (OR=1.76, 95% CI 1.16–2.66, p<.01) and those whose parents had divorced (OR=4.40, 95% CI 1.21–16.06, p<.05). Discussion A concerning minority of adolescent survivors have clear intentions to smoke, a behavior that adds to their overall health risk. Smoking intentions and experimentation are important precursors to regular smoking. Prevention efforts are needed to interrupt the progression from intentions and experimentation to established smoking and nicotine dependence in this medically vulnerable population. Implications for cancer survivors Assessment of an adolescent’s history of parental divorce, past experimentation with smoking, and aggressive behavior will identify those survivors who are likely to consider smoking in the future. Screening for these characteristics will allow clinicians to be more vigilant in health promotion. PMID:20922493

  18. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Smoking Behavior across Adolescence and Young Adulthood in the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development and the Transitions to Substance Abuse Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Do, Elizabeth K; Prom-Wormley, Elizabeth C; Eaves, Lindon J; Silberg, Judy L; Miles, Donna R; Maes, Hermine H

    2015-02-01

    Little is known regarding the underlying relationship between smoking initiation and current quantity smoked during adolescence into young adulthood. It is possible that the influences of genetic and environmental factors on this relationship vary across sex and age. To investigate this further, the current study applied a common causal contingency model to data from a Virginia-based twin study to determine: (1) if the same genetic and environmental factors are contributing to smoking initiation and current quantity smoked; (2) whether the magnitude of genetic and environmental factor contributions are the same across adolescence and young adulthood; and (3) if qualitative and quantitative differences in the sources of variance between males and females exist. Study results found no qualitative or quantitative sex differences in the relationship between smoking initiation and current quantity smoked, though relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors changed across adolescence and young adulthood. More specifically, smoking initiation and current quantity smoked remain separate constructs until young adulthood, when liabilities are correlated. Smoking initiation is explained by genetic, shared, and unique environmental factors in early adolescence and by genetic and unique environmental factors in young adulthood; while current quantity smoked is explained by shared environmental and unique environmental factors until young adulthood, when genetic and unique environmental factors play a larger role.

  19. Application of the protection motivation theory in predicting cigarette smoking among adolescents in China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yaqiong; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J; Chen, Xinguang; Xie, Nianhua; Chen, Jing; Yang, Niannian; Gong, Jie; Macdonell, Karen Kolmodin

    2014-01-01

    Reducing tobacco use among adolescents in China represents a significant challenge for global tobacco control. Existing behavioral theories developed in the West - such as the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) - may be useful tools to help tackle this challenge. We examined the relationships between PMT factors and self-reported cigarette smoking behavior and intention among a random sample of vocational high school students (N=553) in Wuhan, China. Tobacco-related perceptions were assessed using the PMT Scale for Adolescent Smoking. Among the total sample, 45% had initiated cigarette smoking, and 25% smoked in the past month. Among those who never smoked, 15% indicated being likely or very likely to smoke in a year. Multiple regression modeling analysis indicated the significance of the seven PMT constructs, the four PMT perceptions and the two PMT pathways in predicting intention to smoke and actual smoking behavior. Overall, perceived rewards of smoking, especially intrinsic rewards, were consistently positively related to smoking intentions and behavior, and self-efficacy to avoid smoking was negatively related to smoking. The current study suggests the utility of PMT for further research examining adolescent smoking. PMT-based smoking prevention and clinical smoking cessation intervention programs should focus more on adolescents' perceived rewards from smoking and perceived efficacy of not smoking to reduce their intention to and actual use of tobacco. PMID:24157424

  20. Application of the protection motivation theory in predicting cigarette smoking among adolescents in China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yaqiong; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J; Chen, Xinguang; Xie, Nianhua; Chen, Jing; Yang, Niannian; Gong, Jie; Macdonell, Karen Kolmodin

    2014-01-01

    Reducing tobacco use among adolescents in China represents a significant challenge for global tobacco control. Existing behavioral theories developed in the West - such as the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) - may be useful tools to help tackle this challenge. We examined the relationships between PMT factors and self-reported cigarette smoking behavior and intention among a random sample of vocational high school students (N=553) in Wuhan, China. Tobacco-related perceptions were assessed using the PMT Scale for Adolescent Smoking. Among the total sample, 45% had initiated cigarette smoking, and 25% smoked in the past month. Among those who never smoked, 15% indicated being likely or very likely to smoke in a year. Multiple regression modeling analysis indicated the significance of the seven PMT constructs, the four PMT perceptions and the two PMT pathways in predicting intention to smoke and actual smoking behavior. Overall, perceived rewards of smoking, especially intrinsic rewards, were consistently positively related to smoking intentions and behavior, and self-efficacy to avoid smoking was negatively related to smoking. The current study suggests the utility of PMT for further research examining adolescent smoking. PMT-based smoking prevention and clinical smoking cessation intervention programs should focus more on adolescents' perceived rewards from smoking and perceived efficacy of not smoking to reduce their intention to and actual use of tobacco.

  1. An exploratory randomized controlled trial of a novel high-school-based smoking cessation intervention for adolescent smokers using abstinence-contingent incentives and cognitive behavioral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cavallo, Dana A.; Cooney, Judith L.; Schepis, Ty S.; Kong, Grace; Liss, Thomas B.; Liss, Amanda K.; McMahon, Thomas J.; Nich, Charla; Babuscio, Theresa; Rounsaville, Bruce J.; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Background There are few effective smoking cessation interventions for adolescent smokers. We developed a novel intervention to motivate tobacco use behavior change by 1) enhancing desire to quit through the use of abstinence-contingent incentives (CM), 2) increasing cessation skills through the use of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and 3) removing cessation barriers through delivery within high schools. Methods An exploratory four-week, randomized controlled trial was conducted in Connecticut high schools to dismantle the independent and combined effects of CM and CBT; smokers received CM alone, CBT alone, or CM+CBT. Participants included 82 adolescent smokers seeking smoking cessation treatment. The primary outcome was seven-day end-of-treatment (EOT) point prevalence (PP) abstinence, determined using self-reports confirmed using urine cotinine levels. Secondary outcomes included one-day EOT PP abstinence and cigarette use during treatment and follow up. Results Among participants who initiated treatment (n=72), group differences in seven-day EOT-PP abstinence were observed (χ2=10.48, p<0.01) with higher abstinence in the CM+CBT (36.7%) and CM (36.3%) conditions when compared with CBT (0%). One-day EOT-PP abstinence evidenced similar effects (χ2= 10·39, p<0·01; CM+CBT: 43%, CM: 43%, CBT: 4·3%). Survival analyses indicated differences in time to first cigarette during treatment (χ2=8·73, p =·003; CBT: Day 3, CM: Day 9, CM+CBT: Day 20). At one-and three-month follow ups, while no differences were observed, the CM alone group had the slowest increase in cigarette use. Conclusions High-school, incentive-based smoking cessation interventions produce high rates of short-term abstinence among adolescent smokers; adding cognitive behavioral therapy does not appear to further enhance outcomes. PMID:23523130

  2. Life Events, Genetic Susceptibility, and Smoking among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pampel, Fred C.; Boardman, Jason D.; Daw, Jonathan; Stallings, Michael C.; Smolen, Andrew; Haberstick, Brett; Widaman, Keith F.; Neppl, Tricia K.; Conger, Rand D.

    2015-01-01

    Although stressful life events during adolescence are associated with the adoption of unhealthy behaviors such as smoking, both social circumstances and physical traits can moderate the relationship. This study builds on the stress paradigm and gene-environment approach to social behavior by examining how a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene 5-HTTLPR moderates the effect of life events on adolescent smoking. Tests of interaction hypotheses use data from the Family Transitions Project, a longitudinal study of 7th graders followed for 5 years. A sibling-pair design with separate models for the gender composition of pairs (brothers, sisters, or brother/sister) controls for unmeasured family background. The results show that negative life events are significantly and positively associated with smoking. Among brother pairs but not other pairs, the results provide evidence of gene-environment interaction by showing that life events more strongly influence smoking behavior for those with more copies of the 5-HTTLPR S allele. PMID:26463545

  3. Associations between Smoking and Extreme Dieting among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Jiang, Nan

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the association between cigarette smoking and dieting behaviors and trends in that association among US adolescents in grades 9-12 between 1999 and 2007. Youth Risk Behavior Survey datasets were analyzed using the multivariable logistic regression method. The sample size of each survey year ranged from 13,554 to 15,273 with…

  4. Smoking and Adolescence: Exploring Tobacco Consumption and Related Attitudes in Three Different Adolescent Groups in Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosson, Marlene; Maggiori, Christian; Gygax, Pascal Mark; Gay, Christelle

    2012-01-01

    The present study constitutes an investigation of tobacco consumption, related attitudes and individual differences in smoking or non-smoking behaviors in a sample of adolescents of different ages in the French-speaking part of Switzerland. We investigated three school-age groups (7th-grade, 9th-grade, and the second-year of high school) for…

  5. Relationship between Cigarette Smoking and Other Unhealthy Behaviors among Our Nation's Youth: United States, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willard, Jean C.; Schoenborn, Charlotte A.

    1995-01-01

    Cigarette smoking almost always begins in the adolescent years and smoking at early ages increases the risk of becoming ill or dying from causes attributable to smoking. This report uses data from the 1992 National Health Interview Survey of Youth Risk Behavior and presents prevalence estimates for selected unhealthy behaviors among adolescents in…

  6. Percentage of U.S. Adolescents Who Smoke Cigarettes

    MedlinePlus

    ... U.S. Adolescents Who Smoke Cigarettes Percentage of U.S. Adolescents Who Smoke Cigarettes Tobacco use is the leading ... This measure is calculated by the Division of Adolescent and School Health, National Center for Chronic Disease ...

  7. The Behavioral Aspects of Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krasnegor, Norman A., Ed.

    These five papers present a compact summary of current biological, behavioral and psychosocial research on cigarette smoking behavior. They focus especially on the addictive and dependence processes related to smoking and its effects on health. While much is known, recommendations for further research are suggested on topics including: nicotine,…

  8. Smoker identity development among adolescents who smoke.

    PubMed

    Hertel, Andrew W; Mermelstein, Robin J

    2016-06-01

    Adolescents who smoke are more likely to escalate their smoking frequency if they believe smoking is self-defining. Knowing factors that are associated with development of a smoker identity among adolescents who smoke may help to identify who will become a regular smoker. We investigated whether smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. For comparison, we also investigated whether social smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. Adolescents who smoke (n = 292) completed measures of smoker and social smoker identity, internal motives for smoking (negative affect coping, positive affect enhancement), and external motives for smoking (social fit) at baseline, 6-, 15-, and 24-month assessments of an ongoing longitudinal study of smoking patterns. We examined whether change in smoker and social smoker identity from 6 to 24 months was associated with change in motives at earlier assessment waves. We also explored whether gender moderated these relationships. Increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with smoker identity development among both males and females. Increases in social motives were associated with smoker identity development among males, and increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with social smoker identity development among females. Smoker and social smoker identities are signaled by negative affect coping as well as social motives for smoking. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27136374

  9. Smoker identity development among adolescents who smoke.

    PubMed

    Hertel, Andrew W; Mermelstein, Robin J

    2016-06-01

    Adolescents who smoke are more likely to escalate their smoking frequency if they believe smoking is self-defining. Knowing factors that are associated with development of a smoker identity among adolescents who smoke may help to identify who will become a regular smoker. We investigated whether smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. For comparison, we also investigated whether social smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. Adolescents who smoke (n = 292) completed measures of smoker and social smoker identity, internal motives for smoking (negative affect coping, positive affect enhancement), and external motives for smoking (social fit) at baseline, 6-, 15-, and 24-month assessments of an ongoing longitudinal study of smoking patterns. We examined whether change in smoker and social smoker identity from 6 to 24 months was associated with change in motives at earlier assessment waves. We also explored whether gender moderated these relationships. Increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with smoker identity development among both males and females. Increases in social motives were associated with smoker identity development among males, and increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with social smoker identity development among females. Smoker and social smoker identities are signaled by negative affect coping as well as social motives for smoking. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. Smoker Identity Development among Adolescents who Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Hertel, Andrew W.; Mermelstein, Robin J.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents who smoke are more likely to escalate their smoking frequency if they believe smoking is self-defining. Knowing factors that are associated with development of a smoker identity among adolescents who smoke may help to identify who will become a regular smoker. We investigated whether smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. For comparison, we also investigated whether social smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. Adolescents who smoke (n = 292) completed measures of smoker and social smoker identity, internal motives for smoking (negative affect coping, positive affect enhancement), and external motives for smoking (social fit) at baseline, 6-, 15-, and 24-month assessments of an ongoing longitudinal study of smoking patterns. We examined whether change in smoker and social smoker identity from 6 to 24 months was associated with change in motives at earlier assessment waves. We also explored whether gender moderated these relationships. Increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with smoker identity development among both males and females. Increases in social motives were associated with smoker identity development among males, and increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with social smoker identity development among females. Smoker and social smoker identities are signaled by negative affect coping as well as social motives for smoking. PMID:27136374

  11. Factors Related to Smoking Habits of Male Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Naing, Nyi Nyi; Ahmad, Zulkifli; Musa, Razlan; Hamid, Farique Rizal Abdul; Ghazali, Haslan; Bakar, Mohd Hilmi Abu

    2004-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the factors related to smoking habits of adolescents among secondary school boys in Kelantan state, Malaysia. A total of 451 upper secondary male students from day, boarding and vocational schools were investigated using a structured questionnaire. Cluster sampling was applied to achieve the required sample size. The significant findings included: 1) the highest prevalence of smoking was found among schoolboys from the vocational school; 2) mean duration of smoking was 2.5 years; 3) there were significant associations between smoking status and parents' smoking history, academic performance, perception of the health hazards of smoking, and type of school attended. Peer influence was the major reason students gave for taking up the habit. Religion was most often indicated by non-smokers as their reason for not smoking. Approximately 3/5 of the smokers had considered quitting and 45% of them had tried at least once to stop smoking. Mass media was indicated as the best information source for the students to acquire knowledge about negative aspects of the smoking habit. The authors believe an epidemic of tobacco use is imminent if drastic action is not taken, and recommend that anti-smoking campaigns with an emphasis on the religious aspect should start as early as in primary school. Intervention programs to encourage behavior modification of adolescents are also recommended.

  12. Factors Related to Smoking Habits of Male Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Naing, Nyi Nyi; Ahmad, Zulkifli; Musa, Razlan; Hamid, Farique Rizal Abdul; Ghazali, Haslan; Bakar, Mohd Hilmi Abu

    2004-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the factors related to smoking habits of adolescents among secondary school boys in Kelantan state, Malaysia. A total of 451 upper secondary male students from day, boarding and vocational schools were investigated using a structured questionnaire. Cluster sampling was applied to achieve the required sample size. The significant findings included: 1) the highest prevalence of smoking was found among schoolboys from the vocational school; 2) mean duration of smoking was 2.5 years; 3) there were significant associations between smoking status and parents' smoking history, academic performance, perception of the health hazards of smoking, and type of school attended. Peer influence was the major reason students gave for taking up the habit. Religion was most often indicated by non-smokers as their reason for not smoking. Approximately 3/5 of the smokers had considered quitting and 45% of them had tried at least once to stop smoking. Mass media was indicated as the best information source for the students to acquire knowledge about negative aspects of the smoking habit. The authors believe an epidemic of tobacco use is imminent if drastic action is not taken, and recommend that anti-smoking campaigns with an emphasis on the religious aspect should start as early as in primary school. Intervention programs to encourage behavior modification of adolescents are also recommended. PMID:19570279

  13. Examining Hookah Smoking Among a Cohort of Adolescent Ever Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Mermelstein, Robin

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Evidence suggests that hookah smoking is growing among adolescents, particularly among those with a history of cigarette smoking, and is an emerging public health concern. We examined hookah use and its correlates among a sample of adolescents who have ever smoked and may be considered high risk for hookah use. Methods: We examined differences between hookah users and nonusers among a cohort of 951 adolescents (75.3% of the baseline sample, mean age 17.6 years at 24 months), consisting exclusively of youth who reported ever smoking cigarettes who were participating in a longitudinal study of adolescent smoking predictors and patterns. Ever and 30-day hookah use were assessed at 24 months. Results: Of the 951 participants, 58.5% reported ever use and 30.2% reported smoking hookah at least 1 day in the past 30 days. Multivariate logistic regression analyses found that 30-day hookah use was associated with sex (p < .05); race (p < .001); current cigarette (p < .0001), cigar (p < .01), kretek (p < .05), and alcohol use (p < .01); and attending a hookah bar, lounge, or restaurant (p < .001). Participants who were male, White, and were concurrent users of multiple tobacco products and other substances had increased odds of 30-day hookah use. Conclusions: Prevalence of hookah use is high among youth who have already tried cigarette smoking and is associated with a variety of tobacco and other substance use behaviors. Evidence-based programs may be needed to prevent initiation of or reduce Hookah smoking, as well as address cooccurring problem behaviors, to lessen the health risks associated with use among adolescents. PMID:21896886

  14. Adolescents' perceptions of smoking and stress reduction.

    PubMed

    Scales, Monica B; Monahan, Jennifer L; Rhodes, Nancy; Roskos-Ewoldsen, David; Johnson-Turbes, Ashani

    2009-08-01

    The present study examined how adolescents perceive the relationship between smoking and stress and where they learn that smoking cigarettes may be an effective stress-reduction mechanism. Eight focus groups were conducted with low-income African American and European American 14- to 16-year-olds in urban and rural locations, in which they suggested that the primary reasons why they smoked-namely, as a coping mechanism (to calm nerves), for social acceptance, and because of environmental influences. Family issues, boyfriend/girlfriend problems, and school were common stressors. Although participants overwhelmingly believed that people smoke to reduce their stress, a few believed that cigarettes do not actually reduce stress. When asked for examples of smoking in popular media, teens predominantly generated examples of individuals smoking to reduce stress. Ethnic and gender differences were found among the types of media in which they had seen smoking, their opinions of anti-smoking messages, and the media's perceived influence.

  15. Smoking in Hollywood movies: impact on teen smoking with special reference to German adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes studies that have linked exposure to movie smoking and smoking initiation among adolescents. Much of the research linking exposure to smoking to movies with adolescent smoking comes from studies of U.S. children and their exposure to smoking in Hollywood movies. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have assessed such exposure and have found a strong, independent association with smoking onset. A first study conduced in Germany reveals that smoking in internationally distributed movies is a risk factor for ever and current smoking among European adolescents, too. It is concluded that limiting exposure of young adolescents to movie smoking could have important world-wide public health implications.

  16. Tobacco Smoking in Adolescent Psychiatric Outpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditchburn, K. Marie; Sellman, J. Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Three main aims of this study were to ascertain the prevalence rate of smoking among adolescent psychiatric outpatients; estimate smokers' degree of nicotine dependence; and investigate the relationship between smoking and common mental health disorders. Face-to-face interviews were conducted on 93 patients ages 13-18 presenting to an adolescent…

  17. Adolescents' Perceptions of Smoking and Stress Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, Monica B.; Monahan, Jennifer L.; Rhodes, Nancy; Roskos-Ewoldsen, David; Johnson-Turbes, Ashani

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined how adolescents perceive the relationship between smoking and stress and where they learn that smoking cigarettes may be an effective stress-reduction mechanism. Eight focus groups were conducted with low-income African American and European American 14- to 16-year-olds in urban and rural locations, in which they…

  18. Adolescents' protection motivation and smoking behaviour.

    PubMed

    Thrul, Johannes; Stemmler, Mark; Bühler, Anneke; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2013-08-01

    The protection motivation theory (PMT) is a well-known theory of behaviour change. This study tested the applicability of the sub-constructs of threat and coping appraisal in predicting adolescents' smoking-related behavioural intentions and smoking behaviour longitudinally. Adolescents (N = 494) aged 11-16 years and not currently smoking at baseline participated in the study. Predictive validity of PMT constructs was tested in a path analysis model. Self-efficacy significantly predicted behavioural intention at baseline, which significantly predicted behavioural intention at follow-up, which in turn predicted smoking behaviour at follow-up. The effect of self-efficacy on behavioural intention at follow-up was mediated by behavioural intention at baseline and the effect of self-efficacy on smoking behaviour was mediated by behavioural intention at baseline and follow-up. In conclusion, we found support for one part of the PMT, namely for the predictive validity of the coping appraisal construct self-efficacy in predicting adolescents' smoking-related behavioural intention and smoking behaviour. These results fail to support the appropriateness of the PMT's construct threat appraisal in longitudinally predicting adolescents' smoking as well as the applicability of communicating fear and negative information as preventive interventions for this target group.

  19. Internet and Cell Phone Based Smoking Cessation Programs among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, Purvi; Sharma, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    Smoking cessation among adolescents is a salient public health issue, as it can prevent the adoption of risky health behaviors and reduce negative impacts on health. Self-efficacy, household and social support systems, and perceived benefits are some important cessation determinants. With the popular use of the Internet and cell phone usage among…

  20. Cigarette advertising and adolescent experimentation with smoking.

    PubMed

    Klitzner, M; Gruenewald, P J; Bamberger, E

    1991-03-01

    The extent to which cigarette advertising contributes to increases in smoking has been debated by public health professionals and the tobacco industry. One aspect of this debate has been the degree to which advertising influences smoking among adolescents. Previous research suggests that there are significant relationships between measures of advertising and smoking. However, potential simultaneous relationships between these measures have not been addressed. Observed correlations may arise from the effects of advertising on smoking or from smokers' selective exposure to advertisements. This study examined relationships between cigarette advertising and smoking experimentation. Using environmental and psychological measures of advertising exposure, it was demonstrated that adolescents who experimented with cigarettes were better able to recognize advertised products than those who had not, a selective exposure effect. Conversely, subjects who were better at recognizing advertised brands were more likely to have experimented with cigarettes, an effect due to their exposure to cigarette advertising.

  1. Gender differences in reasons to quit smoking among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Struik, Laura L; O'Loughlin, Erin K; Dugas, Erika N; Bottorff, Joan L; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L

    2014-08-01

    It is well established that many adolescents who smoke want to quit, but little is known about why adolescents want to quit and if reasons to quit differ across gender. The objective of this study was to determine if reasons to quit smoking differ in boys and girls. Data on the Adolescent Reasons for Quitting (ARFQ) scale were collected in mailed self-report questionnaires in 2010-2011 from 113 female and 83 male smokers aged 14-19 years participating in AdoQuest, a longitudinal cohort study of the natural course of the co-occurrence of health-compromising behaviors in children. Overall, the findings indicate that reasons to quit in boys and girls appear to be generally similar, although this finding may relate to a lack of gender-oriented items in the ARFQ scale. There is a need for continued research to develop and test reasons to quit scales for adolescents that include gender-oriented items.

  2. Child and Adolescent Psychiatrists' Practices in Assisting Their Adolescent Patients Who Smoke to Quit Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, James H.; Sidani, Jaime E.; Price, Joy A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This national study examined the practices and perceptions of smoking cessation activities among child and adolescent psychiatrists. Method: A random sample of child and adolescent psychiatrists was identified from the membership list of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and was mailed a valid and reliable 34-item…

  3. Association between personality and adolescent smoking.

    PubMed

    Harakeh, Zeena; Scholte, Ron H J; de Vries, Hein; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2006-02-01

    The present study examined the association between adolescents' personality traits and smoking, and tested whether this association was moderated by birth order or gender. Participants were 832 Dutch siblings aged 13 to 17 years participating at baseline assessment (T1) and at follow-up 12 months later (T2). Personality was assessed by applying a variable-centered approach including five personality dimensions (Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability and Openness to Experience), and a person-oriented approach using three personality types (i.e., Resilients, Overcontrollers and Undercontrollers). Cross-sectional findings indicated that Extraversion (at T1 and T2), Agreeableness (at T2), Conscientiousness (at T2), and Emotional Stability (at T2) were related to adolescent smoking. Longitudinal findings indicated that only Extraversion and Emotional Stability were related to onset of adolescent smoking. Using a person-oriented approach, Overcontrollers and Undercontrollers did not differ from Resilients on smoking onset. No indication was found for a moderating effect of birth order on the association between personality and smoking. Additional findings showed that gender moderated the effect of Agreeableness on adolescents' smoking onset. Implications for prevention are also addressed.

  4. Tobacco Smoking in Adolescence Predicts Maladaptive Coping Styles in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: To examine the extent to which cigarette smoking in adolescence is associated with maladaptive versus adaptive coping behaviors in adulthood. Method: The data came from a longitudinal study of New Zealand adolescents followed into adulthood at age 32 years. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), we examined the predictive association between daily smoking of cigarettes and symptoms of tobacco dependence from 18 to 26 years of age and later coping at age 32 years. We included pathways from childhood family disadvantage in addition to both adolescent stress–worry and adult coping in the model. Results: SEM revealed that cigarette smoking had a small but direct inverse effect on later adaptive coping (−.14) and a direct effect on maladaptive coping (.23) independent of the relationships between adolescent coping and stress–worry and later adult coping. Conclusions: The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that tobacco smoking may inhibit the development of self-efficacy or one’s ability to act with appropriate coping behaviors in any given situation. PMID:23817581

  5. Decreasing Smoking Behavior through Subliminal Stimulation Treatments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Elbert D.

    1979-01-01

    Determines whether subliminal perception can be used as a means for altering cigarette smoking behavior. Smoking behavior was not altered through subliminal perception as carried out in this study. There was evidence that smoking behavior was altered, but it was an unpredicted change. Some subjects decreased smoking patterns. (Author)

  6. Recent Findings on Peer Group Influences on Adolescent Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Farhat, Tilda

    2010-01-01

    This review addresses peer group influences on adolescent smoking with a particular focus on recently published longitudinal studies that have investigated the topic. Specifically, we examine the theoretical explanations for how social influence works with respect to adolescent smoking; discuss the association between peer and adolescent smoking;…

  7. Adolescent nicotine dependence symptom profiles and risk for future daily smoking.

    PubMed

    Rose, Jennifer S; Lee, Chien-Ti; Dierker, Lisa C; Selya, Arielle S; Mermelstein, Robin J

    2012-10-01

    Recent research on adolescent smokers suggests that there are important differences in the types of nicotine dependence (ND) symptoms that emerge and different patterns of ND symptoms. The purpose of this study was to use data from the longitudinal Social and Emotional Contexts of Adolescent Smoking Patterns Study to identify latent subgroups of adolescent experimental and nondaily smokers varying in number and types of endorsed ND symptoms. Profiles were identified using baseline level of smoking, individual patterns of ND symptoms and other ND risk factors. Discrete time survival analysis was used to examine profile differences in probability of becoming daily smokers 48 months later. Four distinct subgroups of smokers with different patterns of smoking behavior, ND symptoms, and alcohol and other substance use emerged. Heavier smoking adolescents with high symptom endorsement, particularly the need to smoke in the morning, were most likely to become daily smokers 48 months later. A subgroup of social smokers had high smoking exposure and symptom endorsement (except need to smoke in the morning), and high levels of other substance use. Despite lower rates of smoking frequency and quantity compared to the heavier smoking class, 36% of these adolescents smoked daily by 48 months, with a steeper decline in survival rates compared to other lighter smoking classes. Morning smoking symptoms and symptoms prioritizing smoking (i.e., choosing to spend money on cigarettes instead of lunch or smoking when ill or where smoking is forbidden) might quickly identify adolescent non-daily smokers with more severe dependence and higher risk for daily smoking. A focus on skills for avoiding social situations involving use of alcohol and other drugs and reducing peer smoking influences may be an important focus for reducing smoking and other substance use among social smokers. PMID:22673155

  8. Developmental changes in genetic and shared environmental contributions to smoking initiation and subsequent smoking quantity in adolescence and young adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Bares, Cristina B.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Maes, Hermine H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies examining the genetic architecture of cigarette smoking have focused on adolescents or examined developmental changes in additive genetic, shared environment and unique environmental influences on liability to initiate cigarette smoking and quantity of cigarettes smoked. The aim of this study is to add to the literature on liability to initiate and use cigarettes during adolescence using a nationally representative sample. Method Data for this study came from adolescent and young adult twin pairs (ages 14-33) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. We ran a series of developmental causal-contingent-common pathway models to examine whether additive genetic, shared and unique environmental influences on liability to the initiation of cigarette use are shared with those on smoking quantity, and whether their contributions change across development. Results We found evidence for a developmental shift in genetic and shared environmental contributions to cigarette use. Early in adolescence genetic and environmental influences work independently on liability to cigarette smoking initiation and quantity of cigarettes smoked, but liability to these behaviors becomes correlated as individuals age into young adulthood. Conclusions These findings provide insight into the causal processes underlying the liability to smoke cigarettes. With age, there is greater overlap in the genetic and environmental factors that influence the initiation of cigarette smoking and quantity of cigarettes smoked. PMID:26227182

  9. Patterns of Change in Adolescent Smoking Behavior and Results of a One Year Follow-up of a Smoking Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coe, Rodney M.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A smoking prevention program consisting of eight one-hour sessions was conducted with seventh- and eighth-grade students focusing on resisting peer pressure and understanding the role of mass media in encouraging smoking. One year after the program, the proportion of nonsmoking students remained higher among program participants. (FG)

  10. ERICA: smoking prevalence in Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Valeska Carvalho; Szklo, André Salem; Costa, Letícia Casado; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalences of tobacco use, tobacco experimentation, and frequent smoking among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated participants of the cross-sectional, nation-wide, school-based Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), which included 12- to 17-year-old adolescents from municipalities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. The study sample had a clustered, stratified design and was representative of the whole country, its geographical regions, and all 27 state capitals. The information was obtained with self-administered questionnaires. Tobacco experimentation was defined as having tried cigarettes at least once in life. Adolescents who had smoked on at least one day over the previous 30 days were considered current cigarette smokers. Having smoked cigarettes for at least seven consecutive days was an indicator for regular consumption of tobacco. Considering the complex sampling design, prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated according to sociodemographic and socio-environmental characteristics. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents. Among these, 18.5% (95%CI 17.7-19.4) had smoked at least once in life, 5.7% (95%CI 5.3-6.2) smoked at the time of the research, and 2.5% (95%CI 2.2-2.8) smoked often. Adolescents aged 15 to 17 years had higher prevalences for all indicators than those aged 12 to 14 years. The prevalences did not differ significantly between sexes. The highest prevalences were found in the South region and the lowest ones, in the Northeast region. Regardless of sex, the prevalences were found to be higher for adolescents who had had paid jobs, who lived with only one parent, and who reported having been in contact with smokers either inside or outside their homes. Female public school adolescents were found to smoke more than the ones from private schools. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco use among adolescents is still a challenge. Intending to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use among young

  11. ERICA: smoking prevalence in Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Valeska Carvalho; Szklo, André Salem; Costa, Letícia Casado; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalences of tobacco use, tobacco experimentation, and frequent smoking among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated participants of the cross-sectional, nation-wide, school-based Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), which included 12- to 17-year-old adolescents from municipalities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. The study sample had a clustered, stratified design and was representative of the whole country, its geographical regions, and all 27 state capitals. The information was obtained with self-administered questionnaires. Tobacco experimentation was defined as having tried cigarettes at least once in life. Adolescents who had smoked on at least one day over the previous 30 days were considered current cigarette smokers. Having smoked cigarettes for at least seven consecutive days was an indicator for regular consumption of tobacco. Considering the complex sampling design, prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated according to sociodemographic and socio-environmental characteristics. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents. Among these, 18.5% (95%CI 17.7-19.4) had smoked at least once in life, 5.7% (95%CI 5.3-6.2) smoked at the time of the research, and 2.5% (95%CI 2.2-2.8) smoked often. Adolescents aged 15 to 17 years had higher prevalences for all indicators than those aged 12 to 14 years. The prevalences did not differ significantly between sexes. The highest prevalences were found in the South region and the lowest ones, in the Northeast region. Regardless of sex, the prevalences were found to be higher for adolescents who had had paid jobs, who lived with only one parent, and who reported having been in contact with smokers either inside or outside their homes. Female public school adolescents were found to smoke more than the ones from private schools. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco use among adolescents is still a challenge. Intending to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use among young people

  12. Peer beliefs and smoking in adolescence: A longitudinal social network analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ragan, Daniel T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Peer smoking is one of the strongest predictors of adolescent cigarette use, but less is known about whether other peer characteristics also contribute to this behavior. Objectives This study examines the links between adolescent cigarette use and peer beliefs about smoking. It tests whether peer beliefs about smoking are associated with changes in cigarette use, whether this association is a result of changes in individual beliefs about smoking, and how beliefs inform friendship choices. Methods Analyses draw on data collected from 29 school-based networks, each measured at five occasions as students moved from 6th through 9th grade, as part of the study of the PROSPER partnership model. Longitudinal social network models provide estimates of friendship selection and behavior for an average of 6,200 students at each measurement point and more than 9,000 students overall. Results Peer beliefs about smoking influence cigarette use both directly and through their impact on individual beliefs. Respondents tend to name friends whose beliefs about smoking are similar to their own, and the likelihood of being named as a friend is higher for those who report more positive beliefs about smoking. Conclusion The results from this study suggest that peer beliefs about smoking, in addition to peer cigarette use itself, are associated with adolescent smoking through several mechanisms. Because beliefs favorable to cigarette use are present before adolescents actually smoke, these results underscore the importance of implementing smoking prevention programs in early adolescence. PMID:26809592

  13. An Integrated Framework for the Analysis of Adolescent Cigarette Smoking in Middle School Latino Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Dittus, Patricia; Holloway, Ian; Bouris, Alida; Crossett, Linda

    2011-01-01

    A framework based on five major theories of health behavior was used to identify the correlates of adolescent cigarette smoking. The framework emphasizes intentions to smoke cigarettes, factors that influence these intentions, and factors that moderate the intention-behavior relationship. Five hundred sixteen randomly selected Latino middle school…

  14. Perceptions of Smoking and Nonsmoking Peers: The Value of Smoker and Nonsmoker Prototypes in Predicting Smoking Onset and Regular Smoking among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spijkerman, Renske; Van Den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescents' perceptions of persons their age who smoke cigarettes (also known as prototypes of smoking peers) play a critical role in an adolescent's decision to start smoking. However, adolescents' perceptions of their peers who do not smoke (prototypes of nonsmoking peers) could be implicated in adolescents' smoking decisions as well. In the…

  15. Influence and Selection Processes in Friendships and Adolescent Smoking Behaviour: The Role of Parental Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Vitaro, Frank; Blokland, Endy Den Exter; de Kemp, Raymond; Scholte, Ron H. J.

    2004-01-01

    Concerning the role of parental smoking on development of adolescent smoking, most studies have exclusively focused on the direct effects of parents' smoking on youths' smoking. However, parental smoking may also play an indirect role by affecting youths' susceptibility to peer influences and by affecting friendship selection. Data were from a…

  16. The Relations between Parents' Smoking, General Parenting, Parental Smoking Communication, and Adolescents' Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harakeh, Zeena; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Vermulst, Ad A.; de Vries, Hein; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether the associations between general parenting practices (i.e., support, behavioral control, and psychological control) and parental smoking on the one hand and older and younger siblings' smoking on the other were mediated by parental smoking communication (i.e., frequency and quality of parent-adolescent…

  17. Perceptions of Smoking-Related Risks and Benefits as Predictors of Adolescent Smoking Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Anna V.; Morrell, Holly E. R.; Cornell, Jodi L.; Ramos, Malena E.; Biehl, Michael; Kropp, Rhonda Y.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. The predictive value of perceptions of smoking-related risks and benefits with regard to adolescent smoking initiation has not been adequately established. We used prospective, longitudinal data to directly test whether smoking-related perceptions predict smoking initiation among adolescents. Methods. We administered surveys assessing perceptions of smoking-related risks and benefits to 395 high school students, beginning at the start of their ninth-grade year. We conducted follow-up assessments every 6 months until the end of 10th grade, obtaining 4 waves of data. Results. Adolescents who held the lowest perceptions of long-term smoking-related risks were 3.64 times more likely to start smoking than were adolescents who held the highest perceptions of risk. Adolescents who held the lowest perceptions of short-term smoking-related risks were 2.68 times more likely to initiate. Adolescents who held the highest perceptions of smoking-related benefits were 3.31 times more likely to initiate. Conclusions. Findings from this study provide one of the first sets of empirical evidence to show that smoking initiation is directly related to smoking-related perceptions of risks and benefits. Thus, efforts to reduce adolescent smoking should continue to communicate the health risks of smoking and counteract perceptions of benefits associated with smoking. PMID:19106420

  18. Factors Associated with Growth in Daily Smoking among Indigenous Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Les B.; Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J.; McQuillan, Julia; Crawford, Devan M.

    2012-01-01

    North American Indigenous adolescents smoke earlier, smoke more, and are more likely to become regular smokers as adults than youth from any other ethnic group, yet we know very little about their early smoking trajectories. We use multilevel growth modeling across five waves of data from Indigenous adolescents (aged 10-13 years at Wave 1) to…

  19. Interactivity and Equifinality of Risks for Adolescent Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Adrian B.; Jackson-Carroll, Courtney J.

    2007-01-01

    Key psychosocial risks associated with adolescent smoking are well established. However, the ways in which the key risks of impulsivity, peer cigarette smoking, and self-reported use of alcohol interact to predict adolescent cigarette smoking is largely unknown. A sample of 210 Australian middle high school students aged 14-16 completed…

  20. Gender Differences in Reasons to Quit Smoking among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Struik, Laura L.; O'Loughlin, Erin K.; Dugas, Erika N.; Bottorff, Joan L.; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that many adolescents who smoke want to quit, but little is known about why adolescents want to quit and if reasons to quit differ across gender. The objective of this study was to determine if reasons to quit smoking differ in boys and girls. Data on the Adolescent Reasons for Quitting (ARFQ) scale were collected in mailed…

  1. On social and cognitive influences: relating adolescent networks, generalized expectancies, and adolescent smoking.

    PubMed

    Lakon, Cynthia M; Hipp, John R

    2014-01-01

    We examine the moderating role of friendship and school network characteristics in relationships between 1) youths' friends smoking behavior and youths' own generalized expectancies regarding risk and future orientation and 2) generalized expectancies of youths' friends and youths' own generalized expectancies. We then relate these constructs to smoking. Using a longitudinal sample from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 15,142), the relationship between friends' generalized expectancies and youths' expectancies is stronger for those more central in the network, with more reachability, or stronger network ties, and weaker for those with denser friendship networks. Risk expectancies exhibited an inverted U shaped relationship with smoking at the next time point, whereas future orientation expectancies displayed a nonlinear accelerating negative relationship. There was also a feedback effect in which smoking behavior led to higher risk expectancies and lower future orientation expectancies in instrumental variable analyses.

  2. Parental, Behavioral, and Psychological Factors Associated with Cigarette Smoking among Secondary School Students in Nanjing, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xiaoming; Mao, Rong; Stanton, Bonita; Zhao, Qun

    2010-01-01

    We designed this study to assess parental, behavioral, and psychological factors associated with tobacco use among Chinese adolescents. The data were collected from 995 middle school students in Nanjing, China. Both smoking experimentation and current smoking (smoking in the past 30 days) were assessed among the study sample. Psychosocial measures…

  3. Pubertal Development, Choice of Friends, and Smoking Initiation among Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drapela, Laurie A.; Gebelt, Janet L.; McRee, Nick

    2006-01-01

    Prior research has indicated that pubertal development and peer associations are important determinants of adolescent smoking behavior. However, more remains to be learned about "why" these variables matter or how they may be related to one another in ways that lead to the initiation of smoking. Using contractual data from the National…

  4. Waterpipe a gateway to cigarette smoking initiation among adolescents in Irbid, Jordan: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Jaber, R.; Madhivanan, P.; Veledar, E.; Khader, Y.; Mzayek, F.; Maziak, W.

    2015-01-01

    SETTING According to anecdotal evidence, waterpipe smoking may lead to the initiation of cigarette smoking among young people. This hypothesis is yet to be examined using an appropriate study design and a theoretical model for behavioral change. OBJECTIVE To compare the risk of cigarette smoking initiation among waterpipe-only smokers and never smokers in a school-based sample of adolescents from Irbid, Jordan. METHODS A total of 1454 cigarette-naïve participants were drawn from a longitudinal study on smoking behavior conducted in Irbid among 1781 seventh graders who were enrolled at baseline (2008) and completed the study questionnaire on smoking behavior annually until 2011. Grouped time-survival analysis was used to compare the risk of subsequent initiation of cigarette smoking between waterpipe smokers (n = 298) and never smokers (n = 1156) using adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). RESULTS Risk of initiation of cigarette smoking among waterpipe smokers was significantly higher than among never smokers after adjusting for potential confounders (aHR 1.67, 95%CI 1.46–1.92). The association between waterpipe and cigarette smoking initiation was dose-dependent. The risk of initiating cigarette smoking increased with increase in the frequency of waterpipe smoking (P for linear trend < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Waterpipe smoking led to the initiation of cigarette smoking among this cohort of Jordanian adolescents; the effect was dose-dependent. PMID:25860006

  5. Association between Peer Cigarette Smoking and Electronic Cigarette Smoking among Adolescent Nonsmokers: A National Representative Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jun Hyun; Park, Soon-Woo

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the association between electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use and peer cigarette smoking, a major risk factor for the initiation of cigarette smoking in adolescents. Data from the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey of 65,753 nonsmokers aged 13–18 years were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. A total of 3.8% of the Korean adolescents were ‘ever e-cigarette’ users and 1.2% were current users. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for current and ever e-cigarette use compared to those whose closest friends were non-smokers ranged from 2.05 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.82–2.30) to 5.50 (95% CI, 4.77–6.34), and from 2.23 (95% CI, 1.77–2.81) to 7.82 (95% CI, 5.97–10.25) for those who had ‘some’ close friends to ‘most/all’ friends who smoked, respectively. The slopes of the adjusted ORs for e-cigarette use in ‘never smokers’ were more than twice as steep as those in ‘former smokers’, showing a significant interaction effect between the proportion of smoking closest friends and cigarette smoking status (never or former smokers) (p<0.001 for interaction). Peer cigarette smoking had a significant association with e-cigarette use in adolescent nonsmokers, and this association was greater on never smokers than former smokers. PMID:27695093

  6. Does film smoking promote youth smoking in middle-income countries?: A longitudinal study among Mexican adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F.; Sargent, James D.; Huang, Liling; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Dorantes-Alonso, Ana; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether exposure to smoking imagery in films predicts smoking onset among never-smoking Mexican adolescents. Methods The analytic sample was comprised of 11- to 14-year old secondary school students who reported never having tried smoking at baseline, 83% (1741/2093) of whom were successfully followed up after one year. Exposure to 42 popular films that contained smoking was assessed at baseline, whereas smoking behavior and risk factors were assessed at baseline and follow up. Logistic regression was used to estimate bivariate and adjusted relative risks of trying smoking and current smoking at follow up. Results At follow up, 36% reported having tried smoking and 8% reported having smoked in the previous month. Students who were successfully followed up were exposed to an average of 43.8 minutes of smoking in the films they reported viewing at baseline. Adjusted relative risks (ARRs) indicated that students in the two highest levels of exposure to film smoking were more than twice as likely to have smoked in the previous 30 days at follow up (ARR3v1=2.44, 95%CI 1.31, 4.55; ARR4v1=2.23, 95% CI 1.19, 4.17). The adjusted relative risk of having tried smoking by follow up reached statistical significance only when comparing the 3rd highest to the lowest exposure group (ARR3v1=1.54, 95%CI 1.01, 2.64). Having a parent or best friend who smoked at baseline were the only other variables that independently predicted both outcomes. Conclusions Exposure to movie smoking is a risk factor for smoking onset among Mexican youth. PMID:19959694

  7. Health Educators: Role Modeling and Smoking Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Andrew J. J.; Galli, Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    Examined cigarette smoking among health educators, their views about the effects of this behavior upon their audiences and beliefs about smoking in light of their professional role. Smokers and nonsmokers were significantly less included than former smokers to feel the role of health education is to convince people not to smoke. (Author/ABL)

  8. Adolescents' Demonstrative Behavior Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parfilova, Gulfiya G.; Karimova, Lilia Sh.

    2016-01-01

    The problem of demonstrative behavior is very topical among teenagers and this issue has become the subject of systematic scientific research. Demonstrative manifestations in adolescents disrupt the favorable socialization; therefore, understanding, prevention and correction of demonstrative behavior at this age is relevant and requires special…

  9. Sexual Behavior of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Hilmar

    1978-01-01

    Confined to discussion of heterosexual activities, this article examines adolescent sexual behavior in terms of promiscuity; the search for a sexual behavior code; the impact of the media; and the influence of peer groups, religious identification, and the adult double standard. (JC)

  10. The Myth of Peer Influence in Adolescent Smoking Initiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen

    2007-01-01

    The widespread belief that peer influence is the primary cause of adolescent smoking initiation is examined and called into question. Correlational and longitudinal studies purporting to demonstrate peer influence are analyzed, and their limitations described. Qualitative interview studies of adolescent smoking initiation are presented as…

  11. Intrapersonal and Ecodevelopmental Factors Associated with Smoking in Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Barbara; Huang, Shi; Wang, Wei; Prado, Guillermo; Brown, C. Hendricks; Zeng, Guang; Flavin, Kathryn; Pantin, Hilda

    2010-01-01

    We examined how relationships among intrapersonal (i.e., attitudes and beliefs about smoking) and ecodevelopmental (i.e., family, school, and peer) factors influence risk for lifetime smoking in immigrant Hispanic adolescents. Our sample was comprised of 223 immigrant Hispanic adolescents and their families and was drawn from 3 middle schools in a…

  12. Social Influences on Adolescents' Smoking Progress: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Min Qi; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Reports a study that examined social factors which might predict adolescent smoking transition from nonsmoking or experimental to more advanced stages. Data from teens who participated in the Teenage Attitudes and Practices Survey indicated that best friends' smoking status was the only factor that consistently predicted adolescent smoking…

  13. Developmental Trajectories of Acculturation in Hispanic Adolescents: Associations With Family Functioning and Adolescent Risk Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Rosiers, Sabrina Des; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Knight, George P.; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, José

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined longitudinal acculturation patterns, and their associations with family functioning and adolescent risk behaviors, in Hispanic immigrant families. A sample of 266 Hispanic adolescents (mean age 13.4) and their primary parents completed measures of acculturation, family functioning, and adolescent conduct problems, substance use, and sexual behavior at five timepoints. Mixture models yielded three trajectory classes apiece for adolescent and parent acculturation. Assimilated adolescents reported the poorest family functioning, but adolescent assimilation negatively predicted adolescent cigarette smoking, sexual activity, and unprotected sex indirectly through family functioning. Follow-up analyses indicated that discrepancies between adolescent and parent family functioning reports predicted these adolescent outcomes. Results are discussed regarding acculturation trajectories, adolescent risk behavior, and the mediating role of family functioning. PMID:23848416

  14. The myth of peer influence in adolescent smoking initiation.

    PubMed

    Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen

    2007-08-01

    The widespread belief that peer influence is the primary cause of adolescent smoking initiation is examined and called into question. Correlational and longitudinal studies purporting to demonstrate peer influence are analyzed, and their limitations described. Qualitative interview studies of adolescent smoking initiation are presented as depicting the more complex role of the peer context. Finally, a new model of the role of peers in smoking initiation is offered, with an emphasis on how adolescents' characteristics lead to the selection of their friends, who then provide a peer context that may or may not support smoking.

  15. Longitudinal Modeling of Adolescents' Activity Involvement, Problem Peer Associations, and Youth Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, Aaron; Dawes, Nickki; Mermelstein, Robin; Wakschlag, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    Longitudinal associations among different types of organized activity involvement, problem peer associations, and cigarette smoking were examined in a sample of 1,040 adolescents (mean age = 15.62 at baseline, 16.89 at 15-month assessment, 17.59 at 24 months) enriched for smoking experimentation (83% had tried smoking). A structural equation model tested longitudinal paths between three categories of involvement (team sports, school clubs and activities, and religious activities, measured at baseline and 15 months), problem peer associations (baseline and 15 months), and cigarette smoking behavior (baseline and 24 months). Multi-group analyses indicated pathways differed by type of activity and adolescent gender. Boys’ baseline team sports and religious involvement predicted lower levels of smoking at 24 months via continued activity involvement at 15 months. Girls’ involvement in school clubs and activities and religious activities indirectly predicted lower levels of smoking at 24 months via reduced exposure to problem peers at 15 months. PMID:21603061

  16. Self-efficacy: a mediator of smoking behavior and depression among college students.

    PubMed

    Mee, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a growing problem among adolescents. This correlational study tested theoretical relationships between the dependent variable (smoking behavior) and the independent variables (depression and smoking resistance self-efficacy) in a convenience sample of 364 college students ages 18 to 21 years recruited from a large urban public college. An a priori mediational model tested the role of smoking resistance self-efficacy as a mediator in the relationship between smoking behavior and depression. Findings showed there was a statistically significant positive relationship between depression and smoking behavior (r = 0.122, p = 0.01). There was a statistically significant negative relationship between smoking resistance self-efficacy and smoking behavior (r = -0.744, p = 0.01). Additionally, smoking resistance self-efficacy was a mediator of the relationship between depression and smoking behavior (beta = -0.757, p = 0.001). This study identifies a need for further theory-driven study of the relation of adolescent depression and smoking behavior. The findings of this study have implications for nursing interventions targeted to both current smokers and smoking initiation prevention programs.

