Science.gov

Sample records for adolescent smoking prevalence

  1. ERICA: smoking prevalence in Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Valeska Carvalho; Szklo, André Salem; Costa, Letícia Casado; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira da; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalences of tobacco use, tobacco experimentation, and frequent smoking among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated participants of the cross-sectional, nation-wide, school-based Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), which included 12- to 17-year-old adolescents from municipalities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. The study sample had a clustered, stratified design and was representative of the whole country, its geographical regions, and all 27 state capitals. The information was obtained with self-administered questionnaires. Tobacco experimentation was defined as having tried cigarettes at least once in life. Adolescents who had smoked on at least one day over the previous 30 days were considered current cigarette smokers. Having smoked cigarettes for at least seven consecutive days was an indicator for regular consumption of tobacco. Considering the complex sampling design, prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated according to sociodemographic and socio-environmental characteristics. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents. Among these, 18.5% (95%CI 17.7-19.4) had smoked at least once in life, 5.7% (95%CI 5.3-6.2) smoked at the time of the research, and 2.5% (95%CI 2.2-2.8) smoked often. Adolescents aged 15 to 17 years had higher prevalences for all indicators than those aged 12 to 14 years. The prevalences did not differ significantly between sexes. The highest prevalences were found in the South region and the lowest ones, in the Northeast region. Regardless of sex, the prevalences were found to be higher for adolescents who had had paid jobs, who lived with only one parent, and who reported having been in contact with smokers either inside or outside their homes. Female public school adolescents were found to smoke more than the ones from private schools. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco use among adolescents is still a challenge. Intending to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use among young people

  2. ERICA: smoking prevalence in Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Valeska Carvalho; Szklo, André Salem; Costa, Letícia Casado; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalences of tobacco use, tobacco experimentation, and frequent smoking among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated participants of the cross-sectional, nation-wide, school-based Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), which included 12- to 17-year-old adolescents from municipalities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. The study sample had a clustered, stratified design and was representative of the whole country, its geographical regions, and all 27 state capitals. The information was obtained with self-administered questionnaires. Tobacco experimentation was defined as having tried cigarettes at least once in life. Adolescents who had smoked on at least one day over the previous 30 days were considered current cigarette smokers. Having smoked cigarettes for at least seven consecutive days was an indicator for regular consumption of tobacco. Considering the complex sampling design, prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated according to sociodemographic and socio-environmental characteristics. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents. Among these, 18.5% (95%CI 17.7-19.4) had smoked at least once in life, 5.7% (95%CI 5.3-6.2) smoked at the time of the research, and 2.5% (95%CI 2.2-2.8) smoked often. Adolescents aged 15 to 17 years had higher prevalences for all indicators than those aged 12 to 14 years. The prevalences did not differ significantly between sexes. The highest prevalences were found in the South region and the lowest ones, in the Northeast region. Regardless of sex, the prevalences were found to be higher for adolescents who had had paid jobs, who lived with only one parent, and who reported having been in contact with smokers either inside or outside their homes. Female public school adolescents were found to smoke more than the ones from private schools. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco use among adolescents is still a challenge. Intending to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use among young

  3. Prevalence of smoking among school adolescents in Khartoum State

    PubMed Central

    Adil, Abo-mali; Mustafa, Babiker M.; Abdo, Hussein

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco is the single most important cause of chronic morbidity in the Developed World. Tobacco use primarily begins in early adolescence, reportedly before the time of high school graduation. By 2015 tobacco use is projected to cause 50% more deaths than AIDS. A cross sectional school based survey was conducted in primary and secondary school in Khartoum State. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of smoking in school adolescents and associated personal and social factors. A total of 910 students with complete questionnaires were included in the analysis, of whom 13.6% were found to be current cigarette smokers. Factors that played role in initiation of smoking included smoking among parents, other family members and close friends. School adolescents who have friends or parents who smoke should be the main target for tobacco control. Smoking should become public health priority in Sudan to educate adolescents and parents regarding its hazards.

  4. Prevalence and factors associated with smoking intentions among non-smoking and smoking adolescents in Kota Tinggi, Johor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hock, Lim Kuang; Ghazali, Sumarni Mohamad; Cheong, Kee Chee; Kuay, Lim Kuang; Li, Lim Hui; Huey, Teh Chien; Ying, Chan Ying; Yen, Yeo Lay; Ching, Fiona Goh Swee; Yi, Khoo Yi; Lin, Chong Zhuo; Ibrahim, Normala; Mustafa, Amal Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Intention to smoke is a valid and reliable factor for predicting future smoking habits among adolescents. This factor, however, has received inadequate attention in Malaysia. The present paper elaborates the prevalence and factors associated with intent to initiate or to cease smoking, among adolescent nonsmokers and smokers in Kota Tinggi, Johor, Malaysia. A total of 2,300 secondary school students aged 13-16 years were selected through a two-stage stratified sampling method. A set of standardized questionnaires was used to assess the smoking behavior among adolescents and the inter-personal and intra-personal factors associated with smoking intention (intention to initiate smoking or to cease smoking). Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors related to smoking intention. The prevalence of intention to smoke in the future or to cease smoking among non- smoking adolescents and current smokers were 10.7% and 61.7% respectively. Having friends who smoke, social influence, and poor knowledge about the ill effects on health due to smoking showed significant relationships with intention to smoke in the future among non-smokers. Conversely, perceived lower prevalence of smoking among peers, weak contributory social influence, and greater awareness of the ill effects of smoking are factors associated with the intention to cease smoking sometime in the future. The study found that prevalence of intention to initiate smoking is low among non-smokers while the majority of current smokers intended to cease smoking in the future. Existing anti-smoking programmes that integrate the factors that have been identified in the current study should be put in motion to reduce the prevalence of intention to initiate smoking and increase the intention to cease smoking among adolescents. PMID:24935397

  5. Prevalence and determinants of cigarette smoking among adolescents in Blantyre City, Malawi.

    PubMed

    Muula, A S

    2007-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases such as ischaemic heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive airways disease and several cancers. There is little data about the prevalence and determinants of smoking among adolescents in southern Africa. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and determinants of cigarette smoking among adolescents in Blantyre City, Malawi. Cross-sectional data were obtained from school-going adolescents in Blantyre in 2001 using the Global Youth Tobacco Survey data collection instrument. Data were analysed to determine prevalence of current and ever cigarette smoking, and predictors of smoking. The prevalence of current smoking and ever smoking were 3.0% and 15.6%, respectively. Predictors of current tobacco smoking included male gender, having friends or parents who smoked, having been exposed to advertisements about tobacco brands on television and having seen a lot of advertisements in newspapers and magazines. School programmes that included being taught about smoking in class and a class discussion on the dangers of tobacco were not associated with reduced current smoking. Intervention programmes aiming to curb tobacco smoking among adolescents should focus on dealing also with parental smoking, peer influence and pay special attention toward male gender. School-based programmes to prevent smoking should be evaluated as some may have little impact in influencing current smoking status. PMID:17547101

  6. Prevalence and determinants of adolescent tobacco smoking in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Rudatsikira, Emmanuel; Abdo, Abdurahman; Muula, Adamson S

    2007-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoking is a growing public health problem in the developing world. There is paucity of data on smoking and predictors of smoking among school-going adolescents in most of sub-Saharan Africa. Hence, the aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of smoking and its associations among school-going adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods Data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) 2003 were used to determine smoking prevalence, determinants, attitudes to, and exposure to tobacco advertisements among adolescents. Results Of the 1868 respondents, 4.5% males and 1% females reported being current smokers (p < 0.01). Having smoking friends was strongly associated with smoking after controlling for age, gender, parental smoking status, and perception of risks of smoking (OR = 33; 95% CI [11.6, 95.6]). Male gender and having one or both smoking parents were associated with smoking. Perception that smoking is harmful was negatively associated with being a smoker (odds ratio 0.3; 95% confidence interval, 0.2–0.5) Conclusion Prevalence of smoking among adolescents in Ethiopia is lower than in many other African countries. There is however need to strengthen anti-tobacco messages especially among adolescents. PMID:17651482

  7. Prevalence of self-reported smoking experimentation in adolescents with asthma or allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Silvia de Sousa Campos; de Andrade, Cláudia Ribeiro; Caminhas, Alessandra Pinheiro; Camargos, Paulo Augusto Moreira; Ibiapina, Cássio da Cunha

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of smoking experimentation among adolescents with asthma or allergic rhinitis. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving adolescent students (13-14 years of age) in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The participants completed the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaires, both of which have been validated for use in Brazil. We calculated the prevalence of smoking experimentation in the sample as a whole, among the students with asthma symptoms, and among the students with allergic rhinitis symptoms, as well as in subgroups according to gender and age at smoking experimentation. Results: The sample comprised 3,325 adolescent students. No statistically significant differences were found regarding gender or age. In the sample as a whole, the prevalence of smoking experimentation was 9.6%. The mean age for smoking experimentation for the first time was 11.1 years of age (range, 5-14 years). Among the adolescents with asthma symptoms and among those with allergic rhinitis symptoms, the prevalence of self-reported smoking experimentation was 13.5% and 10.6%, respectively. Conclusions: The proportion of adolescents with symptoms of asthma or allergic rhinitis who reported smoking experimentation is a cause for concern, because there is strong evidence that active smoking is a risk factor for the occurrence and increased severity of allergic diseases. PMID:27167427

  8. A Meta-Analysis of Cigarette Smoking Prevalence among Adolescents in China: 1981–2010

    PubMed Central

    Han, Juan; Chen, Xinguang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Systematic data regarding adolescent smoking are needed at the national level to support evidence-based tobacco control in China. The goal of this study was to estimate smoking prevalence among Chinese adolescents using published data. Methods: Published studies were located electronically from the commonly used databases in Chinese and English, complemented by manual searching. Forty-five studies were selected of the 9771 retrieved from the databases. These studies targeted adolescents aged 12–17 or middle/high school students, were conducted during the 1981–2010, and had adequate data for meta-analysis. The 45 selected studies covered 52 sites in different parts of China. Smoking rates were estimated using the sample-weighted and random effect method. Results: The estimated prevalence rate of lifetime smoking (ever smoked) varied within a narrow range (39.04%–46.03%) for males and progressively increased from 2.47% in 1981–1985 to 19.72% in 2001–2005 for females. The prevalence rate of current (30-day) smoking for males declined from 26.62% in 1981–1985 to 10.86% in 1996–2000 before increasing again. The prevalence of current smoking for females increased from 0.29% in 1981–1985 to 3.26% in 2006–2010. Conclusions: The high levels of male smoking and the rapid increase in female smoking indicate growing burdens from tobacco-related diseases, underscoring the urgent need to strengthen adolescent tobacco control in China. PMID:25922989

  9. Prevalence and Psychosocial Correlates of Current Smoking among Adolescent Students in Thailand, 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKnight-Eily, Lela; Arrazola, Rene; Merritt, Robert; Malarcher, Ann; Sirichotiratana, Nithat

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the prevalence of current smoking and associated psychosocial correlates and whether these correlates differ by sex among adolescent students in Thailand. Data were analyzed from the Thailand Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), a school-based, cross-sectional survey conducted in 2005 and completed by Mathayom 1, 2, and 3…

  10. Sex differences in prevalence rates and predictors of cigarette smoking among in-school adolescents in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Siziya, S; Ntata, P R T; Rudatsikira, E; Makupe, C M; Umar, E; Muula, A S

    2007-09-01

    An analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey for Kilimanjaro, Tanzania was carried out to assess sex differences in the prevalence rates and predictors of current cigarette smoking among in-school adolescents. A total of 2323 adolescents participated in the study of whom 53% were females and 47% males. The prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 3.0% and 1.4% among males and females, respectively. The common factors that were significantly positively associated with cigarette smoking between sexes were: having more pocket money, closest friend smoked cigarettes, seeing actors smoke on TV, videos or movies, and seeing advertisements for cigarettes at social gatherings. Seeing anti-smoking messages at social gatherings were negatively associated with smoking among both sexes. While having had something such as a t-shirt or pen with a cigarette brand logo on it was positively associated with cigarette smoking among males, it was negatively associated with cigarette smoking among females. Male adolescents older than 15 years, those in their 9th year of schooling, and those who had seen cigarette brand names on TV were more likely to smoke. Meanwhile, male respondents who were in their 8th year of schooling, had seen anti-smoking media messages, and advertisements for cigarettes in newspapers or magazines were less likely to smoke. Among female adolescents, those who had parents who smoked, and surprisingly those who perceived that cigarette smoking as harmful were more likely to smoke. Interestingly, seeing advertisement for cigarettes on billboards was negatively associated with smoking among female adolescents. Interventions aimed to reduce adolescent smoking need to be designed and implemented with due consideration of sex differences in these associated factors. PMID:18087898

  11. Prevalence and correlates of heavy smoking and nicotine dependence in adolescents with bipolar and cannabis use disorders.

    PubMed

    Heffner, Jaimee L; Anthenelli, Robert M; Adler, Caleb M; Strakowski, Stephen M; Beavers, Jennifer; DelBello, Melissa P

    2013-12-30

    The study examined the prevalence and correlates of heavy smoking and nicotine dependence in adolescents with bipolar and cannabis use disorders. Participants were 80 adolescents between 13 and 22 years of age with co-occurring bipolar I disorder and cannabis abuse or dependence who reported ever trying a cigarette. Diagnostic and symptom severity measures were completed as part of the baseline assessments for a clinical trial. Almost half (49%) of these participants who ever tried a cigarette were current heavy smokers (≥10 cigarettes/day), and 70% met DSM-IV-TR lifetime criteria for nicotine dependence. Heavy smoking was associated with older age, heavier marijuana use and greater compulsive craving, lifetime diagnoses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, illicit drug use disorders, and poorer overall functioning. Nicotine dependence was related to White race, higher current mania severity, and poorer overall functioning. These findings suggest that heavy smoking and nicotine dependence were highly prevalent among these adolescents. Although both were associated with greater physical and psychosocial problems, only heavy smoking was linked to a clear pattern of more severe substance-related and psychiatric problems. Further research to elucidate mechanisms and develop interventions to address early, entrenched patterns of co-use of tobacco and marijuana is warranted. PMID:23684537

  12. School, family and adolescent smoking.

    PubMed

    Yañez, Aina; Leiva, Alfonso; Gorreto, Lucia; Estela, Andreu; Tejera, Elena; Torrent, Maties

    2013-01-01

    The socio-cultural environment is an important factor involved with the onset of smoking during adolescence. Initiation of cigarette smoking occurs almost exclusively during this stage. In this context we aimed to analyze the association of school and family factors with adolescent smoking by a cross-sectional study of 16 secondary schools randomly selected from the Balearic Islands involved 3673 students and 530 teachers. The prevalence of regular smoking (at least one cigarette per week) was 4.8% among first year students, 11.6% among second year students, 14.1% among third year students, 20.9% among fourth year students and 22% among teachers. Among first and second year students, there were independent associations between regular smoking and adolescents' perception of being allowed to smoke at home, belonging to a single parent family, poor relationship with parents, poor academic performance, lack of interest in studies and teachers' perception of smoking in the presence of pupils. Among third and fourth year students, there were independent associations between regular smoking and poor relationship with parents, adolescents' perception of being allowed to smoke at home, poor academic performance, lack of control over student misbehavior and the school attended. The school policies and practices affect student related health behavior regarding smoking, independent of individual and family factors. PMID:23880838

  13. Smoking and adolescent health.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Hee

    2011-10-01

    With the Westernization and opening of our society, adolescents' smoking is increasing and being popularized. Many adolescents start smoking at an early age out of curiosity and venturesomeness, and earlier start of smoking makes it more difficult to quit smoking. Adolescents' habitual smoking not only becomes a gateway to all kinds of substance abuse but also causes various health problems including upper respiratory infection, immature lung development, reduced maximum vital capacity, and lung cancer. Therefore, it is quite important to prevent adolescents from smoking. The lowering of adolescents' smoking rate cannot be achieved only through social restrictions such as stereotyped education on the harms of smoking and ID checking. In order to lower adolescents' smoking rate substantially, each area of society should develop standardized programs and make related efforts. As adolescents' smoking is highly influenced by home environment or school life, it is necessary to make efforts in effective education and social reinforcement in school, to establish related norms, and to execute preventive education using peer groups. When these efforts are spread throughout society in cooperation with homes and communities, they will be helpful to protect adolescents' health and improve their quality of life. PMID:22232621

  14. Adolescents' Reasons for Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarason, Irwin G.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Reports a study of adolescents' motivations for smoking. Survey results indicated that curiosity, social norms, and pressures were the main reasons for beginning smoking and that pleasure, addiction, and desire were the main reasons for continuing; various gender differences surfaced. Suggestions are given for smoking prevention programs. (SM)

  15. Effectiveness of a complex intervention in reducing the prevalence of smoking among adolescents: study design of a cluster-randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The likelihood of an adolescent taking up smoking may be influenced by his or her society, school and family. Thus, changes in the immediate environment may alter a young person’s perception of smoking. Methods/Design The proposed multi-center, cluster-randomized controlled trial will be stratified by the baseline prevalence of smoking in schools. Municipalities with fewer than 100,000 inhabitants will be randomly assigned to a control or intervention group. One secondary school will be randomly selected from each municipality. These schools will be randomized to two groups: the students of one will receive any existing educational course regarding smoking, while those of the other school will receive a four-year, class-based curriculum intervention (22 classroom lessons) aimed at reinforcing a smoke-free school policy and encouraging smoking cessation in parents, pupils, and teachers. The intervention will also include annual meetings with parents and efforts to empower adolescents to change the smoking-related attitudes and behaviors in their homes, classrooms and communities. We will enroll children aged 12-13 years as they enter secondary school during two consecutive school years (to obtain sufficient enrolled subjects). We will follow them for five years, until two years after they leave secondary school. All external evaluators and analysts will be blinded to school allocation. The aim of this study is to analyze the effectiveness of a complex intervention in reducing the prevalence of smoking in the third year of compulsory secondary education (ESO) and two years after secondary school, when the participants are 14-15 and 17-18 years old, respectively. Discussion Most interventions aimed at preventing smoking among adolescents yield little to no positive long-term effects. This clinical trial will analyze the effectiveness of a complex intervention aimed at reducing the incidence and prevalence of smoking in this vulnerable age group. Trial

  16. Tobacco Smoking in Adolescent Psychiatric Outpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditchburn, K. Marie; Sellman, J. Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Three main aims of this study were to ascertain the prevalence rate of smoking among adolescent psychiatric outpatients; estimate smokers' degree of nicotine dependence; and investigate the relationship between smoking and common mental health disorders. Face-to-face interviews were conducted on 93 patients ages 13-18 presenting to an adolescent…

  17. Prevalence of smoking among major movie characters: 1996–2004

    PubMed Central

    Worth, Keilah A; Cin, Sonya Dal; Sargent, James D

    2006-01-01

    Background Reports of a relationship between watching smoking in movies and smoking among adolescents have prompted greater scrutiny of smoking in movies by the public health community. Objective To assess the smoking prevalence among adult and adolescent movie characters, examine trends in smoking in movies over time, and compare the data with actual smoking prevalence among US adults and adolescents. Design and methods Smoking status of all major human adolescent and adult movie characters in the top 100 box office hits from 1996 to 2004 (900 movies) was assessed, and smoking prevalence was examined by Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) rating and year of release. Results The movies contained 5944 major characters, of whom 4911 were adults and 466 were adolescents. Among adult movie characters, the overall smoking prevalence was 20.6%; smoking was more common in men than in women (22.6% v 16.1%, respectively, p<0.001), and was related to MPAA rating category (26.9% for movies rated R (restricted, people aged <17 years require accompanying adult), 17.9% for PG‐13 (parents strongly cautioned that some material might be inappropriate for children) and 10.4% for G/PG (general audiences, all ages; parental guidance suggested for children), p<0.001). In 1996, the smoking prevalence for major adult movie characters (25.7%) was similar to that in the actual US population (24.7%). Smoking prevalence among adult movie characters declined to 18.4% in 2004 (p for trend <0.001), slightly below that for the US population for that year (20.9%). Examination of trends by MPAA rating showed that the downward trend in smoking among adult movie characters was statistically significant in movies rated G/PG and R, but not in those rated PG‐13. A downward trend over time was also found for smoking among adolescent movie characters. There was no smoking among adult characters in 43.3% of the movies; however, in 39% of the movies, smoking prevalence among adult characters

  18. Prevalence, Patterns and Correlates of Cigarette Smoking in Male Adolescents in Northern Jordan, and the Influence of Waterpipe Use and Asthma Diagnosis: A Descriptive Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sheyab, Nihaya; Alomari, Mahmoud A.; Shah, Smita; Gallagher, Patrick; Gallagher, Robyn

    2014-01-01

    Our study investigates the prevalence, patterns and predictors of tobacco smoking among early adolescent males in Northern Jordan and whether asthma diagnosis affects smoking patterns. A descriptive cross sectional design was used. Males in grades 7 and 8 from four randomly selected high schools in the city of Irbid were enrolled. Data on waterpipe (WP) use and cigarette smoking patterns were obtained (n = 815) using a survey in Arabic language. The overall prevalence of ever having smoked a cigarette was 35.6%, with 86.2% of this group smoking currently. Almost half of the sample reported WP use. The most common age in which adolescents started to experiment with cigarettes was 11–12 years old (49.1%), although 10 years was also common (25.3%). Significant predictors of male cigarette smoking were WP use (OR = 4.15, 95% CI = 2.99–5.76), asthma diagnosis (OR = 2.35, 95% CI = 1.46–3.78), grade 8 (OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.10–2.11), and having a sibling who smokes (OR = 2.23, 95% CI = 1.53–3.24). However, this cross-sectional study cannot establish causality, thus longitudinal studies are needed. Public health programs and school-based anti-tobacco smoking interventions that target children in early years at high schools are warranted to prevent the uptake of tobacco use among this vulnerable age group. High school students with asthma should be specifically targeted. PMID:25257355

  19. Smoking in Movies and Adolescent Smoking Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Sargent, James D.; Engels, Rutger C.M.E.; Scholte, Ron H.J.; Florek, Ewa; Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen; Mathis, Federica; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2013-01-01

    Background Longitudinal studies from the U.S. suggest a causal relationship between exposure to images of smoking in movies and adolescent smoking onset. Purpose This study investigates whether adolescent smoking onset is predicted by the amount of exposure to smoking in movies across six European countries with various cultural and regulatory approaches to tobacco. Methods Longitudinal survey of 9987 adolescent never-smokers recruited in the years 2009–2010 (mean age 13.2 years) in 112 state-funded schools from Germany, Iceland, Italy, The Netherlands, Poland, and the United Kingdom (UK), and followed-up in 2011. Exposure to movie smoking was estimated from 250 top-grossing movies in each country. Multilevel mixed-effects Poisson regressions were performed in 2012 to assess the relationship between exposure at baseline and smoking status at follow-up. Results During the observation period (M=12 months), 17% of the sample initiated smoking. The estimated mean exposure to on-screen tobacco was 1560 occurrences. Overall, and after controlling for age; gender; family affluence; school performance; TVscreen time; personality characteristics; and smoking status of peers, parents, and siblings, exposure to each additional 1000 tobacco occurrences increased the adjusted relative risk for smoking onset by 13% (95% CI=8%, 17%, p<0.001). The crude relationship between movie smoking exposure and smoking initiation was significant in all countries; after covariate adjustment, the relationship remained significant in Germany, Iceland, The Netherlands, Poland, and UK. Conclusions Seeing smoking in movies is a predictor of smoking onset in various cultural contexts. The results confirm that limiting young people’s exposure to movie smoking might be an effective way to decrease adolescent smoking onset. PMID:23498098

  20. Smoking cessation treatment for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Karpinski, Julie P; Timpe, Erin M; Lubsch, Lisa

    2010-10-01

    Cigarette smoking in the adolescent population remains a public health concern. A significant portion of the adolescent population currently uses tobacco. Nicotine is particularly addicting in adolescents, and quitting is difficult. The goals for adolescent cigarette smoking efforts must include both primary prevention and smoking cessation. Bupropion and nicotine replacement therapies-including nicotine patches, gum, and nasal spray-have been studied to a limited extent in the adolescent population. Varenicline has not been evaluated as a treatment modality in adolescents. Long-term quit rates in the pharmacotherapy trials have not been optimal; however, decreases in cigarettes smoked per day have been observed. Several evidencebased guidelines include recommendations for smoking cessation in adolescents that include counseling and pharmacotherapy. Pharmacotherapy may be instituted for some adolescents in addition to counseling and behavioral interventions. Therapy should be individualized, based on smoking patterns, patient preferences, and concomitant disease states. Smoking cessation support for parents should be instituted as well. The pharmacist can play a large role in helping the adolescent quit smoking. Further studies evaluating pharmacotherapy options for smoking cessation in adolescents are necessary. If pharmacotherapy is used, it should be individualized and combined with psychosocial and behavioral interventions. PMID:22477813

  1. Exposure to Smoking Imagery in Popular Films and Adolescent Smoking in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F.; Jackson, Christine; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Sargent, James D.

    2008-01-01

    Background Exposure to smoking imagery in films is consistently associated with smoking behavior and its psychological antecedents among adolescents in high-income countries, but its association with adolescent smoking in middle-income countries is unknown. Methods In 2006, a cross-sectional sample of 3876 Mexican adolescents in secondary school was surveyed on smoking behavior, smoking risk factors, and exposure to 42 popular films that contained smoking. Participants were classified into quartiles of exposure to smoking imagery across all films they reported having seen. Models were estimated to determine associations among quartiles of film-smoking exposure, smoking behavior, and the psychological antecedents of smoking, adjusting for age, gender, sensation seeking, self-esteem, parental smoking, sibling smoking, best-friend smoking, having a bedroom TV, and private versus public school attendance. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Results Adolescents were exposed to an average of 51.7 (SE=1.3) minutes of smoking in the films they viewed. Crude and adjusted ORs indicated positive associations between quartiles of film-smoking exposure and both current smoking (AOR4v1=3.13; p<0.0001) and having ever smoked (AOR4v1=2.42; p<0.0001). Data from never-smokers (n=2098) were analyzed to determine associations between film-smoking exposure and psychological antecedents of smoking uptake. Crude and adjusted coefficients indicated significant, positive associations between exposure and susceptibility to smoking (AOR4v1=1.66; p<0.05); favorable attitudes toward smoking (Adjusted B4v1=0.44; p<0.0001); and perceived peer prevalence of smoking (Adjusted B4v1=0.26; p<0.0001). Conclusions Exposure to smoking in films appears associated with smoking among Mexican adolescents. Policies could aim to decrease youth exposure to smoking in nationally and internationally distributed films. PMID:18617078

  2. Program Strategies for Adolescent Smoking Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritz, Deborah J.; Wider, Lottchen Crane; Hardin, Sally B.; Horrocks, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    School nurses who work with adolescents are in an ideal position to promote smoking cessation. This opportunity is important because research suggests teens who smoke are likely to become habitual smokers. This study characterizes adolescents' patterns and levels of smoking, describes adolescents' perceptions toward smoking, and delineates quit…

  3. Reducing Smoking among Pregnant Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Joanne; Coates, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes psychosocial intervention designed to reduce smoking in a group of pregnant teenagers. Five modules are presented, each being designed to heighten awareness of the issue; provide motivational messages; enhance the adolescent's social skills; and teach specific smoking-cessation skills. (Author/NB)

  4. Smoking in Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Richard I.; And Others

    Intended primarily for researchers and prevention program personnel, this booklet provides current background information on the continuing problem of smoking among children and adolescents. In the first brief section, research findings concerning American youth's current smoking patterns and beliefs are described. The second section considers…

  5. Smoking Media Literacy in Vietnamese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; Huong, Nguyen T.; Chi, Hoang K.; Tien, Truong Q.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Smoking media literacy (SML) has been found to be independently associated with reduced current smoking and reduced susceptibility to future smoking in a sample of American adolescents, but not in other populations of adolescents. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess SML in Vietnamese adolescents and to determine the…

  6. If Parents Establish a No-Smoking Agreement with Their Offspring, Does This Prevent Adolescents from Smoking? Findings from Three Dutch Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Exter Blokland, Endy A. W.; Engels, Rutger C.; Harakeh, Zeena; Hale, William W., III.; Meeus, Wim

    2009-01-01

    Data from three studies were used to investigate whether the establishment of a no-smoking agreement is related to lower odds of adolescent smoking. The prevalence of a no-smoking agreement was first explored by using a national sample involving 4,501 Dutch adolescents. Second, data from a longitudinal study among 595 early adolescents and their…

  7. Hookah Smoking and Harm Perception among Asthmatic Adolescents: Findings from the Florida Youth Tobacco Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinasek, Mary P.; Gibson-Young, Linda; Forrest, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hookah tobacco smoking has increased in prevalence among Florida adolescents and is often viewed as a safer alternative to cigarette smoking by young adults. Asthmatic adolescents are at increased risk of the negative health effects of hookah smoking. The purpose of this study is to examine if hookah use and harm perception vary by…

  8. Mass Media for Smoking Cessation in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Laura J.; Bunn, Janice Y.; Flynn, Brian S.; Pirie, Phyllis L.; Worden, John K.; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2009-01-01

    Theory-driven, mass media interventions prevent smoking among youth. This study examined effects of a media campaign on adolescent smoking cessation. Four matched pairs of media markets in four states were randomized to receive or not receive a 3-year television/radio campaign aimed at adolescent smoking cessation based on social cognitive theory.…

  9. Contextual factors associated with smoking among Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Giatti, Luana; Casado, Leticia; de Moura, Lenildo; Crespo, Claudio; Malta, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Background Very few studies have examined the role of school, household and family contexts in youth smoking in middle-income countries. Methods This work describes smoking exposure among 59 992 high school students who took part in the Brazilian Survey of School Health and investigates contextual factors associated with regular smoking, defined as smoking cigarettes at least once in the past 30 days. The explaining variables were grouped into: socio-demographic characteristics, school context, household context and family rapport. Variables independently associated with smoking in each context were identified by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results 53% of the total sample were girls, 89% were aged 13–15 years. 24% had already experimented with cigarettes, 50% before the age of 12 years. The prevalence of regular smoking was 6.3% (95% CI 5.87 to 6.74), with no sex variation. Smoking was not associated with either the mother's education or the index of household assets. In the multivariable analysis, studying at a private school, the possibility of purchasing cigarettes at school and skipping of classes without parents' consent increased the chances of smoking. In the household context, living with both parents was negatively associated with smoking, while having smoking parents and exposure to other people's smoking was positively related to smoking. In the family context, parental unawareness of what the adolescent was doing increased smoking, but having meals with the mother one or more days per week and parents' negative reactions to adolescent smoking reduced the chances of smoking. Conclusion The results reinforce the role of school, household and family contexts in youth smoking behaviours and will help improve public health policies aimed at preventing smoking and health promotion in adolescents. PMID:21471139

  10. Social Psychological Factors in Adolescent Cigarette Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Steven J.; And Others

    Results emanating from smoking cessation programs suggest the necessity for a greater commitment to research for primary smoking prevention. Because of the early onset of smoking, more research must focus on adolescents and preadolescents who have not yet begun to smoke regularly. Three areas of concentrated study are proposed: (1) the initiation…

  11. Smoking in movies and adolescent smoking: cross-cultural study in six European countries

    PubMed Central

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Poelen, Evelien A P; Scholte, Ron; Karlsdottir, Solveig; Jonsson, Stefán Hrafn; Mathis, Federica; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Florek, Ewa; Sweeting, Helen; Hunt, Kate; Sargent, James D; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2013-01-01

    Aim To investigate whether the association between exposure to smoking in movies and smoking among youth is independent of cultural context. Method Cross-sectional survey of 16 551 pupils recruited in Germany, Iceland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland and Scotland with a mean age of 13.4 years (SD=1.18) and an equal gender distribution. School-based surveys were conducted between November 2009 and June 2010. Using previously validated methods, exposure to movie smoking was estimated from the 250 top-grossing movies of each country (years 2004–2009) and related to ever smoking. Results Overall, 29% of the sample had tried smoking. The sample quartile (Q) of movie smoking exposure was significantly associated with the prevalence of ever smoking: 14% of adolescents in Q1 had tried smoking, 21% in Q2, 29% in Q3 and 36% in Q4. After controlling for age, gender, family affluence, school performance, television screen time, number of movies seen, sensation seeking and rebelliousness and smoking within the social environment (peers, parents and siblings), the adjusted ORs for having tried smoking in the entire sample were 1.3 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.5) for adolescents in Q2, 1.6 (95% CI 1.4 to 1.9) for Q3 and 1.7 (95% CI 1.4 to 2.0) for Q4 compared with Q1. The adjusted relationship between ever smoking and higher movie smoking exposure levels was significant in all countries with a non-linear association in Italy and Poland. Conclusions The link between smoking in movies and adolescent smoking is robust and transcends different cultural contexts. Limiting young people's exposure to movie smoking could have important public health implications. PMID:21873322

  12. Adolescents' Smoking Behavior and Attitudes: The Influence of Mothers' Smoking Communication, Behavior and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbert, Diane F.; Schiaffino, Kathleen M.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated adolescents' and parents' perceptions regarding smoking behavior, attitudes toward smoking, and smoking communication. Instruments were developed to measure multidimensional smoking communication messages and smoking attitudes in 140 mother-adolescent dyads. The prediction of relevant adolescent smoking variables is…

  13. Thai Adolescents' Normative Beliefs of the Popularity of Smoking among Peers, Adults, the Successful and Elite, and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn; Sloan, Arielle; Kironde, Jennifer; West, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the perceptions of Thailand adolescents regarding the prevalence of smoking, the popularity of smoking among successful/elite elements of society, and disapproval of smoking by friends and parents. These perceptions were analyzed in conjunction with actual smoking and smoking susceptibility rates among the…

  14. Factors Related to Smoking Habits of Male Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Naing, Nyi Nyi; Ahmad, Zulkifli; Musa, Razlan; Hamid, Farique Rizal Abdul; Ghazali, Haslan; Bakar, Mohd Hilmi Abu

    2004-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the factors related to smoking habits of adolescents among secondary school boys in Kelantan state, Malaysia. A total of 451 upper secondary male students from day, boarding and vocational schools were investigated using a structured questionnaire. Cluster sampling was applied to achieve the required sample size. The significant findings included: 1) the highest prevalence of smoking was found among schoolboys from the vocational school; 2) mean duration of smoking was 2.5 years; 3) there were significant associations between smoking status and parents' smoking history, academic performance, perception of the health hazards of smoking, and type of school attended. Peer influence was the major reason students gave for taking up the habit. Religion was most often indicated by non-smokers as their reason for not smoking. Approximately 3/5 of the smokers had considered quitting and 45% of them had tried at least once to stop smoking. Mass media was indicated as the best information source for the students to acquire knowledge about negative aspects of the smoking habit. The authors believe an epidemic of tobacco use is imminent if drastic action is not taken, and recommend that anti-smoking campaigns with an emphasis on the religious aspect should start as early as in primary school. Intervention programs to encourage behavior modification of adolescents are also recommended.

  15. Factors Related to Smoking Habits of Male Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Naing, Nyi Nyi; Ahmad, Zulkifli; Musa, Razlan; Hamid, Farique Rizal Abdul; Ghazali, Haslan; Bakar, Mohd Hilmi Abu

    2004-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the factors related to smoking habits of adolescents among secondary school boys in Kelantan state, Malaysia. A total of 451 upper secondary male students from day, boarding and vocational schools were investigated using a structured questionnaire. Cluster sampling was applied to achieve the required sample size. The significant findings included: 1) the highest prevalence of smoking was found among schoolboys from the vocational school; 2) mean duration of smoking was 2.5 years; 3) there were significant associations between smoking status and parents' smoking history, academic performance, perception of the health hazards of smoking, and type of school attended. Peer influence was the major reason students gave for taking up the habit. Religion was most often indicated by non-smokers as their reason for not smoking. Approximately 3/5 of the smokers had considered quitting and 45% of them had tried at least once to stop smoking. Mass media was indicated as the best information source for the students to acquire knowledge about negative aspects of the smoking habit. The authors believe an epidemic of tobacco use is imminent if drastic action is not taken, and recommend that anti-smoking campaigns with an emphasis on the religious aspect should start as early as in primary school. Intervention programs to encourage behavior modification of adolescents are also recommended. PMID:19570279

  16. Smoking Prevalence Increases following Canterbury Earthquakes

    PubMed Central

    Erskine, Nick; Daley, Vivien; Stevenson, Sue; Rhodes, Bronwen

    2013-01-01

    Background. A magnitude 7.1 earthquake hit Canterbury in September 2010. This earthquake and associated aftershocks took the lives of 185 people and drastically changed residents' living, working, and social conditions. Aim. To explore the impact of the earthquakes on smoking status and levels of tobacco consumption in the residents of Christchurch. Methods. Semistructured interviews were carried out in two city malls and the central bus exchange 15 months after the first earthquake. A total of 1001 people were interviewed. Results. In August 2010, prior to any earthquake, 409 (41%) participants had never smoked, 273 (27%) were currently smoking, and 316 (32%) were ex-smokers. Since the September 2010 earthquake, 76 (24%) of the 316 ex-smokers had smoked at least one cigarette and 29 (38.2%) had smoked more than 100 cigarettes. Of the 273 participants who were current smokers in August 2010, 93 (34.1%) had increased consumption following the earthquake, 94 (34.4%) had not changed, and 86 (31.5%) had decreased their consumption. 53 (57%) of the 93 people whose consumption increased reported that the earthquake and subsequent lifestyle changes as a reason to increase smoking. Conclusion. 24% of ex-smokers resumed smoking following the earthquake, resulting in increased smoking prevalence. Tobacco consumption levels increased in around one-third of current smokers. PMID:24311978

  17. Percentage of U.S. Adolescents Who Smoke Cigarettes

    MedlinePlus

    ... U.S. Adolescents Who Smoke Cigarettes Percentage of U.S. Adolescents Who Smoke Cigarettes Tobacco use is the leading ... This measure is calculated by the Division of Adolescent and School Health, National Center for Chronic Disease ...

  18. Smoker identity development among adolescents who smoke.

    PubMed

    Hertel, Andrew W; Mermelstein, Robin J

    2016-06-01

    Adolescents who smoke are more likely to escalate their smoking frequency if they believe smoking is self-defining. Knowing factors that are associated with development of a smoker identity among adolescents who smoke may help to identify who will become a regular smoker. We investigated whether smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. For comparison, we also investigated whether social smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. Adolescents who smoke (n = 292) completed measures of smoker and social smoker identity, internal motives for smoking (negative affect coping, positive affect enhancement), and external motives for smoking (social fit) at baseline, 6-, 15-, and 24-month assessments of an ongoing longitudinal study of smoking patterns. We examined whether change in smoker and social smoker identity from 6 to 24 months was associated with change in motives at earlier assessment waves. We also explored whether gender moderated these relationships. Increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with smoker identity development among both males and females. Increases in social motives were associated with smoker identity development among males, and increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with social smoker identity development among females. Smoker and social smoker identities are signaled by negative affect coping as well as social motives for smoking. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27136374

  19. Smoker Identity Development among Adolescents who Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Hertel, Andrew W.; Mermelstein, Robin J.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents who smoke are more likely to escalate their smoking frequency if they believe smoking is self-defining. Knowing factors that are associated with development of a smoker identity among adolescents who smoke may help to identify who will become a regular smoker. We investigated whether smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. For comparison, we also investigated whether social smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. Adolescents who smoke (n = 292) completed measures of smoker and social smoker identity, internal motives for smoking (negative affect coping, positive affect enhancement), and external motives for smoking (social fit) at baseline, 6-, 15-, and 24-month assessments of an ongoing longitudinal study of smoking patterns. We examined whether change in smoker and social smoker identity from 6 to 24 months was associated with change in motives at earlier assessment waves. We also explored whether gender moderated these relationships. Increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with smoker identity development among both males and females. Increases in social motives were associated with smoker identity development among males, and increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with social smoker identity development among females. Smoker and social smoker identities are signaled by negative affect coping as well as social motives for smoking. PMID:27136374

  20. Examining Hookah Smoking Among a Cohort of Adolescent Ever Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Mermelstein, Robin

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Evidence suggests that hookah smoking is growing among adolescents, particularly among those with a history of cigarette smoking, and is an emerging public health concern. We examined hookah use and its correlates among a sample of adolescents who have ever smoked and may be considered high risk for hookah use. Methods: We examined differences between hookah users and nonusers among a cohort of 951 adolescents (75.3% of the baseline sample, mean age 17.6 years at 24 months), consisting exclusively of youth who reported ever smoking cigarettes who were participating in a longitudinal study of adolescent smoking predictors and patterns. Ever and 30-day hookah use were assessed at 24 months. Results: Of the 951 participants, 58.5% reported ever use and 30.2% reported smoking hookah at least 1 day in the past 30 days. Multivariate logistic regression analyses found that 30-day hookah use was associated with sex (p < .05); race (p < .001); current cigarette (p < .0001), cigar (p < .01), kretek (p < .05), and alcohol use (p < .01); and attending a hookah bar, lounge, or restaurant (p < .001). Participants who were male, White, and were concurrent users of multiple tobacco products and other substances had increased odds of 30-day hookah use. Conclusions: Prevalence of hookah use is high among youth who have already tried cigarette smoking and is associated with a variety of tobacco and other substance use behaviors. Evidence-based programs may be needed to prevent initiation of or reduce Hookah smoking, as well as address cooccurring problem behaviors, to lessen the health risks associated with use among adolescents. PMID:21896886

  1. State Estimates of Adolescent Cigarette Use and Perceptions of Risk of Smoking: 2012 and 2013

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2015 STATE ESTIMATES OF ADOLESCENT CIGARETTE USE AND PERCEPTIONS OF RISK OF SMOKING: 2012 AND 2013 AUTHORS ... with an inverse association between use and risk perceptions (i.e., the prevalence of use is lower ...

  2. Legislative smoking bans for reducing exposure to secondhand smoke and smoking prevalence: Opportunities for Georgians

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven S.; Anderson, Jennifer; Smith, Selina A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Secondhand smoke, which is also referred to as environmental tobacco smoke and passive smoke, is a known human carcinogen. Secondhand smoke also causes disease and premature death in nonsmoking adults and children. Methods We summarize studies of secondhand smoke in public places before and after smoking bans, as well as studies of cardiovascular and respiratory disease before and after such bans. Results To protect the public from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke, smoke-free legislation is an effective public health measure. Smoking bans in public places, which have been implemented in many jurisdictions across the U.S. and in other countries, have the potential to influence social norms and reduce smoking behavior. Conclusions Through legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure and smoking prevalence, opportunities exist to protect the health of Georgians and other Americans and to reduce health care costs. These opportunities include increasing the comprehensiveness of smoking bans in public places and ensuring adequate funding to quit line services. PMID:26345719

  3. Adult versus adolescent onset of smoking: how are mood disorders and other risk factors involved?

    PubMed Central

    Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Landolt, Karin; Angst, Jules; Gamma, Alex; Merikangas, Kathleen R.; Gutzwiller, Felix; Rössler, Wulf

    2010-01-01

    Aims To examine the strength of association between smoking and mood disorders and the association between smoking and its traditional risk factors, comparing those who started smoking in adolescence with those who started smoking in early adulthood. Design and participants The analyses relied on prospective data from the Zurich Study. This longitudinal community study started in 1979 with a stratified sample of 591 participants aged 20/21 years, weighted towards those with mental disorders. Follow-up interviews were conducted at ages 23, 28, 30, 35 and 41. Measurements In this analysis the adult versus adolescent onset of smoking was regressed on the cumulative prevalence of mood disorders, personality characteristics measured by the Freiburg Personality Inventory, common risk factors such as parental smoking, conduct and school problems, troubles with the family and basic sociodemographic variables (sex, education). Findings In the Zurich Study cohort we found that 61.6% were former or current smokers, of whom 87% started smoking before the age of 20 and 13% after the age of 20. Adolescent onset of smoking was associated strongly with later major depression, dysthymia or bipolar disorders and, furthermore, with parental smoking, extroverted personality and discipline problems and rebelliousness in youth. However, only depression and dysthymia were associated with adult onset smoking and other risk factors associated with smoking were not so associated in this group. Conclusions Correlates of smoking onset in adolescence are mainly not applicable to the onset of smoking in young adulthood. Smoking onset beyond adolescence is an open research issue. PMID:19624327

  4. Adolescents' Perceptions of Smoking and Stress Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, Monica B.; Monahan, Jennifer L.; Rhodes, Nancy; Roskos-Ewoldsen, David; Johnson-Turbes, Ashani

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined how adolescents perceive the relationship between smoking and stress and where they learn that smoking cigarettes may be an effective stress-reduction mechanism. Eight focus groups were conducted with low-income African American and European American 14- to 16-year-olds in urban and rural locations, in which they…

  5. Correlates of Perceived Smoking Prevalence Among Korean American Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Cerrada, Christian J; Unger, Jennifer B; Huh, Jimi

    2016-10-01

    Perceived smoking prevalence, a strong predictor of actual smoking behavior, may be influenced by the ethnicity and gender of the reference group presented to Korean American emerging adults. Self-identifying Korean and Korean Americans aged 18-25 (N = 475), were invited to complete a 15-20 min online survey about their attitudes towards smoking. Predictors of perceived smoking prevalence were evaluated separately for four reference groups: Caucasian Americans, Korean Americans in general, Korean American men, and Korean American women. Respondents' smoking status was associated with perceived smoking prevalence for all reference groups except Caucasian Americans, even among light smokers. Father's smoking status was associated with perceived smoking prevalence for Korean American men, only among females respondents. Findings suggest that ethnicity and gender of both the reference group and respondents influence smoking rate estimates. Tailoring intervention content to the target population's gender and ethnicity may be a way to enhance smoking prevention strategies. PMID:27075031

  6. Association between personality and adolescent smoking.

    PubMed

    Harakeh, Zeena; Scholte, Ron H J; de Vries, Hein; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2006-02-01

    The present study examined the association between adolescents' personality traits and smoking, and tested whether this association was moderated by birth order or gender. Participants were 832 Dutch siblings aged 13 to 17 years participating at baseline assessment (T1) and at follow-up 12 months later (T2). Personality was assessed by applying a variable-centered approach including five personality dimensions (Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability and Openness to Experience), and a person-oriented approach using three personality types (i.e., Resilients, Overcontrollers and Undercontrollers). Cross-sectional findings indicated that Extraversion (at T1 and T2), Agreeableness (at T2), Conscientiousness (at T2), and Emotional Stability (at T2) were related to adolescent smoking. Longitudinal findings indicated that only Extraversion and Emotional Stability were related to onset of adolescent smoking. Using a person-oriented approach, Overcontrollers and Undercontrollers did not differ from Resilients on smoking onset. No indication was found for a moderating effect of birth order on the association between personality and smoking. Additional findings showed that gender moderated the effect of Agreeableness on adolescents' smoking onset. Implications for prevention are also addressed. PMID:15953689

  7. Child and Adolescent Psychiatrists' Practices in Assisting Their Adolescent Patients Who Smoke to Quit Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, James H.; Sidani, Jaime E.; Price, Joy A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This national study examined the practices and perceptions of smoking cessation activities among child and adolescent psychiatrists. Method: A random sample of child and adolescent psychiatrists was identified from the membership list of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and was mailed a valid and reliable 34-item…

  8. Intergenerational Patterns of Smoking and Nicotine Dependence Among US Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Griesler, Pamela C.; Hu, Mei-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined associations between parental and adolescent smoking and nicotine dependence in the United States. Methods. We used data from the 2004 to 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, which ascertained smoking behaviors of 1 parent and 1 adolescent aged 12 to 17 years in 35 000 dyads. We estimated associations between parental and adolescent smoking behaviors, adjusted for covariates. Results. Parental current dependence was strongly associated with adolescents’ lifetime smoking (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.96; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.47, 3.55), whereas parental current nondependent smoking (AOR = 2.26; 95% CI = 1.92, 2.67) and former smoking (AOR = 1.51; 95% CI = 1.31, 1.75) were less strongly associated. Only parental nicotine dependence was associated with adolescent nicotine dependence (AOR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.00, 2.74). Associations between parental and adolescent smoking did not differ by race/ethnicity. Parents’ education, marital status, and parenting and adolescents' mental health, beliefs about smoking, perception of schoolmates’ smoking, and other substance use predicted adolescent smoking and dependence. Conclusions. Reducing parental smoking would reduce adolescent smoking. Prevention efforts should encourage parental smoking cessation, improve parenting, address adolescent mental health, and reinforce adolescents' negative beliefs about smoking. PMID:26378847

  9. Reducing Smoking in Adolescents: Cost-Effectiveness Results From the Cluster Randomized ASSIST (A Stop Smoking In Schools Trial)

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, David; Hawkins, James; Hughes, Rachael A.; Moore, Laurence A. R.; Holliday, Jo C.; Audrey, Suzanne; Starkey, Fenella; Campbell, Rona

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: School-based smoking prevention programmes can be effective, but evidence on cost-effectiveness is lacking. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of a school-based “peer-led” intervention. Methods: We evaluated the ASSIST (A Stop Smoking In Schools Trial) programme in a cluster randomized controlled trial. The ASSIST programme trained students to act as peer supporters during informal interactions to encourage their peers not to smoke. Fifty-nine secondary schools in England and Wales were randomized to receive the ASSIST programme or usual smoking education. Ten thousand seven hundred and thirty students aged 12–13 years attended participating schools. Previous work has demonstrated that the ASSIST programme achieved a 2.1% (95% CI = 0%–4.2%) reduction in smoking prevalence. We evaluated the public sector cost, prevalence of weekly smoking, and cost per additional student not smoking at 24 months. Results: The ASSIST programme cost of £32 (95% CI = £29.70–£33.80) per student. The incremental cost per student not smoking at 2 years was £1,500 (95% CI = £669–£9,947). Students in intervention schools were less likely to believe that they would be a smoker at age 16 years (odds ratio [OR] = 0.80; 95% CI = 0.66–0.96). Conclusions: A peer-led intervention reduced smoking among adolescents at a modest cost. The intervention is cost-effective under realistic assumptions regarding the extent to which reductions in adolescent smoking lead to lower smoking prevalence and/or earlier smoking cessation in adulthood. The annual cost of extending the intervention to Year 8 students in all U.K. schools would be in the region of £38 million and could result in 20,400 fewer adolescent smokers. PMID:22180581

  10. Recent Findings on Peer Group Influences on Adolescent Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Farhat, Tilda

    2010-01-01

    This review addresses peer group influences on adolescent smoking with a particular focus on recently published longitudinal studies that have investigated the topic. Specifically, we examine the theoretical explanations for how social influence works with respect to adolescent smoking; discuss the association between peer and adolescent smoking;…