  17. A Dynamic Model of Adolescent Friendship Networks, Parental Influences, and Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cheng; Butts, Carter T.; Jose, Rupa; Timberlake, David S.; Hipp, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Peer and parental influences are critical socializing forces shaping adolescent development, including the co-evolving processes of friendship tie choice and adolescent smoking. This study examines aspects of adolescent friendship networks and dimensions of parental influences shaping friendship tie choice and smoking, including parental support, parental monitoring, and the parental home smoking environment using a Stochastic Actor-Based model. With data from three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health of youth in grades 7 through 12, including the In-School Survey, the first wave of the In-Home survey occurring 6 months later, and the second wave of the In-Home survey, occurring one year later, this study utilizes two samples based on the social network data collected in the longitudinal saturated sample of sixteen schools. One consists of twelve small schools (n = 1,284, 50.93 % female), and the other of one large school (n = 976, 48.46 % female). The findings indicated that reciprocity, choosing a friend of a friend as a friend, and smoking similarity increased friendship tie choice behavior, as did parental support. Parental monitoring interacted with choosing friends who smoke in affecting friendship tie choice, as at higher levels of parental monitoring, youth chose fewer friends that smoked. A parental home smoking context conducive to smoking decreased the number of friends adolescents chose. Peer influence and a parental home smoking environment conducive to smoking increased smoking, while parental monitoring decreased it in the large school. Overall, peer and parental factors affected the coevolution of friendship tie choice and smoking, directly and multiplicatively. PMID:25239115

  18. A Dynamic Model of Adolescent Friendship Networks, Parental Influences, and Smoking.

    PubMed

    Lakon, Cynthia M; Wang, Cheng; Butts, Carter T; Jose, Rupa; Timberlake, David S; Hipp, John R

    2015-09-01

    Peer and parental influences are critical socializing forces shaping adolescent development, including the co-evolving processes of friendship tie choice and adolescent smoking. This study examines aspects of adolescent friendship networks and dimensions of parental influences shaping friendship tie choice and smoking, including parental support, parental monitoring, and the parental home smoking environment using a Stochastic Actor-Based model. With data from three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health of youth in grades 7 through 12, including the In-School Survey, the first wave of the In-Home survey occurring 6 months later, and the second wave of the In-Home survey, occurring one year later, this study utilizes two samples based on the social network data collected in the longitudinal saturated sample of sixteen schools. One consists of twelve small schools (n = 1,284, 50.93 % female), and the other of one large school (n = 976, 48.46 % female). The findings indicated that reciprocity, choosing a friend of a friend as a friend, and smoking similarity increased friendship tie choice behavior, as did parental support. Parental monitoring interacted with choosing friends who smoke in affecting friendship tie choice, as at higher levels of parental monitoring, youth chose fewer friends that smoked. A parental home smoking context conducive to smoking decreased the number of friends adolescents chose. Peer influence and a parental home smoking environment conducive to smoking increased smoking, while parental monitoring decreased it in the large school. Overall, peer and parental factors affected the coevolution of friendship tie choice and smoking, directly and multiplicatively.

  19. Knowledge about the Deleterious Effects of Smoking and Its Relationship to Smoking Cessation among Pregnant Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Susan A.; Higgins, Linda W.; Lebow, Howard

    2000-01-01

    Examines adolescents' knowledge of the detrimental effects of smoking on pregnant women and fetuses and its relationship to efforts to quit smoking with a sample of pregnant adolescents (N=71). A three-group randomized intervention design -- Teen FreshStart, Teen Freshstart with buddy, and usual care control -- was used. Results show that…

  20. Early adolescents' sexual behaviors.

    PubMed

    Porter, C P; Ronis, D L; Oakley, D J; Guthrie, B J; Killion, C

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze changes in early adolescents' intimate behaviors and the initiation of sexual intercourse over a one-year time period. The changes are interpreted within the context of recent progress in understanding the development of early adolescents. Public school students in sixth and ninth grades of selected schools in a midwestern industrial city were studied in two waves of data collection. A total of 106 students provided data for the second year, allowing comparisons of their Time 2 with their Time 1 responses. Five of eight intimate behaviors studied increased in frequency during the year. Also, the adolescents' perceived benefits of having sexual intercourse increased and perceived costs decreased during the follow-up year. Increases in the frequency of intimate behaviors but not changes in their perceptions of the benefits and costs predicted whether or not students had initiated sexual intercourse during the follow-up period. These findings support current understanding of early adolescence as a time of incremental learning about intimacy and about sexual relationships. The findings suggest that preventing early sexual intercourse may require understanding the specific behavioral competencies related to healthful development of intimacy. Pediatric nurses can be leaders in providing the necessary counseling and education to young adolescents, their families, and their communities.

  1. Smoked marijuana effects on tobacco cigarette smoking behavior.

    PubMed

    Kelly, T H; Foltin, R W; Rose, A J; Fischman, M W; Brady, J V

    1990-03-01

    The effects of marijuana smoke exposure on several measures of tobacco cigarette smoking behavior were examined. Eight healthy adult male volunteers, who smoked both tobacco and marijuana cigarettes, participated in residential studies, lasting 10 to 15 days, designed to measure the effects of marijuana smoke exposure on a range of behavioral variables. Tobacco cigarettes were available throughout the day (9:00 A.M. until midnight). Each day was divided into a private period (9:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M.), during which subjects were socially isolated, and a social period (5:00 P.M. to midnight), during which subjects could interact. Under blind conditions, subjects smoked placebo and active marijuana cigarettes (0%, 1.3%, 2.3%, or 2.7% delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol) four times daily (9:45 A.M., 1:30 P.M., 5:00 P.M. and 8:30 P.M.). Each subject was exposed to both placebo and one active dose over 2- to 5-consecutive-day intervals, and dose conditions (i.e., placebo or active) alternated throughout the study. Active marijuana smoking significantly decreased the number of daily tobacco smoking bouts, increased inter-bout intervals and decreased inter-puff intervals. Marijuana decreased the number of tobacco smoking bouts by delaying the initiation of tobacco cigarette smoking immediately after marijuana smoking, whereas decreases in inter-puff intervals were unrelated to the time of marijuana smoking. No consistent interactions between marijuana effects and social or private periods (i.e., time of day) were observed.

  2. Smoking on school property as a risk factor for substance use among adolescent smokers.

    PubMed

    Sneed, Carl D; Mehdiyoun, Nicole F; Matsumura, Scott H; Hess, Ryan A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine if smoking on high-school property was associated with increased risk for other substance use among U.S. adolescents. Secondary analyses were carried out with data from the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS, N = 15,503). Only adolescents who reported smoking at least one cigarette in the last 30 days were selected for analyses (n = 2531, 44% female). Alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine use was assessed among participants. Binary logistic regression analysis was carried out to examine the relationship between smoking on school property (yes versus no) with each of the substance use variables. Adolescent smokers who reported smoking on school property were significantly more likely to report substance use across all substances examined compared to smokers who did not smoke on campus. For example, campus smokers were 3.91 times more likely to use marijuana in their lifetime and 3.85 times more likely to have used crack or cocaine in their lifetime compared to smokers who did not smoke on campus. Health care providers who provide services to adolescents should screen for smoking on school property to help identify adolescents at increased risk for substance use.

  3. Partner Behaviors That Support Quitting Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Sheldon; Lichtenstein, Edward

    1990-01-01

    Individuals (N=221) who had stopped smoking completed shortened Partner Interaction Questionnaire, reporting frequency of 10 positive and 10 negative behaviors of spouse/romantic partner in response to smoking cessation. Ratio of received positive/negative behaviors was consistently better predictor of abstinence than were frequencies of either…

  4. Shaping Adolescent Gambling Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcuri, Alan F.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Surveyed the incidence of casino gambling by adolescents. Results indicated that 64 percent of the students at one Atlantic City high school had gambled at the casinos. The dangers of shaping compulsive gambling behavior through societal acceptance of legalized gambling are discussed. (Author/BL)

  5. Factors influencing reductions in smoking among Australian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dessaix, Anita; Maag, Audrey; McKenzie, Jeanie; Currow, David C

    2016-01-01

    A continued increase in the proportion of adolescents who never smoke, as well as an understanding of factors that influence reductions in smoking among this susceptible population, is crucial. The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provides an appropriate structure to briefly examine Australian and New South Wales policies and programs that are influencing reductions in smoking among adolescents in Australia. This paper provides an overview of price and recent tax measures to reduce the demand for tobacco, the evolution of smoke-free environment policies, changes to tobacco labelling and packaging, public education campaigns, and restrictions to curb tobacco advertising. It also discusses supplyreduction measures that limit adolescents' access to tobacco products. Consideration is given to emerging priorities to achieve continued declines in smoking by Australian adolescents. PMID:26863168

  6. The power of policy: the relationship of smoking policy to adolescent smoking.

    PubMed Central

    Pentz, M A; Brannon, B R; Charlin, V L; Barrett, E J; MacKinnon, D P; Flay, B R

    1989-01-01

    This study examined the effects of smoking policy on 4,807 adolescents in 23 schools over a two-county area in California. Amounts and prevalence rates of adolescent smoking were measured with a self-report survey and a biochemical measure; school smoking policy was measured with two independent surveys of school staff. Policy effects were evaluated with multiple and logistic regression analyses controlling for school-level socioeconomic status and environmental support for teaching and administration. Of the 23 schools, 100 percent had a formal written and regularly enforced policy component restricting student smoking on school grounds, 94 percent restricted students leaving school grounds, 65 percent restricted smoking near school grounds, and 57 percent had a smoking prevention education plan. Schools with policies having all four versus less than four components, high versus low emphasis on prevention, and a low versus high emphasis on cessation reported lower amounts of smoking in the last week and in the last 24 hours. Punitive consequences of policy violation had no effect. Results were compared to school staff observations of adolescent smoking, and school archival records of student smoking violations in the last year. Results suggest that school smoking policy is associated with decreased amounts of smoking in adolescents. PMID:2735472

  7. Contextual factors associated with smoking among Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Giatti, Luana; Casado, Leticia; de Moura, Lenildo; Crespo, Claudio; Malta, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Background Very few studies have examined the role of school, household and family contexts in youth smoking in middle-income countries. Methods This work describes smoking exposure among 59 992 high school students who took part in the Brazilian Survey of School Health and investigates contextual factors associated with regular smoking, defined as smoking cigarettes at least once in the past 30 days. The explaining variables were grouped into: socio-demographic characteristics, school context, household context and family rapport. Variables independently associated with smoking in each context were identified by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results 53% of the total sample were girls, 89% were aged 13–15 years. 24% had already experimented with cigarettes, 50% before the age of 12 years. The prevalence of regular smoking was 6.3% (95% CI 5.87 to 6.74), with no sex variation. Smoking was not associated with either the mother's education or the index of household assets. In the multivariable analysis, studying at a private school, the possibility of purchasing cigarettes at school and skipping of classes without parents' consent increased the chances of smoking. In the household context, living with both parents was negatively associated with smoking, while having smoking parents and exposure to other people's smoking was positively related to smoking. In the family context, parental unawareness of what the adolescent was doing increased smoking, but having meals with the mother one or more days per week and parents' negative reactions to adolescent smoking reduced the chances of smoking. Conclusion The results reinforce the role of school, household and family contexts in youth smoking behaviours and will help improve public health policies aimed at preventing smoking and health promotion in adolescents. PMID:21471139

  8. A Longitudinal Study of Risk-Taking Behavior in Adolescents with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, John K.; Willoughby, Teena

    2010-01-01

    Risk taking may be regarded as a normative behavior in adolescence. Risk-taking behaviors may include alcohol, smoking, drug use, delinquency, and acts of aggression. Many studies have explored the relationship between adolescents and risk-taking behavior; however, only a few studies have examined this link in adolescents with learning…

  9. Nicotine-Dependence-Varying Effects of Smoking Events on Momentary Mood Changes among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Selya, Arielle S.; Updegrove, Nicole; Rose, Jennifer S.; Dierker, Lisa; Tan, Xianming; Hedeker, Donald; Li, Runze; Mermelstein, Robin J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Theories of nicotine addiction emphasize the initial role of positive reinforcement in the development of regular smoking behavior, and the role of negative reinforcement at later stages. These theories are tested here by examining the effects of amount smoked per smoking event on smoking-related mood changes, and how nicotine dependence (ND) moderates this effect. The current study examines these questions within a sample of light adolescent smokers drawn from the metropolitan Chicago area (N=151, 55.6% female, mean 17.7 years). Instruments Ecological momentary assessment data were collected via handheld computers, and additional variables were drawn from a traditional questionnaire. Methods Effects of the amount smoked per event on changes in positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) after vs. before smoking were examined, while controlling for subject-averaged amount smoked, age, gender, and day of week. ND-varying effects were examined using varying effect models to elucidate their change across levels of ND. Results The effect of the amount smoked per event was significantly associated with an increase in PA among adolescents with low-to-moderate levels of ND, and was not significant at high ND. Conversely, the effect of the amount smoked was significantly associated with a decrease in NA only for adolescents with low levels of ND, Conclusions These findings support that the role of positive reinforcement in early stages of dependent smoking, but do not support the role of negative reinforcement beyond early stages of smoking. Other potential contributing factors to the relationship between smoking behavior and PA/NA change are discussed. PMID:25306388

  10. The Role of Smoking-Cessation-Specific Parenting in Adolescent Smoking-Specific Cognitions and Readiness to Quit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Zundert, Rinka M. P.; Van De Ven, Monique O. M.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Otten, Roy; Van Den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: An instrument assessing smoking-cessation-specific parenting was developed and tested in relation to a) the pros of smoking and quitting and self-efficacy to resist smoking, and b) adolescent readiness to quit. Methods: Cross-sectional survey data from 998 Dutch adolescents who smoked regularly were used to perform structural equation…

  11. The Smoking Outcome Expectation Scale and Anti-Smoking Self-Efficacy Scale for Early Adolescents: Instrument Development and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chen-Ju; Yeh, Ming-Chen; Tang, Fu-In; Yu, Shu

    2015-01-01

    Smoking-related outcome expectation and self-efficacy have been found to be associated with adolescent smoking initiation. There is, however, a lack of appropriate instruments to investigate early adolescents' smoking outcome expectations and antismoking self-efficacy. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Smoking Outcome…

  12. Maternal Influences on Smoking Initiation among Urban Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Tracy R.; Graber, Julia A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined associations between maternal social influences to smoke and girls' early smoking behaviors. Data were collected separately from 450 urban minority girls (65.7% Black, 21.5% Latina, and 12.8% other) and their mothers on smoking frequency as well as demographic and social factors hypothesized to promote smoking. Results showed…

  13. Gender and Stimulus Control of Smoking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Frandsen, Mai; Dunbar, Michael S.; Shiffman, Saul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Gender differences in smoking behavior have been proposed to account for poorer outcomes among women attempting to quit. Specifically, it has been suggested that women’s smoking behavior is less motivated by nicotine-seeking and more driven by environmental cues. To date, however, few real-world studies have examined the hypothesis that women’s smoking is under greater stimulus control. Methods: One hundred and ninety four daily smokers (men = 107; women = 87) completed 3 weeks of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) monitoring that provided data on real-world smoking behavior by reporting on situational contexts shown by previous research to influence smoking behavior (including social setting, cigarette availability, alcohol consumption, and mood). Results: Analyses of particular cues found few gender differences; however, men’s smoking increased to a greater extent compared with women’s when they were with others who were smoking. Idiographic analyses that allow individual subjects to have different directions of linkage to situational cues also were conducted to assess how predictable subjects’ smoking was from a range of contextual characteristics. Compared with women, men’s smoking was significantly more closely tied to food/alcohol consumption and tended to be more closely tied to social context. No other gender differences were found. Conclusions: EMA analyses suggest that men and women are similarly influenced by cues, including mood. Where there were gender differences, it was men rather than women whose smoking behavior was more influenced by cues. The data contradict the hypothesis that women’s smoking is more influenced by cues. PMID:25762752

  14. Communication about Smoking in Dutch Families: Associations between Anti-Smoking Socialization and Adolescent Smoking-Related Cognitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Willemsen, Marc

    2004-01-01

    Parents play an important role in the development of young people's smoking behavior, through the modeling effects of their own smoking status, through the ways they raise their children and through the ways they deal with smoking at home. The present study focused on anti-smoking socialization by, first, comparing the perspectives of both parents…

  15. After-school supervision and adolescent cigarette smoking: contributions of the setting and intensity of after-school self-care.

    PubMed

    Mott, J A; Crowe, P A; Richardson, J; Flay, B

    1999-02-01

    This paper looks at the independent contributions of the setting and the intensity of after-school self-care to the cigarette smoking behaviors of 2352 ninth graders. We controlled for a variety of correlates of adolescent cigarette smoking that have not been accounted for in existing research. Results indicated that the intensity of the self-care experience was significantly associated with adolescent smoking behavior irrespective of the typical setting of the adolescents' after-school activities. Our findings also indicated that a nonpermissive parenting style, family rule-setting about cigarettes, and especially, in absentia parental monitoring may reduce the likelihood of cigarette smoking among latchkey and nonlatchkey adolescents alike. However, latchkey youth were not any more sensitive to these aspects of parenting than other adolescents. This is consistent with the notion that targeting these aspects of the home lives of all adolescents has the potential to reduce smoking behaviors among latchkey as well as nonlatchkey children.

  16. Improving measurement of normative beliefs involving smoking among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; Switzer, Galen E.; Dalton, Madeline A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To identify different components of smoking normative beliefs and determine if each component is independently associated with two clinically relevant measures of smoking in adolescents. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting One large suburban high school. Participants 1211 high school students aged 14–18. Main outcome measures Current smoking and susceptibility to smoking. Results Nineteen percent (N=216) of students reported current smoking, and 40% (N=379) of the non-smokers were susceptible to smoking. Factor analysis identified three normative beliefs constructs, labeled “perceived prevalence of smoking,” “perceived popularity of smoking among elite/successful elements of society,” and “disapproval of smoking by parents/peers.” On average, students felt that 56% of people in the US smoke cigarettes. Twenty-four percent (24%) believed that wealthy people smoke more than poor people. Multiple logistic regression showed that each of the three constructs was independently associated with current smoking (Adjusted OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.08; Adjusted OR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.23; Adjusted OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.59, 0.75; respectively) even after controlling for covariates. Students’ perceptions of smoking among successful/elite and disapproval by parents/peers were independently associated with susceptibility to future smoking (Adjusted OR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.29; Adjusted OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.79, 0.96; respectively). Conclusions Adolescents’ normative beliefs about smoking are multidimensional and include at least three distinct components, each of which was independently related to smoking outcomes. These distinct components should be considered in the design and evaluation of programs related to prevention and cessation of adolescent smoking. PMID:17485617

  17. Externalizing Behavior Problems and Cigarette Smoking as Predictors of Cannabis Use: The TRAILS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korhonen, Tellervo; van Leeuwen, Andrea Prince; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Huizink, Anja C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine externalizing behavior problems and cigarette smoking as predictors of subsequent cannabis use. Method: Dutch adolescents (N = 1,606; 854 girls and 752 boys) from the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) ongoing longitudinal study were examined at baseline (ages 10-12 [T1]) and at two follow-up assessments…

  18. Smoking in movies and adolescent smoking: cross-cultural study in six European countries

    PubMed Central

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Poelen, Evelien A P; Scholte, Ron; Karlsdottir, Solveig; Jonsson, Stefán Hrafn; Mathis, Federica; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Florek, Ewa; Sweeting, Helen; Hunt, Kate; Sargent, James D; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2013-01-01

    Aim To investigate whether the association between exposure to smoking in movies and smoking among youth is independent of cultural context. Method Cross-sectional survey of 16 551 pupils recruited in Germany, Iceland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland and Scotland with a mean age of 13.4 years (SD=1.18) and an equal gender distribution. School-based surveys were conducted between November 2009 and June 2010. Using previously validated methods, exposure to movie smoking was estimated from the 250 top-grossing movies of each country (years 2004–2009) and related to ever smoking. Results Overall, 29% of the sample had tried smoking. The sample quartile (Q) of movie smoking exposure was significantly associated with the prevalence of ever smoking: 14% of adolescents in Q1 had tried smoking, 21% in Q2, 29% in Q3 and 36% in Q4. After controlling for age, gender, family affluence, school performance, television screen time, number of movies seen, sensation seeking and rebelliousness and smoking within the social environment (peers, parents and siblings), the adjusted ORs for having tried smoking in the entire sample were 1.3 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.5) for adolescents in Q2, 1.6 (95% CI 1.4 to 1.9) for Q3 and 1.7 (95% CI 1.4 to 2.0) for Q4 compared with Q1. The adjusted relationship between ever smoking and higher movie smoking exposure levels was significant in all countries with a non-linear association in Italy and Poland. Conclusions The link between smoking in movies and adolescent smoking is robust and transcends different cultural contexts. Limiting young people's exposure to movie smoking could have important public health implications. PMID:21873322

  19. Adolescent Reasons for Quitting Smoking: Initial Psychometric Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Mark G.; MacPherson, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Most adolescent smokers report intentions to quit and the majority attempt cessation. Yet, little is known regarding the relationship between adolescent motives for cessation and smoking cessation efforts. To this end, the present study describes an initial evaluation of the psychometric characteristics of the Adolescent Reasons for Quitting scale (ARFQ), a measure of adolescent motives for smoking cessation. Participants were 109 current smoking high school students assessed at baseline and 6-month follow up. The ARFQ item content and format was developed in a separate qualitative study with 36 high school students who had previously attempted to quit smoking. Exploratory factor analyses of ARFQ items yielded three subscales: short-term consequences, social disapproval, and long-term concerns. Validation analyses were conducted in relation to concurrent intentions to stop smoking and prospective smoking cessation attempts, providing evidence of concurrent, predictive and discriminant validity. In particular, the social disapproval and long-term concern subscales significantly predicted subsequent cessation attempts. As such, the ARFQ may prove valuable for informing interventions to encourage adolescent smoking cessation. PMID:18298239

  20. Emotional Intelligence, Hardiness, and Smoking: Protective Factors among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Talib, Mansor Abu; Yaacob, Siti Nor; Ismail, Zanariah

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is the biggest threat to public health, and it remains a serious cause of death in the world. It even causes acute and chronic diseases in passive smokers. Remarkably, the age of the onset of cigarette smoking is decreasing. Therefore, it is essential to increase our knowledge concerning the attitudes among adolescents toward cigarette…

  1. Psychosocial Correlates of Smoking Trajectories Among Urban African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergus, Stevenson; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

    2005-01-01

    Little is known of smoking trajectories or of the correlates of smoking trajectories among African American youth. Ninth-grade African American adolescents (n = 566) were interviewed in Year 1 and then were subsequently interviewed annually for 3 additional years. Five trajectories of cigarette smokers were identified: abstainers,…

  2. Real-Time Readiness to Quit and Peer Smoking within a Text Message Intervention for Adolescent Smokers: Modeling Mechanisms of Change.

    PubMed

    Mason, Michael; Mennis, Jeremy; Way, Thomas; Floyd Campbell, Leah

    2015-12-01

    The psychological construct, readiness to change, is established as a central construct within behavioral change theories such as motivational interviewing (MI). Less is known about the interplay of mechanisms for change within adolescent treatment populations. Understanding the timing and interactive influence that adolescents' readiness to stop smoking and peer smoking have on subsequent tobacco use is important to advance intervention research. Toward this end, we used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) data from an automated texting smoking intervention randomized controlled trial to model the interactive effects of readiness to stop smoking and friends smoking on adolescent tobacco use. Two hundred adolescents were randomized into experimental treatment or attention control conditions, provided smart phones, and were followed for 6 months. African American youth represented the majority of the sample. We collected monthly EMA data for 6 months on friends smoking and readiness to stop smoking as well as survey outcome data. We tested a moderated mediation model using bias corrected bootstrapping to determine if the indirect effect of treatment on cigarettes smoked through readiness to stop smoking was moderated by friends smoking. Findings revealed that readiness to stop smoking mediated the effects of treatment on cigarettes smoked for those adolescents with fewer friends smoking, but not for those with more friends smoking. These results support importance of peer-focused interventions with urban adolescents and provide target mechanisms for future research.

  3. Real-Time Readiness to Quit and Peer Smoking within a Text Message Intervention for Adolescent Smokers: Modeling Mechanisms of Change.

    PubMed

    Mason, Michael; Mennis, Jeremy; Way, Thomas; Floyd Campbell, Leah

    2015-12-01

    The psychological construct, readiness to change, is established as a central construct within behavioral change theories such as motivational interviewing (MI). Less is known about the interplay of mechanisms for change within adolescent treatment populations. Understanding the timing and interactive influence that adolescents' readiness to stop smoking and peer smoking have on subsequent tobacco use is important to advance intervention research. Toward this end, we used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) data from an automated texting smoking intervention randomized controlled trial to model the interactive effects of readiness to stop smoking and friends smoking on adolescent tobacco use. Two hundred adolescents were randomized into experimental treatment or attention control conditions, provided smart phones, and were followed for 6 months. African American youth represented the majority of the sample. We collected monthly EMA data for 6 months on friends smoking and readiness to stop smoking as well as survey outcome data. We tested a moderated mediation model using bias corrected bootstrapping to determine if the indirect effect of treatment on cigarettes smoked through readiness to stop smoking was moderated by friends smoking. Findings revealed that readiness to stop smoking mediated the effects of treatment on cigarettes smoked for those adolescents with fewer friends smoking, but not for those with more friends smoking. These results support importance of peer-focused interventions with urban adolescents and provide target mechanisms for future research. PMID:26297323

  4. [Depression and risk behavior in adolescence].

    PubMed

    Heger, Johanna Pia; Brunner, Romuald; Parzer, Peter; Fischer, Gloria; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a vulnerable period which is associated with a heightened risk for the development of depressive disorders. Risk-behaviors like alcohol or illicit drug abuse, excessive use of media, school absenteeism and lack of sleep are also frequently occurring during this period; it is often suggested that such behaviors may be associated with mental health problems. This article includes a selective overview of literature to investigate the relation between depression and risk-behavior in adolescence; these results are compared with the results from a representative sample of German pupils who were examined in the context of the European school study SEYLE. Data from a school-based sample of 1,434 pupils with a mean age of 14.7 years (SD = 0.8) was used. Most risk-behaviors tend to be associated with increased likelihood for the development of depression and are correlated with the severity of depressive symptomatology. In this sample, alcohol abuse, smoking, media use, lack of physical activity, risky sexual behavior, school absenteeism, and sleeping problems showed an impact on the level of depression which was consistent with previous research. Illicit drug abuse showed no significant impact on depressive symptoms of young people. Further longitudinal studies are necessary to elucidate the directional relationship between depression and risk behavior in adolescence. The potential value of adolescent risk-behavior as a possible warning sign for early detection of depressive symptoms also warrants further investigation. PMID:24707767

  5. Smoking, alcohol consumption, and drug use among adolescents with psychiatric disorders compared with a population based sample.

    PubMed

    Mangerud, Wenche Langfjord; Bjerkeset, Ottar; Holmen, Turid Lingaas; Lydersen, Stian; Indredavik, Marit Sæbø

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated frequencies of smoking, alcohol use, and illicit drug use by diagnostic category in 566 adolescent psychiatric patients, comparing this sample with 8173 adolescents from the general population in Norway who completed the Young-HUNT 3 survey. Frequencies of current alcohol use were high in both samples but were lower among psychiatric patients. Compared with adolescents in the general population, adolescents in the clinical sample had a higher prevalence of current smoking and over four times higher odds of having tried illicit drugs. In the clinical sample, those with mood disorders reported the highest frequencies of smoking, alcohol use, and illicit drug use, whereas those with autism spectrum disorders reported the lowest frequencies. Our results show an increased prevalence of risky health behaviors among adolescents with psychiatric disorders compared with the general population. The awareness of disorder-specific patterns of smoking and substance use may guide preventive measures.

  6. A school-based smoking prevention program for adolescent girls in New York City.

    PubMed Central

    Hynes, M M

    1989-01-01

    Teenaged girls comprise the largest percentage of new cigarette smokers in the United States today. Factors contributing to smoking initiation include peer pressure, family and social influences, cigarette availability, and cigarette advertising. Because three-quarters of smokers become dependent on cigarettes by age 20, smoking prevention programs aimed at the adolescent population have great potential. The proposed program outlined is directed at girls 12 to 18 years of age in New York City. Among the objectives are increasing students' knowledge of the short- and long-term health effects of smoking and awareness of the social factors which lead to smoking. Participants would be taught social skills and behaviors which could help them to resist initiating smoking, by such activities as assertiveness training through role playing. Endurance sports activities would be emphasized while learning of the effects of smoking on physical conditioning. The costs of such a program are estimated, and classroom activities are outlined. PMID:2493667

  7. Longitudinal associations between smoking and depressive symptoms among adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Beal, Sarah J; Negriff, Sonya; Dorn, Lorah D; Pabst, Stephanie; Schulenberg, John

    2014-08-01

    Adolescence is an important period for initiation of smoking and manifestation of depression, which are often comorbid. Researchers have examined associations between depressive symptoms and smoking to elucidate whether those with increased depressive symptoms smoke more to self-medicate, whether those who smoke experience increased subsequent depressive symptoms, or both. Collectively, there have been mixed findings; however, studies have been limited by (1) cross-sectional or short-term longitudinal data or (2) the use of methods that test associations, or only one direction in the associations, rather than a fully-reciprocal model to examine directionality. This study examined the associations between smoking and depressive symptoms in a sample of adolescent girls using latent dual change scores to model (1) the effect of smoking on change in depressive symptoms, and simultaneously (2) the effect of depressive symptoms on change in smoking across ages 11-20. Data were from a cohort-sequential prospective longitudinal study (N = 262). Girls were enrolled by age cohort (11, 13, 15, and 17 years) and were primarily White (61 %) or African American (31 %). Data were restructured by age. Every 6 months, girls reported depressive symptoms and cigarette use. Results indicated that controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, higher levels of smoking predicted a greater increase in depressive symptoms across adolescence. These findings suggest that a higher level of cigarette smoking does contribute to more depressive symptoms, which has implications for prevention of depression and for intervention and future research.

  8. Social capital and adolescent smoking in schools and communities: a cross-classified multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    De Clercq, Bart; Pfoertner, Timo-Kolja; Elgar, Frank J; Hublet, Anne; Maes, Lea

    2014-10-01

    We sought to determine whether social capital at the individual-, school- and community-level can explain variance in adolescent smoking and accounts for social inequalities in smoking. We collected data as part of the 2005/6 Health Behavior in School-aged Children survey, a nationally representative survey of the health and well-being of high school pupils in Belgium (Flanders). Social capital was assessed by structural and cognitive components of family social capital, a four-factor school social capital scale and a cognitive community social capital scale. We fitted non-hierarchical multilevel models to the data, with 8453 adolescents nested within a cross-classification of 167 schools and 570 communities. Significant variation in adolescent regular smoking was found between schools, but not between communities. Only structural family social capital and cognitive school social capital variables negatively related to regular smoking. No interactions between socio-economic status and social capital variables were found. Our findings suggest that previously observed community-level associations with adolescent smoking may be a consequence of unmeasured confounding. Distinguishing nested contexts of social capital is important because their associations with smoking differ.

  9. Development and Validation of the Smoking Expectancy Scale for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hine, Donald W.; Honan, Cynthia A.; Marks, Anthony D. G.; Brettschneider, Karla

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed the factor structure, internal consistency, and concurrent validity of the Smoking Expectancies Scale for Adolescents (SESA) using 717 Australian adolescents (87% nonsmokers, 11% current smokers, and 2% ex-smokers). Exploratory factor analysis of SESA yielded 8 factors. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the 8-factor…

  10. Adolescent Exposure to and Perceptions of Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Timothy R.; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph A.; Shah, Sapna

    2005-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) poses an underappreciated risk to adolescent health. This study examined perceptions of adolescents (n = 574) regarding ETS. About one half (54%) were exposed to ETS the previous week, and one third (30%) were exposed to 3 or more hours of ETS the past week. Concurrently, 29% believed that breathing someone else's…

  11. An Adult Communication Skills Program to Prevent Adolescent Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worden, John K.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Conducted communication skills workshops to prevent cigarette smoking among adolescents by teaching adults how to help young people make responsible decisions and resist peer influences. One year later, 66% reported use of skills five or more times in the previous month, and significantly fewer adolescents in the high workshop intensity area…

  12. Randomized Trial Outcomes of a TTM-Tailored Condom Use and Smoking Intervention in Urban Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redding, Colleen A.; Prochaska, James O.; Armstrong, Kay; Rossi, Joseph S.; Hoeppner, Bettina B.; Sun, Xiaowu; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Yin, Hui-Qing; Coviello, Donna; Evers, Kerry; Velicer, Wayne F.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking and sexual risk behaviors in urban adolescent females are prevalent and problematic. Family planning clinics reach those who are at most risk. This randomized effectiveness trial evaluated a transtheoretical model (TTM)-tailored intervention to increase condom use and decrease smoking. At baseline, a total of 828 14- to 17-year-old females…

  13. Health-risk behaviors in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Rew, Lynn; Horner, Sharon D; Brown, Adama

    2011-01-01

    The major morbidities and mortalities of adolescents are related to preventable risky behaviors, but how, when, and in whom these behaviors develop in early adolescence is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine which set of risk factors and protective resources of school-age children were best predictors of health-risk behaviors in early adolescence. A longitudinal, cohort sequential design was used with a diverse sample of 1,934 children in grades 4 through 8. Parents provided demographic and neighborhood data for children through a mailed survey. Children completed valid scales annually at schools, using audio-computer-assisted self-interviewing (A-CASI) technology. Significant gender and racial/ethnic differences were found in carrying a weapon and using alcohol. Higher perceived levels of stress increased the risk for alcohol use as did riding in a car with a driver who was drinking. Health behaviors exhibited while in 4th through 6th grades protected early adolescents from alcohol use and riding in a car with a driver who was drinking. A parent's education and perceived safety in neighborhood protected against carrying a weapon and smoking. Many findings are similar to those of national samples, but others show positive differences in this localized sample, over 50% of whom were Latino. Protective resources suggest numerous nursing interventions to promote healthy adolescent development.

  14. The Effect of the Teachers' Smoking Behavior on Their Involvement in Smoking Education in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, T. L.; Rakip, William R.

    The smoking behavior and attitudes of public school teachers were studied to determine if the teachers' smoking behavior is related to their attitudes and behavior regarding students' smoking practice and smoking education in schools. The school system studied was in Northampton, Massachusetts, where 162 of the 194 teachers randomly selected from…

  15. Sexual Orientation Disparities in Adolescent Cigarette Smoking: Intersections With Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Age

    PubMed Central

    Corliss, Heather L.; Rosario, Margaret; Birkett, Michelle A.; Newcomb, Michael E.; Buchting, Francisco O.; Matthews, Alicia K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined sexual orientation differences in adolescent smoking and intersections with race/ethnicity, gender, and age. Methods. We pooled Youth Risk Behavior Survey data collected in 2005 and 2007 from 14 jurisdictions; the analytic sample comprised observations from 13 of those jurisdictions (n = 64 397). We compared smoking behaviors of sexual minorities and heterosexuals on 2 dimensions of sexual orientation: identity (heterosexual, gay–lesbian, bisexual, unsure) and gender of lifetime sexual partners (only opposite sex, only same sex, or both sexes). Multivariable regressions examined whether race/ethnicity, gender, and age modified sexual orientation differences in smoking. Results. Sexual minorities smoked more than heterosexuals. Disparities varied by sexual orientation dimension: they were larger when we compared adolescents by identity rather than gender of sexual partners. In some instances race/ethnicity, gender, and age modified smoking disparities: Black lesbians–gays, Asian American and Pacific Islander lesbians–gays and bisexuals, younger bisexuals, and bisexual girls had greater risk. Conclusions. Sexual orientation, race/ethnicity, gender, and age should be considered in research and practice to better understand and reduce disparities in adolescent smoking. PMID:24825218

  16. Friends: The Role of Peer Influence across Adolescent Risk Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Kimberly A.

    2002-01-01

    Examined peer influence for 1,969 adolescents across 5 risk behaviors: smoking, alcohol consumption, marijuana use, tobacco chewing, and sexual debut. Results show that a random same-sex peer predicts a teen's risk behavior initiation through influence to initiate cigarette and marijuana use, and influence to initiate and stop alcohol and chewing…

  17. Smoking Behavior of US Youths: A Comparison Between Child Welfare System and Community Populations

    PubMed Central

    Aarons, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We compared rates of smoking for 2 groups of youths aged 12 to 14 years: those involved in the child welfare system (CW) and their counterparts in the community population. We then investigated factors associated with smoking for each group. Methods. We drew data from 2 national-level US sources: the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. We estimated logistic regression models for 3 binary outcome measures of smoking behavior: lifetime, current, and regular smoking. Results. CW-involved youths had significantly higher rates of lifetime smoking (43% vs 32%) and current smoking (23% vs 18%) than did youths in the community population. For CW-involved youths, delinquency and smoking were strongly linked. Among youths in the community population, multiple factors, including youth demographics and emotional and behavioral health, affected smoking behavior. Conclusions. Smoking prevalence was notably higher among CW-involved youths than among the community population. In light of the persistent public health impact of smoking, more attention should be focused on identification of risk factors for prevention and early intervention efforts among the CW-involved population. PMID:22021304

  18. With a Little Help from My Friends? Asymmetrical Social Influence on Adolescent Smoking Initiation and Cessation.

    PubMed

    Haas, Steven A; Schaefer, David R

    2014-05-12

    This study investigates whether peer influence on smoking among adolescents is asymmetrical. We hypothesize that several features of smoking lead peers to have a stronger effect on smoking initiation than cessation. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health we estimate a dynamic network model that includes separate effects for increases versus decreases in smoking, while also controlling for endogenous network change. We find that the impact of peer influence is stronger for the initiation of smoking than smoking cessation. Adolescents rarely initiate smoking without peer influence but will cease smoking while their friends continue smoking. We discuss the implications of these results for theories of peer influence and health policy.

  19. Smoking Behavior in Trucking Industry Workers

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Nitin B; Hart, Jaime E; Smith, Thomas J; Garshick, Eric; Laden, Francine

    2007-01-01

    Background In retrospective occupational studies, the degree of confounding by smoking depends on variation in smoking among job-related exposure groups. We assessed the relationship between job title and smoking behavior as part of a study on occupational exposures and lung cancer. Methods A questionnaire on smoking was mailed to a sample of 11,986 trucking industry. Company records were used to gather other relevant information. Results The response rate was 40.5%. Among white males, the age-adjusted prevalence of ever smoking was highest among longhaul truck drivers (67%) and lowest among clerks (44%). Smoking rates among workers with other job titles were similar. Conclusions Our results will be used to adjust for the differences in smoking among job-related exposure groups when assessing the association between particulate matter exposure and lung cancer mortality. Our study also suggests that an assessment of methods to control for smoking should be considered in the design of retrospective occupational health studies. PMID:17096359

  20. A meta-analysis of adolescent smoking prevention programs.

    PubMed Central

    Bruvold, W H

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. A large number of studies evaluating adolescent smoking prevention programs have been published. Systematic quantitative reviews of this literature are needed to learn what does and does not work. The present meta-analysis focuses on the efficacy of school-based programs. METHODS. Evaluations of 94 separate interventions were included in the meta-analysis. Studies were screened for methodological rigor and those with weaker methodology were segregated from those with more defensible methodology; major analyses focused on the latter. RESULTS. Behavioral effect sizes were found to be largest for interventions with a social reinforcement orientation, moderate for interventions with either a developmental or a social norms orientation, and small for interventions with the traditional rational orientation. Attitude effect sizes followed the same pattern, but knowledge effect sizes were similar across all four orientation categories. CONCLUSIONS. Because behavioral effect represents the fundamental objective of programs for prevention of adolescent tobacco use, the present results indicate that school-based programs should consider adopting interventions with a social reinforcement, social norms, or developmental orientation. PMID:8498627

  1. Development and Validation of a Smoking Expectancies Measure for Adolescents Seeking to Quit Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Branstetter, Steven A.; Mercincavage, Melissa; Dino, Geri; Horn, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Background A more comprehensive understanding of factors that affect smoking cessation outcomes among adolescents may help enhance treatment interventions. One promising but underexplored factor that may influence cessation success is teens’ specific expectancies or beliefs about smoking outcomes. The present study evaluated the validity and reliability of a new measure of expectancies and its association with cessation outcomes among 762 adolescent smokers participating in studies of the American Lung Association’s Not-On-Tobacco cessation program. Methods Self-report questionnaires were collected prior to and following participation in a smoking cessation program. Self-reported cigarette use was verified with expired-air carbon monoxide. A multi-step exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and reliability and validity analyses were performed. Results Four theoretically-related yet empirically independent factors were identified by the Smoking Expectancies Questionnaire (SEQ): 1) Positive Reinforcement, 2) Negative Reinforcement / Emotional Regulation, 3) Negative Reinforcement / Addiction and Withdrawal, and 4) Negative Outcomes/Risk. These factors could be subsumed by a single SEQ factor that reflected an overall concept of smoking expectancies relevant for adolescent smoking cessation. An overall SEQ Function score reflecting the balance between positive and negative expectancies predicted both pre-intervention cigarettes per day and cessation outcomes. Conclusions A single, overall SEQ Function score may prove useful for understanding the associations among individual, social and contextual factors in predicting treatment outcomes. Additionally, study findings may assist with modifying smoking expectancies among cessation program participants thereby enhancing treatment outcomes with diverse youth smoking populations. PMID:24635745

  2. Biomarker evaluation of Greek adolescents' exposure to secondhand smoke.

    PubMed

    Vardavas, C I; Tzatzarakis, M N; Plada, M; Tsatsakis, A M; Papadaki, A; Saris, W H; Moreno, L A; Kafatos, A G

    2010-06-01

    Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) is a significant threat to public health, and represents a danger for both the development and health status of children and adolescents. Taking the above into account, our aim was to quantify Greek adolescents' exposure to SHS using serum cotinine levels. During 2006, 341 adolescents aged 13-17 were randomly selected from high schools in Heraklion and agreed to participate as part of the European Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study. Blood samples were drawn from a random sample of 106 adolescents, while serum cotinine/nicotine concentrations were measured by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The mean levels of serum cotinine and nicotine were calculated at 1.60 +/- 2.18 ng/mL and 4.48 +/- 4.00 ng/mL, respectively, while 97.7% of the non-smoker adolescents were found to have measureable levels of serum cotinine indicating exposure to SHS. The analysis revealed that their paternal (p = .001) and maternal smoking habits (p = .018) as also the existence of a younger brother or sister (p = .008) were the main modifiers of SHS exposure during adolescence. Conclusively, almost all of the measured Greek adolescents were exposed to SHS, even when their parents were non-smokers. This finding indicates the need for both community and school-based educational programmes as also the implementation of a comprehensive ban on smoking in public places.

  3. Genetic Variation in Dopamine Pathways Differentially Associated with Smoking Progression in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laucht, Manfred; Becker, Katja; Frank, Josef; Schmidt, Martin H.; Esser, Gunter; Treutlein, Jens; Skowronek, Markus H.; Schumann, Gunter

    2008-01-01

    A study examines whether genetic variation in dopamine pathways differentially associate with smoking progression in adolescence. Results indicate the influence of specific dopamine genes in different stages of smoking progression in adolescents.

  4. Cigarette use by adolescents: attitude-behavior relationships.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, F V; Callan, V J; Baglioni, A

    1999-02-01

    Structural equation models were used to test the effectiveness of various theories in predicting cigarette smoking among adolescents. Maximum-likelihood estimation, as implemented in LISREL for Windows 8.12, was used to compare the theory of reasoned action (TRA), the theory of planned behavior, and a modified version of the theory of reasoned action incorporating past behavior. Respondents consisted of 225 high school students who were questioned in 1994 about their attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, past behavior, intentions, and actual behavior relating to the use of cigarettes. Results indicated that the modification of the TRA incorporating past behavior provided a marginally better fit than the other models. For this group of high school students, attitudes toward smoking, past behavior in relation to smoking, and perceptions of what significant others think they should do were significant predictors of their intentions to smoke. Intentions, together with past behavior, predicted their actual behavior. The models used in the present research show that this behavior can be explained with reference to a small number of key variables which are useful for furthering our understanding of the structure of adolescent smoking.

  5. Stages of smoking acquisition versus susceptibility as predictors of smoking initiation in adolescents in primary care.

    PubMed

    Huang, Minnie; Hollis, Jack; Polen, Michael; Lapidus, Jodi; Austin, Donald

    2005-07-01

    We evaluated whether susceptibility, the stages of smoking acquisition, and socio-environmental factors can identify adolescents who will become smokers. Our data came from a randomized controlled trial of an intervention to prevent adolescent smoking. Subjects were adolescents (n=1955) ages 14-17 being seen for routine medical care. The dependent variable was 30-day smoking status at 2-year follow-up (89.6% response rate). Independent variables included susceptibility, the stages of acquisition, and socio-environmental factors. Susceptible adolescents were two to three times more likely to be smokers than non-susceptible adolescents. Compared to acquisition precontemplators, acquisition contemplators were three to five times more likely, and acquisition preparers were five to eight times more likely, to be smokers. When combined into a single measure, susceptible precontemplators were two times, contemplators were six times, and preparers were nine times more likely to be smokers than non-susceptible precontemplators. Our findings suggest that acquisition stage and susceptibility can independently predict smoking onset. They may be used together to target teens for smoking prevention efforts in the clinical setting. PMID:15925127

  6. Drinking-Smoking Status and Health Risk Behaviors among High School Students in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saingam, Darika; Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; Geater, Alan F.

    2012-01-01

    Drinking, smoking, and health risk behaviors are significant problems for Thai adolescents. However, little is known about the association and magnitude among alcohol, tobacco, or co-using and health risk behaviors. Data of the National School Survey of 2007 were analyzed. The sample consisted of 50,033 high school and vocational college students.…

  7. Are smoking and passive smoking related with heart rate variability in male adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Gondim, Renata Melo; Farah, Breno Quintella; Santos, Carolina da Franca Bandeira Ferreira; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the relation between smoking and passive smoking with heart rate variability parameters in male adolescents. Methods The sample consisted of 1,152 males, aged 14 and 19 years. Data related to smoking and passive smoking were collected using a questionnaire. RR intervals were obtained by a heart rate monitor, on supine position, for 10 minutes. After collecting the RR intervals, time (standard deviation of all RR intervals, root mean square of the squared differences between adjacent normal RR intervals and the percentage of adjacent intervals over 50ms) and frequency domains (low and high frequency and sympathovagal balance) parameters of heart rate variability were obtained. Results No significant differences between smoker and nonsmoker adolescents were observed in heart rate variability parameters (p>0.05). Similarly, heart rate variability parameters did not show significant difference between exposed and not exposed to passive smoking (p>0.05). Conclusion Cigarette smoking and passive smoking are not related to heart rate variability in adolescence. PMID:25993065

  8. Adolescent Egocentrism, Risk Perceptions, and Sensation Seeking among Smoking and Nonsmoking Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankenberger, Kristina D.