  11. Prevalence and Determinants of Male Adolescents’ Smoking in Iran: An Explanation Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Karimy, Mahmood; Niknami, Shamsaddin; Heidarnia, Ali Reza; Hajizadeh, Ibrahim; Montazeri, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background Adolescent smoking problem has still remained as a public health concern, but factors that attributing to the initiation of adolescent smoking are not well known in Iran. Objectives The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of smoking, and its associations among high school male adolescents in Iran, in the context of the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Patients and Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving male adolescent students (high school) in the city of Zarandieh, Iran. A multiple-stage sampling protocol was used. The participants completed an anonymous, voluntary, and self-report questionnaire. Prevalence was estimated, and demographic variables, psychological factors, and the theory of planned behavior components were used to indicate factors contributing to adolescents’ cigarette smoking. Results In all, 365 students were entered the study. The mean age of respondents was 16.49 ± 1.11 years. The prevalence of current smoking was 15.1%. The result obtained from logistic regression analysis revealed that all theory of planned behavior (TPB) components [knowledge (OR = 0.75; 95% CI: (0.59-0.97), attitude (OR = 0.75; 95% CI: (0.65-0.86), self-efficacy (OR = 0.82; 95% CI: (0.71-0.95), subjective norms (OR = 0.84; 95% CI: (0.72-0.98)] were significant predating factors for adolescents smoking habits. In addition, having parents who smoke (OR = 4.75; 95% CI: (1.38-12.35), smoking friends (OR = 3.76; 95% CI: (1.20-11.76), and smoking siblings (OR = 4.21; 95% CI: (1.17-11.16) were significant contributing factors to adolescents’ cigarette smoking behavior. Conclusions The results showed that the prevalence of cigarette smoking in adolescents was high, and the theory of planned behavior (TPB) components were significant predictors of cigarette smoking. It seems that interventions targeting adolescents’ smoking habits might benefit using the TPB model. PMID:23983996

  12. Use of the Transtheoretical Model to Predict Stages of Smoking Cessation in Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ham, Ok Kyung; Lee, Young Ja

    2007-01-01

    Background: Smoking is popular among Korean male high school adolescents, with the prevalence of 20.7% differing markedly with the type of school, being 16.3% and 27.6% in academic and vocational technical high schools, respectively. The purpose of this study was to identify significant variables that predict stages of smoking cessation among…

  13. Media exposure and smoking intention in adolescents: a moderated mediation analysis from a cultivation perspective.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fang; Salmon, Charles T; Pang, Joyce S; Cheng, Wendy J Y

    2015-02-01

    The study tested a moderated mediation model to examine the mechanisms underlying the link between media exposure and adolescent smoking intention by utilizing a modification of cultivation theory. A total of 12,586 non-current smoker adolescents in California were included in the analysis. Results showed that media exposure was positively related to smoking intention via perceived prevalence of peer smoking when friend disapproval of cigarette use was low. This study contributes to a better understanding of the mechanisms regarding the media effects on smoking intention, but the findings should be interpreted with caution due to the small effect size. PMID:24058128

  14. Beliefs and attitudes of male and female adolescents and the risk of smoking behavior

    PubMed Central

    Kasim, K; Al-Zalabani, A; Abd El-Moneim, ES; Amer, S

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adolescent smoking relates to numerous risk factors, of which beliefs and attitudes toward smoking may play a role. The study aimed to investigate the association between beliefs and attitudes and the risk of adolescent smoking. Materials and Methods: In a school-based cross-sectional study, 3,400 students were recruited from 34 intermediate and secondary schools in Madinah City, Al Madinah Region, Saudi Arabia. Data about sociodemographics, smoking-related factors, and beliefs and attitudes toward smoking were collected using a valid and reliable self-administered questionnaire. Prevalence of smoking was estimated and the studied beliefs and attitudes were compared by smoking status and sex using appropriate statistical analyses including multivariate logistic regression. Results: Of the 3,322 respondents, 33.02% (38.9% males and 26.4% females) were current smokers. Beliefs and attitudes toward smoking significantly differed between smokers and nonsmokers in the studied male and female students. The adjusted risk of smoking was significantly increased among female adolescents who believed that male smokers were more attractive [odds ratio (OR) = 2.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.6-2.9] and among male smokers who believed that female smokers are more attractive (OR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.2-2.2). The risk was also increased among all adolescents who believed that smoking lent comfort in social gatherings. Belief that smoking is harmful, however, was negatively associated with the risk of smoking, particularly among females (OR = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.35-0.91). Conclusions: The study revealed a considerable high prevalence of smoking among male and female adolescents. Addressing the beliefs and knowledge about smoking during childhood is crucial in any antismoking program. PMID:27089105

  15. Smoking in film and impact on adolescent smoking: with special reference to European adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sargent, J D

    2006-02-01

    This review examines the evidence supporting an association between seeing smoking depictions in movies and adolescent smoking. The portrayal of tobacco use is common in movies and often modeled by movie stars who, from a social influences standpoint, should be powerful behavior change agents. The results of studies assessing audience responses to tobacco portrayal in movies are remarkably consistent in showing a moderate to strong association between seeing movie smoking and more positive attitudes toward smoking and adolescent smoking initiation. The population-based data include cross sectional samples from different regions of the United States, all supporting a movie smoking-teen smoking link. The 2 published longitudinal studies show an independent link between exposure to movie smoking at baseline and initiation in the future, with estimates of the effect size being remarkably consistent with their cross-sectional counterparts. Experimental research adds support by showing that scene depictions of smoking enhance positive views of smokers and increase intent to smoke in the future. Taken as a whole, this rich research base provides very strong support for the notion that movie smoking plays a role in smoking initiation among adolescents that warrants action at the individual and societal level. A major gap in our understanding is the impact of Hollywood movies on adolescents outside the United States. There is a real need for studies to be conducted in European and other populations to better understand the global reach of smoking in American film, since over half of box office revenues come from outside the United States. PMID:16541005

  16. Perceptions of Smoking and Nonsmoking Peers: The Value of Smoker and Nonsmoker Prototypes in Predicting Smoking Onset and Regular Smoking among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spijkerman, Renske; Van Den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescents' perceptions of persons their age who smoke cigarettes (also known as prototypes of smoking peers) play a critical role in an adolescent's decision to start smoking. However, adolescents' perceptions of their peers who do not smoke (prototypes of nonsmoking peers) could be implicated in adolescents' smoking decisions as well. In the…

  17. The Effects of Antismoking Messages From Family, School, and Mass Media on Smoking Behavior and Smoking Intention Among Chinese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shaohua; Koplan, Jeffrey; Eriksen, Michael P; Yao, Shuo; Redmon, Pamela; Song, Julia; Uretsky, Elanah; Huang, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of adolescent smoking has been increasing rapidly in China. Expanding adolescent exposure to antismoking messages may be an effective approach to prevent tobacco use among this population. Using a cross-sectional sample of 8,444 high school students in four Chinese cities, this study assessed the relation between self-reported exposure to antismoking messages from families, schools, and mass media and the rate of past 30-day smoking and smoking intention among junior and senior high school students. Results from logistic regression suggested that antismoking messages delivered via school and media inhibited both tobacco use and the intention to smoke. The effects of familial warnings about harmful effects of smoking, in contrast, were at best insignificant. PMID:25876081

  18. Evaluating Depressive Symptom Interactions on Adolescent Smoking Prevention Program Mediators: A Mediated Moderation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ping; Unger, Jennifer B.; Johnson, C. Anderson

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Smoking prevention interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing smoking prevalence in the United States. Further work is needed to address smoking in China, where over one third of the world’s current smokers reside. China, with more than 60% of the male population being smokers, also presents a unique opportunity to test cognitive processes involved in depression, social influences, and smoking. Adolescents at-risk for developing depression may process social information differently from low-risk counterparts. Methods: The Wuhan Smoking Prevention Trial was a school-based longitudinal randomized controlled trial aimed at preventing initiation and escalation of adolescent smoking behaviors. Thousand three hundred and ninety-one male seventh-grade students were assessed with a 200-item paper-and-pencil baseline survey, and it was readministered 1 year later following program implementation. Results: Friend prevalence estimates were significantly higher among 30-day smokers and among those at highest risk for depression symptoms. The program appeared to be successful in changing the perception of friend smoking prevalence only among adolescents with a comorbidity of high scores of depression symptoms and who have experimented previously with smoking. This Program × Comorbidity interaction on perceived friend smoking prevalence was significant in predicting 30-day smoking 1 year after program implementation. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that those adolescents with high levels of depressive symptoms may be more sensitive to social influences associated with smoking prevalence. Individual Disposition × Social Environmental Influences may be important when developing future effective prevention programming. PMID:20861150

  19. Influence and Selection Processes in Friendships and Adolescent Smoking Behaviour: The Role of Parental Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Vitaro, Frank; Blokland, Endy Den Exter; de Kemp, Raymond; Scholte, Ron H. J.

    2004-01-01

    Concerning the role of parental smoking on development of adolescent smoking, most studies have exclusively focused on the direct effects of parents' smoking on youths' smoking. However, parental smoking may also play an indirect role by affecting youths' susceptibility to peer influences and by affecting friendship selection. Data were from a…

  20. Using Peer Injunctive Norms to Predict Early Adolescent Cigarette Smoking Intentions.

    PubMed

    Zaleski, Adam C; Aloise-Young, Patricia A

    2013-06-01

    The present study investigated the importance of the perceived injunctive norm to predict early adolescent cigarette smoking intentions. A total of 271 6(th) graders completed a survey that included perceived prevalence of friend smoking (descriptive norm), perceptions of friends' disapproval of smoking (injunctive norm), and future smoking intentions. Participants also listed their five best friends, in which the actual injunctive norm was calculated. Results showed that smoking intentions were significantly correlated with the perceived injunctive norm but not with the actual injunctive norm. Secondly, the perceived injunctive norm predicted an additional 3.4% of variance in smoking intentions above and beyond the perceived descriptive norm. These results demonstrate the importance of the perceived injunctive norm in predicting early adolescent smoking intentions. PMID:24078745

  1. Using Peer Injunctive Norms to Predict Early Adolescent Cigarette Smoking Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Zaleski, Adam C.; Aloise-Young, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the importance of the perceived injunctive norm to predict early adolescent cigarette smoking intentions. A total of 271 6th graders completed a survey that included perceived prevalence of friend smoking (descriptive norm), perceptions of friends’ disapproval of smoking (injunctive norm), and future smoking intentions. Participants also listed their five best friends, in which the actual injunctive norm was calculated. Results showed that smoking intentions were significantly correlated with the perceived injunctive norm but not with the actual injunctive norm. Secondly, the perceived injunctive norm predicted an additional 3.4% of variance in smoking intentions above and beyond the perceived descriptive norm. These results demonstrate the importance of the perceived injunctive norm in predicting early adolescent smoking intentions. PMID:24078745

  2. "Deviance Proneness" and Adolescent Smoking 1980 versus 2001: Has There Been a "Hardening" of Adolescent Smoking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio; Sherman, Steven J.

    2007-01-01

    In a midwestern community sample, we tested for evidence of "hardening" of adolescent cigarette smoking between 1980 and 2001 by comparing adolescent smokers and nonsmokers at these two times on measures indicative of "deviance proneness" in Jessor and Jessor's [Jessor, R., & Jessor, S. L. (1977). "Problem behavior and psychosocial development: A…

  3. Cigarette Consumption and Cigarette Smoking Prevalence Among Adults in Kansas

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Sue Min

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Recent tobacco prevention and cessation activities have focused on nonsmoking ordinances and behavioral changes, and in Kansas, the overall prevalence of cigarette smoking among adults has decreased. The objective of this study was to determine whether overall cigarette consumption (mean annual number of cigarettes smoked) in Kansas also decreased. Methods Data on cigarette smoking prevalence for 91,465 adult Kansans were obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey for 1999 through 2010. Data on annual cigarette consumption were obtained from the 2002 and 2006 Kansas Adult Tobacco Survey and analyzed by totals, by sex, and by smoking some days or smoking every day. Linear regression was used to evaluate rate changes over time. Results Among men, but not women, cigarette smoking prevalence decreased significantly over time. The prevalence of smoking every day decreased significantly among both men and women, whereas the prevalence of smoking on some days increased significantly for women but not men. For current smokers, the mean annual number of cigarettes consumed remained the same. Conclusion The decline in overall smoking prevalence coupled with the lack of change in mean annual cigarette consumption may have resulted in a more intense exposure to cigarettes for the smoking population. The significant increase in some day use among women indicates a need for additional prevention and education activities; the impact on future lung cancer incidence rates needs further investigation. PMID:26068414

  4. Interactivity and Equifinality of Risks for Adolescent Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Adrian B.; Jackson-Carroll, Courtney J.

    2007-01-01

    Key psychosocial risks associated with adolescent smoking are well established. However, the ways in which the key risks of impulsivity, peer cigarette smoking, and self-reported use of alcohol interact to predict adolescent cigarette smoking is largely unknown. A sample of 210 Australian middle high school students aged 14-16 completed…

  5. Factors Associated with Growth in Daily Smoking among Indigenous Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Les B.; Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J.; McQuillan, Julia; Crawford, Devan M.

    2012-01-01

    North American Indigenous adolescents smoke earlier, smoke more, and are more likely to become regular smokers as adults than youth from any other ethnic group, yet we know very little about their early smoking trajectories. We use multilevel growth modeling across five waves of data from Indigenous adolescents (aged 10-13 years at Wave 1) to…

  6. Smoking by adolescents: large revenue but little for prevention.

    PubMed

    Girgis, A; Doran, C M; Sanson-Fisher, R W; Walsh, R A

    1995-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on the government revenue gained from the sale of cigarettes to minors and the proportion of this revenue that is spent on attempting to prevent adolescents from taking up this habit. Prevalence of smoking by minors was extrapolated for the individual states using Australian prevalence data; estimates of annual cigarette consumption were coupled with the respective cost of cigarettes in each state to derive an estimate of the total revenue accumulating from cigarette consumption by minors. From our analysis, approximately 211,000 Australian children under the legal age to purchase cigarettes consumed approximately 11.5 million packets of cigarettes in 1990. The estimated tax revenues to the federal and state governments from these sales were $8.42 million and $12.78 million respectively. While the average state revenue from cigarette consumption by minors during 1990 was just over $60 per under-age smoker, only $0.11 per under-age smoker was spent on anti-smoking campaigns in 1990. This is equivalent to approximately 0.002 per cent of state revenue from cigarette smoking by those under the legal purchase age being spent on discouraging adolescents from taking up this habit. Clearly, there is an inequitable expenditure on antismoking activities, given the enormous resources obtained from sales to minors. PMID:7734589

  7. Smoking in Hollywood movies: impact on teen smoking with special reference to German adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes studies that have linked exposure to movie smoking and smoking initiation among adolescents. Much of the research linking exposure to smoking to movies with adolescent smoking comes from studies of U.S. children and their exposure to smoking in Hollywood movies. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have assessed such exposure and have found a strong, independent association with smoking onset. A first study conduced in Germany reveals that smoking in internationally distributed movies is a risk factor for ever and current smoking among European adolescents, too. It is concluded that limiting exposure of young adolescents to movie smoking could have important world-wide public health implications. PMID:18409269

  8. Gender Differences in Reasons to Quit Smoking among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Struik, Laura L.; O'Loughlin, Erin K.; Dugas, Erika N.; Bottorff, Joan L.; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that many adolescents who smoke want to quit, but little is known about why adolescents want to quit and if reasons to quit differ across gender. The objective of this study was to determine if reasons to quit smoking differ in boys and girls. Data on the Adolescent Reasons for Quitting (ARFQ) scale were collected in mailed…

  9. Psychosocial correlates of cigarette smoking among Asian American and Pacific Islander adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fang; Cheng, Wendy J Y; Ho, Moon-Ho R; Pooh, Karen

    2013-04-01

    Despite the growing body of research in adolescent cigarette smoking, there is a lack of research on Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) adolescents. This study examined the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of the past 30-day cigarette smoking in Asian American (AA) and Pacific Islander (PI) adolescents by utilizing a multi-systemic theory-the problem behavior theory. Using the 2006-07 High School Questionnaire of California Healthy Kids Survey, variables such as cigarette smoking, individual characteristics and external influences were assessed. Chi-square tests and generalized estimating equations were used in the analyses. PIs had higher past 30-day cigarette smoking rates than AAs. In the whole AAPI population, significant correlates of cigarette smoking included: positive and negative attitudes toward cigarettes, perceived harm of cigarettes, perceived prevalence of peer cigarette smoking, friend disapproval of cigarette use, previous drug use, truancy, and academic performance. Interaction results showed that truancy increased the odds of cigarette use for AAs only. The study found differential prevalence and correlate of cigarette smoking in addition to common psychosocial correlates in AAs and PIs. It sheds light on the importance of studying AAs and PIs separately and further exploring other potential variables that contribute to the prevalence discrepancy. PMID:23380485

  10. Communication about smoking in Dutch families: associations between anti-smoking socialization and adolescent smoking-related cognitions.

    PubMed

    Engels, Rutger C M E; Willemsen, Marc

    2004-06-01

    Parents play an important role in the development of young people's smoking behavior, through the modeling effects of their own smoking status, through the ways they raise their children and through the ways they deal with smoking at home. The present study focused on anti-smoking socialization by, first, comparing the perspectives of both parents and an adolescent on eight indicators of anti-smoking socialization. In addition, we aimed to examine how these indicators of anti-smoking socialization are related to adolescent smoking-related cognitions (e.g. attitudes, self-efficacy, intentions to smoke). Data were collected from 116 Dutch families with fathers, mothers and adolescents (10-19 years old) included. Self-reports of these family members were used by means of questionnaires that were sent through the Internet. The findings showed that parents and adolescents differ in their reports on anti-smoking socialization. In general, mothers are more positive about anti-smoking socialization than adolescents and fathers. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that aspects of anti-smoking socialization, such as parental monitoring, norms on adolescents smoking and reactions on adolescent smoking, are related to smoking-related cognitions, such as negative attitudes to smoking, lower intentions to start smoking and higher self-efficacy. These findings are a first step in research on smoking-specific socialization that is considered to be of importance for the development of effective smoking prevention programmes focusing on parents. Nonetheless, longitudinal studies on large samples of families are needed to replicate the findings in this study. PMID:15140843

  11. Are Anti-Smoking Parenting Practices Related to Adolescent Smoking Cognitions and Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huver, Rose M. E.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; de Vries, Hein

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explain the effects of anti-smoking parenting practices on adolescent smoking cognitions and behavior by showing the mediating effects of cognitions. Data were gathered among Dutch high school students in the control condition of the European Smoking prevention Framework Approach (ESFA). Anti-smoking parenting…

  12. Smoking outcome expectancies mediate the association between sensation seeking, peer smoking, and smoking among young adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background: Sensation seeking is a strong correlate of smoking among adolescents, yet the research on mediators of this association is not well established. The proposed model of the present study includes antecedent variables (sensation seeking), mediators (perceived peer smoking, outcome expectancies including negative consequences, positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and appetite-and-weight control), and one outcome variable (smoking cigarettes during the past 30 days). Methods: Self-reported data obtained from Hungarian high-school students (ninth grade, N = 2,565, mean age 15.3 years, SD = 0.56) were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Before testing of the main model, the construct validity of mediators (outcome expectancy scales) was supported with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling. The final model was tested with structural equation modeling, and the goodness-of-fit indices and the proportion of direct and indirect effects were analyzed. Results: Our mediational model had an excellent model fit, and this study supported both the proposed sensation seeking→positive and negative reinforcement→smoking behavior pathways and sensation seeking→perceived peer smoking→positive and negative reinforcement→smoking behavior pathways. The total indirect effect explains 76% of sensation seeking and smoking association. Results support the notion that positive and negative reinforcement expectancies mediate between sensation seeking and smoking. Discussion: Results support the notion that perceived peer smoking, positive and negative reinforcement expectancies mediate between sensation seeking and smoking. PMID:19959571

  13. Prevalence of tobacco smoking among school teachers in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tobacco is a leading cause of death worldwide, and nearly 80% of all smokers live in low to middle income countries. Previous research has suggested that smoking rates vary by occupation, with relatively low rates commonly seen among educators. Despite this fact, little is known about the smoking habits of teachers in Botswana. The objective of this study, therefore, was to investigate prevalence and correlates of tobacco use among school teachers in Botswana. Results The prevalence of smoking among school teachers in Botswana was found to be relatively low. Of the 1732 participants in the study, only 3.2% reported being current smokers, 5.3% were ex-smokers and 91.5% had never smoked. Smoking was more common among male teachers when compared to females, being 10.8% and 0.4%, respectively. Factors such as school level, marital status and body mass index were found to be positively associated with tobacco smoking, whereas age, length of employment and weekly working hours were not. Conclusion This study suggests that Botswana school teachers have a low prevalence of tobacco smoking. While this result may be attributed to tobacco control measures that have been put in place, there is still need to put in place systems to monitor compliance and programs to help those who want to quit smoking. Such protocols would represent a major step forward in further reducing the prevalence of smoking in the education profession. PMID:24283758

  14. Peer Influence and Selection Processes in Adolescent Smoking Behavior: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Adolescent smoking studies find evidence of active peer influence and selection processes. However, studies have shown that these processes operate differently depending on context. This study uses SIENA to model coevolutionary processes between smoking and changes in friendship ties, comparing two high schools in which data were collected in identical fashion to explore influence and selection mechanisms with respect to current smoking, and smoking levels. Methods: This is a longitudinal survey with 2 waves of data. In-home surveys were conducted with students from 2 large high schools in the United States: a West Coast school, and a Midwestern school. Participants were consented students in 10th and 11th grades at the first wave of data collection. The primary measures were self-reported smoking behavior and friendship nominations. Results: There is evidence of influence and selection in both schools for adolescents’ smoking status (1 = any smoking) and for level of smoking. Conclusions: These models reflect great similarities in influence and selection processes across schools for different smoking behaviors. However, smoking prevalence may impact the exact mechanisms by which influence and selection operate. Researchers should consider smoking interventions with independent modules addressing different selection and influence processes, implemented based on contextual factors such as the prevalence of smoking. PMID:22944605

  15. Authoritative parenting style and adolescent smoking and drinking.

    PubMed

    Piko, Bettina F; Balázs, Máté Á

    2012-03-01

    While peer influences have often found to be a risk factor in terms of adolescent substance use, parental variables may continue to serve as an adaptive and protective function, although the role of parents is more latent and controversial. Therefore, the main goal of this paper was to investigate the role of authoritative parenting style and other family variables in adolescents' smoking and drinking. Using a sample of Hungarian youth (N=2072; age range between 12 and 22; Mean=15.4 years, S.D.=1.8 years; 49,2% males) logistic regression analyses confirmed that authoritative parenting style (particularly responsiveness) and positive identification with parents may serve as a protection, whereas negative family interactions may act as a risk factor. These relationships are particularly decisive in case of monthly prevalence of drinking and both lifetime and current prevalence of smoking. Gender differences are slight (namely, parental control for boys, whereas responsiveness for girls seem to be more relevant), however, the role of certain parental variables may change with age. Although parental control tends to decrease among high school students, it even serves as a greater protection for those whose parents continue providing parental monitoring. PMID:22143001

  16. Meta-analysis of Smoking Prevalence in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Ziaaddini, Hassan; Mirzazadeh, Ali; Ashrafi-Asgarabad, Ahad; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2013-01-01

    Background There are numerous studies and documents regarding the prevalence of smoking in Iran. Thus, to provide suitable information for decision-making and policy-making in this regard, the prevalence of smoking in Iran was evaluated using the meta-analysis of the results of the existing researches. Methods Data were collected by searching the keywords cigarette, smoking, tobacco, and nicotine in English databases, searching their Persian equivalents in Persian Databases, and in non-electronic resources. After studying the titles and texts of collected articles, the repeated and irrelevant cases were excluded. Cases which had the inclusion criteria of this meta-analysis were entered into the Stata software. According to heterogeneity results, random effect model was used to estimate the prevalence of smoking. Findings In initial studies and non-communicable surveillance system, 274992 Iranian adults were studied regarding daily smoking. Among initial studies, smoking prevalence varied from 12.3% to 38.5% in men, and from 0.6% to 9.8% in women. Based on the meta-analysis of initial studies and risk factors of non-communicable disease surveillance system, smoking prevalence was estimated 21.7% and 19.8% in men and 3.6% and 0.94% in women, respectively. Moreover, smoking prevalence in all subjects was estimated 13.9% according to the meta-analysis of the initial study. Conclusion The findings of this meta-analysis revealed that a significant part of the general population over 15 years of age, and one fifth of Iranian male adults smoke. Thus, concerning causal relationship confirmed between smoking and most diseases, if suitable guidelines are not employed the diseases related to this factor will increase in Iran. PMID:24494171

  17. Prevalence and Trends in Smoking: A National Rural Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doescher, Mark P.; Jackson, J. Elizabeth; Jerant, Anthony; Hart, L. Gary

    2006-01-01

    Context: Cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of and recent trends in smoking among adults by type of rural location and by state. Methods: Random-digit telephone survey of adults aged 18 years or older who participated in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance…

  18. Prevalence and correlates of tobacco use among school-going adolescents in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Veeranki, Sreenivas P; Mamudu, Hadii M; John, Rijo M; Ouma, Ahmed E O

    2015-09-01

    Approximately 90% of adults start smoking during adolescence, with limited studies conducted in low-and-middle-income countries where over 80% of global tobacco users reside. The study aims to estimate prevalence and identify predictors associated with adolescents' tobacco use in Madagascar. We utilized tobacco-related information of 1184 school-going adolescents aged 13-15 years, representing a total of 296,111 youth from the 2008 Madagascar Global Youth Tobacco Survey to determine the prevalence of tobacco use. Gender-wise multivariable logistic regression models were conducted to identify key predictors. Approximately 19% (30.7% males; 10.2% females) of adolescents currently smoke cigarettes, and 7% (8.5% males and 5.8% females) currently use non-cigarette tobacco products. Regardless of sex, peer smoking behavior was significantly associated with increased tobacco use among adolescents. In addition, exposures to tobacco industry promotions, secondhand smoke (SHS) and anti-smoking media messages were associated with tobacco use. The strong gender gap in the use of non-cigarette tobacco products, and the role of peer smoking and industry promotions in adolescent females' tobacco use should be of major advocacy and policy concern. A comprehensive tobacco control program integrating parental and peer education, creating social norms, and ban on promotions is necessary to reduce adolescents' tobacco use. PMID:26044844

  19. Changes in smoking prevalence in Ukraine in 2001–5

    PubMed Central

    Andreeva, Tatiana I; Krasovsky, Konstantin S

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To analyse trends in smoking prevalence in Ukraine from three surveys conducted in 2001–5, and to explore correlates of observed changes, in order to estimate the stage of tobacco epidemic in Ukraine. Design Repeated national interview surveys in Ukraine in 2001, 2002 and 2005. Main outcome measure Prevalence of current smoking among the population aged ⩾15 years. Results The age‐standardised prevalence of current smoking in Ukrainian men was 54.8% in 2001 and 66.8% in 2005. Among Ukrainian women, prevalence increased from 11.5% in 2001 to 20.0% in 2005. ORs for yearly increase in prevalence were estimated as 1.164 (95% CI 1.111 to 1.220) for men and 1.187 (1.124 to 1.253) for women, which implies that, on average, 3–4% of men and 1.5–2% of women living in Ukraine join the smoking population each year. Conclusions In Ukraine, smoking prevalence is increasing in most population groups. Among men, the medium deprivation group with secondary education has the highest smoking prevalence. Among women, while the most educated, young and those living in larger cities are the leading group for tobacco use, other groups are also increasing their tobacco use. Tobacco promotion efforts appear to have been significantly more effective in Ukraine than smoking control efforts. The decrease in real cigarette prices in Ukraine in 2001–5 could be the main factor explaining the recent growth in smoking prevalence. PMID:17565141

  20. Intrapersonal and Ecodevelopmental Factors Associated with Smoking in Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Barbara; Huang, Shi; Wang, Wei; Prado, Guillermo; Brown, C. Hendricks; Zeng, Guang; Flavin, Kathryn; Pantin, Hilda

    2010-01-01

    We examined how relationships among intrapersonal (i.e., attitudes and beliefs about smoking) and ecodevelopmental (i.e., family, school, and peer) factors influence risk for lifetime smoking in immigrant Hispanic adolescents. Our sample was comprised of 223 immigrant Hispanic adolescents and their families and was drawn from 3 middle schools in a…

  1. Cigarette smoking prevalence in US counties: 1996-2012

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking is a leading risk factor for morbidity and premature mortality in the United States, yet information about smoking prevalence and trends is not routinely available below the state level, impeding local-level action. Methods We used data on 4.7 million adults age 18 and older from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) from 1996 to 2012. We derived cigarette smoking status from self-reported data in the BRFSS and applied validated small area estimation methods to generate estimates of current total cigarette smoking prevalence and current daily cigarette smoking prevalence for 3,127 counties and county equivalents annually from 1996 to 2012. We applied a novel method to correct for bias resulting from the exclusion of the wireless-only population in the BRFSS prior to 2011. Results Total cigarette smoking prevalence varies dramatically between counties, even within states, ranging from 9.9% to 41.5% for males and from 5.8% to 40.8% for females in 2012. Counties in the South, particularly in Kentucky, Tennessee, and West Virginia, as well as those with large Native American populations, have the highest rates of total cigarette smoking, while counties in Utah and other Western states have the lowest. Overall, total cigarette smoking prevalence declined between 1996 and 2012 with a median decline across counties of 0.9% per year for males and 0.6% per year for females, and rates of decline for males and females in some counties exceeded 3% per year. Statistically significant declines were concentrated in a relatively small number of counties, however, and more counties saw statistically significant declines in male cigarette smoking prevalence (39.8% of counties) than in female cigarette smoking prevalence (16.2%). Rates of decline varied by income level: counties in the top quintile in terms of income experienced noticeably faster declines than those in the bottom quintile. Conclusions County-level estimates of cigarette

  2. Austrian Students and Smoking: Prevalence and Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glawischnig, Markus; Reichmann, Gerhard; Sommersguter-Reichmann, Margit

    2009-01-01

    There is little data on the smoking behaviour of the population of Austria. The available information hardly goes beyond some figures on the number of regular smokers and the amount of cigarettes consumed per person per year. Equally, statutory anti-smoking measures in Austria lag considerably behind those of other countries, especially the U.S.…

  3. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Non-Smoking Adolescents' Intentions to Smoke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Brian N.; Bean, Melanie K.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Speizer, Ilene S.; Fries, Elizabeth A.

    2007-01-01

    Smoking is the most preventable cause of death in the United States. Most adult smokers began smoking during adolescence, making youth tobacco prevention an especially important public health goal. Guided by an extension of the theory of planned behavior (TPB), this study examined the role of psychosocial factors in accounting for adolescents'…

  4. Own and Friends' Smoking Attitudes and Social Preference as Early Predictors of Adolescent Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otten, Roy; Wanner, Brigitte; Vitaro, Frank; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the role of friends' attitudes in adolescent smoking (N = 203). Growth mixture modeling was used to identify three trajectories of smoking behavior from ages 12 to 14 years: a "low-rate" group, an "increasing-rate" group, and a "high-rate" group. Adolescents' own and their friends' attitudes at age 11 years were not…

  5. Randomized Trial Outcomes of a TTM-Tailored Condom Use and Smoking Intervention in Urban Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redding, Colleen A.; Prochaska, James O.; Armstrong, Kay; Rossi, Joseph S.; Hoeppner, Bettina B.; Sun, Xiaowu; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Yin, Hui-Qing; Coviello, Donna; Evers, Kerry; Velicer, Wayne F.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking and sexual risk behaviors in urban adolescent females are prevalent and problematic. Family planning clinics reach those who are at most risk. This randomized effectiveness trial evaluated a transtheoretical model (TTM)-tailored intervention to increase condom use and decrease smoking. At baseline, a total of 828 14- to 17-year-old females…

  6. Different Forms of Bullying and Their Association to Smoking and Drinking Behavior in Italian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieno, Alessio; Gini, Gianluca; Santinello, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Background: Using data from the 2006 Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey, the prevalence of 6 forms of bullying (physical, verbal, relational, sexual, cyber, and racist), and the role of smoking and drinking in bullying was examined among Italian adolescents for this study. Methods: The sample was composed of 2667 Italian middle…

  7. Adolescents and Smoking: Evidence from France and Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosanquet, Nick; Magee, Jayne

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on recent evidence now available from France and Spain on the smoking behavior of adolescents and young people. Evidence indicates that it will be a massive challenge to reduce smoking among young people. Argues that public awareness of the threat to health from smoking should be raised and that public health measures require further…

  8. Smoking among Lebanese medical students: Prevalence and attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Chidiac, Amanda; Tamim, Hani; Kanso, Mohamad; Tfayli, Arafat

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The tobacco epidemic is a major public health threat facing the world. Tobacco dependence is recognized as the greatest preventable cause of disease and death. Medical students are in key position influencing future tobacco cessation programs. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of smoking among medical students across Lebanon and their smoking attitudes. It also investigates their attitude toward smoking, showing where they really stand on this major public health issue. This study helps better tackle anti-smoking campaigns among both physicians and patients. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted by sending a questionnaire to currently enrolled medical students at all seven medical schools in Lebanon. The 32-item questionnaire was used, comprised three sections assessing sociodemographic characteristics, smoking habits, and attitudes toward smoking among Lebanese medical students. The questionnaire was launched online on Limesurvey to retain anonymity. The data were then transferred to Statistical Package for Social Sciences for analysis. Data were expressed as percentages for discrete variables and as mean ± standard deviation for continuous variables. RESULTS: One hundred sixty-three complete responses remained of the 182 obtained responses. Forty-two of the total 163 students identified themselves as either daily or occasional smokers yielding a prevalence of 25.8%. Smokers were less likely to ask patients about their smoking habit and to counsel them about smoking cessation. Almost one-third of smokers felt that they had no obligations toward the society. CONCLUSION: Approximately 1 in 4 Lebanese medical students is a smoker. Students who smoke are less likely to ask patients about their smoking habits and to counsel them on smoking cessation. This is a major drawback in the fight against tobacco. This calls for better education of our future doctors on smoking cessation to decrease the

  9. Smoking prevalence, readiness to quit and smoking cessation in HIV+ patients in Germany and Austria

    PubMed Central

    Degen, Olaf; Arbter, Peter; Hartmann, Peter; Mayr, Christoph; Buhk, Thomas; Schalk, Horst; Brath, Helmut; Ernst Dorner, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Due to the interaction between smoking and the virus and the antiretroviral therapy, the excess health hazard due to smoking is higher in HIV+ patients than in the general population. International studies suggest a higher prevalence of smoking in HIV+ subjects compared to the general population. It was the aim of the study to assess prevalence of smoking, to analyze determinants of smoking, and to evaluate readiness to quit in HIV+ patients in Germany and Austria. Material and Methods Consecutive patients with positive tested HIV status, smokers and non-smokers, who are treated in seven different HIV care centres in Austria and Germany were included. Nicotine dependence was assessed with the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependency (FTND), and stages of change by a standardized readiness to quit questionnaire. Self-reported smoking status was objectified by measuring exhaled carbon monoxide levels. Smokers who wanted to quit were offered a structured smoking cessation programme, and those who did not want to quit received a 1-minute consultation. After six months, the smoking status of all included subjects was reassessed. Results A total of 447 patients were included; the response rate was 92%. Prevalence of smoking was 49.4%. According to a multivariate logistic regression analysis, lower age, male sex, lower educational level, and smoking of the partner were significantly associated with the smoking status. According to the FTND, 25.3% showed a low (0–2 points), 27.6 a moderate (3–4 points) and 47.1% a high (5–10 points) dependency. Regarding stages of change, 15.4% of the smokers were in the stadium precontemplation, 48.4 in contemplation, 15.4 in preparation and 10.0 in the stadium action. 11.0% were not assignable in any stadium. Higher education level and lower grade of dependency were significantly associated with the wish to quit smoking. Six months after the baseline examination, smoking cessation visits (at least one session) was

  10. Fifteen Prevalent Myths Concerning Adolescent Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Keith A.

    1999-01-01

    Examines 15 common myths about adolescent suicide, presenting the actual facts corresponding to each. The myths relate to such issues as prevalence, warning signs, education about suicide, differences between males and females, common methods of adolescent suicide, mental illness and suicide, suicide prevention, genetic factors, poverty and…

  11. [Tobacco smoking prevalence among students from Euro region Eastern Carpathians].

    PubMed

    Zadarko, Emilian; Penar-Zadarko, Beata; Barabasz, Zbigniew

    2010-01-01

    Publisher in February 2008 WHO M-POWER report indicates that every year on the world tobacco epidemics kills 5.4 million of people and the analysis of tobacco smoking prevalence change shows great differences between European countries. It is estimated that in Poland 29% of adult people smokes, and 24% in Slovakia. However tobacco smoking among academic youth is still a big problem. The aim of the study was an attempt to estimate tobacco smoking prevalence among students from Poland and Slovakia. The study was conducted with the framework of science project: "Physical activity for the whole life". The aim of the project are multidirectional activities addressed to Polish-Slovakian students to create a system of taking care about health based on health education among students, selected modifying cardiovascular risk factors monitoring, as well as creating Internet portal to serve those goals. Project was co-fund by European Union from European Regional Development Fund - ERDF, as well as from the government budget by Euro Region Carpathians with the framework of Cross-border Co-operation Programme Republic of Poland - Slovakia Republic 2007-2013. Analysis considered 4584 group of students from University of Rzeszow and University of Presov, Technical University in Rzeszow and State Higher Vocational School in Krosno. The study was conducted from November 2009 to June 2010. The participation in the study was voluntary. The study was conducted using a diagnostics survey method with questionnaire. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Based on results it was claimed that the majority of the studied group of students have never smoked and do not smoke cigarettes. Place of residence was a factor influencing the fact of tobacco smoking. Slovakian students were characterized by more frequent tobacco smoking. Far more often smoke man, both in Polish and Slovakian group. Among Polish students there was a relation between subjective health state assessment and

  12. A study on smoking and associated psychosocial factors among adolescent students in Kolkata, India.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, Nilay Nilay; Ganguly, Samrat; Pal, Sumita; Chatterjee, Sukanta

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco use among school children and adolescents is an increasing problem world-wide, particularly in the developing countries. A cross-sectional observational study was carried out in six co-educational high schools in Kolkata, West Bengal among 526 students of 15-19 years to determine the prevalence of smoking and to find out any difference among the smokers and non-smokers regarding factors related to family relations, peer group and personal characteristics. The overall rate of smoking was found to be 29.6%, mean age of initiation of smoking was earlier in males. Among smokers 75% students started smoking by 15 years. Smoking of father and peer group, family conflict and pornography addiction were found to have significant association with smoking of students. Early school health based interventions addressing these factors might help in effectively tackling this problem. PMID:24748358

  13. Life course transitions and racial and ethnic differences in smoking prevalence.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Elizabeth M; Pampel, Fred C; Mollborn, Stefanie

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to: (1) describe trajectories in the likelihood of smoking by racial or ethnic group across the transition to adulthood, (2) identify the influence of achieved socioeconomic status (SES) and the nature and timing of adult role transitions, and (3) determine the extent to which achieved SES and adult roles mediate the effects of race and ethnicity on smoking. The analyses use U.S. longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), which follows a representative national sample over four waves and from ages 11-17 in 1994/95 to 26-34 in 2007/08. Growth curve models compare trajectories of smoking likelihood for white, black, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander, and American Indian/Alaska Native individuals. While whites have higher rates of smoking than blacks and Hispanics during their teen years and 20s, blacks and Hispanics lose their advantage relative to whites as they approach and enter their 30s. American Indian/Alaska Natives show high rates of smoking at earlier ages and an increasing likelihood to smoke. Although life course transitions are influential for smoking prevalence in the overall U.S. population, SES and the nature and timing of adult role transitions account for little of the gap between whites and black, Hispanic, and American Indian/Alaska Native individuals. Racial and ethnic disparities in adult smoking are independent of SES and life transitions, pointing to explanations such as culturally specific normative environments or experiences of discrimination. PMID:26047689

  14. Italy SimSmoke: the effect of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking attributable deaths in Italy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While Italy has implemented some tobacco control policies over the last few decades, which resulted in a decreased smoking prevalence, there is still considerable scope to strengthen tobacco control policies consistent with the World Health Organization (WHO) policy guidelines. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of past and project the effect of future tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and associated premature mortality in Italy. Methods To assess, individually and in combination, the effect of seven types of policies, we used the SimSmoke simulation model of tobacco control policy. The model uses population, smoking rates and tobacco control policy data for Italy. Results Significant reductions of smoking prevalence and premature mortality can be achieved through tobacco price increases, high intensity media campaigns, comprehensive cessation treatment program, strong health warnings, stricter smoke-free air regulations and advertising bans, and youth access laws. With a comprehensive approach, the smoking prevalence can be decreased by as much as 12% soon after the policies are in place, increasing to a 30% reduction in the next twenty years and a 34% reduction by 30 years in 2040. Without effective tobacco control policies, a total of almost 300 thousand lives will be prematurely lost due to smoking by the year 2040. Conclusion Besides presenting the benefits of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy, the model helps identify information gaps in surveillance and evaluation schemes that will promote the effectiveness of future tobacco control policy in Italy. PMID:22931428

  15. Factors influencing reductions in smoking among Australian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dessaix, Anita; Maag, Audrey; McKenzie, Jeanie; Currow, David C

    2016-01-01

    A continued increase in the proportion of adolescents who never smoke, as well as an understanding of factors that influence reductions in smoking among this susceptible population, is crucial. The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provides an appropriate structure to briefly examine Australian and New South Wales policies and programs that are influencing reductions in smoking among adolescents in Australia. This paper provides an overview of price and recent tax measures to reduce the demand for tobacco, the evolution of smoke-free environment policies, changes to tobacco labelling and packaging, public education campaigns, and restrictions to curb tobacco advertising. It also discusses supplyreduction measures that limit adolescents' access to tobacco products. Consideration is given to emerging priorities to achieve continued declines in smoking by Australian adolescents. PMID:26863168

  16. Smoking habits among italian adolescents: what has changed in the last decade?

    PubMed

    Charrier, Lorena; Berchialla, Paola; Galeone, Daniela; Spizzichino, Lorenzo; Borraccino, Alberto; Lemma, Patrizia; Dalmasso, Paola; Cavallo, Franco

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco use, alcohol abuse, overweight and obesity are risk factors for numerous diseases in Italy as elsewhere. However, children and adolescents are not usually included in official national surveys although it is at this stage of life when unhealthy habits are often established. Italian participation in HBSC and GYTS surveys allows our country to implement standardized surveillance systems providing reliable information on tobacco-related behaviors of this population. Data from three HBSC surveys (2002-2010) show that following the drop in the first half of the decade, prevalence of tobacco use stabilized in the second half. The decline was significant for younger age groups, while prevalence of regular tobacco use remained stable among 15-year-olds. Many adolescents reported being exposed to secondhand smoke, to have at least one parent who smokes, and having seen teachers and students smoking at school. Although the sale of tobacco products to minors is prohibited, the vast majority had no trouble in buying cigarettes. Data from GYTS and HBSC surveys provide a wealth of information about attitudes and behaviors of Italian adolescents with respect to smoking. Despite some progress, sizeable gaps remain in meeting standard recommendations for discouraging smoking initiation and motivating adolescent smokers to quit the habit. PMID:24860815

  17. Smoking Habits among Italian Adolescents: What Has Changed in the Last Decade?

    PubMed Central

    Galeone, Daniela; Spizzichino, Lorenzo; Lemma, Patrizia

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco use, alcohol abuse, overweight and obesity are risk factors for numerous diseases in Italy as elsewhere. However, children and adolescents are not usually included in official national surveys although it is at this stage of life when unhealthy habits are often established. Italian participation in HBSC and GYTS surveys allows our country to implement standardized surveillance systems providing reliable information on tobacco-related behaviors of this population. Data from three HBSC surveys (2002–2010) show that following the drop in the first half of the decade, prevalence of tobacco use stabilized in the second half. The decline was significant for younger age groups, while prevalence of regular tobacco use remained stable among 15-year-olds. Many adolescents reported being exposed to secondhand smoke, to have at least one parent who smokes, and having seen teachers and students smoking at school. Although the sale of tobacco products to minors is prohibited, the vast majority had no trouble in buying cigarettes. Data from GYTS and HBSC surveys provide a wealth of information about attitudes and behaviors of Italian adolescents with respect to smoking. Despite some progress, sizeable gaps remain in meeting standard recommendations for discouraging smoking initiation and motivating adolescent smokers to quit the habit. PMID:24860815

  18. Do Favorite Movie Stars Influence Adolescent Smoking Initiation?

    PubMed Central

    Distefan, Janet M.; Pierce, John P.; Gilpin, Elizabeth A.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine whether adolescents whose favorite movie stars smoke on-screen are at increased risk of tobacco use. Methods. During interviews, adolescent never smokers taking part in the California Tobacco Survey nominated their favorite stars. We reviewed popular films released during 1994 through 1996 to determine whether stars smoked on-screen in at least 2 films. Results. One third of never smokers nominated a star who smoked on-screen, which independently predicted later smoking risk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02, 1.82). The effect was strong among girls (OR = 1.86; 95% CI = 1.26, 2.73). Among boys, there was no independent effect after control for receptivity to tobacco industry promotions. Conclusions. Public health efforts to reduce adolescent smoking must confront smoking in films as a tobacco marketing strategy. PMID:15226149

  19. [Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among homeless adolescents].

    PubMed

    Aichhorn, Wolfgang; Santeler, Stefan; Stelzig-Schöler, Renate; Kemmler, Georg; Steinmayr-Gensluckner, Maria; Hinterhuber, Hartmann

    2008-01-01

    Various studies show a high prevalence of mental disorders among homeless people. So far most of these studies deal solely with single men, mainly affected by homelessness. Few data exist for women, children, adolescents and whole families that are more and more affected by poverty and homelessness. This study, conducted in Innsbruck/Austria, determined the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among homeless adolescents. The adolescents were recruited in a counselling centre and homeless shelter specifically founded for homeless youth. Mental disorders were diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SKID-I). 40 adolescents and young adults ranging from 14-23 years (mean 17.9 years) were included in the study. The results show that 58% of the homeless adolescents were exposed to continuous violence in their families and that violence was a major reason for them to leave home. The overall prevalence of diagnosed psychiatric disorders was 80% in the whole sample; the leading disorder was substance abuse/dependence (65%), followed by mood disorders (42.5%), anxiety disorders (17.5%) and eating disorders (17.5%). 57.5% of the adolescents had a history of self-harm and 25% reported at least one suicide attempt. Duration of homelessness had the greatest influence on the prevalence of mental disorders. Longer duration of homelessness was associated with a higher risk of psychiatric disorder or self-harm. These results demonstrate the urgent need for early psychosocial and psychiatric help for homeless adolescents. PMID:18826872

  20. Smoking Prevalence and Attitudes Regarding its Control Among Health Professional Students in South-Western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Awopeju, OF; Erhabor, GE; Awosusi, B; Awopeju, OA; Adewole, OO; Irabor, I

    2013-01-01

    Background: Tobacco use is one of the leading preventable causes of morbidity and mortality globally; about 70% of smokers see physicians each year. Health care professionals have a very unique role in motivating people to quit smoking. Aim: The aims of this study were to document the smoking prevalence and attitudes regarding its control among these set of students who will be tomorrow's health care providers. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in two medical schools in South-Western Nigeria with their accompanied nursing and pharmacy students. All students in the selected schools were eligible to participate and student's participation was voluntary. The Global Health Professional Students Survey core questionnaire was used to collect data on smoking prevalence and attitudes regarding its control. The data were summarized using percentages and confidence interval (CI) was calculated using standard error of mean. Pearson's Chi-square and fisher's exact were employed to test the significance. Results: Life-time prevalence of cigarette smoking was 17.9% (121/675) with (95% confidence interval [CI] 15-20.8). Only 5.04% (34/675) with (95% CI 3.7-7.1) of the respondents were currently smoking. Ever smokers were significantly less likely than non-smokers to indicate that tobacco sales to adolescents should be banned (P < 0.01). Fewer smokers than non-smokers agreed that there should be a complete ban on advertising of tobacco products (P < 0.001). 93.3% of them said that they were taught about danger of smoking but only 48.6% ever heard of using anti-depressant in tobacco cessation program. Conclusions: Smoking prevalence among health professional students in South-West Nigeria is relatively low; however, majority believed that health-care providers serve as role models for their patients and the public. PMID:24116313

  1. The Smoking Outcome Expectation Scale and Anti-Smoking Self-Efficacy Scale for Early Adolescents: Instrument Development and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chen-Ju; Yeh, Ming-Chen; Tang, Fu-In; Yu, Shu

    2015-01-01

    Smoking-related outcome expectation and self-efficacy have been found to be associated with adolescent smoking initiation. There is, however, a lack of appropriate instruments to investigate early adolescents' smoking outcome expectations and antismoking self-efficacy. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Smoking Outcome…

  2. Prevalence of smoking and age of initiation in Alexandria, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Youssef, R M; Abou-Khatwa, S A; Fouad, H M

    2002-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey on tobacco use in the city of Alexandria, Egypt, used an interview questionnaire based on World Health Organization guidelines. The study in 2000 included 2120 participants aged 15 to 86 years. More than a quarter (27.2%) were current smokers (25.5% daily smokers and 1.7% occasional smokers) and 3.5% were ex-smokers. Current smokers spent 23.1% of their family income on tobacco. The prevalence of current smoking was significantly higher among men (48.5%) than women (1.5%) and the mean age of initiation of smoking was lower among men (18.1 years) than women (22.6 years). The high prevalence of tobacco use among men is of concern, so too is the likelihood that tobacco use will increase among women. Further research is needed into factors that prevent people from starting smoking and assist them stopping smoking. PMID:15603046

  3. Illicit Drug Use, Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Drinking Behaviour among a Sample of High School Adolescents in the Pietersburg Area of the Northern Province, South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madu, Sylvester Ntomchukwu; Matla, Ma-Queen Patience

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the prevalence of illicit drug use, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking behavior among a sample of high-school adolescents in the Pietersburg area of South Africa. Findings indicate the prevalence rate of 19.8% for illicit drug use, 10.6% for cigarette smoking and 39.1% for alcohol consumption among the participants. Implications…

  4. Global trends of lung cancer mortality and smoking prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Torre, Lindsey A.; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer killed approximately 1,590,000 persons in 2012 and currently is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. There is large variation in mortality rates across the world in both males and females. This variation follows trend of smoking, as tobacco smoking is responsible for the majority of lung cancer cases. In this article, we present estimated worldwide lung cancer mortality rates in 2012 using the World Health Organization (WHO) GLOBOCAN 2012 and changes in the rates during recent decades in select countries using WHO Mortality Database. We also show smoking prevalence and trends globally and at the regional level. By region, the highest lung cancer mortality rates (per 100,000) in 2012 were in Central and Eastern Europe (47.6) and Eastern Asia (44.8) among males and in Northern America (23.5) and Northern Europe (19.1) among females; the lowest rates were in sub-Saharan Africa in both males (4.4) and females (2.2). The highest smoking prevalence among males is generally in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia and Eastern Europe, and among females is in European countries, followed by Oceania and Northern and Southern America. Many countries, notably high-income countries, have seen a considerable decrease in smoking prevalence in both males and females, but in many other countries there has been little decrease or even an increase in smoking prevalence. Consequently, depending on whether or when smoking prevalence has started to decline, the lung cancer mortality trend is a mixture of decreasing, stable, or increasing. Despite major achievements in tobacco control, with current smoking patterns lung cancer will remain a major cause of death worldwide for several decades. The main priority to reduce the burden of lung cancer is to implement or enforce effective tobacco control policies in order to reduce smoking prevalence in all countries and prevent an increase in smoking in sub-Saharan Africa and women in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). PMID

  5. How Initial Prevalence Moderates Network-based Smoking Change: Estimating Contextual Effects with Stochastic Actor-based Models.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jimi; Schaefer, David R

    2016-03-01

    We use an empirically grounded simulation model to examine how initial smoking prevalence moderates the effectiveness of potential interventions designed to change adolescent smoking behavior. Our model investigates the differences that result when manipulating peer influence and smoker popularity as intervention levers. We demonstrate how a simulation-based approach allows us to estimate outcomes that arise (1) when intervention effects could plausibly alter peer influence and/or smoker popularity effects and (2) across a sample of schools that match the range of initial conditions of smoking prevalence in U.S. schools. We show how these different initial conditions combined with the exact same intervention effects can produce substantially different outcomes-for example, effects that produce smoking declines in some settings can actually increase smoking in others. We explore the form and magnitude of these differences. Our model also provides a template to evaluate the potential effects of alternative intervention scenarios. PMID:26957133

  6. Weaker Self-Esteem in Adolescence Predicts Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Saari, Antti J.; Kentala, Jukka; Mattila, Kari J.

    2015-01-01

    Background. To study whether weaker self-esteem in adolescence is connected with smoking behavior in adulthood. Methods. An age cohort born in 1979 responded to the Lawrence Self-Esteem Questionnaire (LAWSEQ) at the age of 16 (n = 1,072). Respondents' smoking behavior was monitored annually during adolescence and 75.3% (n = 813) of them remained nonsmokers during adolescence. A follow-up questionnaire eliciting smoking behavior was sent to the adolescent nonsmokers at the age of 29 years. Response rate at follow-up was 46.2% (n = 376). Results. Weaker self-esteem (LAWSEQ score ≥ 3) during the adolescence was not significantly associated with smoking in adulthood. However, those respondents who had weaker self-esteem in adolescence had increased risk of having been smoking regularly (adjusted OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1–3.0) although not all of them were smokers at the time of the follow-up. Conclusions. Those with weaker self-esteem in adolescence are more likely to smoke regularly in adulthood. PMID:26273640

  7. Smoking prevalence and factors associated with smoking status among Vietnamese in California

    PubMed Central

    Gildengorin, G.; Nguyen, T.; Tsoh, J.; Modayil, M.; Wong, C.; McPhee, S. J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Vietnamese American men have smoking prevalence rates higher than the general population. We analyzed Vietnamese American smoking behavior by demographic and health-related factors, including some specific to Vietnamese, in the largest tobacco-specific survey yet targeting the Vietnamese population. Methods: Using a statewide surname probability sample and computer-assisted telephone interviewing, we surveyed 1,101 Vietnamese men and 1,078 Vietnamese women in California (63.5% participation among successfully contacted eligible individuals) in 2007–2008. We conducted multivariate regression models to analyze the association between Vietnamese male smoking status and demographic and health-related factors. Results: Among women, <1% were current smokers and <2% were former smokers. Among men, 25% were current and 24% were former smokers. Regression models for Vietnamese men delineated factors associated with both current and former smoking (vs. never smoking): being married, being employed, having lower educational attainment, and consuming alcohol. Other factors associated with current smoking (vs. never smoking) were having no health insurance, having seen a Vietnamese doctor or no doctor visit in the past year, having Vietnamese military or Vietnamese reeducation camp experience, having less knowledge about the harms of smoking, and reporting higher depression symptoms. Increasing age and not being Buddhist were associated with former (vs. never) smoking. Discussion: Smoking patterns of Vietnamese women and Vietnamese men are significantly different from the general California population. Tobacco control efforts targeting Vietnamese men should include community outreach since current smokers have low health care access, utilization, and knowledge. PMID:20488931

  8. Determinants of first puff and daily cigarette smoking in adolescents.

    PubMed

    O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Karp, Igor; Koulis, Theodoro; Paradis, Gilles; Difranza, Joseph

    2009-09-01

    Few prospective studies of smoking initiation have investigated a wide range of time-varying and invariant predictor variables at the individual and contextual levels concurrently. In this study (1999-2005), 877 Canadian students (mean age = 12.7 years) who had never smoked at baseline completed self-report questionnaires on cigarette smoking and 32 predictor variables in 20 survey cycles during secondary school. Height and weight were measured in survey cycles 1, 12, and 19. School administrators completed questionnaires on school tobacco control policies/activities, and trained observers collected data on access to tobacco products in commercial establishments near schools. Younger age, single-parent family status, smoking by parents, siblings, friends, and school staff, stress, impulsivity, lower self-esteem, feeling a need to smoke, not doing well at school, susceptibility to tobacco advertising, alcohol use, use of other tobacco products, and attending a smoking-tolerant school were independent determinants of smoking initiation. Independent determinants of daily smoking onset among initiators of nondaily smoking included smoking by siblings and friends, feeling a need to smoke, susceptibility to tobacco advertising, use of other tobacco products, and self-perceived mental and physical addiction. Adolescent tobacco control programs should address multiple individual and contextual-level risk factors. Strategies that address nicotine dependence symptoms are also needed for adolescents who have already initiated smoking. PMID:19635735

  9. Prevalence and associated factors of smoking in middle and high school students: a school-based cross-sectional study in Zhejiang Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Zhong, Jie-Ming; Fang, Le; Wang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence and associated factors of smoking in a Chinese adolescent population. Setting A multistage, stratified cluster sampling technique was used in the present cross-sectional study conducted in Zhejiang Province of China. Based on socioeconomic status, school levels and geographical positions, 253 middle school classes, 122 academic school classes and 115 vocational high school classes located in 12 urban areas and 18 rural areas were chosen. Participants A total of 9617 middle school students, 5495 academic high school students and 4430 vocational high school students were recruited in this survey. Primary and secondary outcome measures Ever, current smoking status and associated factors were collected via a self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between current smoking and the associated factors. ORs with their 95% CIs were reported. Results Overall, the prevalence of ever-smokers and current smokers was 33.83% and 7.93%, respectively. Focused on current smokers, significantly higher risks of adolescent smoking were observed in an older age group, boys, rural areas and vocational high school. Other significant factors were parents smoking, secondhand smoke exposure, parental divorce or separation, living with family, school performance and belief that smoking is harmful. Conclusions The prevalence of smoking was relatively high among Chinese adolescents in Zhejiang Province. Factors related to personal characteristics, family and school were associated with adolescent smoking. PMID:26769793

  10. Impact of Scottish Smoke-Free Legislation on Smoking Quit Attempts and Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Mackay, Daniel F.; Haw, Sally; Pell, Jill P.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives In Scotland, legislation was implemented in March 2006 prohibiting smoking in all wholly or partially enclosed public spaces. We investigated the impact on attempts to quit smoking and smoking prevalence. Methods We performed time series models using Box-Jenkins autoregressive integrated moving averages (ARIMA) on monthly data on the gross ingredient cost of all nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) prescribed in Scotland in 2003–2009, and quarterly data on self-reported smoking prevalence between January 1999 and September 2010 from the Scottish Household Survey. Results NRT prescription costs were significantly higher than expected over the three months prior to implementation of the legislation. Prescription costs peaked at £1.3 million in March 2006; £292,005.9 (95% CI £260,402.3, £323,609, p<0.001) higher than the monthly norm. Following implementation of the legislation, costs fell exponentially by around 26% per month (95% CI 17%, 35%, p<0.001). Twelve months following implementation, the costs were not significantly different to monthly norms. Smoking prevalence fell by 8.0% overall, from 31.3% in January 1999 to 23.7% in July–September 2010. In the quarter prior to implementation of the legislation, smoking prevalence fell by 1.7% (95% CI 2.4%, 1.0%, p<0.001) more than expected from the underlying trend. Conclusions Quit attempts increased in the three months leading up to Scotland's smoke-free legislation, resulting in a fall in smoking prevalence. However, neither has been sustained suggesting the need for additional tobacco control measures and ongoing support. PMID:22110585

  11. Mass Media Interventions to Reduce Youth Smoking Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Brian S.; Worden, John K.; Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Solomon, Laura J.; Ashikaga, Takamaru; Connolly, Scott W.; Ramirez, Amelie G.

    2010-01-01

    Background Mass media interventions for reduction of youth cigarette smoking have been recommended based on a broad array of evidence, although few randomized community trials have been reported. Design Four matched pairs of independent media markets were identified; one member of each pair was randomized to receive the intervention. School surveys were conducted in all markets, in 2001 before (n=19,966) and in 2005 after (n=23,246) the interventions were completed. Setting/Participants Grade 7–12 students from public schools in these eight medium sized metropolitan areas participated in the summative evaluations; grades 4–12 students were targeted to receive mass media interventions in four of these markets. Intervention Four simultaneous campaigns consisting of specially developed messages based on behavioral theory and targeted to defined age groups of racially and ethnically diverse young people were placed in popular TV, cable, and radio programming using purchased time for 4 years. Main Outcome Measures Prevalence of youth smoking and psychosocial mediators of smoking. Results No significant impacts of these interventions on smoking behaviors or mediators were found for the overall samples. A positive effect was found for one mediator in subgroups. Among Hispanic participants a marginally favorable effect on smoking prevalence, and significant effects on mediators were found. General awareness of smoking prevention TV messages was slightly higher over time in the intervention areas. Conclusions Mass media interventions alone were unable to induce an incremental difference in youth smoking prevalence, likely due to a relatively strong tobacco control environment that included a substantial national smoking prevention media campaign. PMID:20537841

  12. Epidemiology of smoking among Kuwaiti adults: prevalence, characteristics, and attitudes.

    PubMed Central

    Memon, A.; Moody, P. M.; Sugathan, T. N.; el-Gerges, N.; al-Bustan, M.; al-Shatti, A.; al-Jazzaf, H.

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In 1996 we conducted a cross-sectional survey to study the epidemiology of smoking among Kuwaiti adults. METHODS: The 4000 participants were selected using a three-stage stratified cluster sampling design. Altogether 3859 participants (1798 males, 2061 females) returned a completed self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: The prevalence of smoking was 34.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 32.2-36.6) among men and 1.9% (95% CI = 1.3-2.5) among women. Among men, the highest prevalence (56.5%; 95% CI = 36.2-76.8) was observed in the youngest age group (< or = 20 years). Among women the highest prevalence was observed in one of the older age groups (46-50 years) (7.1%; 95% CI = 3.1-11.1). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the following factors were independently associated with smoking: lower levels of education (odds ratio (OR) 3.5; 95% CI = 1.5-8.4), lower employment grade (OR = 4.1; 2.5-6.7), and being a separated, divorced, or widowed woman (OR = 4.9; 95% CI = 2.0-11.8). The majority of smokers (68%) began smoking when younger than 20 years; significantly more men (70%) than women (33%) began smoking at these ages (P < 0.0001). On average, men began smoking at an earlier age (18 years vs 21 years; P < 0.001) and therefore had smoked for a longer period (15 years vs 12 years; P < 0.05); men also consumed a higher number of cigarettes each day (26 vs 17; P < 0.05). A large proportion of smokers were ignorant about the health consequences of passive smoking: about 77% of those with children reported that they smoked in the presence of their children. Almost half (47%) of all smokers stated that they wanted to stop smoking, and about 56% had attempted to quit. The biggest perceived barrier to quitting was uncertainty about "how to quit". A total of 338 respondents (8.8%; 95% CI = 5.8-11.9) were classified as former smokers. About half of the former smokers had quit between the ages of 20 and 29 years; the average age of quitting was 28

  13. Racial/Ethnic and Nativity Patterns of U.S. Adolescent and Young Adult Smoking.

    PubMed

    Wade, Becky; Lariscy, Joseph T; Hummer, Robert A

    2013-06-01

    We document racial/ethnic and nativity differences in U.S. smoking patterns among adolescents and young adults using the 2006 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (n=44,202). Stratifying the sample by nativity status within five racial/ethnic groups (Asian American, Mexican American, other Hispanic, non-Hispanic black, and non-Hispanic white), and further by sex and age, we compare self-reports of lifetime smoking across groups. U.S.-born non-Hispanic whites, particularly men, report smoking more than individuals in other racial/ethnic/nativity groups. Some groups of young women (e.g., foreign-born and U.S.-born Asian Americans, foreign-born and U.S.-born Mexican Americans, and foreign-born blacks) report extremely low levels of smoking. Foreign-born females in all of the 25-34 year old racial/ethnic groups exhibit greater proportions of never smoking than their U.S.-born counterparts. Heavy/moderate and light/intermittent smoking is generally higher in the older age group among U.S.-born males and females whereas smoking among the foreign-born of both sexes is low at younger ages and remains low at older ages. Taken together, these findings highlight the importance of considering both race/ethnicity and nativity in assessments of smoking patterns and in strategies to reduce overall U.S. smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable health disparities. PMID:25339787

  14. Estimating the Transitional Probabilities of Smoking Stages with Cross-sectional Data and 10-Year Projection for Smoking Behavior in Iranian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Ahmad; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Mahmoodi, Mahmood; Pouyan, Ali Akbar; Holakouie-Naieni, Kourosh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking is one of the most important health-related risk factors in terms of morbidity and mortality. In this study, we introduced a new method for deriving the transitional probabilities of smoking stages from a cross-sectional study and simulated a long-term smoking behavior for adolescents. Methods: In this study in 2010, a total of 4853 high school students were randomly selected and were completed a self-administered questionnaire about cigarette smoking. We used smoothed age- and sex-specific prevalence of smoking stages in a probabilistic discrete event system for estimating of transitional probabilities. A nonhomogenous discrete time Markov chain analysis was used to model the progression of the smoking in 10 years ahead in the same population. The mean age of the students was 15.69 ± 0.73 years (range: 14–19). Results: The smoothed prevalence proportion of current smoking varies between 3.58 and 26.14%. The age-adjusted odds of initiation in boys is 8.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.9–10.0) times of the odds of initiation of smoking in girls. Our study predicted that the prevalence proportion of current smokers increased from 7.55% in 2010 to 20.31% (95% CI: 19.44–21.37) for 2019. Conclusions: The present study showed a moderately but concerning prevalence of current smoking in Iranian adolescents and introduced a novel method for estimation of transitional probabilities from a cross-sectional study. The increasing trend of cigarette use among adolescents indicated the necessity of paying more attention to this group. PMID:27625766

  15. The Economic Impact of Smoking and of Reducing Smoking Prevalence: Review of Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Ekpu, Victor U; Brown, Abraham K

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Tobacco smoking is the cause of many preventable diseases and premature deaths in the UK and around the world. It poses enormous health- and non-health-related costs to the affected individuals, employers, and the society at large. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that, globally, smoking causes over US$500 billion in economic damage each year. OBJECTIVES This paper examines global and UK evidence on the economic impact of smoking prevalence and evaluates the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of smoking cessation measures. STUDY SELECTION Search methods We used two major health care/economic research databases, namely PubMed and the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) database that contains the British National Health Service (NHS) Economic Evaluation Database; Cochrane Library of systematic reviews in health care and health policy; and other health-care-related bibliographic sources. We also performed hand searching of relevant articles, health reports, and white papers issued by government bodies, international health organizations, and health intervention campaign agencies. Selection criteria The paper includes cost-effectiveness studies from medical journals, health reports, and white papers published between 1992 and July 2014, but included only eight relevant studies before 1992. Most of the papers reviewed reported outcomes on smoking prevalence, as well as the direct and indirect costs of smoking and the costs and benefits of smoking cessation interventions. We excluded papers that merely described the effectiveness of an intervention without including economic or cost considerations. We also excluded papers that combine smoking cessation with the reduction in the risk of other diseases. Data collection and analysis The included studies were assessed against criteria indicated in the Cochrane Reviewers Handbook version 5.0.0. Outcomes assessed in the review Primary outcomes of the selected studies are smoking prevalence

  16. A survey on smoking habits and attitudes among adolescents in Greece.

    PubMed

    Piperakis, Stylianos M; Garagouni-Araiou, Fotini; Argyracouli, Efthimia; Piperakis, Alexander S; Iakovidou-Kritsi, Zafiroula; Triga, Anastassia

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate smoking habits among 699 secondary school students, along with their attitudes toward smoking and their perceptions on the consequences of tobacco use in their health. Our results indicate that Greek adolescents begin to smoke mainly due to curiosity and for stress reasons. Furthermore, having friends who smoke is highly associated with smoking and intention for smoking. Likewise, paternal smoking seems to reinforce students' intention for smoking. On the contrary, parental disapproval of smoking leads to anti-smoking behavior. Adolescents' attitudes toward smoking are also related to a series of similar factors such as parental educational status, parental smoking, and parental disapproval of smoking, friends who smoke, and, finally, adolescents' age, smoking behavior, and intention for smoking. The impact of tobacco use in human health seems to be understood better by older students. All these factors must be taken into account for a successful implementation of an anti-smoking intervention program. PMID:18540285

  17. Psychosocial Correlates of Smoking Trajectories Among Urban African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergus, Stevenson; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

    2005-01-01

    Little is known of smoking trajectories or of the correlates of smoking trajectories among African American youth. Ninth-grade African American adolescents (n = 566) were interviewed in Year 1 and then were subsequently interviewed annually for 3 additional years. Five trajectories of cigarette smokers were identified: abstainers,…

  18. Emotional Intelligence, Hardiness, and Smoking: Protective Factors among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Talib, Mansor Abu; Yaacob, Siti Nor; Ismail, Zanariah

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is the biggest threat to public health, and it remains a serious cause of death in the world. It even causes acute and chronic diseases in passive smokers. Remarkably, the age of the onset of cigarette smoking is decreasing. Therefore, it is essential to increase our knowledge concerning the attitudes among adolescents toward cigarette…

  19. Peer Influences on Adolescent Cigarette Smoking: A Prospective Sibling Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Jennifer S.; Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C.; Sherman, Steven J.

    1999-01-01

    Studied role of nonshared parent and peer influences on siblings as predictors of adolescent cigarette smoking onset. Found peer influences were predictors of smoking onset when shared influences were controlled. Nonshared peer influences on siblings were stronger in educated families. Findings highlight utility of controlling for shared…

  20. Systematic Review of Social Network Analysis in Adolescent Cigarette Smoking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Huang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Social networks are important in adolescent smoking behavior. Previous research indicates that peer context is a major causal factor of adolescent smoking behavior. To date, however, little is known about the influence of peer group structure on adolescent smoking behavior. Methods: Studies that examined adolescent social networks with…

  1. Adolescents' Smoking Behaviors, Beliefs on the Risks of Smoking, and Exposure to ETS in Juarez, Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Yelena; Moraros, John; Olsen, Larry K.; Coronado, Gloria D.; Thompson, Beti

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess the smoking behaviors, beliefs about the risks of smoking, and exposure to ETS among adolescents in Juarez, Mexico. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with sixth-grade students (N=506), aged 11-13 years old, attending 6 randomly selected schools. Schools were classified by school setting and SES. Results:…

  2. Cigarette smoking among school-going adolescents in Lithuania: Results from the 2005 Global Youth Tobacco Survey

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The majority of people who suffer morbidity due to smoking may have initiated smoking during adolescent period. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and associated factors for cigarette smoking among school-going adolescents in Lithuania. Findings Data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) 2005 were used to conduct this study. Data were analyzed using SUDAAN software 9.03. Comparisons for categorical variables were done using the Pearson's Chi-square test. The cut of point for statistical significance was set at 5% level. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine factors associated with the outcome. Unadjusted odds ratios (OR) and adjusted odds ratios (AOR) together with their 95% confidence intervals (CI) are reported. Of the 1822 respondents, 35.8% males and 27.1% females reported being current cigarette smokers (p < 0.001). Having friends who smoke cigarettes was associated with smoking after controlling for age, gender, parental smoking status, and perception of risks of smoking (AOR = 3.76; 95% CI [2.33, 6.90] for some friends using tobacco; and AOR = 17.18; 95% CI [10.46, 28.21] for most or all friends using tobacco). Male gender and having one or both parents who smoke cigarettes were associated with smoking (AOR = 1.31; 95% CI [1.03, 1.66]) and AOR = 1.76; 95% CI [1.37, 2.27]) respectively). Conclusions There is a high prevalence of cigarette smoking among Lithuanian adolescents. Male adolescents and adolescents who have friends or parents who smoke should be the main target for tobacco control in Lithuania. PMID:20459649

  3. Adolescent Exposure to and Perceptions of Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Timothy R.; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph A.; Shah, Sapna

    2005-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) poses an underappreciated risk to adolescent health. This study examined perceptions of adolescents (n = 574) regarding ETS. About one half (54%) were exposed to ETS the previous week, and one third (30%) were exposed to 3 or more hours of ETS the past week. Concurrently, 29% believed that breathing someone else's…

  4. Family Structure, Family Processes, and Adolescent Smoking and Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Susan L.; Rinelli, Lauren N.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether family structure was associated with adolescent risk behaviors, including smoking and drinking. Family living arrangements have become increasingly diverse, yet research on adolescent risk behaviors has typically relied on measures of family structure that do not adequately capture this diversity. Data from the…

  5. Prevalence of Chronic Diseases in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oeseburg, B.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Groothoff, J. W.; Reijneveld, S. A.

    2010-01-01

    Valid community-based data on the prevalence of chronic diseases in adolescents (12-18 years) with intellectual disability (ID-adolescents) are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence rates and the nature of chronic diseases in a population of ID-adolescents and to compare them with the rates among adolescents in the general…

  6. Risk Factors for Smoking Behaviors among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Many students in Korea begin to use tobacco and develop a regular smoking habit before they reach adulthood. Yet, little is known about various signs contributing to the transition of the student smoking behaviors. This study used a national sample to explore and compare risk factors for smoking behaviors. Three types of smoking behaviors were…

  7. Parental Smoking-Specific Communication, Adolescents' Smoking Behavior and Friendship Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Leeuw, Rebecca N. H.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Harakeh, Zeena; van Leeuwe, Jan F. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether parental smoking-specific communication is related to adolescents' friendship-selection processes. Furthermore, we investigated whether adolescents and their best friends influence each other over time, and what role parents play in this process. In the present study we used data from the Family and Health…

  8. Adolescent cancer survivors’ smoking intentions are associated with aggression, attention, and smoking history

    PubMed Central

    Tyc, Vida L.; Wilson, Stephanie J.; Nelms, Jenna; Hudson, Melissa M.; Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping; Hinds, Pamela S.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The present study examines behavioral and psychosocial factors associated with smoking intentions and experimentation among adolescent survivors of pediatric cancer. Methods Adolescent survivors of brain tumor and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n=99) provided information about their smoking histories and their intentions to smoke in the future. Behavior rating scales were completed by survivors, parents, and teachers. Results Past experimentation with smoking and higher levels of self-reported aggression were associated with intentions to smoke in the future (OR=4.18, 95%CI 1.02–17.04, and OR=1.08, 95% CI 1.01–1.15, respectively), while teacher-ratings of inattention in the classroom were negatively associated with intentions to smoke (OR=0.94, 95% CI.88–.99), all p<.05. Experimentation with smoking was more likely among older survivors (OR=1.76, 95% CI 1.16–2.66, p<.01) and those whose parents had divorced (OR=4.40, 95% CI 1.21–16.06, p<.05). Discussion A concerning minority of adolescent survivors have clear intentions to smoke, a behavior that adds to their overall health risk. Smoking intentions and experimentation are important precursors to regular smoking. Prevention efforts are needed to interrupt the progression from intentions and experimentation to established smoking and nicotine dependence in this medically vulnerable population. Implications for cancer survivors Assessment of an adolescent’s history of parental divorce, past experimentation with smoking, and aggressive behavior will identify those survivors who are likely to consider smoking in the future. Screening for these characteristics will allow clinicians to be more vigilant in health promotion. PMID:20922493

  9. Update of Adolescent Smoking Cessation Interventions: 2009–2014

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Patricia; Kong, Grace; Cavallo, Dana A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of adolescent tobacco dependence is an imperative public health goal. Adolescent-focused smoking cessation interventions have shown modest results at most, indicating the need for the development of innovative and effective interventions for this vulnerable population. This review aims to provide an update of smoking cessation interventions for youth by reviewing the literature published between 2009 and November 2014 evaluating psychosocial and pharmacological interventions. Based on this examination, future directions for research in advancing the development of adolescent-focused tobacco treatments are provided. PMID:26295017

  10. Exposure to Peers who Smoke Moderates the Association between Sports Participation and Cigarette Smoking Behavior among Non-White Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Darren; Luta, George; Walker, Leslie R.; Tercyak, Kenneth P.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent sports participants are less likely to smoke cigarettes, and sports participation may prevent young people from smoking. Research suggests that the relationship between sports participation and smoking may vary by race/ethnicity and is also possibly moderated by exposure to peer smoking. We investigated these relationships in a sample of 311 adolescents ages 13 – 21 presenting for well-visit medical appointments. Participants completed valid assessments of demographics, sports participation, exposure to peer smoking, and smoking behavior. The primary outcome was smoking status (never smoked, tried smoking, experimental/current smoker). Ordinal logistic regression was used separately for non-Hispanic White (n = 122) and non-White (n = 189; 70.4% Black, 14.3% Hispanic, and 15.3% other) adolescents. Among White adolescents, sports participants had significantly lower odds of smoking than non-sports participants, independent of age, gender, and peer smoking. For non-Whites, the adjusted effect of sports participation on smoking depended upon exposure to peers who smoke. Compared with non-sport participants with no exposure to peer smoking, sports participants with no exposure to peer smoking had significantly lower odds of smoking, whereas sports participants with exposure to peer smoking had significantly higher odds of smoking. Sports appear to be protective against smoking among non-Hispanic White adolescents, but among non-White adolescents exposure to peer smoking influences this protection. Interventions incorporating sports to prevent smoking should consider these racial/ethnic differences to address disparities in smoking-related disease. PMID:22698897

  11. Implicit Motivational Processes Underlying Smoking in American and Dutch Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Helle; Kong, Grace; Becker, Daniela; Cousijn, Janna; Boendermaker, Wouter; Cavallo, Dana; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Wiers, Reinout

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Research demonstrates that cognitive biases toward drug-related stimuli are correlated with substance use. This study aimed to investigate differences in cognitive biases (i.e., approach bias, attentional bias, and memory associations) between smoking and non-smoking adolescents in the US and the Netherlands. Within the group of smokers, we examined the relative predictive value of the cognitive biases and impulsivity related constructs (including inhibition skills, working memory, and risk taking) on daily smoking and nicotine dependence. Method: A total of 125 American and Dutch adolescent smokers (n = 67) and non-smokers (n = 58) between 13 and 18 years old participated. Participants completed the smoking approach–avoidance task, the classical and emotional Stroop task, brief implicit associations task, balloon analog risk task, the self-ordering pointing task, and a questionnaire assessing level of nicotine dependence and smoking behavior. Results: The analytical sample consisted of 56 Dutch adolescents (27 smokers and 29 non-smokers) and 37 American adolescents (19 smokers and 18 non-smokers). No differences in cognitive biases between smokers and non-smokers were found. Generally, Dutch adolescents demonstrated an avoidance bias toward both smoking and neutral stimuli whereas the American adolescents did not demonstrate a bias. Within the group of smokers, regression analyses showed that stronger attentional bias and weaker inhibition skills predicted greater nicotine dependence while weak working memory predicted more daily cigarette use. Conclusion: Attentional bias, inhibition skills, and working memory might be important factors explaining smoking in adolescence. Cultural differences in approach–avoidance bias should be considered in future research. PMID:24904435

  12. The Social Context of Adolescent Smoking: A Systems Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hipp, John R.; Timberlake, David S.

    2010-01-01

    We used a systems science perspective to examine adolescents' personal networks, school networks, and neighborhoods as a system through which emotional support and peer influence flow, and we sought to determine whether these flows affected past-month smoking at 2 time points, 1994–1995 and 1996. To test relationships, we employed structural equation modeling and used public-use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 6504). Personal network properties affected past-month smoking at both time points via the flow of emotional support. We observed a feedback loop from personal network properties to emotional support and then to past-month smoking. Past-month smoking at time 1 fed back to positively affect in-degree centrality (i.e., popularity). Findings suggest that networks and neighborhoods in this system positively affected past-month smoking via flows of emotional support. PMID:20466966

  13. Bias From Using Occupational Smoking Prevalence to Adjust Occupational Incidence Cohort Lung Cancer Mortality Rates

    PubMed Central

    Roth, H. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe how smoking correction factors based on comparing worker smoking prevalence with population smoking prevalence are biased if applied to an occupational incidence cohort. Methods: Relative rates of smoking for shorter-tenure workers derived from occupational cohort lung cancer studies were applied to incidence and prevalence population tenure distributions to calculate relative smoking estimates. Results: High smoking rates in short-tenure workers have little effect on prevalent worker rates (relative smoking estimates, 1.04 and 1.02) and much larger effect in occupational incidence populations (relative smoking estimates, 1.58 and 1.21), which have a much higher proportion of short tenure-workers. Conclusions: Smoking correction estimates derived from surveys of smoking habits in prevalent workers may introduce bias when applied to incidence workers because of very different proportions of short-tenure workers (length-time biased sampling). PMID:25427172

  14. Testing Social Cognitive Theory as a theoretical framework to predict smoking relapse among daily smoking adolescents.

    PubMed

    Van Zundert, Rinka M P; Nijhof, Linda M; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2009-03-01

    Predictors of adolescent smoking relapse are largely unknown, since studies either focus on relapse among adults, or address (long-term) smoking cessation but not relapse. In the present study, Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) was used as a theoretical framework to examine the first and second lapses, as well as mild and heavy relapse into smoking among 135 daily smoking adolescents who embarked on a serious quit attempt. Baseline predictors were pros of smoking, pros of quitting, self-efficacy, and intensity of smoking. Using an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) study design, participants were monitored three times a day during 4 weeks. A follow-up was administered 2 months after the monitoring period. Perceiving many pros of smoking, reporting a low self-efficacy to quit, and high levels of baseline smoking significantly predicted relapse within 3 weeks after quitting. The effects of pros of smoking and self-efficacy on relapse, however, appeared to be accounted for by differences in intensity of smoking. Besides that pros of quitting showed a marginal effect on abstinence at the 2-month follow-up, no long-term effects were detected. PMID:19059732

  15. Decrease in smoking prevalence--Minnesota, 1999-2010.

    PubMed

    2011-02-11

    Following the landmark 1998 settlement of the lawsuit, State of Minnesota versus Philip Morris, Inc., et al., Minnesota implemented a series of tobacco control efforts to limit the harm caused by tobacco use. In 2001, quitline services for tobacco users without health insurance coverage for cessation services were introduced and statewide mass media campaigns publicizing them were initiated. In 2005, Minnesota imposed a $0.75 per pack tax on cigarettes, followed in 2009 by a $0.62 per pack increase in federal excise tax, contributing in large part to a more than $2 increase in the average price of cigarettes. In 2007, a comprehensive, statewide smoke-free law was passed. Using surveillance data from the Minnesota Adult Tobacco Survey (MATS) and cigarette pack sales data, this report examines the effects of these tobacco-related public health efforts. Compared with a 15% decline in national adult smoking prevalence since 1999, adult smoking prevalence in Minnesota decreased 27.1%, from 22.1% in 1999 to 16.1% in 2010. During the same period, per capita cigarette sales in Minnesota decreased 40%. In addition, in 2010 compared with 1999, a higher percentage of adults reported that smoking was restricted in their homes (87.2% versus 64.5%), and adults were less likely to report exposure to secondhand smoke (45.6% versus 67.2%). In the past decade, Minnesota has benefited from sustained tobacco control. Future progress in decreasing adult smoking and reducing exposure to secondhand smoke will depend on a concerted effort across the public health community to keep tobacco control a priority. PMID:21307824

  16. Multilevel Predictors of Smoking Initiation among Adolescents: Findings from the Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort (MACC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kelvin; Bernat, Debra H.; Klein, Elizabeth G.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Forster, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand how factors at multiple levels of influence impact adolescent smoking initiation. Method Data from the Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort, a population-based cohort, were analyzed. Adolescents were recruited from randomly selected geopolitical units (GPUs) in Minnesota at ages 12 to 13 (n=1,953), and were surveyed every six months (2000–2006) until 18. The association between baseline social factors and smoking initiation was analyzed using logistic regression. Linear regression was used to analyze predictors and age of initiation among smokers (n=603). Results Higher proportion of 15–16 year-olds who smoke at the area-level (GPU) was associated with younger initiation (15.47 vs 15.87, p<.05). Higher proportion of the population employed and higher median household income were associated with older initiation (15.90 vs. 15.56 p<.05). Parent education, living with parents or siblings who smoke, living in homes that allow smoking, and having friends who smoke at baseline were associated with smoking initiation or younger initiation (p<.05). Participants whose parents had less than a high school education were 1.6 times more likely than those with college educated parents to have smoked more than a whole cigarette (CI=1.06, 2.26). Conclusion Factors at multiple levels of influence affect adolescent smoking initiation. Smoking by older age peers and lower SES predicts earlier smoking. PMID:22245269

  17. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Mohamed; Boraie, Maher

    2016-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1%) individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8%) at the second screening, (P <0.001). Hematuria was the most common urinary abnormalities detected in 245 (9.8%) adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1%) individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6%) individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3%) individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5%) individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6%) of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6%) individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1%) of them. Asymptomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9%) of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6%) of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8%) individuals had <0.5 g/day and twenty (0.8%) individuals had 0.5-3 g/day. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities were more common in males than females and adolescents from rural than urban areas (P <0.01) and (P <0.001), respectively. The present study found a high prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents in our population. PMID:27215241

  18. Effect of self-reported home smoking restriction on smoking initiation among adolescents in Taiwan: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Luh, Dih-Ling; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi; Yen, Amy Ming-Fang; Wang, Ting-Ting; Chiu, Sherry Yueh-Hsia; Fann, Ching-Yuan; Chen, Sam Li-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to investigate the influence of home smoking restriction (HSR) and the modified effect of parental smoking on smoking initiation among adolescents. Design Prospective Cohort Study. Setting Junior high school in Keelung City, Taiwan. Participants This study collected and evaluated primary data from the Adolescent Smoking and Other Health-Related Behaviour Survey conducted in Keelung City, which aimed to investigate smoking and health-related behaviours in junior high school students (2008–2009). Data on students free of smoking in 2008 and following them until 2009 (n=901) to ascertain whether they had started smoking were analysed with logistic regression mode to examine the proposed postulates. Main outcome measure The outcome variable was smoking initiation, which was defined as smoking status (yes/no) in the 2009 follow-up questionnaire. The main independent variable was HSR obtained from an adolescent self-reported questionnaire. Information on parental smoking was measured by adolescents self-reporting the smoking behaviour of their father and mother. Results The rate of HSR was 29.79% among 7th grade adolescents. The effect of HSR on smoking initiation in adolescents was statistically significantly modified by paternal smoking (p=0.04) but not by maternal smoking (p=0.54). The effect of HSR on smoking initiation was small for fathers with the habit of smoking (OR=0.89, 95% CI (0.42 to 1.88)), but the corresponding effect size was 3.2-fold (OR=2.84, 95% CI 1.19 to 6.81) for fathers without the habit of smoking. Conclusions Paternal smoking behaviour may play an interactive role with HSR in preventing smoking initiation among Taiwanese adolescents. PMID:26116613

  19. Preventing smoking in children and adolescents: Recommendations for practice and policy.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Johanne; Chadi, Nicholas

    2016-05-01

    Canada has witnessed a general decrease in smoking prevalence among all age groups in recent years. However, despite large numbers of campaigns and interventions, thousands of young Canadians continue to initiate cigarette smoking every year. The increasing popularity of alternative tobacco products and e-cigarettes is also creating new health challenges. Research has shown that the deleterious effects of nicotine and cigarette smoke are significant and long lasting. Health care professionals have key responsibilities in preventing tobacco use among youth and their families, and need to know more about effective smoking prevention and cessation strategies. Clinicians need to integrate tobacco counselling into health assessments of teenagers and be aware of the roles that families, communities and governments can play in promoting tobacco-free environments. Information, effective strategies and opportunities for health care professionals to intervene and advocate for Canadian adolescents are discussed. PMID:27429575

  20. Associations between depression risk, bullying and current smoking among Chinese adolescents: Modulated by gender.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lan; Hong, Lingyao; Gao, Xue; Zhou, Jinhua; Lu, Ciyong; Zhang, Wei-Hong

    2016-03-30

    This school-based study aimed to investigate the prevalence of being at risk for depression, bullying behavior, and current smoking among Chinese adolescents in order to explore gender differences in the vulnerability of adolescents with these behaviors to develop a smoking habit. A total of 35,893 high school students sampled from high schools in eighteen cities in China participated in the study from 2011 to 2012. Overall, the prevalence of current smoking was estimated at 6.4%. In total, 1.7% (618) of the participants admitted to bullying others, 5.8% (2071) reported being bullied, 3.5% (1269) were involved in both bullying others and being bullied, and 5.6% (2017) were at high risk for depression. Logistic regression analysis indicated that among girls, with high depression risk, bullying others, being bullied, and both bullying others and being bullied were independently and positively associated with current smoking habits, while the final results among boys showed that bullying others and both bullying others and being bullied were independently associated with an increased risk of current smoking. School-based prevention programs are highly recommended, and we should focus on high-risk students, particularly girls with high risk of depression or involved in school bullying and boys who are involved in school bullying. PMID:26833280

  1. The association between family structure and adolescent smoking among multicultural students in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yajun; Palmer, Paula H.; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Blake, Jerome; Johnson, C. Anderson

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine whether the prevalence of smoking was associated with family structure among multicultural adolescents and whether there was gender disparity on the association. Methods Data were collected from a sample of 7th graders in Hawaii who completed in-class questionnaires in 2004. The final sample included 821 multicultural students from different family structures. Descriptive analyses, Chi-square tests and logistic regression were performed to examine the prevalence of smoking and the association between family structure and smoking prevalence. Results This sample contained students who lived in intact (61.7%), single-parent (16.5%), step-parent (15.6%), and no-parent (6.2%) families. The overall prevalence of ever/lifetime smoking was 24.0%, and was not significantly different between genders in each family structure (P > 0.05). Compared with living in intact families, living in single-parent, step-parent, or no-parent families was significantly associated with higher odds of ever/lifetime smoking among all students (P < 0.05) and living in single-parent and step-parent families was significantly associated with higher odds of ever/lifetime smoking among females (P < 0.05) and among males (P < 0.05) respectively, after adjusting for covariates. Conclusions These findings suggest that family structure is a risk factor for smoking among multicultural students. Anti-smoking programs should consider this factor. PMID:26056625

  2. Prenatal smoking exposure and psychiatric symptoms in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Indredavik, Marit S; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Romundstad, Pål; Vik, Torstein

    2007-01-01

    Aim Explore associations between smoking in pregnancy and psychiatric symptoms in the adolescent offspring. Design/subjects A prospective population based follow-up of 84 adolescents at 14 years of age, of whom 32 of the mothers reported smoking during pregnancy. Main outcome measures The Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA), ADHD-Rating Scale IV, Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ), Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS), estimated IQ based on four subscales of WISC-III. Results Adolescents who were born by smokers had significantly more rule-breaking and aggressive behaviour, externalizing and total problems on the ASEBA than adolescents of non-smokers (p < 0.01), when reported by mothers, fathers and teachers. ADHD symptoms were reported more frequently (p < 0.05), and mothers also reported more internalizing symptoms (p < 0.05) and social problems (p < 0.001). The ASSQ sum score was higher (p < 0.001), and overall function as measured by the CGAS was lower (p < 0.01) for the smoking-exposed group. Associations were still present after controlling for possible confounding factors. Conclusion Adolescents exposed to prenatal smoking had higher scores for both externalizing and internalizing psychiatric symptoms, which could not be explained by a broad range of possible psychosocial confounders. Thus, smoking in pregnancy may be a marker for increased risk of psychiatric symptoms in the offspring. PMID:17407460

  3. Genetic Variation in Dopamine Pathways Differentially Associated with Smoking Progression in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laucht, Manfred; Becker, Katja; Frank, Josef; Schmidt, Martin H.; Esser, Gunter; Treutlein, Jens; Skowronek, Markus H.; Schumann, Gunter

    2008-01-01

    A study examines whether genetic variation in dopamine pathways differentially associate with smoking progression in adolescence. Results indicate the influence of specific dopamine genes in different stages of smoking progression in adolescents.

  4. Smoking Behaviors and Attitudes During Adolescence Prospectively Predict Support for Tobacco Control Policies in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Several cross-sectional studies have examined factors associated with support for tobacco control policies. The current study utilized a longitudinal design to test smoking status and attitude toward smoking measured in adolescence as prospective predictors of support for tobacco control policies measured in adulthood. Methods: Participants (N = 4,834) were from a longitudinal study of a Midwestern community-based sample. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses tested adolescent smoking status and attitude toward smoking as prospective predictors (after controlling for sociodemographic factors, adult smoking status, and adult attitude toward smoking) of support for regulation of smoking in public places, discussion of the dangers of smoking in public schools, prohibiting smoking in bars, eliminating smoking on television and in movies, prohibiting smoking in restaurants, and increasing taxes on cigarettes. Results: Participants who smoked during adolescence demonstrated more support for discussion of the dangers of smoking in public schools and less support for increasing taxes on cigarettes but only among those who smoked as adults. Those with more positive attitudes toward smoking during adolescence demonstrated less support as adults for prohibiting smoking in bars and eliminating smoking on television and in movies. Moreover, a significant interaction indicated that those with more positive attitudes toward smoking as adolescents demonstrated less support as adults for prohibiting smoking in restaurants, but only if they became parents as adults. Conclusions: This study’s findings suggest that interventions designed to deter adolescent smoking may have future benefits in increasing support for tobacco control policies. PMID:22193576

  5. ERICA: prevalence of dyslipidemia in Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Faria, José Rocha; Bento, Vivian Freitas Rezende; Baena, Cristina Pellegrino; Olandoski, Marcia; Gonçalves, Luis Gonzaga de Oliveira; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina Caetano; Bloch, Katia Vergetti

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the distribution of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides in Brazilian adolescents, as well as the prevalence of altered levels of such parameters. METHODS Data from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA) were used. This is a country-wide, school-based cross-sectional study that evaluated 12 to 17-year old adolescents living in cities with over 100,000 inhabitants. The average and distribution of plasma levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides were evaluated. Dyslipidemia was determined by levels of total cholesterol ≥ 170 mg/dl, LDL cholesterol ≥ 130 mg/dl, HDL cholesterol < 45 mg/dL, or triglycerides ≥ 130 mg/dl. The data were analyzed by gender, age, and regions in Brazil. RESULTS We evaluated 38,069 adolescents – 59.9% of females, and 54.2% between 15 and 17 years. The average values found were: total cholesterol = 148.1 mg/dl (95%CI 147.1-149.1), HDL cholesterol = 47.3 mg/dl (95%CI 46.7-47.9), LDL cholesterol = 85.3 mg/dl (95%CI 84.5-86.1), and triglycerides = 77.8 mg/dl (95%CI 76.5-79.2). The female adolescents had higher average levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol, without differences in the levels of triglycerides. We did not observe any significant differences between the average values among 12 to 14 and 15- to 17-year old adolescents. The most prevalent lipid alterations were low HDL cholesterol (46.8% [95%CI 44.8-48.9]), hypercholesterolemia (20.1% [95%CI 19.0-21.3]), and hypertriglyceridemia (7.8% [95%CI 7.1-8.6]). High LDL cholesterol was found in 3.5% (95%CI 3.2-4.0) of the adolescents. Prevalence of low HDL cholesterol was higher in Brazil’s North and Northeast regions. CONCLUSIONS A significant proportion of Brazilian adolescents has alterations in their plasma lipids. The high prevalence of low HDL cholesterol and hypertriglyceridemia, especially in Brazil’s North and Northeast regions

  6. ERICA: prevalence of dyslipidemia in Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Faria Neto, José Rocha; Bento, Vivian Freitas Rezende; Baena, Cristina Pellegrino; Olandoski, Marcia; Gonçalves, Luis Gonzaga de Oliveira; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina Caetano; Bloch, Katia Vergetti

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the distribution of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides in Brazilian adolescents, as well as the prevalence of altered levels of such parameters. METHODS Data from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA) were used. This is a country-wide, school-based cross-sectional study that evaluated 12 to 17-year old adolescents living in cities with over 100,000 inhabitants. The average and distribution of plasma levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides were evaluated. Dyslipidemia was determined by levels of total cholesterol ≥ 170 mg/dl, LDL cholesterol ≥ 130 mg/dl, HDL cholesterol < 45 mg/dL, or triglycerides ≥ 130 mg/dl. The data were analyzed by gender, age, and regions in Brazil. RESULTS We evaluated 38,069 adolescents - 59.9% of females, and 54.2% between 15 and 17 years. The average values found were: total cholesterol = 148.1 mg/dl (95%CI 147.1-149.1), HDL cholesterol = 47.3 mg/dl (95%CI 46.7-47.9), LDL cholesterol = 85.3 mg/dl (95%CI 84.5-86.1), and triglycerides = 77.8 mg/dl (95%CI 76.5-79.2). The female adolescents had higher average levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol, without differences in the levels of triglycerides. We did not observe any significant differences between the average values among 12 to 14 and 15- to 17-year old adolescents. The most prevalent lipid alterations were low HDL cholesterol (46.8% [95%CI 44.8-48.9]), hypercholesterolemia (20.1% [95%CI 19.0-21.3]), and hypertriglyceridemia (7.8% [95%CI 7.1-8.6]). High LDL cholesterol was found in 3.5% (95%CI 3.2-4.0) of the adolescents. Prevalence of low HDL cholesterol was higher in Brazil's North and Northeast regions. CONCLUSIONS A significant proportion of Brazilian adolescents has alterations in their plasma lipids. The high prevalence of low HDL cholesterol and hypertriglyceridemia, especially in Brazil's North and Northeast regions, must be

  7. Stages of smoking acquisition versus susceptibility as predictors of smoking initiation in adolescents in primary care.

    PubMed

    Huang, Minnie; Hollis, Jack; Polen, Michael; Lapidus, Jodi; Austin, Donald

    2005-07-01

    We evaluated whether susceptibility, the stages of smoking acquisition, and socio-environmental factors can identify adolescents who will become smokers. Our data came from a randomized controlled trial of an intervention to prevent adolescent smoking. Subjects were adolescents (n=1955) ages 14-17 being seen for routine medical care. The dependent variable was 30-day smoking status at 2-year follow-up (89.6% response rate). Independent variables included susceptibility, the stages of acquisition, and socio-environmental factors. Susceptible adolescents were two to three times more likely to be smokers than non-susceptible adolescents. Compared to acquisition precontemplators, acquisition contemplators were three to five times more likely, and acquisition preparers were five to eight times more likely, to be smokers. When combined into a single measure, susceptible precontemplators were two times, contemplators were six times, and preparers were nine times more likely to be smokers than non-susceptible precontemplators. Our findings suggest that acquisition stage and susceptibility can independently predict smoking onset. They may be used together to target teens for smoking prevention efforts in the clinical setting. PMID:15925127

  8. Intrauterine exposure to smoking and wheezing in adolescence: the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Werhmeister, F C; Nunes, B P; Loret de Mola, C; Gómez-Cofré, N; de Oliveira, P D; Marco, P L; Assunção, M C F; Gonçalves, H; Horta, B L; Menezes, A M B

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have suggested an association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and asthma symptoms such as wheezing during childhood. However, few have evaluated this association in adolescence, especially in populations with high prevalence of wheezing as in Brazil. Using the 1993 Pelotas birth cohort, a longitudinal study set in southern Brazil of 5249 urban live births, we aimed to evaluate the association between maternal and the partner's smoking during pregnancy and wheezing at 11 and 15 years of age. We evaluated smoking during pregnancy using number of cigarettes/day, and our main outcomes were as follows: wheezing in the last year and number of wheezing crises, at both 11 and 15 years of age, as well as persistent wheezing (having crises at 11 and 15 years of age) and medical asthma diagnosis at age 15. In addition, other socio-demographic variables were included as possible confounders and mediators of this association. We used Poisson regression models to evaluate crude and adjusted associations. Of the 5249 live births in 1993, 87.5% and 85.7% were followed-up to 11 and 15 years of age, respectively. Maternal smoking during pregnancy showed a dose-response association with number of wheezing crises at age 15 (P = 0.023), presence of persistent wheezing (P = 0.034) and asthma diagnosis (P = 0.023). Partner's smoking was not associated with any wheezing variables. Maternal smoking during pregnancy appears to exert an effect on respiratory morbidity of adolescents, evaluated by wheezing symptoms. PMID:25404101

  9. Are smoking and passive smoking related with heart rate variability in male adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Gondim, Renata Melo; Farah, Breno Quintella; Santos, Carolina da Franca Bandeira Ferreira; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the relation between smoking and passive smoking with heart rate variability parameters in male adolescents. Methods The sample consisted of 1,152 males, aged 14 and 19 years. Data related to smoking and passive smoking were collected using a questionnaire. RR intervals were obtained by a heart rate monitor, on supine position, for 10 minutes. After collecting the RR intervals, time (standard deviation of all RR intervals, root mean square of the squared differences between adjacent normal RR intervals and the percentage of adjacent intervals over 50ms) and frequency domains (low and high frequency and sympathovagal balance) parameters of heart rate variability were obtained. Results No significant differences between smoker and nonsmoker adolescents were observed in heart rate variability parameters (p>0.05). Similarly, heart rate variability parameters did not show significant difference between exposed and not exposed to passive smoking (p>0.05). Conclusion Cigarette smoking and passive smoking are not related to heart rate variability in adolescence. PMID:25993065

  10. Determinants of exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) among current non-smoking in-school adolescents (aged 11-18 years) in South Africa: results from the 2008 GYTS study.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and identify correlates of second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) among 6,412 current non-smoking school-going adolescents (aged 11 to 18 years) in South Africa. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2008 in South Africa within the framework of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Overall, 25.7% of students were exposed to SHS at home, 34.2% outside of the home and 18.3% were exposed to SHS at home and outside of the home. Parental and close friends smoking status, allowing someone to smoke around you and perception that passive smoking was harmful were significant determinants of adolescent's exposure to both SHS at home and outside of the home. Identified factors can inform the implementation of public health interventions in order to reduce passive smoking among adolescents. PMID:22016702

  11. Pulmonary effects of active smoking and secondhand smoke exposure among adolescent students in Juárez, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Yelena; Staines-Orozco, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Background Youth smoking trends among Latin American countries, including Mexico, are on the rise. Notably, although the high prevalence of smoking in teens has been well documented in the literature, few studies have evaluated the impact of smoking and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure on their respiratory system. Objective To investigate the effects of smoking and SHS exposure on the respiratory health and lung function among eighth-grade students in Juárez, Mexico. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken on a sample of convenience. The study outcomes centered on evaluating 300 students’ lung function by spirometry (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1], forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity ratio [FEV1/FVC], and forced mid-expiratory flow rate [FEF25%–75%]) and their respiratory health (smoking behavior and SHS exposure) by their self-reported responses to a standardized respiratory questionnaire. The study outcomes were compared among three distinct groups: 1) nonsmokers/nonexposed to SHS; 2) nonsmokers/exposed to SHS; and 3) smokers. Results The majority of the study participants were 14 years old (85%), females (54%), who attended eighth grade in a public school setting (56%). Approximately, half reported being of low socioeconomic status (49%) and nonsmokers/exposed to SHS (49%). The lung function parameters of smokers were found to be lower (FEV1 =62.88±10.25; FEV1/FVC =83.50±14.15; and FEF25%–75% =66.35±12.55) than those recorded for the nonsmokers/exposed to SHS (FEV1 =69.41±11.35; FEV1/FVC =88.75±15.75; and FEF25%–75% =78.90±14.65) and significantly reduced when compared to the nonsmokers/nonexposed to SHS (FEV1 =79.14±13.61; FEV1/FVC =94.88±21.88; and FEF25%–75% =87.36±17.02) (P<0.001). Similarly, respiratory complaints were more prevalent among smokers and those exposed to SHS when compared to nonsmokers/nonexposed to SHS. Conclusion Our findings suggest that initiation of cigarette smoking and, to a

  12. Cognitive Attributions for Smoking Among Adolescents in China

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qian; Unger, Jennifer B.; Azen, Stanley P.; Li, Chaoyang; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Palmer, Paula H.; Chou, Chih-Ping; Lee, Liming; Sun, Ping; Johnson, C. Anderson

    2009-01-01

    To design more effective health communication messages for smoking cessation and prevention, it is important to understand people’s own perceptions of the factors that influence their decisions to smoke. Studies have examined cognitive attributions for smoking in Western countries but not in the Chinese cultural context. In a study of 14,434 Chinese adolescents, exploratory factor analysis grouped 17 cognitive attributions into 8 factors: curiosity, coping, social image, social belonging, engagement, autonomy, mental enhancement, and weight control. The factors were ranked based on the participants’ self-reports of importance and by the strength of their associations with smoking behavior. Among all smokers, curiosity was the most frequently-ranked attribution factor at the early stages of smoking but not for daily smoking. Coping was highly-ranked across smoking stages. Social image and social belonging were more highly-ranked at earlier stages, whereas engagement and mental enhancement were ranked more highly at later stages of smoking. More attributions were associated with smoking among males than among females. This information could be useful for the development of evidence-based anti-smoking programs in China. PMID:19800741

  13. Adolescent Egocentrism, Risk Perceptions, and Sensation Seeking among Smoking and Nonsmoking Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankenberger, Kristina D.