    2004-01-01

    A survey compared adolescents (ages 14 to 18) who have never tried smoking, smoke infrequently, or smoke regularly on three characteristics: adolescent egocentrism, risk perceptions, and sensation seeking. Sensation seeking exhibited the expected result by increasing with smoking experience. Contrary to past research findings, perceptions of…

  9. Associations Between Initial Water Pipe Tobacco Smoking and Snus Use and Subsequent Cigarette Smoking Results From a Longitudinal Study of US Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Soneji, Samir; Sargent, James D.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Primack, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Many adolescents and young adults use alternative tobacco products, such as water pipes and snus, instead of cigarettes. OBJECTIVE To assess whether prior water pipe tobacco smoking and snus use among never smokers are risk factors for subsequent cigarette smoking. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We conducted a 2-wave national longitudinal study in the United States among 2541 individuals aged 15 to 23 years old. At baseline (October 25, 2010, through June 11, 2011), we ascertained whether respondents had smoked cigarettes, smoked water pipe tobacco, or used snus. At the 2-year follow-up (October 27, 2012, through March 31, 2013), we determined whether baseline non–cigarette smokers had subsequently tried cigarette smoking, were current (past 30 days) cigarette smokers, or were high-intensity cigarette smokers. We fit multivariable logistic regression models among baseline non–cigarette smokers to assess whether baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and baseline snus use were associated with subsequent cigarette smoking initiation and current cigarette smoking, accounting for established sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors. We fit similarly specified multivariable ordinal logistic regression models to assess whether baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and baseline snus use were associated with high-intensity cigarette smoking at follow-up. EXPOSURES Water pipe tobacco smoking and the use of snus at baseline. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Among baseline non–cigarette smokers, cigarette smoking initiation, current (past 30 days) cigarette smoking at follow-up, and the intensity of cigarette smoking at follow-up. RESULTS Among 1596 respondents, 1048 had never smoked cigarettes at baseline, of whom 71 had smoked water pipe tobacco and 20 had used snus at baseline. At follow-up, accounting for behavioral and sociodemographic risk factors, baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and snus use were independently associated with cigarette smoking

  10. Adolescent smoking behaviour and cigarette brand preference in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Osaki, Y; Tanihata, T; Ohida, T; Minowa, M; Wada, K; Suzuki, K; Kaetsu, A; Okamoto, M; Kishimoto, T

    2006-01-01

    Objectives As part of efforts to develop a smoking control strategy for Japanese adolescents, the results of two nationwide surveys on adolescent smoking behaviour were compared. Design Descriptive study on smoking behaviour among high school students was conducted. Self‐reporting anonymous questionnaires were administered to 115 814 students in 1996 and 106 297 in 2000 through randomly sampled junior and senior high schools throughout Japan. Main outcome measures Smoking prevalence, proportion of smokers by usual sources of cigarettes, national estimated cigarettes consumed by minors, share of cigarette brands smoked by high school students. Results The experiment rate among junior high school boys decreased in 2000 compared with that in 1996, whereas current and daily smoking rates did not. Although prevalence among Japanese girls was much lower than that among boys, prevalence among girls increased in 2000. The main source of cigarettes among high school smokers was vending machines. The proportion of smokers who usually purchased cigarettes from vending machines increased in 2000, in spite of the 1998 introduction of restrictions on night‐time operations. Japanese adolescents were more likely than adults to smoke American cigarette brands, and the adolescent market share of American brands has increased rapidly, especially for menthol brands. Conclusions This survey revealed the seriousness of the problem of smoking behaviour among Japanese high school students, and suggested that this behaviour may be influenced by social environmental factors, including the marketing strategies of the tobacco industry. Action should be taken to reduce the prevalence and impact of pro‐tobacco marketing messages and to abolish cigarette vending machines. PMID:16728747

  11. Attitudes of Senegalese schoolgoing adolescents towards tobacco smoking.

    PubMed

    D'Hondt, W; Vandewiele, M

    1983-08-01

    Results show that tobacco smoking is a widespread phenomenon among Senegalese adolescents for several important reasons: economic (the intensive advertisement campaigns in favor of tobacco smoking), cultural (the ambivalence of traditional attitudes of Western urbanization, and the attractiveness of the Western way of life), psychological (the traumas of modernism on a basically poor developing country). Despite this alarming picture, signs point to an effective preventive strategy aimed mainly at schoolgoing adolescents and based on joint legal, scientific, cultural, and even religious action. PMID:24306312

  12. Biomarkers of early respiratory effects in smoking adolescents.

    PubMed

    Van Miert, E; Sardella, A; Bernard, A

    2011-12-01

    Noninvasive biomarkers can be used to evaluate airways damage caused by tobacco smoke, but studies so far have only involved adult smokers. In this study, we evaluated whether such biomarkers can detect early respiratory effects in adolescents passively or actively exposed to tobacco smoke. In a cross-sectional study of 845 adolescents (mean age 16 yrs), we measured exhaled nitric oxide (NO) and various epithelial markers in nasal lavage fluid (NALF) and serum, including Clara cell protein (CC16) and surfactant protein (SP)-D. Information about smoking habits and potential confounders was collected by questionnaire. Four groups of equal size (n = 36), of nonsmokers, passive smokers, light smokers (<5 cigarettes · day(-1), median 0.08 pack-yrs) and heavy smokers (≥ 5 cigarettes · day(-1), median 0.35 pack-yrs), were matched using an automated procedure. The levels of exhaled NO and of CC16 in NALF were significantly decreased in the group of heavy smokers. A trend towards lower levels of CC16 in NALF was observed in passive smokers. There were no significant changes in serum CC16 and SP-D, which suggests that the deep lung epithelium had not yet been affected by smoking. In conclusion, tobacco smoke can cause early changes in the airways of adolescents with a cumulative smoking history of <1 pack-yr. PMID:21565920

  13. Adolescent Behavior Change: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Educational Programs and Studies Information Service.

    This focus paper contains reprints of 11 articles intended to provide an overview of the key issues in the area of adolescent behavior change as it relates to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) education. Included are: (1) "Preventing HIV Infection and AIDS in Children and Adolescents" (J.…

  14. The Behavioral Dynamics of Youth Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilleskie, Donna B.; Strumpf, Koleman S.

    2005-01-01

    The role played by past cigarette consumption and individual heterogeneity in recurrent and persistent youth smoking behavior is studied. The study is based on data collected from teenagers of all the 50 United States, over a period extending from 1988 to 1992.

  15. Cognitions about Smoking and Not Smoking in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ter Doest, Laura; Dijkstra, Arie; Gebhardt, Winifred A.; Vitale, Salvatore

    2009-01-01

    The theory of planned behavior identifies important proximal determinants of behavior, including attitude toward the behavior, perception of subjective norms exerted by significant others, and perception of perceived control over performance of the behavior. Because research in the planned behavior tradition has focused on desirable target…

  16. Adolescent Socioeconomic and School-Based Social Status, Smoking, and Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Sweeting, Helen; Hunt, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Relationships between subjective social status (SSS) and health-risk behaviors have received less attention than those between SSS and health. Inconsistent associations between school-based SSS and smoking or drinking might be because it is a single measure reflecting several status dimensions. We investigated how adolescent smoking and drinking are associated with “objective” socioeconomic status (SES), subjective SES, and three dimensions of school-based SSS. Methods Scottish 13–15 years-olds (N = 2,503) completed questionnaires in school-based surveys, providing information on: “objective” SES (residential deprivation, family affluence); subjective SES (MacArthur Scale youth version); and three school-based SSS dimensions (“SSS-peer”, “SSS-scholastic” and “SSS-sports”). We examined associations between each status measure and smoking (ever and weekly) and drinking (ever and usually five or more drinks) and investigated variations according to gender and age. Results Smoking and heavier drinking were positively associated with residential deprivation; associations with family affluence and subjective SES were weak or nonexistent. Both substances were related to each school-based SSS measure, and these associations were equally strong or stronger than those with deprivation. Although SSS-peer was positively associated with both smoking and (especially heavier) drinking, SSS-scholastic and SSS-sports were negatively associated with both substances. There were no gender differences in the associations and few according to age. Conclusions Subjective school-based status has stronger associations with adolescent smoking and drinking than “objective” or subjective SES. However, different dimensions of school-based status relate to adolescent smoking and drinking in opposing directions, meaning one measure based on several dimensions might show inconsistent relationships with adolescent substance use. PMID:26095407

  17. Smoking, substance use, and mental health correlates in urban adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Groth, Susan W; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne

    2011-08-01

    This study examined the associations among smoking tobacco and/or cannabis with alcohol use, depression, disordered eating and healthy behaviors among adolescent girls enrolled in an HIV prevention intervention randomized trial. Baseline self-reported behaviors from 744 sexually active, low-income, urban participants were collected using an audio computer assisted self interview. Girls ranged in age from 15 to 19 years old with a mean age of 16.5. Over 16% of girls reported smoking cigarettes, 41% smoked cannabis and 12% used both substances. Girls who smoked either substance had higher scores for depression symptoms, alcohol use and disordered eating when compared to nonsmokers. Girls who used both substances were at a higher risk for alcohol use, depression symptoms and disordered eating. The association of cannabis and tobacco with the other health related issues differed depending on age, indicating that assessment and targeting of health behavior interventions may differ depending on a girl's age. Disordered eating, depressive symptoms and cannabis use were higher among these adolescent girls than previously documented in the literature, suggesting that to improve the health of this population multi-focused interventions must target girls before they have engaged in smoking. PMID:21107998

  18. Indirect effects of smoking motives on adolescent anger dysregulation and smoking.

    PubMed

    Mischel, Emily R; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W; Knapp, Ashley A; Bilsky, Sarah A; Ham, Lindsay; Lewis, Sarah

    2014-12-01

    Cigarette smoking is one of the leading causes of disease and death in the United States, and smoking typically begins in adolescence. It is therefore important to understand factors that relate to increased risk for cigarette smoking during this stage of development. Adolescence is a period when emotion regulatory capacities are still emerging and a common affective state to be regulated is anger, which adult research has linked to nicotine use. Drawing from work suggesting that negative affect reduction motives are one of the most common reasons for cigarette smoking, the current study was designed to evaluate the indirect effects of negative affect reduction motives on the relation between anger dysregulation and nicotine use within a sample of 119 treatment-seeking adolescents enrolled in group-based residential therapy. Results were generally consistent with hypotheses, suggesting significant indirect effects of negative affect reduction smoking motives on the relation between anger dysregulation and smoking outcomes. Findings are discussed in terms of negative affect reduction motives for cigarette use in the context of anger regulation among youths. PMID:25128636

  19. Indirect effects of smoking motives on adolescent anger dysregulation and smoking.

    PubMed

    Mischel, Emily R; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W; Knapp, Ashley A; Bilsky, Sarah A; Ham, Lindsay; Lewis, Sarah

    2014-12-01

    Cigarette smoking is one of the leading causes of disease and death in the United States, and smoking typically begins in adolescence. It is therefore important to understand factors that relate to increased risk for cigarette smoking during this stage of development. Adolescence is a period when emotion regulatory capacities are still emerging and a common affective state to be regulated is anger, which adult research has linked to nicotine use. Drawing from work suggesting that negative affect reduction motives are one of the most common reasons for cigarette smoking, the current study was designed to evaluate the indirect effects of negative affect reduction motives on the relation between anger dysregulation and nicotine use within a sample of 119 treatment-seeking adolescents enrolled in group-based residential therapy. Results were generally consistent with hypotheses, suggesting significant indirect effects of negative affect reduction smoking motives on the relation between anger dysregulation and smoking outcomes. Findings are discussed in terms of negative affect reduction motives for cigarette use in the context of anger regulation among youths.

  20. Adolescent mental health as a risk factor for adolescent smoking onset

    PubMed Central

    Hockenberry, Jason M; Timmons, Edward J; Weg, Mark W Vander

    2011-01-01

    Smoking continues to be a leading cause of preventable deaths and rates of trying cigarettes and progression to daily smoking among adolescents continues to remain high. A plethora of risk factors for smoking among adolescents has been addressed in the research literature. One that is gaining particular interest is the relationship between adolescent mental health and smoking (both initiation and progression). This paper reviews the evidence for adolescent mental health as a risk factor for cigarette smoking. We focus on the specific mental health conditions that have been more thoroughly addressed as possible risk factors in community-dwelling adolescents. We discuss the multiple hypotheses that have been posited as to the nature of the relationship between adolescent mental health and smoking, as well as detailing so called third factors that may account for the observed relationship. We highlight the contribution of the existing studies to the body of knowledge on this topic, as well as the limitations and open questions that remain as a result. We conclude with discussion of a broad research agenda going forward. PMID:24600273

  1. Menstrual Symptoms in Adolescent Girls: Association with Smoking, Depressive Symptoms and Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Dorn, Lorah D.; Negriff, Sonya; Huang, Bin; Pabst, Stephanie; Hillman, Jennifer; Braverman, Paula; Susman, Elizabeth J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Dysmenorrhea affects quality of life and contributes to absenteeism from school and work diminishing opportunities for successful psychosocial and cognitive development during adolescence. In adults, depression, anxiety, and smoking have an impact on menstrual cycles and dysmenorrhea. Associations between these potential problems have not been examined in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between depressive symptoms and anxiety with menstrual symptoms. Smoking was examined as a moderator of this relationship. Methods This study enrolled 154 post-menarcheal girls from a sample of 207 girls age 11, 13, 15, and 17 years [M = 15.4 years (± 1.9)]. Self-reported measures included the Menstrual Symptom Questionnaire (MSQ), Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and smoking behavior. Generalized linear regression modeled MSQ outcomes separately for depressive symptoms and anxiety. Results More depressive symptoms/anxiety were related to higher numbers of menstrual symptoms (r = 0.23–0.44, p < .05). Smoking status (ever) was related to higher MSQ scores. Moderating effects of smoking and depressive symptoms or anxiety on menstrual symptoms were consistent across most MSQ factors where effects were stronger in never smokers. Conclusion This is the first study in adolescents showing smoking status and depressive symptoms/anxiety are related to menstrual symptoms and that the impact of depressive symptoms/anxiety on menstrual symptoms is stronger in never smokers. The dynamic and complex nature of smoking, moods, and dysmenorrhea cannot be disentangled without longitudinal analyses. Efforts to reduce menstrual symptoms should begin at a young gynecological age and include consideration of mood and smoking status. PMID:19237109

  2. Initiation of Cigarette Smoking: Is It Related to Parental Smoking Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohlford, Paul

    1970-01-01

    The smoking behavior and family stability of 251 undergraduate men and women and their parents were studied. The results support the identification interpretation of the father/son smoking pattern. The variable of family intactness was a relevant moderator of the parent/son smoking pattern. The mother and daughter smoking patterns remained…

  3. Smoking among upper secondary pupils with asthma: reasons for their smoking behavior: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Precht, Dorthe Hansen; Keiding, Lis; Nielsen, Gert Allan; Madsen, Mette

    2006-07-01

    We compared why adolescent pupils with and without asthma started smoking and currently smoke. Girls with asthma started smoking less often because of friends smoking, and asthmatics started more often because of pressure, especially asthmatic boys. Fewer asthmatics smoked currently for social reasons and more to stay slim, mainly asthmatic boys.

  4. Changing Correlates of Cigarette Smoking from Adolescence to Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Judith A.; And Others

    This study examined whether and at what time point various interpersonal and intrapersonal correlates of smoking shifted over four assessment points in a longitudinal study of 461 individuals. The study began when the subjects, who had been participating in a study of adolescent and young adult development were in junior high school. Four…

  5. Smoking Intensity among Nigerian Secondary Schools Adolescent Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imhonde, Henry O.; Aluede, Oyaziwo

    2007-01-01

    This study examined smoking intensity among secondary school adolescent smokers. A total of 800 students, made up of 685 males and 115 females who have at least tasted a cigarette once, from twenty secondary schools (5 private and 15 public secondary schools) in Benin City, Nigeria participated in the study. A questionnaire was used in collecting…

  6. Factors Influencing Openness to Future Smoking among Nonsmoking Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R.; Weaver, Amy E.

    2008-01-01

    Background: To investigate the correlates of youth tobacco use in terms of nonsmoking adolescents' openness to future smoking, a secondary analysis of the 2000 and 2004 Indiana Youth Tobacco Survey (IYTS) was conducted. Methods: A representative sample of 1416 public high school students in grades 9-12 and 1516 public middle school students in…

  7. Social Contexts in Adolescent Smoking: Does School Policy Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piontek, D.; Buehler, A.; Rudolph, U.; Metz, K.; Kroeger, C.; Gradl, S.; Floeter, S.; Donath, C.

    2008-01-01

    According to an ecological perspective in psychology and in line with social cognitive theory, smoking behaviour is determined by different social contexts (for example, peers, family and school) providing adolescents with important role models. This paper investigates the effects of personal characteristics as well as family, peer and school…

  8. Adolescents' View on Smoking, Quitting and Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijk, Froukje; de Nooijer, Jascha; Heinrich, Evelien; de Vries, Hein

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to explore the beliefs of 15-17 year-old Dutch adolescents about starting or quitting smoking and to explore their preferences regarding education concerning this topic. Design/methodology/approach: The paper shows that a total of 12 group interviews were held with 101 students in the highest classes in secondary…

  9. Family and School Influences on Adolescent Smoking Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiium, Nora; Wold, Bente

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine how influences at home and school interact to predict smoking among adolescents. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected from 15-year-old pupils from Norway (n=1,404 in 73 Grade 10 school classes). Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to determine how family and school influences interact to…

  10. A Critique of Evaluated Adolescent Smoking Cessation Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Warren R.; Smith, Katrina M.

    2002-01-01

    Rates of adolescent smoking appear to be on the increase, with a number of authors documenting increases in the 1990's. However, the issue of prevention rather than cessation has received greater attention in tobacco control programmes among youth. This review provides details of published school based and other tobacco cessation programmes for…

  11. Assessing the Validity of Self-Reported Adolescent Cigarette Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Gary L.; Newman, Ian M.

    1988-01-01

    Compared adolescent cigarette smoking rates determined by traditional questionnaire, random response questionnaire, and carbon monoxide test. Results from 1,160 ninth graders in 40 classrooms in 7 schools indicated that random response questionnaire elicited statistically larger proportion of smokers than did traditional questionnaire. Neither…

  12. "Immortal but frightened"-smoking adolescents' perceptions on smoking uptake and prevention

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To curb the tobacco epidemic a combination of comprehensive interventions are needed at different levels. Smoking uptake is a multi-factorial process that includes societal factors as well as social and individual characteristics. An understanding of the process is essential in order to model interventions. The aim of this study was to explore the role of smoking for young smokers by focusing on the mechanisms that facilitate young people starting to smoke as well as what could have prevented them from starting. Methods A qualitative research design using focus group discussions was chosen as the basis for a content analysis approach. Eight focus groups were conducted with five to six participants in each (four groups with boys, four with girls). The informants were purposively selected to represent smokers in the age range of 15-16 years within the county. The total number of group participants was 44; 21 were girls and 23 boys. The study was performed at 7-9th grade schools in Västerbotten County in northern Sweden. Results Three themes related to different aspects of youth smoking behaviour emerged from the analysis. Theme 1) "gaining control" reflects what makes young people become smokers; theme 2) "becoming a part of the self" focuses on what facilitates youths to start smoking; theme 3) "concerned adults make a difference" indicates what may prevent them from starting. Conclusion Young smokers described starting to smoke as a means of gaining control of feelings and situations during early adolescence. Smoking adolescents expect adults to intervene against smoking. Close relations with concerned adults could be a reason for less frequent smoking or trying to quit smoking. Interventions aimed at normative changes, with consistent messages from both schools and parents about the negative aspects of tobacco seem to be a feasible approach for preventing youth from using tobacco. PMID:21176132

  13. Reducing adolescent smoking: a comparison of peer-led, teacher-led, and expert interventions.

    PubMed

    Clarke, J H; MacPherson, B; Holmes, D R; Jones, R

    1986-03-01

    To test the effectiveness of a psychosocial strategy of smoking deterence on seventh grade students, the School Health Education Development project implemented peer-led, teacher-led, and expert-led interventions in six Vermont schools. Four additional schools served as control groups. The teacher-led approach reduced the rate of smoking onset and the intention to smoke in the future among highly vulnerable females but not among males. The peer-led approach reduced the behavioral intention to smoke for both sexes but did not affect current smoking behavior. The expert-led approach did not produce favorable effects. Both the peer-led and teacher-led interventions had positive, though not significant, effects on student perception of locus of control. In the control schools, females experienced higher levels of smoking onset than males. Generally, the study points toward further development of a teacher-led approach to smoking deterence based on the theory of adolescent psychosocial development and the principle of continuous reinforcement.

  14. Young Adolescents, Tobacco Advertising, and Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santana, Yolanda; Gonzalez, Beatriz; Pinilla, Jaime; Calvo, Jose Ramon; Barber, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Background: In adolescents aged 12-14, we measured attitudes to tobacco advertising. Our purpose is to understand the relation of these attitudes to tobacco use and identify the groups most influenced by the advertising. Methods: Survey of adolescents on Gran Canaria Island, Spain, about aspects of family, school, peers, tobacco consumption, and…

  15. Cigarette smoking and adolescents: messages they see and hear.

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, M. A.

    2001-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the primary preventable cause of mortality and morbidity in the US. But in the mid-1990s, more than one-third of US teenagers were smokers, despite their awareness of the health risks and negative consequences of tobacco use. In 1996, as part of a three-year qualitative study to explore differences in adolescent smoking by gender and ethnicity, members of the Tobacco Control Network examined messages that teens receive about cigarette smoking. Consisting of 178 focus groups with 1,175 teenagers covering all levels of smoking experience, the study included teens from five ethnic groups, stratified by gender and ethnicity, from urban and rural areas across the US. The authors reviewed the sources and content of messages that teens reported were most influential in their decisions to smoke or not smoke cigarettes. Family and peers, school, television, and movies were the primary sources for both pro- and anti-smoking messages. The authors conclude that a lack of clear, consistent antismoking messages leaves teens vulnerable to the influences of pro-smoking messages from a variety of sources. Interventions need to be culture- and gender-specific. Family-based interventions appear to be needed and efficacious, but resource intensive. Building self-esteem may prove to be a promising intervention. PMID:11889286

  16. Cigarette smoking and adolescents: messages they see and hear.

    PubMed

    Crawford, M A

    2001-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the primary preventable cause of mortality and morbidity in the US. But in the mid-1990s, more than one-third of US teenagers were smokers, despite their awareness of the health risks and negative consequences of tobacco use. In 1996, as part of a three-year qualitative study to explore differences in adolescent smoking by gender and ethnicity, members of the Tobacco Control Network examined messages that teens receive about cigarette smoking. Consisting of 178 focus groups with 1,175 teenagers covering all levels of smoking experience, the study included teens from five ethnic groups, stratified by gender and ethnicity, from urban and rural areas across the US. The authors reviewed the sources and content of messages that teens reported were most influential in their decisions to smoke or not smoke cigarettes. Family and peers, school, television, and movies were the primary sources for both pro- and anti-smoking messages. The authors conclude that a lack of clear, consistent antismoking messages leaves teens vulnerable to the influences of pro-smoking messages from a variety of sources. Interventions need to be culture- and gender-specific. Family-based interventions appear to be needed and efficacious, but resource intensive. Building self-esteem may prove to be a promising intervention.

  17. Differences in Students' Smoking-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors among Public, Factory, and Private Secondary Schools in Guangzhou, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, Xiaozhong; Chen, Weiqing; Qian, Zhengmin; Muscat, Joshua E.; Lu, Ciyong; Ling, Wenhua

    2008-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of smoking among Chinese adolescents has dramatically increased in recent years. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among Chinese students in 3 types of secondary schools. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 3957 students of…

  18. Adolescent internet use and its relationship to cigarette smoking and alcohol use: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chiao, Chi; Yi, Chin-Chun; Ksobiech, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the longitudinal impact of situational Internet use on future cigarette smoking and alcohol use among male and female adolescents. A Northern Taiwanese cohort sample of adolescents with no prior use of cigarettes (n=1445) or alcohol (n=1468) was surveyed at age 16 and again 4 years later. Information regarding where, why, and length of time spent using the Internet was gathered from the 16-year-old participants. Outcome information regarding cigarette/alcohol use was gathered via a follow-up questionnaire at age 20. Multivariate regressions were used to incorporate peer, individual and family characteristics as measured at age 16 and create models of future cigarette and alcohol use at age 20. The analyses demonstrated that adolescent Internet use, particularly where such use took place, has a significant impact on future cigarette smoking and alcohol use, adjusted for conventional factors, and its relationship differs significantly by gender. Female adolescents with Internet café use appear to be especially likely to develop these two risky behaviors. The why of Internet use is also a predictor of future cigarette smoking. Finally, time spent using the Internet is significantly related to alcohol use; greater use of the Internet is associated with higher levels of drinking. The results revealed that different risky behaviors are differentially influenced by separate components of adolescent Internet use. These findings suggest that programs aimed at promoting adolescent health could potentially benefit Taiwanese adolescents by including components related to situational Internet use and taking gender into consideration.

  19. Associations between depression risk, bullying and current smoking among Chinese adolescents: Modulated by gender.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lan; Hong, Lingyao; Gao, Xue; Zhou, Jinhua; Lu, Ciyong; Zhang, Wei-Hong

    2016-03-30

    This school-based study aimed to investigate the prevalence of being at risk for depression, bullying behavior, and current smoking among Chinese adolescents in order to explore gender differences in the vulnerability of adolescents with these behaviors to develop a smoking habit. A total of 35,893 high school students sampled from high schools in eighteen cities in China participated in the study from 2011 to 2012. Overall, the prevalence of current smoking was estimated at 6.4%. In total, 1.7% (618) of the participants admitted to bullying others, 5.8% (2071) reported being bullied, 3.5% (1269) were involved in both bullying others and being bullied, and 5.6% (2017) were at high risk for depression. Logistic regression analysis indicated that among girls, with high depression risk, bullying others, being bullied, and both bullying others and being bullied were independently and positively associated with current smoking habits, while the final results among boys showed that bullying others and both bullying others and being bullied were independently associated with an increased risk of current smoking. School-based prevention programs are highly recommended, and we should focus on high-risk students, particularly girls with high risk of depression or involved in school bullying and boys who are involved in school bullying.

  20. Associations between depression risk, bullying and current smoking among Chinese adolescents: Modulated by gender.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lan; Hong, Lingyao; Gao, Xue; Zhou, Jinhua; Lu, Ciyong; Zhang, Wei-Hong

    2016-03-30

    This school-based study aimed to investigate the prevalence of being at risk for depression, bullying behavior, and current smoking among Chinese adolescents in order to explore gender differences in the vulnerability of adolescents with these behaviors to develop a smoking habit. A total of 35,893 high school students sampled from high schools in eighteen cities in China participated in the study from 2011 to 2012. Overall, the prevalence of current smoking was estimated at 6.4%. In total, 1.7% (618) of the participants admitted to bullying others, 5.8% (2071) reported being bullied, 3.5% (1269) were involved in both bullying others and being bullied, and 5.6% (2017) were at high risk for depression. Logistic regression analysis indicated that among girls, with high depression risk, bullying others, being bullied, and both bullying others and being bullied were independently and positively associated with current smoking habits, while the final results among boys showed that bullying others and both bullying others and being bullied were independently associated with an increased risk of current smoking. School-based prevention programs are highly recommended, and we should focus on high-risk students, particularly girls with high risk of depression or involved in school bullying and boys who are involved in school bullying. PMID:26833280

  1. The Effect of the Teachers' Smoking Behavior on Their Involvement in Smoking Education in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, T. L.; Rakip, William R.

    1975-01-01

    The results of this study showed that the general climate in school is one conducive to the establishment of a comprehensive smoking education program. The results also indicated that teachers' attitudes and behavior towards smoking education were closely related to their smoking behavior. (RC)

  2. With Others or Alone? Adolescent Individual Differences in the Context of Smoking Lapses

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Megan E.; Bidwell, L. Cinnamon; Colby, Suzanne M.; Gwaltney, Chad J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although a great deal of adolescent smoking research has investigated predictors of initiation, much less has focused on predictors of lapsing during a quit attempt. In particular, the role of social context may deserve greater attention in models of adolescent smoking cessation. Therefore, the present investigation aimed to use ecological momentary assessment (EMA) in order to examine individual differences in social lapsing—the extent to which lapses occur around others vs. when alone. Methods Analyses focused on 179 adolescent smokers (aged 14-18) engaged in an unassisted quit attempt. There were two general EMA assessment intervals: pre-quit (1 week) and post-quit (2 weeks). Participants reported every time that they smoked a cigarette and at random, nonsmoking times; in each assessment, participants responded to questions about their current environment, behaviors, and psychological state. A 3-month follow-up assessed longer-term smoking-related outcomes. Results Consistent with other adolescent research, the overall rate of lapsing was very high (93%). Social lapsing rates were likewise high (among those who lapsed, 73% reported their first lapse was social), but also varied continuously across individuals. We computed a social lapsing coefficient for each youth, and found that it related to smoking factors at baseline (e.g., lower smoking intensity and dependence) and follow-up (e.g., lower cotinine levels). Conclusions These results suggest that higher rates of social lapsing are associated with being a lighter, less dependent smoker and having better eventual cessation prospects. Findings provide evidence that accounting for variability in social lapsing may improve theory and treatment. PMID:25664557

  3. Long-term effects of adolescent smoking on depression and socioeconomic status in adulthood in an urban African American cohort.

    PubMed

    Strong, Carol; Juon, Hee-Soon; Ensminger, Margaret E

    2014-06-01

    Despite known adverse causal effects of cigarette smoking on mental health, findings for the effects of adolescent cigarette smoking on later depression and socioeconomic status remain inconclusive. Previous studies have had shorter follow-up periods and did not have a representative portion of the African American population. Using an analytical method that matches adolescent smokers with nonsmokers on childhood and background variables, this study aims to provide evidence on the effects of adolescent regular smoking on adult depression and socioeconomic status. Our longitudinal study is from the Woodlawn Study that followed 1,242 African Americans in Chicago from 1966-1967 (at age 6-7) through 2002-2003 (at age 42-43). We used a propensity score matching method to find a regular and a non-regular adolescent smoking group with similar childhood socioeconomic and family background and first grade academic and behavioral performance. We compared the matched samples to assess the longitudinal effects of adolescent smoking on adult outcomes. Comparing the matched 199 adolescent regular smokers and 199 non-regular smokers, we found statistical support for the effects of adolescent cigarette smoking on later educational attainment (OR, 2.13; 95 % CI, 1.34, 3.39) and long-term unemployment (OR, 1.74; 95 % CI, 1.11, 2.75), but did not find support for the effects on adulthood major depressive disorders. With a community population of urban African Americans followed for 40 years, our study contributes to the understanding of the relationships between adolescent smoking and later educational attainment and employment.

  4. The roles of parenting, church attendance, and depression in adolescent smoking.

    PubMed

    Berg, Carla; Choi, Won S; Kaur, Harsohena; Nollen, Nicole; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2009-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify contextual factors related to smoking among urban African-American and White adolescents. We administered a survey assessing demographic and psychosocial variables to 299 adolescents in an urban pediatric clinic in the Midwest. Results indicated that being female, older age, lower academic performance, depressive symptoms, less frequent church attendance, parental smoking, and parental attitudes toward smoking were related to adolescent smoking. After controlling for demographics, the multivariate model predicting adolescent smoking included depressive symptoms, less frequent church attendance, and parental disapproval of smoking. Given these findings, efforts to decrease adolescent smoking may be enhanced by attending to depressive symptoms demonstrated by adolescents as well as contextual factors including parental attitudes and church attendance.

  5. Suicidal Behavior among Early Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gover, F. Jill

    There is a great deal of concern about teenage suicide. This study obtained a prevalence rate of suicidal behaviors among non-psychiatric early adolescents (ages 11-16) and investigated personal and family variables that may characterize the young teenagers who report varying degrees of suicidal behavior. A self-report questionnaire was…

  6. Peer Influences: The Impact of Online and Offline Friendship Networks on Adolescent Smoking and Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Grace C.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Soto, Daniel; Fujimoto, Kayo; Pentz, Mary Ann; Jordan-Marsh, Maryalice; Valente, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Online social networking sites (SNSs) have become a popular mode of communication between adolescents. However, little is known about the effects of social online activity on health behaviors. The authors examine the use of SNSs between friends and the degree to which SNS activities relate to face-to-face peer influences and adolescent risk behaviors. Methods Longitudinal egocentric friendship network data along with adolescent social media use and risk behaviors were collected from 1,563 tenth grade students across five Southern California high schools. Measures of online and offline peer influences were computed and assessed using fixed effects models. Results The frequency of adolescent SNS use and the number of their closest friends on the same SNS were not significantly associated with risk behaviors. However, exposure to friends’ online pictures of partying or drinking was significantly associated with both smoking (β=.07, p<.001) and alcohol use (β=.08, p<.05). While adolescents with drinking friends had higher risk levels for drinking, adolescents without drinking friends were more likely to be affected by increasing exposure to risky online pictures (β=−.10, p<.10). Myspace and Facebook had demographically distinct user characteristics and had differential effects on risk behaviors. Conclusions Exposure to risky online content had a direct impact on adolescents’ risk behaviors and significantly interacted with risk behaviors of their friends. These results provide evidence that friends’ online behaviors should be considered a viable source of peer influence and that increased efforts should focus on educating adolescents on the negative effects of risky online displays. PMID:24012065

  7. Strategies to promote smoking cessation among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Johanne; Chadi, Nicholas

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, youth have been exposed to a broader spectrum of tobacco products including smokeless tobacco, hookah (water pipe) and e-cigarettes. Despite active local, provincial/territorial and national prevention strategies and legislated controls, thousands of teenagers develop an addiction to tobacco products each year. Current and available smoking cessation interventions for youth have the potential to help teens stop smoking and, as a result, greatly reduce Canada's health burden in the future. Paediatricians and health care professionals can play a key role in helping teens make informed decisions related to tobacco consumption and cessation. This practice point presents the evidence and rationales for smoking cessation interventions which have been studied in youth specifically, such as individual counselling, psychological support, nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion and varenicline. Interventions for which limited or conflicting data exist are also discussed.

  8. Strategies to promote smoking cessation among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Johanne; Chadi, Nicholas

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, youth have been exposed to a broader spectrum of tobacco products including smokeless tobacco, hookah (water pipe) and e-cigarettes. Despite active local, provincial/territorial and national prevention strategies and legislated controls, thousands of teenagers develop an addiction to tobacco products each year. Current and available smoking cessation interventions for youth have the potential to help teens stop smoking and, as a result, greatly reduce Canada's health burden in the future. Paediatricians and health care professionals can play a key role in helping teens make informed decisions related to tobacco consumption and cessation. This practice point presents the evidence and rationales for smoking cessation interventions which have been studied in youth specifically, such as individual counselling, psychological support, nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion and varenicline. Interventions for which limited or conflicting data exist are also discussed. PMID:27429574

  9. Hookah Smoking and Harm Perception among Asthmatic Adolescents: Findings from the Florida Youth Tobacco Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinasek, Mary P.; Gibson-Young, Linda; Forrest, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hookah tobacco smoking has increased in prevalence among Florida adolescents and is often viewed as a safer alternative to cigarette smoking by young adults. Asthmatic adolescents are at increased risk of the negative health effects of hookah smoking. The purpose of this study is to examine if hookah use and harm perception vary by…

  10. The Association between Teacher Attitudes, Behavioral Intentions, and Smoking and the Prevalence of Smoking among Seventh-Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Moor, Carl; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed seventh grade students and teachers from 23 schools to determine association between teacher attitudes, behavioral intentions, and smoking behavior and prevalence of student smoking. Teacher attitudes toward smoking policies were strongly related to current smoking behavior of teacher but not consistently related to student smoking.…

  11. Smoking Behavior, Attitudes of Second-Hand Smoke, and No-Smoking Policies on a University Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polacek, Georgia N. L. Johnston; Atkins, Janet L.

    2008-01-01

    Smoking, when condoned as socially acceptable, overtly establishes such behavior as normal and risk-free. Scientific evidence verifies that cigarette smoking pervasively damages the body, causes early death, costs billions of dollars annually in medical care for smokers, and poses serious health risks to nonsmokers exposed to secondhand smoke. Yet…

  12. Preliminary Examination of Adolescent Spending in a Contingency Management-Based Smoking-Cessation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavallo, Dana A.; Nich, Charla; Schepis, Ty S.; Smith, Anne E.; Liss, Thomas B.; McFetridge, Amanda K.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2010-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) utilizing monetary incentives is efficacious in enhancing abstinence in an adolescent smoking-cessation program, but how adolescents spend their money has not been examined. We assessed spending habits of 38 adolescent smokers in a CM-based smoking-cessation project prior to quitting and during treatment using a…

  13. Pulmonary effects of active smoking and secondhand smoke exposure among adolescent students in Juárez, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Yelena; Staines-Orozco, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Background Youth smoking trends among Latin American countries, including Mexico, are on the rise. Notably, although the high prevalence of smoking in teens has been well documented in the literature, few studies have evaluated the impact of smoking and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure on their respiratory system. Objective To investigate the effects of smoking and SHS exposure on the respiratory health and lung function among eighth-grade students in Juárez, Mexico. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken on a sample of convenience. The study outcomes centered on evaluating 300 students’ lung function by spirometry (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1], forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity ratio [FEV1/FVC], and forced mid-expiratory flow rate [FEF25%–75%]) and their respiratory health (smoking behavior and SHS exposure) by their self-reported responses to a standardized respiratory questionnaire. The study outcomes were compared among three distinct groups: 1) nonsmokers/nonexposed to SHS; 2) nonsmokers/exposed to SHS; and 3) smokers. Results The majority of the study participants were 14 years old (85%), females (54%), who attended eighth grade in a public school setting (56%). Approximately, half reported being of low socioeconomic status (49%) and nonsmokers/exposed to SHS (49%). The lung function parameters of smokers were found to be lower (FEV1 =62.88±10.25; FEV1/FVC =83.50±14.15; and FEF25%–75% =66.35±12.55) than those recorded for the nonsmokers/exposed to SHS (FEV1 =69.41±11.35; FEV1/FVC =88.75±15.75; and FEF25%–75% =78.90±14.65) and significantly reduced when compared to the nonsmokers/nonexposed to SHS (FEV1 =79.14±13.61; FEV1/FVC =94.88±21.88; and FEF25%–75% =87.36±17.02) (P<0.001). Similarly, respiratory complaints were more prevalent among smokers and those exposed to SHS when compared to nonsmokers/nonexposed to SHS. Conclusion Our findings suggest that initiation of cigarette smoking and, to a

  14. Cigarette and waterpipe smoking among Lebanese adolescents, a cross-sectional study, 2003-2004.

    PubMed

    El-Roueiheb, Zana; Tamim, Hala; Kanj, Mayada; Jabbour, Samer; Alayan, Iman; Musharrafieh, Umayya

    2008-02-01

    Waterpipe or "argileh" is a form of smoking other than cigarettes that is currently spreading among people of all ages. The objective of the present study was to assess tobacco smoking practices (waterpipe and/or cigarette) among public and private adolescent school students in Beirut, Lebanon. A sample of 2,443 students selected from 10 private and 3 public schools with intermediate/secondary classes filled out a self-administered anonymous questionnaire that inquired about sociodemographic characteristics, and behavior about tobacco smoking. Binary analysis was performed as well as three regression models for the relationship between exclusive cigarettes smoking, exclusive waterpipe smoking and both cigarettes and waterpipe as the dependent variables and gender, type of school, and class as the independent variables. The current prevalence of cigarettes smoking was 11.4%, and that of waterpipe smoking was 29.6%. Gender was significantly associated with cigarettes (OR=3.2, 95% CI 1.8-5.6) but not waterpipe smoking. Public school students were, respectively, 3.2 (95% CI 1.8-5.6) and 1.7 (95% CI 1.4-2.1) times more likely to be exclusive cigarettes smokers, and exclusive waterpipe smokers. Class was not significantly associated with exclusive cigarette smoking; however, students attending secondary classes were 1.3 (95% CI 1.1-1.6) times more likely to be exclusive waterpipe smokers. The reasons behind the high prevalence of both types of smoking are presented and discussed. The present study calls for school-based prevention programs and other types of interventions such as tax increases, and age-restrictions on tobacco sales. More aggressive interventions to disseminate education and awareness among parents and students altogether are warranted.

  15. If Parents Establish a No-Smoking Agreement with Their Offspring, Does This Prevent Adolescents from Smoking? Findings from Three Dutch Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Exter Blokland, Endy A. W.; Engels, Rutger C.; Harakeh, Zeena; Hale, William W., III.; Meeus, Wim

    2009-01-01

    Data from three studies were used to investigate whether the establishment of a no-smoking agreement is related to lower odds of adolescent smoking. The prevalence of a no-smoking agreement was first explored by using a national sample involving 4,501 Dutch adolescents. Second, data from a longitudinal study among 595 early adolescents and their…

  16. Smoking status moderates the contribution of social-cognitive and environmental determinants to adolescents' smoking intentions.

    PubMed

    Victoir, An; Eertmans, A; Van den Broucke, S; Van den Bergh, O

    2006-10-01

    In this study, it was tested whether attitudes, self-efficacy, social influences and the perception of the school and home environments had different associations with intentions for adolescent non-smokers, occasional smokers and daily smokers. A regression model allowing for separate slopes of social-cognitive and environment variables accounted for 72% of the variation in intentions. For non-smokers, ease of refusing to smoke (beta = -0.06) and social influences favouring smoking (beta = 0.05) were linked to intentions. Occasional and daily smokers' intentions were associated with health consequences (beta = -0.05 and beta = -0.06, respectively) and ease of smoking/buying cigarettes (beta = 0.05 and beta = 0.24, respectively). Social influences favouring smoking (beta = 0.10) were also associated with intentions in daily smokers. In an extended model for current smokers (adjusted R(2) = 0.45), context-cued nicotine cravings (beta = 0.27) were linked to daily smokers', but not occasional smokers' intentions. The results suggest that motivating adolescents to abstain from or to quit smoking implies working on different combinations of determinants in non-smokers, occasional smokers and daily smokers. Interventions for daily smokers should supplement motivational techniques with stratagems that allow smokers to reduce the number of cravings they experience in specific contexts.

  17. [Smoking initiation and watching television, video, DVD among adolescents in Poland].

    PubMed

    Kowalewska, Anna; Mazur, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the relationship between smoking initiation and the time spent watching TV, video, DVD by adolescents 11, 13, and 15-year-old in Poland. The research was conducted in 2010 as a part of Health Behaviour in School-aged Children: A WHO Collaborative Cross-national Study (HBSC) in a sample of 4751 students, using a standard, international HBSC questionnaire. It was found that there is a relationship between smoking attempts made by the young people and time spent watching TV during weekdays. In the analyzes using logistic regression combined variable relating to the time to watch TV on weekdays and weekends was used. Nearly a quarter of respondents (24.3%) were qualified to the group of adolescents spending too much time in front of the screen. Age was the strongest predictor of smoking onset. Between 11 and 13 years of age the risk of taking the first cigarette increased three times, and between 11 and 15 years of age more than seven times. Relative risk of smoking attempts related to gender and frequency of watching television, video or DVD was both equal to 1.5. In smoking prevention focused on adolescents it is should be better to pay more attention on constructive leisure time activities, and the role of parents in shaping pro-health attitudes. This is particularly important in the initial stages of schooling, when to develop and enhance the psychosocial competences as a the protective factor of risk taking behaviors among adolescents. PMID:23421048

  18. Cigar, Cigarillo, and Little Cigar Use Among Current Cigarette-Smoking Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Cigar, cigarillo, and little cigar (CCLC) use is prevalent among adolescents, particularly among those who smoke cigarettes. Methods: Using data from a longitudinal study of smoking patterns among adolescents, we examined differences between CCLC users (ever and past 30 days) and nonusers (never and not in the past 30 days) among adolescents who smoked a cigarette in the last month (n = 486). Results: In our sample, 76.7% reported ever trying CCLC and 40.7% reported past month CCLC use. Bivariate analyses showed that CCLC users differed from nonusers in terms of demographics, other forms of tobacco use, other substance use, and mental health. Multivariate logistic regression analyses found that both ever and past 30-day CCLC use were strongly associated with being male and concurrent use of hookah. Ever CCLC use was also strongly associated with recent use of alcohol, and past 30-day CCLC use was strongly associated with antisocial behavior. After controlling for the number of days on which cigarettes were smoked in the past 30 days, past 30-day CCLC use was associated with most other forms of tobacco use, other substance use, and mental health, but not with number of cigarettes smoked in the past month and nicotine dependence. Conclusions: Results suggest that CCLC use is high among adolescent cigarette users and is associated with a variety of negative correlates. Importantly, many of these relationships are not accounted for by the adolescent’s level of cigarette use. Further characterizing CCLC use will be important for developing more targeted and tailored interventions. PMID:23072873

  19. [Smoking initiation and watching television, video, DVD among adolescents in Poland].

    PubMed

    Kowalewska, Anna; Mazur, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the relationship between smoking initiation and the time spent watching TV, video, DVD by adolescents 11, 13, and 15-year-old in Poland. The research was conducted in 2010 as a part of Health Behaviour in School-aged Children: A WHO Collaborative Cross-national Study (HBSC) in a sample of 4751 students, using a standard, international HBSC questionnaire. It was found that there is a relationship between smoking attempts made by the young people and time spent watching TV during weekdays. In the analyzes using logistic regression combined variable relating to the time to watch TV on weekdays and weekends was used. Nearly a quarter of respondents (24.3%) were qualified to the group of adolescents spending too much time in front of the screen. Age was the strongest predictor of smoking onset. Between 11 and 13 years of age the risk of taking the first cigarette increased three times, and between 11 and 15 years of age more than seven times. Relative risk of smoking attempts related to gender and frequency of watching television, video or DVD was both equal to 1.5. In smoking prevention focused on adolescents it is should be better to pay more attention on constructive leisure time activities, and the role of parents in shaping pro-health attitudes. This is particularly important in the initial stages of schooling, when to develop and enhance the psychosocial competences as a the protective factor of risk taking behaviors among adolescents.

  20. Association of asthma symptoms with cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption in Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Oksoo; Kim, Bo Hye

    2013-03-01

    The association of asthma symptoms with cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption in Korean adolescents was investigated in this study using the data of Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Associated risk factors for experiencing asthma symptoms were explored in 3432 adolescents. In the symptomatic group, 21.7% were current smokers, compared to 10.9% in the asymptomatic group. Current smokers in the symptomatic group also smoked more cigarettes than those in the asymptomatic group. In the symptomatic group, 27.4% were current drinkers, compared to 17.9% in the asymptomatic group. Current drinkers in the symptomatic group were more likely to drink alcohol and to have experienced severe intoxication than those in the asymptomatic group. Participants who had been diagnosed within one year (odds ratio = 5.19, 95% confidence interval = 4.17-6.44) and those who had smoked over 20 days during the past 30 days (odds ratio = 1.77, 95% confidence interval = 1.26-2.49) were more likely to experience asthma symptoms. Healthcare providers should identify the risk behaviors of adolescents with asthma and counsel them and their parents simultaneously.

  1. Drive cancer out: a physician-led anti-smoking program directed at teens and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bousamra, M; Kloecker, G; Herbig, S

    2008-12-01

    Kentucky is among the states with the highest smoking-related mortality and youth smoking rates. Drive Cancer Out is a physician-led program that assesses and attempts to influence health literacy among Kentucky adolescents. Surveys on fifth-grade students identify social risk factors for smoking initiation and propose methods to decrease the rate of smoking among teenagers.

  2. The Role of Family Factors and School Achievement in the Progression of Adolescents to Regular Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennanen, M.; Vartiainen, E.; Haukkala, A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether parental smoking and single parenting were related to adolescents' school achievement and anti-smoking parental practices as well as how these factors predicted later smoking. The sample comprised 1163 Finnish students in Grades 7 through 9. Results show that at the beginning of the seventh grade, parental smoking and…

  3. Illicit Drug Use, Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Drinking Behaviour among a Sample of High School Adolescents in the Pietersburg Area of the Northern Province, South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madu, Sylvester Ntomchukwu; Matla, Ma-Queen Patience

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the prevalence of illicit drug use, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking behavior among a sample of high-school adolescents in the Pietersburg area of South Africa. Findings indicate the prevalence rate of 19.8% for illicit drug use, 10.6% for cigarette smoking and 39.1% for alcohol consumption among the participants. Implications…

  4. Adult versus adolescent onset of smoking: how are mood disorders and other risk factors involved?

    PubMed Central

    Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Landolt, Karin; Angst, Jules; Gamma, Alex; Merikangas, Kathleen R.; Gutzwiller, Felix; Rössler, Wulf

    2010-01-01

    Aims To examine the strength of association between smoking and mood disorders and the association between smoking and its traditional risk factors, comparing those who started smoking in adolescence with those who started smoking in early adulthood. Design and participants The analyses relied on prospective data from the Zurich Study. This longitudinal community study started in 1979 with a stratified sample of 591 participants aged 20/21 years, weighted towards those with mental disorders. Follow-up interviews were conducted at ages 23, 28, 30, 35 and 41. Measurements In this analysis the adult versus adolescent onset of smoking was regressed on the cumulative prevalence of mood disorders, personality characteristics measured by the Freiburg Personality Inventory, common risk factors such as parental smoking, conduct and school problems, troubles with the family and basic sociodemographic variables (sex, education). Findings In the Zurich Study cohort we found that 61.6% were former or current smokers, of whom 87% started smoking before the age of 20 and 13% after the age of 20. Adolescent onset of smoking was associated strongly with later major depression, dysthymia or bipolar disorders and, furthermore, with parental smoking, extroverted personality and discipline problems and rebelliousness in youth. However, only depression and dysthymia were associated with adult onset smoking and other risk factors associated with smoking were not so associated in this group. Conclusions Correlates of smoking onset in adolescence are mainly not applicable to the onset of smoking in young adulthood. Smoking onset beyond adolescence is an open research issue. PMID:19624327

  5. Clustering of smoking, alcohol drinking and cannabis use in adolescents in a rapidly developing country

    PubMed Central

    Faeh, David; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Chiolero, Arnaud; Warren, Wick; Bovet, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    Background Smoking, alcohol drinking and cannabis use ("risk behaviors") are often initiated at a young age but few epidemiological studies have assessed their joined prevalence in children in developing countries. This study aims at examining the joint prevalence of these behaviors in adolescents in the Seychelles, a rapidly developing country in the Indian Ocean. Methods Cross-sectional survey in a representative sample of secondary school students using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire (Global Youth Tobacco Survey). The questionnaire was completed by 1,321 (92%) of 1,442 eligible students aged 11 to 17 years. Main variables of interest included smoking cigarettes on ≥1 day in the past 30 days; drinking any alcohol beverage on ≥1 day in the past 30 days and using cannabis at least once in the past 12 months. Results In boys and girls, respectively, prevalence (95% CI) was 30% (26–34)/21% (18–25) for smoking, 49% (45–54)/48% (43–52) for drinking, and 17% (15–20)/8% (6–10) for cannabis use. The prevalence of all these behaviors increased with age. Smokers were two times more likely than non-smokers to drink and nine times more likely to use cannabis. Drinkers were three times more likely than non-drinkers to smoke or to use cannabis. Comparison of observed versus expected frequencies of combination categories demonstrated clustering of these risk behaviors in students (P < 0.001). Conclusion Smoking, drinking and cannabis use were common and clustered among adolescents of a rapidly developing country. These findings stress the need for early and integrated prevention programs. PMID:16803621

  6. Smoking behavior among hospital staff still influences attitudes and counseling on smoking.

    PubMed

    Willaing, Ingrid; Ladelund, Steen

    2004-04-01

    Smoking among health professionals has been shown to influence smoking-related knowledge and counseling in clinical practice. The evidence regarding smoking as a risk factor has increased in the past decade. The present study was carried out in 2000 and investigated the associations between individual smoking behavior among hospital staff and (a). smoking-related knowledge, (b). attitudes toward counseling on smoking, and (c). self-reported smoking-related counseling provided by the staff. The study was based on a survey using self-administered questionnaires given to all hospital staff in a large university hospital in Denmark. Altogether, 82% of staff (2561) returned a completed questionnaire. Analyses focused on a subsample consisting of health professionals in the clinical wards (1429). Multivariate analyses were performed in which smoking-related knowledge, attitudes toward smoking-related counseling, smoking-related counseling practices, and self-rated qualifications for counseling were main outcome measures. Health professionals who were current smokers systematically underestimated the health consequences of smoking and differed significantly from nonsmokers in their assessments of smoking as a risk factor. Nonsmokers might overestimate smoking as a risk factor. Nonsmokers gave patients advice on smoking cessation significantly more often than did current smokers (ex-smokers, OR=2.5, 95% CI=1.8-3.4; never-smokers, OR=1.5, 95% CI=1.1-2.0). Ex-smokers and smokers felt significantly more qualified to counsel patients about smoking than did never-smokers (ex-smokers, OR=1.8, 95% CI=1.3-2.5; smokers, OR=1.4, 95% CI=1.0-1.9). Individual smoking behavior among hospital staff was strongly associated with smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and counseling practices. Lack of self-rated qualifications was a major barrier to professional counseling on smoking in a hospital framework.

  7. Dual growth of adolescent smoking and drinking: evidence for an interaction between the mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1) A118G polymorphism and sex.

    PubMed

    Kleinjan, Marloes; Poelen, Evelien A; Engels, Rutger C M E; Verhagen, Maaike

    2013-11-01

    Smoking and alcohol use often co-occur during adolescence, but little is known about the codevelopment of these substances. In the search for etiological factors that help to explain the development of adolescent substance use patterns, studies have revealed substantial heritability for both alcohol use and smoking. In this regard, the µ-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1, chromosome 6q24-q25) has been linked to both substances. This study examined the predictive relationships between initial level and growth of smoking and drinking in 311 early adolescents (13-15 years old) over a 4-year period. In addition, the effects of the A118G polymorphism of the OPRM1 gene on the initial values and the development over time of alcohol use and smoking were assessed. Finally, as prevalence and heritability estimates for both alcohol- and smoking-related behaviors differ between males and females, OPRM1 by sex interactions were tested. We found that high initial levels of early adolescent alcohol consumption were related to a stronger increase in smoking levels over time. In contrast, high initial levels of smoking were not related to growth of alcohol use. No main OPRM1 effects were found, but sex-specificity of the gene was found for smoking development. Male A-allele carriers showed a faster development in smoking behavior, whereas in females, the G-allele led to a faster development in smoking. Thus, in addition to high levels of alcohol as a risk factor for the development of smoking behavior, sex-specific effects exist for OPRM1, which may additionally have consequences for the development of adolescent smoking.

  8. Antismoking initiatives: effects of analysis versus production media literacy interventions on smoking-related attitude, norm, and behavioral intention.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Smita C; Greene, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    This study developed inoculation-driven antismoking interventions aimed at changing attitudes, norms and intentions about smoking to influence smoking behavior in adolescents. This study explored the efficacy of 2 intervention approaches designed to help adolescents to refrain from smoking initiation. Participants were junior high students (6th, 7th, and 8th grade) from schools in the Northeast. Two kinds of experimental workshops and a control group were designed as stimulus material in a repeated measure nonequivalent group experimental design. The 2 intervention workshops developed included: analysis + analysis (where participants discussed and analyzed cigarette and antismoking ads) and analysis + production (where participants discussed, analyzed, and then created their own antismoking ads). The analysis + production workshop was generally more successful than the analysis + analysis workshop and control group in changing participants' behavioral intention to smoke and attitude toward smoking but not subjective norms over time. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:17617012

  9. Critical discussion of social-cognitive factors in smoking initiation among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bidstrup, Pernille Envold; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Vinther-Larsen, Mathilde; Johansen, Christoffer

    2011-01-01

    Social-cognitive models have often been used in research on prevention in adolescent populations, even though the models were designed to describe adult behavior. The aim of the study reported here was to examine critically and constructively the five social-cognitive factors in the 'attitude, social influence, self-efficacy' (ASE) model. Methods. The examination draws on the results of a qualitative follow-up study of smoking initiation based on semi-structured interviews and observations of 12 adolescents in two Danish school classes, grades 7 and 8. The qualitative study was conducted in connection with and sampled from a large quantitative study and the results of both studies are discussed. In the analyses, we explored the ASE constructs according to how they are described in the ASE theory. Furthermore, we examined contradictions and aspects which are not explained in the model and if relevant discussed these aspects using other theoretical frameworks. Results. The results showed that aspects other than those in the ASE model are also important. Smoking initiation was often situational and unplanned and was sometimes used in negotiating social relationships and identity. Furthermore, the social-cognitive models are based on the assumption that adolescents talk about smoking norms and have a high degree of individual reflexivity, which is not always characteristic of adolescent behavior. Conclusion. Applying theoretical models in health research should be a continuous process of both applying the model and discussing the theoretical assumptions of the model when applied to a specific sample. The results of the qualitative study provide some support for use of the ASE model, but the results also suggest that further studies are needed to explore how social-cognitive models can be expanded to be more comprehensive behavioral models.

  10. The Effects of Race/Ethnicity, Income, and Family Structure on Adolescent Risk Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Robert W.; Beuhring, Trisha; Shew, Marcia L.; Bearinger, Linda H.; Sieving, Renee E.; Resnick, Michael D.

    2000-01-01

    Examined the unique and combined contributions of race/ethnicity, income, and family structure to adolescent smoking, alcohol use, violence, suicide, and sexual intercourse. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health indicated that though some behaviors appeared to relate to the factors, when taken together, these factors…

  11. Influence of rural non-smoking adolescents' sense of coherence and exposure to household smoking on their commitment to a smoke-free lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A; Rantao, Masego M

    2013-06-01

    This 18-month longitudinal study examined the influence of adolescents' sense of coherence (SOC) and exposure to household smoking on their commitment to a smoke-free lifestyle. This study investigated a representative sample of 8th graders from 21 randomly selected high schools in the rural Limpopo Province of South Africa (n = 2,119). Of the total sample of 2,119 participants, 294 (14%) reported smoking at baseline and were therefore excluded from further analysis. Of those who did not smoke at baseline, 98.1% (n = 1,767) reported no intention of smoking in the upcoming 12 months. Of those who completed follow-up and had no intention of smoking at baseline (n = 1,316), 89.1% still did not smoke and remained committed to being smoke-free. Having a lower SOC, reporting alcohol binge-drinking at baseline, and having a household member who regularly smokes indoors (OR = 0.46: 0.26-0.82), as compared to not having any smoker in the household, were associated with lower odds of honoring a commitment to a smoke-free lifestyle. Furthermore, those who identified themselves as black Africans, as opposed to belonging to other race groups, were more likely to maintain a smoke-free lifestyle. Our findings suggest that interventions to prevent adolescent smoking should prioritize stress-coping skills and promote smoke-free homes. PMID:23765190

  12. Asthma and Suicidal Ideation and Behavior among Puerto Rican Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bandiera, Frank C.; Ramirez, Rafael; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Canino, Glorisa; Goodwin, Renee D.

    2013-01-01

    There is growing evidence of a positive association between asthma and suicidal ideation and behavior in the general community, although information on this potential association is scarce among adolescents and Puerto Ricans, groups at-risk for both conditions. Data came from wave three of the Boricua Youth Study, a longitudinal study of youth in the Bronx and San Juan conducted from 2000–2004. Logistic regressions for correlated data (GEE) were conducted with asthma predicting suicidal ideation and behavior among participants aged 11 years or older. After adjustment for survey design, age, gender, poverty, DSM-IV mental disorders, cigarette smoking, and stressful life events, asthma was positively associated with suicidal ideation and behavior among Puerto Rican adolescents. Public health interventions targeting Puerto Rican adolescents with asthma and future studies investigating potential biological and psychological mechanisms of association are warranted. PMID:23817156

  13. Favourite movie stars, their tobacco use in contemporary movies, and its association with adolescent smoking

    PubMed Central

    Tickle, J.; Sargent, J.; Dalton, M.; Beach, M.; Heatherton, T.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess the relation between adolescents' favourite movie stars, the portrayal of tobacco use by those stars in contemporary motion pictures, and adolescent smoking.
DESIGN AND SETTING—632 students (sixth to 12th grade, ages 10-19 years) from five rural New England public schools completed a voluntary, self administered survey in October 1996. The survey assessed tobacco use, other variables associated with adolescent smoking, and favourite movie star. In addition, tobacco use by 43 selected movie stars was measured in films between 1994 and 1996.
OUTCOME MEASURES—Students were categorised into an ordinal five point index (tobacco status) based on their smoking behaviour and their smoking susceptibility: non-susceptible never smokers, susceptible never smokers, non-current experimenters, current experimenters, and smokers. We determined the adjusted cumulative odds of having advanced smoking status based on the amount of on-screen tobacco use by their favourite film star.
RESULTS—Of the 43 stars, 65% used tobacco at least once, and 42% portrayed smoking as an essential character trait in one or more films. Stars who smoked more than twice in a film were considered smokers. For adolescents whose favourite stars smoked in only one film, the odds of being higher on the smoking index was 0.78 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53 to 1.15). For adolescents whose favourite stars smoked in two films, the odds of being higher on the smoking index was 1.5 (95% CI 1.01 to 2.32). For adolescents whose favourite stars smoked in three or more films (Leonardo DiCaprio, Sharon Stone, John Travolta), the odds of being higher on the smoking index was 3.1 (95% CI 1.34 to 7.12). Among never smokers (n = 281), those who chose stars who were smokers in three or more films were much more likely to have favourable attitudes toward smoking (adjusted odds ratio 16.2, 95% CI 2.3 to 112).
CONCLUSIONS—Adolescents who choose movie stars who use tobacco

  14. Efficacy and Tolerability of Pharmacotherapies to Aid Smoking Cessation in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Steffani R.; Crew, Erin E.; Riske, Emily C.; Ammerman, Seth; Robinson, Thomas N.; Killen, Joel D.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent smoking remains a public health problem. Despite concerns regarding adolescent nicotine dependence, few well-designed smoking cessation studies have been conducted with teen smokers. This is particularly true regarding pharmacological treatments for nicotine dependence. Currently, pharmacological aids are not recommended for treating adolescent nicotine dependence, as efficacy has not been shown in this population. This review includes studies that have examined the efficacy of pharmacotherapy for smoking abstinence and/or reduction in cigarette consumption among adolescent smokers who want to quit smoking, lab-based adolescent studies that have examined the effectiveness of these medications in reducing cravings and/or withdrawal symptoms, and/or studies that have assessed the tolerability of medications for smoking cessation in adolescent smokers. This review provides information on the pharmacologic action of each medication, the efficacy of each medication for adolescent smoking cessation, the tolerability of each medication based on reported adverse events, and compliance with the medication protocols. Thirteen relevant articles were identified and included in the review. Nicotine patch, nicotine gum, nicotine nasal spray, bupropion, and varenicline have been studied in adolescent smokers. The adverse events reported in the studies on pharmacology for adolescent smoking suggest that the side effect profiles for nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, and varenicline are similar to those reported in adult studies. There is some evidence of efficacy of nicotine patch and bupropion at end of treatment (efficacy of varenicline has not been assessed), but none of the medications included in this review were efficacious in promoting long-term smoking cessation among adolescent smokers. It is noted that many of the study protocols did not follow the recommended dose or length of pharmacotherapy for adults, rendering it difficult to determine the true

  15. Social environmental and individual factors associated with smoking among a panel of adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Hong, Traci; Rice, Janet; Johnson, Carolyn

    2011-05-01

    This study assessed changes in the influence of social environmental and individual factors-and the interaction of these factors with time-on smoking prevalence for girls. Longitudinal panel surveys of adolescent girls (N = 921 in both 2000 and 2004) from schools in Louisiana were completed in the ninth grade (2000) and then again in the twelfth grade (2004). A fixed effects hierarchical multiple regression model assessed the relation of changes in social environmental and individual factors to smoking prevalence. Increases in smoking prevalence over time among adolescent girls were associated with their perceptions of themselves as overweight and perceiving low risk associated with smoking. Increases in smoking prevalence over time were also associated with having friends who smoked, perceptions of friends' approval of smoking, having family members who smoked, and having monetary discretionary spending. Having friends who smoked was more strongly associated with smoking in the twelfth grade than in the ninth grade. While more black adolescent girls smoked than did white girls in the ninth grade, by the twelfth grade, more white adolescents girls smoked than did black girls. Interventions that target adolescent girls should consider the temporal variability of individual and social environmental factors. PMID:21547857

  16. Contribution of parental and school personnel smoking to health risk behaviours among Finnish adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Virtanen, Marianna; Pietikäinen, Minna; Kivimäki, Mika; Luopa, Pauliina; Jokela, Jukka; Elovainio, Marko; Vahtera, Jussi

    2009-01-01

    Background This study compared parental smoking with school personnel smoking in relation to adolescents' smoking behaviours, alcohol use, and illicit drug use. Methods A cross-sectional survey for 24,379 adolescents was linked to a survey for 1946 school employees in 136 Finnish schools in 2004-2005. Surveys included smoking prevalence reported by school staff, adolescents' reports of school staff and parental smoking, adolescents' own smoking behaviours, alcohol use, and illicit drug use. Multilevel analyses were adjusted for individual and school-level confounding factors. Results Parental smoking was associated with all health risk behaviours among both sexes (risk range 1.39 to 1.95 for other outcomes; Odds Ratio OR for smoking cessation 0.64, 95% Confidence Interval CI: 0.57, 0.72 among boys, 0.72; 0.64, 0.81 among girls). Among boys, high vs. low smoking prevalence among school personnel was associated with higher probability of smoking (OR 1.19; 95% CI 1.01,1.41), higher frequency of smoking during school time (Cumulative Odds Ratio COR 1.81; 95% CI 1.32, 2.48), frequent alcohol use (OR 1.23; 95% CI 1.01, 1.50), illicit drug use (OR 1.40; 95% CI 1.16, 1.69), and higher odds of reporting adults smoking at school (COR 1.51; 95% CI 1.09, 2.09). Among girls, high smoking prevalence among school personnel was related to higher odds of smoking (OR 1.18; 95% CI 1.02, 1.37) and lower odds of smoking cessation (OR 0.84; 95% CI 0.72, 0.99). Conclusion Parental smoking and school personnel smoking are both associated with adolescents' health risk behaviours but the association of parental smoking seems to be stronger. PMID:19818130

  17. The Impact of Smoking Bans on Smoking and Consumer Behavior: Quasi-Experimental Evidence from Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Boes, Stefan; Marti, Joachim; Maclean, Johanna Catherine

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we exploit the progressive implementation of smoking bans in public venues at the state level in Switzerland to evaluate both the direct effects on smoking and the potential unintended consequences of these legislations on consumer behaviors as measured by visiting restaurants/bars and discos ('going out'). Our results indicate that public venue smoking bans in Switzerland reduce smoking rates, but the findings do not emerge until 1 year following the ban. This pattern of results is consistent with delays in ban enforcement on the part of business owners, difficulties in changing addictive behaviors such as smoking, and/or learning on the part of smokers. We find evidence that smoking bans influence going-out behavior and there is substantial heterogeneity across venue and consumer characteristics.

  18. Predicting the Problem Behavior in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karaman, Neslihan G.

    2013-01-01

    Problem statement: Problem behavior theory describes both protective factors and risk factors to explain adolescent problem behaviors, such as delinquency, alcohol use, and reckless driving. The theory holds that problem behaviors involving risky behavior are used by adolescents as a means to gain peer acceptance and respect. Problem behaviors…

  19. Risk Behavior and Personal Resiliency in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince-Embury, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between self-reported risk behaviors and personal resiliency in adolescents; specifically whether youth with higher personal resiliency report less frequent risk behaviors than those with lower personal resiliency. Self-reported risk behavior is surveyed by the "Adolescent Risk Behavior Inventory"…

  20. The Relationship among Attitudes, Behaviors, and Biomedical Measures of Adolescents "At Risk" for Cardiovascular Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeyanju, Matthew; Creswell, William H.

    1987-01-01

    A study monitoring health behaviors and attitudes of 93 adolescents considered at risk for cardiovascular disease revealed a greater than normal proportion of negative behaviors involving smoking, diet, alcohol abuse, and stress among subjects and a positive relationship among health status, health attitudes, and health behavior. (Author/CB)

  1. Exposure to tobacco retail outlets and smoking initiation among New York City adolescents.

    PubMed

    Johns, Michael; Sacks, Rachel; Rane, Madhura; Kansagra, Susan M

    2013-12-01

    This study was designed to estimate the relationship between exposure to tobacco retail outlets and smoking initiation in a racially diverse urban setting. Using data from the 2011 NYC Youth Risk Behavior Survey, multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate the exposure-initiation relationship and test for effect modification, while controlling for covariates. The predicted probability of smoking initiation from the multivariable model increased from 7.7 % for zero times a week exposed to tobacco retailers to 16.0 % for exposure seven times or more per week. The odds of initiation were significantly higher among adolescents exposed to tobacco retail outlets two times or more a week compared with those exposed less often (AOR = 1.41; 95 % CI: 1.08, 1.84). Risk-taking behavior modified the relationship between exposure and initiation, with the odds of initiation highest among those low in risk-taking (AOR = 1.78; 95 % CI: 1.14, 1.56). These results are consistent with past research, showing that frequent exposure to tobacco marketing in retail settings is associated with increased odds of initiation. Reducing exposure to tobacco retail marketing could play an important role in curtailing smoking among adolescents, especially those less prone to risk-taking.

  2. A Network Method of Measuring Affiliation-Based Peer Influence: Assessing the Influences of Teammates' Smoking on Adolescent Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujimoto, Kayo; Unger, Jennifer B.; Valente, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    Using a network analytic framework, this study introduces a new method to measure peer influence based on adolescents' affiliations or 2-mode social network data. Exposure based on affiliations is referred to as the "affiliation exposure model." This study demonstrates the methodology using data on young adolescent smoking being influenced by…

  3. Influence of Motion Picture Rating on Adolescent Response to Movie Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Tanski, Susanne; Stoolmiller, Mike

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between movie smoking exposure (MSE) and adolescent smoking according to rating category. METHODS: A total of 6522 US adolescents were enrolled in a longitudinal survey conducted at 8-month intervals; 5503 subjects were followed up at 8 months, 5019 subjects at 16 months, and 4575 subjects at 24 months. MSE was estimated from 532 recent box-office hits, blocked into 3 Motion Picture Association of America rating categories: G/PG, PG-13, and R. A survival model evaluated time to smoking onset. RESULTS: Median MSE in PG-13–rated movies was ∼3 times higher than median MSE from R-rated movies, but their relation with smoking was essentially the same, with adjusted hazard ratios of 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23–1.81) and 1.33 (95% CI: 1.23–1.81) for each additional 500 occurrences of MSE respectively. MSE from G/PG-rated movies was small and had no significant relationship with adolescent smoking. Attributable risk estimates showed that adolescent smoking would be reduced by 18% (95% CI: 14–21) if smoking in PG-13–rated movies was reduced to the fifth percentile. In comparison, making all parents maximally authoritative in their parenting would reduce adolescent smoking by 16% (95% CI: 12–19). CONCLUSIONS: The equivalent effect of PG-13-rated and R-rated MSE suggests it is the movie smoking that prompts adolescents to smoke, not other characteristics of R-rated movies or adolescents drawn to them. An R rating for movie smoking could substantially reduce adolescent smoking by eliminating smoking from PG-13 movies. PMID:22778305

  4. A quasi-hyperbolic discounting approach to smoking behavior

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Addiction has attracted considerable attention in health and behavioral economics, and economists have attempted to understand addiction from the viewpoint of decision making over time. This paper investigates whether two time preference parameters can successfully predict smoking status, including cigarette dependence. Both the present bias and the constant time preference parameters account for smoking behavior status and cigarette dependence. PMID:25006542

  5. Adolescent brain maturation and smoking: what we know and where we're headed.

    PubMed

    Lydon, David M; Wilson, Stephen J; Child, Amanda; Geier, Charles F

    2014-09-01

    Smoking is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Smoking initiation often occurs during adolescence. This paper reviews and synthesizes adolescent development and nicotine dependence literatures to provide an account of adolescent smoking from onset to compulsive use. We extend neurobiological models of adolescent risk-taking, that focus on the interplay between incentive processing and cognitive control brain systems, through incorporating psychosocial and contextual factors specific to smoking, to suggest that adolescents are more vulnerable than adults to cigarette use generally, but that individual differences exist placing some adolescents at increased risk for smoking. Upon smoking, adolescents are more likely to continue smoking due to the increased positive effects induced by nicotine during this period. Continued use during adolescence, may be best understood as reflecting drug-related changes to neural systems underlying incentive processing and cognitive control, resulting in decision-making that is biased towards continued smoking. Persistent changes following nicotine exposure that may underlie continued dependence are described. We highlight ways that interventions may benefit from a consideration of cognitive-neuroscience findings.

  6. Choosing Adolescent Smokers as Friends: The Role of Parenting and Parental Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercken, L.; Sleddens, E. F. C.; de Vries, H.; Steglich, C. E. G.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined whether parenting and parental smoking can prevent children from selecting smoking friends during adolescence. 254 Adolescents of one Belgian secondary school participated. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed among 2nd-4th graders (mean ages = 14.2-16.2 years) during spring 2006. Follow-up was conducted 12…

  7. The Influence of Tobacco Marketing on Adolescent Smoking Intentions via Normative Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Abraham; Moodie, Crawford

    2009-01-01

    Using cross-sectional data from three waves of the Youth Tobacco Policy Study, which examines the impact of the UK's Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Act (TAPA) on adolescent smoking behaviour, we examined normative pathways between tobacco marketing awareness and smoking intentions. The sample comprised 1121 adolescents in Wave 2 (pre-ban), 1123…

  8. Adolescent Brain Maturation and Smoking: What We Know and Where We’re Headed

    PubMed Central

    Lydon, David M.; Wilson, Stephen J.; Child, Amanda; Geier, Charles F.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Smoking initiation often occurs during adolescence. This paper reviews and synthesizes adolescent development and nicotine dependence literatures to provide an account of adolescent smoking from onset to compulsive use. We extend neurobiological models of adolescent risk-taking, that focus on the interplay between incentive processing and cognitive control brain systems, through incorporating psychosocial and contextual factors specific to smoking, to suggest that adolescents are more vulnerable than adults to cigarette use generally, but that individual differences exist placing some adolescents at increased risk for smoking. Upon smoking, adolescents are more likely to continue smoking due to the increased positive effects induced by nicotine during this period. Continued use during adolescence, may be best understood as reflecting drug-related changes to neural systems underlying incentive processing and cognitive control, resulting in decision-making that is biased towards continued smoking. Persistent changes following nicotine exposure that may underlie continued dependence are described. We highlight ways that interventions may benefit from a consideration of cognitive-neuroscience findings. PMID:25025658

  9. Developmental Trajectories of Cigarette Smoking and Their Correlates From Early Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlando, Maria; Tucker, Joan S.; Ellickson, Phyllis L.; Klein, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Smoking initiation typically occurs in adolescence and increases over time into emerging adulthood. Thus adolescence and emerging adulthood compose a critical time period for prevention and intervention efforts. To inform these efforts, this study used latent growth mixture modeling to identify 6 smoking trajectories from ages 13 to 23 among 5,914…

  10. Contributions of Parent-Adolescent Negative Emotionality, Adolescent Conflict, and Adoption Status to Adolescent Externalizing Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Bibiana D.; Rueter, Martha A.

    2011-01-01

    Although most adopted children are well adjusted, research has consistently found that adopted adolescents are at an increased risk for externalizing behaviors. The present investigation tested a model whereby parent-adolescent negative emotionality traits, adolescent conflict, and adoption status contribute to adolescent externalizing behaviors.…

  11. Factors Associated With Smoking Behavior Among Operating Engineers

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seung Hee; Pohl, Joanne M.; Terrell, Jeffrey E.; Redman, Richard W.

    2016-01-01

    Although disparities in smoking prevalence between white collar workers and blue collar workers have been documented, reasons for these disparities have not been well studied. The objective of this study was to determine variables associated with smoking among Operating Engineers, using the Health Promotion Model as a guide. With cross-sectional data from a convenience sample of 498 Operating Engineers, logistic regression was used to determine personal and health behaviors associated with smoking. Approximately 29% of Operating Engineers currently smoked cigarettes. Multivariate analyses showed that younger age, unmarried, problem drinking, physical inactivity, and a lower body mass index were associated with smoking. Operating Engineers were at high risk of smoking, and smokers were more likely to engage in other risky health behaviors, which supports bundled health behavior interventions. PMID:23957830

  12. Comment on "Modifiable family and school environmental factors associated with smoking status among adolescents in Guangzhou, China".

    PubMed

    de Vries, Hein

    2007-01-01

    Chen and colleagues describe social factors that are related with Chinese adolescent smoking behaviors [Chen, W., Wen, X., Muscat, J., et al., 2007-this issue. Modifiable family and school environmental factors associated with smoking status among adolescents in Guangzhou, China. Prev. Med. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2007.02.009]. These types of studies in China are very much needed given the fact that smoking is a significant health problem in China. Environmental factors may be more important than sometimes thought, since some studies suggest that smoking onset may not be such a 'reasoned' process by youngsters (Kremers, S.P., Mudde, A.N., de Vries, N.K., Brug, J., de Vries, H., 2004. Unplanned smoking initiation: new insights and implications for interventions. Patient Educ. Couns. 55 (3), 345-52.). Studies indicate that a multitude of factors are related to smoking onset, and thus deserve attention in a smoking prevention approach (see, e.g., [Tyas, S., Pederson, L., 1998. Psychosocial factors related to adolescent smoking: a critical review of the literature. Tob. Control 7, 409-420; Lantz, P., Jacobson, P., Warner, K., et al., 2000. Investing in youth tobacco control: a review of smoking prevention and control strategies. Tob. Control 9, 47-63]). The study conclusions were derived from a cross-sectional report. Consequently, one needs to be careful in making conclusions about causal pathways [Bauman, K., Fisher, L., 1986. On the measurement of friend behavior in research on friend influence and selection: findings from longitudinal studies of adolescent smoking and drinking. J. Youth Adolesc. 15 (4), 345-353]. Longitudinal studies also suggest the impact of selection mechanisms implying that adolescents were not pressured to start to smoke, but selected smoking friends. Chen, W., Wen, X., Muscat, J., et al.'s [2007-this issue. Modifiable family and school environmental factors associated with smoking status among adolescents in Guangzhou, China. Prev. Med. doi:10

  13. Smoking and Quitting History Correlates of Readiness to Quit in Multiethnic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff, Susan I.; Lee, Joann; Conway, Terry L.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To describe smoking and quitting history among multiethnic adolescent smokers and examine these as correlates of readiness to quit. Methods: Data were analyzed from 121 high school smokers. Sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported smoking history, number and duration of recent quit attempts, attitudes toward smoking/quitting,…

  14. Cross-Cultural Analysis of Cognitive Attributions of Smoking in Thai and South Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; Park, Sunhee; Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn; Park, Hyunju; Kemeny, Maria; Philips, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Background: Understanding the cognitive attributions of smoking has the potential to advance youth smoking prevention efforts; however, research on this subject is limited in Asian countries. We attempted to determine the degree to which cognitive attributions of smoking differ among adolescents in 2 Asian countries, Thailand and South Korea.…

  15. Longitudinal Modeling of Adolescents' Activity Involvement, Problem Peer Associations, and Youth Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Aaron; Dawes, Nickki; Mermelstein, Robin; Wakschlag, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal associations among different types of organized activity involvement, problem peer associations, and cigarette smoking were examined in a sample of 1040 adolescents (mean age = 15.62 at baseline, 16.89 at 15-month assessment, 17.59 at 24 months) enriched for smoking experimentation (83% had tried smoking). A structural equation model…

  16. Cross-Sectional Analysis of Variables Related to Cigarette Smoking in Late Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pederson, L. L.; Lefcoe, N. M.

    1985-01-01

    Compared correlates of smoking in a cohort of 4,641 older adolescents with correlates of smoking in the same group when they were in grades 4 to 6. In contrast to the earlier follow-ups, attitude toward smoking has become a more important determinant than it was before, particularly among females. (Author/BL)

  17. Factors associated with smoking among adolescent males prior to incarceration and after release from jail: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of cigarette smoking among incarcerated adult men and women is three-four times higher than in the general population, ranging from 70-80%. However, little is known about factors associated with smoking among incarcerated adolescents, especially upon their re-entry into communities after release from jail. The current study explores factors associated with smoking among adolescent males prior to incarceration and one year after their release from jail. Methods We conducted a secondary data analysis of the Returning Educated African-American and Latino Men to Enriched Neighborhoods (REAL MEN) study, which was designed to reduce HIV risk, substance use, and recidivism among 16–18 year old males leaving jail. We examined differences between smokers and non-smokers at the time of their incarceration (N = 552) and one year after their release from jail (N = 397) using t-tests and chi-square tests. Using logistic and linear regression we examined factors associated with current smoking status, frequency of smoking, and quantity of cigarettes smoked per day both prior to the young men’s incarceration and one year after their release from jail. Results Prior to incarceration, 62% of the young men reported smoking, and one-year after jail release, 69% reported smoking. Prior to incarceration, foster care history, not living with parents, not attending school, drug sales, number of sex partners, gang involvement, current drug charges, and number of prior arrests were positively associated with smoking indicators prior to incarceration. Having violent charges was inversely associated with smoking indicators prior to incarceration. One-year after release from jail, foster care history and number of prior arrests before the index incarceration were associated with smoking indicators. Conclusions Several problem behaviors may be associated with adolescent males’ smoking behaviors prior to incarceration. However, the young men

  18. Nicotine Dependence and Problem Behaviors Among Urban South African Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pahl, Kerstin; Brook, David W.; Morojele, Neo K.; Brook, Judith S.

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco use and its concomitant, nicotine dependence, are increasing in African countries and other parts of the developing world. However, little research has assessed nicotine dependence in South Africa or other parts of the African continent. Previous research has found that adolescent problem behaviors, including tobacco use, tend to cluster. This study examined the relationship between nicotine dependence and adolescent problem behaviors in an ethnically diverse sample of urban South African adolescents. A community sample (N = 731) consisting of “Black,” “White,” “Coloured,” and “Indian” youths aged 12–17 years was drawn from the Johannesburg metropolitan area. Structured interviews were administered by trained interviewers. Nicotine dependence was assessed by the Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence. Logistic regression analyses showed that higher levels of nicotine dependence significantly predicted elevated levels of violent behavior, deviant behavior, marijuana and other illegal drug use, binge drinking, early sexual intercourse, multiple sexual partners, and inconsistent condom use, despite control on the adolescents’ demographic characteristics, peer smoking, conflict with parents, peer deviance, and the availability of legal and illegal substances. These relationships were robust across ethnicity and gender. The findings indicate the need for policy makers and prevention and intervention programs in South Africa to consider adolescent nicotine dependence in conjunction with comorbid problem behaviors, including other substance use, sexual risk behaviors, and deviant behaviors. PMID:20099015

  19. Illness Behavior and Social Competence in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Lynn S.; Van Slyke, Deborah A.

    This study examined the relationship of illness behavior to perceived competence and gender in adolescents. It was hypothesized that, like adults, adolescents with lower levels of perceived social competence would report more illness behavior. A significant gender difference was expected such that girls would report more illness behavior than…

  20. Early Risk Behaviors and Adolescent Injury in 25 European and North American Countries: A Cross-National Consistent Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Looze, Margaretha; Pickett, William; Raaijmakers, Quinten; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Hublet, Anne; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Molcho, Michal; Vollebergh, Wilma; ter Bogt, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Injury is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among adolescents in developed countries. Jessor and Jessor's Problem Behavior Theory suggests an association between risk behaviors (e.g., smoking, drunkenness, cannabis use, and sexual intercourse) and adolescent injury. The present study examined whether early engagement in risk behaviors…

  1. [Considering and tackling tobacco smoking in the context of adolescent development].

    PubMed

    Horn, W R; Rutishauser, Ch

    2007-02-01

    The prevalence of smoking among young people is still on a high level. Many adolescents are incessantly attracted by advertising and other messages promising a fashionable, young and independent lifestyle with cigarettes as imperative symbols. Those adolescents suffering from cognitive, mental or social problems or being genetically more vulnerable have the greatest risk to misuse nicotine and to become addicted for many years. Unfortunately, being diagnosed with asthma or diabetes does not deter adolescents from smoking, thus increasing the burden of their chronic disease. Of similar concern is the considerable number of smoking young people at the reproductive age. In the last few years, only modest progress has been observed in the development of programmes, which are suited to diminish the rate of young smokers. There is a lack of effective strategies that could help them to get motivated and to stop smoking. Primary care physicians are in an unique position to contribute to adolescent smoking cessation. This article provides information to physicians on how to best accomplish this task. In order to reach sustainable changes in adolescent smoking behaviour, rigorous political steps are necessary which target on diminishing the social acceptance and attractiveness of smoking in general and on the reduction of the number of adult smokers, rather than exclusively focussing on adolescent smoking. This policy has to be supplemented with comprehensive steps to improve education and future life perspectives of adolescents. PMID:17245675

  2. How Menthol Alters Tobacco-Smoking Behavior: A Biological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Wickham, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    Mentholated cigarettes gained popularity in the 1950s and were often marketed as “healthy” cigarettes, attributable to their pleasurable mint flavor and cooling sensation in the mouth, lungs, and throat. While it is clear that nicotine is the primary psychoactive component in tobacco cigarettes, recent work has suggested that menthol may also play a role in exacerbating smoking behavior, despite original health claims. Recent evidence highlights four distinct biological mechanisms that can alter smoking behavior: 1) menthol acts to reduce the initially aversive experiences associated with tobacco smoking; 2) menthol can serve as a highly reinforcing sensory cue when associated with nicotine and promote smoking behavior; 3) menthol's actions on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors may change the reinforcing value of nicotine; and 4) menthol can alter nicotine metabolism, thus increasing nicotine bioavailability. The purpose of this review is to highlight and evaluate potential biological mechanisms by which menthol can alter smoking behavior. PMID:26339211

  3. How Menthol Alters Tobacco-Smoking Behavior: A Biological Perspective.

    PubMed

    Wickham, R J

    2015-09-01

    Mentholated cigarettes gained popularity in the 1950s and were often marketed as "healthy" cigarettes, attributable to their pleasurable mint flavor and cooling sensation in the mouth, lungs, and throat. While it is clear that nicotine is the primary psychoactive component in tobacco cigarettes, recent work has suggested that menthol may also play a role in exacerbating smoking behavior, despite original health claims. Recent evidence highlights four distinct biological mechanisms that can alter smoking behavior: 1) menthol acts to reduce the initially aversive experiences associated with tobacco smoking; 2) menthol can serve as a highly reinforcing sensory cue when associated with nicotine and promote smoking behavior; 3) menthol's actions on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors may change the reinforcing value of nicotine; and 4) menthol can alter nicotine metabolism, thus increasing nicotine bioavailability. The purpose of this review is to highlight and evaluate potential biological mechanisms by which menthol can alter smoking behavior.

  4. [Motivational interviewing and cognitive behavior therapy for smoking cessation].

    PubMed

    Kawai, Atsuko; Kano, Masato; Sato, Tadahiro

    2013-03-01

    The combination therapy of counseling and medication is very important in smoking cessation treatment. Motivational interviewing (MI) and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) are interventions recommended in two well-recognized guidelines for smoking cessation in the United States. MI is effective for those who do not want to quit smoking; CBT for those who cannot but want to quit smoking, those who repeatedly quit and re-smoke, those who are depressed, and women who are concerned about their weight. However, neither MI nor CBT for smoking cessation is widely practiced in Japan. We describe the nature of, evidence for, and practice of MI and CBT in smoking cessation treatment, hopeful that clinicians and other healthcare staff learn and apply these techniques.

  5. Evaluating the validity of self-reported smoking in Mexican adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Valladolid-López, María del Carmen; Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Tonatiuh; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Thrasher, James F; Peláez-Ballestas, Ingris; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to evaluate the validity of the self-reported smoking indicator used in the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). Setting 43 middle and high-school classrooms from 26 schools were selected from Mexico City and Cuernavaca, Morelos. Participants A total of 1257 students provided both a questionnaire and a urine sample. Primary and secondary outcome Sensitivity and specificity of self-reported smoking compared to urinary cotinine. Validity indices were evaluated by subgroups of gender, social acceptability of smoking (ie, smoking parents or friends) and smoking frequency. Results Sensitivity and specificity for current smoking were 93.2% and 81.7%, respectively. Validity indices remained stable across gender. Parental smoking status moderated the validity of self-report, which had lower sensitivity in adolescents with non-smoking parents (86.7%) than in adolescents with smoking parents (96.6%). Sensitivity and specificity increased with smoking frequency. Conclusions This first validation study of self-reported current smoking used in the GYTS among Mexican adolescents suggests that self-reported smoking in the past 30 days is a valid and stable indicator of current smoking behaviour. This measure appears suitable for public health research and surveillance. PMID:26453588

  6. Behavioral Risk Factors for AIDS among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millstein, Susan G.

    This document examines the incidence of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) among adolescents in the United States and identifies several risk factors for AIDS among this population. It classifies adolescents' risk for contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection by the degree to which adolescents engage in behaviors that are…

  7. Authoritative parenting style and adolescent smoking and drinking.

    PubMed

    Piko, Bettina F; Balázs, Máté Á

    2012-03-01

    While peer influences have often found to be a risk factor in terms of adolescent substance use, parental variables may continue to serve as an adaptive and protective function, although the role of parents is more latent and controversial. Therefore, the main goal of this paper was to investigate the role of authoritative parenting style and other family variables in adolescents' smoking and drinking. Using a sample of Hungarian youth (N=2072; age range between 12 and 22; Mean=15.4 years, S.D.=1.8 years; 49,2% males) logistic regression analyses confirmed that authoritative parenting style (particularly responsiveness) and positive identification with parents may serve as a protection, whereas negative family interactions may act as a risk factor. These relationships are particularly decisive in case of monthly prevalence of drinking and both lifetime and current prevalence of smoking. Gender differences are slight (namely, parental control for boys, whereas responsiveness for girls seem to be more relevant), however, the role of certain parental variables may change with age. Although parental control tends to decrease among high school students, it even serves as a greater protection for those whose parents continue providing parental monitoring.

  8. Rates and Correlates of Violent Behaviors among Adolescents Treated in an Urban ED

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Maureen A.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Goldstein, Abby L.; Chermack, Stephen T.; Zimmerman, Marc; Bingham, C. Raymond; Shope, Jean T.; Stanley, Rachel; Blow, Frederic C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Violence is a leading cause of death for adolescents in inner-city settings. This paper describes violent behaviors in relation to other risk behaviors (e.g., substance use) among adolescents screened in an urban ED. Methods Patients ages 14–18 were approached to self-administer a computerized survey assessing violent behaviors (i.e., physical aggression), substance use (cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana), and weapon carriage. Results 1128 adolescents (83.8% participation rate; 45.9% male; 58.0% African-American) were surveyed. In the past year, 75.3% of adolescents reported peer violence, 27.6% reported dating violence, and 23.5% carried a weapon. In the past year, 28.0% drank alcohol, 14.4% binge drank, 5.7% reported alcohol-related fighting, and 36.9% smoked marijuana. Logistic regression analyses predicting violent behaviors were significant. Teens reporting peer violence were more likely to be younger, African-American, on public assistance, carry a weapon, binge drink, and smoke marijuana. Teens reporting dating violence were more likely to be female, African-American, carry a weapon, binge drink, screen positive for alcohol problems, and smoke marijuana. Teens reporting alcohol-related fighting were more likely to carry a weapon, binge drink, screen positive for alcohol problems, and smoke marijuana. Conclusions Adolescents presenting to an urban ED have elevated rates of violent behaviors. Substance use (i.e., binge drinking and smoking marijuana) is an important risk factor for violent behaviors among urban adolescents. Universal screening and intervention protocols to address multiple risk behaviors, including violent behaviors and substance use, may be useful to prevent injury among adolescents presenting to the urban ED. PMID:19541253

  9. Parental smoking status, stress, anxiety, and depression are associated with susceptibility to smoking among non-smoking school adolescents in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kuang Hock; Chong, Zhuolin; Khoo, Yi Yi; Kaur, Jasvindar

    2014-09-01

    Susceptibility to smoking is a reliable predictor of smoking initiation. This article describes its prevalence and associated factors among Malaysian school adolescents. Data were obtained from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) 2012, a nationwide representative sample of school adolescents. The overall prevalence of susceptibility to smoking was 6.0% and significantly higher among males (9.5%) compared with females (3.6%). Multivariable analyses revealed that males (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.70-4.18) and school adolescents of indigenous Sabahan or Sarawakian descents (aOR 1.62, 95%CI 1.21-2.18) were significantly more likely to be susceptible to smoking. Susceptible school adolescents had a slightly higher likelihood to have symptoms of stress (aOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.02-1.70), anxiety (aOR 1.19, 95% CI 1.01-1.40), depression (aOR 1.56, 95% CI 1.25-1.96), including those whose one or both parents/guardians were smokers (aOR 1.48, 95% CI 1.21-1.82; aOR 2.33, 95% CI 1.22-4.44, respectively). The findings from this study point out the need for proactive measures to reduce smoking initiation among Malaysian adolescents with particular attention toward factors associated with susceptibility to smoking. PMID:25038194

  10. The Meaning of Smoking as Health and Social Risk in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilleczek, Kate C.; Hine, Donald W.

    2006-01-01

    This investigation describes what smoking means to adolescents, and attempts to better understand it as a rite of passage. Applying a social ontology to an often-individualized issue, interviews were conducted with 20 adolescent smokers between the ages of 13 and 19. Results show that adolescents possess detailed information about the risks of…

  11. Using Anti-Tobacco Industry Messages to Prevent Smoking among High-Risk Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrasher, James F.; Niederdeppe, Jeffrey D.; Jackson, Christine; Farrelly, Matthew C.

    2006-01-01

    Media campaigns to prevent adolescent tobacco use in the United States increasingly focus on the deceitful practices of the tobacco industry; however, little is known about how adolescents at elevated smoking risk respond to this strategy. This study used data from a nationally representative survey of 10,035 adolescents, ages 12-17 years, in…

  12. Pediatricians' Confidence and Behaviors in Smoking Cessation Promotion and Knowledge of the Smoking Cessation Trust

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Katharine; Kisely, Steve; Gastanaduy, Mariella; Urrego, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Background: Secondhand smoke exposure increases morbidity and mortality in children. Thirty-one percent of caregivers who accompany their children to the Ochsner Health Center for Children smoke, and none uses the services of the Smoking Cessation Trust (SCT), a free smoking cessation program for eligible Louisiana residents who began smoking before 1988. The objective of this study was 2-fold: first, to assess and compare pediatricians' confidence and behaviors in regard to smoking cessation promotion with caregivers, and second, to determine pediatricians' knowledge and comfort level with the SCT. Methods: Pediatricians were given a questionnaire to assess 12 parameters regarding their confidence and practice when screening, counseling, and referring caregivers to smoking cessation programs. Results: Thirty-six questionnaires were administered, of which 27 were completed (75%). Only 7.41% of respondents had formal training in smoking cessation, 18.52% had never heard of the SCT, and 92.59% do not refer to the SCT. All the pediatrician respondents stated that they were confident in their ability to screen for secondhand smoke exposure, 62.96% were confident in providing counseling, and 44.44% were confident in offering referrals. Most pediatricians very often or always screened for secondhand smoke exposure (77.78%); however, only 25.93% counseled smoking caregivers to quit, and only 11.11% provided a smoking cessation referral. Pediatricians stated that they were confident to screen, counsel, and refer caregivers; however, they were significantly less likely to report actually screening for secondhand smoke exposure (P<0.05), counseling (P<0.05), and referring caregivers (P<0.05). Conclusion: Efforts should be made to increase the rate by which pediatricians provide smoking cessation, counseling, and referrals to the SCT through education and training. PMID:27303221

  13. Adolescent elite athletes' cigarette smoking, use of snus, and alcohol.

    PubMed

    Martinsen, M; Sundgot-Borgen, J

    2014-04-01

    The purpose was to examine cigarette smoking, use of snus, alcohol, and performance-enhancing illicit drugs among adolescent elite athletes and controls, and possible gender and sport group differences. First-year students at 16 Norwegian Elite Sport High Schools (n = 677) and two randomly selected high schools (controls, n = 421) were invited to participate. Totally, 602 athletes (89%) and 354 (84%) controls completed the questionnaire. More controls than athletes were smoking, using snus, and drinking alcohol. Competing in team sports was associated with use of snus [odds ratio = 2.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6 to 4.7] and a similar percentage of male and female handball (22.2% vs 18.8%) and soccer players (15.7% vs 15.0%) reported using snus. For controls, not participating in organized sport was a predictor for smoking (odds ratio = 4.9, 95% CI 2.2 to 10.9). Female athletes were more prone to drink alcohol than males (46.3% vs 31.0%, P < 0.001). Only, 1.2% athletes and 2.8% controls reported use of performance-enhancing illicit drugs. In conclusion, use of legal drugs is less common among athletes, but this relationship depends on type of sport and competition level. The association between team sports and use of snus suggests that sport subcultures play a role.