    2004-01-01

    A survey compared adolescents (ages 14 to 18) who have never tried smoking, smoke infrequently, or smoke regularly on three characteristics: adolescent egocentrism, risk perceptions, and sensation seeking. Sensation seeking exhibited the expected result by increasing with smoking experience. Contrary to past research findings, perceptions of…

  14. Estimating the Smoking Ban Effects on Smoking Prevalence, Quitting and Cigarette Consumption in a Population Study of Apprentices in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Pieroni, Luca; Muzi, Giacomo; Quercia, Augusto; Lanari, Donatella; Rundo, Carmen; Minelli, Liliana; Salmasi, Luca; dell’Omo, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We evaluated the effects of the Italian 2005 smoking ban in public places on the prevalence of smoking, quitting and cigarette consumption of young workers. Data and Methods: The dataset was obtained from non-computerized registers of medical examinations for a population of workers with apprenticeship contracts residing in the province of Viterbo, Italy, in the period 1996–2007. To estimate the effects of the ban, a segmented regression approach was used, exploiting the discontinuity introduced by the application of the law on apprentices’ smoking behavior. Results: It is estimated that the Italian smoking ban generally had no effect on smoking prevalence, quitting ratio, or cigarette consumption of apprentices. However, when the estimates were applied to subpopulations, significant effects were found: −1% in smoking prevalence, +2% in quitting, and −3% in smoking intensity of apprentices with at least a diploma. PMID:26287220

  15. Personal and Family Factors Affecting Life time Cigarette Smoking Among Adolescents in Tehran (Iran): A Community Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Baheiraei, Azam; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The prevalence of smoking among adolescents varies in different parts of the world. The current study aims to survey the socio-demographic and family characteristics related to adolescent lifetime cigarette smoking among 1201 Iranian adolescents aged 15-18 years old. Methods This study is a population-based cross-sectional survey conducted using the multistage random cluster sampling method in Tehran, Iran in the summer of 2010. Results The prevalence of lifetime cigarette use amongst boys (30.2%) was about 1.5 times that of girls (22.2%), (p=0.002). Older age, low parental control, very little parental supervision in the adolescent’s selection of friends, and having a friend or family member who smokes were associated with lifetime cigarette use among male adolescents. Moreover, the use of verbal punishment by the parents was a protective factor for female lifetime cigarette use. Smoking has become one of the great health threats among Iranian adolescents. Conclusions As a result, health promotion programs should be gender based whilst educational and interventional programs for preventing tobacco use should begin before adolescence. PMID:23772284

  16. ERICA: prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kuschnir, Fábio Chigres; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz; Solé, Dirceu; Costa, Eduardo; Felix, Mara Morelo Rocha; de Oliveira, Cecília Lacroix; de Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina Caetano

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Cross-sectional, national, school-based study with adolescents from 12 to 17 years old, participants in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). The study stratified the sample by region and grouped according to schools and classes with representativeness to the set of cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants of the Country, macro-regions, capitals, and Federal District. A questionnaire collected data through a self-filled in method. We calculated the prevalences and their confidence intervals of 95% (95%CI) according to sex, age group, type of school and skin color. RESULTS Between 2013 and 2014, 74,589 adolescents were evaluated, 55.3% of the female sex. The total prevalence of active asthma was of 13.1% (95%CI 12.1-13.9), being higher in girls (14.8%; 95%CI 13.7-16.0) when compared to boys (11.2%; 95%CI 10.3-12.2) in all geographical strata examined. It was also higher between students of private schools (15.9%; 95%CI 14.2-17.7) when compared to public ones (12.4%; 95%CI 11.4-13.4). It was higher in the Southeast region (14.5%; 95%CI 12.9-16.1), and in the city of Sao Paulo (16.7%; 95%CI 14.7-18.7). The lowest prevalence was observed in North region (9.7%; 95%CI 9.7-10.5), and in Teresina (6.3%; 95%CI 4.9-7.7). The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma was of 8.7% (95%CI 8.2-9.1); higher in the North region (13.5%; 95%CI 12.7-14.2), and in Porto Alegre (19.8%; 95%CI 17.5-22.3). It was lower in the Midwest (6.9%; 95%CI 6.0-7.8), and in Cuiaba (4.8%; 95%CI 3.8-5.9). We found no significant difference in the expression of this rate between the sexes, as well as in other variables evaluated by the study. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents is high. Rates of active asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma vary widely in different regions and capitals evaluated by the ERICA. These results may assist in the

  17. ERICA: prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kuschnir, Fábio Chigres; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz; Solé, Dirceu; Costa, Eduardo; Felix, Mara Morelo Rocha; Oliveira, Cecília Lacroix de; Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite de; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina Caetano

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Cross-sectional, national, school-based study with adolescents from 12 to 17 years old, participants in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). The study stratified the sample by region and grouped according to schools and classes with representativeness to the set of cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants of the Country, macro-regions, capitals, and Federal District. A questionnaire collected data through a self-filled in method. We calculated the prevalences and their confidence intervals of 95% (95%CI) according to sex, age group, type of school and skin color. RESULTS Between 2013 and 2014, 74,589 adolescents were evaluated, 55.3% of the female sex. The total prevalence of active asthma was of 13.1% (95%CI 12.1-13.9), being higher in girls (14.8%; 95%CI 13.7-16.0) when compared to boys (11.2%; 95%CI 10.3-12.2) in all geographical strata examined. It was also higher between students of private schools (15.9%; 95%CI 14.2-17.7) when compared to public ones (12.4%; 95%CI 11.4-13.4). It was higher in the Southeast region (14.5%; 95%CI 12.9-16.1), and in the city of Sao Paulo (16.7%; 95%CI 14.7-18.7). The lowest prevalence was observed in North region (9.7%; 95%CI 9.7-10.5), and in Teresina (6.3%; 95%CI 4.9-7.7). The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma was of 8.7% (95%CI 8.2-9.1); higher in the North region (13.5%; 95%CI 12.7-14.2), and in Porto Alegre (19.8%; 95%CI 17.5-22.3). It was lower in the Midwest (6.9%; 95%CI 6.0-7.8), and in Cuiaba (4.8%; 95%CI 3.8-5.9). We found no significant difference in the expression of this rate between the sexes, as well as in other variables evaluated by the study. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents is high. Rates of active asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma vary widely in different regions and capitals evaluated by the ERICA. These results may assist in the

  18. The Prevalence, Lethality and Intent of Suicide Attempts among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Judy A.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    Although suicide is the second leading cause of death among adolescents in the United States, little is known about the prevalence or characteristics of suicide attempts among adolescents. Data from 1,710 adolescents attending 9 high schools in 5 communities were examined to determine the prevalence of suicide attempts and the lethality and intent…

  19. The Prevalence of Sexual Abuse among Adolescents in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saewyc, Elizabeth M.; Pettingell, Sandra; Magee, Lara L.

    2003-01-01

    Sexual abuse is a profound stressor that complicates the development and health of adolescents, yet its prevalence has been difficult to estimate among adolescents in school populations. This study explored the prevalence of both incest and nonfamily abuse in 2 cohorts of adolescents in Minnesota in the 1990s (1992: N = 77,374; 1998: N = 81,247).…

  20. Adolescent's perceptions and expectations of parental action on children's smoking and snus use; national cross sectional data from three decades

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Maria; Weinehall, Lars; Bergström, Erik; Stenlund, Hans; Janlert, Urban

    2009-01-01

    Background Parents play a vital role as children develop tobacco behaviours. Many parents feel unsure about their possibility to influence their teenager's lifestyle. Knowledge about young people's acceptance for parental intervention could increase parental involvement. The overall objective of this study was to explore adolescents' perceptions and expectations of parental action regarding children's smoking and snus use, and whether they have changed over time. To see if there were differences whether the adolescent was a tobacco user or not the adolescents' tobacco use was followed; and described to put the findings on their perceptions and expectations of parental action in a context. Methods The study used a repeated cross-sectional design, reporting Swedish national data from three decades. Data were collected in 1987, 1994 and 2003 by a questionnaire mailed to homes, in total to 13500 persons. The annual samples, which were random and national representative, consisted of 4500 young people aged 13, 15 and 17 yr, 1500 individuals per age group. The sampling and data collection procedures were done the same way during each survey. Chi2- tests were used to evaluate differences in distributions. Results Adolescents in all age groups became more positive toward parental action over time. In 2003, more then 86% of the adolescents, including both smokers and non-smokers, strongly supported parental action on their children's smoking by trying to persuade them not to smoke (94%), by not smoking themselves (87%) and by not allowing their children to smoke at home (86%). Both non-smokers and smokers supported the idea of parental action in a similar way. Reduced pocket money had a weak support (42%), especially from girls. Eighty-nine percent of the adolescents expected their parents to act against smoking and 85% against snus use. Smoking was stable at 8% in 1987 and 1994 but decreased to 4% in 2003. In 1987 the snus use prevalence was 4% and in 2003 it was 3%. Snus

  1. Clustering of smoking, alcohol drinking and cannabis use in adolescents in a rapidly developing country

    PubMed Central

    Faeh, David; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Chiolero, Arnaud; Warren, Wick; Bovet, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    Background Smoking, alcohol drinking and cannabis use ("risk behaviors") are often initiated at a young age but few epidemiological studies have assessed their joined prevalence in children in developing countries. This study aims at examining the joint prevalence of these behaviors in adolescents in the Seychelles, a rapidly developing country in the Indian Ocean. Methods Cross-sectional survey in a representative sample of secondary school students using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire (Global Youth Tobacco Survey). The questionnaire was completed by 1,321 (92%) of 1,442 eligible students aged 11 to 17 years. Main variables of interest included smoking cigarettes on ≥1 day in the past 30 days; drinking any alcohol beverage on ≥1 day in the past 30 days and using cannabis at least once in the past 12 months. Results In boys and girls, respectively, prevalence (95% CI) was 30% (26–34)/21% (18–25) for smoking, 49% (45–54)/48% (43–52) for drinking, and 17% (15–20)/8% (6–10) for cannabis use. The prevalence of all these behaviors increased with age. Smokers were two times more likely than non-smokers to drink and nine times more likely to use cannabis. Drinkers were three times more likely than non-drinkers to smoke or to use cannabis. Comparison of observed versus expected frequencies of combination categories demonstrated clustering of these risk behaviors in students (P < 0.001). Conclusion Smoking, drinking and cannabis use were common and clustered among adolescents of a rapidly developing country. These findings stress the need for early and integrated prevention programs. PMID:16803621

  2. State-specific progress toward the 1990 objective for the nation for cigarette smoking prevalence.

    PubMed

    Remington, P L; Novotny, T E; Williamson, D F; Anda, R F

    1989-10-01

    We predicted the smoking prevalences for 1990 for each state in the US, assuming that the decline in each state from 1985-1990 would be the same as the decline in the US from 1965-1985. In 1985, only three states had smoking prevalences less than 25 percent. Based upon the observed decline in smoking in the US from 1965-1985 of 0.5 percent per year, we predict that only seven states will have smoking prevalences less than 25 percent by 1990. States need to consider current smoking prevalence and achievable rates of decline when setting objectives for 1990 and beyond. PMID:2782517

  3. Smoking among female arrestees: prevalence of daily smoking and smoking cessation efforts.

    PubMed

    Durrah, Tracy L; Rosenberg, Terry J

    2004-07-01

    Prior research on smoking in the criminal justice system has focused on men. This study examines smoking behavior among female arrestees in New York City (NYC). The sample includes 836 women interviewed as part of the Drug Use Forecasting (DUF) Program. Questionnaire items analyzed here include the use of licit and illicit substances, current pregnancy, childbearing history, demographics, age at smoking initiation, daily smoking, dependency on tobacco, and quit attempts. Bivariate techniques and logistic regression analyses were used. Fully 71% of all women and 64% of pregnant women were daily smokers. Recent cocaine or heroin users were the most likely to be daily smokers (84% and 92%). Among daily smokers, nearly a third had ever tried to cut down or quit. In the regressions, Latinas were more likely to have tried to quit; recent heroin users and women who had ever felt dependent on tobacco were the least likely to have tried. The authors strongly recommend that female inmates are prime candidates for smoking cessation counseling. PMID:15219351

  4. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Subjective Halitosis in Korean Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Young; Sim, Songyong; Kim, Sung-Gyun; Park, Bumjung; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of subjective halitosis in adolescents. In total, 359,263 participants were selected from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) from 2009 through 2013. Demographic data including age, sex, obesity and residency; psychosocial factors such as subjective health, stress, and economic levels; and dietary factors such as alcohol consumption; smoking; and fruit, soda, fast food, instant noodle, confection, and vegetable consumption were analyzed for correlations with halitosis using simple and multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. In total, 23.6% of the participants reported the presence of halitosis. The following subjectively assessed factors were related to halitosis: poor health status (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.56), overweight or obese (AOR = 1.37), stress (AOR = 2.56), and lower economic levels (AOR = 1.85). The high intake of fast food (AOR = 1.15), instant noodles (AOR = 1.17), and confections (AOR = 1.17) and the low intake of fruits (AOR = 1.22) and vegetables (AOR = 1.19) were also related to halitosis. The prevalence of subjective halitosis in the studied adolescents was 23.6%. Specific psychosocial factors and dietary intake were related to halitosis. PMID:26461837

  5. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Subjective Halitosis in Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So Young; Sim, Songyong; Kim, Sung-Gyun; Park, Bumjung; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of subjective halitosis in adolescents. In total, 359,263 participants were selected from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) from 2009 through 2013. Demographic data including age, sex, obesity and residency; psychosocial factors such as subjective health, stress, and economic levels; and dietary factors such as alcohol consumption; smoking; and fruit, soda, fast food, instant noodle, confection, and vegetable consumption were analyzed for correlations with halitosis using simple and multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. In total, 23.6% of the participants reported the presence of halitosis. The following subjectively assessed factors were related to halitosis: poor health status (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.56), overweight or obese (AOR = 1.37), stress (AOR = 2.56), and lower economic levels (AOR = 1.85). The high intake of fast food (AOR = 1.15), instant noodles (AOR = 1.17), and confections (AOR = 1.17) and the low intake of fruits (AOR = 1.22) and vegetables (AOR = 1.19) were also related to halitosis. The prevalence of subjective halitosis in the studied adolescents was 23.6%. Specific psychosocial factors and dietary intake were related to halitosis. PMID:26461837

  6. Smoking and Adolescence: Exploring Tobacco Consumption and Related Attitudes in Three Different Adolescent Groups in Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosson, Marlene; Maggiori, Christian; Gygax, Pascal Mark; Gay, Christelle

    2012-01-01

    The present study constitutes an investigation of tobacco consumption, related attitudes and individual differences in smoking or non-smoking behaviors in a sample of adolescents of different ages in the French-speaking part of Switzerland. We investigated three school-age groups (7th-grade, 9th-grade, and the second-year of high school) for…

  7. Mood Variability and Cigarette Smoking Escalation among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Sally M.; Mermelstein, Robin; Shiffman, Saul; Flay, Brian

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined how affect dysregulation, as indexed via within-person negative mood variability, related to longitudinal patterns of smoking among adolescents. Eighth and 10th grade students (N = 517; 56% girls) provided data on cigarette use at baseline, six-, and twelve-month waves, and also provided ecological momentary assessments of negative moods via palmtop computers for one week at each wave. Mood variability was examined via the intraindividual standard deviations of negative mood reports at each wave. As predicted, high levels of negative mood variability at baseline significantly differentiated adolescents who escalated in their smoking behavior over time from those who never progressed beyond low levels of experimentation during the course of the study. Mixed-effects regression models revealed that adolescents who escalated in their smoking experienced a reduction in mood variability as smoking increased, whereas mood variability levels were more stable among those with consistently high or low levels of cigarette use. Results suggest that high negative mood variability is a risk factor for future smoking escalation, and mood stabilizing effects may reinforce and maintain daily cigarette use among youth. PMID:19071975

  8. Changing Correlates of Cigarette Smoking from Adolescence to Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Judith A.; And Others

    This study examined whether and at what time point various interpersonal and intrapersonal correlates of smoking shifted over four assessment points in a longitudinal study of 461 individuals. The study began when the subjects, who had been participating in a study of adolescent and young adult development were in junior high school. Four…

  9. Assessing the Validity of Self-Reported Adolescent Cigarette Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Gary L.; Newman, Ian M.

    1988-01-01

    Compared adolescent cigarette smoking rates determined by traditional questionnaire, random response questionnaire, and carbon monoxide test. Results from 1,160 ninth graders in 40 classrooms in 7 schools indicated that random response questionnaire elicited statistically larger proportion of smokers than did traditional questionnaire. Neither…

  10. Internet and Cell Phone Based Smoking Cessation Programs among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, Purvi; Sharma, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    Smoking cessation among adolescents is a salient public health issue, as it can prevent the adoption of risky health behaviors and reduce negative impacts on health. Self-efficacy, household and social support systems, and perceived benefits are some important cessation determinants. With the popular use of the Internet and cell phone usage among…

  11. Bullying and Smoking: Examining the Relationships in Ontario Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Erin B.; Zhang, Bo; Bondy, Susan J.

    2006-01-01

    Using data from the 2003 Ontario Student Drug Use Survey (Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto), the relationships between bullying and smoking in adolescents were examined. A representative sample of 3314 grade 7-12 students was included in the analysis. Models were adjusted for confounders identified in the current literature.…

  12. Associations between Smoking and Extreme Dieting among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Jiang, Nan

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the association between cigarette smoking and dieting behaviors and trends in that association among US adolescents in grades 9-12 between 1999 and 2007. Youth Risk Behavior Survey datasets were analyzed using the multivariable logistic regression method. The sample size of each survey year ranged from 13,554 to 15,273 with…

  13. Social Contexts in Adolescent Smoking: Does School Policy Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piontek, D.; Buehler, A.; Rudolph, U.; Metz, K.; Kroeger, C.; Gradl, S.; Floeter, S.; Donath, C.

    2008-01-01

    According to an ecological perspective in psychology and in line with social cognitive theory, smoking behaviour is determined by different social contexts (for example, peers, family and school) providing adolescents with important role models. This paper investigates the effects of personal characteristics as well as family, peer and school…

  14. Family and School Influences on Adolescent Smoking Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiium, Nora; Wold, Bente

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine how influences at home and school interact to predict smoking among adolescents. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected from 15-year-old pupils from Norway (n=1,404 in 73 Grade 10 school classes). Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to determine how family and school influences interact to…

  15. Smoking Intensity among Nigerian Secondary Schools Adolescent Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imhonde, Henry O.; Aluede, Oyaziwo

    2007-01-01

    This study examined smoking intensity among secondary school adolescent smokers. A total of 800 students, made up of 685 males and 115 females who have at least tasted a cigarette once, from twenty secondary schools (5 private and 15 public secondary schools) in Benin City, Nigeria participated in the study. A questionnaire was used in collecting…

  16. Is educational differentiation associated with smoking and smoking inequalities in adolescence? A multilevel analysis across 27 European and North American countries.

    PubMed

    Rathmann, Katharina; Moor, Irene; Kunst, Anton E; Dragano, Nico; Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; Elgar, Frank J; Hurrelmann, Klaus; Kannas, Lasse; Baška, Tibor; Richter, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to determine whether educational differentiation (i.e. early and long tracking to different school types) relate to socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent smoking. Data were collected from the WHO-Collaborative 'Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC)' study 2005/2006, which included 48,025 15-year-old students (Nboys = 23,008, Ngirls = 25,017) from 27 European and North American countries. Socioeconomic position was measured using the HBSC family affluence scale. Educational differentiation was determined by the number of different school types, age of selection, and length of differentiated curriculum at the country-level. We used multilevel logistic regression to assess the association of daily smoking and early smoking initiation predicted by family affluence, educational differentiation, and their interactions. Socioeconomic inequalities in both smoking outcomes were larger in countries that are characterised by a lower degree of educational differentiation (e.g. Canada, Scandinavia and the United Kingdom) than in countries with higher levels of educational differentiation (e.g. Austria, Belgium, Hungary and The Netherlands). This study found that high educational differentiation does not relate to greater relative inequalities in smoking. Features of educational systems are important to consider as they are related to overall prevalence in smoking and smoking inequalities in adolescence. PMID:27214054

  17. Cigarette smoking and adolescents: messages they see and hear.

    PubMed

    Crawford, M A

    2001-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the primary preventable cause of mortality and morbidity in the US. But in the mid-1990s, more than one-third of US teenagers were smokers, despite their awareness of the health risks and negative consequences of tobacco use. In 1996, as part of a three-year qualitative study to explore differences in adolescent smoking by gender and ethnicity, members of the Tobacco Control Network examined messages that teens receive about cigarette smoking. Consisting of 178 focus groups with 1,175 teenagers covering all levels of smoking experience, the study included teens from five ethnic groups, stratified by gender and ethnicity, from urban and rural areas across the US. The authors reviewed the sources and content of messages that teens reported were most influential in their decisions to smoke or not smoke cigarettes. Family and peers, school, television, and movies were the primary sources for both pro- and anti-smoking messages. The authors conclude that a lack of clear, consistent antismoking messages leaves teens vulnerable to the influences of pro-smoking messages from a variety of sources. Interventions need to be culture- and gender-specific. Family-based interventions appear to be needed and efficacious, but resource intensive. Building self-esteem may prove to be a promising intervention. PMID:11889286

  18. Young Adolescents, Tobacco Advertising, and Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santana, Yolanda; Gonzalez, Beatriz; Pinilla, Jaime; Calvo, Jose Ramon; Barber, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Background: In adolescents aged 12-14, we measured attitudes to tobacco advertising. Our purpose is to understand the relation of these attitudes to tobacco use and identify the groups most influenced by the advertising. Methods: Survey of adolescents on Gran Canaria Island, Spain, about aspects of family, school, peers, tobacco consumption, and…

  19. Smoking, Physical Activity, and Eating Habits Among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bokim; Yi, Yunjeong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare physical activity and eating habits of adolescent smokers with those of adolescent non-smokers in South Korea. This was a secondary analysis of data collected from the 2012 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey. The sample included 72,229 adolescents aged 12 to 18. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between smoking status and physical activity and between smoking status and eating habits, while controlling for other factors. Boys and girls were analyzed separately for all analyses. The proportion of self-reporting smokers was 11%. Surprisingly, girl smokers exercised significantly more frequently than non-smokers. Adolescent smokers were significantly less likely to consume fruits, vegetables, and milk/dairy products, and they ate significantly more fast-food than non-smokers. Health care professionals who plan smoking cessation programs should pay attention to South Korean adolescents' specific characteristics and cultural values in terms of health behavior. PMID:25082709

  20. Anti-smoking initiatives and current smoking among 19,643 adolescents in South Asia: findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking habit usually begins in adolescence. The developing countries in South Asia like Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, and Nepal, where the largest segment of the population is comprised of adolescents, are more susceptible to smoking epidemic and its consequences. Therefore, it is important to identify the association between anti-smoking initiatives and current smoking status in order to design effective interventions to curtail the smoking epidemic in this region. Methods This is a secondary analysis of national data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) conducted in Pakistan (year 2003), India (year 2006), Bangladesh (year 2007), and Nepal (year 2007). GYTS is a school-based survey of students targeting adolescents of age 13–15 years. We examined the association of different ways of delivering anti-smoking messages with students’ current smoking status. Results A total of 19,643 schoolchildren were included in this study. The prevalence of current smoking was 5.4% with male predominance. No exposure to school teachings, family discussions regarding smoking hazards, and anti-smoking media messages was significantly associated with current smoking among male students. Participants who were deprived of family discussion regarding smoking hazards (girls: odds ratio (OR) 1.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84–2.89, p value 0.152; boys: OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.04–1.80, p value 0.025), those who had not seen media messages (girls: OR 2.89, 95% CI 1.58–5.28, p value <0.001; boys: OR 1.32, 95% CI 0.91–1.88, p value 0.134), and those who were not taught the harmful effects of smoking at school (girls: OR 2.00, 95% CI 0.95–4.21, p value 0.066; boys: OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.44–2.48, p value <0.001) had higher odds of being current smokers after multivariate adjustment. Conclusion School-going adolescents in South Asia (Pakistan, India, Nepal, and Bangladesh) who were not exposed to anti-tobacco media messages or were not taught about the

  1. Cigar, Cigarillo, and Little Cigar Use Among Current Cigarette-Smoking Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Cigar, cigarillo, and little cigar (CCLC) use is prevalent among adolescents, particularly among those who smoke cigarettes. Methods: Using data from a longitudinal study of smoking patterns among adolescents, we examined differences between CCLC users (ever and past 30 days) and nonusers (never and not in the past 30 days) among adolescents who smoked a cigarette in the last month (n = 486). Results: In our sample, 76.7% reported ever trying CCLC and 40.7% reported past month CCLC use. Bivariate analyses showed that CCLC users differed from nonusers in terms of demographics, other forms of tobacco use, other substance use, and mental health. Multivariate logistic regression analyses found that both ever and past 30-day CCLC use were strongly associated with being male and concurrent use of hookah. Ever CCLC use was also strongly associated with recent use of alcohol, and past 30-day CCLC use was strongly associated with antisocial behavior. After controlling for the number of days on which cigarettes were smoked in the past 30 days, past 30-day CCLC use was associated with most other forms of tobacco use, other substance use, and mental health, but not with number of cigarettes smoked in the past month and nicotine dependence. Conclusions: Results suggest that CCLC use is high among adolescent cigarette users and is associated with a variety of negative correlates. Importantly, many of these relationships are not accounted for by the adolescent’s level of cigarette use. Further characterizing CCLC use will be important for developing more targeted and tailored interventions. PMID:23072873

  2. The density of tobacco retailers in home and school environments and relationship with adolescent smoking behaviours in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Shortt, N K; Tisch, C; Pearce, J; Richardson, E A; Mitchell, R

    2016-01-01

    Background Neighbourhood retailing of tobacco products has been implicated in affecting smoking prevalence rates. Long-term smoking usually begins in adolescence and tobacco control strategies have often focused on regulating ‘child spaces’, such as areas in proximity to schools. This cross-sectional study examines the association between adolescent smoking behaviour and tobacco retail outlet density around home and school environments in Scotland. Methods Data detailing the geographic location of every outlet registered to sell tobacco products in Scotland were acquired from the Scottish Tobacco Retailers Register and used to create a retail outlet density measure for every postcode. This measure was joined to individual responses of the Scottish Schools Adolescent Lifestyle and Substance Use Survey (n=20 446). Using logistic regression models, we explored the association between the density of retailers, around both home and school address, and smoking behaviours. Results Those living in the areas of highest density of retailers around the home environment had 53% higher odds of reporting having ever smoked (95% CI 1.27 to 1.85, p<0.001) and 47% higher odds of reporting current smoking (95% CI 1.13 to 1.91 p<0.01). Conversely, those attending schools in areas of highest retail density had lower odds of having ever smoked (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.86 p<0.01) and lower odds of current smoking (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.95, p<0.05). Conclusions The density of tobacco retail outlets in residential neighbourhoods is associated with increased odds of both ever smoked and current smoking among adolescents in Scotland. Policymakers may be advised to focus on reducing the overall density of tobacco outlets, rather than concentrating on ‘child spaces’. PMID:25370699

  3. Parenting practices and adolescent risk behavior: rules on smoking and drinking also predict cannabis use and early sexual debut.

    PubMed

    de Looze, Margaretha; van den Eijnden, Regina; Verdurmen, Jacqueline; Vermeulen-Smit, Evelien; Schulten, Ingrid; Vollebergh, Wilma; ter Bogt, Tom

    2012-12-01

    Previous research has provided considerable support for idea that increased parental support and control are strong determinants of lower prevalence levels of adolescent risk behavior. Much less is known on the association between specific parenting practices, such as concrete rules with respect to smoking and drinking and adolescent risk behavior. The present paper examined whether such concrete parental rules (1) have an effect on the targeted behaviors and (2) predict other, frequently co-occurring, risk behaviors (i.e., cannabis use and early sexual intercourse). These hypotheses were tested in a nationally representative sample of 12- to 16-year-old adolescents in the Netherlands. We found that both types of rules were associated with a lower prevalence of the targeted behaviors (i.e., smoking and drinking). In addition, independent of adolescent smoking and drinking behaviors, parental rules on smoking predicted a lower prevalence of cannabis use and early sexual intercourse, and parental rules on alcohol use also predicted a lower prevalence of early sexual intercourse. This study showed that concrete parental rule setting is more strongly related to lower levels of risk behaviors in adolescents compared to the more general parenting practices (i.e., support and control). Additionally, the effects of such rules do not only apply to the targeted behavior but extend to related behaviors as well. These findings are relevant to the public health domain and suggest that a single intervention program that addresses a limited number of concrete parenting practices, in combination with traditional support and control practices, may be effective in reducing risk behaviors in adolescence. PMID:22960939

  4. Cultural and social influences on adolescent smoking dissipate by emerging adulthood among Hispanics in Southern California

    PubMed Central

    Allem, Jon-Patrick; Soto, Daniel W.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Sussman, Steve; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to identify risk factors for smoking among Hispanic adolescents and determine whether these factors continued to influence smoking into emerging adulthood. Methods Data were drawn from 932 Hispanics in the greater Los Angeles area who were surveyed in high school in 2007 and then again in emerging adulthood from 2010 to 2012. Logistic regression assessed the associations between predictors in adolescence and smoking in adolescence while an order one transition logistic model assessed predictors in adolescence and smoking in emerging adulthood. Results Adult and sibling smoking status, perceptions of smoking, perceived discrimination, and fatalism all influenced smoking in adolescence but not in emerging adulthood. Discussion Once Hispanics reach emerging adulthood different tactics to reduce smoking will be needed and are where future research should be directed. PMID:24057805

  5. Strategies to promote smoking cessation among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Johanne; Chadi, Nicholas

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, youth have been exposed to a broader spectrum of tobacco products including smokeless tobacco, hookah (water pipe) and e-cigarettes. Despite active local, provincial/territorial and national prevention strategies and legislated controls, thousands of teenagers develop an addiction to tobacco products each year. Current and available smoking cessation interventions for youth have the potential to help teens stop smoking and, as a result, greatly reduce Canada's health burden in the future. Paediatricians and health care professionals can play a key role in helping teens make informed decisions related to tobacco consumption and cessation. This practice point presents the evidence and rationales for smoking cessation interventions which have been studied in youth specifically, such as individual counselling, psychological support, nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion and varenicline. Interventions for which limited or conflicting data exist are also discussed. PMID:27429574

  6. The Relations between Parents' Smoking, General Parenting, Parental Smoking Communication, and Adolescents' Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harakeh, Zeena; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Vermulst, Ad A.; de Vries, Hein; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether the associations between general parenting practices (i.e., support, behavioral control, and psychological control) and parental smoking on the one hand and older and younger siblings' smoking on the other were mediated by parental smoking communication (i.e., frequency and quality of parent-adolescent…

  7. Examination of a Process Model of Adolescent Smoking Self-Change Efforts in Relation to Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPherson, Laura; Myers, Mark G.

    2010-01-01

    Little information describes how adolescents change their smoking behavior. This study investigated the role of gender in the relationship of motivation and cognitive variables with adolescent smoking self-change efforts. Self-report and semi-structured interview data from a prospective study of smoking self-change efforts were examined among 98…

  8. Social Contexts of Regular Smoking in Adolescence: Towards a Multidimensional Ecological Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, Ming; Van Duker, Heather; Olson, Lenora M.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the Add Health, this study examined multilevel factors of adolescent smoking after controlling for the baseline smoking behavior and individual characteristics. Results showed that peer, family and school were all important life domains contextually influencing subsequent smoking behavior among adolescents. Time spent with peers,…

  9. Does Smoking Intervention Influence Adolescent Substance Use Disorder Treatment Outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Mark G.; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2009-01-01

    Although tobacco use is reported by the majority of substance use disordered (SUD) youth, little work has examined tobacco focused interventions with this population. The present study is an initial investigation of the effect of a tobacco use intervention on adolescent SUD treatment outcomes. Participants were adolescents in SUD treatment taking part in a cigarette smoking intervention efficacy study, assessed at baseline and followed up at 3- and 6-months post-intervention. Analyses compared treatment and control groups on days using alcohol and drugs and proportion abstinent from substance use at follow up assessments. Adolescents in the treatment condition reported significantly fewer days of substance use and were somewhat more likely to be abstinent at 3-month follow up. These findings suggest that tobacco focused intervention may enhance SUD treatment outcome. The present study provides further evidence for the value of addressing tobacco use in the context of treatment for adolescent SUD’s. PMID:19042327

  10. Decomposing racial differences in adolescent smoking in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Amin, Vikesh; Lhila, Aparna

    2016-09-01

    Despite declining smoking rates in the U.S., a substantial fraction of adolescents still smoke. In addition, there are notable racial differences in adolescent smoking. We use Add Health data and apply a nonlinear decomposition method to determine the extent to which racial differences in observable characteristics account for (i) the racial smoking gaps in adolescent smoking (ages 12-18) and (ii) racial gaps in the probability of becoming a smoker in young adulthood (ages 18-24), conditional on being a non-smoker in adolescence. The model includes a host of explanatory factors, including individual, family socioeconomics, smoke exposure, school characteristics, and county crime rate. Of the 19 (9) percentage-point gap in white-black (white-Hispanic) smoking in adolescence, these factors together account for 22-28% (39-77%) of the smoking gap; and of the 18 (13) percentage-point gap in white-black (white-Hispanic) smoking up-take in young adulthood, these factors together account for 26-50% (48-100%) of the gap, depending on which set of coefficients are used for the decomposition. The biggest drivers of racial smoking gaps in adolescence are differences in friends' smoking and school peer smoking, while only school peer smoking contributes to the explained portion of racial gaps in smoking up-take in young adulthood. PMID:27213297

  11. Application of the protection motivation theory in predicting cigarette smoking among adolescents in China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yaqiong; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J; Chen, Xinguang; Xie, Nianhua; Chen, Jing; Yang, Niannian; Gong, Jie; Macdonell, Karen Kolmodin

    2014-01-01

    Reducing tobacco use among adolescents in China represents a significant challenge for global tobacco control. Existing behavioral theories developed in the West - such as the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) - may be useful tools to help tackle this challenge. We examined the relationships between PMT factors and self-reported cigarette smoking behavior and intention among a random sample of vocational high school students (N=553) in Wuhan, China. Tobacco-related perceptions were assessed using the PMT Scale for Adolescent Smoking. Among the total sample, 45% had initiated cigarette smoking, and 25% smoked in the past month. Among those who never smoked, 15% indicated being likely or very likely to smoke in a year. Multiple regression modeling analysis indicated the significance of the seven PMT constructs, the four PMT perceptions and the two PMT pathways in predicting intention to smoke and actual smoking behavior. Overall, perceived rewards of smoking, especially intrinsic rewards, were consistently positively related to smoking intentions and behavior, and self-efficacy to avoid smoking was negatively related to smoking. The current study suggests the utility of PMT for further research examining adolescent smoking. PMT-based smoking prevention and clinical smoking cessation intervention programs should focus more on adolescents' perceived rewards from smoking and perceived efficacy of not smoking to reduce their intention to and actual use of tobacco. PMID:24157424

  12. Preliminary Examination of Adolescent Spending in a Contingency Management-Based Smoking-Cessation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavallo, Dana A.; Nich, Charla; Schepis, Ty S.; Smith, Anne E.; Liss, Thomas B.; McFetridge, Amanda K.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2010-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) utilizing monetary incentives is efficacious in enhancing abstinence in an adolescent smoking-cessation program, but how adolescents spend their money has not been examined. We assessed spending habits of 38 adolescent smokers in a CM-based smoking-cessation project prior to quitting and during treatment using a…

  13. Developmental changes in genetic and shared environmental contributions to smoking initiation and subsequent smoking quantity in adolescence and young adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Bares, Cristina B.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Maes, Hermine H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies examining the genetic architecture of cigarette smoking have focused on adolescents or examined developmental changes in additive genetic, shared environment and unique environmental influences on liability to initiate cigarette smoking and quantity of cigarettes smoked. The aim of this study is to add to the literature on liability to initiate and use cigarettes during adolescence using a nationally representative sample. Method Data for this study came from adolescent and young adult twin pairs (ages 14-33) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. We ran a series of developmental causal-contingent-common pathway models to examine whether additive genetic, shared and unique environmental influences on liability to the initiation of cigarette use are shared with those on smoking quantity, and whether their contributions change across development. Results We found evidence for a developmental shift in genetic and shared environmental contributions to cigarette use. Early in adolescence genetic and environmental influences work independently on liability to cigarette smoking initiation and quantity of cigarettes smoked, but liability to these behaviors becomes correlated as individuals age into young adulthood. Conclusions These findings provide insight into the causal processes underlying the liability to smoke cigarettes. With age, there is greater overlap in the genetic and environmental factors that influence the initiation of cigarette smoking and quantity of cigarettes smoked. PMID:26227182

  14. The home smoking environment: influence on behaviors and attitudes in a racially diverse adolescent population.

    PubMed

    Muilenburg Legge, Jessica; Latham, Teaniese; Annang, Lucy; Johnson, William D; Burdell, Alexandra C; West, Sabra J; Clayton, Dixie L

    2009-08-01

    Although studies indicate that public policy can influence the decrease in smoking behaviors, these policies have not necessarily transferred to home environments at the same rate. The authors surveyed 4,296 students in a southern urban area. African American students were 76.3% of the respondents and Caucasians accounted for 23.7%. African American homes are less likely to have full bans on smoking inside the home. Home smoking bans impact smoking behaviors, acceptance of smoking, susceptibility to smoking, smoking beliefs, and motivation to quit smoking. Along with home smoking bans, there are differences among African American and Caucasian youth in smoking exposure, behaviors, beliefs, and motivation to quit smoking. This study suggests that particularly in African American youth, educational efforts should be directed toward more restrictive home smoking policies to thwart the initiation of smoking in adolescents and to encourage positive attitudes toward smoking behaviors. PMID:19635934

  15. Prevalence of Environmental Smoke Exposure in Households with Children in Jodhpur District, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chopra, Anita; Dhawan, Anju; Sethi, Hem; Mohan, Devinder

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The present study assessed the prevalence of child exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) among families with smoking members. Methods: Secondary analysis was conducted on data from a survey done in Jodhpur district (Rajasthan) on substance use in 11459 households. Frequency of smoking by residents in households with children below 10…

  16. The Role of Family Factors and School Achievement in the Progression of Adolescents to Regular Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennanen, M.; Vartiainen, E.; Haukkala, A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether parental smoking and single parenting were related to adolescents' school achievement and anti-smoking parental practices as well as how these factors predicted later smoking. The sample comprised 1163 Finnish students in Grades 7 through 9. Results show that at the beginning of the seventh grade, parental smoking and…

  17. Impact of Tobacco Control Policies and Mass Media Campaigns on Monthly Adult Smoking Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, Melanie A.; Durkin, Sarah; Spittal, Matthew J.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Scollo, Michelle; Simpson, Julie A.; Chapman, Simon; White, Victoria; Hill, David

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to assess the impact of several tobacco control policies and televised antismoking advertising on adult smoking prevalence. Methods. We used a population survey in which smoking prevalence was measured each month from 1995 through 2006. Time-series analysis assessed the effect on smoking prevalence of televised antismoking advertising (with gross audience rating points [GRPs] per month), cigarette costliness, monthly sales of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and bupropion, and smoke-free restaurant laws. Results. Increases in cigarette costliness and exposure to tobacco control media campaigns significantly reduced smoking prevalence. We found a 0.3-percentage-point reduction in smoking prevalence by either exposing the population to televised antismoking ads an average of almost 4 times per month (390 GRPs) or by increasing the costliness of a pack of cigarettes by 0.03% of gross average weekly earnings. Monthly sales of NRT and bupropion, exposure to NRT advertising, and smoke-free restaurant laws had no detectable impact on smoking prevalence. Conclusions. Increases in the real price of cigarettes and tobacco control mass media campaigns broadcast at sufficient exposure levels and at regular intervals are critical for reducing population smoking prevalence. PMID:18556601

  18. The role of family factors and school achievement in the progression of adolescents to regular smoking.

    PubMed

    Pennanen, M; Vartiainen, E; Haukkala, A

    2012-02-01

    This study examines whether parental smoking and single parenting were related to adolescents' school achievement and anti-smoking parental practices as well as how these factors predicted later smoking. The sample comprised 1163 Finnish students in Grades 7 through 9. Results show that at the beginning of the seventh grade, parental smoking and single parenting were related to adolescents' lower levels of school achievement. Moreover, parental smoking had moderate association with lack of house smoking rules. At the beginning of the ninth grade, these associations were strengthened and lack of house smoking rules as well as loosened perceived parental punishment for smoking was related to both parental smoking and single parenting. The likelihood of ninth grade regular smoking was greater among adolescents whose parents smoked, who had no smoking rules in their homes and had substandard school achievement. These results suggest that smoking parents and single parents had similar anti-smoking regulations for their children at the baseline but once children became older smoking parents were not able to maintain these rules as successfully as non-smoking parents and families with two parents. Motivating parents to uphold these anti-smoking regulations offers a prospective intervention opportunity. PMID:22052215

  19. A Longitudinal Analysis of Adolescent Smoking: Using Smoking Status to Differentiate the Influence of Body Weight Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Traci; Johnson, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous research has reported mixed results on the association between body weight measures (ie, perception of weight and weight loss goal) and cigarette smoking prevalence--and how these associations vary by sex and race. This longitudinal study assessed the relationship between these 2 body weight measures and smoking prevalence by…

  20. Adolescent nicotine dependence symptom profiles and risk for future daily smoking.

    PubMed

    Rose, Jennifer S; Lee, Chien-Ti; Dierker, Lisa C; Selya, Arielle S; Mermelstein, Robin J

    2012-10-01

    Recent research on adolescent smokers suggests that there are important differences in the types of nicotine dependence (ND) symptoms that emerge and different patterns of ND symptoms. The purpose of this study was to use data from the longitudinal Social and Emotional Contexts of Adolescent Smoking Patterns Study to identify latent subgroups of adolescent experimental and nondaily smokers varying in number and types of endorsed ND symptoms. Profiles were identified using baseline level of smoking, individual patterns of ND symptoms and other ND risk factors. Discrete time survival analysis was used to examine profile differences in probability of becoming daily smokers 48 months later. Four distinct subgroups of smokers with different patterns of smoking behavior, ND symptoms, and alcohol and other substance use emerged. Heavier smoking adolescents with high symptom endorsement, particularly the need to smoke in the morning, were most likely to become daily smokers 48 months later. A subgroup of social smokers had high smoking exposure and symptom endorsement (except need to smoke in the morning), and high levels of other substance use. Despite lower rates of smoking frequency and quantity compared to the heavier smoking class, 36% of these adolescents smoked daily by 48 months, with a steeper decline in survival rates compared to other lighter smoking classes. Morning smoking symptoms and symptoms prioritizing smoking (i.e., choosing to spend money on cigarettes instead of lunch or smoking when ill or where smoking is forbidden) might quickly identify adolescent non-daily smokers with more severe dependence and higher risk for daily smoking. A focus on skills for avoiding social situations involving use of alcohol and other drugs and reducing peer smoking influences may be an important focus for reducing smoking and other substance use among social smokers. PMID:22673155

  1. Prevalence and concordance of smoking among mothers and fathers within the Pacific Islands Families Study.

    PubMed

    Tautolo, El-Shadan; Schluter, Philip J; Taylor, Steve

    2011-09-01

    Cigarette smoking continues to contribute to the adverse mortality and morbidity rates for Pacific people in New Zealand. Using a large cohort study of Pacific families, this paper investigates the prevalence of smoking amongst Pacific mothers and fathers over three time-points, up to six years after the arrival of their child, to determine the concordance of both partners' reports of that smoking. Moreover, the patterns of smoking between partners were investigated over the three major Pacific ethnicities that reside in New Zealand (Samoan, Tongan and Cook Island Māori). Maternal self-report prevalence of smoking estimates ranged from 29.8% (1-year) to 33.6% (6-years). Paternal self-reported prevalence of smoking estimates were higher, and ranged from 37.9% (2-years) to 45.2% (6-years). The prevalence estimates for smoking in both mothers and fathers over all three measurement waves were higher than the 26.9% reported for Pacific people in the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey. No significant change in fathers' smoking prevalence over time was observed (p = 0.37); however a significant increase in mothers' smoking prevalence over time was noted (p = 0.002). Significantly, for about 25% of Pacific children both their parents were current smokers. Reducing infant exposure to tobacco smoke, by encouraging parents to quit smoking or banning smoking in the home and local environment (such as vehicles), is likely to bring about improved health outcomes for many Pacific children. Findings suggest that the interaction between parents should be considered rather than focusing on mothers' or fathers' smoking behaviour in isolation. PMID:22675810

  2. Age-period-cohort analysis of smoking prevalence among young adults in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Smoking prevalence among Korean men in their thirties is substantially high (approximately 50%). An in-depth analysis of smoking trends among young adults in their twenties is necessary to devise antismoking policies for the next 10 years. This study aimed to identify the contributions of age, period, and birth cohort effects on smoking prevalence in young adults. METHODS: Subjects comprised 181,136 adults (83,947 men: 46.3%; 97,189 women: 53.7%) aged 19 to 30 years from the 2008-2013 Korea Community Health Survey. Smoking prevalence adjusted with reference to the 2008 population was applied to the age-period-cohort (APC) model to identify the independent effects of each factor. RESULTS: For men, smoking prevalence rapidly escalated among subjects aged 19 to 22 years and slowed down among those aged 23 to 30 years, declined during 2008 to 2010 but stabilized during 2011 to 2013, and declined in birth cohorts prior to 1988 but stabilized in subjects born after 1988. However, in APC models, smoking prevalence increased with age in the 1988 to 1991 birth cohort. In this birth cohort, smoking prevalence at age 19 to 20 years was approximately 24% but increased to 40% when the subjects turned 23 to 24 years. For women, smoking prevalence was too low to generate consistent results. CONCLUSIONS: Over the past six years and in recent birth cohorts, smoking prevalence in adults aged 19 to 30 years has declined and is stable. Smoking prevalence should be more closely followed as it remains susceptible to an increase depending on antismoking policies or social conditions. PMID:27197740

  3. Racial differences in heritability of cigarette smoking in adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Bares, Cristina B.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Maes, Hermine H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although epidemiologic studies suggest low levels of cigarette use among African American adolescents relative to White U.S. adolescents, it is not known whether this may be due to racial differences in the relative contribution of genes and environment to cigarette use initiation and progression to regular use. Methods Using data from White (n=2,665) and African American (n=809) twins and full siblings sampled in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent, we fitted age-, sex- and race-specific variance decomposition models to estimate the magnitude of genetic and environmental effects on cigarette use initiation and cigarette use quantity in Whites and African Americans across adolescence and adulthood. We employ a causal-contingent-common pathway model to estimate the amount of variance explained in quantity of cigarettes smoked contingent on cigarette use initiation. Results African Americans had lower cigarette use prevalence from adolescence through adulthood, and used cigarettes less heavily than Whites. Race-specific causal-contingent-common pathway models indicate that racial differences in genetic and environmental contributions to cigarette use initiation and cigarette use quantities are not present in adolescence but appear in young adulthood. Additive genetic factors were an important risk factor for cigarette use initiation for White but less so for African American young adults and adults. Conclusions Genetic and environmental contributions for cigarette use are similar by race in adolescence. In adulthood, genes have a stronger influence for cigarette use among White adolescents while the influence of the environment is minimal. For African Americans, both genetic and environmental influences are important in young adulthood and adulthood. PMID:27427414

  4. Association between direct and indirect smoking and osteoarthritis prevalence in Koreans: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Kyungrae; Shin, Joon-Shik; Lee, Jinho; Lee, Yoon Jae; Kim, Me-riong; Park, Ki Byung