  14. Thai Adolescents' Normative Beliefs of the Popularity of Smoking among Peers, Adults, the Successful and Elite, and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn; Sloan, Arielle; Kironde, Jennifer; West, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the perceptions of Thailand adolescents regarding the prevalence of smoking, the popularity of smoking among successful/elite elements of society, and disapproval of smoking by friends and parents. These perceptions were analyzed in conjunction with actual smoking and smoking susceptibility rates among the…

  15. Adolescent first lapse following smoking cessation: situation characteristics, precipitants and proximal influences.

    PubMed

    Myers, Mark G; Gwaltney, Chad J; Strong, David R; Ramsey, Susan E; Brown, Richard A; Monti, Peter M; Colby, Suzanne M

    2011-12-01

    Despite increased attention to adolescent smoking cessation, little is known about adolescent relapse following a quit attempt. To address this issue, the present study was designed to provide initial information regarding the characteristics of adolescent lapses to smoking following abstinence. Included in the present study were 204 adolescent participants in four independent smoking cessation trials. For the full sample, participants averaged 15.99 (1.27) years of age; 56% were female and 78% were white. Lapse characteristics and precipitants were assessed using the Adolescent Smoking Relapse Review. Three domains of the lapse experience were assessed: lapse situation characteristics, precipitants of use in the situation, and proximal influences (i.e., potential precipitants occurring on the same day, prior to the lapse situation). Participant reports indicated that the modal lapse situation occurred in the evening while socializing with friends at home. Urges or cravings and social pressure were commonly endorsed as occurring in lapse situations. The most frequently reported proximal influence was desire for a cigarette, followed by abstinence-violation cognitions (okay to smoke occasionally, wanted to see what it would be like) and negative emotions. The findings indicate that a broad range of factors appear to influence adolescent smoking lapse and commend the value of incorporating content relevant to managing social and affective cues, strategies for inhibiting the prepotent response to ask for a cigarette, addressing cognitions regarding the difficulty of not smoking (i.e., cessation expectancies) and combating perceptions of the ability to smoke occasionally.

  16. Simulating Dynamic Network Models and Adolescent Smoking: The Impact of Varying Peer Influence and Peer Selection.

    PubMed

    Lakon, Cynthia M; Hipp, John R; Wang, Cheng; Butts, Carter T; Jose, Rupa

    2015-12-01

    We used a stochastic actor-based approach to examine the effect of peer influence and peer selection--the propensity to choose friends who are similar--on smoking among adolescents. Data were collected from 1994 to 1996 from 2 schools involved in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, with respectively 2178 and 976 students, and different levels of smoking. Our experimental manipulations of the peer influence and selection parameters in a simulation strategy indicated that stronger peer influence decreased school-level smoking. In contrast to the assumption that a smoker may induce a nonsmoker to begin smoking, adherence to antismoking norms may result in an adolescent nonsmoker inducing a smoker to stop smoking and reduce school-level smoking.

  17. Second Hand Smoke is Associated with Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lalwani, Anil K.; Liu, Ying-Hua; Weitzman, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Second hand smoke (SHS) exposure, either in utero or during childhood, has been linked to low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome, upper and lower respiratory infections, increased asthma severity, dental caries, behavioral problems, ADHD, emotional problems, and otitis media (OM).To our knowledge, no previous study has examined the possible association between SHS and sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in adolescent. Objectives The study objectives were to (1) exam risk factors for sensorial hearing loss in different age, gender, race, and income/poverty groups among adolescents (age 12 to 19) in the U.S. using data from most recent waves of NHANES (2005–2006); and, (2) evaluate the independent association between SHS and sensorial hearing loss among adolescents. Design Cross-sectional analysis of nationally representative data. Setting National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2006. Participants 1533 non-institutionalized adolescents age 12–19 who underwent audiometric testing, had serum cotinine levels available, and were not actively smoking. Measurements The serum cotinine levels, presence of household smokers, and self-report of smoking were used to determine SHS exposure and active smoking. Low frequency hearing loss was defined as the average pure tone level greater than 15 dB for 500, 1000, and 2000 Hz; high frequency hearing loss was defined as the average pure tone level greater than 15 dB for 3, 4, 6, and 8 kHz. Results SHS exposure was associated with elevated pure tone hearing levels at 2, 3 and 4 kHz. and 1.8 fold increased risk of unilateral low frequency SNHL in multivariate analyses (95% C.I.: 1.08-3.46). The incidence of SNHL was directly related to level of SHS exposure as reflected in serum cotinine levels. In addition, nearly 82% of adolescents with low frequency SNHL did not report hearing difficulty. Conclusions SHS is associated with increased incidence of LFSNHL that is directly related to level of

  18. Smoking behavior and exposure to "dissonant" information.

    PubMed

    Tagliacozzo, R

    1981-10-01

    In a study concerned with smokers' receptivity to information on the health risk of smoking, we submitted a questionnaire to 514 young adults attending classes at a community college. The questionnaire included, in addition to questions on the smoking history of the respondents and their beliefs and attitudes toward smoking, a list of information items, several of which dealt with the health risk of cigarette smoking. In order to test whether smokers avoid exposing themselves to "dissonant" information, we instructed the respondents to go through the list a second time and to circle items important for smokers. The prediction that a larger percentage of smokers than of nonsmokers would fail to circle any of the items was verified. No difference was found between smokers who exposed a wish to stop smoking and smokers who did not.

  19. A Network Method of Measuring Affiliation-based Peer Influence: Assessing the Influences of Teammates’ Smoking on Adolescent Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Kayo; Unger, Jennifer B.; Valente, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    Using a network analytic framework, this study introduces a new method to measure peer influence based on adolescents’ affiliations or two-mode social network data. Exposure based on affiliations is referred to as the “affiliation exposure model.” This study demonstrates the methodology using data on young adolescent smoking being influenced by joint participation in school-based organized sports activities with smokers. The analytic sample consisted of 1260 American adolescents from age 10 to 13 in middle schools, and the results of the longitudinal regression analyses showed that adolescents were more likely to smoke as they were increasingly exposed to teammates who smoke. This study illustrates the importance of peer influence via affiliation through team sports. PMID:22313152

  20. Rock Music and Korean Adolescent's Antisocial Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Inkyung; Kwak, Keumjoo; Chang, Geunyoung; Yang, Jinyoung

    The relationship between rock music preference and antisocial behavior among Korean adolescents was examined. The Korean versions of the Sensation Seeking Scale and the Antisocial Behavior Checklist were used to measure sensation seeking motivation and delinquency. Adolescents (N=1,079) were categorized as "rock/metal,""dance," or "ballad" based…

  1. The Association Between Ovarian Hormones and Smoking Behavior in Women

    PubMed Central

    Schiller, Crystal Edler; Saladin, Michael E.; Gray, Kevin M.; Hartwell, Karen J.; Carpenter, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies examining the association between menstrual cycle phases and smoking behavior in women have yielded mixed results. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the associations between ovarian hormones and smoking by directly measuring ovarian hormone levels and obtaining a laboratory assessment of smoking behaviors. Four hypotheses were tested: increased smoking will be associated with 1) low absolute levels of estradiol and progesterone; 2) decreasing (i.e., dynamic changes in) estradiol and progesterone; 3) lower ratios of progesterone to estradiol, and 4) higher ratios of estradiol to progesterone. Female smokers (≥10 cigarettes/day) with regular menstrual cycles were recruited as part of a larger, ongoing study examining the influence of ovarian hormones on smoking cessation treatment. Participants completed two study visits, including a one-hour adlib smoking topography session, which provided a detailed assessment of smoking behavior. Both the change in hormone levels over time and the relative ratios of ovarian hormones were associated with smoking behavior, but each to a limited extent. Decreases in estradiol (r=−.21, p=.048), and decreases in progesterone (r=−.23, p=.03) were associated with increased puff intensity. Lower ratios of progesterone to estradiol were associated with a greater number of puffs (r=−.26, p=.01) and weight of cigarettes smoked (r=−.29, p=.005). The best predictors of smoking behavior were the ratio of progesterone to estradiol (z=−2.7, p=.004) and the change in estradiol and progesterone over time (z=−2.1, p=.02). This pattern of results may help to explain inconsistent findings in previous studies and suggest potential mechanisms by which hormones influence nicotine addiction. PMID:22545725

  2. Association between ovarian hormones and smoking behavior in women.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Crystal Edler; Saladin, Michael E; Gray, Kevin M; Hartwell, Karen J; Carpenter, Matthew J

    2012-08-01

    Studies examining the association between menstrual cycle phases and smoking behavior in women have yielded mixed results. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the associations between ovarian hormones and smoking by directly measuring ovarian hormone levels and obtaining a laboratory assessment of smoking behaviors. Four hypotheses were tested: Increased smoking will be associated with (1) low absolute levels of estradiol and progesterone; (2) decreasing (i.e., dynamic changes in) estradiol and progesterone; (3) lower ratios of progesterone to estradiol; and (4) higher ratios of estradiol to progesterone. Female smokers (≥10 cigarettes/day) with regular menstrual cycles were recruited as part of a larger, ongoing study examining the influence of ovarian hormones on smoking cessation treatment. Participants completed 2 study visits, including a 1-hr ad lib smoking topography session, which provided a detailed assessment of smoking behavior. Both the change in hormone levels over time and the relative ratios of ovarian hormones were associated with smoking behavior, but each to a limited extent. Decreases in estradiol (r = -.21, p = .048) and decreases in progesterone (r = -.23, p = .03) were associated with increased puff intensity. Lower ratios of progesterone to estradiol were associated with a greater number of puffs (r = -.26, p = .01) and weight of cigarettes smoked (r = -.29, p = .005). The best predictors of smoking behavior were the ratio of progesterone to estradiol (z = -2.7, p = .004) and the change in estradiol and progesterone over time (z = -2.1, p = .02). This pattern of results may help to explain inconsistent findings in previous studies and suggest potential mechanisms by which hormones influence nicotine addiction.

  3. Understanding Jordanian Psychiatric Nurses' Smoking Behaviors: A Grounded Theory Study

    PubMed Central

    Aldiabat, Khaldoun M.; Clinton, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Smoking is prevalent in psychiatric facilities among staff and patients. However, there have been few studies of how contextual factors in specific cultures influence rates of smoking and the health promotion role of psychiatric nurses. This paper reports the findings of a classical grounded theory study conducted to understand how contextual factors in the workplace influences the smoking behaviors of Jordanian psychiatric nurses (JPNs). Method. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with a sample of eight male JPNs smokers at a psychiatric facility in Amman, Jordan. Findings. Constant comparative analysis identified becoming a heavy smoker as a psychosocial process characterized by four sub-categories: normalization of smoking; living in ambiguity; experiencing workplace conflict; and, facing up to workplace stressors. Conclusion. Specific contextual workplace factors require targeted smoking cessation interventions if JPNs are to receive the help they need to reduce health risks associated with heavy smoking. PMID:23844286

  4. [Behavioral disorders and substance abuse in adolescents with mental retardation].

    PubMed

    Papachristou, Ec; Anagnostopoulos, Dk

    2014-01-01

    The percentage of people with mental retardation in the general population is estimated at about 2.3%, with adolescence (15-20 years) constituting the development period during which a peak in rates of mental retardation is observed. The increased prevalence of adolescence may be explained from the fact that the specified requirements of the school initially, and society later, inevitably lead to comparative evaluation of the teen with mental retardation in relation to peers, thus making mental retardation more apparent. Adolescents with mental retardation face a number of physical and psychological needs which are not often distinguishable and as a consequence undergo the deterioration of their already burdened quality of life. In particular, mental health problems occur 3 to 4 times more often in adolescents with mental retardation compared with adolescents of the general population. This review presents the most recent epidemiological findings regarding the correlation between behavioral disorders, substance use and the possible comorbidity in adolescents with intellectual disability, both at community level and residential care level. Epidemiological data indicate that behavioral disorders are among the most common types of psychopathology in mentally retarded adolescents with the severity and symptoms varying depending on the personal characteristics of each adolescent. Regarding substance use, the available data show that the rates of substance use (alcohol, smoking, illicit drugs) are lower in this specific population group but the differences over the last years tend to be eliminated. Finally, according to the few surveys that were examined referring to the comorbidity of behavioral disorders and substance use in adolescents with intellectual disability, the results were contradictory. Specifically, while behavioral disorders continued to be one of the most common types of psychopathology, the related substances disorders indicated lower rates compared to

  5. [Behavioral disorders and substance abuse in adolescents with mental retardation].

    PubMed

    Papachristou, Ec; Anagnostopoulos, Dk

    2014-01-01

    The percentage of people with mental retardation in the general population is estimated at about 2.3%, with adolescence (15-20 years) constituting the development period during which a peak in rates of mental retardation is observed. The increased prevalence of adolescence may be explained from the fact that the specified requirements of the school initially, and society later, inevitably lead to comparative evaluation of the teen with mental retardation in relation to peers, thus making mental retardation more apparent. Adolescents with mental retardation face a number of physical and psychological needs which are not often distinguishable and as a consequence undergo the deterioration of their already burdened quality of life. In particular, mental health problems occur 3 to 4 times more often in adolescents with mental retardation compared with adolescents of the general population. This review presents the most recent epidemiological findings regarding the correlation between behavioral disorders, substance use and the possible comorbidity in adolescents with intellectual disability, both at community level and residential care level. Epidemiological data indicate that behavioral disorders are among the most common types of psychopathology in mentally retarded adolescents with the severity and symptoms varying depending on the personal characteristics of each adolescent. Regarding substance use, the available data show that the rates of substance use (alcohol, smoking, illicit drugs) are lower in this specific population group but the differences over the last years tend to be eliminated. Finally, according to the few surveys that were examined referring to the comorbidity of behavioral disorders and substance use in adolescents with intellectual disability, the results were contradictory. Specifically, while behavioral disorders continued to be one of the most common types of psychopathology, the related substances disorders indicated lower rates compared to

  6. A contest to create media messages aimed at recruiting adolescents for stop smoking programs.

    PubMed

    Croghan, Ivana T; Campbell, Heather M; Patten, Christi A; Croghan, Gary A; Schroeder, Darrell R; Novotny, Paul J

    2004-10-01

    This project engaged adolescents in a contest to create advertising messages aimed at recruiting teens for stop smoking programs. Middle school students were invited to design a media message for television, radio, Web, or print (newspaper or billboard). Of 4,289 students in eight middle schools of Rochester, Minn., 265 (6.2%) developed 172 stop smoking messages. The quality of their work confirmed that teens can design media messages to encourage their smoking adolescent peers to enroll in a program to stop smoking. PMID:15554118

  7. Web-based support as an adjunct to group-based smoking cessation for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mermelstein, Robin; Turner, Lindsey

    2006-12-01

    Although group-based programs remain the most common treatment approach for adolescent smoking cessation, success rates for these programs have been relatively modest, and their reach may be limited. Web-based adjuncts may be one way to boost the efficacy and reach of group-based approaches. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of enhancing the American Lung Association's Not on Tobacco program (NOT) with a Web-based adjunct (NOT Plus). Twenty-nine high schools were randomly assigned to either the NOT program alone or to the NOT Plus condition, which included access to a specially designed Web site for teens, along with proactive phone calls from the group facilitator to the participant. Self-reported smoking behavior was obtained at end-of-program and at a 3-month follow-up. Using hierarchical linear modeling, accounting for the clustering of students in schools, and controlling for student gender, grade, race, and baseline smoking rate, there was a marginally significant (p=.06) condition effect at end-of-treatment and a significant effect at 3-month follow-up (p<.05) favoring the NOT Plus condition. Approximately 57% of adolescents reported visiting the Web site, and among the NOT Plus condition, use of the Web site was associated with cessation significantly at end-of-program (p<.05), but not at 3 months. Adolescents in urban schools were more likely to access the Web site than those in rural schools. Participants who visited the Web site rated it positively on several dimensions. Reasons for not using the Web site will be discussed, as well as its value as an adjunct.

  8. Web-based support as an adjunct to group-based smoking cessation for adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Mermelstein, Robin; Turner, Lindsey

    2008-01-01

    Although group-based programs remain the most common treatment approach for adolescent smoking cessation, success rates for these programs have been relatively modest, and their reach may be limited. Web-based adjuncts may be one way to boost the efficacy and reach of group-based approaches. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of enhancing the American Lung Association’s Not on Tobacco program (NOT) with a Web-based adjunct (NOT Plus). Twenty-nine high schools were randomly assigned to either the NOT program alone or to the NOT Plus condition, which included access to a specially designed Web site for teens, along with proactive phone calls from the group facilitator to the participant. Self-reported smoking behavior was obtained at end-of-program and at a 3-month follow-up. Using hierarchical linear modeling, accounting for the clustering of students in schools, and controlling for student gender, grade, race, and baseline smoking rate, there was a marginally significant (p = .06) condition effect at end-of-treatment and a significant effect at 3-month follow-up (p < .05) favoring the NOT Plus condition. Approximately 57% of adolescents reported visiting the Web site, and among the NOT Plus condition, use of the Web site was associated with cessation significantly at end-of-program (p < .05), but not at 3 months. Adolescents in urban schools were more likely to access the Web site than those in rural schools. Participants who visited the Web site rated it positively on several dimensions. Reasons for not using the Web site will be discussed, as well as its value as an adjunct. PMID:17491173

  9. Smoking-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, Behaviors, Smoking Cessation Idea and Education Level among Young Adult Male Smokers in Chongqing, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xianglong; Liu, Lingli; Sharma, Manoj; Zhao, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In 2012 in China, 52.9% of men were reported to smoke while only 2.4% of women smoked. This study explored the smoking-related Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) among young adult male smokers. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in four municipal areas of Chongqing using a questionnaire administered to 536 natives young male smokers aged 18–45 years old. Results: The total score of smoking cognition, the total score of smoking attitude and the total score of positive behavior to quit smoking was significantly different among the three groups by education. Besides, 30.97% of male smokers never seriously thought about quitting smoking. Logistic regression analysis found smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and sociodemographic factors affect having smoking cessation idea. But no statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking in a sample of higher education. No statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.03012, p = 0.6811), and also no statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.08869, p = 0.2364)  in the sample of higher education young adult males Conclusions: Young adult males with higher education have a better knowledge of smoking hazards and a more positive attitude toward smoking, however, this knowledge and attitude do not necessarily translate into health behavioral outcomes such as not smoking. Overall the present findings indicate that no statistically significant correlation between the education level and quitting smoking idea exists among young adult male smokers in China. This survey gives a snapshot of the impact of education on smoking-related KAP among young adults male smokers. PMID:25689992

  10. Starting young? Children's experiences of trying smoking during pre-adolescence.

    PubMed

    Milton, Beth; Woods, S E; Dugdill, L; Porcellato, L; Springett, R J

    2008-04-01

    Although the risks smoking poses to health are now well known, many young people continue to take up the habit. While numerous cross-sectional studies of adolescents have identified correlates of smoking initiation, much less prospective, longitudinal research has been conducted with young children to gather their accounts of early experiences of smoking, and this study fills that significant gap. Quantitative and qualitative data, collected using questionnaires, interviews and focus groups, are presented from the pre-adolescent phase of the Liverpool Longitudinal Study of Smoking. By age 11, 27% of the cohort had tried smoking, 13% had smoked repeatedly and 3% were smoking regularly. Rates of experimentation increased over time. Qualitative data revealed that curiosity and the role of peers were central to children's accounts of early smoking. By pre-adolescence, children are at different stages in their smoking careers, therefore interventions must be targeted to their varied experiences. Current prevention strategies often focus on restricting access to cigarettes, but a broad range of intervention measures is required which take account of the multifactorial nature of smoking onset. To be effective, policies that aim to prevent smoking must be grounded in children's lived experiences.

  11. Predicting experimentation with cigarettes: the childhood antecedents of smoking study (CASS).

    PubMed

    Mittelmark, M B; Murray, D M; Luepker, R V; Pechacek, T F; Pirie, P L; Pallonen, U E

    1987-02-01

    In a two-year investigation of cigarette smoking incidence in a population of Minnesota adolescents, the perceived smoking behavior of friends at baseline was a strong predictor of smoking onset. Additional predictors included: siblings' smoking behavior, parents' education level, and seven psychosocial scales including independence and rebelliousness. Smoking prevention strategies which teach youth to cope with social influences are well founded. Results also indicate that younger adolescents may yet be dissuaded from beginning smoking by knowledge of the health consequences of smoking.

  12. Electronic Cigarettes Use and Intention to Cigarette Smoking among Never-Smoking Adolescents and Young Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Jieming; Cao, Shuangshuang; Gong, Weiwei; Fei, Fangrong; Wang, Meng

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use is becoming increasingly common, especially among adolescents and young adults, and there is little evidence on the impact of e-cigarettes use on never-smokers. With a meta-analysis method, we explore the association between e-cigarettes use and smoking intention that predicts future cigarette smoking. Studies were identified by searching three databases up to January 2016. The meta-analysis results were presented as pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) calculated by a fixed-effects model. A total of six studies (91,051 participants, including 1452 with ever e-cigarettes use) were included in this meta-analysis study. We found that never-smoking adolescents and young adults who used e-cigarettes have more than 2 times increased odds of intention to cigarette smoking (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.86–2.61) compared to those who never used, with low evidence of between-study heterogeneity (p = 0.28, I2 = 20.1%). Among never-smoking adolescents and young adults, e-cigarettes use was associated with increased smoking intention. PMID:27153077

  13. Electronic Cigarettes Use and Intention to Cigarette Smoking among Never-Smoking Adolescents and Young Adults: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jieming; Cao, Shuangshuang; Gong, Weiwei; Fei, Fangrong; Wang, Meng

    2016-05-03

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use is becoming increasingly common, especially among adolescents and young adults, and there is little evidence on the impact of e-cigarettes use on never-smokers. With a meta-analysis method, we explore the association between e-cigarettes use and smoking intention that predicts future cigarette smoking. Studies were identified by searching three databases up to January 2016. The meta-analysis results were presented as pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) calculated by a fixed-effects model. A total of six studies (91,051 participants, including 1452 with ever e-cigarettes use) were included in this meta-analysis study. We found that never-smoking adolescents and young adults who used e-cigarettes have more than 2 times increased odds of intention to cigarette smoking (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.86-2.61) compared to those who never used, with low evidence of between-study heterogeneity (p = 0.28, I² = 20.1%). Among never-smoking adolescents and young adults, e-cigarettes use was associated with increased smoking intention.

  14. Electronic Cigarettes Use and Intention to Cigarette Smoking among Never-Smoking Adolescents and Young Adults: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jieming; Cao, Shuangshuang; Gong, Weiwei; Fei, Fangrong; Wang, Meng

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use is becoming increasingly common, especially among adolescents and young adults, and there is little evidence on the impact of e-cigarettes use on never-smokers. With a meta-analysis method, we explore the association between e-cigarettes use and smoking intention that predicts future cigarette smoking. Studies were identified by searching three databases up to January 2016. The meta-analysis results were presented as pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) calculated by a fixed-effects model. A total of six studies (91,051 participants, including 1452 with ever e-cigarettes use) were included in this meta-analysis study. We found that never-smoking adolescents and young adults who used e-cigarettes have more than 2 times increased odds of intention to cigarette smoking (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.86-2.61) compared to those who never used, with low evidence of between-study heterogeneity (p = 0.28, I² = 20.1%). Among never-smoking adolescents and young adults, e-cigarettes use was associated with increased smoking intention. PMID:27153077

  15. Attitudes toward Nutrition, Locus of Control and Smoking Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corfield, V. Kilian; And Others

    Research has shown that many behaviors previously thought to be purely psychological in origin do, in fact, have a physiological basis. To examine the relationship of smoking behavior to locus of control, and to attitudes toward, knowledge about, and behavior with respect to nutrition, 116 Canadian undergraduate students completed the Nutrition…

  16. An Association between Emotional Responsiveness and Smoking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Keeley, Robert D.; Driscoll, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Emotional responsiveness (ER) has been theorized to play a protective role in pathways to tobacco initiation, regular use, and dependence, yet a possible association between ER and smoking behavior has not been studied. Our aim was to test whether measuring ER to a neutral stimulus was associated with decreased odds of current smoking. Methods. We measured ER and smoking status (current, former, and never) in two datasets: a cross-sectional dataset of persons with diabetes (n = 127) and a prospective dataset of depressed patients (n = 107) from an urban primary care system. Because there were few former smokers in the datasets, smoking status was dichotomized (current versus former/never) and measured at baseline (cross-sectional dataset) or at 36 weeks after-baseline (prospective dataset). ER was ascertained with response to a neutral facial expression (any ER versus none). Results. Compared to their nonresponsive counterparts, adjusted odds of current smoking were lower among participants endorsing emotional responsiveness in both the cross-sectional and prospective datasets (ORs = .29 and .32, P's <.02, resp.). Discussion. ER may be protective against current smoking behavior. Further research investigating the association between ER and decreased smoking may hold potential to inform treatment approaches to improve smoking prevalence. PMID:24804140

  17. Factors Associated with Violent Behavior among Adolescents in Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos; Soares, Nara Michelle Moura; Cabral de Oliveira, Antônio César

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify prevalence and factors associated with violent behavior among adolescents in Aracaju and Metropolitan region. The study included 2207 adolescents (16.03 ± 1.08 years old) enrolled in high schools of the State Public Network. Violent behavior was identified from question 14 of the YRBS-2007 questionnaire with responses categorized as “never” and “one or more times.” Higher prevalence in males in relation to risk factors for adoption of violent behavior was found: cigarette consumption (7.3%), alcohol consumption (39.1%), and marijuana use (3.4%). Data analysis used descriptive statistics and logistic regression with hierarchical model at two levels: (a) sociodemographic variables and (b) behavioral variables. For both sexes, association between violent behavior and cigarette smoking (OR = 3.77, CI 95% = 2.06–6.92 and OR = 1.99, CI 95% = 1.04 to 3.81, male and female, resp.) and alcohol consumption (OR = 3.38, CI 95% = 2.22 to 5.16 and OR = 1.83, CI 95% = 1.28 to 2.63, male and female, resp.) was verified. It was concluded that violent behavior is associated with the consumption of alcoholic beverages and cigarettes among adolescents. PMID:25548796

  18. Smoking status and the practice of other unhealthy behaviors.

    PubMed

    Revicki, D; Sobal, J; DeForge, B

    1991-07-01

    This study examined the relationship between smoking behavior and other unhealthy practices in the US. Data from the 1979 National Survey of Personal Health Practices and Consequences were used to compare alcohol use, sleep behavior, overweight status, physical activity, and skipping breakfast with smoking status. Compared with nonsmokers, smokers were more likely to sleep fewer than six hours per night, skip breakfast, not actively exercise, and drink heavily. Smokers were less likely to be significantly overweight than former smokers or those who never smoked. These associations were present for both men and women for sleep behavior, skipping breakfast, overweight status, and alcohol use, but not for physical activity. These findings may assist physicians in understanding the association between smoking and other practices that influence morbidity and mortality.

  19. INFLUENCE OF PERCEIVED RISK OF SMOKING AND SECOND-HAND SMOKE ON SELF-REGULATORY BEHAVIOR AMONG PREGNANT TAIWANESE WOMEN.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ming-Cheng; Chou, Feng-Sha; Wang, Chih-Chien; Yang, Yann-Jy

    2015-11-01

    Tobacco use is a global health problem, including in Taiwan. The present study evaluated the perceived risk of smoking and second-hand smoke among pregnant Taiwanese women using a questionnaire. Seven hundred twenty-four pregnant Taiwanese women were recruited from an online parenting community using convenience sampling in 2013. Pregnant smokers and non-smokers had significantly different perceptions regarding risk of smoking and second-hand smoke during pregnancy. Pregnant non-smokers adopted more behaviors to avoid second-hand smoke both at home and in public than pregnant smokers. We conclude that perceived fetal health risks from smoking and second-hand smoke influenced maternal behavior during pregnancy. Pregnant women's perceptions of the risk of tobacco smoke depended on whether their focus in the decision-making process was on prevention or promotion. Understanding the risk factors associated with smoking and exposure to second-hand smoke during pregnancy may help in developing strategies to reduce such exposure.

  20. State Estimates of Adolescent Cigarette Use and Perceptions of Risk of Smoking: 2012 and 2013

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2015 STATE ESTIMATES OF ADOLESCENT CIGARETTE USE AND PERCEPTIONS OF RISK OF SMOKING: 2012 AND 2013 AUTHORS ... with an inverse association between use and risk perceptions (i.e., the prevalence of use is lower ...

  1. Image, context and transition: smoking in mid-to-late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Wiltshire, Susan; Amos, Amanda; Haw, Sally; McNeill, Ann

    2005-10-01

    This paper explores 16-19-year-old Scottish smokers' experiences and attitudes towards smoking and their understandings of the ways in which this transitional period impacts on their smoking behaviour. The study involved 49 qualitative interviews conducted mostly in friendship pairs. Interviewees also completed a brief smoking questionnaire. The paper highlights the salience of social context in smoking initiation and maintenance, and the role of smoking across a range of social spheres. Interviewees described how transitions from school to work, further education or un/employment, impacted on their smoking. Smoking was perceived to be an important 'lubricant' for social relations, and marker of an acceptable identity in familiar and new contexts which acted to reinforce and increase smoking. In contrast, smoking restrictions at home, work and/or educational settings were felt to moderate consumption. This has implications for cessation programmes for older adolescents who have been relatively ignored by tobacco control. The study also suggests that if smoke-free policies were extended to all workplaces, this would have a particular impact on smoking amongst older adolescents by hindering the transition from social to regular smoking.

  2. E-cigarette Use and Willingness to Smoke in a Sample of Adolescent Nonsmokers

    PubMed Central

    Wills, Thomas A.; Sargent, James D.; Knight, Rebecca; Pagano, Ian; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2016-01-01

    Objective There is little evidence on the consequences of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use in adolescence. With a multiethnic sample of nonsmokers, we assessed the relation between e-cigarette use and social-cognitive factors that predict smoking combustible cigarettes (cigarettes). Methods School-based cross-sectional survey of 2,309 high school students (M age 14.7 years). Participants reported on e-cigarette use and cigarette use; on smoking-related cognitions (smoking expectancies, prototypes of smokers) and peer smoker affiliations; and on willingness to smoke cigarettes. Regression analyses conducted for non-cigarette smokers tested the association between e-cigarette use and willingness to smoke cigarettes, controlling for demographics, parenting, academic and social competence, and personality variables. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses tested whether the relation between e-cigarette use and willingness was mediated through any of the three smoking-related variables. Results Nonsmokers who had used e-cigarettes (18% of the total sample) showed more willingness to smoke cigarettes compared to those who had never used any tobacco product; the adjusted odds ratio was 2.35 (95% confidence interval 1.73 – 3.19). Additionally, willingness prospectively predicted smoking onset. SEM showed that the relation between e-cigarette use and willingness to smoke was partly mediated through more positive expectancies about smoking but there was also a direct path from e-cigarette use to willingness. Conclusions Among adolescent nonsmokers, e-cigarette use is associated with willingness to smoke, a predictor of future cigarette smoking. The results suggest that use of e-cigarettes by adolescents is not without attitudinal risk for cigarette smoking. These findings have implications for formulation of policy about access to e-cigarettes by adolescents. PMID:26261237

  3. Initial Smoking Experiences and Current Smoking Behaviors and Perceptions among Current Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Sterk, Claire E.; Elifson, Kirk W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. We examine early-onset cigarette smoking and how, if at all, it is related to subsequent smoking practices. Methods. From 2004 to 2007, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 485 adult cigarette smokers residing in the Atlanta metropolitan area. Data analysis involved a multivariate analysis to determine whether age of smoking onset was related to current smoking practices when the effects of gender, age, race, marital/relationship status, income, and educational attainment were taken into account. Results. The mean age for smoking onset was 14.8, and more than one-half of all smokers had their first cigarette between the ages of 12 and 16. Most people reported an interval of less than one month between their first and second time using tobacco. Earlier onset cigarette smoking was related to more cigarette use and worse tobacco-related health outcomes in adulthood. Conclusions. Early prevention and intervention are needed to avoid early-onset smoking behaviors. Intervening after initial experimentation but before patterned smoking practices are established will be challenging, as the interval between initial and subsequent use tends to be short. PMID:24826361

  4. Time discounting and smoking behavior: evidence from a panel survey(*).

    PubMed

    Kang, Myong-Il; Ikeda, Shinsuke

    2014-12-01

    By using a panel survey of Japanese adults, we show that smoking behavior is associated with personal time discounting and its biases, such as hyperbolic discounting and the sign effect, in the way that theory predicts: smoking depends positively on the discount rate and the degree of hyperbolic discounting and negatively on the presence of the sign effect. Positive effects of hyperbolic discounting on smoking are salient for naïve people, who are not aware of their self-control problem. By estimating smoking participation and smokers' cigarette consumption in Cragg's two-part model, we find that the two smoking decisions depend on different sets of time-discounting variables. Particularly, smoking participation is affected by being a naïve hyperbolic discounter, whereas the discount rate, the presence of the sign effect, and a hyperbolic discounting proxy constructed from procrastination behavior vis-à-vis doing homework assignments affect both types of decision making. The panel data enable us to analyze the over-time instability of elicited discount rates. The instability is shown to come from measurement errors, rather than preference shocks on time preference. Several evidences indicate that the detected associations between time preferences and smoking behavior are interpersonal one, rather than within-personal one.

  5. Time discounting and smoking behavior: evidence from a panel survey(*).

    PubMed

    Kang, Myong-Il; Ikeda, Shinsuke

    2014-12-01

    By using a panel survey of Japanese adults, we show that smoking behavior is associated with personal time discounting and its biases, such as hyperbolic discounting and the sign effect, in the way that theory predicts: smoking depends positively on the discount rate and the degree of hyperbolic discounting and negatively on the presence of the sign effect. Positive effects of hyperbolic discounting on smoking are salient for naïve people, who are not aware of their self-control problem. By estimating smoking participation and smokers' cigarette consumption in Cragg's two-part model, we find that the two smoking decisions depend on different sets of time-discounting variables. Particularly, smoking participation is affected by being a naïve hyperbolic discounter, whereas the discount rate, the presence of the sign effect, and a hyperbolic discounting proxy constructed from procrastination behavior vis-à-vis doing homework assignments affect both types of decision making. The panel data enable us to analyze the over-time instability of elicited discount rates. The instability is shown to come from measurement errors, rather than preference shocks on time preference. Several evidences indicate that the detected associations between time preferences and smoking behavior are interpersonal one, rather than within-personal one. PMID:24136867

  6. Using anti-tobacco industry messages to prevent smoking among high-risk adolescents.

    PubMed

    Thrasher, James F; Niederdeppe, Jeffrey D; Jackson, Christine; Farrelly, Matthew C

    2006-06-01

    Media campaigns to prevent adolescent tobacco use in the United States increasingly focus on the deceitful practices of the tobacco industry; however, little is known about how adolescents at elevated smoking risk respond to this strategy. This study used data from a nationally representative survey of 10,035 adolescents, ages 12-17 years, in order to test whether reactions to anti-industry advertisements (ads), the attitudes these ads target, and the relationship between these attitudes and smoking differed by social bonding and sensation-seeking risk factors. Results indicated that anti-industry ad reactions and the strength of anti-industry attitudes were comparable between high- and low-sensation seeking adolescents, whereas weakly bonded adolescents had less favorable ad reactions and weaker anti-industry attitudes than strongly bonded adolescents. Social bonding also moderated the influence of sensation seeking on anti-industry ad reactions, such that sensation seeking had a positive influence among more strongly bonded adolescents and no influence among weakly bonded adolescents. Finally, the relationship between anti-industry attitudes and smoking appeared consistent across risk groups, whether risk was defined using social bonding, sensation seeking or the interaction between them. Overall, these results suggest that anti-industry messages are a promising strategy for preventing smoking among high- and low-risk adolescents alike. PMID:16492681

  7. Child Sexual Abuse and Its Relationship with Health Risk Behaviors among Rural Children and Adolescents in Hunan, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Danhua; Li, Xiaoming; Fan, Xinghua; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The current study was designed to explore the prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) and its association with health risk behaviors (i.e., smoking, alcohol use, binge drinking, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempt) among rural children and adolescents in China. Methods: A sample of 683 rural children and adolescents (8 to 18 years of…

  8. A Study of Smoking Disparity and Factors Associated with Children Smoking Behavior in the Mountain and City Schools in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hsiao-Ling; Chen, Ted; Chen, Fu-Li; Magnus, Jeanette; Rice, Janet; Yen, Yea-Yin; Hsu, Chih-Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Background: While higher smoking prevalences have been better described for adults and adolescents in the mountainous areas than in the plain area in Taiwan, no studies have previously examined whether this disparity begins with children in elementary schools. The purpose of this study was thus designed to explore clustering in smoking behavior…

  9. Substance Use and Sexual Behavior among Recent Hispanic Immigrant Adolescents: Effects of Parent-Adolescent Differential Acculturation and Communication*

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E.; Huang, Shi; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Villamar, Juan A.; Soto, Daniel W.; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To ascertain the effects of parent-adolescent acculturation gaps, perceived discrimination, and perceived negative context of reception on adolescent cigarette smoking, alcohol use, sexual activity, and sexual risk taking. We used an expanded, multidimensional model of acculturation. Method A sample of 302 recently immigrated parent-adolescent dyads (152 from Miami and 150 from Los Angeles) completed measures of acculturation (Hispanic and American practices and identifications, and individualist and collectivist values) and parent-adolescent communication. Adolescents completed measures of recent cigarette smoking, alcohol use, sexual behavior, and sexual risk taking. Results Parent-adolescent gaps in American practices and ethnic identity, and perceptions of a negative context of reception, predicted compromised parent-adolescent communication. In Miami only, adolescent-reported communication negatively predicted odds of cigarette smoking, occasions of drunkenness, and number of sexual partners. Also in Miami only, parent-reported communication positively predicted these outcomes, as well as occasions of adolescent binge drinking, drunkenness, number of sexual partners, and odds of unprotected sex. The only significant findings in Los Angeles were protective effects of parent-reported communication on frequency of alcohol use and of binge drinking. Mediational effects emerged only in the Miami sample. Conclusions Effects of parent-adolescent acculturation gaps vary across Hispanic groups and receiving contexts. The especially strong parental control in many Mexican families may account for these differences. However, other important differences between Hispanic subgroups and communities of reception could also account for these differences. Prevention efforts might encourage Hispanic youth both to retain their culture of origin and to acquire American culture. PMID:22699094

  10. The Role of Smoking in the Lives of Low-Income Pregnant Adolescents: A Field Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Erma Jean

    1994-01-01

    Examined role of cigarette smoking in lives of low-income, pregnant adolescents (n=20). Findings indicated that subjects smoked to cope with increased weight gain; to deliver smaller infants which in turn would decrease duration of labor and reduce pain of delivery; and to establish identity separate from their parents' and peers' drug abuse.…

  11. Self-Reported Depressive Feelings and Cigarette Smoking among Mexican-American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesa, Jacqueline A.; Cowdery, Joan E.; Wang, Min Qi; Fu, Qiang

    1997-01-01

    Examined the relationship between depressive feelings and cigarette smoking in Mexican-American adolescents who participated in the 1993 Teenage Attitudes and Practices Survey II. Results suggest a relationship between certain feelings of depression and smoking, beyond that experienced by nonsmokers, which may be more evident in females.…

  12. Adolescent Cigarette Smoking: A Longitudinal Analysis through Young Adulthood. Statistics in Brief. NCES 2005-333

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, David C.

    2005-01-01

    The primary aims of this report are to (1) identify the incidence of daily smoking at several time points during the adolescent and young adult years, including the prevalence of new daily smokers relative to repeat daily smokers; (2) identify several specific developmental patterns of smoking; and (3) examine the specific developmental patterns…

  13. Use of the Transtheoretical Model to Predict Stages of Smoking Cessation in Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ham, Ok Kyung; Lee, Young Ja

    2007-01-01

    Background: Smoking is popular among Korean male high school adolescents, with the prevalence of 20.7% differing markedly with the type of school, being 16.3% and 27.6% in academic and vocational technical high schools, respectively. The purpose of this study was to identify significant variables that predict stages of smoking cessation among…

  14. Prenatal Smoking and Internalizing and Externalizing Problems in Children Studied from Childhood to Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashford, Janka; Van Lier, Pol A. C.; Timmermans, Maartje; Cuijpers, Pim; Koot, Hans M.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate whether prenatal smoking was only related to externalizing or both internalizing and externalizing problems in children from childhood to early adolescence. Results indicated that maternal smoking during pregnancy is an accurate predictor of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology among children.

  15. Prospective Use of Psychosocial Factors to Predict Cigarette Smoking in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauch, Jill Mestel; And Others

    In order to prevent cigarette smoking in young adolescents, the factors which cause it need to be better understood. A study was conducted to investigate the contribution of three psychosocial factors, suggested by previous theory and research, on smoking in a longitudinal sample of seventh graders (N=3,940) who were studied again in the eighth…

  16. Smoking Behavior and Alcohol Consumption in Individuals With Panic Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Amanda R.; Norton, Peter J.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Buckner, Julia D.; Smits, Jasper A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with anxiety often report greater smoking and drinking behaviors relative to those without a history of anxiety. In particular, smoking and alcohol use have been directly implicated among individuals experiencing panic attacks, diagnosed with panic disorder, or high on panic-relevant risk factors such as anxiety sensitivity. Less is known, however, about specific features of panic that may differentiate among those who do or do not use cigarettes or alcohol. The purpose of the current study was to replicate previous research findings of an association between panic symptomatology, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption, as well as extend findings by examining whether specific symptoms of panic attacks differentiated among those who do or do not use cigarettes or alcohol. Participants (n = 489) completed the Panic Attack Questionnaire-IV, a highly detailed assessment of panic attacks and symptoms, as well as self-report measures of smoking history and alcohol use. Consistent with previous research, participants who reported a history of panic attacks (n = 107) were significantly more likely to report current daily or lifetime daily cigarette smoking, and significantly greater hazardous or harmful alcohol use than participants with no panic history (n = 382). Although smoking and hazardous alcohol use were highly associated regardless of panic status, participants with panic attacks showed elevated hazardous alcohol use after controlling for daily or lifetime smoking. Surprisingly, although participants who reported having had at least one panic attack were more likely to smoke, panic attack symptoms, intensity, or frequency did not differentiate panickers who did or did not smoke. Furthermore, panic-related variables were not shown to differentially relate to problematic drinking among panickers. Implications for understanding the complex relationship between panic attacks and smoking and drinking behaviors are discussed. PMID:21915160

  17. Smoking behavior characteristics of non-selected smokers with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) history: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fond, Guillaume; Loundou, Anderson; Guillaume, Sebastien; Quantin, Xavier; Macgregor, Alexandra; Lopez, Régis; Courtet, Philippe; Bernard, Paquito; Bailly, Daniel; Abbar, Mocrane; Leboyer, Marion; Boyer, Laurent

    2014-08-01

    It is unclear whether adult smokers with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder history (CH) have more severe smoking behavior than non-CH smokers, while it is clearly suggested that CH adolescents have more severe smoking behavior than CH adolescents. The aim of the present comprehensive meta-analysis is to determine whether CH smokers have more severe smoking behavior characteristics than those without and the effect of age on the association between CH and smoking behavior. We included all case-control studies and first round data collection of observational studies addressing the difference in smoking behavior characteristics of CH smokers versus non-CH smokers, with validated scales or structured interviews, without any language or date restriction. Nine studies (including 365 smokers with CH and 1,708 smokers without) were included. Compared to non-CH smokers, CH smokers smoked significantly more cigarettes [standardized mean differences (SMD) = 0.15, 95 % CI 0.01-0.28, p = 0.04] and began to regularly smoke earlier (SMD = -0.28, 95 % CI -0.49; -0.07, p = 0.01) but were not significantly more nicotine dependent (SMD = 0.23, 95 % CI -0.04 to 0.48, p = 0.08). After removing the single adolescent study, the significant association between CH and number of daily smoked cigarettes disappeared, and subgroups analyses confirmed that the significant association between CH and number of daily smoked cigarettes disappeared as age increased. Our meta-analysis illustrates a clinically important link between CH and tobacco smoking in adolescence but not later in life. Further high-quality studies are needed to confirm this finding, as only two studies included participants with a mean age below 20 years.

  18. Psychosocial factors related to adolescent smoking: a critical review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Tyas, S.; Pederson, L.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To extend the analysis of psychosocial risk factors for smoking presented in the United States surgeon general's 1994 report on smoking and health, and to propose a theoretical frame of reference for understanding the development of smoking.
DATA SOURCES—General Science Index, Medline, PsycLIT, Sociofile, Sociological Abstracts, and Smoking and Health. Holdings of the Addiction Research Foundation of Ontario Library as well as the authors' personal files.
STUDY SELECTION—Reviewed literature focused on studies that examined the association of sociodemographic, environmental, behavioural, and personal variables with smoking.
DATA SYNTHESIS—Adolescent smoking was associated with age, ethnicity, family structure, parental socioeconomic status, personal income, parental smoking, parental attitudes, sibling smoking, peer smoking, peer attitudes and norms, family environment, attachment to family and friends, school factors, risk behaviours, lifestyle, stress, depression/distress, self-esteem, attitudes, and health concerns. It is unclear whether adolescent smoking is related to other psychosocial variables.
CONCLUSIONS—Attempts should be made to use common definitions of outcome and predictor variables. Analyses should include multivariate and bivariate models, with some attempt in the multivariate models to test specific hypotheses. Future research should be theory driven and consider the range of possible factors, such as social, personal, economic, environmental, biological, and physiological influences, that may influence smoking behaviour. The apparent inconsistencies in relationships between parental socioeconomic status and adolescent disposable income need to be resolved as does the underlying constructs for which socioeconomic status is a proxy.


Keywords: adolescence; smoking initiation; psychosocial factors PMID:10093176

  19. Water-pipe (narghile) smoking: an emerging health risk behavior.

    PubMed

    Knishkowy, Barry; Amitai, Yona

    2005-07-01

    Narghile, or water-pipe smoking (WPS), has been practiced extensively for approximately 400 years. It is common in the Arabian Peninsula, Turkey, India, Pakistan, and other countries. In recent years, there has been a revival of WPS, notably among youth. Most US health professionals are unfamiliar with the practice and health consequences of WPS. Therefore, this trend presents a new challenge for adolescent health care providers. The composition of the tobacco used in WPS is variable and not well standardized. Studies that have examined narghile smokers and the aerosol of narghile smoke have reported high concentrations of carbon monoxide, nicotine, "tar," and heavy metals. These concentrations were as high or higher than those among cigarette smokers. The few scientific data regarding the adverse health consequences of WPS point to dangers that are similar to those associated with cigarette smoking: malignancy, impaired pulmonary function, low birth weight, and others. Additional dangers not encountered with cigarette smoking are infectious diseases resulting from pipe sharing and the frequent addition of alcohol or psychoactive drugs to the tobacco. Public health strategies for controlling the emerging epidemic of WPS include carrying out epidemiologic and toxicologic research; implementation of laws to limit acquisition and use; and health education, targeting adolescents in particular.

  20. Violent Behaviors among African-American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Darhyl

    1995-01-01

    Explores the development of behaviors by using Erik Erikson's psychosocial developmental theory, with emphasis on adolescents. Examines factors, such as identity versus identity diffusion, that may be contributing to increasing acts of violence by African American adolescents. Other factors are examined that may contribute to increased violence.…

  1. Mass Media Influence on Adolescent Consumer Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Roy L.; And Others

    Questionnaires completed by 607 middle school and high school students provided data about the learning of selected advertising-related cognitions among adolescents and on the short-term effect of these cognitions and other communication variables on adolescent consumption behavior. Among the findings were the following: susceptibility to…

  2. Delinquent Behavior of Dutch Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weenink, Don

    2011-01-01

    This article compares Dutch rural and non-rural adolescents' delinquent behavior and examines two social correlates of rural delinquency: communal social control and traditional rural culture. The analyses are based on cross-sectional data, containing 3,797 participants aged 13-18 (48.7% females). The analyses show that rural adolescents are only…

  3. Differences in adolescent dietary behaviors by SES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about how socioeconomic status (SES) affects dietary intake among adolescents. This study assessed whether dietary behaviors of 12- to 17-year-old adolescents differed by SES, using eligibility for free or reduced price (FRP) school meals as a measure of SES. After parental consent w...