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the association between smoking patterns and knee and hip joint osteoarthritis (OA) prevalence in Koreans aged 50 years or older with focus on knee OA. Design Cross-sectional study using nationally representative data. Setting Data were collected at portable Health Examination Centres in Korea. Participants Data of 9064 participants of the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010–2012) aged 50 years or older who received knee or hip joint X-rays out of 31 596 total surveyees were analysed. Primary outcome measures OA prevalence by smoking behaviour (current smoking, past smoking, indirect smoking and non-smoking). Secondary outcome measures Estimated risk of OA by smoking amount, period, pack-years and indirect smoking exposure time to assess the association between smoking-related factors and knee OA by calculating ORs and adjusting for covariates in a complex sampling design. A multinomial logistic regression analysis and backward elimination method was used. Results OA prevalence in Koreans aged 50 years or older was 13.9%, with prevalence about 3.5 times higher in women (men 5.7%, women 20.1%). ORs for knee and hip joint OA prevalence by smoking behaviour in male indirect-smokers were lower than those in non-smokers in age and sex (OR 0.271; 95% CI 0.088 to 0.828), and selective adjustments (OR 0.314; 95% CI 0.102 to 0.966). All other analyses for smoking behaviour and total OA prevalence, and knee OA prevalence were not significantly different. Associations between smoking amount, period, pack-years and knee OA prevalence were non-significant in ever-smokers. Associations between indirect smoking exposure time and knee OA prevalence were also non-significant. Conclusions This study found that though direct and previous smoking and OA prevalence were not associated, there was a weak relationship between indirect smoking and OA. PMID:26892791

  5. Adolescent smoking, weight changes, and binge-purge behavior: associations with secondary amenorrhea.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, J; Whitaker, A H

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The association of secondary amenorrhea with extreme forms of substance use, weight control, and exercise in nonrepresentative samples raises questions as to whether adolescents in the general population who engage in these behaviors are at increased risk for secondary amenorrhea. We examined the prevalence and behavioral correlates of secondary amenorrhea in a county-wide high school population of 2544 girls aged 13 to 18. METHODS. A survey questionnaire, which elicited menstrual history as well as weight history, weight control practices, level of exercise, and use of cigarettes, wine, and beer, was administered during school hours; absentees were also surveyed. The completion rate was 91%. RESULTS. The 1-year prevalence of secondary amenorrhea was 8.5%. Secondary amenorrhea was associated with smoking one or more packs of cigarettes per day (adjusted relative risk [RRa] = 1.96, 1.21-3.10), with multiple binge-eating behaviors in combination with laxative use or self-induced vomiting (RRa = 4.17, 2.54-6.32), and with weight fluctuation due to weight control (RRa = 2.59, 1.33-4.79). There was no association between amenorrhea and alcohol consumption or exercise level. CONCLUSIONS. Estimates of attributable risk are provided and indicate that bulimic behaviors and cigarette smoking may result in a considerable excess of cases of secondary amenorrhea in an adolescent population. PMID:1536334

  6. A Network Method of Measuring Affiliation-Based Peer Influence: Assessing the Influences of Teammates' Smoking on Adolescent Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujimoto, Kayo; Unger, Jennifer B.; Valente, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    Using a network analytic framework, this study introduces a new method to measure peer influence based on adolescents' affiliations or 2-mode social network data. Exposure based on affiliations is referred to as the "affiliation exposure model." This study demonstrates the methodology using data on young adolescent smoking being influenced by…

  7. Comparison of Prevalence- and Smoking Impact Ratio-Based Methods of Estimating Smoking-Attributable Fractions of Deaths

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Kyoung Ae; Jung-Choi, Kyung-Hee; Lim, Dohee; Lee, Hye Ah; Lee, Won Kyung; Baik, Sun Jung; Park, Su Hyun; Park, Hyesook

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking is a major modifiable risk factor for premature mortality. Estimating the smoking-attributable burden is important for public health policy. Typically, prevalence- or smoking impact ratio (SIR)-based methods are used to derive estimates, but there is controversy over which method is more appropriate for country-specific estimates. We compared smoking-attributable fractions (SAFs) of deaths estimated by these two methods. Methods To estimate SAFs in 2012, we used several different prevalence-based approaches using no lag and 10- and 20-year lags. For the SIR-based method, we obtained lung cancer mortality rates from the Korean Cancer Prevention Study (KCPS) and from the United States-based Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II). The relative risks for the diseases associated with smoking were also obtained from these cohort studies. Results For males, SAFs obtained using KCPS-derived SIRs were similar to those obtained using prevalence-based methods. For females, SAFs obtained using KCPS-derived SIRs were markedly greater than all prevalence-based SAFs. Differences in prevalence-based SAFs by time-lag period were minimal among males, but SAFs obtained using longer-lagged prevalence periods were significantly larger among females. SAFs obtained using CPS-II-based SIRs were lower than KCPS-based SAFs by >15 percentage points for most diseases, with the exceptions of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Conclusions SAFs obtained using prevalence- and SIR-based methods were similar for males. However, neither prevalence-based nor SIR-based methods resulted in precise SAFs among females. The characteristics of the study population should be carefully considered when choosing a method to estimate SAF. PMID:26477995

  8. Influence of Motion Picture Rating on Adolescent Response to Movie Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Tanski, Susanne; Stoolmiller, Mike

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between movie smoking exposure (MSE) and adolescent smoking according to rating category. METHODS: A total of 6522 US adolescents were enrolled in a longitudinal survey conducted at 8-month intervals; 5503 subjects were followed up at 8 months, 5019 subjects at 16 months, and 4575 subjects at 24 months. MSE was estimated from 532 recent box-office hits, blocked into 3 Motion Picture Association of America rating categories: G/PG, PG-13, and R. A survival model evaluated time to smoking onset. RESULTS: Median MSE in PG-13–rated movies was ∼3 times higher than median MSE from R-rated movies, but their relation with smoking was essentially the same, with adjusted hazard ratios of 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23–1.81) and 1.33 (95% CI: 1.23–1.81) for each additional 500 occurrences of MSE respectively. MSE from G/PG-rated movies was small and had no significant relationship with adolescent smoking. Attributable risk estimates showed that adolescent smoking would be reduced by 18% (95% CI: 14–21) if smoking in PG-13–rated movies was reduced to the fifth percentile. In comparison, making all parents maximally authoritative in their parenting would reduce adolescent smoking by 16% (95% CI: 12–19). CONCLUSIONS: The equivalent effect of PG-13-rated and R-rated MSE suggests it is the movie smoking that prompts adolescents to smoke, not other characteristics of R-rated movies or adolescents drawn to them. An R rating for movie smoking could substantially reduce adolescent smoking by eliminating smoking from PG-13 movies. PMID:22778305

  9. The Influence of Tobacco Marketing on Adolescent Smoking Intentions via Normative Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Abraham; Moodie, Crawford

    2009-01-01

    Using cross-sectional data from three waves of the Youth Tobacco Policy Study, which examines the impact of the UK's Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Act (TAPA) on adolescent smoking behaviour, we examined normative pathways between tobacco marketing awareness and smoking intentions. The sample comprised 1121 adolescents in Wave 2 (pre-ban), 1123…

  10. The Association Between Smoking and Unhealthy Behaviors Among a National Sample of Mexican-American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesa, Jacqueline A.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the relationship between smoking and participation in unhealthy behaviors among Mexican-American adolescents. Analysis of data from the 1993 Teenage Attitudes and Practices Survey indicated that Mexican-American adolescents who smoke may be at higher risk for engaging in behaviors that could compromise their health and safety and for not…

  11. Choosing Adolescent Smokers as Friends: The Role of Parenting and Parental Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercken, L.; Sleddens, E. F. C.; de Vries, H.; Steglich, C. E. G.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined whether parenting and parental smoking can prevent children from selecting smoking friends during adolescence. 254 Adolescents of one Belgian secondary school participated. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed among 2nd-4th graders (mean ages = 14.2-16.2 years) during spring 2006. Follow-up was conducted 12…

  12. Adolescent Brain Maturation and Smoking: What We Know and Where We’re Headed

    PubMed Central

    Lydon, David M.; Wilson, Stephen J.; Child, Amanda; Geier, Charles F.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Smoking initiation often occurs during adolescence. This paper reviews and synthesizes adolescent development and nicotine dependence literatures to provide an account of adolescent smoking from onset to compulsive use. We extend neurobiological models of adolescent risk-taking, that focus on the interplay between incentive processing and cognitive control brain systems, through incorporating psychosocial and contextual factors specific to smoking, to suggest that adolescents are more vulnerable than adults to cigarette use generally, but that individual differences exist placing some adolescents at increased risk for smoking. Upon smoking, adolescents are more likely to continue smoking due to the increased positive effects induced by nicotine during this period. Continued use during adolescence, may be best understood as reflecting drug-related changes to neural systems underlying incentive processing and cognitive control, resulting in decision-making that is biased towards continued smoking. Persistent changes following nicotine exposure that may underlie continued dependence are described. We highlight ways that interventions may benefit from a consideration of cognitive-neuroscience findings. PMID:25025658

  13. Adolescents' Perceptions of Parental Influences on Their Smoking Behavior: A Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maggi, Stefania; Lovato, Chris Y.; Hill, Erin M.; Johnson, Joy L.; Ratner, Pamela A.; Shoveller, Jean A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe adolescents' perceptions of parental influences on their smoking behavior. Thirty-five adolescents, 14 to 18 years old, provided narrative accounts of their smoking histories in semistructured interviews. Most of the participants recognized that their parents played an important role in shaping their…

  14. Factors associated with smoking among adolescent males prior to incarceration and after release from jail: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of cigarette smoking among incarcerated adult men and women is three-four times higher than in the general population, ranging from 70-80%. However, little is known about factors associated with smoking among incarcerated adolescents, especially upon their re-entry into communities after release from jail. The current study explores factors associated with smoking among adolescent males prior to incarceration and one year after their release from jail. Methods We conducted a secondary data analysis of the Returning Educated African-American and Latino Men to Enriched Neighborhoods (REAL MEN) study, which was designed to reduce HIV risk, substance use, and recidivism among 16–18 year old males leaving jail. We examined differences between smokers and non-smokers at the time of their incarceration (N = 552) and one year after their release from jail (N = 397) using t-tests and chi-square tests. Using logistic and linear regression we examined factors associated with current smoking status, frequency of smoking, and quantity of cigarettes smoked per day both prior to the young men’s incarceration and one year after their release from jail. Results Prior to incarceration, 62% of the young men reported smoking, and one-year after jail release, 69% reported smoking. Prior to incarceration, foster care history, not living with parents, not attending school, drug sales, number of sex partners, gang involvement, current drug charges, and number of prior arrests were positively associated with smoking indicators prior to incarceration. Having violent charges was inversely associated with smoking indicators prior to incarceration. One-year after release from jail, foster care history and number of prior arrests before the index incarceration were associated with smoking indicators. Conclusions Several problem behaviors may be associated with adolescent males’ smoking behaviors prior to incarceration. However, the young men

  15. Prevalence and Correlates of Smoking and Readiness to Quit Smoking in People Living with HIV in Austria and Germany.

    PubMed

    Brath, Helmut; Grabovac, Igor; Schalk, Horst; Degen, Olaf; Dorner, Thomas E

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the prevalence and correlates of smoking in people living with HIV (PLWHIV) in Germany and Austria and their readiness to quit. A total of 447 consecutive patients with confirmed positive HIV status who were treated in different outpatient HIV centres in Austria and Germany were included. Nicotine dependence and stages of change were assessed by standardized questionnaires, and this was confirmed by measuring exhaled carbon monoxide. Prevalence of smoking was 49.4%. According to a multivariate logistic regression analysis, higher age (for each year of life OR = 0.96; 95% CI 0.92-1.00) and tertiary education level (OR = 0.43; 95% CI 0.15-0.79) were associated with a lower chance, and occasional (OR = 3.75; 95% CI 1.74-8.07) and daily smoking of the partner (OR 8.78; 95% CI 4.49-17.17) were significantly associated with a higher chance of smoking. Moderate (OR = 3.41; 95% CI = 1.30-9.05) and higher nicotine dependency level (OR = 3.40; 95% CI 1.46-7.94), were significantly associated with higher chance, and older age (for each year of life OR = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.91-0.99), with lower chance for readiness to quit smoking. Those results may be used to address preventive measures to quit smoking aimed at PLWHIV and the importance of addressing smoking habits. PMID:26919722

  16. On Social and Cognitive Influences: Relating Adolescent Networks, Generalized Expectancies, and Adolescent Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Lakon, Cynthia M.; Hipp, John R.

    2014-01-01

    We examine the moderating role of friendship and school network characteristics in relationships between 1) youths’ friends smoking behavior and youths’ own generalized expectancies regarding risk and future orientation and 2) generalized expectancies of youths’ friends and youths’ own generalized expectancies. We then relate these constructs to smoking. Using a longitudinal sample from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 15,142), the relationship between friends’ generalized expectancies and youths’ expectancies is stronger for those more central in the network, with more reachability, or stronger network ties, and weaker for those with denser friendship networks. Risk expectancies exhibited an inverted U shaped relationship with smoking at the next time point, whereas future orientation expectancies displayed a nonlinear accelerating negative relationship. There was also a feedback effect in which smoking behavior led to higher risk expectancies and lower future orientation expectancies in instrumental variable analyses. PMID:25536039

  17. On social and cognitive influences: relating adolescent networks, generalized expectancies, and adolescent smoking.

    PubMed

    Lakon, Cynthia M; Hipp, John R

    2014-01-01

    We examine the moderating role of friendship and school network characteristics in relationships between 1) youths' friends smoking behavior and youths' own generalized expectancies regarding risk and future orientation and 2) generalized expectancies of youths' friends and youths' own generalized expectancies. We then relate these constructs to smoking. Using a longitudinal sample from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 15,142), the relationship between friends' generalized expectancies and youths' expectancies is stronger for those more central in the network, with more reachability, or stronger network ties, and weaker for those with denser friendship networks. Risk expectancies exhibited an inverted U shaped relationship with smoking at the next time point, whereas future orientation expectancies displayed a nonlinear accelerating negative relationship. There was also a feedback effect in which smoking behavior led to higher risk expectancies and lower future orientation expectancies in instrumental variable analyses. PMID:25536039

  18. Reading, demographic, social and psychological factors related to pre-adolescent smoking and non-smoking behaviors and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Sunseri, A J; Alberti, J M; Kent, N D; Schoenberger, J A; Sunseri, J K; Amuwo, S; Vickers, P

    1983-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine reading, demographic, social and psychological factors related to pre-adolescent smoking and non-smoking behaviors and attitudes. The school-home humanistic education program was implemented in a large, urban public school system. It stressed responsible decision-making, increased self-esteem and the inter-relationships among the acquisition of knowledge of the consequences of smoking, personal feelings, family relationships and behavior. The results showed that family involvement was necessary to affect smoking attitudes and behaviors. Of all the variables studied, reading had a most pervasive relationship. Peer influence and self-esteem also were related to smoking knowledge, smoking attitude, future smoking intentions and the "purchase" of cigarettes. Two of several conclusions drawn from the results are: 1. Family involvement is necessary to affect attitudes and behaviors. 2. Health education research that does not investigate the relationship between program outcomes and reading achievement may be misleading. PMID:6552341

  19. Smoking among Vietnamese medical students: prevalence, costs, and predictors.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Van Huy; Dao, Thi Minh An; Dao, Ngoc Phong

    2008-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated smoking patterns and predictors among Vietnamese medical students. In total, 4720 medical students from 3 universities, each located in South, Central, and North Vietnam, were interviewed using an adapted Global Youth Tobacco Survey Questionnaire. Ideas on smoking behavior and tobacco control derived from group discussions with students and from unstructured interviews with student managers and university directors. Overall, the current smoking rate was 25.0% and dominant in men at 43.7%. Most started smoking when just entering university (18 +/- 3.3 years). Male students from the central region had the highest smoking rate (35.1%), whereas their northern counterparts had the greatest smoking magnitude: age of smoking initiation (18.6 +/- 3.5), number of cigarettes per day (4.4 +/- 4.5), number of smoking days per month (16.5 +/- 11.6), and proportion of smoking cost among total expenses per month (10.9% +/- 11.9%). Smoking tended to increase across academic years, being highest in years 5 to 6 (35.0%). In contrast, the practice of ever quitting and the intention of quitting tended to decline from years 1-2 to years 5-6 (from 82.2% to 71.5%, P < .05, and from 70.8% to 51.5%, P < .001, respectively). Positive attitudes toward smoking (odds ratio = 1.4, P < .05), negative beliefs on hazards of smoking (odds ratio = 1.7), and daily exposure to family smokers (odds ratio = 2.0, P < .05) and to social smokers (odds ratio = 4.5, P < .05) were main predictors of smoking. Qualitative results suggest that nonsmoking university regulations played a critical role in tobacco control among medical students. Nonsmoking regulations and penalties for students who smoke need to be formulated at medical universities. The message that medical students must make a nonsmoking role model for community should be systematically promoted. PMID:19124295

  20. Cultural/interpersonal values and smoking in an ethnically diverse sample of Southern California adolescents.

    PubMed

    Unger, Jennifer B; Shakib, Sohaila; Gallaher, Peggy; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Mouttapa, Michele; Palmer, Paula H; Johnson, C Anderson

    2006-01-01

    In ethnically diverse school contexts, values from multiple cultures might influence adolescents' attitudes and behaviors. This study developed scales to assess cultural values among Southern California 6'-grade adolescents (N=2281) and evaluated the associations between values and smoking. The scales assessed values salient in many Hispanic and Asian cultures: Respect for Adults (e.g., filial piety, respeto), Interpersonal Harmony (e.g., saving face, simpatia), and Differentiated Gender Roles (e.g., machismo). In cross-sectional and one-year longitudinal models, Respect for Adults and Interpersonal Harmony were associated with a lower risk of lifetime smoking. The associations were significant even after controlling for demographic characteristics, friends' smoking, and parents' smoking, indicating that values influence adolescents' behavior over and above the effects of modeling and peer influence. Increased understanding of adolescents' values could inform the creation of smoking prevention programs for ethnically diverse adolescents. PMID:16696546

  1. Does film smoking promote youth smoking in middle-income countries?: A longitudinal study among Mexican adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F.; Sargent, James D.; Huang, Liling; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Dorantes-Alonso, Ana; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether exposure to smoking imagery in films predicts smoking onset among never-smoking Mexican adolescents. Methods The analytic sample was comprised of 11- to 14-year old secondary school students who reported never having tried smoking at baseline, 83% (1741/2093) of whom were successfully followed up after one year. Exposure to 42 popular films that contained smoking was assessed at baseline, whereas smoking behavior and risk factors were assessed at baseline and follow up. Logistic regression was used to estimate bivariate and adjusted relative risks of trying smoking and current smoking at follow up. Results At follow up, 36% reported having tried smoking and 8% reported having smoked in the previous month. Students who were successfully followed up were exposed to an average of 43.8 minutes of smoking in the films they reported viewing at baseline. Adjusted relative risks (ARRs) indicated that students in the two highest levels of exposure to film smoking were more than twice as likely to have smoked in the previous 30 days at follow up (ARR3v1=2.44, 95%CI 1.31, 4.55; ARR4v1=2.23, 95% CI 1.19, 4.17). The adjusted relative risk of having tried smoking by follow up reached statistical significance only when comparing the 3rd highest to the lowest exposure group (ARR3v1=1.54, 95%CI 1.01, 2.64). Having a parent or best friend who smoked at baseline were the only other variables that independently predicted both outcomes. Conclusions Exposure to movie smoking is a risk factor for smoking onset among Mexican youth. PMID:19959694

  2. School-Based Smoking Prevention Programs for Adolescents in South Korea: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Eunok

    2006-01-01

    The number of research papers evaluating programs designed to prevent adolescent smoking have increased in the last 13 years in Korea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate these programs, to review the features of the studies and to systemically assess the results on the knowledge about, and attitude to, smoking and smoking behavior. Database…

  3. Longitudinal Modeling of Adolescents' Activity Involvement, Problem Peer Associations, and Youth Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Aaron; Dawes, Nickki; Mermelstein, Robin; Wakschlag, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal associations among different types of organized activity involvement, problem peer associations, and cigarette smoking were examined in a sample of 1040 adolescents (mean age = 15.62 at baseline, 16.89 at 15-month assessment, 17.59 at 24 months) enriched for smoking experimentation (83% had tried smoking). A structural equation model…

  4. Cross-Cultural Analysis of Cognitive Attributions of Smoking in Thai and South Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; Park, Sunhee; Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn; Park, Hyunju; Kemeny, Maria; Philips, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Background: Understanding the cognitive attributions of smoking has the potential to advance youth smoking prevention efforts; however, research on this subject is limited in Asian countries. We attempted to determine the degree to which cognitive attributions of smoking differ among adolescents in 2 Asian countries, Thailand and South Korea.…

  5. Prevalence and Correlates of Partner Violence among South African Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flisher, Alan J.; Myer, Landon; Merais, Adele; Lombard, Carl; Reddy, Priscilla

    2007-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the prevalence of partner violence among adolescents, nor of the factors with which it is associated. The objectives of this study were to document prevalence rates for partner violence among high school students in Cape Town, and to explore factors that are associated with such violence. Method: The sample…

  6. Evaluating the validity of self-reported smoking in Mexican adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Valladolid-López, María del Carmen; Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Tonatiuh; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Thrasher, James F; Peláez-Ballestas, Ingris; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to evaluate the validity of the self-reported smoking indicator used in the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). Setting 43 middle and high-school classrooms from 26 schools were selected from Mexico City and Cuernavaca, Morelos. Participants A total of 1257 students provided both a questionnaire and a urine sample. Primary and secondary outcome Sensitivity and specificity of self-reported smoking compared to urinary cotinine. Validity indices were evaluated by subgroups of gender, social acceptability of smoking (ie, smoking parents or friends) and smoking frequency. Results Sensitivity and specificity for current smoking were 93.2% and 81.7%, respectively. Validity indices remained stable across gender. Parental smoking status moderated the validity of self-report, which had lower sensitivity in adolescents with non-smoking parents (86.7%) than in adolescents with smoking parents (96.6%). Sensitivity and specificity increased with smoking frequency. Conclusions This first validation study of self-reported current smoking used in the GYTS among Mexican adolescents suggests that self-reported smoking in the past 30 days is a valid and stable indicator of current smoking behaviour. This measure appears suitable for public health research and surveillance. PMID:26453588

  7. Gender differences in cigarette smoking, social correlates and cessation among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Branstetter, Steven A.; Blosnich, John; Dino, Geri; Nolan, Jill; Horn, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite well-established gender differences in adult smoking behaviors, relatively little is known about gender discrepancies in smoking behaviors among adolescents, and even less is known about the role of gender in smoking cessation among teen populations. Method The present study examined gender differences in a population of 755 adolescents seeking to quit smoking through the American Lung Association’s Not-On-Tobacco (N-O-T) program. All participants enrolled in the N-O-T program between 1998 and 2009. All participants completed a series of questionnaires prior to and immediately following the cessation intervention. Analyses examined gender differences in a range of smoking variables, cessation success and direct and indirect effects on changes in smoking behaviors. Results Females were more likely to have a parents, siblings and romantic partners who smokes, perceive those around them will support a cessation effort, smoke more prior to intervention if they have friends who smoke, and to have lower cessation motivation and confidence if they have a parent who smokes. Conversely, males were more likely to have lower cessation motivation and confidence and be less likely to quit if they have a friend who smokes. Conclusions Gender plays an important role in adolescent smoking behavior and smoking cessation. Further research is needed to understand how these differences may be incorporated into intervention design to increase cessation success rates among this vulnerable population of smokers. PMID:22405835

  8. The prevalence of sexual abuse among adolescents in school.

    PubMed

    Saewyc, Elizabeth M; Pettingell, Sandra; Magee, Lara L

    2003-10-01

    Sexual abuse is a profound stressor that complicates the development and health of adolescents, yet its prevalence has been difficult to estimate among adolescents in school populations. This study explored the prevalence of both incest and nonfamily abuse in 2 cohorts of adolescents in Minnesota in the 1990s (1992: N = 77374; 1998: N = 81247). Findings indicate that sexual abuse was reported by both boys and girls and among students of all ethnic groups. Approximately 10% of adolescents reported sexual abuse in each cohort, with girls 5 times more likely to report abuse than boys. Ethnic variation was minor, with African American, Native American, and Hispanic teens slightly more likely to report abuse than White or Asian American youth. School nurses should routinely assess for a history of sexual abuse in adolescents and should be prepared to provide support and referral for abused students and their families. PMID:14498771

  9. Decreasing prevalence of cigarette smoking in the middle income country of Mauritius: questionnaire survey

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Helen S; Williams, Joanne W; de Courten, Maximilian P; Chitson, Pierrot; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Zimmet, Paul Z

    2000-01-01

    Objectives To describe changes in the prevalence of cigarette smoking in the middle income country of Mauritius from 1987 to 1998, and to relate these changes to legislative and health promotion efforts over the same period. Design Questionnaire survey. Setting Mauritius, an island in the Indian Ocean with a population of about 1.2 million (about 70% south Asian, 2% Chinese, and 28% Creole). Participants Data were obtained from 5072 participants in 1987, 6573 in 1992, and 6281 in 1998. Main outcome measures Prevalence of current smoking in 1987, 1992, and 1998, sales of cigarettes in Mauritius, and information on activities for control of tobacco. Results Self reported cigarette smoking has been decreasing in Mauritius since 1987, with the largest decrease between 1987 and 1992. From 1987 to 1998 smoking prevalence decreased by 23% in men and 61% in women. Smoking decreased across all age and ethnic groups and across different levels of income and education. Sales of cigarettes also decreased in line with smoking prevalence. Conclusions The introduction of cigarette taxes, a limited health promotion programme, and the absence of massive promotional campaigns by the sole tobacco company on Mauritius have led to a striking and continued decrease in smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption on the island. PMID:10926592

  10. Adolescent elite athletes' cigarette smoking, use of snus, and alcohol.

    PubMed

    Martinsen, M; Sundgot-Borgen, J

    2014-04-01

    The purpose was to examine cigarette smoking, use of snus, alcohol, and performance-enhancing illicit drugs among adolescent elite athletes and controls, and possible gender and sport group differences. First-year students at 16 Norwegian Elite Sport High Schools (n = 677) and two randomly selected high schools (controls, n = 421) were invited to participate. Totally, 602 athletes (89%) and 354 (84%) controls completed the questionnaire. More controls than athletes were smoking, using snus, and drinking alcohol. Competing in team sports was associated with use of snus [odds ratio = 2.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6 to 4.7] and a similar percentage of male and female handball (22.2% vs 18.8%) and soccer players (15.7% vs 15.0%) reported using snus. For controls, not participating in organized sport was a predictor for smoking (odds ratio = 4.9, 95% CI 2.2 to 10.9). Female athletes were more prone to drink alcohol than males (46.3% vs 31.0%, P < 0.001). Only, 1.2% athletes and 2.8% controls reported use of performance-enhancing illicit drugs. In conclusion, use of legal drugs is less common among athletes, but this relationship depends on type of sport and competition level. The association between team sports and use of snus suggests that sport subcultures play a role. PMID:22830488

  11. Using Anti-Tobacco Industry Messages to Prevent Smoking among High-Risk Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrasher, James F.; Niederdeppe, Jeffrey D.; Jackson, Christine; Farrelly, Matthew C.

    2006-01-01

    Media campaigns to prevent adolescent tobacco use in the United States increasingly focus on the deceitful practices of the tobacco industry; however, little is known about how adolescents at elevated smoking risk respond to this strategy. This study used data from a nationally representative survey of 10,035 adolescents, ages 12-17 years, in…

  12. The Meaning of Smoking as Health and Social Risk in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilleczek, Kate C.; Hine, Donald W.

    2006-01-01

    This investigation describes what smoking means to adolescents, and attempts to better understand it as a rite of passage. Applying a social ontology to an often-individualized issue, interviews were conducted with 20 adolescent smokers between the ages of 13 and 19. Results show that adolescents possess detailed information about the risks of…

  13. Prevalence of Cigarette Smoking among Adult Cancer Survivors in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin Joo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cigarette smoking is associated not only with increased risk of cancer incidence, but also influences prognosis, and the quality of life of the cancer survivors. Thus, smoking cessation after cancer diagnosis is necessary. However, smoking behavior among Korean cancer-survivors is yet unknown. Materials and Methods We investigated the smoking status of 23770 adults, aged 18 years or older, who participated in the Health Interview Survey of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2010. Data on the cancer diagnosis and smoking history were obtained from an interview conducted by trained personals. "Cancer-survivor" was defined as anyone who has been diagnosed with cancer by a physician regardless of time duration since diagnosis. Smoking status was classified into "never-smoker", "former-smoker", and "current-smoker". Former-smoker was further divided into "cessation before diagnosis" and "cessation after diagnosis". Results Overall, 2.1% of Korean adults were cancer-survivors. The smoking rate of Korean cancer-survivors was lower than that of non-cancer controls (7.8±1.3% vs. 26.4±0.4%, p<0.001). However, 53.4% of the cancer-survivors continued to smoke after their cancer diagnosis. In multivariate analysis, male gender [odds ratio (OR), 6.34; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.62-15.31], middle-aged group (OR, 2.74; 95% CI, 1.12-6.72), the lowest income (OR, 4.10; 95% CI, 1.19-14.15), living with smoking family member(s) (OR, 5.49; 95% CI, 2.42-12.48), and the poor self-perceived health status (OR, 2.78; 95% CI, 1.01-7.71) were independently associated with persistent smoking among Korean cancer-survivors. Conclusion The smoking rate among Korean cancer survivors is low. However, the smoking cessation rate after the cancer diagnosis is also low. This mandates comprehensive and systematic intervention for smoking cessation among cancer-survivors. PMID:25684009

  14. Prevalence of excessive screen time and associated factors in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    de Lucena, Joana Marcela Sales; Cheng, Luanna Alexandra; Cavalcante, Thaísa Leite Mafaldo; da Silva, Vanessa Araújo; de Farias, José Cazuza

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of excessive screen time and to analyze associated factors among adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional school-based epidemiological study with 2874 high school adolescents with age 14-19 years (57.8% female) from public and private schools in the city of João Pessoa, PB, Northeast Brazil. Excessive screen time was defined as watching television and playing video games or using the computer for more than 2 h/day. The associated factors analyzed were: sociodemographic (gender, age, economic class, and skin color), physical activity and nutritional status of adolescents. Results: The prevalence of excessive screen time was 79.5% (95%CI 78.1-81.1) and it was higher in males (84.3%) compared to females (76.1%; p<0.001). In multivariate analysis, adolescent males, those aged 14-15 year old and the highest economic class had higher chances of exposure to excessive screen time. The level of physical activity and nutritional status of adolescents were not associated with excessive screen time. Conclusions: The prevalence of excessive screen time was high and varied according to sociodemographic characteristics of adolescents. It is necessary to develop interventions to reduce the excessive screen time among adolescents, particularly in subgroups with higher exposure. PMID:26298661

  15. [The impact of smoking in movies on children and adolescents. A systematic review].

    PubMed

    Maruska, K; Hanewinkel, R

    2010-02-01

    In accordance with the conclusion of the US National Cancer Institute to consider smoking in films, in addition to other factors, as one risk factor for the initiation of smoking among children and adolescents, the World Health Organization has invited its member states to implement rules for limiting smoking depictions in films. Results of methodically high-value longitudinal and experimental studies which provide empirical evidence for the association between smoking depictions in films and smoking among children and adolescents are presented. Interpretation of this association as causal according to Hill criteria is discussed. In this systematic review, future personal and structural preventive interventions to address this problem in Germany are presented and discussed. Of special importance is the enhancement of both parental competence in media education as well as media literacy in children and adolescents. Rating films depicting smoking as approved for adults only could yield the largest effect, since it leads to an enduring reduction of exposure. PMID:20098975

  16. A Coproduction Community Based Approach to Reducing Smoking Prevalence in a Local Community Setting

    PubMed Central

    McGeechan, G. J.; Woodall, D.; Anderson, L.; Wilson, L.; O'Neill, G.; Newbury-Birch, D.

    2016-01-01

    Research highlights that asset-based community development where local residents become equal partners in service development may help promote health and well-being. This paper outlines baseline results of a coproduction evaluation of an asset-based approach to improving health and well-being within a small community through promoting tobacco control. Local residents were recruited and trained as community researchers to deliver a smoking prevalence survey within their local community and became local health champions, promoting health and well-being. The results of the survey will be used to inform health promotion activities within the community. The local smoking prevalence was higher than the regional and national averages. Half of the households surveyed had at least one smoker, and 63.1% of children lived in a smoking household. Nonsmokers reported higher well-being than smokers; however, the differences were not significant. Whilst the community has a high smoking prevalence, more than half of the smokers surveyed would consider quitting. Providing smoking cessation advice in GP surgeries may help reduce smoking prevalence in this community. Work in the area could be done to reduce children's exposure to smoking in the home. PMID:27446219

  17. Prevalence and perception of smoking habits among the Palestinian population in the Gaza Strip

    PubMed Central

    Eldalo, Ahmed S

    2016-01-01

    Background The Gaza Strip is a densely populated place with ~2 million inhabitants in an area of 365 km2. The aim of this study was to determine the smoking prevalence in the Gaza Strip and to identify the perception of the Palestinian population on smoking. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Gaza Strip, Palestinian territories, during the period from June to September 2014. Convenient sampling method was adopted. A structured pretested questionnaire was used. Results A total of 600 adults aged 15 years or older completed the questionnaires with a response rate of 83.3%. The prevalence rate of smoking was 26.3%, with a significantly higher rate among males (31%) than females (6.9%) (P<0.001). The mean starting age was 17.4±3.9 years. The study revealed that influence of friends is the major reason for initiation of smoking and the most influential factor in convincing smokers to quit was the family. Smokers’ knowledge about smoking risks motivates them to try stop smoking (64.9%) or desire to stop smoking (65.2%). Conclusion The study revealed that tobacco use is significantly prevalent in the Gaza Strip. The author recommends rapid antismoking campaigns with stress on the family role and massive intervention programs to encourage young people to change their behavior toward smoking. PMID:27486330

  18. [Smoking prevalence and associated factors among tobacco farmers in southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Fiori, Nadia Spada; Faria, Neice Muller Xavier; Meucci, Rodrigo Dalke; Fassa, Anaclaudia Gastal

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to describe the prevalence of smoking and associated factors in a cross-sectional population-based sample of 2,464 tobacco farmers in 2011. Multivariate analysis in men assessed the association between smoking and socioeconomic, behavioral, and occupational variables. Some 31.2% of men and 3.1% of women were current smokers. In men, smoking was directly associated with age, schooling, income, heavy drinking, time at work in tobacco farming, and time of exposure to pesticides. Employment relationship was a risk factor for smoking, and participation in religious activities was a protective factor. Male tobacco farmers showed multiple risk behaviors and higher smoking prevalence than other farmers. Ignoring the risk and cultural legacy may be common factors for these behaviors and suggest combined approaches. PMID:27487442

  19. Smoking prevalence among young people in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Hiawalyer, Gilbert

    2002-09-01

    This study done was done during the 1996/1997-school break in NCD and Manus. There were total of 2000 and 1000 young people were interviewed respectively from NCD and Manus. From the 1150 males and 850 females interviewed in NCD, 115(10%) males and 315(37%) females were non-smokers. There were 138(12%) males and 68(8%) females smoked cigarettes. There were 150(13%) males and 84(10%) females smoked marijuana. Those who smoked marijuana also smoked cigarettes and mutrus. Even though there was higher rate of smokers among males, there is a high rate among female smokers in NCD. There were 163(10%) and 63(7%) smokers for the age group 8-10 yrs in NCD and Manus respectively. For the age group 11-12 there were 186(12%) in NCD and 91(11%) in Manus. In NCD there were 257(16%) smokers and 107(13%) in Manus in the age group of 13-14 yrs. There were 281(18%) and 153(18%) smokers in the age group 15-16 yrs in NCD and Manus respectively. There were 157(37%) of non-smokers in NCD and 28(18%) in Manus did not smoke because of they were told by their teachers on the dangers of tobacco and marijuana smoking. The effort by health workers on health messages on the dangers of smoking tobacco and marijuana did influence 72(17%) non-smokers in NCD and 56(36%) in Manus on young people. Parents and teachers have full responsibility of ensuring that messages on the dangers of tobacco and marijuana smoking aregiven to the young people. Aggressive promotion of cigarette products has influenced smoking and should be stopped. PMID:14736102

  20. Prevalence and Correlates of Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking by College Students in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Sutfin, Erin L.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Reboussin, Beth A.; Wagoner, Kimberly G.; Spangler, John; Wolfson, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Background Known most commonly in the U.S. as “hookah,” waterpipe tobacco smoking appears to be growing among college students. Despite beliefs that waterpipe use is safer than cigarette smoking, research to date (albeit limited) has found health risks of waterpipe smoking are similar to those associated with cigarette smoking, including lung cancer, respiratory illness, and periodontal disease. The goals of this study were to estimate the prevalence of use among a large, multi-institution sample of college students and identify correlates of waterpipe use, including other health-risk behaviors (i.e., cigarette smoking, alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drug use) and availability of commercial waterpipe tobacco smoking venues. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 3,770 college students from eight universities in North Carolina completed a web-based survey in fall 2008. Results Forty percent of the sample reported ever having smoked tobacco from a waterpipe, and 17% reported current (past 30-day) waterpipe tobacco smoking. Correlates associated with current waterpipe use included demographic factors (male gender, freshman class); other health-risk behaviors (daily and nondaily cigarette smoking, alcohol use, marijuana use, other illicit drug use); perceiving waterpipe tobacco smoking as less harmful than regular cigarettes; and having a commercial waterpipe venue near campus. Conclusions The results highlight the popularity of waterpipe tobacco smoking among college students and underscore the need for more research to assess the public health implications of this growing trend. PMID:21353750

  1. The costs of smoking and secondhand smoke exposure in Taiwan: a prevalence-based annual cost approach

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Hai-Yen; Chang, Li-Chuan; Wen, Yu-Wen; Tsai, Yi-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the costs of the health effects of cigarette smoking and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure to society. Design Prevalence-based, disease-specific cost-of-illness study. We used an epidemiological population-attributable risk method to determine the costs that can be attributed to smoking and SHS exposure. Setting Taiwan. Participants All adult population aged 35 and older. Primary outcome measures Direct costs of healthcare expenditures spent for treating tobacco-related diseases, indirect mortality costs measured by the value of lost productivity due to tobacco-related premature deaths and indirect morbidity costs measured by the value of time lost from work due to tobacco-related illness. Results In 2010, direct costs of smoking and SHS exposure amounted to US$828 million, accounting for 3.4% of Taiwan's total personal healthcare expenditures. Smoking and SHS exposure also contributed to 15 555 premature deaths—corresponding to a loss of 284 765 years of life and US$820 million in productivity—and US$22 million in indirect morbidity costs. These direct and indirect costs totalled US$1670 million, representing 0.4% of Taiwan's gross domestic product and averaging about US$720/adult smoker. The share of the total costs was greater from active smoking (92%) than SHS exposure (8%), and greater for men (92%) than women (8%). Conclusions Smoking and SHS exposure impose a huge financial loss in Taiwan. Sustained tobacco control efforts to encourage people to quit smoking, prevent smoking uptake by children and young adults and protect all people from SHS exposure are needed. PMID:25009135

  2. Preliminary Examination of Adolescent Spending in a Contingency Management Based Smoking Cessation Program.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, Dana A; Nich, Charla; Schepis, Ty S; Smith, Anne E; Liss, Thomas B; McFetridge, Amanda K; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2010-09-01

    Contingency management (CM) utilizing monetary incentives is efficacious in enhancing abstinence in an adolescent smoking cessation program, but how adolescents spend their money has not been examined. We assessed spending habits of 38 adolescent smokers in a CM-based smoking cessation project prior to quitting and during treatment using a questionnaire about spending in a number of categories, including cigarettes, other addictive substances, durable goods, and disposable goods. Our preliminary results indicate that participation in a CM based program for smoking cessation did not lead to greater spending on cigarettes and other substances and may have produced more socially acceptable spending. PMID:20802850

  3. Prevalence and Impact of Active and Passive Cigarette Smoking in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, S. Jean; Zhuo, Hanjing; Benowitz, Neal L.; Thompson, B. Taylor; Liu, Kathleen D.; Matthay, Michael A.; Calfee, Carolyn S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cigarette smoke exposure has recently been found to be associated with increased susceptibility to trauma- and transfusion-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We sought to determine 1) the prevalence of cigarette smoke exposure in a diverse multi-center sample of ARDS patients, and 2) whether cigarette smoke exposure is associated with severity of lung injury and mortality in ARDS. Design Analysis of the Albuterol for the Treatment of ALI (ALTA) and Omega ARDS Network studies. Setting Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network hospitals. Patients Three hundred eighty one patients with ARDS. Interventions None. Measurements NNAL (4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol), a validated tobacco-specific marker, was measured in urine samples from subjects enrolled in two NHLBI ARDS Network randomized controlled trials. Main Results Urine NNAL levels were consistent with active smoking in 36% of ARDS patients and with passive smoking in 41% of nonsmokers (vs 20% and 40% in general population, respectively). Patients with NNAL levels in the active smoking range were younger and had a higher prevalence of alcohol misuse, fewer comorbidities, lower severity of illness, and less septic shock at enrollment compared to patients with undetectable NNAL levels. Despite this lower severity of illness, the severity of lung injury did not significantly differ based on biomarker-determined smoking status. Cigarette smoke exposure was not significantly associated with death after adjusting for differences in age, alcohol use, comorbidities, and severity of illness. Conclusions In this first multicenter study of biomarker-determined cigarette smoke exposure in ARDS patients, we found that active cigarette smoke exposure was significantly more prevalent among ARDS patients compared to population averages. Despite their younger age, better overall health, and lower severity of illness, smokers by NNAL had similar severity of lung injury as patients with

  4. The relationship between weight and smoking in a national sample of adolescents: Role of gender.

    PubMed

    Lange, Krista; Thamotharan, Sneha; Racine, Madeline; Hirko, Caroline; Fields, Sherecce

    2015-12-01

    This study sought to investigate the role of weight status and body mass index percentile in risky smoking behaviors in male and female adolescents. Analyses of the data obtained in the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System were conducted. The national sample size included 15,425 adolescents. Questions addressing weight status and smoking behaviors were used in analyses. Significant effects of perceived weight status, weight change status, and body mass index percentile on smoking behaviors were found for both genders. The current findings indicate the importance of accounting for both gender and weight status when developing prevention and cessation programs targeting smoking behaviors. PMID:24423576

  5. Members, isolates, and liaisons: meta-analysis of adolescents' network positions and their smoking behavior.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hye Jeong; Smith, Rachel A

    2013-06-01

    Existing research finds that peer networks play an important role in adolescents' smoking behaviors. To evaluate this research, meta-analysis was utilized to investigate the relationship between social positions (e.g., group members vs. isolates vs. liaisons) in friendship networks and smoking behaviors. The results (N = 5,067, k = 8) showed that adolescents from multiple countries who are isolated in friendship networks are more likely to report smoking behaviors than those with friends (members or liaisons). The results also show that these differential odds of smoking based on network position has decreased over the past 15 years. PMID:23750772

  6. A contest to create media messages aimed at recruiting adolescents for stop smoking programs.

    PubMed

    Croghan, Ivana T; Campbell, Heather M; Patten, Christi A; Croghan, Gary A; Schroeder, Darrell R; Novotny, Paul J

    2004-10-01

    This project engaged adolescents in a contest to create advertising messages aimed at recruiting teens for stop smoking programs. Middle school students were invited to design a media message for television, radio, Web, or print (newspaper or billboard). Of 4,289 students in eight middle schools of Rochester, Minn., 265 (6.2%) developed 172 stop smoking messages. The quality of their work confirmed that teens can design media messages to encourage their smoking adolescent peers to enroll in a program to stop smoking. PMID:15554118

  7. ERICA: prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses; Klein, Carlos Henrique; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Schaan, Beatriz; da Veiga, Gloria Valeria; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; de Vasconcellos, Maurício T L

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated 37,504 adolescents who were participants in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), a cross-sectional, school-based, national study. The adolescents, aged from 12 to 17 years, lived in cities with populations greater than 100,000 inhabitants. The sample was stratified and clustered into schools and classes. The criteria set out by the International Diabetes Federation were used to define metabolic syndrome. Prevalences of metabolic syndrome were estimated according to sex, age group, school type and nutritional status. RESULTS Of the 37,504 adolescents who were evaluated: 50.2% were female; 54.3% were aged from 15 to 17 years, and 73.3% were from public schools. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 2.6% (95%CI 2.3-2.9), slightly higher in males and in those aged from 15 to 17 years in most macro-regions. The prevalence was the highest in residents from the South macro-region, in the younger female adolescents and in the older male adolescents. The prevalence was higher in public schools (2.8% [95%CI 2.4-3.2]), when compared with private schools (1.9% [95%CI 1.4-2.4]) and higher in obese adolescents when compared with nonobese ones. The most common combinations of components, referring to 3/4 of combinations, were: enlarged waist circumference (WC), low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c) and high blood pressure; followed by enlarged WC, low HDL-c and high triglycerides; and enlarged WC, low HDL-c, high triglycerides and blood pressure. Low HDL was the second most frequent component, but the highest prevalence of metabolic syndrome (26.8%) was observed in the presence of high triglycerides. CONCLUSIONS ERICA is the first Brazilian nation-wide study to present the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and describe the role of its components. Despite the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome being low, the high prevalences of some

  8. ERICA: prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses; Klein, Carlos Henrique; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Schaan, Beatriz; Veiga, Gloria Valeria da; Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira da; Vasconcellos, Maurício T L de

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated 37,504 adolescents who were participants in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), a cross-sectional, school-based, national study. The adolescents, aged from 12 to 17 years, lived in cities with populations greater than 100,000 inhabitants. The sample was stratified and clustered into schools and classes. The criteria set out by the International Diabetes Federation were used to define metabolic syndrome. Prevalences of metabolic syndrome were estimated according to sex, age group, school type and nutritional status. RESULTS Of the 37,504 adolescents who were evaluated: 50.2% were female; 54.3% were aged from 15 to 17 years, and 73.3% were from public schools. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 2.6% (95%CI 2.3-2.9), slightly higher in males and in those aged from 15 to 17 years in most macro-regions. The prevalence was the highest in residents from the South macro-region, in the younger female adolescents and in the older male adolescents. The prevalence was higher in public schools (2.8% [95%CI 2.4-3.2]), when compared with private schools (1.9% [95%CI 1.4-2.4]) and higher in obese adolescents when compared with nonobese ones. The most common combinations of components, referring to 3/4 of combinations, were: enlarged waist circumference (WC), low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c) and high blood pressure; followed by enlarged WC, low HDL-c and high triglycerides; and enlarged WC, low HDL-c, high triglycerides and blood pressure. Low HDL was the second most frequent component, but the highest prevalence of metabolic syndrome (26.8%) was observed in the presence of high triglycerides. CONCLUSIONS ERICA is the first Brazilian nation-wide study to present the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and describe the role of its components. Despite the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome being low, the high prevalences of some components

  9. Prevalence and Correlates of Smoking and Readiness to Quit Smoking in People Living with HIV in Austria and Germany

    PubMed Central

    Brath, Helmut; Grabovac, Igor; Schalk, Horst; Degen, Olaf; Dorner, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the prevalence and correlates of smoking in people living with HIV (PLWHIV) in Germany and Austria and their readiness to quit. A total of 447 consecutive patients with confirmed positive HIV status who were treated in different outpatient HIV centres in Austria and Germany were included. Nicotine dependence and stages of change were assessed by standardized questionnaires, and this was confirmed by measuring exhaled carbon monoxide. Prevalence of smoking was 49.4%. According to a multivariate logistic regression analysis, higher age (for each year of life OR = 0.96; 95% CI 0.92–1.00) and tertiary education level (OR = 0.43; 95% CI 0.15–0.79) were associated with a lower chance, and occasional (OR = 3.75; 95% CI 1.74–8.07) and daily smoking of the partner (OR 8.78; 95% CI 4.49–17.17) were significantly associated with a higher chance of smoking. Moderate (OR = 3.41; 95% CI = 1.30–9.05) and higher nicotine dependency level (OR = 3.40; 95% CI 1.46–7.94), were significantly associated with higher chance, and older age (for each year of life OR = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.91–0.99), with lower chance for readiness to quit smoking. Those results may be used to address preventive measures to quit smoking aimed at PLWHIV and the importance of addressing smoking habits. PMID:26919722

  10. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To review the extant literature on the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents (10–19 years old) of both sexes. Design. The search was carried out using Medline and Scopus considering articles published from the establishment of the databanks until June 7, 2012. Data on the prevalence of children being overweight and obese from the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) website was also reviewed. Only original articles and one National Health Report were considered. Forty studies met the inclusion criteria. Results. Twenty-five of these studies were nationally representative, and ten countries were represented only by regional data. Conclusions. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents worldwide is high, and obesity is higher among boys. The IOTF criterion is the most frequently used method to classify adolescents as overweighed or obese in public health research. PMID:24555142

  11. The Smoking Outcome Expectation Scale and Anti-Smoking Self-Efficacy Scale for Early Adolescents: Instrument Development and Validation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen-Ju; Yeh, Ming-Chen; Tang, Fu-In; Yu, Shu

    2015-10-01

    Smoking-related outcome expectation and self-efficacy have been found to be associated with adolescent smoking initiation. There is, however, a lack of appropriate instruments to investigate early adolescents' smoking outcome expectations and antismoking self-efficacy. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Smoking Outcome Expectation Scale (SOES) and Anti-Smoking Self-Efficacy Scale (ASSES). A total of 232 fifth and sixth graders from four elementary schools in Taiwan participated in the study. Both scales had good content validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability. On the basis of exploratory factor analysis, the 6-item SOES with two factors accounted for 54.72% of total variance and the 15-item ASSES with three factors accounted for 56.49% of total variance. The SOES had convergent and discriminant validity and ASSES had convergent validity. The two scales could help school nurses to understand early adolescents' smoking outcome expectation and antismoking self-efficacy and to develop more appropriate antismoking curricula. PMID:25467167

  12. Electronic Cigarettes Use and Intention to Cigarette Smoking among Never-Smoking Adolescents and Young Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Jieming; Cao, Shuangshuang; Gong, Weiwei; Fei, Fangrong; Wang, Meng

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use is becoming increasingly common, especially among adolescents and young adults, and there is little evidence on the impact of e-cigarettes use on never-smokers. With a meta-analysis method, we explore the association between e-cigarettes use and smoking intention that predicts future cigarette smoking. Studies were identified by searching three databases up to January 2016. The meta-analysis results were presented as pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) calculated by a fixed-effects model. A total of six studies (91,051 participants, including 1452 with ever e-cigarettes use) were included in this meta-analysis study. We found that never-smoking adolescents and young adults who used e-cigarettes have more than 2 times increased odds of intention to cigarette smoking (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.86–2.61) compared to those who never used, with low evidence of between-study heterogeneity (p = 0.28, I2 = 20.1%). Among never-smoking adolescents and young adults, e-cigarettes use was associated with increased smoking intention. PMID:27153077

  13. Randomized Trials on Consider This, a Tailored, Internet-Delivered Smoking Prevention Program for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buller, David B.; Borland, Ron; Woodall, W. Gill; Hall, John R.; Hines, Joan M.; Burris-Woodall, Patricia; Cutter, Gary R.; Miller, Caroline; Balmford, James; Starling, Randall; Ax, Bryan; Saba, Laura

    2008-01-01

    The Internet may be an effective medium for delivering smoking prevention to children. Consider This, an Internet-based program, was hypothesized to reduce expectations concerning smoking and smoking prevalence. Group-randomized pretest-posttest controlled trials were conducted in Australia (n = 2,077) and the United States (n = 1,234) in schools…

  14. An analysis of racial and sex differences for smoking among adolescents in a juvenile correctional center.

    PubMed

    Cropsey, Karen L; Linker, Julie A; Waite, Dennis E

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate racial and sex differences on the risk factors for smoking initiation and daily smoking among juvenile justice adolescents, a population that is traditionally ignored in school-based epidemiological samples. This study used archival data collected by juvenile justice authorities for a large sample of juvenile justice adolescents (N=4381), examining interaction terms to determine race and sex differences for risk factors. About 70% of juvenile justice adolescents reported ever having smoked cigarettes while almost half reported daily smoking. Overall predictors of ever and daily smoking included older age, being female, White, use of alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine in the past year, affiliation with smoking peers, not living with at least one parent, and a diagnosis of ADHD. While differences were seen between individual predictor models for both race and sex, the interaction terms did not add significantly to the overall model. These important racial and gender differences in this study suggest that tailored prevention messages and interventions may be needed to be most effective with adolescents in the juvenile justice system. While this study provides a basic foundation of risk factors for smoking among juvenile justice adolescents, future research is needed to assess the efficacy of treatment and prevention interventions with this high risk group of adolescent smokers. PMID:17869028

  15. The Association Between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Adolescence and Smoking in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Judith S.; Duan, Tao; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This longitudinal study examined the interrelationships between early and/or middle adolescent attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), middle adolescent conduct disorder (CD), and later adult smoking behavior. Method This is a prospective longitudinal study. Data were collected via structured interviews of representative families in the northeastern United States (N = 641). The mean ages of the offspring were as follows: 14 years (T2, 1983), 17 years (T3, 1985–1986) and 32 years (T6, 2002). Results The dependent variable was the participants’ daily cigarette smoking in their early thirties. Logistic regression analyses indicated that the relationship between ADHD and daily smoking behavior was mediated by CD with control on gender, age, SES, and adolescent smoking. CD had a direct effect on daily smoking in adulthood. Conclusions Our findings suggest that ADHD is related to CD, which in turn is associated with daily smoking. Therefore, interventions with ADHD adolescents who have ADHD at an early age might lead to some reduction in smoking provided that the intervention has a positive effect on CD. For those adolescents who never had ADHD, our findings suggest that prevention or treatment aimed at reducing CD may be most successful in reducing daily smoking later in adulthood. PMID:18214723

  16. Adolescent risk factors for late-onset smoking among African American young men.

    PubMed

    White, Helene Raskin; Violette, Nancy M; Metzger, Lisa; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    2007-01-01

    This study examined adolescent risk factors for late-onset cigarette smoking among African American males. Data came from the Pittsburgh Youth Study, a longitudinal study of young men followed from age 13 to age 25. Individuals who began smoking at age 17 or older were compared with those who began smoking by age 16 and with those who never smoked in terms of risk factors measured in middle (at age 16) and late adolescence (from age 17 to 19). The study included 281 African American young men. A total of 18 psychological, behavioral, and environmental risk factors were measured at age 16, and 19 risk factors were measured between ages 17 and 19. Several risk factors at age 16 differed between early-onset and late-onset smokers or nonsmokers; however, in multivariate analyses, only peer drug use and truancy were significant. Among the age 16 risk factors, only truancy differentiated late-onset smokers from nonsmokers. Late adolescence behavioral risk factors were significantly related to late-onset smoking. However, only smoking marijuana and highest grade completed differentiated late-onset smokers from nonsmokers in multivariate analyses. Well-established predictors of cigarette smoking assessed in middle adolescence could identify individuals who already smoked but could not distinguish between those who would and would not begin smoking later. Late adolescence life transitions were not related to late-onset smoking. More research is needed to examine contextual factors in late adolescence and early adulthood that protect against and precipitate late-onset of smoking for African Americans. PMID:17365746

  17. Prevalence and correlates of initiation of smoking behavior among preteen black and white children.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Nasar U; Ahmed, Noushin S; Semenya, Kofi A; Elzey, Jared D; Larson, Celia; Bennett, C Ray; Hinds, Joseph E

    2004-02-01

    This study estimated smoking prevalence and identified factors associated with initiation among preteens in Nashville, TN. An anonymous, self-administrated questionnaire was given to 238 fifth- and sixth-graders in a middle-class neighborhood school. The mean age at initiation was 8.5 years (range 6-11 years). Overall, 10.5% of students had ever smoked; 16.1% of blacks and 9.3% of whites. Eighty-six percent continued to smoke. Black sixth-graders smoked (26.9%) four times the rate of black fifth-graders and 2.5 times that of white sixth-graders. Relatives initiated 78% of blacks while friends initiated 68% of whites. One-quarter of smokers got their cigarettes at home. Regular attendees of religious services had a lower smoking rate (6.9% versus 16.4%; p=0.01). Smoking rates decreased with increased knowledge of risks (p=0.00001). Among smokers, none believed that smoking is a risk factor for heart disease, 96% did not believe that smoking has any short-term health effects or is a risk factor for stroke. Few ever-smokers had a complete understanding of the health risks. Targeted messages and curriculum should be developed to teach preteens about the short- and long-term dangers of smoking. Clinicians can play a major role in educating their clients about the risks of smoking. PMID:14977279

  18. Prevalence and correlates of initiation of smoking behavior among preteen black and white children.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Nasar U.; Ahmed, Noushin S.; Semenya, Kofi A.; Elzey, Jared D.; Larson, Celia; Bennett, C. Ray; Hinds, Joseph E.