  4. Adolescent Work Experiences and Family Formation Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staff, Jeremy; VanEseltine, Matthew; Woolnough, April; Silver, Eric; Burrington, Lori

    2012-01-01

    A long-standing critique of adolescent employment is that it engenders a precocious maturity of more adult-like roles and behaviors, including school disengagement, substance use, sexual activity, inadequate sleep and exercise, and work-related stress. Though negative effects of high-intensity work on adolescent adjustment have been found, little…

  5. Risk Factors Influencing Smoking Behavior: A Turkish Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    Öncel, Sevgi Yurt; Dick, Danielle M.; Maes, Hermine H.; Alıev, Fazil

    2015-01-01

    Aim In this study, we introduce the first twin study in Turkey, focusing on smoking behavior, and laying the foundation to register all twins born in Turkey for research purposes. Using Turkish twins will contribute to our understanding of health problems in the context of cultural differences. Materials and methods We assessed 309 twin pairs (339 males and 279 females) aged between 15 and 45 years living in the Kırıkkale and Ankara regions of Turkey, and administered a health and lifestyle interview that included questions about smoking status and smoking history. We analyzed the data using descriptive statistics, t-tests, chi-square tests, and bivariate and multivariate clustered logistic regression. In addition, we fit bivariate Structural Equation Models (SEM) to determine contributions of latent genetic and environmental factors to smoking outcomes in this sample. Results One hundred seventy-eight participants (28.8%) were identified as smokers, smoking every day for a month or longer, of whom 79.2% were males and 20.8% were females. Mean values for number of cigarettes per day and the Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND; Fagerstrom, 1978) score were higher in males than in females, and age of onset was earlier in males. There was a significant positive correlation between the FTND score and number of cigarettes smoked per day, and a significant negative correlation between both variables and age at onset of smoking. Our study showed that gender, presence of a smoking twin in the family, age, alcohol use, marital status, daily sports activities, and feeling moody all played a significant role in smoking behavior among twins. The twin analysis suggested that 79.5% of the liability to FTND was influenced by genetic factors and 20.5% by unique environment, while familial resemblance for smoking initiation was best explained by common environmental factors. Conclusions Marked differences in the prevalence of smoking behavior in men versus women were

  6. Smoking cessation: integration of behavioral and drug therapies.

    PubMed

    Mallin, Robert

    2002-03-15

    Family physicians should take advantage of each contact with smokers to encourage and support smoking cessation. Once a patient is identified as a smoker, tools are available to assess readiness for change. Using motivational interviewing techniques, the physician can help the patient move from the precontemplation stage through the contemplation stage to the preparation stage, where plans are made for the initiation of nicotine replacement and/or bupropion therapy when indicated. Continued motivational techniques and support are needed in the action stage, when the patient stops smoking. Group or individual behavioral counseling can facilitate smoking cessation and improve quit rates. Combined use of behavioral and drug therapies can dramatically improve the patient's chance of quitting smoking. A plan should be in place for recycling the patient through the appropriate stages if relapse should occur.

  7. The Effect of Individual Differences on Adolescents' Impulsive Buying Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chien-Huang; Chuang, Shin-Chieh

    2005-01-01

    This study posits a relationship between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and Impulsive Buying Tendency (IBT). A survey of 574 adolescents found that high-EI adolescents manifested less impulsive behavior than did low-EI adolescents, and high-IBT adolescents were more likely to engage in more impulsive buying behavior than were low-IBT adolescents.…

  8. Defining Cigarette Smoking Status in Young Adults: A Comparison of Adolescent vs Adult Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delnevo, Cristine D.; Lewis, M. Jane; Kaufman, Ira; Abatemarco, Diane J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the agreement between 2 measures (adult vs adolescent) of current cigarette smoking among young adults. Methods: We examined data from 1007 young adults from the New Jersey Adult Tobacco Survey. The adult measure incorporates lifetime and present use, whereas the adolescent measure assesses past 30-day use. The kappa…

  9. Trends in Smoking among Adolescents and Young Adults in the United Kingdom: Implications for Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandford, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine trends in smoking prevalence among adolescents and young adults in the UK and to identify any developments in health education theory and practice relating to adolescent tobacco use since 2000. The implications of such research are discussed. Design/methodology/approach: A literature search was…

  10. The contribution of parental smoking history and socio-demographic factors to the smoking behavior of Israeli women.

    PubMed

    Segal-Engelchin, Dorit; Friedmann, Enav; Cwikel, Julie G

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the interplay between sociodemographic factors and parental smoking history in shaping the smoking behavior of Israeli women (N = 302). The study was conducted in the Negev region, which is characterized by a high proportion of immigrants and high percentage of low socioeconomic and educational groups. The specific objectives of this study were to examine: (1) The prevalence and characteristics of women smokers, ex-smokers and never-smokers; and (2) the contribution of education and parent smoking history to women's current smoking. Low levels of education, being Israeli born or veteran immigrants of European-American origin significantly increased the risk of smoking, whereas an orthodox lifestyle and new immigrant status significantly reduced the likelihood of smoking. Occasional smokers reported significantly higher primary care utilization than never smokers. A significant relationship between smoking and pain, gynecological symptoms and depression was found. Results indicate that childhood exposure to maternal smoking was a significant risk factor for smoking, whereas paternal past smoking negatively affects smoking in women. Also, results show that parental educational level affects women's smoking behavior indirectly by influencing their own educational attainment, which in turn is negatively associated with the likelihood of smoking. Mothers with higher education were more likely to smoke, an effect that was reversed for their daughters. Our results demonstrate how demographic, parental and lifestyle factors affect women's smoking in a multi-ethnic society and highlight the need to examine both generational and intergenerational effects.

  11. Stimulus Modality and Smoking Behavior: Moderating Role of Implicit Attitudes.

    PubMed

    Ezeh, Valentine C; Mefoh, Philip

    2015-07-20

    This study investigated whether stimulus modality influences smoking behavior among smokers in South Eastern Nigeria and also whether implicit attitudes moderate the relationship between stimulus modality and smoking behavior. 60 undergraduate students of University of Nigeria, Nsukka were used. Participants were individually administered the IAT task as a measure of implicit attitude toward smoking and randomly assigned into either image condition that paired images of cigarette with aversive images of potential health consequences or text condition that paired images of cigarette with aversive texts of potential health consequences. A one- predictor and one-moderator binary logistic analysis indicates that stimulus modality significantly predicts smoking behavior (p = < .05) with those in the image condition choosing not to smoke with greater probability than the text condition. The interaction between stimulus modality and IAT scores was also significant (p = < .05). Specifically, the modality effect was larger for participants in the image group who held more negative implicit attitudes towards smoking. The finding shows the urgent need to introduce the use of aversive images of potential health consequences on cigarette packs in Nigeria.

  12. Serious physical fighting and gambling-related attitudes and behaviors in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Slavin, Melissa; Pilver, Corey E.; Hoff, Rani A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims: Physical fighting and gambling are common risk behaviors among adolescents. Prior studies have found associations among these behaviors in adolescents but have not examined systematically the health and gambling correlates of problem-gambling severity amongst youth stratified by fight involvement. Methods: Survey data were used from 2,276 Connecticut high school adolescents regarding their physical fight involvement, gambling behaviors and perceptions, and health and functioning. Gambling perceptions and correlates of problem-gambling severity were examined in fighting and non-fighting adolescents. Results: Gambling perceptions were more permissive and at-risk/problem gambling was more frequent amongst adolescents reporting serious fights versus those denying serious fights. A stronger relationship between problem-gambling severity and regular smoking was observed for adolescents involved in fights. Discussion and conclusions: The more permissive gambling attitudes and heavier gambling associated with serious fights in high school students suggest that youth who engage in physical fights warrant enhanced prevention efforts related to gambling. The stronger relationship between tobacco smoking and problem-gambling severity amongst youth engaging in serious fights suggest that fighting youth who smoke might warrant particular screening for gambling problems and subsequent interventions. PMID:24294502

  13. Happiness and health behaviors in South Korean adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We examined the associations between happiness and a wide range of health behaviors in South Korean adolescents. METHODS: Study data were derived from the ninth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey administered from June to July 2013. In addition to happiness levels, the questionnaire included items on sociodemographics and health-related lifestyle factors (smoking, drinking, eating breakfast, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and hours of sleep). RESULTS: The multivariate analysis revealed that higher levels of happiness were associated with not smoking or drinking, eating breakfast, eating fruits daily, vegetable consumption, participating in at least 60 minutes of physical activity a day, avoiding sedentary behavior, and hours of sleep. Additionally, sex differences were found in relationships between happiness and eating fruit daily, participation in physical activity, and sedentary behavior. CONCLUSIONS: These results encourage public health professionals to consider the psychological aspects of adolescent life in working to improve their health behaviors and outcomes. PMID:27283139

  14. Smoking in European adolescents: relation between media influences, family affluence, and migration background.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Sargent, James D; Engels, Rutger C M E; Florek, Ewa; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2013-10-01

    Seeing smoking depictions in movies has been identified as a determinant of smoking in adolescents. Little is known about how such media influences interact with other social risk factors. Differences in smoking rates in different socio-economic status groups might be explainable by differences in media exposure. There might also be differences in the average response to movie smoking exposure. We tested this hypothesis within a cross-national study conducted in six European countries. A total of 16,551 pupils from Germany, Iceland, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, and Scotland with a mean age of 13.4years (SD=1.18) were recruited from 114 state funded schools. Using previously validated methods, exposure to smoking depictions in movies was estimated for each student and related to ever smoking. The analysis was stratified by level of family affluence (low, medium, high) and migration history of parents (yes vs. no), controlling for a number of covariates like age, gender, school performance, television screen time, sensation seeking and rebelliousness and smoking within the social environment (peers, parents, siblings). We found a significant association for each category of family affluence and ethnicity between ever smoking and movie smoking exposure, also significant adjusted odds ratios for age, school performance, sensation seeking, peer smoking, mother smoking, and sibling smoking. This relationship between movie smoking and adolescent smoking was not moderated by family affluence or ethnicity. Although we used a very broad measure of economic status and migration history, the results suggest that the effects of exposure to movie smoking can be generalized to the population of youths across European countries. PMID:23816473

  15. Smoking in European adolescents: relation between media influences, family affluence, and migration background.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Sargent, James D; Engels, Rutger C M E; Florek, Ewa; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2013-10-01

    Seeing smoking depictions in movies has been identified as a determinant of smoking in adolescents. Little is known about how such media influences interact with other social risk factors. Differences in smoking rates in different socio-economic status groups might be explainable by differences in media exposure. There might also be differences in the average response to movie smoking exposure. We tested this hypothesis within a cross-national study conducted in six European countries. A total of 16,551 pupils from Germany, Iceland, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, and Scotland with a mean age of 13.4years (SD=1.18) were recruited from 114 state funded schools. Using previously validated methods, exposure to smoking depictions in movies was estimated for each student and related to ever smoking. The analysis was stratified by level of family affluence (low, medium, high) and migration history of parents (yes vs. no), controlling for a number of covariates like age, gender, school performance, television screen time, sensation seeking and rebelliousness and smoking within the social environment (peers, parents, siblings). We found a significant association for each category of family affluence and ethnicity between ever smoking and movie smoking exposure, also significant adjusted odds ratios for age, school performance, sensation seeking, peer smoking, mother smoking, and sibling smoking. This relationship between movie smoking and adolescent smoking was not moderated by family affluence or ethnicity. Although we used a very broad measure of economic status and migration history, the results suggest that the effects of exposure to movie smoking can be generalized to the population of youths across European countries.

  16. Witnessing a violent death and smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pabayo, Roman; Molnar, Beth E; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-04-01

    Witnessing violence has been linked to maladaptive coping behaviors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use. However, more research is required to identify mechanisms in which witnessing violence leads to these behaviors. The objectives of this investigation were to examine the association between witnessing a violent death and smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use among adolescents, to identify whether exhibiting depressive symptoms was a mediator within this relationship, and to determine if those who had adult support in school were less likely to engage in risky health behaviors. Data were collected from a sample of 1,878 urban students, from 18 public high schools participating in the 2008 Boston Youth Survey. In 2012, we used multilevel log-binomial regression models and propensity score matching to estimate the association between witnessing a violent death and smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use. Analyses indicated that girls who witnessed a violent death were more likely to use marijuana (relative risk (RR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02, 1.17), and tended towards a higher likelihood to smoke (RR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.00, 1.13) and consume alcohol (RR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.97, 1.18). Among boys, those who witnessed a violent death were significantly more likely to smoke (RR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.11, 1.29), consume alcohol (RR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.17, 1.45) and use marijuana (RR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.21, 1.46). When exhibiting depressive symptoms was included, estimates were not attenuated. However, among girls who witnessed a violent death, having an adult at school for support was protective against alcohol consumption. When we used propensity score matching, findings were consistent with the main analyses among boys only. This study adds insight into how witnessing violence can lead to adoption of adverse health behaviors.

  17. School Health Promotion Policies and Adolescent Risk Behaviors in Israel: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesler, Riki; Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Baron-Epel, Orna

    2016-01-01

    Background: Health promotion policies targeting risk-taking behaviors are being implemented across schools in Israel. This study identified the most effective components of these policies influencing cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among adolescents. Methods: Logistic hierarchical linear model (HLM) analysis of data for 5279 students in…

  18. Where Is the Syndrome? Examining Co-Occurrence among Multiple Problem Behaviors in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Teena; Chalmers, Heather; Busseri, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined co-occurrence among a wide range of adolescent problem behaviors: alcohol, smoking, marijuana, hard drugs, sexual activity, major and minor delinquency, direct and indirect aggression, and gambling. Using a large self-report survey of high school students, confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the problem syndrome…

  19. [Association between health risk behaviors in parents and adolescents in a rural area in southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Raphaelli, Chirle de Oliveira; Azevedo, Mario Renato; Hallal, Pedro C

    2011-12-01

    This article aimed to assess the association between health risk behaviors in parents and adolescents in a rural area. The sample included 377 schoolchildren 10 to 18 years of age and 338 parents. The following variables were analyzed: level of leisure-time and commuting physical activity, inadequate eating habits, overweight/obesity, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Prevalence rates for smoking and alcohol consumption by adolescents in the previous 30 days were 6.7% and 27%, respectively. Forty-five percent of adolescents failed to reach the target physical activity score. Adherence to steps to healthy eating was low. Physical activity in adolescents was positively associated with that of parents, and adolescent drinking was associated with maternal alcohol consumption. There was no significant association for other behaviors. In the analysis stratified by gender, level of physical exercise in female adolescents was associated with that of fathers. Parental health risk behaviors were associated with the behaviors in the adolescent children in this rural area.

  20. Information Management Strategies within Conversations about Cigarette Smoking: Parenting Correlates and Longitudinal Associations with Teen Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Aaron; Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Anderson, Ryan; Darfler, Anne; Price, Juliette; Flores, Zujeil; Mermelstein, Robin

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined smoking-specific and general parenting predictors of in vivo observed patterns of parent-adolescent discussion concerning adolescents' cigarette smoking experiences and associations between these observed patterns and 24-month longitudinal trajectories of teen cigarette smoking behavior (nonsmokers, current…

  1. Association Between Smoking and Problematic Internet Use Among Japanese Adolescents: Large-Scale Nationwide Epidemiological Study.

    PubMed

    Morioka, Hisayoshi; Itani, Osamu; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Higuchi, Susumu; Jike, Maki; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Kanda, Hideyuki; Nakagome, Sachi; Ohida, Takashi

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the association between smoking and problematic Internet use (PIU), such as Internet addiction (IA) and excessive Internet use (EIU), among Japanese adolescents. A self-administered questionnaire was administered to students enrolled in randomly selected junior and senior high schools throughout Japan. Responses were obtained from 100,050 students (0.94:1 ratio of boys to girls). The prevalence of IA (as indicated by a Young Diagnostic Questionnaire for Internet Addiction score ≥5) in all participants, boys, and girls was 8.1%, 6.4%, and 9.9%, respectively. The prevalence of EIU (≥5 hours/day) in all participants, boys, and girls was 12.6%, 12.3%, and 13.0%, respectively. The results of multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that the adjusted odds ratios (AORs) for IA and EIU were significantly higher among students who smoked (including those who previously smoked) than among those who never smoked (p < 0.01 for all comparisons). In addition, the AORs were the highest for students who smoked ≥21 cigarettes per day. The prevalence and AORs of IA and EIU tended to increase with smoking frequency and number of cigarettes smoked per day, indicating a dose-dependent relationship. Thus, IA and EIU have strong associations with smoking. This study revealed that adolescents who routinely smoked or those who smoked more cigarettes per day had a higher risk of PIU than adolescents who did not. These findings suggest that there is a close association between smoking and PIU among Japanese adolescents. PMID:27635442

  2. Association among smoking, depression, and anxiety: findings from a representative sample of Korean adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between smoking and depression and anxiety using data from a nationwide survey representing Korean adolescents. Subjects were 6,489 adolescents in middle and high school (age 13–18) who had participated in the 2011 Korean Study of Promotion Policies on Children and Adolescents—Mental Health (KSPCAM). Daily smoking number of times for current smokers was classified as 1–2 times, 2–4 times and over 5 times. The odds ratio for the statistical test was presented using hierarchical logistic regression. When adjusted for covariates (gender, age, household economy, type of residing city, type of school, school record, satisfaction with school life, subjective health status, satisfaction with relationship with parents, and drinking experience), smokers more significantly likely to have depression (OR = 1.27, 95% CI [1.02–1.57]), and anxiety (OR = 1.49, 95% CI [1.14–1.96]) than non-smokers (p < 0.05). In addition, adolescents who smoke more than 5 cigarettes a day were 1.5 times more likely to have depression (OR = 1.48, 95% CI [1.13–1.92]) and anxiety (OR = 1.49, 95% CI [1.07–2.08]) than those who do not smoke. Smoking in adolescence was found to be significantly related with depression and anxiety. To promote the mental health of adolescents, effective smoking cessation programs are required. PMID:26557425

  3. Prenatal Cigarette Smoke Exposure Causes Hyperactivity and Agressive Behavior: Role of Altered Catcholamines and BDNF

    PubMed Central

    Yochum, Carrie; Doherty-Lyon, Shannon; Hoffman, Carol; Hossain, Muhammad M.; Zellikoff, Judith T.; Richardson, Jason R.

    2014-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is associated with a variety of untoward effects on the offspring. However, recent epidemiological studies have brought into question whether the association between neurobehavioral deficits and maternal smoking is causal. We utilized an animal model of maternal smoking to determine the effects of prenatal cigarette smoke (CS) exposure on neurobehavioral development. Pregnant mice were exposed to either filtered air or mainstream CS from gestation day (GD) 4 to parturition for 4 hr/d and 5 d/wk, with each exposure producing maternal plasma concentration of cotinine equivalent to smoking <1 pack of cigarettes per day (25 ng/ml plasma cotinine level). Pups were weaned at postnatal day (PND) 21 and behavior assessed on at 4 weeks of age and again at 4–6 months of age. Male, but not female, offspring of CS-exposed dams demonstrated a significant increase in locomotor activity during adolescence and adulthood that was ameliorated by methylphenidate treatment. Additionally, male offspring exhibited increased aggression, as evidenced by decreased latency to attack and number of attacks in a resident intruder task. These behavioral abnormalities were accompanied by a significant decrease in striatal and cortical dopamine and serotonin and a significant reduction in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA and protein. Taken in concert, these data demonstrate that prenatal exposure to CS produces behavioral alterations in mice that are similar to those observed in epidemiological studies linking maternal smoking to neurodevelopmental disorders and suggest a role for monoaminergic and BDNF alterations in these effects. PMID:24486851

  4. Smoking behavior among nurses in rural Greece.

    PubMed

    Stamatopoulou, Eleni; Stamatiou, Konstantinos; Voulioti, Stefania; Christopoulos, George; Pantza, Eleni; Stamatopoulou, Athanasia; Giannopoulos, Dimitris

    2014-04-01

    Evidence suggests that rural health care providers may be at increased risk for tobacco addiction. Few researchers have studied the habitual use of tobacco in rural Greece and no published studies have examined sustained tobacco use by nurses working in these areas or their knowledge and attitudes toward smoking cessation. To explore the above, the authors conducted a questionnaire-based study in 40 health centers in rural mainland and island Greece. Two hundred twenty nurses were surveyed (65% response rate). Thirty-two percent of the nurse respondents were smokers, 54% were non-smokers, and 14% were former smokers. Only 8% of respondents had been trained to assist clients with smoking cessation.

  5. Types of Interventions for Smoking Prevention and Cessation in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nădăşan, Valentin; Chirvăsuţă, Radu; Ábrám, Zoltan; Mihăicuţă, Ştefan

    2015-01-01

    Smoking among children and adolescents is a pressing public health issue that demands the development, improvement and implementation of programmes aimed at the prevention and cessation of smoking on a global scale. The objective of our article is to review the main types of interventions for smoking prevention and cessation among children and adolescents. These interventions are based on a wide variety of approaches and include school-based programmes, primary and secondary care-based interventions, programmes targeting parents and family, community-based programmes, social marketing programmes and media campaigns, legislative interventions and computer and other IT-based interventions. Generally, there is still a paucity of low level evidence regarding the efficacy of most smoking prevention and cessation programmes for children and adolescents except for a few particular types of interventions that are reasonably well documented. PMID:26738374

  6. Mediating Influences of Negative Affect and Risk Perception on the Relationship Between Sensation Seeking and Adolescent Cigarette Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Patricia E.; Bekman, Nicole M.; Worley, Matthew J.; Monreal, Teresa K.; McGee, Elizabeth; Cummins, Kevin; Brown, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: A substantial number of adolescents are current and regular cigarette smokers, and there is a need to better understand factors that contribute to smoking behavior during these years. Sensation seeking (SS) is one factor that has consistently been associated with smoking, but less is known about mechanisms that may explain this relationship. Methods: The present study tested the hypothesis that high school students high in SS would report heavier cigarette smoking and that this relationship would be mediated by negative affect and by perceptions about the risks of smoking. Students (n = 1,688) participated in an annual survey of substance use and related attitudes and characteristics. Results: As expected, higher SS was associated with greater levels of past 30-day (odds ratio [OR] = 1.46, p = .004) and lifetime (OR = 1.37, p = .004) smoking, particularly for males. Multiple mediation models indicated that effect of SS on both 30-day (combined indirect effect z = 5.38, p < .001) and lifetime (z = 6.14, p < .001) smoking was mediated by both negative affect and risk perception. Conclusions: These findings suggest a need for increasing the sensation value of anti-tobacco messages to increase their efficacy for high SS youth. High SS youth may also benefit from prevention efforts designed to teach healthy ways of coping with negative affect. PMID:21436297

  7. Smoking behavior and opinions of French general practitioners.

    PubMed Central

    Josseran, L.; King, G.; Velter, A.; Dressen, C.; Grizeau, D.

    2000-01-01

    This report examines smoking prevalence, sociodemographic factors, and the opinions of French general practitioners (GPs) about tobacco control policies. Data from the CFES (Comité Français d'Education pour la Santé) national survey on general practitioners included 1013 respondents. The questionnaire was administered by telephone and a response rate of 65% was attained. Instrumentation included variables related to medical practice, sociodemographic characteristics, and opinions about health behavior. Thirty-four percent of physicians were current smokers. A higher proportion of males smoked compared to women (36.1% vs. 24.9%, p < 0.01), and they consumed on average more cigarettes per day (11.2 vs. 8 cigarettes/day, p < 0.05). Slightly more than 52% of physicians regarded their role in reducing nicotine addiction to be important. Doctors who believed that the physician's role was limited were less likely to advise pregnant women to stop smoking (odds ratio = 0.39, p < 0.001), and nonsmokers were more supportive of bans on smoking in public places. Despite the high prevalence of smoking among French physicians, they can still play an important role in reducing smoking among their patients. Medical school curriculum and continuing medical education programs focusing on prevention and cessation in France should be strengthened to help reduce smoking rates among physicians and the general population. PMID:10992683

  8. Smoking behavior and opinions of French general practitioners.

    PubMed

    Josseran, L; King, G; Velter, A; Dressen, C; Grizeau, D

    2000-08-01

    This report examines smoking prevalence, sociodemographic factors, and the opinions of French general practitioners (GPs) about tobacco control policies. Data from the CFES (Comité Français d'Education pour la Santé) national survey on general practitioners included 1013 respondents. The questionnaire was administered by telephone and a response rate of 65% was attained. Instrumentation included variables related to medical practice, sociodemographic characteristics, and opinions about health behavior. Thirty-four percent of physicians were current smokers. A higher proportion of males smoked compared to women (36.1% vs. 24.9%, p < 0.01), and they consumed on average more cigarettes per day (11.2 vs. 8 cigarettes/day, p < 0.05). Slightly more than 52% of physicians regarded their role in reducing nicotine addiction to be important. Doctors who believed that the physician's role was limited were less likely to advise pregnant women to stop smoking (odds ratio = 0.39, p < 0.001), and nonsmokers were more supportive of bans on smoking in public places. Despite the high prevalence of smoking among French physicians, they can still play an important role in reducing smoking among their patients. Medical school curriculum and continuing medical education programs focusing on prevention and cessation in France should be strengthened to help reduce smoking rates among physicians and the general population.

  9. Addiction as a Systems Failure: Focus on Adolescence and Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Baler, Ruben D.; Volkow, Nora D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Scientific advances in the field of addiction have forever debunked the notion that addiction reflects a character flaw under voluntary control, demonstrating instead that it is a bona fide disease of the brain. The aim of this review is to go beyond this consensus understanding and explore the most current evidence regarding the vast number of genetic, developmental, and environmental factors whose complex interactions modulate addiction risk and trajectory. Method Focusing on childhood and adolescent smoking as a paradigm, we review the important risk factors for the development of addictions, starting at the level of genetics and closing with a focus on sociocultural and policy factors. Results A critical review of the pertinent literature provides a detailed view of the cumulative power of risk and protection factors across different phenomenological levels to modulate the risk of undesirable outcomes, particularly for young people. The result represents a compelling argument for the need to engage in comprehensive, multilevel approaches to promoting health. Conclusions Today, the field of medicine understands more about disease than about health; however it need not be that way. The view of drug addiction as a systems failure should help refocus our general approach to developing dynamic models and early comprehensive interventions that optimize the ways in which we prevent and treat a complex, developmental disorder such as drug addiction. PMID:21421173

  10. Sex and Age Differences in Exposure to Secondhand Smoke at Home among Korean Adolescents: A Nationally Representative Survey.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jun Hyun; Park, Soon-Woo

    2016-02-19

    The authors assessed sex and age differences in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among vulnerable adolescent populations. Data from the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey of 64,499 non-smokers aged 13-18 years were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. Girls were exposed 1.26 times (95% confidence interval, 1.21-1.32) more to home SHS than boys, and the younger adolescents were more likely to be exposed to home SHS than were the older, regardless of sex (p < 0.001). Younger girls living with or without current smokers and the younger boys living with current smokers were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home, when the data were stratified according to current household member smoking, which was one of the main risk factors for SHS exposure at home. Girls living with current smokers were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home than boys regardless age. Girls and younger adolescents, populations vulnerable to smoke exposure, were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home, even though they should be more protected. It is necessary to improve home SHS awareness, especially among these vulnerable populations.

  11. Sex and Age Differences in Exposure to Secondhand Smoke at Home among Korean Adolescents: A Nationally Representative Survey.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jun Hyun; Park, Soon-Woo

    2016-02-01

    The authors assessed sex and age differences in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among vulnerable adolescent populations. Data from the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey of 64,499 non-smokers aged 13-18 years were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. Girls were exposed 1.26 times (95% confidence interval, 1.21-1.32) more to home SHS than boys, and the younger adolescents were more likely to be exposed to home SHS than were the older, regardless of sex (p < 0.001). Younger girls living with or without current smokers and the younger boys living with current smokers were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home, when the data were stratified according to current household member smoking, which was one of the main risk factors for SHS exposure at home. Girls living with current smokers were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home than boys regardless age. Girls and younger adolescents, populations vulnerable to smoke exposure, were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home, even though they should be more protected. It is necessary to improve home SHS awareness, especially among these vulnerable populations. PMID:26907314

  12. The interaction between anxiety sensitivity and cigarette smoking level in relation to sleep onset latency among adolescent cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Bilsky, Sarah A; Feldner, Matthew T; Knapp, Ashley A; Babson, Kimberly A; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W

    2016-08-01

    Cigarette smoking during adolescence is linked to a number of sleep disturbances and has been consistently linked to sleep onset latency among adults. However, little research has examined factors that may influence the relation between cigarette smoking level and sleep onset latency among adolescents. One factor that may be particularly important in this regard is anxiety sensitivity (AS). The current study examined whether cigarette smoking level interacted with AS in its association with sleep onset latency among 94 adolescent (Mage = 15.72) cigarette smokers. As hypothesized, AS interacted with smoking level to relate to sleep onset latency, even after controlling for age and gender. This relation was specific to sleep onset latency as opposed to other types of sleep disturbances, and that adolescents who smoked at higher levels tended to go to sleep later and wake up later than adolescents who smoked at relatively lower levels. PMID:27351343

  13. Personality, Perceived Environment, and Behavior Systems Related to Future Smoking Intentions among Youths: An Application of Problem-Behavior Theory in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Na, Li; He, Yaping; Redmon, Pam; Qiao, Yun; Ma, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Background Smoking among youths is a worldwide problem, particularly in China. Many endogenous and environmental factors influence smokers’ intentions to smoke; therefore, a comprehensive model is needed to understand the significance and relationship of predictors. This study aimed to develop a prediction model based on problem-behavior theory (PBT) to interpret intentions to smoke among Chinese youths. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of 26,675 adolescents from junior, senior, and vocational high schools in Shanghai, China. Data on smoking status, smoking knowledge, attitude toward smoking, parents’ and peers’ smoking, and media exposure to smoking were collected from students. A structural equation model was used to assess the developed prediction model. Results The experimental smoking rate and current smoking rate among the students were 11.0% and 3%, respectively. Our constructed model showed an acceptable fit to the data (comparative fit index = 0.987, root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.034). Intention to smoke was predicted by perceived environment (β = 0.455, P < 0.001) system consisting of peer smoking (β = 0.599, P < 0.001), parent smoking (β = 0.152, P < 0.001), and media exposure to smoking (β = 0.226, P < 0.001), and behavior system (β = 0.487, P < 0.001) consisting of tobacco experimentation (β = 0.663, P < 0.001) and current smoking (β = 0.755, P < 0.001). Smoking intention was irrelevant for personality system in students (β = -0.113, P>0.05) which consisted of acceptance of tobacco use (β = 0.668, P < 0.001) and academic performance (β = 0.171, P < 0.001). Conclusion The PBT-based model we developed provides a good understanding of the predictors of intentions to smoke and it suggests future interventions among youths should focus on components in perceived environment and behavior systems, and take into account the moderating effects of personality system. PMID:25826611

  14. Behavioral Genetic Analyses of Prosocial Behavior in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Alice M.; Light-Hausermann, Jade H.; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Eley, Thalia C.

    2009-01-01

    Prosocial behavior is an important aspect of normal social and psychological development. Adult and child twin studies typically estimate the heritability of prosocial behavior to be between 30 and 50%, although relatively little is known about genetic and environmental influences upon prosocial behavior in adolescence. We therefore examined…

  15. Sex differences in prevalence rates and predictors of cigarette smoking among in-school adolescents in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Siziya, S; Ntata, P R T; Rudatsikira, E; Makupe, C M; Umar, E; Muula, A S

    2007-09-01

    An analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey for Kilimanjaro, Tanzania was carried out to assess sex differences in the prevalence rates and predictors of current cigarette smoking among in-school adolescents. A total of 2323 adolescents participated in the study of whom 53% were females and 47% males. The prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 3.0% and 1.4% among males and females, respectively. The common factors that were significantly positively associated with cigarette smoking between sexes were: having more pocket money, closest friend smoked cigarettes, seeing actors smoke on TV, videos or movies, and seeing advertisements for cigarettes at social gatherings. Seeing anti-smoking messages at social gatherings were negatively associated with smoking among both sexes. While having had something such as a t-shirt or pen with a cigarette brand logo on it was positively associated with cigarette smoking among males, it was negatively associated with cigarette smoking among females. Male adolescents older than 15 years, those in their 9th year of schooling, and those who had seen cigarette brand names on TV were more likely to smoke. Meanwhile, male respondents who were in their 8th year of schooling, had seen anti-smoking media messages, and advertisements for cigarettes in newspapers or magazines were less likely to smoke. Among female adolescents, those who had parents who smoked, and surprisingly those who perceived that cigarette smoking as harmful were more likely to smoke. Interestingly, seeing advertisement for cigarettes on billboards was negatively associated with smoking among female adolescents. Interventions aimed to reduce adolescent smoking need to be designed and implemented with due consideration of sex differences in these associated factors. PMID:18087898

  16. Sex differences in prevalence rates and predictors of cigarette smoking among in-school adolescents in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Siziya, S; Ntata, P R T; Rudatsikira, E; Makupe, C M; Umar, E; Muula, A S

    2007-09-01

    An analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey for Kilimanjaro, Tanzania was carried out to assess sex differences in the prevalence rates and predictors of current cigarette smoking among in-school adolescents. A total of 2323 adolescents participated in the study of whom 53% were females and 47% males. The prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 3.0% and 1.4% among males and females, respectively. The common factors that were significantly positively associated with cigarette smoking between sexes were: having more pocket money, closest friend smoked cigarettes, seeing actors smoke on TV, videos or movies, and seeing advertisements for cigarettes at social gatherings. Seeing anti-smoking messages at social gatherings were negatively associated with smoking among both sexes. While having had something such as a t-shirt or pen with a cigarette brand logo on it was positively associated with cigarette smoking among males, it was negatively associated with cigarette smoking among females. Male adolescents older than 15 years, those in their 9th year of schooling, and those who had seen cigarette brand names on TV were more likely to smoke. Meanwhile, male respondents who were in their 8th year of schooling, had seen anti-smoking media messages, and advertisements for cigarettes in newspapers or magazines were less likely to smoke. Among female adolescents, those who had parents who smoked, and surprisingly those who perceived that cigarette smoking as harmful were more likely to smoke. Interestingly, seeing advertisement for cigarettes on billboards was negatively associated with smoking among female adolescents. Interventions aimed to reduce adolescent smoking need to be designed and implemented with due consideration of sex differences in these associated factors.

  17. Effectiveness of a complex intervention in reducing the prevalence of smoking among adolescents: study design of a cluster-randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The likelihood of an adolescent taking up smoking may be influenced by his or her society, school and family. Thus, changes in the immediate environment may alter a young person’s perception of smoking. Methods/Design The proposed multi-center, cluster-randomized controlled trial will be stratified by the baseline prevalence of smoking in schools. Municipalities with fewer than 100,000 inhabitants will be randomly assigned to a control or intervention group. One secondary school will be randomly selected from each municipality. These schools will be randomized to two groups: the students of one will receive any existing educational course regarding smoking, while those of the other school will receive a four-year, class-based curriculum intervention (22 classroom lessons) aimed at reinforcing a smoke-free school policy and encouraging smoking cessation in parents, pupils, and teachers. The intervention will also include annual meetings with parents and efforts to empower adolescents to change the smoking-related attitudes and behaviors in their homes, classrooms and communities. We will enroll children aged 12-13 years as they enter secondary school during two consecutive school years (to obtain sufficient enrolled subjects). We will follow them for five years, until two years after they leave secondary school. All external evaluators and analysts will be blinded to school allocation. The aim of this study is to analyze the effectiveness of a complex intervention in reducing the prevalence of smoking in the third year of compulsory secondary education (ESO) and two years after secondary school, when the participants are 14-15 and 17-18 years old, respectively. Discussion Most interventions aimed at preventing smoking among adolescents yield little to no positive long-term effects. This clinical trial will analyze the effectiveness of a complex intervention aimed at reducing the incidence and prevalence of smoking in this vulnerable age group. Trial

  18. Receptivity to cigarette and tobacco control messages and adolescent smoking initiation

    PubMed Central

    Emory, Kristen T; Messer, Karen; Vera, Lisa; Ojeda, Norma; Elder, John P; Usita, Paula; Pierce, John P

    2015-01-01

    Background Tobacco industry cigarette advertising is associated with increased adolescent smoking, while counter tobacco advertising is associated with reduced smoking. As these campaigns compete for influence, there is a need to understand their inter-relationship on youth smoking. Methods This study reports data from a national population of families (n=1036) with an oldest child aged 10–13 years, identified by random digit dialling. Parent and child dyads completed baseline questionnaires in 2003. Adolescents were resurveyed in 2007–2008 (response rate 74%). Adjusted logistic regression explores associations between receptivity to cigarette and tobacco control advertising and adolescent smoking initiation. Results In 2007–2008, 57.9% of adolescents reported a favourite tobacco control advertisement and 43.3% reported being receptive to cigarette advertisements. Thirty per cent reported receptivity to cigarette and tobacco control advertisements. Among those receptive to cigarette advertising, having a favourite anti-smoking advertisement had a borderline significant association with a 30% lower smoking rate. Anti-industry tobacco control messages were three times more likely to be favourites of those who were receptive to cigarette advertising than other tobacco control advertising. Conclusions Receptivity to tobacco control advertising appeared to ameliorate the promotion of initiation from cigarette advertising. Anti-industry advertising appears to be the most effective counter for tobacco control and should be considered for wider use. A larger longitudinal study is needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24503771

  19. Cigarette smoking habits, attitudes and associated social factors in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Beaglehole, R; Eyles, E; Harding, W

    1978-04-12

    Cigarette smoking habits and attitudes and associated social factors of 997 third and fourth form pupils were studied, using an interviewer administered questionnaire, in two co-educational secondary schools as part of a smoking intervention programme. Overall, 32 percent of the pupils were regular smokers with 15% smoking more than two cigarettes per day. The majority of smokers began smoking before secondary school; boys started earlier than girls,nd heavy smokers earlier than light smokers. The commonest reason for giving up smoking was personal dislike. Heavy smokers were more likely to have respiratory symptoms than other pupils. The smoking habits of the pupils were related to those of their parents, siblings and friends. The majority of pupils thought cigarette smoking bad for their health irrespective of their own smoking habits.

  20. Environmental stressors, low well-being, smoking, and alcohol use among South African adolescents.

    PubMed

    Brook, David W; Rubenstone, Elizabeth; Zhang, Chenshu; Morojele, Neo K; Brook, Judith S

    2011-05-01

    This is the first study to examine the pathways from environmental stressors to substance use among a sample of South African adolescents (N = 2195). The study objective was to assess how environmental stressors might affect cigarette smoking and alcohol use among South African adolescents, and to focus on one mechanism, low well-being, which might mediate this association. Participants consisted of 2195 Black, mixed ancestry ("Colored"), Indian, and White youth, aged 12-17 years old (mean age = 14.6; SD = 1.8), recruited via a multi-stage stratified sampling procedure in Durban, Cape Town, and Johannesburg, South Africa. Data were collected via individual in-person structured interviews, administered by trained interviewers in the participant's preferred language. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the interrelationships of environmental stressors (violent victimisation, legal and illegal drug availability) and low well-being (depressive symptoms, low self-esteem, health problems) with respect to adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use. The results supported our hypotheses: Environmental stressors were related to low well-being which, in turn, was linked to both adolescent smoking and alcohol use. There were also direct pathways from environmental stressors to both adolescent smoking and alcohol use. Smoking and alcohol use were significantly correlated. The findings suggest that environmental stressors may be associated with diminished psychological and physical well-being, as well as smoking and alcohol use, among South African adolescents. Longitudinal research is warranted to further understand the interrelationship of environmental stressors, low well-being, and adolescent substance use, so that these issues may be addressed by South African programmes and policies.

  1. Media Literacy and Cigarette Smoking in Hungarian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; Piko, Bettina F.; Balazs, Mate A.; Struk, Tamara

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess smoking media literacy in a sample of Hungarian youth and to determine its association with current smoking and susceptibility to future smoking. Design: Quantitative cross-sectional survey. Setting: Four elementary and four high schools in Mako, Hungary. Method: A survey form was administered in regularly-scheduled classes to…

  2. Dialectical Behavior Therapy with Suicidal Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Alec L.; Rathus, Jill H.; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2006-01-01

    Filling a tremendous need, this highly practical book adapts the proven techniques of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) to treatment of multiproblem adolescents at highest risk for suicidal behavior and self-injury. The authors are master clinicians who take the reader step by step through understanding and assessing severe emotional…

  3. Adolescent Risk Behavior Subgroups: An Empirical Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Christopher J.; Childs, Kristina K.; O'Connell, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Theories and prior research have outlined a constellation of adolescent risk behaviors that tend to co-occur, reflecting a general pattern. Although their generality has largely been supported, there is some question about how to best study and portray the relationship among these behaviors. This study used data from a survey administered to high…

  4. Protective factors in adolescent health behavior.

    PubMed

    Jessor, R; Turbin, M S; Costa, F M

    1998-09-01

    The role of psychosocial protective factors in adolescent health-enhancing behaviors--healthy diet, regular exercise, adequate sleep, good dental hygiene, and seatbelt use--was investigated among 1,493 Hispanic, White, and Black high school students in a large, urban school district. Both proximal (health-related) and distal (conventionality-related) protective factors have significant positive relations with health-enhancing behavior and with the development of health-enhancing behavior. In addition, in cross-sectional analyses, protection was shown to moderate risk. Key proximal protective factors are value on health, perceived effects of health-compromising behavior, and parents who model health behavior. Key distal protective factors are positive orientation to school, friends who model conventional behavior, involvement in prosocial activities, and church attendance. The findings suggest the importance of individual differences on a dimension of conventionality-unconventionality. Strengthening both proximal and distal protective factors may help to promote healthful behaviors in adolescence. PMID:9781412

  5. A study on smoking and associated psychosocial factors among adolescent students in Kolkata, India.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, Nilay Nilay; Ganguly, Samrat; Pal, Sumita; Chatterjee, Sukanta

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco use among school children and adolescents is an increasing problem world-wide, particularly in the developing countries. A cross-sectional observational study was carried out in six co-educational high schools in Kolkata, West Bengal among 526 students of 15-19 years to determine the prevalence of smoking and to find out any difference among the smokers and non-smokers regarding factors related to family relations, peer group and personal characteristics. The overall rate of smoking was found to be 29.6%, mean age of initiation of smoking was earlier in males. Among smokers 75% students started smoking by 15 years. Smoking of father and peer group, family conflict and pornography addiction were found to have significant association with smoking of students. Early school health based interventions addressing these factors might help in effectively tackling this problem. PMID:24748358

  6. Nicotine Gum and Behavioral Treatment in Smoking Cessation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sharon M.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Assigned 120 smoking cessation subjects to either intensive behavioral treatment, nicotine gum in low-contact treatment, or to combined treatment. Combined treatment produced higher abstinence rates than other conditions at all assessments. Differences were significant at 3, 12, and 26 weeks, but not at 52 weeks. (NRB)

  7. Acculturation and Smoking Behavior in Asian-American Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Grace X.; Tan, Yin; Toubbeh, Jamil I.; Su, Xuefen; Shive, Steven E.; Lan, Yajia

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between acculturation and smoking behavior was examined in four Asian-American groups that included recent immigrants and US-born Koreans, Chinese, Vietnamese and Cambodians residing in the Delaware Valley of Pennsylvania and New Jersey. The study was part of a community-based, comprehensive cross-sectional study designed to…

  8. Randomized trial outcomes of a TTM-tailored condom use and smoking intervention in urban adolescent females

    PubMed Central

    Redding, Colleen A.; Prochaska, James O.; Armstrong, Kay; Rossi, Joseph S.; Hoeppner, Bettina B.; Sun, Xiaowu; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Yin, Hui-Qing; Coviello, Donna; Evers, Kerry; Velicer, Wayne F.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking and sexual risk behaviors in urban adolescent females are prevalent and problematic. Family planning clinics reach those who are at most risk. This randomized effectiveness trial evaluated a transtheoretical model (TTM)-tailored intervention to increase condom use and decrease smoking. At baseline, a total of 828 14- to 17-year-old females were recruited and randomized within four urban family planning clinics. Participants received TTM or standard care (SC) computerized feedback and stage-targeted or SC counseling at baseline, 3, 6 and 9 months. Blinded follow-up telephone surveys were conducted at 12 and 18 months. Analyses revealed significantly more consistent condom use in the TTM compared with the SC group at 6 and 12, but not at 18 months. In baseline consistent condom users (40%), significantly less relapse was found in the TTM compared with the SC group at 6 and 12, but not at 18 months. No significant effects for smoking prevention or cessation were found, although cessation rates matched those found previously. This TTM-tailored intervention demonstrated effectiveness for increasing consistent condom use at 6 and 12 months, but not at 18 months, in urban adolescent females. This intervention, if replicated, could be disseminated to promote consistent condom use and additional health behaviors in youth at risk. PMID:24794584

  9. Predicting Adolescent Deviant Behaviors through Data Mining Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yu-Chin; Hsu, Yung-Chieh

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is the time during which people develop and form their crucial values, personality traits, and beliefs. Hence, as deviant behaviors occur during adolescence, it is important to guide adolescents away from such behaviors and back to normal behaviors. Moreover, although there are various kinds of deviant behavior, most of them would…

  10. Inter-Personal Perceptions Within Families Containing Behavior Problem Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faw, Terry T.; Goldsmith, Douglas F.

    Little research has examined the relationships between parents' perceptions of their adolescent children, the adolescents' self-perceptions and the congruence of those perceptions to adolescent behavior problems. Two parent families (N=64) with an adolescent member completed a Behavior Adjustment Scale. Based on these scores 42 families were…

  11. Snus use and smoking behaviors: preliminary findings from a prospective cohort study among US Midwest young adults.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Naomi; Choi, Kelvin; Forster, Jean

    2015-04-01

    The effect of snus use on smoking behaviors among US young adults is largely unknown. Data from the Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort Study collected in 2010 to 2011 and 2011 to 2012 (participants aged 20-28 years) showed that young adult nonsmokers who had tried snus were subsequently more likely than those who had not tried snus to become current smokers (n = 1696; adjusted odds ratio = 1.79; 95% confidence interval = 1.01, 3.14). Snus use was not associated with subsequent smoking cessation or reduction among young adult current smokers (n = 488; P > .46).

  12. Using Social Identity to Explore the Link between a Decline in Adolescent Smoking and an Increase in Mobile Phone Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Purpose--The study seeks to further explore the hypothesised link between the increase in mobile phone ownership and use and the reported decline in adolescent smoking. Evidence for the link was gathered by examining perceptions of mobile phone use in the context of social identity and adolescent smoking. Design/methodology/approach--The study…

  13. Health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms among Hispanic adolescents: Examining acculturation discrepancies and family functioning.

    PubMed

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Schwartz, Seth J; Castillo, Linda G; Unger, Jennifer B; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L; Romero, Andrea J; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Córdova, David; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Lizzi, Karina M; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Soto, Daniel W; Villamar, Juan Andres; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José

    2016-03-01

    Drawing from a theory of bicultural family functioning 2 models were tested to examine the longitudinal effects of acculturation-related variables on adolescent health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms (HRB/DS) mediated by caregiver and adolescent reports of family functioning. One model examined the effects of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A second model examined the individual effects of caregiver and adolescent acculturation components in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A sample of 302 recently immigrated Hispanic caregiver-child dyads completed measures of Hispanic and U.S. cultural practices, values, and identities at baseline (predictors); measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement 6 months postbaseline (mediators); and only adolescents completed measures of smoking, binge drinking, inconsistent condom use, and depressive symptoms 1 year postbaseline (outcomes). Measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement were used to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis to estimate the fit of a latent construct for family functioning. Key findings indicate that (a) adolescent acculturation components drove the effect of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning; (b) higher levels of adolescent family functioning were associated with less HRB/DS, whereas higher levels of caregiver family functioning were associated with more adolescent HRB/DS; (c) and only adolescent reports of family functioning mediated the effects of acculturation components and caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies on HRB/DS.

  14. Mediators and moderators of magazine advertisement effects on adolescent cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Aloise-Young, Patricia A; Slater, Michael D; Cruickshank, Courtney C

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the relation between magazine advertising for cigarettes and adolescent cigarette smoking. Participants (242 adolescents) reported their frequency of reading 46 magazines and their attention to cigarette ads. Recognition of cigarette ads, passive peer pressure (i.e., normative beliefs), and the smoker image also were assessed. Results indicate that exposure to cigarette advertising and recognition of ads augment the effect of passive peer pressure on smoking. In addition, a positive smoker image was associated with attention to advertising and mediated the relation between attention and smoking. It is suggested that the effect of magazine ads on adolescents should be considered in policymaking on cigarette advertising. PMID:16624795

  15. The Effects of Adolescent Health-Related Behavior on Academic Performance: A Systematic Review of the Longitudinal Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Vincent; Loyen, Anne; Lodder, Mandy; Schrijvers, Augustinus J. P.; van Yperen, Tom A.; de Leeuw, Johannes R. J.

    2014-01-01

    Schools are increasingly involved in efforts to promote health and healthy behavior among their adolescent students, but are healthier students better learners? This synthesis of the empirical, longitudinal literature investigated the effects of the most predominant health-related behaviors--namely, alcohol and marijuana use, smoking, nutrition,…

  16. Maternal and Adolescent Temperament as Predictors of Maternal Affective Behavior during Mother-Adolescent Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Emily; Yap, Marie B. H.; Simmons, Julian G.; Sheeber, Lisa B.; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined maternal and early adolescent temperament dimensions as predictors of maternal emotional behavior during mother-adolescent interactions. The sample comprised 151 early adolescents (aged 11-13) and their mothers (aged 29-57). Adolescent- and mother-reports of adolescent temperament and self-reports of maternal temperament were…

  17. Do cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption associate with cannabis use and problem gambling among Spanish adolescents?

    PubMed

    Míguez Varela, M Del Carmen; Becoña, Elisardo

    2015-03-01

    This article examined the relationship between cigarette smoking or alcohol consumption and cannabis use and problem gambling among a random and representative sample of 1447 Spanish adolescents (797 males and 650 females with an average of 12.8 years). An ad-hoc questionnaire was used to assess cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption (beer, wine and spirits) and cannabis use. Gambling was assessed with the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA). Results indicated a positive and significant association between cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption and the two aforementioned variables. A larger percentage of cigarette smokers and drinkers was found among those participants who had consumed cannabis before or scored significantly in problem gambling. Additionally, multiple regression analysis confirmed that both cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption (beer and wine) were the most determinant variables for cannabis use and problem gambling.

  18. Do cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption associate with cannabis use and problem gambling among Spanish adolescents?

    PubMed

    Míguez Varela, M Del Carmen; Becoña, Elisardo

    2015-01-01

    This article examined the relationship between cigarette smoking or alcohol consumption and cannabis use and problem gambling among a random and representative sample of 1447 Spanish adolescents (797 males and 650 females with an average of 12.8 years). An ad-hoc questionnaire was used to assess cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption (beer, wine and spirits) and cannabis use. Gambling was assessed with the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA). Results indicated a positive and significant association between cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption and the two aforementioned variables. A larger percentage of cigarette smokers and drinkers was found among those participants who had consumed cannabis before or scored significantly in problem gambling. Additionally, multiple regression analysis confirmed that both cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption (beer and wine) were the most determinant variables for cannabis use and problem gambling. PMID:25879473

  19. Longitudinal relations between adolescent and parental behaviors, parental knowledge, and internalizing behaviors among urban adolescents.

    PubMed

    Garthe, Rachel C; Sullivan, Terri; Kliewer, Wendy

    2015-04-01

    High prevalence rates of depression and anxiety among adolescents underscore the importance of identifying parental and adolescent behaviors that may lessen the risk for these outcomes. Previous research has shown that parental acceptance, parental knowledge, and child disclosure are negatively associated with internalizing behaviors. It is also important to explore the impact of internalizing behaviors on these parental and child constructs. The current study examined longitudinal relationships between parental acceptance, parental knowledge, child disclosure, and internalizing symptoms across a one-year time period. Participants were 358 adolescents (54 % female) and their primary caregivers, who were primarily African American (92 %). Parents and adolescents provided data through face-to-face interviews. Results showed that parental knowledge and parental acceptance predicted child disclosure, and child disclosure predicted parental knowledge one year later. Higher levels of parental acceptance predicted lower levels of adolescent-reported depressive symptoms, while higher levels of parental report of adolescents' internalizing symptoms predicted lower levels of parental knowledge. No differences in the strength of these relationships were found across grade or gender. These findings highlight the role of the adolescent's perceived acceptance by parents in promoting children's disclosure, and the benefits of parental acceptance in decreasing depressive symptoms over time. Overall, these results show the impact that both adolescent and parental behaviors and internalizing behaviors have on each other across time.

  20. Progression to Traditional Cigarette Smoking After Electronic Cigarette Use Among US Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; Soneji, Samir; Stoolmiller, Michael; Fine, Michael J.; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) may help smokers reduce the use of traditional combustible cigarettes. However, adolescents and young adults who have never smoked traditional cigarettes are now using e-cigarettes, and these individuals may be at risk for subsequent progression to traditional cigarette smoking. OBJECTIVE To determine whether baseline use of e-cigarettes among nonsmoking and nonsusceptible adolescents and young adults is associated with subsequent progression along an established trajectory to traditional cigarette smoking. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS In this longitudinal cohort study, a national US sample of 694 participants aged 16 to 26 years who were never cigarette smokers and were attitudinally nonsusceptible to smoking cigarettes completed baseline surveys from October 1, 2012, to May 1, 2014, regarding smoking in 2012–2013. They were reassessed 1 year later. Analysis was conducted from July 1, 2014, to March 1, 2015. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the independent association between baseline e-cigarette use and cigarette smoking, controlling for sex, age, race/ethnicity, maternal educational level, sensation-seeking tendency, parental cigarette smoking, and cigarette smoking among friends. Sensitivity analyses were performed, with varying approaches to missing data and recanting. EXPOSURES Use of e-cigarettes at baseline. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Progression to cigarette smoking, defined using 3 specific states along a trajectory: nonsusceptible nonsmokers, susceptible nonsmokers, and smokers. Individuals who could not rule out smoking in the future were defined as susceptible. RESULTS Among the 694 respondents, 374 (53.9%) were female and 531 (76.5%) were non-Hispanic white. At baseline, 16 participants (2.3%) used e-cigarettes. Over the 1-year follow-up, 11 of 16 e-cigarette users and 128 of 678 of those who had not used e-cigarettes (18.9%) progressed toward cigarette smoking. In the primary

  1. The ABCs of Adolescent Smoking Prevention: An Environment and Skills Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, John P.; Stern, Robert A.

    1986-01-01

    Based on social skills and operant behavioral perspectives, an Environment and Skills Model of smoking acquisition and prevention is proposed. This model involves an integrated examination of the antecedents, behaviors, and consequences of smoking. The importance of the "consequence end" of this three-term contingency is discussed. (Author/CT)

  2. Predictors of narghile (water-pipe) smoking in a sample of American Arab Yemeni adolescents.

    PubMed

    Baker, Omar G; Rice, Virginia

    2008-01-01

    To explore the predictors of water-pipe smoking among American Arab Yemeni adolescents, a descriptive correlational design was used, and regression models representing the proposed relationships in the study were tested from a convenience sample of 297 adolescents who attended a teen health clinic and two high schools. The participants completed five measures. Fourteen hypotheses were tested. Experimentation with tobacco was found to be significant in predicting narghile smoking. Tobacco use prevention and cessation interventions for this population can be focused on targeting the family and peer units, from which their identity is likely derived. PMID:18165423

  3. Confirming the Structure of the "Why Do You Smoke?" Questionnaire: A Community Resource for Adolescent Tobacco Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Dennis W.; Lee, Jay T.; Colwell, Brian; Stevens-Manser, Stacey

    2008-01-01

    In response to the problem of adolescent smoking and limited appropriate cessation resources, this study examined the pattern and structure of the American Lung Association, Why Do You Smoke? (WDS) to determine its appropriateness for use in youth smoking cessation programs. The WDS is used to help smokers identify primary motivations for using…

  4. Smoking Behavior and Lung Cancer in a Biracial Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Prizment, Anna E.; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Lutsey, Pamela L.; Lubin, Jay H.; Woodward, Mark; Folsom, Aaron R.; Huxley, Rachel R.

    2014-01-01

    Background In the U.S., the incidence of lung cancer varies by race, with rates being highest among black men. There are marked differences in smoking behavior between blacks and whites, but little is known regarding how these differences contribute to the racial disparities in lung cancer. Purpose To compare the lung cancer risk associated with smoking in 14,610 blacks and whites in the prospective cohort Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. Methods Smoking characteristics were ascertained at baseline and three follow-up visits in 1990–1992, 1993–1995, and 1996–1998 (response rates were 93%, 86%, and 80%, respectively), as well as from annual telephone interviews. Data were analyzed in the fall of 2012. Multivariable-adjusted proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios and 95% CIs for lung cancer. Results Over 20 years of follow-up (1987–2006), 470 incident cases of lung cancer occurred. Lung cancer incident rates were highest in black men and lowest in black women. However, there was no evidence to support racial differences in the associations of smoking status, intensity, or age at initiation with lung cancer risk (all pinteraction≥0.25). The hazard ratio for those who started smoking at age ≤12 versus >22 years was 3.03 (95% CI=1.62, 5.67). Prolonged smoking cessation (≥10 years) was associated with a decrease in lung cancer risk, with equivalent benefits in whites and blacks, 84% and 74%, respectively (pinteraction=0.25). Conclusions Smoking confers similar lung cancer risk in blacks and whites. PMID:24842739

  5. Adolescence: booze, brains, and behavior.

    PubMed

    Monti, Peter M; Miranda, Robert; Nixon, Kimberly; Sher, Kenneth J; Swartzwelder, H Scott; Tapert, Susan F; White, Aaron; Crews, Fulton T

    2005-02-01

    This article represents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2004 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, organized and chaired by Peter M. Monti and Fulton T. Crews. The presentations and presenters were (1) Introduction, by Peter M. Monti; (2) Adolescent Binge Drinking Causes Life-Long Changes in Brain, by Fulton T. Crews and Kim Nixon; (3) Functional Neuroimaging Studies in Human Adolescent Drinkers, by Susan F. Tapert; (4) Abnormal Emotional Reactivity as a Risk Factor for Alcoholism, by Robert Miranda, Jr.; (5) Alcohol-Induced Memory Impairments, Including Blackouts, and the Changing Adolescent Brain, by Aaron M. White and H. Scott Swartzwelder; and (6) Discussion, by Kenneth Sher. PMID:15714044

  6. Pain intensity and smoking behavior among treatment seeking smokers.

    PubMed

    Bakhshaie, Jafar; Ditre, Joseph W; Langdon, Kirsten J; Asmundson, Gordon J G; Paulus, Daniel J; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-03-30

    Empirical evidence supporting the interplay between pain intensity and tobacco smoking has been growing. The current investigation advances this work in three important ways: (1) controlling for negative affectivity and gender; (2) examining pain intensity in smokers from a community sample, rather than specialized pain treatment centers; and, (3) studying smokers who are highly motivated to quit. Participants were adult smokers (N=112; 35% female; Mage=41.4, SD=13.1) participating in a larger study examining barriers to cessation during a self-guided quit attempt. At baseline, participants completed self-report measures on pain intensity and smoking severity outcomes. As hypothesized, more intense pain was significantly associated with all four smoking severity variables: years as a daily smoker, current cigarettes per day, cigarettes per day during the heaviest lifetime smoking period, and current level of nicotine dependence. These associations remained when taking into account the variance accounted for by gender and negative affectivity. These data provide evidence that more intense pain is related to more severe smoking behavior and nicotine dependence. Pain reduction could be an important target in regard to smokers with chronic pain.

  7. Smoking behavior and the efficacy of nurses as role models.

    PubMed

    Aucoin, R A

    1986-01-01

    The smoking cessation and prevention issue has not been addressed by nurses, the largest group of health care professionals in the nation (1.4 million currently licensed to practice). The World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control acknowledge smoking as the "single most preventable cause of poor health in the world," but not a solitary continuing medical education course of the 9,000 available in the United States in 1983 dealt with ways to resolve this issue. The women's movement has not addressed this cause, and nurses, a predominantly female population, continue to smoke in alarmingly large numbers, causing doubt as to nurses' effectiveness n teaching prevention or cessation. Nurses as role models could be crucial in effecting change in the smoking behavior of the general population, thereby eliminating or greatly reducing the health risk. There appears to be a significant need for more effective educational programs concerning the health hazards of smoking for all nurses and nursing students if the potential power of nursing leadership is to be realized in reducing mortality and morbidity from the number one killer in America.

  8. Prevention of smoking in adolescents with lower education: a school based intervention study

    PubMed Central

    Crone, M; Reijneveld, S; Willemsen, M; van Leerdam, F J M; Spruijt, R; Sing, R

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of an antismoking intervention focusing on adolescents in lower education. Students with lower education smoke more often and perceive more positive norms, and social pressure to smoke, than higher educated students. An intervention based on peer group pressure and social influence may therefore be useful to prevent smoking among these students. Design: Group randomised controlled trial. Setting: 26 Dutch schools that provided junior secondary education. Subjects: 1444 students in the intervention and 1118 students in the control group, all in the first grade, average age 13 years. Intervention: Three lessons on knowledge, attitudes, and social influence, followed by a class agreement not to start or to stop smoking for five months and a class based competition. Main outcome measures: Comparison of smoking status before and immediately after and one year after the intervention, using multilevel analysis. Results: In the intervention group, 9.6% of non-smokers started to smoke, in the control group 14.2%. This leads to an odds ratio of 0.61 (95% CI= 0.41 to 0.90) to uptake smoking in the intervention group compared with the control group. One year after the intervention, the effect was no longer significant. Conclusions: In the short-term, an intervention based on peer pressure decreases the proportion of adolescents with lower education who start smoking. Influencing social norms and peer pressure would therefore be a promising strategy in terms of preventing smoking among adolescents. The results also suggest that additional interventions in later years are needed to maintain the effect. PMID:12933772

  9. [Smoking behavior and alcohol drinking in students in a rural area of East Germany].

    PubMed

    Fuchs, R; Zirm, E; Uischner, C

    2001-06-01

    The present investigation ("Torgau Study") provides epidemiological information on a target population which in the past has hardly been in the focus of health promotion activities: the subgroup of children and adolescents of rural regions in Eastern Germany. A total survey was conducted that encompassed all classes from grade 6 to 10 of all schools in the district of Torgau (Saxony). Together, 5,925 students in the age range 12 to 16 years participated in this study (participation rate: 81.3%). The results provide a differentiated picture of their smoking behavior and alcohol use broken down by gender, school-type and grade. With respect to smoking the data show that the prevalence of regular smokers (i.e., daily smokers) in grade 10 is 41% in the Mittelschule (the school-type with a stronger vocational orientation) and 29% in the Gymnasium (the school-type with a university-preparatory curriculum). 51.9% of all students report that at least one parent smokes. There is a highly significant association between smoking status of the parents and smoking status of their children. The analysis of reasons for smoking highlight the stepwise transition into nicotine dependency from a psychological perspective. Most of the adolescents (about 80%) know about the dangers of passive smoking. However, with increasing age this knowledge loses its subjective relevance because dissonance-reducing strategies are applied ("doesn't matter"-attitude). Among girls, even in grade 10, there are almost no daily alcohol consumers (less than 1%); among boys in grade 10 the rate of daily alcohol users is about 8%. The rate of those 10th graders who consume alcoholic beverages at least once a week is however 30.6% (girls: 18.7%; boys: 44.2%). The longer the alcohol experience the more specific become the social and emotional motives for drinking. Altogether, the results suggest that efforts to prevent substance misuse in the rural regions of Eastern Germany are as necessary as in other

  10. Adolescents Engaging in Risky Sexual Behavior: Sexual Activity and Associated Behavioral Risk Factors in Bolivian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novilla, M. Lelinneth B.; Dearden, Kirk A.; Crookston, Benjamin T.; De La Cruz, Natalie; Hill, Susan; Torres, Scott B.

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence of risky sexual activities among Bolivian adolescents within the context of other behavioral factors that contribute to compromised health outcomes, unintended pregnancies, and sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS. Data was collected from 576 adolescents, 13-18 years of age, from six schools in La…

  11. Adolescent Temperament: Childhood Problem Precursors and Problem Behavior Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windle, Michael

    Interrelations between childhood behavior problems and adolescent temperament, and between adolescent temperament and problem behaviors, were studied. A sample of 311 adolescents with an average age of 15.7 years completed self-report measures regarding behavior problems before age 13, temperament, alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems,…

  12. Adolescent health behaviour and similarity-attraction: friends share smoking habits (really), but much else besides.

    PubMed

    Eiser, J R; Morgan, M; Gammage, P; Brooks, N; Kirby, R

    1991-12-01

    Smoking habits and related attitudes were assessed in a sample of 4059 11- to 16-year-olds who also identified their best friends from among their fellow respondents. Subjects' responses were directly collated with those of their friends and indicated a clear covariation of smoking status (controlling for sex and age) as anticipated from previous research in which adolescents have been asked to report on the smoking habits of their friends. Such covariation, however, was not specific to smoking habits, but generalized to related measures of attitude and normative beliefs, alcohol use, health locus of control, school performance, spending habits and socio-economic status. Similarities on these other attributes were much the same, whether or not friends shared each others' smoking habits. It is concluded that these data argue against a simplistic view of unidirectional 'peer group influence' and invite an interpretation of friendship choice based on multiple dimensions of similarity. PMID:1799862

  13. Adolescent health behaviour and similarity-attraction: friends share smoking habits (really), but much else besides.

    PubMed

    Eiser, J R; Morgan, M; Gammage, P; Brooks, N; Kirby, R

    1991-12-01

    Smoking habits and related attitudes were assessed in a sample of 4059 11- to 16-year-olds who also identified their best friends from among their fellow respondents. Subjects' responses were directly collated with those of their friends and indicated a clear covariation of smoking status (controlling for sex and age) as anticipated from previous research in which adolescents have been asked to report on the smoking habits of their friends. Such covariation, however, was not specific to smoking habits, but generalized to related measures of attitude and normative beliefs, alcohol use, health locus of control, school performance, spending habits and socio-economic status. Similarities on these other attributes were much the same, whether or not friends shared each others' smoking habits. It is concluded that these data argue against a simplistic view of unidirectional 'peer group influence' and invite an interpretation of friendship choice based on multiple dimensions of similarity.

  14. Enhancing self-report of adolescent smoking: the effects of bogus pipeline and anonymity.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jane; Parkinson, Lynne; Sanson-Fisher, Rob W; Walsh, Raoul A

    2008-10-01

    Adolescent smoking prevalence is usually assessed via self-complete questionnaires. However, concern has been expressed about the validity of such self-report. One approach to increase validity involves the threat of biological validation, known as the bogus pipeline method (BPL).This study aimed to assess the effects of BPL, using an expired air carbon monoxide monitor, and of questionnaire anonymity on student smoking self-report data. High school students (n=801) were randomly allocated to one of four conditions: anonymous questionnaire+BPL, named questionnaire+BPL, anonymous questionnaire without BPL and named questionnaire without BPL. Overall, 37% of students agreed that questionnaires were a good way to obtain honest answers. In a logistic regression analysis, students in the BPL condition had significantly higher odds of reporting weekly smoking (OR=1.83 95% CI 1.27-2.65) and monthly smoking (OR=1.66 95% CI 1.21-2.28) but not of lifetime smoking compared with non-BPL students. Students in the named questionnaire condition had a significantly higher odds of reporting lifetime smoking (OR=1.49 95% CI 1.08-2.04) compared with anonymous students. Studies assessing current smoking patterns in adolescents should consider incorporating a BPL method.

  15. Depressive symptoms and externalizing behaviors among Hispanic immigrant adolescents: Examining longitudinal effects of cultural stress.

    PubMed

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Schwartz, Seth J; Castillo, Linda G; Romero, Andrea J; Huang, Shi; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Unger, Jennifer B; Zamboanga, Byron L; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Lizzi, Karina M; Soto, Daniel W; Oshri, Assaf; Villamar, Juan Andres; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José

    2015-07-01

    This study examined longitudinal effects of cultural stress (a latent factor comprised of bicultural stress, ethnic discrimination, and negative context of reception) on depressive symptoms and a range of externalizing behaviors among recently (≤5 years in the U.S. at baseline) immigrated Hispanic adolescents. A sample of 302 adolescents (53% boys; mean age 14.51 years) completed baseline measures of perceived ethnic discrimination, bicultural stress, and perceived negative context of reception; and outcome measures of depressive symptoms, cigarette smoking, alcohol use, aggressive behavior, and rule-breaking behavior six months post-baseline. A path analysis indicated that higher cultural stress scores predicted higher levels of all outcomes. These effects were consistent across genders, but varied by study site. Specifically, higher cultural stress scores increased depressive symptoms among participants in Miami, but not in Los Angeles. Findings suggest that cultural stress is a clinically relevant predictor of depressive symptoms and externalizing behaviors among Hispanic immigrant adolescents. PMID:25899132

  16. Depressive symptoms and externalizing behaviors among Hispanic immigrant adolescents: Examining longitudinal effects of cultural stress.

    PubMed

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Schwartz, Seth J; Castillo, Linda G; Romero, Andrea J; Huang, Shi; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Unger, Jennifer B; Zamboanga, Byron L; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Lizzi, Karina M; Soto, Daniel W; Oshri, Assaf; Villamar, Juan Andres; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José

    2015-07-01

    This study examined longitudinal effects of cultural stress (a latent factor comprised of bicultural stress, ethnic discrimination, and negative context of reception) on depressive symptoms and a range of externalizing behaviors among recently (≤5 years in the U.S. at baseline) immigrated Hispanic adolescents. A sample of 302 adolescents (53% boys; mean age 14.51 years) completed baseline measures of perceived ethnic discrimination, bicultural stress, and perceived negative context of reception; and outcome measures of depressive symptoms, cigarette smoking, alcohol use, aggressive behavior, and rule-breaking behavior six months post-baseline. A path analysis indicated that higher cultural stress scores predicted higher levels of all outcomes. These effects were consistent across genders, but varied by study site. Specifically, higher cultural stress scores increased depressive symptoms among participants in Miami, but not in Los Angeles. Findings suggest that cultural stress is a clinically relevant predictor of depressive symptoms and externalizing behaviors among Hispanic immigrant adolescents.

  17. Depressive Symptoms and Externalizing Behaviors among Hispanic Immigrant Adolescents: Examining Longitudinal Effects of Cultural Stress

    PubMed Central

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Schwartz, Seth J.; Castillo, Linda G.; Romero, Andrea J.; Huang, Shi; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Lizzi, Karina M.; Soto, Daniel W.; Oshri, Assaf; Villamar, Juan Andres; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José

    2015-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal effects of cultural stress (a latent factor comprised of bicultural stress, ethnic discrimination, and negative context of reception) on depressive symptoms and a range of externalizing behaviors among recently (≤5 years in the U.S. at baseline) immigrated Hispanic adolescents. A sample of 302 adolescents (53% boys; mean age 14.51 years) completed baseline measures of perceived ethnic discrimination, bicultural stress, and perceived negative context of reception; and outcome measures of depressive symptoms, cigarette smoking, alcohol use, aggressive behavior, and rule-breaking behavior six months post-baseline. A path analysis indicated that higher cultural stress scores predicted higher levels of all outcomes. These effects were consistent across genders, but varied by study site. Specifically, higher cultural stress scores increased depressive symptoms among participants in Miami, but not in Los Angeles. Findings suggest that cultural stress is a clinically relevant predictor of depressive symptoms and externalizing behaviors among Hispanic immigrant adolescents. PMID:25899132

  18. Association of Smoking Onset With R-Rated Movie Restrictions and Adolescent Sensation Seeking

    PubMed Central

    Sargent, James D.; Stoolmiller, Mike; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Tanski, Susanne E.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In this study, we examined how often US youths reported having complete parental restrictions on watching R-rated movies. In addition, we assessed the relationship between parental R-rated movie restrictions and adolescents' sensation seeking and how this interplay is related to smoking onset. METHODS: Data from a 4-wave longitudinal study of 6522 adolescents (10–14 years of age) who were recruited through a random-digit-dial telephone survey were used. At baseline, subjects were nationally representative of the US population. Subjects were monitored for 2 years and queried about their smoking status, their sensation-seeking propensity, and how often they were allowed to watch R-rated movies. A cross-lagged model combined with survival analysis was used to assess the relationships between parental R-rated movie restrictions, sensation-seeking propensity, and risk for smoking onset. RESULTS: Findings demonstrated that 32% of the US adolescents reported being completely restricted from watching R-rated movies by their parents. Model findings revealed that adolescents' sensation seeking was related to greater risk for smoking onset not only directly but also indirectly through their parents becoming more permissive of R-rated movie viewing. Parental R-rated movie restrictions were found to decrease the risk of smoking onset directly and indirectly by changing children's sensation seeking. CONCLUSIONS: These findings imply that, beyond direct influences, the relationship between adolescents' sensation seeking and parental R-rated movie restrictions in explaining smoking onset is bidirectional in nature. Finally, these findings highlight the relevance of motivating and supporting parents in limiting access to R-rated movies. PMID:21135004

  19. Significant others, knowledge, and belief on smoking as factors associated with tobacco use in italian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cosci, Fiammetta; Zagà, Vincenzo; Bertoli, Giuly; Campiotti, Aquilele

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco use is dramatically increasing among youth. Growing attention has been addressed towards possible predictors of smoking in such a population. We evaluated a sample of Italian adolescents to verify whether adults and peers might influence their smoking status. Cross-sectional study was conducted in 16 schools of North Italy. Data were collected from 2001 to 2010 by means of a self-administered questionnaire on sociodemographic data and individual/social possible predictors of smoking. 2,444 students (56.7% boys; 43.3% girls; mean = 14.32 ± 1.384 years) were analysed. 607 (24.8%) were current smokers; 1,837 (75.2%) were nonsmokers. The presence of smokers in the family, seeing teachers who smoke, the influence of friends, and the feeling of inferiority were predictors of youth smoking as well as unawareness of nicotine dangerous action to health. Running the logistic multivariate analysis with all the variables listed above in the same model, the strongest predictors of smoking were as follows: being unaware that pipe/cigar is harmful to health as cigarettes; not knowing that passive smoking is harmful to the growth of children; having seen teachers smoking. The present findings help to identify the variables that might favour smoking in youth. Such variables should become the target of prevention programs.

  20. Getting a Puff: A Social Learning Test of Adolescents Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Jacquelyn

    2004-01-01

    This article is a description of a study that sought to examine the applicability of Ronald Akers' social learning theory. According to Akers' theory, differential associations with smokers, differential reinforcements for smoking, favorable definitions of smoking and the availability of role models (imitation) offer an explanation as to why…

  1. Coping Strategies Used by Adolescents during Smoking Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jannone, Laura; O'Connell, Kathleen A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine coping strategies used by teens as they attempted to quit smoking. The teens were attending a school-based cessation program titled "Quit 2 Win" that was offered in four high schools. This study examined situations in which teens were tempted to smoke. The study compares coping strategies teens reported in…

  2. Association of Various Components of Media Literacy and Adolescent Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primack, Brian A.; Hobbs, Renee

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine which specific aspects of media literacy were most strongly associated with smoking outcomes. Methods: Students at a public high school responded to cross-sectional survey items measuring smoking outcomes, components of media literacy, and other variables. Results: Of the 1211 participants, 19% were current smokers (N =…

  3. Adolescent Smoking Cessation: Development of a School Nurse Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Greg; O'Connell, Meghan; Cross, Donna

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of a range of strategies to engage and to enhance secondary school nurse involvement in teenage smoking prevention and cessation. School nurses were willing to assist students to quit smoking, but they felt unprepared. Information provided by nurses involved in a three-stage review,…

  4. Parental Work Schedules and Adolescent Risky Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Wen-Jui; Miller, Daniel P.; Waldfogel, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Using a large contemporary data set (the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Supplement), the authors examined the effects of parental work schedules on adolescent risky behaviors at age 13 or 14 and the mechanisms that might explain them. Structural equation modeling suggests mothers who worked more often at night spent significantly less…

  5. Adolescents' Sedentary Behaviors in Two European Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aibar Solana, Alberto; Bois, Julien E.; Zaragoza, Javier; Bru, Noëlle; Paillard, Thierry; Generelo, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine and compare the correlates of objective sedentary behavior (SB) and nonschool self-reported SB in adolescents from 2 midsized cities, 1 in France (Tarbes) and 1 in Spain (Huesca). Stability of objective SB and nonschool self-reported SB were also assessed at different time points during 1 academic…

  6. Treating Depression and Oppositional Behavior in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Rachel H.; Becker-Weidman, Emily G.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Jordan, Neil; Silva, Susan G.; Rohde, Paul; March, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Adolescents with depression and high levels of oppositionality often are particularly difficult to treat. Few studies, however, have examined treatment outcomes among youth with both externalizing and internalizing problems. This study examines the effect of fluoxetine, cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), the combination of fluoxetine and CBT, and…

  7. Adolescents' Behavior and Attitudes toward AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salehi, Saeed; And Others

    The need for effective programs to delay sexual activity and to educate adolescents regarding the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has never been greater. Statistics point out that a significant number of teenagers throughout the United States engage in behavior that increases their risks of becoming infected with HIV. This study examined…

  8. The effects of race/ethnicity, income, and family structure on adolescent risk behaviors.

    PubMed Central

    Blum, R W; Beuhring, T; Shew, M L; Bearinger, L H; Sieving, R E; Resnick, M D

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The study examined the unique and combined contributions of race/ethnicity, income, and family structure to adolescent cigarette smoking, alcohol use, involvement with violence, suicidal thoughts or attempts, and sexual intercourse. METHODS: Analyses were based on the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. A nationally representative sample of 7th to 12th graders participated in in-home interviews, as did a resident parent for 85.6% of the adolescent subjects. The final sample included 10,803 White, Black, and Hispanic 7th to 12th graders. RESULTS: White adolescents were more likely to smoke cigarettes, drink alcohol, and attempt suicide in the younger years than were Black and Hispanic youths. Black youths were more likely to have had sexual intercourse; both Black and Hispanic youths were more likely than White teens to engage in violence. Controlling for gender, race/ethnicity, income, and family structure together explained no more than 10% of the variance in each of the 5 risk behaviors among younger adolescents and no more than 7% among older youths. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that when taken together, race/ethnicity, income, and family structure provide only limited understanding of adolescent risk behaviors. PMID:11111260

  9. Emotional intelligence and prosocial behaviors in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Charbonneau, Danielle; Nicol, Adelheid A M

    2002-04-01

    The relationship between emotional intelligence and prosocial behaviors and sex differences in 134 adolescents involved in a 6-wk. training camp run by the military was investigated. They were asked to evaluate themselves on emotional intelligence and randomly chosen peers evaluated them on prosocial behaviors, indicated by organizational citizenship behaviors, a measure used in work organizations. Ratings of emotional intelligence significantly correlated with scores on two of the five organizational citizenship behavior factors: Altruism (r = .25, p < .01) and Civic virtue (r = .24, p < .01). The girls scored somewhat, but not significantly, higher than the boys on Emotional Intelligence, Altruism, Conscientiousness, and Civic virtue, an observation which might be explored further. PMID:12061571

  10. [Self-destructive behavior in African adolescents].

    PubMed

    Sylla, A; Ndiaye, M; Sylla, O; Gueye, M

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze self-destructive behavior in adolescents in Senegal. Based on four case reports the authors stress the central importance of family breakdown in the process leading to this behavior as opposed to the first descriptions implicating an offense against the honor of the group. The vulnerability of teenagers in the absence of structural initiation is also advanced. Systematic intervention may be recommended in such cases.

  11. INFLUENCE OF PERCEIVED RISK OF SMOKING AND SECOND-HAND SMOKE ON SELF-REGULATORY BEHAVIOR AMONG PREGNANT TAIWANESE WOMEN.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ming-Cheng; Chou, Feng-Sha; Wang, Chih-Chien; Yang, Yann-Jy

    2015-11-01

    Tobacco use is a global health problem, including in Taiwan. The present study evaluated the perceived risk of smoking and second-hand smoke among pregnant Taiwanese women using a questionnaire. Seven hundred twenty-four pregnant Taiwanese women were recruited from an online parenting community using convenience sampling in 2013. Pregnant smokers and non-smokers had significantly different perceptions regarding risk of smoking and second-hand smoke during pregnancy. Pregnant non-smokers adopted more behaviors to avoid second-hand smoke both at home and in public than pregnant smokers. We conclude that perceived fetal health risks from smoking and second-hand smoke influenced maternal behavior during pregnancy. Pregnant women's perceptions of the risk of tobacco smoke depended on whether their focus in the decision-making process was on prevention or promotion. Understanding the risk factors associated with smoking and exposure to second-hand smoke during pregnancy may help in developing strategies to reduce such exposure. PMID:26867368

  12. Adolescent Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors: A Developmental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.; Reznik, Yana

    2009-01-01

    Understanding adolescents' attitudes regarding sexual behavior is key to understanding why they choose to engage or not engage in sex, which sexual behavior(s) they initiate and continue, and the outcomes experienced during and following sexual behavior. This article briefly explores adolescent sexual behavior, positive and negative outcomes…

  13. Ratings of Behavior Problems in Adolescents Hospitalized for Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Carolyn L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examined usefulness of Devereux Adolescent Behavior Rating Scale (DAB) for assessing behavior problems in adolescents (n=404) hospitalized in inpatient substance abuse treatment units. From 15 original DAB scales, developed 4 scales measuring acting out behaviors, psychotic behaviors, attention-seeking/expressive behaviors, and inner…

  14. Cigarette Smoking and Indicators of Psychosocial Distress in Southeast Asian and Central-Eastern European Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; Zarco, Emilia Patricia T.; Ihasz, Ferenc; Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn; Uvacsek, Martina; Mei-Lee, Ching; Miao, Nae-Fang; Simonek, Jaromir; Klarova, Renata; Hantiu, Iacob; Kalabiska, Iren

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of cigarette smoking and 2 indicators of psychosocial distress (hopelessness and loneliness) among adolescents from 2 distinctly different regions of the world: Central-Eastern Europe (Hungary, Ukraine, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Romania, Poland) and Southeast Asia (Thailand, Taiwan, and the…

  15. Examining Ethnic Differences in Predictors of Female Adolescent Smoking in Rural Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Angela J.; Shettler, Lauren; Matheson, Jennifer L.; Meszaros, Peggy S.; Piercy, Fred P.; Davis, Sean D.

    2006-01-01

    We examined the salience of multiple ecological factors (individual, family, peer, school, and community) as differential predictors of smoking for adolescent African-Americans and Whites in a sample of 2,029 7th-12th grade girls from a Mid-Atlantic southeastern state. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that significant predictors of…

  16. Factors Influencing Agreement between Self-Reports and Biological Measures of Smoking among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolcini, M. Margaret; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Reviews 28 studies comparing adolescent self-report of smoking with biological indicators. Identifies four factors limiting agreement: biases in self-report due to limitations of biological measures; limitations of self-report measures; social desirability; and analytic and statistical issues. Concludes that, with optimal measurement, self-report…

  17. After-School Supervision, Psychosocial Impact, and Adolescent Smoking and Alcohol Use in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Jie Wu; Liu, Ipei; Sussman, Steve; Palmer, Paula; Unger, Jennifer B.; Cen, Steven; Chou, Chih-Ping; Johnson, Anderson

    2006-01-01

    We examined effects of self-care after school hours and psychosocial factors on cigarette smoking and alcohol use among adolescents in China. Survey data were obtained from 4734 7th and 11th grade students from seven cities across China. Students were queried about the frequency and quantity of unsupervised self-care after school in an average…

  18. A Review of Motivational Smoking Cessation Programs for Adolescents in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Leigh; McClain, Mary-Catherine; Hurst, Vicie; Grossman, Steffanie; Dehili, Vincent; Flagg, Scott; Marshall, Diana; Prevatt, Frances

    2012-01-01

    This review provides a qualitative overview of school-based smoking cessation programs for adolescents, with a focus on motivationally based programs. Project-Ex and Not-On-Tobacco are two heavily studied interventions with substantial empirical support. Other programs such as use of Motivational Interviewing with the stage of change model have…

  19. Prevalence and Psychosocial Correlates of Current Smoking among Adolescent Students in Thailand, 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKnight-Eily, Lela; Arrazola, Rene; Merritt, Robert; Malarcher, Ann; Sirichotiratana, Nithat

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the prevalence of current smoking and associated psychosocial correlates and whether these correlates differ by sex among adolescent students in Thailand. Data were analyzed from the Thailand Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), a school-based, cross-sectional survey conducted in 2005 and completed by Mathayom 1, 2, and 3…

  20. Testing a Conceptual Model Related to Weight Perceptions, Physical Activity and Smoking in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Bercovitz, Kim; Rhodes, Ryan E.; Loucaides, Constantinos A.; Karunamuni, Nandini

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a conceptual model based on theoretical and empirically supported relationships related to the influences of weight perceptions, weight concerns, desires to change weight, friends, age and location in relation to physical activity (PA) and smoking in adolescents. A total of 1242 males and 1446 females (mean…

  1. The Relationship between Smoker Role Models and Intentions to Smoke among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiium, Nora; Breivik, Kyrre; Wold, Bente

    2006-01-01

    The study examines how adolescents' perceptions of exposure to smoker role models relate to their intentions to smoke, both directly, and indirectly through attitudes, norms, and perceived behavioural control. The data is based on a national representative sample of 15-year-olds (n=1670) in Norway. Path analysis indicates that perceptions of model…

  2. A Contest to Create Media Messages Aimed at Recruiting Adolescents for Stop Smoking Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croghan, Ivana T.; Campbell, Heather M.; Patten, Christi A.; Croghan, Gary A.; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Novotny, Paul J.

    2004-01-01

    This project engaged adolescents in a contest to create advertising messages aimed at recruiting teens for stop smoking programs. Middle school students were invited to design a media message for television, radio, Web, or print (newspaper or billboard). 0f 4,289 students in eight middle schools of Rochester, Minn., 265 (6.2%) developed 172 stop…

  3. Smoking and Alcohol Drinking Related to Experience of Harmful Shops among Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinyoung; Sohn, Aeree

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted in order to determine any correlation between experience of harmful shops and adolescent smoking and alcohol drinking in middle and high school students. Methods The survey was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire online via the homepage of the Ministry of Education student Health Information Center; 1888 and 1563 questionnaires were used for middle and high school students, respectively, for a total of 3451 questionnaires in the final analysis. The collected data were processed using SPSS version 21.0 and examined using frequency analysis and hierarchical linear regression. Results In this research, 8.3% of all participants were found to have experienced smoking and 17.0% alcohol drinking. Regarding the types of harmful shops, 81.8% said they had been to a gaming place; 21.2% to a lodging place; 16.0% to a sex and entertainment place; and 6.8% to a harmful sex industry location. Sociodemographic variables had a significant effect on adolescent smoking and alcohol drinking. Regarding environmental variables, a significant difference was observed for living with parents and school location. Among adolescent experience of harmful shops, both smoking and alcohol drinking showed a significant association with harmful sex industry locations. Conclusion National government-level management and supervision on this issue will be necessary to prevent adolescent access to harmful shops, along with more studies exploring methods for implementation of policies with more systematic control of harmful shops. PMID:25180146

  4. The Role of Family, Religiosity, and Behavior in Adolescent Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, David M.; Williams, Robert J.; Mossiere, Annik M.; Schopflocher, Donald P.; el-Guebaly, Nady; Hodgins, David C.; Smith, Garry J.; Wood, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    Predictors of adolescent gambling behavior were examined in a sample of 436 males and females (ages 13-16). A biopsychosocial model was used to identify key variables that differentiate between non-gambling and gambling adolescents. Logistic regression found that, as compared to adolescent male non-gamblers, adolescent male gamblers were older,…

  5. Seasonal variations in the initiation of smoking among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Colwell, Brian; Ramirez, Nicolas; Koehly, Laura; Stevens, Stacey; Smith, Dennis W; Creekmur, Shannon

    2006-04-01

    Numerous studies have identified a variety of reasons that youths give for starting smoking. Few efforts have been made, however, to identify seasonal variations in initiation. This study was an attempt to fill that void. We examined data from 342 youths participating in a mandated smoking education and cessation program in Texas. Data were collected based on responses to questions in participant workbooks, including an item asking participants about the month in which they started smoking. A total of 47% of the participants indicated that they started smoking in May through August (chi2 = 91.42, df = 3). Post-hoc analyses indicated that significantly more youths than expected began smoking in May and June, whereas significantly fewer youths than expected began smoking in September and November. Unsupervised time out of school during the first months of summer vacation is a period of increased danger for smoking initiation. The significantly lower rates during September seem to be related to the beginning of school.

  6. Acute behavioral interventions and outpatient treatment strategies with suicidal adolescents

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Kimberly H. McManama; Singer, Jonathan B.; LeCloux, Mary; Duarté-Vélez, Yovanska; Spirito, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors among adolescents, there is limited knowledge of effective interventions to use with this population. This paper reviews the findings of studies on behavioral interventions for adolescents who are at acute suicide risk, as well as outpatient treatment and risk management strategies with suicidal adolescents. The importance of addressing comorbid behaviors and enhancing protective factors are discussed. Cultural considerations in working with suicidal adolescents and strategies for conducting culturally competent treatment are explored. PMID:26279646

  7. Adolescent Suicide and Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Goldstein, Tina R.; Brent, David A.

    2006-01-01

    This review examines the descriptive epidemiology, and risk and protective factors for youth suicide and suicidal behavior. A model of youth suicidal behavior is articulated, whereby suicidal behavior ensues as a result of an interaction of socio-cultural, developmental, psychiatric, psychological, and family-environmental factors. On the basis of…

  8. Does neighborhood social cohesion modify the relationship between neighborhood social norms and smoking behaviors in Mexico?

    PubMed

    Lozano, Paula; Fleischer, Nancy L; Moore, Spencer; Shigematsu, Luz Myriam Reynales; Santillán, Edna Arillo; Thrasher, James F

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the separate and combined relationships of neighborhood social norms and neighborhood social cohesion with smoking behavior in a cohort of adult Mexican smokers. Neighborhood anti-smoking norms were measured as the proportion of residents in each neighborhood who believed that society disapproves of smoking. Perceived social cohesion was measured using a 5-item cohesion scale and aggregated to the neighborhood level. Higher neighborhood anti-smoking norms were associated with less successful quitting. Neighborhood social cohesion modified the relationship between neighborhood social norms and two smoking behaviors: smoking intensity and quit attempts. Residents of neighborhoods with weaker anti-smoking norms and higher social cohesion had lower smoking intensity and more quit attempts than residents living in other areas. Social cohesion may help buffer smoking behavior in areas with weak social norms. PMID:27318174

  9. Does neighborhood social cohesion modify the relationship between neighborhood social norms and smoking behaviors in Mexico?

    PubMed

    Lozano, Paula; Fleischer, Nancy L; Moore, Spencer; Shigematsu, Luz Myriam Reynales; Santillán, Edna Arillo; Thrasher, James F

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the separate and combined relationships of neighborhood social norms and neighborhood social cohesion with smoking behavior in a cohort of adult Mexican smokers. Neighborhood anti-smoking norms were measured as the proportion of residents in each neighborhood who believed that society disapproves of smoking. Perceived social cohesion was measured using a 5-item cohesion scale and aggregated to the neighborhood level. Higher neighborhood anti-smoking norms were associated with less successful quitting. Neighborhood social cohesion modified the relationship between neighborhood social norms and two smoking behaviors: smoking intensity and quit attempts. Residents of neighborhoods with weaker anti-smoking norms and higher social cohesion had lower smoking intensity and more quit attempts than residents living in other areas. Social cohesion may help buffer smoking behavior in areas with weak social norms.

  10. Randomized Controlled Trial of Behavioral Activation Smoking Cessation Treatment for Smokers with Elevated Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPherson, Laura; Tull, Matthew T.; Matusiewicz, Alexis K.; Rodman, Samantha; Strong, David R.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Hopko, Derek R.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Brown, Richard A.; Lejuez, C. W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Depressive symptoms are associated with poor smoking cessation outcomes, and there remains continued interest in behavioral interventions that simultaneously target smoking and depressive symptomatology. In this pilot study, we examined whether a behavioral activation treatment for smoking (BATS) can enhance cessation outcomes. Method:…

  11. Maternal Smoking before and after Pregnancy: Effects on Behavioral Outcomes in Middle Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergusson, David M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined the extent to which maternal smoking before and after pregnancy was associated with disruptive behaviors in childhood. When confounding factors were removed, found that maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with a small but statistically detectable increase in problem behaviors. Smoking after pregnancy was not associated with…

  12. Randomized Controlled Trial for Behavioral Smoking and Weight Control Treatment: Effect of Concurrent Versus Sequential Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spring, Bonnie; Pagoto, Sherry; Pingitore, Regina; Doran, Neal; Schneider, Kristin; Hedeker, Don

    2004-01-01

    The authors compared simultaneous versus sequential approaches to multiple health behavior change in diet, exercise, and cigarette smoking. Female regular smokers (N = 315) randomized to 3 conditions received 16 weeks of behavioral smoking treatment, quit smoking at Week 5, and were followed for 9 months after quit date. Weight management was…

  13. Exposure of Secondary School Adolescents from Argentina and Mexico to Smoking Scenes in Movies: a Population-based Estimation

    PubMed Central

    SALGADO, MARÍA V.; PÉREZ, ADRIANA; ABAD-VIVERO, ERIKA N.; THRASHER, JAMES F.; SARGENT, JAMES D.; MEJÍA, RAÚL

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking scenes in movies promote adolescent smoking onset; thus, the analysis of the number of images of smoking in movies really reaching adolescents has become a subject of increasing interest. Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the level of exposure to images of smoking in movies watched by adolescents in Argentina and Mexico. Methods First-year secondary school students from Argentina and Mexico were surveyed. One hundred highest-grossing films from each year of the period 2009-2013 (Argentina) and 2010-2014 (Mexico) were analyzed. Each participant was assigned a random sample of 50 of these movies and was asked if he/she had watched them. The total number of adolescents who had watched each movie in each country was estimated and was multiplied by the number of smoking scenes (occurrences) in each movie to obtain the number of gross smoking impressions seen by secondary school adolescents from each country. Results Four-hundred and twenty-two movies were analyzed in Argentina and 433 in Mexico. Exposure to more than 500 million smoking impressions was estimated for adolescents in each country, averaging 128 and 121 minutes of smoking scenes seen by each Argentine and Mexican adolescent, respectively. Although 15, 16 and 18-rated movies had more smoking scenes in average, movies rated for younger teenagers were responsible for the highest number of smoking scenes watched by the students (67.3% in Argentina and 54.4% in Mexico) due to their larger audience. Conclusion At the population level, movies aimed at children are responsible for the highest tobacco burden seen by adolescents. PMID:27354756

  14. CIGARETTE SMOKING BEHAVIOR AMONG SOUTH AFRICAN INDIAN HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS

    PubMed Central

    Bayat, Mahomed; Pillay, Basil J.; Cassimjee, Mohammed H.

    1998-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of cigarette smoking behavior (CSB) in a sample of Indian matriculation students. Methodology: All (N=325) Indian matriculation students, at high schools, in Northern Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa, were included in the study. A questionnaire was administered to assess knowledge, attitudes and practice of CSB. Results and conclusion: The study showed a prevalence of 16.9%. Most smokers (98.2%) had commenced the practice after the age of 10 years. The most common reason given for CSB was experimentation (83.6%). Main influence was family members followed by teachers and advertisements. The association between smoking and lung cancer was well-known by smokers (90.7%). There was very little awareness of anti-smoking programmes or organizations. Alarmingly, there was little formal health education on the dangers of smoking in schools. The implications of these results are discussed and recommendations on decreasing CSB are made. PMID:23008583

  15. Three-month effects of Project EX: A smoking intervention pilot program with Thai adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chansatitporn, Natkamol; Charoenca, Naowarut; Sidhu, Anupreet; Lapvongwatana, Punyarat; Kungskulniti, Nipapun; Sussman, Steve

    2016-10-01

    Adolescent smoking is a major public health problem around the world, including Thailand. The current study provides a three-month follow-up evaluation of the Project EX tobacco use cessation program among Thai adolescents. The intervention was tested involving a quasi-experimental trial with 185 smokers, with two program and two control condition schools (within each condition, one school in Bangkok Province and one school in Nakhon Pathom Province). At 3-month follow-up, the intent-to-treat (ITT) quit rate was 23% in the program group and 11% in the standard care control group (p<0.02). The intervention also lowered the level of last 30-day smoking at follow-up among persons who did not quit in the program condition, while no change in level of smoking was reported in the control condition. These results are promising for teen tobacco use cessation programming in Thailand.