    2004-01-01

    This study estimated smoking prevalence and identified factors associated with initiation among preteens in Nashville, TN. An anonymous, self-administrated questionnaire was given to 238 fifth- and sixth-graders in a middle-class neighborhood school. The mean age at initiation was 8.5 years (range 6-11 years). Overall, 10.5% of students had ever smoked; 16.1% of blacks and 9.3% of whites. Eighty-six percent continued to smoke. Black sixth-graders smoked (26.9%) four times the rate of black fifth-graders and 2.5 times that of white sixth-graders. Relatives initiated 78% of blacks while friends initiated 68% of whites. One-quarter of smokers got their cigarettes at home. Regular attendees of religious services had a lower smoking rate (6.9% versus 16.4%; p=0.01). Smoking rates decreased with increased knowledge of risks (p=0.00001). Among smokers, none believed that smoking is a risk factor for heart disease, 96% did not believe that smoking has any short-term health effects or is a risk factor for stroke. Few ever-smokers had a complete understanding of the health risks. Targeted messages and curriculum should be developed to teach preteens about the short- and long-term dangers of smoking. Clinicians can play a major role in educating their clients about the risks of smoking. PMID:14977279

  19. SMOKING CESSATION FOR ADOLESCENTS: A REVIEW OF PHARMACOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOSOCIAL TREATMENTS

    PubMed Central

    Schepis, TS; Rao, U

    2016-01-01

    Unlike the vast literature on smoking cessation in adults, research in adolescents has gained significant attention only within the last decade. Even with this increase in focus, research into pharmacological aids for smoking cessation in adolescents (e.g., nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion) is a more recent phenomenon and has produced only modest results. While more extensive, much of the research on behaviorally- or psychosocially-based adolescent smoking cessation interventions has been limited by a lack of control for contact time, biochemical verification of self-reported abstinence, and/or a theoretical focus for the interventions. The MEDLINE, PubMed, PSYCInfo CINHAL and Cochrane Systematic Review databases were searched for articles relevant to adolescent smoking cessation treatment. After briefly examining the adolescent smoking cessation research prior to 2000, more recent developments in pharmacological aids and psychological treatment will be reviewed. Investigations have made progress in elucidating efficacious treatments for adolescent smokers, but much work remains to be done in both pharmacological and non-pharmacological areas of treatment. With the current state of the literature as a guide, future directions for research into smoking cessation for adolescents will be proposed. PMID:19630713

  20. The low prevalence of female smoking in the developing world: gender inequality or maternal adaptations for fetal protection?

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Edward H.; Garfield, Melissa J.; Sullivan, Roger J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Female smoking prevalence is dramatically lower in developing countries (3.1%) than developed countries (17.2%), whereas male smoking is similar (32% vs 30.1%). Low female smoking has been linked to high gender inequality. Alternatively, to protect their offspring from teratogenic substances, pregnant and lactating women appear to have evolved aversions to toxic plant substances like nicotine, which are reinforced by cultural proscriptions. Higher total fertility rates (TFRs) in developing countries could therefore explain their lower prevalence of female smoking. Objective: To compare the associations of TFR and gender inequality with national prevalence rates of female and male smoking. Methods: Data from a previous study of smoking prevalence vs gender inequality in 74 countries were reanalysed with a regression model that also included TFR. We replicated this analysis with three additional measures of gender equality and 2012 smoking data from 173 countries. Results: A 1 SD increase in TFR predicted a decrease in female smoking prevalence by factors of 0.58–0.77, adjusting for covariates. TFR had a smaller and unexpected negative association with male smoking prevalence. Increased gender equality was associated with increased female smoking prevalence, and, unexpectedly, with decreased male smoking prevalence. TFR was also associated with an increase in smoking prevalence among postmenopausal women. Conclusions: High TFR and gender inequality both predict reduced prevalence of female smoking across nations. In countries with high TFR, adaptations and cultural norms that protect fetuses from plant toxins might suppress smoking among frequently pregnant and lactating women. PMID:27193200

  1. A Dynamic Model of Adolescent Friendship Networks, Parental Influences, and Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cheng; Butts, Carter T.; Jose, Rupa; Timberlake, David S.; Hipp, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Peer and parental influences are critical socializing forces shaping adolescent development, including the co-evolving processes of friendship tie choice and adolescent smoking. This study examines aspects of adolescent friendship networks and dimensions of parental influences shaping friendship tie choice and smoking, including parental support, parental monitoring, and the parental home smoking environment using a Stochastic Actor-Based model. With data from three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health of youth in grades 7 through 12, including the In-School Survey, the first wave of the In-Home survey occurring 6 months later, and the second wave of the In-Home survey, occurring one year later, this study utilizes two samples based on the social network data collected in the longitudinal saturated sample of sixteen schools. One consists of twelve small schools (n = 1,284, 50.93 % female), and the other of one large school (n = 976, 48.46 % female). The findings indicated that reciprocity, choosing a friend of a friend as a friend, and smoking similarity increased friendship tie choice behavior, as did parental support. Parental monitoring interacted with choosing friends who smoke in affecting friendship tie choice, as at higher levels of parental monitoring, youth chose fewer friends that smoked. A parental home smoking context conducive to smoking decreased the number of friends adolescents chose. Peer influence and a parental home smoking environment conducive to smoking increased smoking, while parental monitoring decreased it in the large school. Overall, peer and parental factors affected the coevolution of friendship tie choice and smoking, directly and multiplicatively. PMID:25239115

  2. Waterpipe a gateway to cigarette smoking initiation among adolescents in Irbid, Jordan: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Jaber, R.; Madhivanan, P.; Veledar, E.; Khader, Y.; Mzayek, F.; Maziak, W.

    2015-01-01

    SETTING According to anecdotal evidence, waterpipe smoking may lead to the initiation of cigarette smoking among young people. This hypothesis is yet to be examined using an appropriate study design and a theoretical model for behavioral change. OBJECTIVE To compare the risk of cigarette smoking initiation among waterpipe-only smokers and never smokers in a school-based sample of adolescents from Irbid, Jordan. METHODS A total of 1454 cigarette-naïve participants were drawn from a longitudinal study on smoking behavior conducted in Irbid among 1781 seventh graders who were enrolled at baseline (2008) and completed the study questionnaire on smoking behavior annually until 2011. Grouped time-survival analysis was used to compare the risk of subsequent initiation of cigarette smoking between waterpipe smokers (n = 298) and never smokers (n = 1156) using adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). RESULTS Risk of initiation of cigarette smoking among waterpipe smokers was significantly higher than among never smokers after adjusting for potential confounders (aHR 1.67, 95%CI 1.46–1.92). The association between waterpipe and cigarette smoking initiation was dose-dependent. The risk of initiating cigarette smoking increased with increase in the frequency of waterpipe smoking (P for linear trend < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Waterpipe smoking led to the initiation of cigarette smoking among this cohort of Jordanian adolescents; the effect was dose-dependent. PMID:25860006

  3. Household and School-Level Influences on Smoking Behavior among Korean Adolescents: A Multilevel Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Jongho; Oh, Juhwan; Subramanian, S. V.; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Background Trends in adolescent smoking rates in South Korea have not shown substantial progress due to a lack of effective anti-smoking interventions and policies in school settings. Methods and Findings We examined individual- and school-level determinants of adolescent smoking behavior (ever smoking, current smoking, and daily smoking) using the nationally representative fifth Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey conducted in 2009. We found that students in coeducation schools or vocational high schools had greater risks of smoking for each type of smoking behavior than those in single-sex schools or general high schools, respectively even after controlling for individual-level factors. Higher family affluence and higher weekly allowances were associated with greater risks of ever smoking, current smoking and daily smoking even after controlling for parental education and other confounders. Conclusions Whilst caution is required in interpreting results given the cross-sectional nature of the study, our findings suggest that in addition to raising the price of cigarettes, youth anti-smoking interventions in South Korea may benefit from focusing on coeducation schools and vocational high schools. PMID:24896251

  4. A meta-analysis of adolescent smoking prevention programs.

    PubMed Central

    Bruvold, W H

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. A large number of studies evaluating adolescent smoking prevention programs have been published. Systematic quantitative reviews of this literature are needed to learn what does and does not work. The present meta-analysis focuses on the efficacy of school-based programs. METHODS. Evaluations of 94 separate interventions were included in the meta-analysis. Studies were screened for methodological rigor and those with weaker methodology were segregated from those with more defensible methodology; major analyses focused on the latter. RESULTS. Behavioral effect sizes were found to be largest for interventions with a social reinforcement orientation, moderate for interventions with either a developmental or a social norms orientation, and small for interventions with the traditional rational orientation. Attitude effect sizes followed the same pattern, but knowledge effect sizes were similar across all four orientation categories. CONCLUSIONS. Because behavioral effect represents the fundamental objective of programs for prevention of adolescent tobacco use, the present results indicate that school-based programs should consider adopting interventions with a social reinforcement, social norms, or developmental orientation. PMID:8498627

  5. E-cigarette Use and Willingness to Smoke in a Sample of Adolescent Nonsmokers

    PubMed Central

    Wills, Thomas A.; Sargent, James D.; Knight, Rebecca; Pagano, Ian; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2016-01-01

    Objective There is little evidence on the consequences of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use in adolescence. With a multiethnic sample of nonsmokers, we assessed the relation between e-cigarette use and social-cognitive factors that predict smoking combustible cigarettes (cigarettes). Methods School-based cross-sectional survey of 2,309 high school students (M age 14.7 years). Participants reported on e-cigarette use and cigarette use; on smoking-related cognitions (smoking expectancies, prototypes of smokers) and peer smoker affiliations; and on willingness to smoke cigarettes. Regression analyses conducted for non-cigarette smokers tested the association between e-cigarette use and willingness to smoke cigarettes, controlling for demographics, parenting, academic and social competence, and personality variables. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses tested whether the relation between e-cigarette use and willingness was mediated through any of the three smoking-related variables. Results Nonsmokers who had used e-cigarettes (18% of the total sample) showed more willingness to smoke cigarettes compared to those who had never used any tobacco product; the adjusted odds ratio was 2.35 (95% confidence interval 1.73 – 3.19). Additionally, willingness prospectively predicted smoking onset. SEM showed that the relation between e-cigarette use and willingness to smoke was partly mediated through more positive expectancies about smoking but there was also a direct path from e-cigarette use to willingness. Conclusions Among adolescent nonsmokers, e-cigarette use is associated with willingness to smoke, a predictor of future cigarette smoking. The results suggest that use of e-cigarettes by adolescents is not without attitudinal risk for cigarette smoking. These findings have implications for formulation of policy about access to e-cigarettes by adolescents. PMID:26261237

  6. Prevalence of Smoking and Associated Risk Factors Among Medical Professionals in Hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Zafar, Mubashir

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking is the largest preventable risk factor for morbidity and mortality in developed countries where at least one in four adults smoke cigarettes. Healthcare providers who smoke are less likely to advise patients to quit smoking. The aim of this study is to find out the frequency of tobacco smoking among medical professionals in tertiary care hospitals of Karachi, and to identify the common factors responsible for the continuation of smoking among healthcare providers. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out at public and private tertiary Care Hospitals/Institutes at Karachi. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 180 subjects. An informed consent was obtained from all the subjects. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Results: Prevalence of smoking was 29%. High prevalence of smoking was among male doctors as compared to female doctors. Sixty-eight per cent of smokers started smoking between 20 to 30 years of age. Age less than 35 years, male and public sectors hospitals were more likely OR 1.23, CI (0.98-2.41), 6.40 CI (4.48-10.52) and 2.61 CI (2.20-3.78) respectively. Conclusions: The Result of the study suggests that while healthcare smoking habits appear to be high, they are not uniformly low when compared from an international perspective. Health promotion programs focused on self-efficacy may be an effective tool for reducing the initiation, frequency, and amount of cigarette smoking among healthcare providers. PMID:24829733

  7. ERICA: prevalences of hypertension and obesity in Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Klein, Carlos Henrique; Szklo, Moyses; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Veiga, Gloria Valeria da; Schaan, Beatriz; Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira da; Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite de

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of arterial hypertension and obesity and the population attributable fraction of hypertension that is due to obesity in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Data from participants in the Brazilian Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), which was the first national school-based, cross-section study performed in Brazil were evaluated. The sample was divided into 32 geographical strata and clusters from 32 schools and classes, with regional and national representation. Obesity was classified using the body mass index according to age and sex. Arterial hypertension was defined when the average systolic or diastolic blood pressure was greater than or equal to the 95th percentile of the reference curve. Prevalences and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of arterial hypertension and obesity, both on a national basis and in the macro-regions of Brazil, were estimated by sex and age group, as were the fractions of hypertension attributable to obesity in the population. RESULTS We evaluated 73,399 students, 55.4% female, with an average age of 14.7 years (SD = 1.6). The prevalence of hypertension was 9.6% (95%CI 9.0-10.3); with the lowest being in the North, 8.4% (95%CI 7.7-9.2) and Northeast regions, 8.4% (95%CI 7.6-9.2), and the highest being in the South, 12.5% (95%CI 11.0-14.2). The prevalence of obesity was 8.4% (95%CI 7.9-8.9), which was lower in the North region and higher in the South region. The prevalences of arterial hypertension and obesity were higher in males. Obese adolescents presented a higher prevalence of hypertension, 28.4% (95%CI 25.5-31.2), than overweight adolescents, 15.4% (95%CI 17.0-13.8), or eutrophic adolescents, 6.3% (95%CI 5.6-7.0). The fraction of hypertension attributable to obesity was 17.8%. CONCLUSIONS ERICA was the first nationally representative Brazilian study providing prevalence estimates of hypertension in adolescents. Regional and sex differences were observed. The study indicates that the

  8. ERICA: prevalences of hypertension and obesity in Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Klein, Carlos Henrique; Szklo, Moyses; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; da Veiga, Gloria Valeria; Schaan, Beatriz; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; de Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of arterial hypertension and obesity and the population attributable fraction of hypertension that is due to obesity in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Data from participants in the Brazilian Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), which was the first national school-based, cross-section study performed in Brazil were evaluated. The sample was divided into 32 geographical strata and clusters from 32 schools and classes, with regional and national representation. Obesity was classified using the body mass index according to age and sex. Arterial hypertension was defined when the average systolic or diastolic blood pressure was greater than or equal to the 95th percentile of the reference curve. Prevalences and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of arterial hypertension and obesity, both on a national basis and in the macro-regions of Brazil, were estimated by sex and age group, as were the fractions of hypertension attributable to obesity in the population. RESULTS We evaluated 73,399 students, 55.4% female, with an average age of 14.7 years (SD = 1.6). The prevalence of hypertension was 9.6% (95%CI 9.0-10.3); with the lowest being in the North, 8.4% (95%CI 7.7-9.2) and Northeast regions, 8.4% (95%CI 7.6-9.2), and the highest being in the South, 12.5% (95%CI 11.0-14.2). The prevalence of obesity was 8.4% (95%CI 7.9-8.9), which was lower in the North region and higher in the South region. The prevalences of arterial hypertension and obesity were higher in males. Obese adolescents presented a higher prevalence of hypertension, 28.4% (95%CI 25.5-31.2), than overweight adolescents, 15.4% (95%CI 17.0-13.8), or eutrophic adolescents, 6.3% (95%CI 5.6-7.0). The fraction of hypertension attributable to obesity was 17.8%. CONCLUSIONS ERICA was the first nationally representative Brazilian study providing prevalence estimates of hypertension in adolescents. Regional and sex differences were observed. The study indicates

  9. Using anti-tobacco industry messages to prevent smoking among high-risk adolescents.

    PubMed

    Thrasher, James F; Niederdeppe, Jeffrey D; Jackson, Christine; Farrelly, Matthew C

    2006-06-01

    Media campaigns to prevent adolescent tobacco use in the United States increasingly focus on the deceitful practices of the tobacco industry; however, little is known about how adolescents at elevated smoking risk respond to this strategy. This study used data from a nationally representative survey of 10,035 adolescents, ages 12-17 years, in order to test whether reactions to anti-industry advertisements (ads), the attitudes these ads target, and the relationship between these attitudes and smoking differed by social bonding and sensation-seeking risk factors. Results indicated that anti-industry ad reactions and the strength of anti-industry attitudes were comparable between high- and low-sensation seeking adolescents, whereas weakly bonded adolescents had less favorable ad reactions and weaker anti-industry attitudes than strongly bonded adolescents. Social bonding also moderated the influence of sensation seeking on anti-industry ad reactions, such that sensation seeking had a positive influence among more strongly bonded adolescents and no influence among weakly bonded adolescents. Finally, the relationship between anti-industry attitudes and smoking appeared consistent across risk groups, whether risk was defined using social bonding, sensation seeking or the interaction between them. Overall, these results suggest that anti-industry messages are a promising strategy for preventing smoking among high- and low-risk adolescents alike. PMID:16492681

  10. Distal and proximal family predictors of adolescents' smoking initiation and development: A longitudinal latent curve model analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies on adolescent smoking indicate that the smoking behaviours of their parents, siblings and friends are significant micro-level predictors. Parents' socioeconomic status (SES) is an important macro-level predictor. We examined the longitudinal relationships between these predictors and the initiation and development of adolescents' smoking behaviour in Norway. Methods We employed data from The Norwegian Longitudinal Health Behaviour Study (NLHB), in which participants were followed from the age of 13 to 30. We analysed data from the first 5 waves, covering the age span from 13 to 18, with latent curve modeling (LCM). Results Smoking rates increased from 3% to 31% from age 13 to age 18. Participants' smoking was strongly associated with their best friends' smoking. Parental SES, parents' smoking and older siblings' smoking predicted adolescents' initial level of smoking. Furthermore, the same variables predicted the development of smoking behaviour from age 13 to 18. Parents' and siblings' smoking behaviours acted as mediators of parents' SES on the smoking habits of adolescents. Conclusions Parents' SES was significantly associated, directly and indirectly, with both smoking initiation and development. Parental and older siblings' smoking behaviours were positively associated with both initiation and development of smoking behaviour in adolescents. There were no significant gender differences in these associations. PMID:22152017

  11. Relationship of Acculturation and Family Functioning to Smoking Attitudes and Behaviors among Asian-American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, JieWu; Garbanati, James A.

    2004-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine the combination of acculturation, family functioning, and parental smoking as predictors of smoking attitudes and behaviors among Asian-American adolescents. The participants were 106 Asian-American high school students whose ages ranged from 15 to 19 (51 male and 55 female, mean age = 16.30…

  12. Social Influence and Psychological Determinants of Smoking among Inner-City Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Jennifer A.; Botvin, Gilbert J.; Diaz, Tracy

    1999-01-01

    Study focuses on a sample of economically disadvantaged adolescents attending New York City schools (N=1,875). Longitudinal predictors of smoking from four domains were tested, with findings supporting both social learning theory and problem behavior theory. Discusses the key components for effective smoking prevention approaches. (Author/GCP)

  13. Prenatal Smoking and Internalizing and Externalizing Problems in Children Studied from Childhood to Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashford, Janka; Van Lier, Pol A. C.; Timmermans, Maartje; Cuijpers, Pim; Koot, Hans M.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate whether prenatal smoking was only related to externalizing or both internalizing and externalizing problems in children from childhood to early adolescence. Results indicated that maternal smoking during pregnancy is an accurate predictor of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology among children.

  14. An Integrated Framework for the Analysis of Adolescent Cigarette Smoking in Middle School Latino Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Dittus, Patricia; Holloway, Ian; Bouris, Alida; Crossett, Linda

    2011-01-01

    A framework based on five major theories of health behavior was used to identify the correlates of adolescent cigarette smoking. The framework emphasizes intentions to smoke cigarettes, factors that influence these intentions, and factors that moderate the intention-behavior relationship. Five hundred sixteen randomly selected Latino middle school…

  15. Subjective Invulnerability and Perceptions of Tobacco-Related Benefits Predict Adolescent Smoking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, Holly E. R.; Lapsley, Daniel K.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying factors that influence adolescents' decisions to start smoking is necessary to improve interventions for reducing tobacco use. The current longitudinal study was designed to determine the direction of influence between feelings of invulnerability to harm and cigarette smoking, and to test whether the perceived risks and benefits of…

  16. Pubertal Development, Choice of Friends, and Smoking Initiation among Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drapela, Laurie A.; Gebelt, Janet L.; McRee, Nick

    2006-01-01

    Prior research has indicated that pubertal development and peer associations are important determinants of adolescent smoking behavior. However, more remains to be learned about "why" these variables matter or how they may be related to one another in ways that lead to the initiation of smoking. Using contractual data from the National…

  17. Prevalence of Problematic Video Gaming among Ontario Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Nigel E.; Paglia-Boak, Angela; Ballon, Bruce; Cheung, Joyce T. W.; Adlaf, Edward M.; Henderson, Joanna; Chan, Vincy; Rehm, Jurgen; Hamilton, Hayley; Mann, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    Video game playing has become a very popular activity among adolescents. Its impact on the mental health and well-being of players is just beginning to be explored. This paper reports on the prevalence of problematic gaming in a representative sample of 2,832 Ontario students in grades 7 to 12. The survey included questions about the school grade,…

  18. Prevalence and Correlates of Depressive Symptoms in Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubik, Martha Y.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Murray, David M.; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To assess prevalence of elevated depressive symptoms in young adolescents and examine associations between symptoms and sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Methods: Cross-sectional survey data from 3621 seventh grade students from 16 middle schools were analyzed. Results: Elevated depressive symptoms were reported by 40% of girls…

  19. Time series analysis of the impact of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence among Australian adults, 2001–2011

    PubMed Central

    Coomber, Kerri; Durkin, Sarah J; Scollo, Michelle; Bayly, Megan; Spittal, Matthew J; Simpson, Julie A; Hill, David

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the impact of tobacco control policies and mass media campaigns on smoking prevalence in Australian adults. Methods Data for calculating the average monthly prevalence of smoking between January 2001 and June 2011 were obtained via structured interviews of randomly sampled adults aged 18 years or older from Australia’s five largest capital cities (monthly mean number of adults interviewed: 2375). The influence on smoking prevalence was estimated for increased tobacco taxes; strengthened smoke-free laws; increased monthly population exposure to televised tobacco control mass media campaigns and pharmaceutical company advertising for nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), using gross ratings points; monthly sales of NRT, bupropion and varenicline; and introduction of graphic health warnings on cigarette packs. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models were used to examine the influence of these interventions on smoking prevalence. Findings The mean smoking prevalence for the study period was 19.9% (standard deviation: 2.0%), with a drop from 23.6% (in January 2001) to 17.3% (in June 2011). The best-fitting model showed that stronger smoke-free laws, tobacco price increases and greater exposure to mass media campaigns independently explained 76% of the decrease in smoking prevalence from February 2002 to June 2011. Conclusion Increased tobacco taxation, more comprehensive smoke-free laws and increased investment in mass media campaigns played a substantial role in reducing smoking prevalence among Australian adults between 2001 and 2011. PMID:24940015

  20. Prevalence of and factors associated with smoking among students in Sousse, Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Zedini, C; Cheikh, A Ben; Mallouli, M; Limam, M; Sahli, J; Ghardallou, M El; Mtiraoui, A; Ajmi, T

    2016-01-01

    Within the framework of the fight against tobacco among young people, we conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study in 2013 to estimate the prevalence of smoking and to identify associated factors among students in Sousse. A questionnaire was administered to a representative sample of 556 students in 5 academic institutions in Sousse randomly drawn. The age of the participants was between 17 and 35 years. The prevalence of tobacco consumption in the past 12 months was 22.1% and consumption during the past 3 months was 65.3%. The average age of starting smoking was 17 years. Smoking prevalence was significantly higher for males (P < 0.001) and those aged over 25 years (P = 0.002). Students from 2 of the institutions were using more tobacco than their colleagues in the other institutions (P = 0.027). The high prevalence of smoking found among the students means that prevention measures are essential; this requires increasing self-esteem and evaluating intervention programmes implemented before smoking the first cigarette. PMID:27117649

  1. The dynamic role of parental influences in preventing adolescent smoking initiation

    PubMed Central

    Mahabee-Gittens, E. Melinda; Xiao, Yang; Gordon, Judith S.; Khoury, Jane C.

    2013-01-01

    Background As adolescents grow, protective parental influences become less important and peer influences take precedence in adolescent’s initiation of smoking. It is unknown how and when this occurs. We sought to: prospectively estimate incidence rates of smoking initiation from late childhood through mid-adolescence, identify important risk and protective parental influences on smoking initiation, and examine their dynamic nature in order to identify key ages. Methods Longitudinal data from the National Survey of Parents and Youth of 8 nationally representative age cohorts (9–16 years) of never smokers in the U.S. were used (N=5705 dyads at baseline). Analysis involved a series of lagged logistic regression models using a cohort-sequential design. Results The mean sample cumulative incidence rates of tobacco use increased from 1.8% to 22.5% between the 9 and 16 years old age cohorts. Among risk factors, peer smoking was the most important across all ages; 11–15 year-olds who spent time with peers who smoked had 2 to 6.5 times higher odds of initiating smoking. Parent–youth connectedness significantly decreased the odds of smoking initiation by 14–37% in 11–14 year-olds; parental monitoring and punishment for smoking decreased the odds of smoking initiation risk by 36–59% in 10–15 year-olds, and by 15–28% in 12–14 year-olds, respectively. Conclusions Parental influences are important in protecting against smoking initiation across adolescence. At the same time, association with peers who smoke is a very strong risk factor. Our findings provide empirical evidence to suggest that in order to prevent youth from initiating smoking, parents should be actively involved in their adolescents’ lives and guard them against association with peers who smoke. PMID:23380496

  2. Communication about Smoking in Dutch Families: Associations between Anti-Smoking Socialization and Adolescent Smoking-Related Cognitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Willemsen, Marc

    2004-01-01

    Parents play an important role in the development of young people's smoking behavior, through the modeling effects of their own smoking status, through the ways they raise their children and through the ways they deal with smoking at home. The present study focused on anti-smoking socialization by, first, comparing the perspectives of both parents…

  3. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Smoking Among Final Year Medical Students: A Multicentric Survey From Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khubaib, Mohammad U; Shahid, Zuhaib Y; Lodhi, Sameed K; Malik, Hamza; Jan, Mohsin M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer around the world. In a developing country like Pakistan with low levels of literacy and general awareness about adverse effects of smoking, doctors play a pivotal role in educating the masses about its harmful consequences and providing support for smoking cessation. However, their efficacy is affected if they smoke themselves, and oftentimes the habits cultivated during educational recourse are carried into the professional careers. The aim of this study was to document the prevalence of smoking among final year medical students of Lahore, Pakistan, and the factors associated with it. Methodology Study approval was obtained from Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Lahore Medical College, Ethics Review Committee. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in four medical colleges and hospitals of Lahore, Pakistan. A questionnaire consisting of 14 questions related to basic demographics and smoking was used after being pilot tested on 20 students of CMH. The overall response rate was 74.89%. Data was collected from 337 respondents, of which 38 forms were discarded and 299 forms were analyzed by SPSS V21. Results Among the 299 respondents, there were 128 males (42.81%) and 171 females (57.19%) with 32 (10.70%) smokers. Male students reported smoking (n = 27, 21.09%) more than their female counterparts (n = 5, 0.02%). The mean age of participants was 23.01 years. Students having an active smoker at home had statistically significant positive correlations with current smoking status and the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Students with household smoking contacts were also more likely to smoke if they belonged to the male gender. Conclusion Prevalence of smoking in medical students is lower than in the general population but still considerable in the male students. There is a need to target this particular population with interactive counseling sessions, education campaigns, and anti-smoking rules to decrease

  4. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Smoking Among Final Year Medical Students: A Multicentric Survey From Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Shahid, Zuhaib Y; Lodhi, Sameed K; Malik, Hamza; Jan, Mohsin M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer around the world. In a developing country like Pakistan with low levels of literacy and general awareness about adverse effects of smoking, doctors play a pivotal role in educating the masses about its harmful consequences and providing support for smoking cessation. However, their efficacy is affected if they smoke themselves, and oftentimes the habits cultivated during educational recourse are carried into the professional careers. The aim of this study was to document the prevalence of smoking among final year medical students of Lahore, Pakistan, and the factors associated with it. Methodology Study approval was obtained from Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Lahore Medical College, Ethics Review Committee. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in four medical colleges and hospitals of Lahore, Pakistan. A questionnaire consisting of 14 questions related to basic demographics and smoking was used after being pilot tested on 20 students of CMH. The overall response rate was 74.89%. Data was collected from 337 respondents, of which 38 forms were discarded and 299 forms were analyzed by SPSS V21. Results Among the 299 respondents, there were 128 males (42.81%) and 171 females (57.19%) with 32 (10.70%) smokers. Male students reported smoking (n = 27, 21.09%) more than their female counterparts (n = 5, 0.02%). The mean age of participants was 23.01 years. Students having an active smoker at home had statistically significant positive correlations with current smoking status and the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Students with household smoking contacts were also more likely to smoke if they belonged to the male gender. Conclusion Prevalence of smoking in medical students is lower than in the general population but still considerable in the male students. There is a need to target this particular population with interactive counseling sessions, education campaigns, and anti-smoking rules to decrease

  5. Maternal Influences on Smoking Initiation among Urban Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Tracy R.; Graber, Julia A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined associations between maternal social influences to smoke and girls' early smoking behaviors. Data were collected separately from 450 urban minority girls (65.7% Black, 21.5% Latina, and 12.8% other) and their mothers on smoking frequency as well as demographic and social factors hypothesized to promote smoking. Results showed…

  6. Appendicectomy prevalences in South African adolescents.

    PubMed

    Walker, A R; Walker, B F; Duvenhage, A; Jones, J; Ncongwane, J; Segal, I

    1982-01-01

    From questioning 16,939 South African pupils of 16-18 years, in 56 high schools, mean prevalences of appendicectomies in representative segments of ethnic groups were found to be: rural Blacks 0.6%; urban Blacks 0.7%; Indians, 2.9%; Coloureds (Eur-African-Malay), 1.7%; Whites, 10.5%. Percentages in the sexes were similar. Only those of Indian and Coloured pupils appear to be increasing. Blacks and Whites, respectively, have high and low intakes of fibre-containing foods, which are negatively correlated with appendicectomy prevalences. However, although intakes of fibre-containing foods are slightly higher in Indians and Coloureds than in Whites, the former's appendicectomy prevalences are lower than would be dietarily expected. PMID:6292030

  7. Cigarette Smoking among Adolescents aged 13-15 in Viet Nam and Correlates of Current Cigarette Smoking: Results from GYTS 2014 Data.

    PubMed

    Huong, Le Thi; Vu, Nga Thi Thu; Dung, Nguyen Ngoc; Xuan, Le Thi Thanh; Giang, Kim Bao; Hai, Phan Thi; Huyen, Doan Thu; Khue, Luong Ngoc; Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Minh, Hoang Van; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to report the rate of current and ever cigarette smoking and explore correlates of current cigarette smoking among adolescents aged 13-15 in Viet Nam. This analysis was derived from GYTS survey, which comprised of 3,430 adolescents aged 13-15, conducted in 2014 in 13 cities and provinces of Viet Nam. We calculated the weighted rates of current and ever cigarette smoking and reported patterns of smoking behavior. We also performed logistic regression to explore correlates of current cigarette smoking behavior. The weighted rate of ever cigarette smoking was 9.5% (95% confidence interval (CI): 8.5 %-10.5%), in which the weighted rate among males (15.4%; 95% CI: 13.6%-17.0%) was higher than that among females (4.2%; 95% CI: 3.3%-5.1%). The weighted rate of current cigarette smoking was relatively low at 2.5% (95%CI: 2.0%- 3.0%) with higher weighted rate among males (4.9%; 95% CI: 3.8%-5.9%) compared to the corresponding figure among females (0.2%; 95% CI: 0.0 %-0.5%). Current cigarette smoking was significantly higher among males than females, in students aged 15 versus 13 years old, and in students who had several or all close friends smoking and students with daily observation of smoking at school. For greater smoking reduction outcomes, we recommend that tobacco interventions for adolescents should consider targeting more male students at older ages, establish stricter adherence to school-based banning of cigarette smoking, engage both smoking and nonsmoking adolescents and empower adolescents to resist peer smoking influence as well as changing their norms or beliefs towards smoking benefits. PMID:27087178

  8. Adverse childhood experiences: Prevalence and related factors in adolescents of a Brazilian birth cohort☆

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Ana Luiza Gonçalves; Howe, Laura D.; Matijasevich, Alicia; Wehrmeister, Fernando C.; Menezes, Ana M.B.; Gonçalves, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) can affect people's health and wellbeing not only at the time the ACE is experienced, but also later in life. The majority of studies on ACEs are carried out in high-income countries and little is known about its prevalence in low and middle-income countries. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of ACEs, associations between ACEs and sociodemographic factors, and the interrelationship between types of ACEs in adolescents of a Brazilian birth cohort. Data from 3,951 adolescents (78.4% of the original cohort) from the 1993 Pelotas Cohort were analyzed. Seven types of ACEs were assessed in those up to 18 years old: physical abuse, sexual abuse, physical neglect, emotional neglect, domestic violence, parental separation and parental death. The most common ACE was parental separation (42%), followed by emotional neglect (19.7%) and domestic violence (10.3%). Approximately 85% of the adolescents experienced at least one ACE, and females reported a higher number of adversities. Several socioeconomic, demographic and family-related characteristics were associated with the occurrence of ACEs, e.g. non-white skin color, low family income, low maternal schooling, absence of mother's partner, maternal smoking, and poor maternal mental health. A strong interrelationship was observed among the ACEs, indicating clustering of risk. These aspects should be considered by health and social care professionals in the prevention and identification of childhood adversities. PMID:26707919

  9. Adverse childhood experiences: Prevalence and related factors in adolescents of a Brazilian birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Soares, Ana Luiza Gonçalves; Howe, Laura D; Matijasevich, Alicia; Wehrmeister, Fernando C; Menezes, Ana M B; Gonçalves, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) can affect people's health and wellbeing not only at the time the ACE is experienced, but also later in life. The majority of studies on ACEs are carried out in high-income countries and little is known about its prevalence in low and middle-income countries. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of ACEs, associations between ACEs and sociodemographic factors, and the interrelationship between types of ACEs in adolescents of a Brazilian birth cohort. Data from 3,951 adolescents (78.4% of the original cohort) from the 1993 Pelotas Cohort were analyzed. Seven types of ACEs were assessed in those up to 18 years old: physical abuse, sexual abuse, physical neglect, emotional neglect, domestic violence, parental separation and parental death. The most common ACE was parental separation (42%), followed by emotional neglect (19.7%) and domestic violence (10.3%). Approximately 85% of the adolescents experienced at least one ACE, and females reported a higher number of adversities. Several socioeconomic, demographic and family-related characteristics were associated with the occurrence of ACEs, e.g. non-white skin color, low family income, low maternal schooling, absence of mother's partner, maternal smoking, and poor maternal mental health. A strong interrelationship was observed among the ACEs, indicating clustering of risk. These aspects should be considered by health and social care professionals in the prevention and identification of childhood adversities. PMID:26707919

  10. With a Little Help from My Friends? Asymmetrical Social Influence on Adolescent Smoking Initiation and Cessation1

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Steven A.; Schaefer, David

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigates whether peer influence on smoking among adolescents is asymmetrical. We hypothesize that several features of smoking lead peers to have a stronger effect on smoking initiation than cessation. Using data from National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health we estimate a longitudinal network model that includes separate effects for increases versus decreases in smoking, while also controlling for endogenous network change. We find that the impact of peer influence is stronger for the initiation of smoking than smoking cessation. Adolescents rarely initiate smoking without peer influence, but will cease smoking while their friends continue smoking. We discuss the implications of these results for theories of peer influence and health policy PMID:24818954

  11. Association among smoking, depression, and anxiety: findings from a representative sample of Korean adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between smoking and depression and anxiety using data from a nationwide survey representing Korean adolescents. Subjects were 6,489 adolescents in middle and high school (age 13–18) who had participated in the 2011 Korean Study of Promotion Policies on Children and Adolescents—Mental Health (KSPCAM). Daily smoking number of times for current smokers was classified as 1–2 times, 2–4 times and over 5 times. The odds ratio for the statistical test was presented using hierarchical logistic regression. When adjusted for covariates (gender, age, household economy, type of residing city, type of school, school record, satisfaction with school life, subjective health status, satisfaction with relationship with parents, and drinking experience), smokers more significantly likely to have depression (OR = 1.27, 95% CI [1.02–1.57]), and anxiety (OR = 1.49, 95% CI [1.14–1.96]) than non-smokers (p < 0.05). In addition, adolescents who smoke more than 5 cigarettes a day were 1.5 times more likely to have depression (OR = 1.48, 95% CI [1.13–1.92]) and anxiety (OR = 1.49, 95% CI [1.07–2.08]) than those who do not smoke. Smoking in adolescence was found to be significantly related with depression and anxiety. To promote the mental health of adolescents, effective smoking cessation programs are required. PMID:26557425

  12. Longitudinal effects of pro-tobacco and anti-tobacco messages on adolescent smoking susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Jie Wu; Cen, Steven; Schuster, Darleen V; Unger, Jennifer B; Johnson, C Anderson; Mouttapa, Michele; Schreiner, William S; Cruz, Tess Boley

    2006-06-01

    We examined the longitudinal impact of self-reported exposure to pro- and anti-tobacco media on adolescents' susceptibility to smoking, using in-school surveys from a culturally diverse sample. Ethnicity and acculturation also were examined as potential moderators. Middle-school students (N = 2,292) completed self-report questionnaires during the 6th, 7th, and 8th grades. Chi-square analyses were conducted to determine whether reported exposure to pro- and anti-tobacco media varied according to ethnicity, acculturation, and immigration status. Logistic regression models were used to examine whether pro- and anti-tobacco media exposure in 6th grade was associated with susceptibility to smoking by later grades. Recall of people smoking in television programs and pro-tobacco advertisements in stores was associated with adolescent smoking susceptibility. Exposure to anti-tobacco advertisements on television protected against susceptibility. No significant interaction effects between pro- and anti-tobacco media exposure on smoking susceptibility were found. Ethnicity and acculturation did not moderate these associations. Our longitudinal study provides evidence that pro-tobacco media and advertising increases susceptibility to smoking over time. More important, anti-tobacco advertisements are not sufficient to reduce the harmful effects of adolescent exposure to pro-tobacco media. Policy-level interventions such as restrictions in tobacco advertising may be necessary to prevent adolescent smoking. PMID:16801303

  13. Types of Interventions for Smoking Prevention and Cessation in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nădăşan, Valentin; Chirvăsuţă, Radu; Ábrám, Zoltan; Mihăicuţă, Ştefan

    2015-01-01

    Smoking among children and adolescents is a pressing public health issue that demands the development, improvement and implementation of programmes aimed at the prevention and cessation of smoking on a global scale. The objective of our article is to review the main types of interventions for smoking prevention and cessation among children and adolescents. These interventions are based on a wide variety of approaches and include school-based programmes, primary and secondary care-based interventions, programmes targeting parents and family, community-based programmes, social marketing programmes and media campaigns, legislative interventions and computer and other IT-based interventions. Generally, there is still a paucity of low level evidence regarding the efficacy of most smoking prevention and cessation programmes for children and adolescents except for a few particular types of interventions that are reasonably well documented. PMID:26738374

  14. Cigarette, Water-pipe, and Medwakh Smoking Prevalence Among Applicants to Abu Dhabi's Pre-marital Screening Program, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Aden, Bashir; Karrar, Sara; Shafey, Omar; Al Hosni, Farida

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study assesses self-reported tobacco use prevalence (cigarette, water-pipe, and medwakh) among applicants to Abu Dhabi's Premarital Screening program during 2011. Methods: Premarital Screening data reported to the Health Authority – Abu Dhabi from April to December 2011 were utilized to estimate tobacco use prevalence among applicants. Smoking prevalence was examined by nationality, age group and gender. Results: Overall, 24.7% of Premarital Screening Program applicants were current smokers; 11.5% smoked cigarettes, 5.9% smoked medwakh (hand-held pipe), 4.8% smoked water-pipe and 2.5% smoked a combination (more than one type). Men (19.2%) were more likely than women (3.5%) to be current cigarette smokers. Women were much less likely to smoke medwakh (0.1%) than men (11.5%), with male UAE Nationals having the highest medwakh smoking prevalence (16.1%). The overall prevalence of water-pipe smoking was 6.8% among men and 2.8% for women with the highest water-pipe smoking prevalence (10.2%) among Arab expatriate men. Conclusions: Variations in tobacco use prevalence among Premarital Screening Program applicants reflect preferences for different modes of tobacco consumption by nationality, age group and gender. Enforcement of tobacco control laws, including implementation of clean indoor air laws and tobacco tax increases, and targeted health education programs are required to reduce tobacco consumption and concomitant tobacco-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:24404364

  15. Exposure to secondhand smoke from neighbours and respiratory symptoms in never-smoking adolescents in Hong Kong: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Lok Tung; Ho, Sai Yin; Wang, Man Ping; Lo, Wing Sze; Lam, Tai Hing

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure at home from neighbours in Hong Kong adolescents and its association with respiratory symptoms in never-smokers. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting 79 randomly selected secondary schools in Hong Kong. Participants 61 810 secondary 1 (USA grade 7) to 7 students, in which 50 762 never-smokers were identified and included in the analysis of the association between SHS exposure at home from neighbours and respiratory symptoms. Main outcome measures Smoking status, family smoking status, SHS exposure at home from inside the home and from neighbours in the past 7 days, respiratory symptoms and sociodemographic characteristics were reported. Adjusted ORs (AORs) of respiratory symptoms for SHS exposure from the 2 sources in never-smokers were calculated using logistic regression. Results In all students, 33.2% were exposed to SHS at home, including 16.2% from inside the home only, 10.0% from neighbours only and 7.0% from both. The prevalence of SHS exposure from neighbours was 17.1%, including 13.5% for 1–4 days/week and 3.6% for 5–7 days/week. In never-smokers (n=50 762), respiratory symptoms were significantly associated with SHS exposure from neighbours with AORs (95% CI) of 1.29 (1.20 to 1.39) for any exposure (p<0.001), 1.21 (1.12 to 1.31) for 1–4 days/week (p<0.001) and 1.63 (1.44 to 1.86) for 5–7 days/week (p<0.001) (P for trend <0.001). Compared with no SHS exposure at home from any source, the AORs were 1.16 (1.07 to 1.25) for SHS from inside the home only (p<0.001), 1.20 (1.11 to 1.31) from neighbours only (p<0.001), and 1.74 (1.56 to 1.94) from both (p<0.001). Conclusions SHS exposure at home from neighbours was prevalent in Hong Kong adolescents, and was associated with respiratory symptoms in never-smokers. SHS exposure at home may be underestimated by ignoring the neighbouring source. Smoke-free housing policy is needed to protect children and adolescents from harms of SHS

  16. The cognitive processes underlying affective decision-making predicting adolescent smoking behaviors in a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Lin; Koritzky, Gilly; Johnson, C. Anderson; Bechara, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between three different cognitive processes underlying the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and adolescent smoking behaviors in a longitudinal study. We conducted a longitudinal study of 181 Chinese adolescents in Chengdu City, China. The participants were followed from 10th to 11th grade. When they were in the 10th grade (Time 1), we tested these adolescents' decision-making using the IGT and working memory capacity using the Self-ordered Pointing Test (SOPT). Self-report questionnaires were used to assess school academic performance and smoking behaviors. The same questionnaires were completed again at the 1-year follow-up (Time 2). The Expectancy-Valence (EV) Model was applied to distill the IGT performance into three different underlying psychological components: (i) a motivational component which indicates the subjective weight the adolescents assign to gains vs. losses; (ii) a learning-rate component which indicates the sensitivity to recent outcomes vs. past experiences; and (iii) a response component which indicates how consistent the adolescents are between learning and responding. The subjective weight to gains vs. losses at Time 1 significantly predicted current smokers and current smoking levels at Time 2, controlling for demographic variables and baseline smoking behaviors. Therefore, by decomposing the IGT into three different psychological components, we found that the motivational process of weight gain vs. losses may serve as a neuropsychological marker to predict adolescent smoking behaviors in a general youth population. PMID:24101911

  17. A Novel Indicator of Life-Course Smoking Prevalence in the United States Combining Popularity, Duration, Quantity, and Quality of Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Lillard, Dean R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To develop a smoking indicator that combines the popularity and duration of smoking and the quantity and quality of consumed cigarettes, factors that vary dramatically over time and across generations. Methods. We used retrospective reports on smoking behavior and a time series of cigarette tar yields to standardize nationally representative life-course smoking prevalence rates of 11 generations of US men and women, spanning 120 years. For each generation and gender, we related the standardized data with the corresponding rates of smoking-attributable mortality. Results. Our indicator suggests that US cigarette consumption spread, peaked, and contracted faster than commonly perceived; predicts a significantly stronger smoking–mortality correlation than unadjusted smoking prevalence; and reveals the emergence of a delay (by up to 8 years) in premature death from smoking that is consistent with increasing population access to effective treatments. In fact, we show that, among recent cohorts, smoking health-risk exposure is at a historic low and will account for less than 5% of deaths. Conclusions. Relative to unstandardized measures, our novel, standardized indicator of smoking prevalence describes a different history of smoking diffusion in the United States, and more strongly predicts later-life mortality. PMID:27077340

  18. ERICA: prevalence of healthy eating habits among Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Oliveira, Juliana Souza; dos Santos, Debora França; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Vasconcelos, Sandra Mary Lima; de Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes; Tavares, Bruno Mendes

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of eating habits considered healthy in adolescents according to sex, age, education level of the mother, school type, session of study, and geographic region. METHODS The assessed data come from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), a cross-sectional, national and school-based study. Adolescents of 1,247 schools of 124 Brazilian municipalities were evaluated using a self-administered questionnaire with a section on aspects related to eating behaviors. The following eating behaviors were considered healthy: consuming breakfast, drinking water, and having meals accompanied by parents or legal guardians. All prevalence estimates were presented proportionally, with their respective 95% confidence intervals. The Chi-square test was used to evaluate the differences in healthy eating habits prevalences according to other variables. The module survey of the Stata program version 13.0 was used to analyze complex data. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents (72.9% of the eligible students). Of these, 55.2% were female, average age being 14.6 years (SD = 1.6). Among Brazilian adolescents, approximately half of them showed healthy eating habits when consuming breakfast, drinking five or more glasses of water a day, and having meals with parents or legal guardians. All analyzed healthy eating habits showed statistically significant differences by sex, age, type of school, session of study, or geographic region . CONCLUSIONS We suggest that specific actions of intersectoral approach are implemented for the dissemination of the benefits of healthy eating habits. Older female adolescents (15 to 17 years old) who studied in public schools, resided in the Southeast region, and whose mothers had lower education levels, should be the focus of these actions since they present lower frequencies concerning the evaluated healthy habits. PMID:26910548

  19. ERICA: prevalence of healthy eating habits among Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Oliveira, Juliana Souza; dos Santos, Debora França; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Vasconcelos, Sandra Mary Lima; de Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes; Tavares, Bruno Mendes

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of eating habits considered healthy in adolescents according to sex, age, education level of the mother, school type, session of study, and geographic region. METHODS The assessed data come from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), a cross-sectional, national and school-based study. Adolescents of 1,247 schools of 124 Brazilian municipalities were evaluated using a self-administered questionnaire with a section on aspects related to eating behaviors. The following eating behaviors were considered healthy: consuming breakfast, drinking water, and having meals accompanied by parents or legal guardians. All prevalence estimates were presented proportionally, with their respective 95% confidence intervals. The Chi-square test was used to evaluate the differences in healthy eating habits prevalences according to other variables. The module survey of the Stata program version 13.0 was used to analyze complex data. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents (72.9% of the eligible students). Of these, 55.2% were female, average age being 14.6 years (SD = 1.6). Among Brazilian adolescents, approximately half of them showed healthy eating habits when consuming breakfast, drinking five or more glasses of water a day, and having meals with parents or legal guardians. All analyzed healthy eating habits showed statistically significant differences by sex, age, type of school, session of study, or geographic region . CONCLUSIONS We suggest that specific actions of intersectoral approach are implemented for the dissemination of the benefits of healthy eating habits. Older female adolescents (15 to 17 years old) who studied in public schools, resided in the Southeast region, and whose mothers had lower education levels, should be the focus of these actions since they present lower frequencies concerning the evaluated healthy habits. PMID:26910548

  20. Impact of Tobacco Control Interventions on Smoking Initiation, Cessation, and Prevalence: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Lisa M.; Avila Tang, Erika; Chander, Geetanjali; Hutton, Heidi E.; Odelola, Olaide A.; Elf, Jessica L.; Heckman-Stoddard, Brandy M.; Bass, Eric B.; Little, Emily A.; Haberl, Elisabeth B.; Apelberg, Benjamin J.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Policymakers need estimates of the impact of tobacco control (TC) policies to set priorities and targets for reducing tobacco use. We systematically reviewed the independent effects of TC policies on smoking behavior. Methods. We searched MEDLINE (through January 2012) and EMBASE and other databases through February 2009, looking for studies published after 1989 in any language that assessed the effects of each TC intervention on smoking prevalence, initiation, cessation, or price participation elasticity. Paired reviewers extracted data from studies that isolated the impact of a single TC intervention. Findings. We included 84 studies. The strength of evidence quantifying the independent effect on smoking prevalence was high for increasing tobacco prices and moderate for smoking bans in public places and antitobacco mass media campaigns. Limited direct evidence was available to quantify the effects of health warning labels and bans on advertising and sponsorship. Studies were too heterogeneous to pool effect estimates. Interpretations. We found evidence of an independent effect for several TC policies on smoking prevalence. However, we could not derive precise estimates of the effects across different settings because of variability in the characteristics of the intervention, level of policy enforcement, and underlying tobacco control environment. PMID:22719777

  1. Study protocol: A cluster randomised controlled trial of implementation intentions to reduce smoking initiation in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The current literature suggests that forming implementation intentions (simple ‘if-then’ plans) about how to refuse the offer of a cigarette may be an effective intervention to reduce smoking initiation in adolescents. This study is a pragmatic trial to test the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of such an intervention in reducing smoking initiation in a sample of UK adolescents. Methods/Design A cluster randomised controlled trial with at least 36 schools randomised to receive an implementation intention intervention targeting reducing smoking initiation (intervention group) or increasing homework (control group). Interventions will be conducted at the classroom level and be repeated every six months for four years (eight interventions). Objectively assessed (carbon monoxide monitor) and self-reported smoking plus smoking related cognitions (e.g., smoking intentions, attitudes, norms and self-efficacy) will be assessed at baseline and 12, 24, 36 and 48 months post baseline. Objectively assessed smoking at 48 months post baseline will be the primary outcome variable. Health economic analyses will assess life years gained. Discussion The results of the trial will provide information on the impact of a repeated implementation intention for refusing offers of cigarettes on rates of smoking initiation in adolescents. Trial registration ISRCTN27596806 PMID:23332020

  2. Prevalence of temporomandibular dysfunction in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    de Sena, Marina Fernandes; de Mesquita, Késsia Suênia F.; Santos, Fernanda Regina R.; Silva, Francisco Wanderley G. P.; Serrano, Kranya Victoria D.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in children and adolescents, verifying the methodological variations. DATA SOURCES: Research conducted in Medline, PubMed, Lilacs and BBO databases, including manuscripts (except reviews and case reports) published from 1990 to 2012. The descriptors were "temporomandibular joint syndrome", "temporomandibular joint dysfunction syndrome", "temporomandibular joint disorders", "prevalence studies", and "cross-sectional studies"; the words "dysfunction", "disorder", "temporomandibular", "children", "adolescents", "prevalence", "frequency", and "transversal" were used. DATA SYNTHESIS: Seventeen articles were selected, and the TMD frequency varied from 16 to 68%. Regarding the methodological criteria, only three articles (18%) reported sample size determination, three (18%) clearly described the sample selection process by stratified selection technique, and nine studies (53%) carried out the calibration of the examiners. The diagnostic criteria used in the studies were: Helkimo index (n=2; 12%), Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) (n=4; 24%), the jaw index (n=1; 6%), clinical protocols (n=10; 59%), and anamnestic questionnaires (n=6; 35%). CONCLUSIONS: The TMD prevalence in children and adolescents varies in the literature. Appropriate and standardized methods are needed to identify, with greater validity, the presence of TMD in this population, allowing a better understanding of the pathological aspects in order to address more effective preventive and therapeutic procedures. PMID:24473961

  3. High Blood Pressure in Adolescents of Curitiba: Prevalence and Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Bozza, Rodrigo; de Campos, Wagner; Barbosa Filho, Valter Cordeiro; Stabelini Neto, Antonio; da Silva, Michael Pereira; Maziero, Renato Silva Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    Background Arterial hypertension is a major public health problem and has increased considerably in young individuals in past years. Thus, identifying factors associated with this condition is important to guide intervention strategies in this population. Objective To determine high blood pressure prevalence and its associated factors in adolescents. Methods A random sample of 1,242 students enrolled in public schools of the city of Curitiba (PR) was selected. Self-administered questionnaires provided family history of hypertension, daily energy expenditure, smoking habit, daily fat intake, and socioeconomic status. Waist circumference was measured following standardized procedures, and blood pressure was measured with appropriate cuffs in 2 consecutive days to confirm high blood pressure. Relative frequency and confidence interval (95%CI) indicated high blood pressure prevalence. Bivariate and multivariate analyses assessed the association of risk factors with high blood pressure. Results The high blood pressure prevalence was 18.2% (95%CI 15.2-21.6). Individuals whose both parents had hypertension [odds ratio (OR), 2.22; 95%CI 1.28-3.85] and those with high waist circumference (OR, 2.1; 95%CI 1.34-3.28) had higher chances to develop high blood pressure. Conclusion Positive family history of hypertension and high waist circumference were associated with high blood pressure in adolescents. These factors are important to guide future interventions in this population. PMID:27058256

  4. Prevalence of COPD and tobacco smoking in Tunisia--results from the BOLD study.

    PubMed

    Daldoul, Hager; Denguezli, Meriam; Jithoo, Anamika; Gnatiuc, Louisa; Buist, Sonia; Burney, Peter; Tabka, Zouhair; Harrabi, Imed

    2013-12-01

    In Tunisia, there is a paucity of population-based data on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) prevalence. To address this problem, we estimated the prevalence of COPD following the Burden of Lung Disease Initiative. We surveyed 807 adults aged 40+ years and have collected information on respiratory history and symptoms, risk factors for COPD and quality of life. Post-bronchodilator spirometry was performed and COPD and its stages were defined according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines. Six hundred and sixty one (661) subjects were included in the final analysis. The prevalence of GOLD Stage I and II or higher COPD were 7.8% and 4.2%, respectively (Lower Limit of Normal modified stage I and II or higher COPD prevalence were 5.3% and 3.8%, respectively). COPD was more common in subjects aged 70+ years and in those with a BMI < 20 kg/m2. Prevalence of stage I+ COPD was 2.3% in <10 pack years smoked and 16.1% in 20+ pack years smoked. Only 3.5% of participants reported doctor-diagnosed COPD. In this Tunisian population, the prevalence of COPD is higher than reported before and higher than self-reported doctor-diagnosed COPD. In subjects with COPD, age is a much more powerful predictor of lung function than smoking. PMID:24351745

  5. Prevalence of COPD and Tobacco Smoking in Tunisia — Results from the BOLD Study

    PubMed Central

    Daldoul, Hager; Denguezli, Meriam; Jithoo, Anamika; Gnatiuc, Louisa; Buist, Sonia; Burney, Peter; Tabka, Zouhair; Harrabi, Imed

    2013-01-01

    In Tunisia, there is a paucity of population-based data on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) prevalence. To address this problem, we estimated the prevalence of COPD following the Burden of Lung Disease Initiative. We surveyed 807 adults aged 40+ years and have collected information on respiratory history and symptoms, risk factors for COPD and quality of life. Post-bronchodilator spirometry was performed and COPD and its stages were defined according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines. Six hundred and sixty one (661) subjects were included in the final analysis. The prevalence of GOLD Stage I and II or higher COPD were 7.8% and 4.2%, respectively (Lower Limit of Normal modified stage I and II or higher COPD prevalence were 5.3% and 3.8%, respectively). COPD was more common in subjects aged 70+ years and in those with a BMI < 20 kg/m2. Prevalence of stage I+ COPD was 2.3% in <10 pack years smoked and 16.1% in 20+ pack years smoked. Only 3.5% of participants reported doctor-diagnosed COPD. In this Tunisian population, the prevalence of COPD is higher than reported before and higher than self-reported doctor-diagnosed COPD. In subjects with COPD, age is a much more powerful predictor of lung function than smoking. PMID:24351745

  6. Addiction as a Systems Failure: Focus on Adolescence and Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Baler, Ruben D.; Volkow, Nora D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Scientific advances in the field of addiction have forever debunked the notion that addiction reflects a character flaw under voluntary control, demonstrating instead that it is a bona fide disease of the brain. The aim of this review is to go beyond this consensus understanding and explore the most current evidence regarding the vast number of genetic, developmental, and environmental factors whose complex interactions modulate addiction risk and trajectory. Method Focusing on childhood and adolescent smoking as a paradigm, we review the important risk factors for the development of addictions, starting at the level of genetics and closing with a focus on sociocultural and policy factors. Results A critical review of the pertinent literature provides a detailed view of the cumulative power of risk and protection factors across different phenomenological levels to modulate the risk of undesirable outcomes, particularly for young people. The result represents a compelling argument for the need to engage in comprehensive, multilevel approaches to promoting health. Conclusions Today, the field of medicine understands more about disease than about health; however it need not be that way. The view of drug addiction as a systems failure should help refocus our general approach to developing dynamic models and early comprehensive interventions that optimize the ways in which we prevent and treat a complex, developmental disorder such as drug addiction. PMID:21421173

  7. Early-Emerging Nicotine Dependence Has Lasting and Time-Varying Effects on Adolescent Smoking Behavior.

    PubMed

    Selya, Arielle S; Dierker, Lisa; Rose, Jennifer S; Hedeker, Donald; Mermelstein, Robin J

    2016-08-01

    Novice and light adolescent smokers can develop symptoms of nicotine dependence, which predicts smoking behavior several years into the future. However, little is known about how the association between these early - emerging symptoms and later smoker behaviors may change across time from early adolescence into young adulthood. Data were drawn from a 7-year longitudinal study of experimental (<100 cigarettes/lifetime; N = 594) and light (100+ cigarettes/lifetime, but ≤5 cigarettes/day; N = 152) adolescent smokers. Time-varying effect models were used to examine the relationship between baseline nicotine dependence (assessed at age 15 ± 2 years) and future smoking frequency through age 24, after controlling for concurrent smoking heaviness. Baseline smoking status, race, and sex were examined as potential moderators of this relationship. Nicotine dependence symptoms assessed at approximately age 15 significantly predicted smoking frequency through age 24, over and above concurrent smoking heaviness, though it showed declining trends at older ages. Predictive validity was weaker among experimenters at young ages (<16), but stronger at older ages (20-23), relative to light smokers. Additionally, nicotine dependence was a stronger predictor of smoking frequency for white smokers around baseline (ages 14.5-16), relative to nonwhite smokers. Nicotine dependence assessed in mid-adolescence predicts smoking frequency well into early adulthood, over and above concurrent smoking heaviness, especially among novice smokers and nonwhite smokers. Early-emerging nicotine dependence is a promising marker for screening and interventions aimed at preventing smoking progression. PMID:27312479

  8. Prevalence and Patterns of Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposures Among California Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Peggy; Goldberg, Debbie E.; Hurley, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence and patterns of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in a large, well-defined cohort of professional, female school employees in California. Design. This is a cross-sectional study based on survey responses from members of the California Teachers Study (CTS) cohort. Subjects. The analyses focused on…

  9. The interaction between anxiety sensitivity and cigarette smoking level in relation to sleep onset latency among adolescent cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Bilsky, Sarah A; Feldner, Matthew T; Knapp, Ashley A; Babson, Kimberly A; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W

    2016-08-01

    Cigarette smoking during adolescence is linked to a number of sleep disturbances and has been consistently linked to sleep onset latency among adults. However, little research has examined factors that may influence the relation between cigarette smoking level and sleep onset latency among adolescents. One factor that may be particularly important in this regard is anxiety sensitivity (AS). The current study examined whether cigarette smoking level interacted with AS in its association with sleep onset latency among 94 adolescent (Mage = 15.72) cigarette smokers. As hypothesized, AS interacted with smoking level to relate to sleep onset latency, even after controlling for age and gender. This relation was specific to sleep onset latency as opposed to other types of sleep disturbances, and that adolescents who smoked at higher levels tended to go to sleep later and wake up later than adolescents who smoked at relatively lower levels. PMID:27351343

  10. Ethnic and Gender Differences in Drinking, Smoking and Drug Taking among Adolescents in England: A Self-Report School-Based Survey of 15 and 16 Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodham, Karen; Hawton, Keith; Evans, Emma; Weatherall, Rosamund

    2005-01-01

    Concern has been mounting about the increasing numbers of adolescents who (ab)use drugs, alcohol and cigarettes. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence according to gender and ethnicity of drinking, smoking and drug-use in a representative sample of 15 and 16 year olds. The sample consisted of 6020 15- and 16-year-old pupils from 41…

  11. Randomized trial outcomes of a TTM-tailored condom use and smoking intervention in urban adolescent females

    PubMed Central

    Redding, Colleen A.; Prochaska, James O.; Armstrong, Kay; Rossi, Joseph S.; Hoeppner, Bettina B.; Sun, Xiaowu; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Yin, Hui-Qing; Coviello, Donna; Evers, Kerry; Velicer, Wayne F.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking and sexual risk behaviors in urban adolescent females are prevalent and problematic. Family planning clinics reach those who are at most risk. This randomized effectiveness trial evaluated a transtheoretical model (TTM)-tailored intervention to increase condom use and decrease smoking. At baseline, a total of 828 14- to 17-year-old females were recruited and randomized within four urban family planning clinics. Participants received TTM or standard care (SC) computerized feedback and stage-targeted or SC counseling at baseline, 3, 6 and 9 months. Blinded follow-up telephone surveys were conducted at 12 and 18 months. Analyses revealed significantly more consistent condom use in the TTM compared with the SC group at 6 and 12, but not at 18 months. In baseline consistent condom users (40%), significantly less relapse was found in the TTM compared with the SC group at 6 and 12, but not at 18 months. No significant effects for smoking prevention or cessation were found, although cessation rates matched those found previously. This TTM-tailored intervention demonstrated effectiveness for increasing consistent condom use at 6 and 12 months, but not at 18 months, in urban adolescent females. This intervention, if replicated, could be disseminated to promote consistent condom use and additional health behaviors in youth at risk. PMID:24794584

  12. Prevalence and Patterns of Smoking, Alcohol Use, and Illicit Drug Use in Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Newcomb, Michael E.; Ryan, Daniel T.; Greene, George J.; Garofalo, Robert; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Background Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are substantially more likely to use illicit drugs and other substances compared to their heterosexual peers. Substance use during adolescence has critical implications for long-term physical and mental health, and among YMSM may lead to HIV infection. The goal of the current study was to describe lifetime and past six month prevalence and patterns of substance use across multiple substances in a community sample of racially-diverse YMSM. Methods Participants were 450 YMSM aged 16–20 living in Chicago and surrounding areas who were recruited beginning December, 2009 using a modified form of respondent driven sampling. Analyses were conducted with multivariate logistic regression and latent class analysis (LCA). Results Prevalence of substance use was high in this sample of majority racial minority YMSM, and only 17.6% reported no substance use during the past six months. Black YMSM had lower prevalence of use of all substances except marijuana compared to White YMSM, while Latino YMSM had lower prevalence of alcohol, marijuana, and club drug use. Bisexual YMSM reported higher prevalence of cigarette smoking, stimulant use, and club drug use compared to gay/mostly gay YMSM but lower numbers of bisexual participants limited the ability to detect statistically significant differences. LCA found that YMSM fell into three general categories of substance users: alcohol and marijuana users, polysubstance users, and low marijuana users. Conclusions Analyses reveal important group differences in prevalence and patterns of substance use in YMSM that have important implications for intervention. PMID:24907774

  13. Individual and Social Influences on Progression to Daily Smoking During Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Jung; Fleming, Charles B.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To identify individual and social predictors of progression to daily smoking by the end of high school among youth who initiated less than daily smoking by eighth grade. Methods The analysis sample of 270 adolescent smokers was taken from the longitudinal community panel of the Raising Healthy Children project. Data used in this study were taken from annual interviews between grades 7 and 12. Daily smoking was defined as having smoked at least one cigarette per day in the past 30 days at the time of each interview. Discrete-time survival analysis was used to assess the overall and unique associations between hazard of progression to daily smoking and time-varying measures of potential individual, family, peer, and school predictors. Results . A total of 58% (n = 156) of the analysis sample made the transition to daily smoking by grade 12. The likelihood of onset of daily smoking among those who had not yet onset was smallest in grade 9 (.12) and greatest at grade 12 (.25). Youth depression, prosocial belief, and antisocial behavior had overall associations with risk of smoking escalation. In addition, parental and peer cigarette use, family management, academic achievement, and school commitment had significant univariate associations with smoking progression. After adjusting for gender, low-income status, and other potential predictors, youth antisocial behavior and parental and peer smoking predicted greater likelihood of escalation to daily smoking, while parental use of positive family management predicted lower likelihood of escalation. Conclusions . This study supports preventing escalation in adolescent smoking through targeting risk factors of parent and peer smoking and involvement in other forms of antisocial behavior and working with parents to improve their use of positive family management practices. PMID:19706575

  14. ERICA: prevalence of common mental disorders in Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Claudia S; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; dos Santos, Debora França; Menezes, Paulo Rossi; de Carvalho, Kenia Mara Baiocchi; Cunha, Cristiane de Freitas; de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of common mental disorders in Brazilian adolescent students, according to geographical macro-regions, school type, sex, and age. METHODS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents who participated in the Cardiovascular Risk Study in Adolescents (ERICA), a cross-sectional, national, school-based study conducted in 2013-2014 in cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants. A self-administered questionnaire and an electronic data collector were employed. The presence of common mental disorders was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). We estimated prevalence and 95% confidence intervals of common mental disorders by sex, age, and school type, in Brazil and in the macro-regions, considering the sample design. RESULTS The prevalence of common mental disorders was of 30.0% (95%CI 29.2-30.8), being higher among girls (38.4%; 95%CI 37.1-39.7) when compared to boys (21.6%; 95%CI 20.5-22.8), and among adolescents who were from 15 to 17 years old (33.6%; 95%CI 32.2-35.0) compared to those aged between 12 and 14 years (26.7%; 95%CI 25.8-27.6). The prevalence of common mental disorders increased with age for both sexes, always higher in girls (ranging from 28.1% at 12 years to 44.1% at 17 years) than in boys (ranging from 18.5% at 12 years to 27.7% at 17 years). We did not observe any significant difference by macro-region or school type. Stratified analyses showed higher prevalence of common mental disorders among girls aged from 15 to 17 years of private schools in the North region (53.1; 95%CI 46.8-59.4). CONCLUSIONS The high prevalence of common mental disorders among adolescents and the fact that the symptoms are often vague mean these disorders are not so easily identified by school administrators or even by health services. The results of this study can help the proposition of more specific prevention and control measures, focused on highest risk subgroups. PMID:26910549

  15. ERICA: prevalence of common mental disorders in Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Claudia S; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; dos Santos, Debora França; Menezes, Paulo Rossi; de Carvalho, Kenia Mara Baiocchi; Cunha, Cristiane de Freitas; de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of common mental disorders in Brazilian adolescent students, according to geographical macro-regions, school type, sex, and age. METHODS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents who participated in the Cardiovascular Risk Study in Adolescents (ERICA), a cross-sectional, national, school-based study conducted in 2013-2014 in cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants. A self-administered questionnaire and an electronic data collector were employed. The presence of common mental disorders was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). We estimated prevalence and 95% confidence intervals of common mental disorders by sex, age, and school type, in Brazil and in the macro-regions, considering the sample design. RESULTS The prevalence of common mental disorders was of 30.0% (95%CI 29.2-30.8), being higher among girls (38.4%; 95%CI 37.1-39.7) when compared to boys (21.6%; 95%CI 20.5-22.8), and among adolescents who were from 15 to 17 years old (33.6%; 95%CI 32.2-35.0) compared to those aged between 12 and 14 years (26.7%; 95%CI 25.8-27.6). The prevalence of common mental disorders increased with age for both sexes, always higher in girls (ranging from 28.1% at 12 years to 44.1% at 17 years) than in boys (ranging from 18.5% at 12 years to 27.7% at 17 years). We did not observe any significant difference by macro-region or school type. Stratified analyses showed higher prevalence of common mental disorders among girls aged from 15 to 17 years of private schools in the North region (53.1; 95%CI 46.8-59.4). CONCLUSIONS The high prevalence of common mental disorders among adolescents and the fact that the symptoms are often vague mean these disorders are not so easily identified by school administrators or even by health services. The results of this study can help the proposition of more specific prevention and control measures, focused on highest risk subgroups. PMID:26910549

  16. Cigarette Smoking by Adolescent Females: Implications for Health and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gritz, Ellen R.

    Cigarette smoking is a behavior with profound biomedical and psychosocial consequences across the life span. Although it is advertised in terms of youth, beauty, sexual appeal, success and independence, smoking is intimately linked with addiction, disease and death. Smoking has been shown to be a leading contributer to several kinds of cancer,…

  17. Media Literacy and Cigarette Smoking in Hungarian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; Piko, Bettina F.; Balazs, Mate A.; Struk, Tamara

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess smoking media literacy in a sample of Hungarian youth and to determine its association with current smoking and susceptibility to future smoking. Design: Quantitative cross-sectional survey. Setting: Four elementary and four high schools in Mako, Hungary. Method: A survey form was administered in regularly-scheduled classes to…

  18. Prevalence and Correlates of Dating Violence in a National Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Resnick, Heidi S.; Hanson, Rochelle F.; Smith, Daniel W.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2008-01-01

    The study aims to investigate the prevalence of serious forms of dating violence in adolescents from a nationally representative sample of adolescents. The results conclude that serious dating violence is highly prevalent among adolescents and a major health problem that needs to be tackled by early detection, prevention and intervention.

  19. Environmental Stressors, Low Well-being, Smoking, and Alcohol Use Among South African Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Brook, David W.; Rubenstone, Elizabeth; Zhang, Chenshu; Morojele, Neo K.; Brook, Judith S.

    2011-01-01

    This is the first study to examine the pathways from environmental stressors to substance use among a sample of South African adolescents (N=2,195). The study objective was to assess how environmental stressors might affect cigarette smoking and alcohol use among South African adolescents, and to focus on one mechanism, low well-being, which might mediate this association. Participants consisted of 2,195 Black, mixed ancestry (“Coloured”), Indian, and White youth, aged 12 to 17 years old (mean age=14.6; SD=1.8), recruited via a multi-stage stratified sampling procedure in Durban, Cape Town, and Johannesburg, South Africa. Data were collected via individual in-person structured interviews, administered by trained interviewers in the participant’s preferred language. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the interrelationships of environmental stressors (violent victimisation, legal and illegal drug availability) and low well-being (depressive symptoms, low self-esteem, health problems) with respect to adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use. The results supported our hypotheses: Environmental stressors were related to low well-being which, in turn, was linked to both adolescent smoking and alcohol use. There were also direct pathways from environmental stressors to both adolescent smoking and alcohol use. Smoking and alcohol use were significantly correlated. The findings suggest that environmental stressors may be associated with diminished psychological and physical well-being, as well as smoking and alcohol use, among South African adolescents. Longitudinal research is warranted to further understand the interrelationship of environmental stressors, low well-being, and adolescent substance use, so that these issues may be addressed by South African programmes and policies. PMID:21492977

  20. Prevalence of and factors influencing smoking among medical and non-medical students in Tbilisi, Georgia*

    PubMed Central

    Chkhaidze, Ivane; Maglakelidze, Nino; Maglakelidze, Tamaz; Khaltaev, Nikolai

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Smoking is a serious problem that has a devastating impact on health. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of and factors influencing smoking among medical and non-medical students in Tbilisi, Georgia, as well as to determine whether medical education has an impact on smoking. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out at Tbilisi State Medical University and Tbilisi State University, both of which are located in Tbilisi, Georgia. A total of 400 4th-year students (200 students at each university) were asked to complete standardized questionnaires. RESULTS: Of the sample as a whole, 48.75% were identified as smokers and 51.25% were identified as nonsmokers. The mean age was 20.24 years among smokers and 20.26 years among nonsmokers. Of the medical students, 49.5% were smokers, as were 48.0% of the non-medical students. The male-to-female ratio in the study population was 0.9:1.1. Smoking was found to have a strong relationship with gender, males accounting for 65% of all smokers. Of the smokers, 56.9% stated that they would like to quit smoking (for health or financial reasons). Of the medical students, 59.5% expressed a willingness to quit smoking, as did 54.2% of the non-medical students. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need to improve smoking education for undergraduate students. Special attention should be given to the inclusion of anti-smoking education in undergraduate curricula, as well as to the implementation of smoking prevention campaigns at institutions of higher education. However, such measures will be effective only if tobacco control policies are strictly enforced on the national level as well. PMID:24310631

  1. Self-administration of nicotine and cigarette smoke extract in adolescent and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Gellner, Candice A; Belluzzi, James D; Leslie, Frances M

    2016-10-01

    Although smoking initiation typically occurs during adolescence, most preclinical studies of tobacco use involve adult animals. Furthermore, their focus is largely on nicotine alone, even though cigarette smoke contains thousands of constituents. The present study therefore aimed to determine whether aqueous constituents in cigarette smoke affect acquisition of nicotine self-administration during adolescence in rats. Adolescent and adult male rats, aged postnatal day (P) 25 and 85, respectively, were food trained on a fixed ratio 1 (FR1) schedule, then allowed to self-administer one of 5 doses of nicotine (0, 3.75, 7.5, 15, or 30 μg/kg) or aqueous cigarette smoke extract (CSE) with equivalent nicotine content. Three progressively more difficult schedules of reinforcement, FR1, FR2, and FR5, were used. Both adolescent and adult rats acquired self-administration of nicotine and CSE. Nicotine and CSE similarly increased non-reinforced responding in adolescents, leading to enhanced overall drug intake as compared to adults. When data were corrected for age-dependent alterations in non-reinforced responding, adolescents responded more for low doses of nicotine and CSE than adults at the FR1 reinforcement schedule. No differences in adolescent responding for the two drugs were seen at this schedule, whereas adults had fewer responses for CSE than for nicotine. However, when the reinforcement schedule was increased to FR5, animals dose-dependently self-administered both nicotine and CSE, but no drug or age differences were observed. These data suggest that non-nicotine tobacco smoke constituents do not influence the reinforcing effect of nicotine in adolescents. PMID:27346207

  2. The prevalence of homelessness among adolescents in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Ringwalt, C L; Greene, J M; Robertson, M; McPheeters, M

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Homeless adolescents represent one of the nation's most vulnerable populations. This study reports the 12-month prevalence of homeless episodes among US adolescents. METHODS: Personal, audiotaped interviews were conducted in 1992 and 1993 with a representative household sample of 6496 adolescents aged 12 to 17 as part of the Youth Risk behavior Survey sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Respondents reported whether they had spent the night in any of a variety of locations other than home during the previous 12 months. RESULTS: Altogether, 7.6% of the youths questioned reported that they had spent at least 1 night in youth or adult shelter (3.3%), public place (2.2%), an abandoned building (1.0%), outside 2.2%), underground (0.4%), or with a stranger (1.1%). Boys were much more likely than girls to report having experienced a homeless episode. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that homelessness among adolescents is not simply an urban problem and that prevention programs targeting homeless youths should be implemented nationwide. Additional research is needed to assess the frequency and duration of homeless experiences. Future studies of homelessness in the general population should include questions pertinent to adolescents. PMID:9736871

  3. Determinants of exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) among non smoking adolescents (aged 11-17 years old) in Greece: results from the 2004-2005 GYTS Study.

    PubMed

    Rachiotis, George; Siziya, Seter; Muula, Adamson S; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel; Papastergiou, Panagiotis; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the determinants of exposure to ETS among Greek adolescents aged 11-17 years old. The GYTS questionnaire was completed by 5,179 adolescents. About 3 in 4 responders (76.8%) were exposed to ETS at home, and 38.5% were exposed to ETS outside of the home. Gender, age group, parental and close friends smoking status were significant determinants of adolescent's exposure to ETS. The results of the study could be valuable for the implementation of public health initiatives in Greece aiming to reduce the burden of adolescent's exposure to passive smoking. PMID:20195445

  4. State tobacco excise taxes and adolescent smoking behaviors in the United States.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Carey Conley; Fisher, Laurie B; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Colditz, Graham A; Camargo, Carlos A; King, Charles; Frazier, A Lindsay

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the study described in this article was to examine the association between state cigarette excise taxes and smoking behaviors among youth in the United States. A survey was nationally mailed to adolescents in the Growing Up Today Study, an ongoing cohort of offspring of participants in the Nurses' Health Study II. A volunteer sample of 10,981 adolescent boy and girl participated in the Growing Up Today Study, who were 12 to 18 years old in 1999. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between state cigarette excise taxes (in quartiles) and experimentation (ever smoked) and established smoking (smoked at least 100 cigarettes in a lifetime). State tax levels in 1999 ranged from 2.5 to 100 cents. In a model that adjusted for age, gender, peer smoking, parental smoking, state clustering, state poverty level, and possession of tobacco promotional items, higher tax rates were associated with decreased odds of experimentation (test for trend p < 0.01). The highest quartile of tax (60-100 cents) was significantly associated with lower odds of experimentation (OR = 0.79; 95% CI, 0.64-0.98) and appeared protective against established smoking (OR = 0.80; 95% CI, 0.49-1.29). This study provides recent evidence that higher state cigarette excise taxes are associated with decreased experimental smoking among adolescent boys and girls. Higher state cigarette taxes may also be associated with lower odds of established smoking in this age group, although the association appears to be attenuated by peer and parental smoking. These results support the inclusion of tobacco taxes in state tobacco control programs. PMID:15643370

  5. Correlates of experimentation with smoking and current cigarette consumption among adolescents* **

    PubMed Central

    Bonilha, Amanda Gimenes; Ruffino-Netto, Antonio; Sicchieri, Mayara Piani; Achcar, Jorge Alberto; Rodrigues-Júnior, Antonio Luiz; Baddini-Martinez, José

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze social characteristics and stress as correlates of cigarette smoking in adolescence. The main intent was to identify elements that distinguish adolescents who had experimented with smoking and did not progress to regular smoking from those who became current smokers. METHODS: Students at 10 high schools in the city of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, completed a questionnaire based on an instrument employed in a similar large-scale study. The students were classified as never-smokers or experimenters. The experimenters were subcategorized as having become current smokers or nonprogressors. Analyses were performed using adjusted logistic models. RESULTS: A total of 2,014 students (mean age, 16.2 ± 1.1 years; females, 53%) completed the questionnaire. We categorized 1,283 students (63.7%) as never-smokers, 244 (12.1%) as current smokers, and 487 (24.2%) as nonprogressors. We found that experimentation with smoking was associated with being held back a grade in school (OR = 1.80), alcohol intake (low/occasional, OR = 8.92; high/regular, OR = 2.64), illicit drug use (OR = 9.32), having a sibling or cousin who smokes (OR = 1.39), having a friend who smokes (OR = 2.08), and high levels of stress (in females only, OR = 1.32). Factors associated with an increased risk of transitioning from experimenter to current smoker were alcohol intake (low/occasional, OR = 3.28; high/regular, OR = 2.16), illicit drug use (OR = 3.61), and having a friend who smokes (OR = 7.20). CONCLUSIONS: Current smoking was associated with a profile of socioeconomic correlates different from that associated with experimentation only. Our data (showing that current smoking was associated with having a friend who smokes, alcohol intake, and illicit drug use) suggest the need for comprehensive approaches to discourage substance use during adolescence. PMID:25610504

  6. Prevalence, Knowledge, and Practices of Hookah Smoking Among University Students, Florida, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Shams; Chang, Lissette; Hadgu, Selamawit; Salinas-Miranda, Abraham A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although hookah smoking is becoming a source of tobacco use among college students in the United States, little is known of the students’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding hookah use. This cross-sectional study was aimed at determining the prevalence of hookah use and describing social and behavioral factors associated with hookah smoking among university students in a large urban university in Florida. Methods A convenience sample of 478 undergraduate and graduate students was recruited. Lifetime use and current use was evaluated. Logistic regression modeling was used to assess the independent association between study covariates and hookah use. Results Prevalence among students of having ever used hookah during their lifetime was 54.4%. Hookah use within the past 30 days was 16.3%. Hookah use was significantly associated with cigarette smoking (odds ratio [OR], 4.52; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.13–9.60) and hookah ownership (OR, 10.67; 95% CI, 4.83–23.66) but not with alcohol use (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 0.74–4.04). Findings also suggest hookah is perceived as a safer alternative to cigarette smoking. Almost 30% of those who never smoked hookah reported they would consider smoking hookah in the future. Conclusion Hookah smoking is popular among college students. Misperceptions associated with hookah use indicate a starting point for developing health behavior change interventions. Future studies should investigate social and behavioral determinants of hookah use and determine the incidence of hookah use among college and high school students. Tobacco control activities should include prevention of hookah tobacco use in university settings. PMID:25474386

  7. Correlates of smoking susceptibility among adolescents in a peri-urban area of Nepal: a population-based cross-sectional study in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site

    PubMed Central

    Aryal, Umesh R.; Petzold, Max; Bondjers, Göran; Krettek, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Background Susceptibility to smoking is defined as an absence of firm commitment not to smoke in the future or when offered a cigarette by best friends. Susceptibility begins in adolescence and is the first step in the transition to becoming an established smoker. Many scholars have hypothesized and studied whether psychosocial risk factors play a crucial role in preventing adolescent susceptibility to smoking or discourage susceptible adolescents from becoming established smokers. Our study examined sociodemographic and family and childhood environmental factors associated with smoking susceptibility among adolescents in a peri-urban area of Nepal. Design We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study during October–November 2011 in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site (JD-HDSS) located in a peri-urban area near Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal, where tobacco products are easily available. Trained local enumerators conducted face-to-face interviews with 352 respondents aged 14–16. We used stepwise logistic regression to assess sociodemographic and family and childhood environmental factors associated with smoking susceptibility. Results The percentage of smoking susceptibility among respondents was 49.70% (95% CI: 44.49; 54.93). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that smoking susceptibility was associated with smoking by exposure of adolescents to pro-tobacco advertisements (AOR [adjusted odds ratio] =2.49; 95% CI: 1.46–4.24), the teacher (2.45; 1.28–4.68), adolescents attending concerts/picnics (2.14; 1.13–4.04), and smoking by other family members/relatives (1.76; 1.05–2.95). Conclusions Smoking susceptible adolescents are prevalent in the JD-HDSS, a peri-urban community of Nepal. Several family and childhood environmental factors increased susceptibility to smoking among Nepalese non-smoking adolescents. Therefore, intervention efforts need to be focused on family and childhood environmental factors with emphasis on

  8. Using Social Identity to Explore the Link between a Decline in Adolescent Smoking and an Increase in Mobile Phone Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Purpose--The study seeks to further explore the hypothesised link between the increase in mobile phone ownership and use and the reported decline in adolescent smoking. Evidence for the link was gathered by examining perceptions of mobile phone use in the context of social identity and adolescent smoking. Design/methodology/approach--The study…

  9. The effectiveness of an integrated multicomponent program for adolescent smoking cessation in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Guo, J L; Liao, J Y; Chang, L C; Wu, H L; Huang, C M

    2014-10-01

    If adolescents do not receive appropriate assistance in quitting smoking, they are highly likely to become regular smokers when they enter adulthood. Thus, an effective smoking-cessation program is required. A program was designed based on both the smoking-cessation barriers reported by students and effective strategies derived from the literature. We assigned 143 student smokers from 6 vocational high schools to intervention (n=78) and comparison groups (n=65). Data were collected at the baseline, the end of the program, and 1- and 4-month follow-up time points. For the intervention group, the smoking-abstinence rates confirmed using the urine cotinine test were 22.73% at the end of the program and 20.75% at the 4-month follow-up point. Days smoked in the past month, number of cigarettes smoked per day, and the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence score of the intervention group decreased at all of the time points. The group differences in these variables were statistically significant; the magnitude of effect sizes ranged from 0.44 to 0.95. Multicomponent programs addressing smoking-cessation barriers that students encounter can help adolescents quit smoking. PMID:24949950

  10. Do cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption associate with cannabis use and problem gambling among Spanish adolescents?

    PubMed

    Míguez Varela, M Del Carmen; Becoña, Elisardo

    2015-01-01

    This article examined the relationship between cigarette smoking or alcohol consumption and cannabis use and problem gambling among a random and representative sample of 1447 Spanish adolescents (797 males and 650 females with an average of 12.8 years). An ad-hoc questionnaire was used to assess cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption (beer, wine and spirits) and cannabis use. Gambling was assessed with the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA). Results indicated a positive and significant association between cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption and the two aforementioned variables. A larger percentage of cigarette smokers and drinkers was found among those participants who had consumed cannabis before or scored significantly in problem gambling. Additionally, multiple regression analysis confirmed that both cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption (beer and wine) were the most determinant variables for cannabis use and problem gambling. PMID:25879473

  11. Beyond Smoking Prevalence: Exploring the Variability of Associations between Neighborhood Exposures across Two Nested Spatial Units and Two-Year Smoking Trajectory among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ghenadenik, Adrian E.; Frohlich, Katherine L.; Gauvin, Lise

    2016-01-01

    Young adults have the highest prevalence of smoking amongst all age groups. Significant uptake occurs after high school age. Although neighborhood exposures have been found to be associated with smoking behavior, research on neighborhood exposures and the smoking trajectories among young adults, and on the role of geographic scale in shaping findings, is scarce. We examined associations between neighborhood exposures across two nested, increasingly large spatial units and smoking trajectory over two years among young adults living in Montreal, Canada. A sample of 2093 participants aged 18–25 years from the Interdisciplinary Study of Inequalities in Smoking (ISIS) was surveyed. The dependent variable was self-reported smoking trajectory over the course of two years. Residential addresses, data on presence of tobacco retail outlets, and the presence of smoking accommodation facilities were coded and linked to spatial units. Three-level multinomial models were used to examine associations. The likelihood of being a smoker for 2+ years was significantly greater among those living in larger spatial unit neighborhoods that had a greater presence of smoking accommodation. This association was not statistically significant at the smaller spatial units. Our findings highlight the importance of studying young adults’ smoking trajectories in addition to static smoking outcomes, and point to the relevance of considering spatial scale in studies of neighborhoods and smoking. PMID:26751461

  12. Progression to Traditional Cigarette Smoking After Electronic Cigarette Use Among US Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; Soneji, Samir; Stoolmiller, Michael; Fine, Michael J.; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) may help smokers reduce the use of traditional combustible cigarettes. However, adolescents and young adults who have never smoked traditional cigarettes are now using e-cigarettes, and these individuals may be at risk for subsequent progression to traditional cigarette smoking. OBJECTIVE To determine whether baseline use of e-cigarettes among nonsmoking and nonsusceptible adolescents and young adults is associated with subsequent progression along an established trajectory to traditional cigarette smoking. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS In this longitudinal cohort study, a national US sample of 694 participants aged 16 to 26 years who were never cigarette smokers and were attitudinally nonsusceptible to smoking cigarettes completed baseline surveys from October 1, 2012, to May 1, 2014, regarding smoking in 2012–2013. They were reassessed 1 year later. Analysis was conducted from July 1, 2014, to March 1, 2015. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the independent association between baseline e-cigarette use and cigarette smoking, controlling for sex, age, race/ethnicity, maternal educational level, sensation-seeking tendency, parental cigarette smoking, and cigarette smoking among friends. Sensitivity analyses were performed, with varying approaches to missing data and recanting. EXPOSURES Use of e-cigarettes at baseline. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Progression to cigarette smoking, defined using 3 specific states along a trajectory: nonsusceptible nonsmokers, susceptible nonsmokers, and smokers. Individuals who could not rule out smoking in the future were defined as susceptible. RESULTS Among the 694 respondents, 374 (53.9%) were female and 531 (76.5%) were non-Hispanic white. At baseline, 16 participants (2.3%) used e-cigarettes. Over the 1-year follow-up, 11 of 16 e-cigarette users and 128 of 678 of those who had not used e-cigarettes (18.9%) progressed toward cigarette smoking. In the primary

  13. Confirming the Structure of the "Why Do You Smoke?" Questionnaire: A Community Resource for Adolescent Tobacco Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Dennis W.; Lee, Jay T.; Colwell, Brian; Stevens-Manser, Stacey

    2008-01-01

    In response to the problem of adolescent smoking and limited appropriate cessation resources, this study examined the pattern and structure of the American Lung Association, Why Do You Smoke? (WDS) to determine its appropriateness for use in youth smoking cessation programs. The WDS is used to help smokers identify primary motivations for using…

  14. Are you in or out? Recruitment of adolescent smokers into a behavioral smoking cessation intervention

    PubMed Central

    Thrul, Johannes; Stemmler, Mark; Goecke, Michaela; Bühler, Anneke

    2015-01-01

    Even though many adolescent smokers want to quit, it is difficult to recruit them into smoking cessation interventions. Little is known about which adolescent smokers are currently reached by these measures. In this study we compare participants of a group-based, cognitive behavioral smoking cessation intervention with adolescent smokers who decided against participating. Within a non-randomized controlled trial, data of 1053 smokers (age 11–19) from 42 German secondary schools were analyzed. Of these smokers, 272 were recruited into 47 courses of the intervention. An in-class information session, individually addressing potential participants, and incentives were used as means of recruitment. Personal predictors of participation were analyzed using regression analyses and multivariate path analyses to test for mediation. In the path analysis model, nicotine dependence, quit motivation, and a previous quit attempt were directly positively related to participation. Heavier smoking behavior was indirectly positively associated with participation through nicotine dependence and negatively through quit motivation, yielding an overall positive indirect effect. The positive effect of a previous quit attempt on participation was partially mediated through nicotine dependence and quit motivation. The proportion of smoking friends were indirectly positively related to participation, mediated through nicotine dependence. Since adolescents with heavier smoking behavior and stronger nicotine dependence are less likely to undertake a successful unassisted quit attempt, the reach of these young smokers with professional cessation interventions is desirable. Further measures to improve the recruitment of those currently not motivated to quit have to be examined in future studies. PMID:25678303

  15. Predictors of narghile (water-pipe) smoking in a sample of American Arab Yemeni adolescents.

    PubMed

    Baker, Omar G; Rice, Virginia

    2008-01-01

    To explore the predictors of water-pipe smoking among American Arab Yemeni adolescents, a descriptive correlational design was used, and regression models representing the proposed relationships in the study were tested from a convenience sample of 297 adolescents who attended a teen health clinic and two high schools. The participants completed five measures. Fourteen hypotheses were tested. Experimentation with tobacco was found to be significant in predicting narghile smoking. Tobacco use prevention and cessation interventions for this population can be focused on targeting the family and peer units, from which their identity is likely derived. PMID:18165423

  16. Association Between Smoking and Suicidal Behaviors Among Adolescents in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunhee; Kim, Junghee

    2015-01-01

    Smoking and suicidal behaviors are significant health problems in adolescence. To address these two important health problems in youth, it is critical to understand the associations between them. Thus, this study aimed to explore the relationships between smoking and suicidal behaviors in adolescence. This study analyzed secondary data obtained from a national survey of Korean adolescents (i.e., the 7th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey). Respondents were divided into two samples (38,474 middle school students and 37,169 high school students). In each sample, sample characteristics, smoking behaviors, and suicidal behaviors were examined using descriptive statistics (means and frequencies). The associations between smoking and suicidal behaviors were investigated using multivariate logistic regression analyses. To obtain more accurate findings, the complex sampling design employed in the national survey was incorporated in the analyses. Lifetime smokers and daily smokers made up 20% and 13% of the middle school sample and 32% and 29% of the high school sample, respectively. In both samples, of the three suicidal behaviors, the proportion of suicidal ideation was the greatest (20%), followed by suicide plans (6%-8%) and suicide attempts (4%-5%). This study revealed statistically significant associations between smoking and suicidal behaviors. Furthermore, most analyses revealed noncausal dose-related associations between these behaviors. On the basis of the study findings, health professionals should implement concurrent strategies targeting both smoking and suicidal behaviors rather than focus on them separately to address related health problems. PMID:26669224

  17. Sexual Orientation Disparities in Adolescent Cigarette Smoking: Intersections With Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Age

    PubMed Central

    Corliss, Heather L.; Rosario, Margaret; Birkett, Michelle A.; Newcomb, Michael E.; Buchting, Francisco O.; Matthews, Alicia K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined sexual orientation differences in adolescent smoking and intersections with race/ethnicity, gender, and age. Methods. We pooled Youth Risk Behavior Survey data collected in 2005 and 2007 from 14 jurisdictions; the analytic sample comprised observations from 13 of those jurisdictions (n = 64 397). We compared smoking behaviors of sexual minorities and heterosexuals on 2 dimensions of sexual orientation: identity (heterosexual, gay–lesbian, bisexual, unsure) and gender of lifetime sexual partners (only opposite sex, only same sex, or both sexes). Multivariable regressions examined whether race/ethnicity, gender, and age modified sexual orientation differences in smoking. Results. Sexual minorities smoked more than heterosexuals. Disparities varied by sexual orientation dimension: they were larger when we compared adolescents by identity rather than gender of sexual partners. In some instances race/ethnicity, gender, and age modified smoking disparities: Black lesbians–gays, Asian American and Pacific Islander lesbians–gays and bisexuals, younger bisexuals, and bisexual girls had greater risk. Conclusions. Sexual orientation, race/ethnicity, gender, and age should be considered in research and practice to better understand and reduce disparities in adolescent smoking. PMID:24825218

  18. Examination of a Process Model of Adolescent Smoking Self-Change Efforts in Relation to Gender

    PubMed Central

    MacPherson, Laura; Myers, Mark G.

    2011-01-01

    Little information describes how adolescents change their smoking behavior. This study investigated the role of gender in the relationship of motivation and cognitive variables with adolescent smoking self-change efforts. Self-report and semi-structured interview data from a prospective study of smoking self-change efforts were examined among 98 adolescent smokers ages 14–18 (55% female). Social disapproval motives and short-term consequence reasons for quitting, quit self-efficacy and intentions to quit were modeled in relation to prospective self-quit attempts assessed at a 6-month follow-up, separately by gender. Hypothesized mediating relationships were not supported although gender differences were noted. Social influence motives related to intention to quit and prospective self-quit attempts among girls. For boys, intention to quit predicted making a self-quit attempt. Findings emphasize the importance of examining adolescent models separately by gender and contribute to understanding of mechanisms involved in adolescent smoking change efforts. PMID:21949472

  19. Adolescents' reactions to the imagery displayed in smoking and antismoking advertisements.

    PubMed

    Shadel, William G; Niaura, Raymond; Abrams, David B

    2002-06-01

    This study compared adolescents' unbiased perceptions of the images displayed in smoking and antismoking advertising. Twenty-nine adolescents (ages 11-17) were shown images taken from both advertising types; all images were digitally edited so that no product information appeared in them. Participants described each image in a free-response format and rated each image on self-report dimensions. Content analyses of free-response descriptions and analyses of self-reports revealed that adolescents viewed images taken from cigarette advertisements more positively compared with images taken from antismoking advertisements. These findings suggest that I reason for the potency of cigarette advertising, compared with antismoking advertising, is the inherent positive appeal of the images displayed. Antismoking advertising may be more effective at limiting adolescent smoking if the images displayed have a more positive valence. PMID:12079259

  20. Use of Internet Viral Marketing to Promote Smoke-Free Lifestyles among Chinese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ip, Patrick; Lam, Tai-Hing; Chan, Sophia Siu-Chee; Ho, Frederick Ka-Wing; Lo, Lewis A.; Chiu, Ivy Wing-Sze; Wong, Wilfred Hing-Sang; Chow, Chun-Bong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Youth smoking is a global public health concern. Health educators are increasingly using Internet-based technologies, but the effectiveness of Internet viral marketing in promoting health remains uncertain. This prospective pilot study assessed the efficacy of an online game-based viral marketing campaign in promoting a smoke-free attitude among Chinese adolescents. Methods One hundred and twenty-one Hong Kong Chinese adolescents aged 10 to 24 were invited to participate in an online multiple-choice quiz game competition designed to deliver tobacco-related health information. Participants were encouraged to refer others to join. A zero-inflated negative binomial model was used to explore the factors contributing to the referral process. Latent transition analysis utilising a pre- and post-game survey was used to detect attitudinal changes toward smoking. Results The number of participants increased almost eightfold from 121 to 928 (34.6% current or ex-smokers) during the 22-day campaign. Participants exhibited significant attitudinal change, with 73% holding negative attitudes toward smoking after the campaign compared to 57% before it. The transition probabilities from positive to negative and neutral to negative attitudes were 0.52 and 0.48, respectively. It was also found that attempting every 20 quiz questions was associated with lower perceived smoking decision in future (OR  = 0.95, p-value <0.01). Conclusions Our online game-based viral marketing programme was effective in reaching a large number of smoking and non-smoking participants and changing their attitudes toward smoking. It constitutes a promising practical and cost-effective model for engaging young smokers and promulgating smoking-related health information among Chinese adolescents. PMID:24911010

  1. [Economic factors and gender differences in the prevalence of smoking among adults].