  16. Does Smoking Intervention Influence Adolescent Substance Use Disorder Treatment Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Mark G.; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2008-01-01

    Although tobacco use is reported by the majority of substance use disordered (SUD) youth, little work has examined tobacco focused interventions with this population. The present study is an initial investigation of the effect of a tobacco use intervention on adolescent SUD treatment outcomes. Participants were adolescents in SUD treatment taking…

  17. Association of neurexin 3 polymorphisms with smoking behavior.

    PubMed

    Docampo, E; Ribasés, M; Gratacòs, M; Bruguera, E; Cabezas, C; Sánchez-Mora, C; Nieva, G; Puente, D; Argimon-Pallàs, J M; Casas, M; Rabionet, R; Estivill, X

    2012-08-01

    The Neurexin 3 gene (NRXN3) has been associated with dependence on various addictive substances, as well as with the degree of smoking in schizophrenic patients and impulsivity among tobacco abusers. To further evaluate the role of NRXN3 in nicotine addiction, we analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a copy number variant (CNV) within the NRXN3 genomic region. An initial study was carried out on 157 smokers and 595 controls, all of Spanish Caucasian origin. Nicotine dependence was assessed using the Fagerström index and the number of cigarettes smoked per day. The 45 NRXN3 SNPs genotyped included all the SNPs previously associated with disease, and a previously described deletion within NRXN3. This analysis was replicated in 276 additional independent smokers and 568 controls. Case-control association analyses were performed at the allele, genotype and haplotype levels. Allelic and genotypic association tests showed that three NRXN3 SNPs were associated with a lower risk of being a smoker. The haplotype analysis showed that one block of 16 Kb, consisting of two of the significant SNPs (rs221473 and rs221497), was also associated with lower risk of being a smoker in both the discovery and the replication cohorts, reaching a higher level of significance when the whole sample was considered [odds ratio = 0.57 (0.42-0.77), permuted P = 0.0075]. By contrast, the NRXN3 CNV was not associated with smoking behavior. Taken together, our results confirm a role for NRXN3 in susceptibility to smoking behavior, and strongly implicate this gene in genetic vulnerability to addictive behaviors.

  18. Effect of the exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood on the body mass index until adolescence.

    PubMed

    Muraro, Ana Paula; Gonçalves-Silva, Regina Maria Veras; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Silva, Gulnar Azevedo E; Sichieri, Rosely

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Investigate the effect of exposure to smoking during pregnancy and early childhood on changes in the body mass index (BMI) from birth to adolescence. METHODS A population-based cohort of children (0-5 years old) from Cuiabá, Midwest Brazil, was assessed in 1999-2000 (n = 2,405). Between 2009 and 2011, the cohort was re-evaluated. Information about birth weight was obtained from medical records, and exposure to smoking during pregnancy and childhood was assessed at the first interview. Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate the association between exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and preschool age, and the body mass index of children at birth, childhood and adolescence. RESULTS Only 11.3% of the mothers reported smoking during pregnancy, but most of them (78.2%) also smoked during early childhood. Among mothers who smoked only during pregnancy (n = 59), 97.7% had smoked only in the first trimester. The changes in body mass index at birth and in childhood were similar for children exposed and those not exposed to maternal smoking. However, from childhood to adolescence the rate of change in the body mass index was higher among those exposed only during pregnancy than among those who were not exposed. CONCLUSIONS Exposure to smoking only during pregnancy, especially in the first trimester, seems to affect changes in the body mass index until adolescence, supporting guidelines that recommend women of childbearing age to stop smoking.

  19. Effect of the exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood on the body mass index until adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Muraro, Ana Paula; Gonçalves-Silva, Regina Maria Veras; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Silva, Gulnar Azevedo e; Sichieri, Rosely

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Investigate the effect of exposure to smoking during pregnancy and early childhood on changes in the body mass index (BMI) from birth to adolescence. METHODS A population-based cohort of children (0-5 years old) from Cuiabá, Midwest Brazil, was assessed in 1999-2000 (n = 2,405). Between 2009 and 2011, the cohort was re-evaluated. Information about birth weight was obtained from medical records, and exposure to smoking during pregnancy and childhood was assessed at the first interview. Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate the association between exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and preschool age, and the body mass index of children at birth, childhood and adolescence. RESULTS Only 11.3% of the mothers reported smoking during pregnancy, but most of them (78.2%) also smoked during early childhood. Among mothers who smoked only during pregnancy (n = 59), 97.7% had smoked only in the first trimester. The changes in body mass index at birth and in childhood were similar for children exposed and those not exposed to maternal smoking. However, from childhood to adolescence the rate of change in the body mass index was higher among those exposed only during pregnancy than among those who were not exposed. CONCLUSIONS Exposure to smoking only during pregnancy, especially in the first trimester, seems to affect changes in the body mass index until adolescence, supporting guidelines that recommend women of childbearing age to stop smoking. PMID:26247384

  20. Tobacco smoking and depressed mood in late childhood and early adolescence.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, L T; Anthony, J C

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study builds on previous observations about a suspected causal association linking tobacco smoking with depression. With prospective data, the study sheds new light on the temporal sequencing of tobacco smoking and depressed mood in late childhood and early adolescence. METHODS: The epidemiologic sample that was studied consisted of 1731 youths (aged 8-9 to 13-14 years) attending public schools in a mid-Atlantic metropolitan area, who were assessed at least twice from 1989 to 1994. A survival analysis was used to examine the temporal relationship from antecedent tobacco smoking to subsequent onset of depressed mood, as well as from antecedent depressed mood to subsequent initiation of tobacco use. RESULTS: Tobacco smoking signaled a modestly increased risk for the subsequent onset of depressed mood, but antecedent depressed mood was not associated with a later risk of starting to smoke tobacco cigarettes. CONCLUSIONS: This evidence is consistent with a possible causal link from tobacco smoking to later depressed mood in late childhood and early adolescence, but not vice versa. PMID:10589312

  1. Genetic Sensitivity to Peer Behaviors: "5HTTLPR", Smoking, and Alcohol Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daw, Jonathan; Shanahan, Michael; Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Smolen, Andrew; Haberstick, Brett; Boardman, Jason D.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate whether the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region ("5HTTLPR"), a gene associated with environmental sensitivity, moderates the association between smoking and drinking patterns at adolescents' schools and their corresponding risk for smoking and drinking themselves. Drawing on the school-based design of the National…

  2. Socioeconomic Differences in Smoking Behaviour among Adolescents: The Role of Academic Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagquist, Curt

    2000-01-01

    Explores the issue of socioeconomic differences in Swedish 9th graders' smoking behavior, using academic orientation as an indicator of social position. Finds that students who have applied for non-theoretical programs in high school are more likely to smoke than those who have applied to theoretical programs. Findings pose implications for…

  3. How Do Friends Influence Smoking Uptake? Findings from Qualitative Interviews with Identical Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Kim; White, Victoria; Mullins, Robyn; Davey, Claire; Wakefield, Melanie; Hill, David

    2008-01-01

    The smoking behavior of friends is a major risk factor for adolescent smoking uptake. To explore the social context of smoking experimentation and consolidation with a particular focus on friends, the authors interviewed both members of 14 young adult identical twin pairs who were discordant for smoking. The different smoking status of twins was…

  4. Health Promotion and Risk Behaviors among Adolescents in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortabag, Tulay; Ozdemir, Serpil; Bakir, Bilal; Tosun, Nuran

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents experience the onset and development of several health-related behaviors. The purpose of this study is to determine health risk and promotion behaviors of adolescents between the ages of 11 and 19 who were attending and to test the reliability and validity analysis of the Turkish version of Adolescent Health Promotion Scale (AHPS). The…

  5. Impact of nicotine replacement therapy on smoking behavior.

    PubMed

    Cummings, K Michael; Hyland, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    This review summarizes evidence pertaining to the role of nicotine medications in smoking cessation and focuses particularly on evaluating evidence of the impact that nicotine replacement therapies (NRT) have had on altering population trends in smoking behavior. Accumulated evidence from controlled clinical trials has demonstrated that available forms of NRT (e.g., gum, transdermal patch, nasal spray, inhaler, and lozenge) increase quit rates compared with placebos by 50%-100%. However, despite the positive results from these studies, fewer than one in five smokers making a quit attempt do so with the benefit of NRT. Because not enough smokers are using NRT, the availability of NRT has not had a measurable impact on influencing population trends in smoking behavior. Among the factors contributing to the low utilization of nicotine medications are the inadequacies of the current dosage strengths and formulations of existing medications, smokers' perceptions of the high cost of the drugs, and concerns that many smokers have about safety and efficacy of nicotine medications. PMID:15760302

  6. A Possible Genetic Link between MTHFR Genotype and Smoking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Linnebank, Michael; Moskau, Susanna; Semmler, Alexander; Hoefgen, Barbara; Bopp, Gisela; Kallweit, Ulf; Maier, Wolfgang; Schütz, Christian G.; Wüllner, Ullrich

    2012-01-01

    Background Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for stroke and other vascular events. The variant methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T is associated with elevated homocysteine levels, cardiovascular disease and stroke, which supports a causal relationship between hyperhomocysteinemia and vascular disease. However, MTHFR variants have also been reported to be associated with smoking behavior, which could be an important confounder. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed the MTHFR variants C677T and A1298C in two independent samples of 525 and 535 individuals, respectively. 21% of the non-smokers, but only 12% of the smokers were homozygous carriers of both MTHFR wildtype alleles, i.e. 677CC and 1298AA (Chi2 = 15.8; p<0.001; binary regression). Plasma homocysteine levels were higher in smokers (13.9±4.1 µmol/L) than in non-smokers (12.6±4.0 µmol/L; F = 11.4; p = 0.001; ANOVA). Smoking MTHFR 677TT individuals had the highest plasma homocysteine levels (16.2±5.2 µmol/L), non-smoking 677CC individuals had the lowest (12.2±13.6 µmol/L). Conclusions/Significance In our study samples, MTHFR variants and smoking behaviour were associated with homocysteine plasma levels. In addition, the MTHFR variants were associated with smoking behaviour. Such an association may be a relevant confounder between MTHFR variants, homocysteine plasma levels and vascular diseases. PMID:23285280

  7. Elucidating Early Mechanisms of Developmental Psychopathology: The Case of Prenatal Smoking and Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Pine, Daniel S.; Pickett, Kate E.; Carter, Alice S.

    2006-01-01

    There is a robust association between prenatal smoking and disruptive behavior disorders, but little is known about the emergence of such behaviors in early development. The association of prenatal smoking and hypothesized behavioral precursors to disruptive behavior in toddlers (N=93) was tested. Exposed toddlers demonstrated atypical behavioral…

  8. Adolescent sexual health behavior in Thailand: implications for prevention of cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Saranrittichai, Kesinee; Sritanyarat, Wanapa; Ayuwat, Dusadee

    2006-01-01

    Since adolescents are now engaging in sexual activity in their early years, sexual behavior needs to be explored to prevent contact with HPVs and other sexually transmitted diseases (STD), including cervical cancer. This qualitative study aimed to explore this question from adolescents' view points in their natural context. The participants were 19 individuals aged 13-19 years living in rural families in Khon Kaen province, Thailand. The preliminary findings indicated that factors contributing to low sexual risk behavior were helping family to do housework, an emphasis on learning, listening to parents, and following their advice. Adolescent behavior leading to high sexual risk included being very close to friends, having a wide social circle, going out for enjoyment at night time, returning home late at night, drinking alcohol, smoking, paying less attention to learning, not listening to parents, and not following their advice. Adolescent sexual behavior was found to comprise: 1) sexual activities themselves; 2) non-disclosure of having sex; and 3) protective behavior. Sexual activities were ranked from low risk to high risk of sexual health. Low risk included having a steady boy/girlfriend, hugging, and kissing. High risk sexual behavior featured unprotected sex, abuse or rape, and abortion. Important influences were: eagerness to learn and try to have sex, mens' sexual desire, peer group value of having sex, and material value. The adolescents demonstrated no willingness to disclose having a boy/girl friend, having sex and negative consequences like becoming pregnant. Sexual protective behavior was up to males, whether they were willing to use a condom, with females having little power to negotiate. The study suggests that inappropriate adolescent risk behavior and social values need to be a focus of attention for education. In particular, families need to take action by early detection of adolescent sexual risk behavior. PMID:17250438

  9. Atrial fibrillation in a healthy adolescent after heavy smoking of contraband cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Ozyilmaz, Isa; Ozyilmaz, Sinem; Tosun, Oyku; Tola, Hasan Tahsin; Saygi, Murat; Ergul, Yakup

    2015-08-01

    The use of contraband cigarettes is a serious public health problem. We present a case of atrial fibrillation in a healthy adolescent suspected to be caused by smoking contraband cigarettes. A 15-year-old man was admitted to our emergency department experiencing syncope and palpitations. He was a cigarette smoker, but he had never smoked any illicit tobacco products before. He had finished a pack of counterfeit cigarettes (20 pieces) in 1.5 h. His electrocardiogram showed atrial fibrillation with a rapid ventricular response and irregular RR intervals. The patient had no history of alcohol use, surgery, palpitations, hypertension, chronic bronchitis, or any infectious diseases. His atrial fibrillation was converted to a normal sinus rhythm after the cardioversion treatment. Our patient was discharged from the pediatric cardiology service and advised to quit smoking cigarettes, strictly warning against illicit tobacco products. In conclusion, intensive smoking of counterfeit cigarettes may lead to occurrences of atrial fibrillation.

  10. A prospective test of distal and proximal determinants of smoking initiation in early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, Scott C; Granillo, Teresa M

    2006-04-01

    This study tests a broad array of determinants of utility for developing smoking preventive interventions using a population-based cohort of early adolescents. Multivariable logistic regressions using never-smokers at baseline (N=1137; age 11-14) showed a model of distal determinants was more predictive of initiation within the approximate 10 month follow up period than one of proximal determinants. When all determinants were simultaneously considered, lesser academic achievement and fewer environmental impediments to smoking most strongly predicted initiation. The findings are consistent with some current smoking prevention programs, however such programs may be further potent by using theory-based social development approaches and through reducing tobacco availability or social contexts where youth can smoke without another adult knowing.

  11. Preventing smoking in children and adolescents: Recommendations for practice and policy

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Johanne; Chadi, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Canada has witnessed a general decrease in smoking prevalence among all age groups in recent years. However, despite large numbers of campaigns and interventions, thousands of young Canadians continue to initiate cigarette smoking every year. The increasing popularity of alternative tobacco products and e-cigarettes is also creating new health challenges. Research has shown that the deleterious effects of nicotine and cigarette smoke are significant and long lasting. Health care professionals have key responsibilities in preventing tobacco use among youth and their families, and need to know more about effective smoking prevention and cessation strategies. Clinicians need to integrate tobacco counselling into health assessments of teenagers and be aware of the roles that families, communities and governments can play in promoting tobacco-free environments. Information, effective strategies and opportunities for health care professionals to intervene and advocate for Canadian adolescents are discussed. PMID:27429575

  12. Combined analysis of CHRNA5, CHRNA3 and CYP2A6 in relation to adolescent smoking behaviour.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Santiago; Cook, Derek G; Gaunt, Tom R; Nightingale, Claire M; Whincup, Peter H; Day, Ian Nm

    2011-07-01

    CYP2A6 influences smoking uptake in adolescence. Genetic variation in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3 region influences smoking behaviour in adults. However, their combined effects on smoking in adolescence have not been tested to date. We present data on 1450 adolescents from the Ten Towns Heart Health Study (TTHHS) extensively phenotyped for smoking-related traits during adolescence. Single nucleotide polymorphisms from CHRNA5 and CHRNA3 (previously associated with smoking), were typed in our study population, previously genotyped for CYP2A6. Association analyses between each genotype and both smoking status and behavioural markers of smoking were performed. rs16969968 in CHRNA5 was associated both at 13-15 years and 18 years with current smoking amongst adolescents who had tried smoking (OR = 1.82, CI = 1.10-3.01, p = 0.02 at age 13-15; OR = 2.39, CI = 1.37-4.17, p = 0.002 at age 18). No association was found for rs578776 in CHRNA3. The effects of CHRNA5 and CYP2A6 genotypes in TTHHS appeared to be independent, with each approximately doubling the odds of being a regular smoker by age 18 years. CYP2A6 genotype insufficiency increases adolescent likelihood of being a regular smoker but increases later life quitting likelihood and reduces average consumption. In contrast, CHRNA5 genotype, acting recessively, affects smoking similarly in adolescents and older adults. These contrasting actions, in digenic combination, illustrate behavioural genetic complexity.

  13. Behavioral Health Emergencies Managed by School Nurses Working with Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Mary M.; Greenberg, Cynthia; Sapien, Robert; Bauer-Creegan, Judith; Hine, Beverly; Geary, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    Background: As members of interdisciplinary teams, school nurses provide behavioral health services. Studies indicate that school nurses may lack sufficient continuing education in adolescent behavioral health and in the management of behavioral health emergencies, specifically. We conducted this study to describe the adolescent behavioral health…

  14. Trends in exposure to second hand smoke at home among children and nonsmoker adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2016-01-15

    Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for the years 1999-2012 were used to evaluate trends in exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) at home among children aged 3-11 years and nonsmoker adolescents aged 12-19 years. A total of 12,815 children and 10,269 adolescents were included in the analyses. Serum cotinine was used as a biomarker for exposure to SHS at home. Regression models with log10 transformed values of serum cotinine as dependent variables and age, race/ethnicity, NHANES survey year, and family poverty income ratio as a surrogate measure of socioeconomic status were used in models for those with and without exposure to SHS at home. In addition, for those with exposure to SHS at home, number of smokers smoking inside home and number of cigarettes smoked at home every day were also used as independent variables. There was a biennial increase of 1.05 ng/L in adjusted serum cotinine levels for children with exposure to SHS at home over the period of 1999-2012. Serum cotinine levels among nonsmoker adolescents with exposure to SHS at home did not change over time. When there was no exposure to SHS at home, there was a statistically significant downward trend for serum cotinine levels for both children and nonsmoker adolescents. Serum cotinine levels attributable to SHS exposure increased with age among nonsmoker adolescents (p≤0.02) but decreased with age among children (p<0.01). For a unit decrease in family poverty income ratio, SHS exposure as measured by serum cotinine levels (Table 6) increased by 1.18 ng/L among children and by 1.30 ng/L among nonsmoker adolescents. In general, observed serum cotinine levels associated with SHS exposure at home were higher for children than they were for nonsmoker adolescents. PMID:26519575

  15. Macroeconomic environment during infancy as a possible risk factor for adolescent behavioral problems.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Seethalakshmi; Balasubramanian, Natarajan; Krishnadas, Rajeev

    2013-02-01

    CONTEXT Economic difficulties at the individual level can lead to a number of behavioral problems, including substance abuse and delinquent behaviors. OBJECTIVE To examine the influence of a nationwide adverse economic environment during infancy, specifically, the high unemployment rates during and after the 1980 and 1981-1982 recessions, on rates of subsequent adolescent substance use and delinquent behaviors. DESIGN We used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 and estimated logit regressions to examine the effect of changes in unemployment rates during infancy on the incidence of adolescent behavioral problems, controlling for known youth, family, and environmental risk factors. SETTING Adolescents living in the United States in 1997. PARTICIPANTS Nationally representative sample of 8984 adolescents born from January 1, 1980, through December 31, 1984. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Probability of engaging in substance use (marijuana, smoking, alcohol, and hard [ie, illegal] drugs) and delinquent behaviors (arrest, handgun use, gang affiliation, petty and major theft, property destruction, and assaultive behavior). RESULTS Exposure to a 1% deviation from mean regional unemployment rates at the age of 1 year was associated with an increase in the odds ratios of engaging in marijuana use (1.09 [95% CI, 1.04-1.14]), smoking (1.07 [1.03-1.11]), alcohol use (1.06 [1.02-1.10]), arrest (1.17 [1.09-1.25]), gang affiliation (1.09 [1.00-1.19]), and petty (1.06 [1.01-1.10]) and major theft (1.11 [1.05-1.18]). No significant associations were noted with use of hard drugs, property destruction, and assaultive behavior. CONCLUSIONS The macroeconomic environment during infancy can have serious long-term effects on substance use and delinquent behavior. These potential long-term effects can play an important role in policy making for adolescent mental health care.

  16. Macroeconomic environment during infancy as a possible risk factor for adolescent behavioral problems.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Seethalakshmi; Balasubramanian, Natarajan; Krishnadas, Rajeev

    2013-02-01

    CONTEXT Economic difficulties at the individual level can lead to a number of behavioral problems, including substance abuse and delinquent behaviors. OBJECTIVE To examine the influence of a nationwide adverse economic environment during infancy, specifically, the high unemployment rates during and after the 1980 and 1981-1982 recessions, on rates of subsequent adolescent substance use and delinquent behaviors. DESIGN We used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 and estimated logit regressions to examine the effect of changes in unemployment rates during infancy on the incidence of adolescent behavioral problems, controlling for known youth, family, and environmental risk factors. SETTING Adolescents living in the United States in 1997. PARTICIPANTS Nationally representative sample of 8984 adolescents born from January 1, 1980, through December 31, 1984. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Probability of engaging in substance use (marijuana, smoking, alcohol, and hard [ie, illegal] drugs) and delinquent behaviors (arrest, handgun use, gang affiliation, petty and major theft, property destruction, and assaultive behavior). RESULTS Exposure to a 1% deviation from mean regional unemployment rates at the age of 1 year was associated with an increase in the odds ratios of engaging in marijuana use (1.09 [95% CI, 1.04-1.14]), smoking (1.07 [1.03-1.11]), alcohol use (1.06 [1.02-1.10]), arrest (1.17 [1.09-1.25]), gang affiliation (1.09 [1.00-1.19]), and petty (1.06 [1.01-1.10]) and major theft (1.11 [1.05-1.18]). No significant associations were noted with use of hard drugs, property destruction, and assaultive behavior. CONCLUSIONS The macroeconomic environment during infancy can have serious long-term effects on substance use and delinquent behavior. These potential long-term effects can play an important role in policy making for adolescent mental health care. PMID:23277351

  17. Do Deviant Peer Associations Mediate the Contributions of Self-Esteem to Problem Behavior During Early Adolescence? A 2-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuBois, David L.; Silverthorn, Naida

    2004-01-01

    We investigated deviant peer associations as a mediator of the influences of general and peer-oriented self-esteem on problem behavior using data from a 2-year longitudinal study of 350 young adolescents. Measures of problem behavior included substance use (alcohol use, smoking) and antisocial behavior (fighting, stealing). Using latent growth…

  18. School characteristics and adolescent smoking. Results from the MRC/Derbyshire Smoking Study 1974-8 and from a follow up in 1981.

    PubMed

    Murray, M; Kiryluk, S; Swan, A V

    1984-06-01

    In the MRC/Derbyshire Smoking Study a cohort of about 6000 adolescents was surveyed annually from 1974 when they entered secondary school aged 11-12 years until 1978 when they reached 15-16 years. In 1981 after the adolescents had left school they were again surveyed by post. Each year from 1974 to 1978 and again in 1981 they answered a questionnaire on their smoking behaviour and other issues. Information on the schools attended by these adolescents was obtained from their teachers and headteachers. This paper examines the relation between the school environment and the adolescents' smoking behaviour both before and after leaving school. The prevalence of smoking was higher among those boys who attended schools that were single sex, non-denominational, or had a parent-teacher association, no health education, no female teachers, or whose headteacher smoked cigarettes. Among girls the prevalence of smoking was higher if they attended a school that had optional school uniform and no health or antismoking education. The importance of these findings for the development of effective preventive measures is discussed. PMID:6747518

  19. The influence of tobacco marketing on adolescent smoking intentions via normative beliefs.

    PubMed

    Brown, Abraham; Moodie, Crawford

    2009-08-01

    Using cross-sectional data from three waves of the Youth Tobacco Policy Study, which examines the impact of the UK's Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Act (TAPA) on adolescent smoking behaviour, we examined normative pathways between tobacco marketing awareness and smoking intentions. The sample comprised 1121 adolescents in Wave 2 (pre-ban), 1123 in Wave 3 (mid-ban) and 1159 in Wave 4 (post-ban). Structural equation modelling was used to assess the direct effect of tobacco advertising and promotion on intentions at each wave, and also the indirect effect, mediated through normative influences. Pre-ban, higher levels of awareness of advertising and promotion were independently associated with higher levels of perceived sibling approval which, in turn, was positively related to intentions. Independent paths from perceived prevalence and benefits fully mediated the effects of advertising and promotion awareness on intentions mid- and post-ban. Advertising awareness indirectly affected intentions via the interaction between perceived prevalence and benefits pre-ban, whereas the indirect effect on intentions of advertising and promotion awareness was mediated by the interaction of perceived prevalence and benefits mid-ban. Our findings indicate that policy measures such as the TAPA can significantly reduce adolescents' smoking intentions by signifying smoking to be less normative and socially unacceptable. PMID:19286895

  20. Exposure to smoking in movies among British adolescents 2001–2006

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Stacey J; Millett, Christopher; Polansky, Jonathan R

    2010-01-01

    Objective To estimate youth exposure to smoking in movies in the UK and compare the likely effect with the USA. Methods We collected tobacco occurrences data for 572 top-grossing films in the UK screened from 2001 to 2006 and estimated the number of on-screen tobacco impressions delivered to British youths in this time period. Results 91% of films in our sample that contained smoking were youth-rated films (British Board of Film Classification rating ‘15’ and lower), delivering at least 1.10 billion tobacco impressions to British youths during theatrical release. British youths were exposed to 28% more smoking impressions in UK youth-rated movies than American youth-rated movies, because 79% of movies rated for adults in the USA (‘R’) are classified as suitable for youths in the UK (‘15’ or ‘12A’). Conclusion Because there is a dose-response relation between the amount of on-screen exposure to smoking and the likelihood that adolescents will begin smoking, the fact that there is substantially higher exposure to smoking in youth-rated films in the UK than in the USA suggests that the fraction of all youth smoking because of films in the UK is probably larger than in the USA. Other countries with ratings systems that are less conservative (in terms of language and sexuality) than the USA will also be likely to deliver more on-screen tobacco impressions to youths. Assigning an ‘18’ classification to movies that contain smoking would substantially reduce youth exposure to on-screen smoking and, hence, smoking initiation among British youths. PMID:20197360

  1. Smoking identities and behavior: evidence of discrepancies, issues for measurement and intervention.

    PubMed

    Ridner, S Lee; Walker, Kandi L; Hart, Joy L; Myers, John A

    2010-06-01

    Although researchers and health care practitioners tend to use standard categories to classify smokers and nonsmokers, recent research suggests that individual smokers may use a variety of self-definitions regarding their smoking behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine smoking identity and smoking behavior among college students, specifically, the relationship between self-identifying as a smoker, nonsmoker, occasional smoker, or social smoker and number of days smoked in the past month. Data were obtained during a campuswide health assessment of randomly selected full-time students (N = 741). Results indicate discrepancy between smoking identity and cigarette use. Twenty percent of students who smoked in the past 30 days self-identified as nonsmokers. Such discrepancies have implications for data collection in research as well as on questionnaires and in health care interviews. Failure to understand actual smoking behavior may increase the risk that individuals will not receive effective smoking prevention and cessation interventions.

  2. Smoking in young adolescents: an approach with multilevel discrete choice models

    PubMed Central

    Pinilla, J; Gonzalez, B; Barber, P; Santana, Y

    2002-01-01

    Design: Cross sectional analysis performed by multilevel logistic regression with pupils at the first level and schools at the second level. The data came from a stratified sample of students surveyed on their own, their families' and their friends' smoking habits, their schools, and their awareness of cigarette prices and advertising. Setting: The study was performed in the Island of Gran Canaria, Spain. Participants: 1877 students from 30 secondary schools in spring of 2000 (model's effective sample sizes 1697 and 1738) . Main results: 14.2% of the young teenagers surveyed use tobacco, almost half of them (6.3% of the total surveyed) on a daily basis. According to the ordered logistic regression model, to have a smoker as the best friend increases significantly the probability of smoking (odds ratio: 6.96, 95% confidence intervals (CI) (4.93 to 9.84), and the same stands for one smoker living at home compared with a smoking free home (odds ratio: 2.03, 95% CI 1.22 to 3.36). Girls smoke more (odds ratio: 1.85, 95% CI 1.33 to 2.59). Experience with alcohol, and lack of interest in studies are also significant factors affecting smoking. Multilevel models of logistic regression showed that factors related to the school affect the smoking behaviour of young teenagers. More specifically, whether a school complies with antismoking rules or not is the main factor to predict smoking prevalence in schools. The remainder of the differences can be attributed to individual and family characteristics, tobacco consumption by parents or other close relatives, and peer group. Conclusions: A great deal of the individual differences in smoking are explained by factors at the school level, therefore the context is very relevant in this case. The most relevant predictors for smoking in young adolescents include some factors related to the schools they attend. One variable stood out in accounting for the school to school differences: how well they enforced the no smoking rule

  3. Using behavioral science to improve fire escape behaviors in response to a smoke alarm.

    PubMed

    Thompson, N J; Waterman, M B; Sleet, D A

    2004-01-01

    Although the likelihood of fire-related death in homes with smoke alarms is about one-half that in homes without alarms, alarm effectiveness is limited by behavior. Only 16% of residents of homes with alarms have developed and practiced plans for escape when the alarm sounds. We reviewed literature to identify behavioral constructs that influence smoke alarm use. We then convened experts in the behavioral aspects of smoke alarms who reviewed the constructs and determined that the appropriate areas for behavioral focus were formulating, practicing, and implementing escape plans should an alarm sound. They subsequently identified important behaviors to be addressed by burn-prevention programs and incorporated the constructs into a behavioral model for use in such programs. Finally, we organized the available literature to support this model and make programmatic recommendations. Many gaps remain in behavioral research to improve fire escape planning and practice. Future research must select the target behavior, apply behavioral theories, and distinguish between initiation and maintenance of behaviors associated with planning, practicing, and implementing home fire escape plans. PMID:15091145

  4. Behavioral sleep problems in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Moore, Melisa

    2012-03-01

    Sleep problems in children and adolescents are common, and they impact multiple domains of child and family functioning. Psychologists have a critical role in the assessment and treatment of sleep problems and are integral to interdisciplinary sleep teams. Certain sleep problems may be related to co-morbid psychological or developmental conditions, and others are considered to be primarily medical, yet behavioral approaches may be applicable. There are also sleep problems considered to be behavioral in etiology (e.g. inadequate sleep hygiene, behavioral insomnia of childhood, nightmares/bad dreams/nighttime fears, delayed sleep phase syndrome, and psychophysiological insomnia). In this article, the assessment of behavioral sleep problems, as well as specific behavioral sleep disorders, and their treatments will be discussed. PMID:22389163

  5. Use of mobile phone text messaging to deliver an individualized smoking behaviour intervention in Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hui-Jing; Jiang, Xiao-Xiao; Yu, Chun-Yan; Zhang, Yue

    2013-07-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of a mobile phone text-messaging based smoking cessation intervention package among Chinese adolescent smokers. Students aged 16-19 years were recruited from six vocational high schools located in Shanghai. We assigned the six schools to an intervention group or a control group by cluster randomization. The 92 participants in the intervention group were given tailored information via mobile phone text-messaging for 12 weeks. The 87 participants in the control group were provided with a self-help pamphlet about smoking cessation instead. After the intervention, attitudes towards the disadvantages of smoking were significantly improved, and the level of nicotine dependence and cigarette dependence significantly decreased in the intervention group. The intervention group had a relatively higher self-reported 7-day abstinence compared to the control group and 30-day abstinence, but the differences were not significant. However, the intervention group had a significantly higher rate of smoking reduction (66% vs. 35%) and moving forward in quitting stages (52% vs. 18%) compared to the control group. The interactive and tailored assistance provided by the mobile phone text-messaging was effective in smoking behaviour intervention in Chinese adolescent smokers.

  6. Health behaviors, quality of life, and psychosocial health among survivors of adolescent and young adult cancers

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Gina E.; Zhang, Yingying; McFadden, Molly; Wright, Jennifer; Spraker-Perlman, Holly; Kinney, Anita Y.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Kirchhoff, Anne C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Survivors of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer may engage in unhealthy lifestyles (e.g., smoking), potentially heightening their risk for long-term health problems. We assessed health behaviors and constructs including quality of life (QOL) and psychosocial well-being among survivors of AYA cancer compared to the general population. Methods We used 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data to evaluate health behaviors for survivors of AYA cancer compared to AYAs without cancer. Multivariable regressions assessed health behaviors (smoking, binge drinking, physical inactivity, and low fruit/vegetable intake) by sex and age between AYA survivors and controls, and among survivors to determine the effects of demographic, QOL, psychosocial, and cancer factors on behaviors. Results A greater proportion of female survivors of AYA cancer smoked than controls (currently aged 20–39: 27 vs. 14.3%, respectively; currently aged 40–64: 29.3 vs. 18.4%, respectively). Generally, survivors and controls were non-adherent to national health behavior guidelines. Uninsured survivors were at greater risk of smoking vs. insured (females, Relative Risk (RR)=1.64, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.43–1.90; males, RR=2.62, 95 % CI 1.71–4.02). Poor social/emotional support was associated with smoking (RR= 1.26, 95 % CI 1.07–1.48) among female survivors and was associated with low fruit/vegetable intake among male (RR= 1.12, 95 % CI 1.01–1.23) and female (RR=1.12, 95 % CI 1.05–1.19) survivors. Female survivors >10 years from diagnosis had higher risk of smoking (RR=1.26–1.91, all p<0.01) than survivors 5–10 years from diagnosis. Conclusions Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors are common in survivors of AYA cancer. Implications for Cancer Survivors AYA survivors require health behavior support. PMID:26248766

  7. Health, Secondhand Smoke Exposure, and Smoking Behavior Impacts of No-Smoking Policies in Public Housing, Colorado, 2014–2015

    PubMed Central

    Karp, Shelley; Bialick, Peter; Liverance, Cindy; Seder, Ashley; Berg, Erica; Karp, Liberty

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Exposure to secondhand smoke is problematic for residents living in multiunit housing, as the smoke migrates through shared ventilation systems, unsealed cracks, and door spaces. The objective of our research was to assess resident exposure to secondhand smoke, support for no-smoking policies, and the health impacts of no-smoking policies in multiunit housing. Methods Surveys of 312 heads of households who resided in 1 of 3 multiunit buildings managed by a Colorado public housing authority were administered before and after implementation of a no-smoking policy that prohibited smoking in all resident apartments and all indoor common areas. A matched-pairs analysis of initial surveys and 15-month post-policy implementation surveys for 115 respondents was conducted. Results Decreases were found in the number and percentage of smokers who smoked every day and the number of cigarettes smoked per day, and 30% had quit smoking 15 months after policy implementation. The percentage of residents who smelled secondhand smoke indoors declined significantly. A significant decrease in breathing problems was found after policy implementation. Although decreases were found in the incidence of asthma attacks, emphysema/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, eye irritation, colds, nasal congestion, and ear/sinus infections, these decreases were not significant. Conclusion Consistent findings across nearly all variables tested suggest that no-smoking policies reduce resident exposure to secondhand smoke, lower the incidence of secondhand smoke–associated breathing problems, decrease daily smoking and cigarette consumption, encourage smoking cessation, and increase quit attempts. If implemented in all multiunit housing, these policies could reduce exposure to secondhand smoke and health problems associated with secondhand smoke, promote smoking cessation, and reduce cigarette consumption. PMID:27763830

  8. Adolescent smoking and tertiary education: opposing pathways linking socio‐economic background to alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Leyland, Alastair H.; Sweeting, Helen; Benzeval, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and Aims If socio‐economic disadvantage is associated with more adolescent smoking, but less participation in tertiary education, and smoking and tertiary education are both associated with heavier drinking, these may represent opposing pathways to heavy drinking. This paper examines contextual variation in the magnitude and direction of these associations. Design Comparing cohort studies. Setting United Kingdom. Participants Participants were from the 1958 National Child Development Study (NCDS58; n = 15 672), the British birth cohort study (BCS70; n = 12 735) and the West of Scotland Twenty‐07 1970s cohort (T07; n = 1515). Measurements Participants self‐reported daily smoking and weekly drinking in adolescence (age 16 years) and heavy drinking (> 14/21 units in past week) in early adulthood (ages 22–26 years). Parental occupational class (manual versus non‐manual) indicated socio‐economic background. Education beyond age 18 was coded as tertiary. Models were adjusted for parental smoking and drinking, family structure and adolescent psychiatric distress. Findings Respondents from a manual class were more likely to smoke and less likely to enter tertiary education (e.g. in NCDS58, probit coefficients were 0.201 and –0.765, respectively; P < 0.001 for both) than respondents from a non‐manual class. Adolescent smokers were more likely to drink weekly in adolescence (0.346; P < 0.001) and more likely to drink heavily in early adulthood (0.178; P < 0.001) than adolescent non‐smokers. Respondents who participated in tertiary education were more likely to drink heavily in early adulthood (0.110 for males, 0.182 for females; P < 0.001 for both) than respondents with no tertiary education. With some variation in magnitude, these associations were consistent across all three cohorts. Conclusions In Britain, young adults are more likely to drink heavily both if they smoke and participate in tertiary education (college

  9. Effect of Televised, Tobacco Company–Funded Smoking Prevention Advertising on Youth Smoking-Related Beliefs, Intentions, and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, Melanie; Terry-McElrath, Yvonne; Emery, Sherry; Saffer, Henry; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Szczypka, Glen; Flay, Brian; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2006-01-01

    Objective. To relate exposure to televised youth smoking prevention advertising to youths’ smoking beliefs, intentions, and behaviors. Methods. We obtained commercial television ratings data from 75 US media markets to determine the average youth exposure to tobacco company youth-targeted and parent-targeted smoking prevention advertising. We merged these data with nationally representative school-based survey data (n = 103 172) gathered from 1999 to 2002. Multivariate regression models controlled for individual, geographic, and tobacco policy factors, and other televised antitobacco advertising. Results. There was little relation between exposure to tobacco company–sponsored, youth-targeted advertising and youth smoking outcomes. Among youths in grades 10 and 12, during the 4 months leading up to survey administration, each additional viewing of a tobacco company parent-targeted advertisement was, on average, associated with lower perceived harm of smoking (odds ratio [OR]=0.93; confidence interval [CI]=0.88, 0.98), stronger approval of smoking (OR=1.11; CI=1.03,1.20), stronger intentions to smoke in the future (OR=1.12; CI=1.04,1.21), and greater likelihood of having smoked in the past 30 days (OR=1.12; CI=1.04,1.19). Conclusions. Exposure to tobacco company youth-targeted smoking prevention advertising generally had no beneficial outcomes for youths. Exposure to tobacco company parent-targeted advertising may have harmful effects on youth, especially among youths in grades 10 and 12. PMID:17077405

  10. Factors Contributing to Regular Smoking in Adolescents in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Can, Gamze; Topbas, Murat; Oztuna, Funda; Ozgun, Sukru; Can, Emine; Yavuzyilmaz, Asuman

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The objectives of this study were to determine the levels of lifetime cigarette use, daily use, and current use among young people (aged 15-19 years) and to examine the risk factors contributing to regular smoking. Methods: The number of students was determined proportionately to the numbers of students in all the high schools in the…

  11. Smoking Beliefs and Behavior Among Youth in Malaysia and Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Parkinson, Carla M.; Hammond, David; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Borland, Ron; Omar, Maizurah; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Awang, Rahmat; Driezen, Pete; Thompson, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Objective To characterize smoking beliefs among Thai and Malaysian youth and to examine associations with gender, antismoking media exposure, and smoking status. Methods Nationally representative samples of youth completed self-administered questionnaires. Results A substantial proportion of youth reported positive beliefs about smoking. Those reporting positive beliefs were more likely to be susceptible to smoking. Youth who noticed antismoking media were less likely to report positive beliefs about smoking. Conclusions As in Western countries, beliefs about smoking held by youth in Southeast Asia are associated with smoking status. Antismoking media may be an important means of targeting beliefs about smoking among youth. PMID:19182982

  12. The effect of computer usage in internet café on cigarette smoking and alcohol use among chinese adolescents and youth: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liyun; Delva, Jorge

    2012-02-01

    We used longitudinal data to investigate the relationship between computer use in internet cafés and smoking/drinking behavior among Chinese adolescents and young adults. Data are from two waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (2004 and 2006). Fixed effects models were used to examine if changes in internet café use were associated with changes in cigarette smoking and drinking of alcohol. Male café users spent on average 17.3 hours in front of the computer/week. This was associated with an increase in the probability of being a current smoker by 13.3% and with smoking 1.7 more cigarettes. Female café users spent on average 11 hours on the computer/week. This was associated with an increase in the probability of drinking wine and/or liquor by 14.74% and was not associated with smoking. Internet cafés are an important venue by which adolescent and young adults in China are exposed to smoking and drinking. Multi-component interventions are needed ranging from policies regulating cigarette and alcohol availability in these venues to anti-tobacco campaigns aimed at the general population but also at individuals who frequent these establishments.

  13. The effect of computer usage in internet café on cigarette smoking and alcohol use among chinese adolescents and youth: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liyun; Delva, Jorge

    2012-02-01

    We used longitudinal data to investigate the relationship between computer use in internet cafés and smoking/drinking behavior among Chinese adolescents and young adults. Data are from two waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (2004 and 2006). Fixed effects models were used to examine if changes in internet café use were associated with changes in cigarette smoking and drinking of alcohol. Male café users spent on average 17.3 hours in front of the computer/week. This was associated with an increase in the probability of being a current smoker by 13.3% and with smoking 1.7 more cigarettes. Female café users spent on average 11 hours on the computer/week. This was associated with an increase in the probability of drinking wine and/or liquor by 14.74% and was not associated with smoking. Internet cafés are an important venue by which adolescent and young adults in China are exposed to smoking and drinking. Multi-component interventions are needed ranging from policies regulating cigarette and alcohol availability in these venues to anti-tobacco campaigns aimed at the general population but also at individuals who frequent these establishments. PMID:22470305

  14. The Correlation of Different Cotinine Levels With Questionnaire Results: A Comparative Study for Different Measurement Methods of the Adolescent Smoking Rate in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Myung Bae; Nam, Eun Woo; Lee, Seon Kui; Kim, Chun-Bae; Ranabhat, Chhabi

    2015-07-01

    This study compares the results of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (Self-Reported; KNHANEs [SR]) survey with urine-cotinine concentration (UCC) and the official index issued by the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBS). We established standard cutoffs of 20 ng/mL, 30 ng/mL, 50 ng/mL, and 100 ng/mL to compare the results of UCC testing with those of self-reporting methods. The KYRBS demonstrated an overall current smoking rate of 12.25%, while the KNHANEs measured an overall rate of 9.63%. The UCC20 reported the highest current smoking rate at 25.6% overall. Methods that detected a lower prevalence of current smoking, in declining order, were the UCC30, UCC50, UCC100, online survey, and the KNHANEs (SR). The results of this study show that online surveys on smoking administered to adolescents have fewer false responses compared with the KNHANEs (SR). However, compared with UCC testing, online surveys still significantly underreport adolescent smoking rates.

  15. The Effect of Computer Usage in Internet Café on Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Use among Chinese Adolescents and Youth: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Liyun; Delva, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    We used longitudinal data to investigate the relationship between computer use in internet cafés and smoking/drinking behavior among Chinese adolescents and young adults. Data are from two waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (2004 and 2006). Fixed effects models were used to examine if changes in internet café use were associated with changes in cigarette smoking and drinking of alcohol. Male café users spent on average 17.3 hours in front of the computer/week. This was associated with an increase in the probability of being a current smoker by 13.3% and with smoking 1.7 more cigarettes. Female café users spent on average 11 hours on the computer/week. This was associated with an increase in the probability of drinking wine and/or liquor by 14.74% and was not associated with smoking. Internet cafés are an important venue by which adolescent and young adults in China are exposed to smoking and drinking. Multi-component interventions are needed ranging from policies regulating cigarette and alcohol availability in these venues to anti-tobacco campaigns aimed at the general population but also at individuals who frequent these establishments. PMID:22470305

  16. Information management strategies within conversations about cigarette smoking: parenting correlates and longitudinal associations with teen smoking.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Aaron; Wakschlag, Lauren S; Anderson, Ryan; Darfler, Anne; Price, Juliette; Flores, Zujeil; Mermelstein, Robin

    2013-08-01

    The present study examined smoking-specific and general parenting predictors of in vivo observed patterns of parent-adolescent discussion concerning adolescents' cigarette smoking experiences and associations between these observed patterns and 24-month longitudinal trajectories of teen cigarette smoking behavior (nonsmokers, current experimenters, escalators). Parental solicitation, adolescent disclosure, and adolescent information management were coded from direct observations of 528 video-recorded parent-adolescent discussions about cigarette smoking with 344 teens (M age = 15.62 years) with a history of smoking experimentation (321 interactions with mothers, 207 interactions with fathers). Adolescent initiation of discussions concerning their own smoking behavior (21% of interactions) was predicted by lower levels of maternal observed disapproval of cigarette smoking and fewer teen-reported communication problems with mothers. Maternal initiation in discussions (35% of interactions) was associated with higher levels of family rules about illicit substance use. Three categories of adolescent information management (full disclosure, active secrecy, incomplete strategies) were coded by matching adolescents' confidential self-reported smoking status with their observed spontaneous disclosures and responses to parental solicitations. Fully disclosing teens reported higher quality communication with their mothers (more open, less problematic). Teens engaged in active secrecy with their mothers when families had high levels of parental rules about illicit substance use and when mothers expressed lower levels of expectancies that their teen would smoke in the future. Adolescents were more likely to escalate their smoking over 2 years if their parents initiated the discussion of adolescent smoking behavior (solicited) and if adolescents engaged in active secrecy.

  17. The influence of three mass media campaigns on variables related to adolescent cigarette smoking: results of a field experiment.

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, K E; LaPrelle, J; Brown, J D; Koch, G G; Padgett, C A

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This paper reports findings from a field experiment that evaluated mass media campaigns designed to prevent cigarette smoking by adolescents. METHODS: The campaigns featured radio and television messages on expected consequences of smoking and a component to stimulate personal encouragement of peers not to smoke. Six Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the Southeast United States received campaigns and four served as controls. Adolescents and mothers provided pretest and posttest data in their homes. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The radio campaign had a modest influence on the expected consequences of smoking and friend approval of smoking, the more expensive campaigns involving television were not more effective than those with radio alone, the peer-involvement component was not effective, and any potential smoking effects could not be detected. PMID:2014859

  18. Self-esteem and resilience: the connection with risky behavior among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Veselska, Zuzana; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Orosova, Olga; Gajdosova, Beata; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2009-03-01

    The aim was to explore the association of self-esteem and resilience with smoking and cannabis use among adolescents, separately for gender. A sample of 3694 adolescents (mean age 14.3 years) from elementary schools in Slovakia filled out the Rosenberg Self-esteem scale, the Resiliency scale and answered questions about cigarette and cannabis use. Logistic regression models showed associations between negative self-esteem and risky behavior, but only among boys. Regarding resilience, structured style and family cohesion were associated with a lower probability of smoking and cannabis use among both boys and girls. In contrast, social competence increased the probability of smoking and cannabis use among both groups. Negative self-esteem seems to play an important role regarding smoking and cannabis use among boys. Resilience seems to have mixed effects, some aspects being protective while other aspects increase the likelihood of smoking and use of cannabis. These results imply that the prevention of substance use should target not only specific individual characteristics, but also the possible risk or protective influences of the social environment, i.e. the family and social network. PMID:19056183

  19. The Protective Influence of Family Bonding on Smoking Initiation in Adolescents by Racial/Ethnic and Age Subgroups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahabee-Gittens, E. Melinda; Khoury, Jane C.; Huang, Bin; Dorn, Lorah D.; Ammerman, Robert T.; Gordon, Judith S.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examined the associations among family bonding factors and the initiation of smoking by race/ethnicity and age group among nonsmokers at Wave 1. Overall, 18% of the sample initiated smoking by Wave 2. For younger African-American and Hispanic youths, high maternal…

  20. Multilevel Analysis of the Impact of School-Level Tobacco Policies on Adolescent Smoking: The Case of Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Hove, Thomas; Oh, Hyun Jung

    2013-01-01

    Background: In efforts to curb and prevent youth smoking, school tobacco policies have become an important and effective strategy. This study explores the degrees and types of tobacco-free school policy (TFSP) enforcement that are associated with adolescent smoking. Methods: A multilevel analysis was performed using 983 students who are nested in…