    PubMed

    Paes, Nelson Leitão

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a study that seeks to identify the relevant economic variables in the prevalence of smoking in a group of 37 countries. The chosen methodology was to estimate multiple linear regression using the least square approach. The econometric exercise is performed by gender, seeking to examine whether there are different motivations for cigarette smoking among the adult population of men and women. The results show that although taxation is a common element in the decision of both sexes, the decision to smoke among women is also sensitive to price and other social and cultural factors. These factors were based on the fact that women who live in countries that are part of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development reveal a significantly higher prevalence of cigarette consumption. The evidence presented in this study, therefore, reinforces the perception that taxation is in fact a crucial tool in the control of smoking, but in the specific case of women, higher prices and the promotion of greater equality with men, are also important. PMID:26816163

  2. Gender-Specific Analyses of the Prevalence and Factors Associated with Substance Use and Misuse among Bosniak Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zenic, Natasa; Terzic, Admir; Rodek, Jelena; Spasic, Miodrag; Sekulic, Damir

    2015-06-01

    Ethnicity and religion are known to be important factors associated with substance use and misuse (SUM). Ethnic Bosniaks, Muslims by religion, are the third largest ethnic group in the territory of the former Yugoslavia, but no study has examined SUM patterns among them. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of SUM and to examine scholastic-, familial- and sport-factors associated with SUM in adolescent Bosniaks from Bosnia-and-Herzegovina. The sample comprised 970 17-to-18-year-old adolescents (48% boys). Testing was performed using an previously validated questionnaire investigating socio-demographic-factors, scholastic-variables, and sport-factors, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, simultaneous smoking and drinking (multiple SUM), and the consumption of other drugs. The 30% of boys and 32% of girls smoke (OR=1.13; 95% CI=0.86-1.49), 41% of boys and 27% of girls are defined as harmful alcohol drinkers (OR=1.94; 95% CI=1.48-2.54), multiple SUM is prevalent in 17% of boys and 15% of girls (OR=1.11; 95% CI=0.79-1.56), while the consumption of other drugs, including sedatives, is higher in girls (6% and 15% for boys and girls, respectively; OR=2.98; 95% CI=1.89-4.70). Scholastic achievement is negatively associated with SUM. SUM is more prevalent in those girls who report higher income, and boys who report a worse familial financial situation. The study revealed more negative than positive associations between sport participation and SUM, especially among girls. Results can help public health authorities to develop more effective prevention campaign against SUM in adolescence. PMID:26068091

  3. Gender-Specific Analyses of the Prevalence and Factors Associated with Substance Use and Misuse among Bosniak Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Zenic, Natasa; Terzic, Admir; Rodek, Jelena; Spasic, Miodrag; Sekulic, Damir

    2015-01-01

    Ethnicity and religion are known to be important factors associated with substance use and misuse (SUM). Ethnic Bosniaks, Muslims by religion, are the third largest ethnic group in the territory of the former Yugoslavia, but no study has examined SUM patterns among them. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of SUM and to examine scholastic-, familial- and sport-factors associated with SUM in adolescent Bosniaks from Bosnia-and-Herzegovina. The sample comprised 970 17-to-18-year-old adolescents (48% boys). Testing was performed using an previously validated questionnaire investigating socio-demographic-factors, scholastic-variables, and sport-factors, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, simultaneous smoking and drinking (multiple SUM), and the consumption of other drugs. The 30% of boys and 32% of girls smoke (OR = 1.13; 95% CI = 0.86–1.49), 41% of boys and 27% of girls are defined as harmful alcohol drinkers (OR = 1.94; 95% CI = 1.48–2.54), multiple SUM is prevalent in 17% of boys and 15% of girls (OR = 1.11; 95% CI = 0.79–1.56), while the consumption of other drugs, including sedatives, is higher in girls (6% and 15% for boys and girls, respectively; OR = 2.98; 95% CI = 1.89–4.70). Scholastic achievement is negatively associated with SUM. SUM is more prevalent in those girls who report higher income, and boys who report a worse familial financial situation. The study revealed more negative than positive associations between sport participation and SUM, especially among girls. Results can help public health authorities to develop more effective prevention campaign against SUM in adolescence. PMID:26068091

  4. Prevalence of Internet addiction in Latino adolescents with psychiatric diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Liberatore, Katia A; Rosario, Katyna; Colón-De Martí, Luz N; Martínez, Karen G

    2011-06-01

    Internet addiction (IA) is particularly relevant in the adolescent population. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of IA in a clinical sample of Latino adolescents receiving ambulatory psychiatric treatment. The correlation between their pattern of Internet use and their respective psychiatric diagnosis was also studied. Adolescent patients from the Psychiatric Ambulatory Clinic at the Pediatric University Hospital (N=71) completed the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and a questionnaire about Internet use. Information regarding demographic and diagnostic data was retrieved from their clinical records. None of the subjects presented severe IA. A total of 71.8% (n=51) of the adolescents obtained scores reflecting no problem related to IA. Only 11.6% (n=5) of subjects have discussed Internet use with their therapist. Mood disorders showed a statistically significant (p=0.044) correlation with a higher score on the IAT. Mental health care practitioners must consider questions on Internet use as an essential part of the patients' evaluation given its significant correlation with diagnosis of a mood disorder. PMID:21114410

  5. Prevalence and correlates of depression among adolescents in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Jasvindar; Cheong, Siew Man; Mahadir Naidu, Balkish; Kaur, Gurpreet; Manickam, Mala A; Mat Noor, Malisa; Ibrahim, Nurashikin; Rosman, Azriman

    2014-09-01

    Depression among adolescents has been recognized as a major public health issue. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of depression among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. Data from the Malaysia Global School-based Health Survey (GSHS) 2012 were analyzed with additional data from the validated DASS21 (Depression, Anxiety, and Stress) questionnaire. The study revealed that 17.7% of respondents had depressive symptoms. Multivariate analysis further showed that feeling lonely (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.99; 95% CI = 2.57-3.47), Indian ethnicity (aOR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.63-2.44), using drugs (aOR = 1.85; 95% CI = 1.21-2.82), and being bullied (aOR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.60-1.99) were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Lack of parental supervision, alcohol use, and tobacco use were also significant risk factors. Addressing depressive symptoms among adolescents may have implications for managing their risks of being bullied and substance use. This study also highlights the need to further investigate depressive symptoms among adolescents of Indian ethnicity. PMID:25070697

  6. Adolescent health behaviour and similarity-attraction: friends share smoking habits (really), but much else besides.

    PubMed

    Eiser, J R; Morgan, M; Gammage, P; Brooks, N; Kirby, R

    1991-12-01

    Smoking habits and related attitudes were assessed in a sample of 4059 11- to 16-year-olds who also identified their best friends from among their fellow respondents. Subjects' responses were directly collated with those of their friends and indicated a clear covariation of smoking status (controlling for sex and age) as anticipated from previous research in which adolescents have been asked to report on the smoking habits of their friends. Such covariation, however, was not specific to smoking habits, but generalized to related measures of attitude and normative beliefs, alcohol use, health locus of control, school performance, spending habits and socio-economic status. Similarities on these other attributes were much the same, whether or not friends shared each others' smoking habits. It is concluded that these data argue against a simplistic view of unidirectional 'peer group influence' and invite an interpretation of friendship choice based on multiple dimensions of similarity. PMID:1799862

  7. Significant Others, Knowledge, and Belief on Smoking as Factors Associated with Tobacco Use in Italian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Cosci, Fiammetta; Zagà, Vincenzo; Bertoli, Giuly; Campiotti, Aquilele

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco use is dramatically increasing among youth. Growing attention has been addressed towards possible predictors of smoking in such a population. We evaluated a sample of Italian adolescents to verify whether adults and peers might influence their smoking status. Cross-sectional study was conducted in 16 schools of North Italy. Data were collected from 2001 to 2010 by means of a self-administered questionnaire on sociodemographic data and individual/social possible predictors of smoking. 2,444 students (56.7% boys; 43.3% girls; mean = 14.32 ± 1.384 years) were analysed. 607 (24.8%) were current smokers; 1,837 (75.2%) were nonsmokers. The presence of smokers in the family, seeing teachers who smoke, the influence of friends, and the feeling of inferiority were predictors of youth smoking as well as unawareness of nicotine dangerous action to health. Running the logistic multivariate analysis with all the variables listed above in the same model, the strongest predictors of smoking were as follows: being unaware that pipe/cigar is harmful to health as cigarettes; not knowing that passive smoking is harmful to the growth of children; having seen teachers smoking. The present findings help to identify the variables that might favour smoking in youth. Such variables should become the target of prevention programs. PMID:25969830

  8. Getting a Puff: A Social Learning Test of Adolescents Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Jacquelyn

    2004-01-01

    This article is a description of a study that sought to examine the applicability of Ronald Akers' social learning theory. According to Akers' theory, differential associations with smokers, differential reinforcements for smoking, favorable definitions of smoking and the availability of role models (imitation) offer an explanation as to why…

  9. Association of Various Components of Media Literacy and Adolescent Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primack, Brian A.; Hobbs, Renee

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine which specific aspects of media literacy were most strongly associated with smoking outcomes. Methods: Students at a public high school responded to cross-sectional survey items measuring smoking outcomes, components of media literacy, and other variables. Results: Of the 1211 participants, 19% were current smokers (N =…

  10. Adolescent Smoking Cessation: Development of a School Nurse Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Greg; O'Connell, Meghan; Cross, Donna

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of a range of strategies to engage and to enhance secondary school nurse involvement in teenage smoking prevention and cessation. School nurses were willing to assist students to quit smoking, but they felt unprepared. Information provided by nurses involved in a three-stage review,…

  11. Coping Strategies Used by Adolescents during Smoking Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jannone, Laura; O'Connell, Kathleen A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine coping strategies used by teens as they attempted to quit smoking. The teens were attending a school-based cessation program titled "Quit 2 Win" that was offered in four high schools. This study examined situations in which teens were tempted to smoke. The study compares coping strategies teens reported in…

  12. Epidemiology of smoking among Malaysian adult males: prevalence and associated factors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Three National Health and Morbidity Surveys (NHMSs) had been conducted in Malaysia in 10-year intervals from 1986–2006. Based on the latest NHMS survey in 2006, we describe the prevalence of smoking and identify the social and demographic factors associated with smoking among adult males in Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional study among 15,639 Malaysian adult males aged 18 years and above was conducted using proportional to size stratified sampling method. The socio-demographic variables examined were level of education, occupation, marital status, residential area, age group and monthly household income. Results The prevalence of smoking among adult males in Malaysia was 46.5% (95% CI: 45.5–47.4%), which was 3% lower than a decade ago. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.3 years, and mean number of cigarettes smoked daily was 11.3. Prevalence of smoking was highest among the Malays (55.9%) and those aged 21–30 years (59.3%). Smoking was significantly associated with level of education (no education OR 2.09 95% CI (1.67–2.60), primary school OR 1.95, 95% CI (1.65–2.30), secondary school OR 1.88, 95% CI (1.63–2.11), with tertiary education as the reference group). Marital status (divorce OR 1.67, 95% CI (1.22–2.28), with married as the reference group), ethnicity (Malay, OR 2.29, 95% CI ( 1.98–2.66; Chinese OR 1.23 95% CI (1.05–1.91), Other Bumis OR 1.75, 95% CI (1.46–2.10, others OR 1.48 95% CI (1.15–1.91), with Indian as the reference group), age group (18–20 years OR 2.36, 95% CI (1.90–2.94); 20–29 years OR 3.31 , 95% CI 2.82–3.89; 31–40 years OR 2.85 , 95% CI ( 2.47–3.28); 41–50 years OR 1.93, 95% CI (1.69–2.20) ; 51–60 years OR 1.32, 95% CI (1.15–1.51), with 60 year-old and above as the reference group) and residential area (rural OR 1.12 , 95% CI ( 1.03–1.22)) urban as reference. Conclusion The prevalence of smoking among Malaysian males remained high in spite of several population interventions over

  13. Drinking, smoking, and educational achievement: Cross-lagged associations from adolescence to adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Latvala, Antti; Rose, Richard J.; Pulkkinen, Lea; Dick, Danielle M.; Korhonen, Tellervo; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescent substance use is associated with lower educational achievement but the directionality of the association remains uncertain. We analyzed data on drinking, smoking and educational achievement to study the associations between substance use and education from early adolescence to young adulthood. Methods Longitudinal data from four time points (ages 12, 14, 17, and 19-27 years) from a population-based cohort study of Finnish twin individuals were used to estimate bivariate cross-lagged path models for substance use and educational achievement, adjusting for sex, parental covariates, and adolescent externalizing behavior. A total of 4,761 individuals (49.4% females) were included in the analyses. Educational achievement was assessed with teacher-reported grade point average at ages 12 and 14, and with self-reported student status and completed education at age 17 and in young adulthood. From self-reported questionnaire items, frequency of any drinking, frequency of drinking to intoxication, any smoking and daily smoking were analyzed. Results Alcohol use and smoking behaviors at ages 12 and 14 predicted lower educational achievement at later time points even after previous achievement and confounding factors were taken into account. Lower school achievement in adolescence predicted a higher likelihood of engaging in smoking behaviors but did not predict later alcohol use. Higher educational attainment at age 17 predicted more frequent drinking in young adulthood. Conclusions Adolescent drinking behaviors are associated with lower future educational achievement independently of prior achievement, whereas smoking both predicts and is predicted by lower achievement. Early substance use indexes elevated risk for poor educational outcomes. PMID:24548801

  14. Gender differences in the association between cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms: a cross-sectional study among Chinese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Yue; Hong, Lingyao; Guo, Lan; Gao, Xue; Deng, Jianxiong; Huang, Jinghui; Huang, Guoliang; Lu, Ciyong

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms among adolescents, with a particular focus on gender differences. A total of 19,578 middle and high school students in Chongqing Province were surveyed. Self-reported cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, depressive symptoms, and family- and school-related factors were assessed. A total of 8.8% adolescents reported smoking cigarettes. Tobacco use by boys (16.5%) was significantly higher than by girls (1.9%). Approximately 23.5% of adolescents reported alcohol consumption. Consumption in boys (31.5%) was significantly higher than in girls (16.2%). Depressive symptoms were prevalent in 9.1% of the sample. Girls reported significantly more symptoms (10.4%) than boys (7.7%). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that the association between alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms was stronger among girls (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.8–2.5) than boys (AOR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.4–2.1). A significant association (AOR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.6–3.4) between cigarette smoking and depressive symptoms was revealed in girls only. The significant gender differences found above may provide a basis for the early identification of individuals at high risk for depression. PMID:26639938

  15. Adolescent smoking and volume of exposure to various forms of media

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; Land, Stephanie R.; Fine, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Objective To assess the association between adolescent smoking and volume of exposure to various forms of media after controlling for multiple relevant covariates. Methods A survey of all adolescents at a large suburban high school assessed: (1) current smoking and susceptibility to future smoking; (2) volume of exposure to various media; and (3) covariates related to smoking. Multivariate logistic regression models assessed relationships between each of the independent variables (media exposures) and the two smoking outcomes after controlling for covariates. Results Of the 1138 respondents, 19% (n = 216) reported current smoking. Forty percent (n = 342) of the non-smokers (n = 922) were susceptible to future smoking. Students reported exposure to an average of 8.6 (standard deviation 5.1) h of media daily, including 2.6 h of music. Those with high exposure to films and music were more likely to be smokers (Ptrend = 0.036 and Ptrend<0.001, respectively), and those with high exposure to books were less likely to be smokers (Ptrend<0.001). After controlling for all relevant covariates, those with high exposure to music had greater odds of being smokers than those with low exposure [odds ratio (OR) 1.90, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.10–3.30], and those with high exposure to books had lower odds of being current smokers (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.33–0.94). Conclusion Exposure to films and music are associated with smoking, but only the relationship between music exposure and smoking persists after rigorous covariate control. Exposure to books is associated with lower odds of smoking. PMID:18206196

  16. Adolescent Socioeconomic and School-Based Social Status, Smoking, and Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Sweeting, Helen; Hunt, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Relationships between subjective social status (SSS) and health-risk behaviors have received less attention than those between SSS and health. Inconsistent associations between school-based SSS and smoking or drinking might be because it is a single measure reflecting several status dimensions. We investigated how adolescent smoking and drinking are associated with “objective” socioeconomic status (SES), subjective SES, and three dimensions of school-based SSS. Methods Scottish 13–15 years-olds (N = 2,503) completed questionnaires in school-based surveys, providing information on: “objective” SES (residential deprivation, family affluence); subjective SES (MacArthur Scale youth version); and three school-based SSS dimensions (“SSS-peer”, “SSS-scholastic” and “SSS-sports”). We examined associations between each status measure and smoking (ever and weekly) and drinking (ever and usually five or more drinks) and investigated variations according to gender and age. Results Smoking and heavier drinking were positively associated with residential deprivation; associations with family affluence and subjective SES were weak or nonexistent. Both substances were related to each school-based SSS measure, and these associations were equally strong or stronger than those with deprivation. Although SSS-peer was positively associated with both smoking and (especially heavier) drinking, SSS-scholastic and SSS-sports were negatively associated with both substances. There were no gender differences in the associations and few according to age. Conclusions Subjective school-based status has stronger associations with adolescent smoking and drinking than “objective” or subjective SES. However, different dimensions of school-based status relate to adolescent smoking and drinking in opposing directions, meaning one measure based on several dimensions might show inconsistent relationships with adolescent substance use. PMID:26095407

  17. Dynamic impact of social stratification and social influence on smoking prevalence by gender: An agent-based model.

    PubMed

    Chao, Dingding; Hashimoto, Hideki; Kondo, Naoki

    2015-12-01

    Smoking behavior is tightly related to socioeconomic status and gender, though the dynamic and non-linear association of smoking prevalence across socioeconomic status and gender groups has not been fully examined. With a special focus on gender-bound differences in the susceptibility to social influence of surrounding others' behaviors, we developed an agent-based model to explore how socioeconomic disparity between and within gender groups affects changes in smoking prevalence. Our developed base model reasonably reproduced the actual trend changes by gender groups over the past 5 years in Japan. Counterfactual experiments with the developed model revealed that closing within- and between-gender disparities in socioeconomic status had a limited impact on reducing smoking prevalence. To the contrary, greater socioeconomic disparity facilitated the reduction in prevalence among males, but it impeded that reduction in females. The counterfactual scenario with equalizing gender-bound susceptibility to social influence among women to men's level showed a dramatic reduction in female prevalence without changing the reduction in male prevalence. Simulation results may provide alternative explanation of the growing disparity in smoking prevalence despite improved welfare equality observed in many developed countries, and suggest that redistribution policies may have side effects of widening health gap. Instead, social policy to reduce social pressures to smoking and support interventions to enhance resilience to the pressure targeting the vulnerable population (in this study, women) would be a more effective strategy in combating the tobacco epidemic and closing the health gap. PMID:26610078

  18. Randomized Trials on Consider This, a Tailored, Internet-Delivered Smoking Prevention Program for Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Buller, David B.; Borland, Ron; Woodall, W. Gill; Hall, John R.; Hines, Joan M.; Burris-Woodall, Patricia; Cutter, Gary R.; Miller, Caroline; Balmford, James; Starling, Randall; Ax, Bryan; Saba, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The Internet may be an effective medium for delivering smoking prevention to children. Consider This, an Internet-based program, was hypothesized to reduce expectations concerning smoking and smoking prevalence. Group-randomized pretest-posttest controlled trials were conducted in Australia (n = 2,077) and the United States (n = 1,234) in schools containing Grades 6 through 9. Australian children using Consider This reported reduced 30-day smoking prevalence. This reduction was mediated by decreased subjective norms. The amount of program exposure was low in many classes, but program use displayed a dose-response relationship with reduced smoking prevalence. American children only reported lower expectations for smoking in the future. Intervening to prevent smoking is a challenge, and this data suggest small benefits from an Internet-based program that are unlikely to be of practical significance unless increased by improved implementation. Implementation remains the major challenge to delivering interventions via the Internet, both for health educators and researchers. PMID:17114331

  19. Smoking Prevalence among Migrants in the US Compared to the US-Born and the Population in Countries of Origin

    PubMed Central

    Bosdriesz, Jizzo R.; Lichthart, Nienke; Witvliet, Margot I.; Busschers, Wim B.; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Smoking among migrants is known to differ from the host population, but migrants’ smoking is rarely ever compared to the prevalence of smoking in their country of origin. The goal of this study is to compare the smoking prevalence among migrants to that of both the US-born population and the countries of origin. Further analyses assess the influence of sex, age at time of entry to the US and education level. Methods Data of 248,726 US-born and migrants from 14 countries were obtained from the Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS) from 2006–2007. Data on 108,653 respondents from the corresponding countries of origin were taken from the World Health Survey (WHS) from 2002–2005. Results The prevalence of smoking among migrants (men: 14.2%, women: 4.1%) was lower than both the US-born group (men: 21.4%, women: 18.1%) and countries of origin (men: 39.4%, women: 11.0%). The gender gap among migrants was smaller than in the countries of origin. Age at time of entry to the US was not related to smoking prevalence for migrants. The risk of smoking for high-educated migrants was closer to their US counterparts. Conclusions The smoking prevalence among migrants is consistently lower than both the country of origin levels and the US level. The theory of segmented assimilation is supported by some results of this study, but not all. Other mechanisms that might influence the smoking prevalence among migrants are the ‘healthy migrant effect’ or the stage of the smoking epidemic at the time of migration. PMID:23520525

  20. Testing a Conceptual Model Related to Weight Perceptions, Physical Activity and Smoking in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Bercovitz, Kim; Rhodes, Ryan E.; Loucaides, Constantinos A.; Karunamuni, Nandini

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a conceptual model based on theoretical and empirically supported relationships related to the influences of weight perceptions, weight concerns, desires to change weight, friends, age and location in relation to physical activity (PA) and smoking in adolescents. A total of 1242 males and 1446 females (mean…

  1. A Contest to Create Media Messages Aimed at Recruiting Adolescents for Stop Smoking Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croghan, Ivana T.; Campbell, Heather M.; Patten, Christi A.; Croghan, Gary A.; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Novotny, Paul J.

    2004-01-01

    This project engaged adolescents in a contest to create advertising messages aimed at recruiting teens for stop smoking programs. Middle school students were invited to design a media message for television, radio, Web, or print (newspaper or billboard). 0f 4,289 students in eight middle schools of Rochester, Minn., 265 (6.2%) developed 172 stop…

  2. Cigarette Smoking and Indicators of Psychosocial Distress in Southeast Asian and Central-Eastern European Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; Zarco, Emilia Patricia T.; Ihasz, Ferenc; Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn; Uvacsek, Martina; Mei-Lee, Ching; Miao, Nae-Fang; Simonek, Jaromir; Klarova, Renata; Hantiu, Iacob; Kalabiska, Iren

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of cigarette smoking and 2 indicators of psychosocial distress (hopelessness and loneliness) among adolescents from 2 distinctly different regions of the world: Central-Eastern Europe (Hungary, Ukraine, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Romania, Poland) and Southeast Asia (Thailand, Taiwan, and the…

  3. The Relationship between Smoker Role Models and Intentions to Smoke among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiium, Nora; Breivik, Kyrre; Wold, Bente

    2006-01-01

    The study examines how adolescents' perceptions of exposure to smoker role models relate to their intentions to smoke, both directly, and indirectly through attitudes, norms, and perceived behavioural control. The data is based on a national representative sample of 15-year-olds (n=1670) in Norway. Path analysis indicates that perceptions of model…

  4. Smoking and Alcohol Drinking Related to Experience of Harmful Shops among Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinyoung; Sohn, Aeree

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted in order to determine any correlation between experience of harmful shops and adolescent smoking and alcohol drinking in middle and high school students. Methods The survey was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire online via the homepage of the Ministry of Education student Health Information Center; 1888 and 1563 questionnaires were used for middle and high school students, respectively, for a total of 3451 questionnaires in the final analysis. The collected data were processed using SPSS version 21.0 and examined using frequency analysis and hierarchical linear regression. Results In this research, 8.3% of all participants were found to have experienced smoking and 17.0% alcohol drinking. Regarding the types of harmful shops, 81.8% said they had been to a gaming place; 21.2% to a lodging place; 16.0% to a sex and entertainment place; and 6.8% to a harmful sex industry location. Sociodemographic variables had a significant effect on adolescent smoking and alcohol drinking. Regarding environmental variables, a significant difference was observed for living with parents and school location. Among adolescent experience of harmful shops, both smoking and alcohol drinking showed a significant association with harmful sex industry locations. Conclusion National government-level management and supervision on this issue will be necessary to prevent adolescent access to harmful shops, along with more studies exploring methods for implementation of policies with more systematic control of harmful shops. PMID:25180146

  5. Factors Influencing Agreement between Self-Reports and Biological Measures of Smoking among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolcini, M. Margaret; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Reviews 28 studies comparing adolescent self-report of smoking with biological indicators. Identifies four factors limiting agreement: biases in self-report due to limitations of biological measures; limitations of self-report measures; social desirability; and analytic and statistical issues. Concludes that, with optimal measurement, self-report…

  6. Examining Ethnic Differences in Predictors of Female Adolescent Smoking in Rural Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Angela J.; Shettler, Lauren; Matheson, Jennifer L.; Meszaros, Peggy S.; Piercy, Fred P.; Davis, Sean D.

    2006-01-01

    We examined the salience of multiple ecological factors (individual, family, peer, school, and community) as differential predictors of smoking for adolescent African-Americans and Whites in a sample of 2,029 7th-12th grade girls from a Mid-Atlantic southeastern state. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that significant predictors of…

  7. After-School Supervision, Psychosocial Impact, and Adolescent Smoking and Alcohol Use in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Jie Wu; Liu, Ipei; Sussman, Steve; Palmer, Paula; Unger, Jennifer B.; Cen, Steven; Chou, Chih-Ping; Johnson, Anderson

    2006-01-01

    We examined effects of self-care after school hours and psychosocial factors on cigarette smoking and alcohol use among adolescents in China. Survey data were obtained from 4734 7th and 11th grade students from seven cities across China. Students were queried about the frequency and quantity of unsupervised self-care after school in an average…

  8. Adolescent Attributes and Young Adult Smoking Cessation Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Judith S.; Marcus, Stephen E.; Zhang, Chenshu; Stimmel, Matthew A.; Balka, Elinor B.; Brook, David W.

    2010-01-01

    This study collected data five times between 1983–2002 from 400 participants who originally came from upstate New York. These participants completed structured interviews as did their mothers three times. LISREL analysis generally supported the hypothesized model. The results indicated that having parents who smoked and having low educational aspirations and expectations were associated with being unconventional, which, in turn, was related to having low emotional control and reporting more internalizing behaviors. Internalizing behaviors were directly associated with a lower likelihood of smoking cessation, as was parental smoking. Research and clinical implications are discussed and the limitations noted. PMID:20482339

  9. Three-month effects of Project EX: A smoking intervention pilot program with Thai adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chansatitporn, Natkamol; Charoenca, Naowarut; Sidhu, Anupreet; Lapvongwatana, Punyarat; Kungskulniti, Nipapun; Sussman, Steve

    2016-10-01

    Adolescent smoking is a major public health problem around the world, including Thailand. The current study provides a three-month follow-up evaluation of the Project EX tobacco use cessation program among Thai adolescents. The intervention was tested involving a quasi-experimental trial with 185 smokers, with two program and two control condition schools (within each condition, one school in Bangkok Province and one school in Nakhon Pathom Province). At 3-month follow-up, the intent-to-treat (ITT) quit rate was 23% in the program group and 11% in the standard care control group (p<0.02). The intervention also lowered the level of last 30-day smoking at follow-up among persons who did not quit in the program condition, while no change in level of smoking was reported in the control condition. These results are promising for teen tobacco use cessation programming in Thailand. PMID:27235988

  10. Exposure of Secondary School Adolescents from Argentina and Mexico to Smoking Scenes in Movies: a Population-based Estimation

    PubMed Central

    SALGADO, MARÍA V.; PÉREZ, ADRIANA; ABAD-VIVERO, ERIKA N.; THRASHER, JAMES F.; SARGENT, JAMES D.; MEJÍA, RAÚL

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking scenes in movies promote adolescent smoking onset; thus, the analysis of the number of images of smoking in movies really reaching adolescents has become a subject of increasing interest. Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the level of exposure to images of smoking in movies watched by adolescents in Argentina and Mexico. Methods First-year secondary school students from Argentina and Mexico were surveyed. One hundred highest-grossing films from each year of the period 2009-2013 (Argentina) and 2010-2014 (Mexico) were analyzed. Each participant was assigned a random sample of 50 of these movies and was asked if he/she had watched them. The total number of adolescents who had watched each movie in each country was estimated and was multiplied by the number of smoking scenes (occurrences) in each movie to obtain the number of gross smoking impressions seen by secondary school adolescents from each country. Results Four-hundred and twenty-two movies were analyzed in Argentina and 433 in Mexico. Exposure to more than 500 million smoking impressions was estimated for adolescents in each country, averaging 128 and 121 minutes of smoking scenes seen by each Argentine and Mexican adolescent, respectively. Although 15, 16 and 18-rated movies had more smoking scenes in average, movies rated for younger teenagers were responsible for the highest number of smoking scenes watched by the students (67.3% in Argentina and 54.4% in Mexico) due to their larger audience. Conclusion At the population level, movies aimed at children are responsible for the highest tobacco burden seen by adolescents. PMID:27354756

  11. Does Smoking Intervention Influence Adolescent Substance Use Disorder Treatment Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Mark G.; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2008-01-01

    Although tobacco use is reported by the majority of substance use disordered (SUD) youth, little work has examined tobacco focused interventions with this population. The present study is an initial investigation of the effect of a tobacco use intervention on adolescent SUD treatment outcomes. Participants were adolescents in SUD treatment taking…

  12. High Prevalence of Obesity in Ambulatory Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, L.; Van de Ven, L.; Katsarou, V.; Rentziou, E.; Doran, M.; Jackson, P.; Reilly, J. J.; Wilson, D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Obesity prevalence is unusually high among adults with intellectual disability (ID). There is limited and conflicting evidence on obesity prevalence among ambulatory children and adolescents with ID. The present study aimed to estimate obesity prevalence in this group and to compare with population prevalence. Methods: Survey of nine…

  13. Effect of the exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood on the body mass index until adolescence.

    PubMed

    Muraro, Ana Paula; Gonçalves-Silva, Regina Maria Veras; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Silva, Gulnar Azevedo E; Sichieri, Rosely

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Investigate the effect of exposure to smoking during pregnancy and early childhood on changes in the body mass index (BMI) from birth to adolescence. METHODS A population-based cohort of children (0-5 years old) from Cuiabá, Midwest Brazil, was assessed in 1999-2000 (n = 2,405). Between 2009 and 2011, the cohort was re-evaluated. Information about birth weight was obtained from medical records, and exposure to smoking during pregnancy and childhood was assessed at the first interview. Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate the association between exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and preschool age, and the body mass index of children at birth, childhood and adolescence. RESULTS Only 11.3% of the mothers reported smoking during pregnancy, but most of them (78.2%) also smoked during early childhood. Among mothers who smoked only during pregnancy (n = 59), 97.7% had smoked only in the first trimester. The changes in body mass index at birth and in childhood were similar for children exposed and those not exposed to maternal smoking. However, from childhood to adolescence the rate of change in the body mass index was higher among those exposed only during pregnancy than among those who were not exposed. CONCLUSIONS Exposure to smoking only during pregnancy, especially in the first trimester, seems to affect changes in the body mass index until adolescence, supporting guidelines that recommend women of childbearing age to stop smoking. PMID:26247384

  14. Effect of the exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood on the body mass index until adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Muraro, Ana Paula; Gonçalves-Silva, Regina Maria Veras; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Silva, Gulnar Azevedo e; Sichieri, Rosely

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Investigate the effect of exposure to smoking during pregnancy and early childhood on changes in the body mass index (BMI) from birth to adolescence. METHODS A population-based cohort of children (0-5 years old) from Cuiabá, Midwest Brazil, was assessed in 1999-2000 (n = 2,405). Between 2009 and 2011, the cohort was re-evaluated. Information about birth weight was obtained from medical records, and exposure to smoking during pregnancy and childhood was assessed at the first interview. Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate the association between exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and preschool age, and the body mass index of children at birth, childhood and adolescence. RESULTS Only 11.3% of the mothers reported smoking during pregnancy, but most of them (78.2%) also smoked during early childhood. Among mothers who smoked only during pregnancy (n = 59), 97.7% had smoked only in the first trimester. The changes in body mass index at birth and in childhood were similar for children exposed and those not exposed to maternal smoking. However, from childhood to adolescence the rate of change in the body mass index was higher among those exposed only during pregnancy than among those who were not exposed. CONCLUSIONS Exposure to smoking only during pregnancy, especially in the first trimester, seems to affect changes in the body mass index until adolescence, supporting guidelines that recommend women of childbearing age to stop smoking. PMID:26247384

  15. Modeling the Underlying Predicting Factors of Tobacco Smoking among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jafarabadi, M Asghari; Allahverdipour, H; Bashirian, S; Jannati, A

    2012-01-01

    Background: With regard to the willing and starting tobacco smoking among young people in Iran. The aim of the study was to model the underlying factors in predicting the behavior of tobacco smoking among employed youth and students in Iran. Methods: In this analytical cross-sectional study, based on a random cluster sampling were recruited 850 high school students, employed and unemployed youth age ranged between 14 and 19 yr from Iran. The data of demographic and tobacco smoking related variables were acquired via a self-administered questionnaire. A series of univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed respectively for computing un-adjusted and adjusted Odds Ratios utilizing SPSS 17 software. Results: A number of 189 persons (25.6%) were smoker in the study and the mean smoking initiation age was 13.93 (SD= 2.21). In addition, smoker friend, peer persistence, leaving home, and smoking in one and six month ago were obtained as independent predictors of tobacco smoking. Conclusions: The education programs on resistance skills against the persistence of the peers, improvement in health programs by governmental interference and policy should be implemented. PMID:23113177

  16. Coevolution of adolescent friendship networks and smoking and drinking behaviors with consideration of parental influence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng; Hipp, John R; Butts, Carter T; Jose, Rupa; Lakon, Cynthia M

    2016-05-01

    Friendship tie choices in adolescent social networks coevolve simultaneously with youths' cigarette smoking and drinking. We estimate direct and multiplicative relationships between both peer influence and peer selection with salient parental factors affecting both friendship tie choice and the use of these 2 substances. We utilize 1 sample of 12 small schools and a single large school extracted from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Using a Stochastic Actor-Based modeling approach over 3 waves, we find: (a) a peer selection effect, as adolescents nominated others as friends based on cigarette and alcohol use levels across samples; (b) a peer influence effect, as adolescents adapted their smoking and drinking behaviors to those of their best friends across samples; (c) reciprocal effect between cigarette and alcohol usage in the small school sample; (d) a direct effect of parental support and the home smoking environment on adolescent friendship tie choice in the small school sample; (e) a direct effect of the home smoking environment on smoking across samples; (f) a direct effect of the home drinking environment on alcohol use across samples; and (g) a direct effect of parental monitoring on alcohol use across samples. We observed an interaction between parental support and peer influence in affecting drinking, and an interaction between the home drinking environment and peer influence on drinking, in the small school sample. Our findings suggested the importance of delineating direct and synergistic pathways linking network processes and parental influence as they affect concurrent cigarette and alcohol use. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26962975

  17. Frequency and Type of Use of a Home-Based, Internet Intervention for Adolescent Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Patten, Christi A.; Rock, Emily; Meis, Tracy M.; Decker, Paul A.; Colligan, Robert C.; Pingree, Suzanne; Dornelas, Ellen A.; Offord, Kenneth P.; Boberg, Eric W.; Gustafson, David H.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose The Internet offers a potential medium for delivering smoking cessation treatment to adolescents. However, few Internet-based cessation programs for adolescents have been evaluated. We describe adolescent use of a home-based Internet intervention to stop smoking (Stomp Out Smokes; SOS) and explore baseline characteristics associated with SOS use. Methods Participants were 70 adolescent smokers aged 12–18 years (50% female, 90% Caucasian) randomized to receive the SOS intervention for 24 weeks as part of a larger clinical trial. SOS comprised 40 components of which 8 were primarily interactive (e.g., discussion support group, ask an expert, quit plan) and 32 were primarily informational (e.g., managing withdrawal, medications to stop smoking). SOS use data were captured electronically, including total logins to the site, and type of SOS components used defined by page hits on the interactive and information components. Results A total of 7,708 SOS Web site pages (6825 interactive and 883 informational) were accessed over the 24 weeks. The highest proportion of page hits was for the discussion support group (35%) and quit plan (30%). Interactive pages were significantly more likely to be used than informational pages (median 65 vs. 6, p<0.001). Males accessed fewer interactive pages compared to females (p=0.04). No other baseline characteristics were univariately associated with total logins or use of informational or interactive pages. Conclusions Adolescent smokers most often utilized a discussion support group and other interactive Internet based cessation components. Future studies designed to increase adolescent use, and efficacy of, Internet based cessation programs are warranted. PMID:17950163

  18. Female Overweight and Obesity in Adolescence: Developmental Trends and Ethnic Differences in Prevalence, Incidence, and Remission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huh, David; Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Boutelle, Kerri

    2012-01-01

    Despite substantial increases in the prevalence of adolescent overweight and obesity documented in recent decades, few studies have prospectively tracked their development during the entire adolescent period. The aims of this study were to characterize developmental trends in prevalence, incidence, and remission of overweight and obesity using…

  19. Prevalence, Course, and Predictors of Emotional Distress in Pregnant and Parenting Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milan, Stephanie; Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Kershaw, Trace; Lewis, Jessica; Meade, Christina; Ethier, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    This study examines trajectories and correlates of emotional distress symptoms in pregnant adolescents (n = 203) and nulliparous adolescents (n = 188) from economically disadvantaged communities over an 18-month period. For both groups, the prevalence of significant emotional distress exceeded expectation based on adolescent norms; however, the…

  20. Prevalence and Characteristics of Binge Eating in an Adolescent Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goossens, Lien; Soenens, Bart; Braet, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this article was to investigate the prevalence and psychological correlates of binge eating among adolescents. Self-report questionnaires were administered to a community sample of 708 adolescents (M[subscript age] = 14 years). Adolescents reporting loss of control over eating (17% of the sample) reported more eating pathology and…

  1. Psychosocial factors in adolescent nicotine dependence symptoms: A sample of high school juniors who smoke daily

    PubMed Central

    Bricker, Jonathan B.; Liu, Jingmin; Ramey, Madelaine; Peterson, Arthur V.

    2012-01-01

    Cross-sectionally examined seven theory-guided psychosocial factors associated with nicotine dependence symptoms in a representative self-report survey of 794 Washington State high school junior daily smokers (93% participation). Outcomes were four nicotine dependence symptoms. Results showed that low self-efficacy for quitting smoking and being around adults who smoke were associated with a 3.48 to 10.35 and a 1.47 to 1.77 times higher odds, respectively, of each of the four nicotine dependence symptoms. These results, needing replication in a longitudinal study, suggest that interventions to enhance self-efficacy to quit smoking and counter adult smoking influences might reduce adolescent nicotine dependence. PMID:22409635

  2. Prevalence and associated factors of physical fighting among school-going adolescents in Namibia

    PubMed Central

    Rudatsikira, Emmanuel; Siziya, Seter; Kazembe, Lawrence N; Muula, Adamson S

    2007-01-01

    Background Interpersonal physical violence is an important global public health concern that has received limited attention in the developing world. There is in particular a paucity of data regarding physical violence and its socio-demographic correlates among in-school adolescents in Namibia. Methods We analysed cross-sectional data from the Namibia Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS) conducted in 2004. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of physical fighting within the last 12 months. We obtained frequencies of socio-demographic attributes. We also assessed the association between self-reported history of having engaging in a physical fight and a selected list of independent variables using logistic regression analysis. Results Of the 6283 respondents, 50.6% (55.2% males and 46.2% females) reported having been in a physical fight in the past 12 months. Males were more likely to have been in a physical fight than females (OR = 1.71, 95% CI (1.44, 2.05)). Smoking, drinking alcohol, using drugs and bullying victimization were positively associated with fighting (OR = 1.91, 95% CI (1.49, 2.45); OR = 1.48, 95% CI (1.21, 1.81); OR = 1.55, 95% CI (1.22, 1.81); and OR = 3.12, 95% CI (2.62, 3.72), respectively). Parental supervision was negatively associated with physical fighting (OR = 0.82, 95% CI (0.69, 0.98)). Both male and female substance users (cigarette smoking, alcohol and drug use) were more likely to engage in physical fighting than non-substance users (OR = 3.53, 95% CI (2.60, 4.81) for males and OR = 11.01, 95% CI (7.25, 16.73) for females). Parental supervision was negatively associated with physical fighting (OR = 0.85, 95% CI (0.72, 0.99)). Conclusion Prevalence of physical fighting within the last 12 months was comparable to estimates obtained in European countries. We also found clustering of problem behaviours or experiences among adolescents who reported having engaged in physical violence in the past 12 months

  3. Prevalence of substance use and abuse in late childhood and early adolescence: What are the implications?

    PubMed Central

    Gallimberti, Luigi; Buja, Alessandra; Chindamo, Sonia; Lion, Camilla; Terraneo, Alberto; Marini, Elena; Gomez Perez, Luis Javier; Baldo, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence by gender of substance use and misuse in late childhood and early adolescence. A survey was conducted in 2013–2014 at primary and secondary schools of Padova, Veneto region, North-East Italy, on a sample of 171 pupils in 5th grade and 1325 in 6th to 8th grade. Among the 8th graders, more than one in three males and one in four females had experimented with smoking, and more than half the boys and nearly half the girls had experience of alcohol. In this same age group, almost two in three males and one in three females had used energy drinks, and nearly 5% of the boys had experience of marijuana and/or stimulant drugs. In addition, almost one in four of the male students in 8th grade had experimented with three of these substances. The middle school years should be identified as the first period at risk concerning the use of these drugs. Prevention programs should begin in early adolescence, focusing on delaying the use or abuse of any of the “gateway drugs.” PMID:26844161

  4. Prevalence and associated factors of poly-victimization in Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dong, Fanghong; Cao, Fenglin; Cheng, Peixia; Cui, Naixue; Li, Yang

    2013-10-01

    Multiple types of victimization or poly-victimization (PV) can occur simultaneously during childhood, resulting in outcomes that are detrimental and difficult to reverse. Very few studies have focused on PV in Chinese adolescents. The present study is based on information collected from a stratified cluster sample of 1,561 females and 1,594 males aged 12-18 years living in Shandong Province, China. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess background information, the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire was used to measure the extent of victimization and PV, the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders was used to measure anxiety levels, and a Depression Self-rating Scale for Children was used to ascertain depression. A majority of the study sample (66.2%) had experienced at least one form of victimization over the past year. Prevalence of PV was 16.9%, and was significantly higher among males (21.1%) than females (12.5%). Younger ages, one-child families, and lower socioeconomic status were positively associated with PV. Logistic regression analysis indicated that smoking, alcohol consumption, exposure to pornography, and anxiety- and depression-like symptoms were risk factors of PV. Results of this study highlight the need for further exploration of factors related to the PV of Chinese adolescents. PMID:23786657

  5. The prevalence and risk factors of asthma and allergic diseases among working adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cakir, Erkan; Ersu, Refika; Uyan, Zeynep Seda; Oktem, Sedat; Varol, Nezih; Karakoc, Fazilet; Karadag, Bulent; Akyol, Mesut; Dagli, Elif

    2010-01-01

    Certain occupational groups are known to be at particularly high risk of developing allergic diseases. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of allergic diseases among working adolescents. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire was used. Four hundred and thirty six adolescents working in motor, lathe-finish, coiffure and textile and 366 high school students as control group were enrolled to the study. Mean age was 16.8 +/- 1.2 years and 82.9% of them were male. There was no significant difference among groups for ever and current wheezing while doctor diagnosed asthma was higher in lathe- finish group (p = 0.036). Family history of allergy, history of allergic rhinitis, and active smoking were found to be risk factors for asthma and related symptoms. Working in coiffure (p = 0.054), and textile (p = 0.003) were significant risk factors for ever allergic rhinitis. Working in lathe finish (p = 0.023), coiffure (p = .002), and textile (p < 0.001) were associated with a higher risk for current allergic rhinitis. Working in coiffure was a risk factor for ever eczema (p = 0.008) and doctor diagnosed eczema (p = 0.014). It was concluded that working in lathe-finish was associated with doctor diagnosed asthma and active smoking was a risk factor for asthma and related symptoms. Working in coiffure, textile and lathe- finish were risk factors for rhinitis, and working in coiffure was a risk factor for eczema. Preventive measures should be taken at the onset of employment in order to prevent or reduce the detrimental effects of exposures in these occupational groups. PMID:21038780

  6. Gambling behaviors and attitudes in adolescent high-school students: Relationships with problem-gambling severity and smoking status

    PubMed Central

    Weinberger, Andrea H.; Franco, Christine A.; Hoff, Rani A.; Pilver, Corey E.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Wampler, Jeremy; Cavallo, Dana A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Smoking is associated with more severe/extensive gambling in adults. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between smoking and gambling in adolescents. Methods Analyses utilized survey data from 1,591 Connecticut high-school students. Adolescents were classified by gambling (Low-Risk Gambling [LRG], At Risk/Problem Gambling [ARPG]) and smoking (current smoker, non-smoker). The main effects of smoking and the smoking-by-gambling interactions were examined for gambling behaviors (e.g., type, location), and gambling attitudes. Data were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression; the latter controlled for gender, race/ethnicity, grade, and family structure. Results For APRG adolescents, smoking was associated with greater online, school, and casino gambling; gambling due to anxiety and pressure; greater time spent gambling; early gambling onset; perceived parental approval of gambling; and decreased importance of measures to prevent teen gambling. For LRG adolescents, smoking was associated with non-strategic gambling (e.g., lottery gambling); school gambling; gambling in response to anxiety; gambling for financial reasons; greater time spent gambling; and decreased importance of measures to prevent teen gambling. Stronger relationships were found between smoking and casino gambling, gambling due to pressure, earlier onset of gambling, and parental perceptions of gambling for ARPG versus LRG adolescents. Discussion Smoking is associated with more extensive gambling for both low- and high-risk adolescent gamblers. Conclusion Smoking may be a marker of more severe gambling behaviors in adolescents and important to consider in gambling prevention and intervention efforts with youth. PMID:25959617

  7. Development and psychometric properties of the Social Smoking Situations (S(3)) Scale: an enhanced measure of social exposure to smoking during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Racicot, Simon; McGrath, Jennifer J

    2015-02-01

    Common questions of exposure to smoking, such as number of parents, siblings, or friends who smoke, fail to capture the contexts in which the exposure occurs. This study developed the Social Smoking Situations (S(3)) Scale to more precisely measure contextual exposure to smoking during adolescence. Informed by the cue-reactivity literature and using informal focus groups, items of contextual exposure to smoking were generated for three categories of smokers: parents, siblings, and peers. Participants (N=761; Mage=15.6, SD=1.3; 61.4% female) were recruited as part of the AdoQuest Study in Montreal, QC. Principal components analysis was used to identify the component structure of the parent, sibling, and peer versions of the S(3) Scale. S(3) scores were computed subsequently to test their association with smoking behavior and smoking expectancies. Further, S(3) scores were compared with common questions (i.e., number of smokers) via univariate modeling to determine which would generate larger estimates of effect size when predicting smoking behavior and smoking expectancies. Overall, S(3) scores generated larger estimates than common questions; this finding was consistent across the parent (ORavg: 2.59 vs. 1.36), sibling (ORavg: 3.44 vs. 1.59), and peer (ORavg: 3.89 vs. 1.38) versions. The S(3) Scale is a new psychometrically sound instrument that may provide a more robust measurement of social exposure to smoking during adolescence. Importantly, it has the potential to strengthen prevention programming and intervention efforts aimed at adolescents, as it could depict a more precise portrait of the individual and contextual sources of social exposure to smoking. PMID:25452074

  8. The prevalence of cigarette smoking among students of Iran's universities: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Moosazadeh, Mahmood

    2013-01-01

    Background: Studentship period is a time when most behavioral traits are being created and fixed; this is a special time when students may start smoking. Thus in the present research, prevalence of smoking in university students in Iran has been evaluated. Materials and Methods: Having extensively explored Iranian and International databases (SID, Iranmedex, Magiran, Medlib, Irandoc, Pubmed, Google Scholar, and WHO) with broad keywords, we looked for relevant papers about the frequency of cigarette smoking among students in Iranian universities in recent years. We recruited only those primary papers with required information and acceptable methodology by reviewing their titles, abstracts, and full-texts. The main data about the prevalence of smoking, age and sex distribution of subjects, sample size, date, and location of studies were extracted from the full-text of eligible papers. Results: A total of 22 valid articles were selected. Among the findings of these studies, the lowest and highest prevalence of smoking among male students was 13.4 and 39.9, respectively, while it was 0.7 and 25.5%, respectively, among female students. Meta-analysis results reveals that smoking frequency among male and female students in Iran's universities is 19.8% (17.7-21.9) and 2.2% (1.4-3.02), respectively. Conclusion: The variation of smoking in students in different universities shows that the tendency of smoking varies in different locations. Furthermore, compatible with the prevalence of smoking in the general population in Iran, female students smoke much less than male students. PMID:24379851

  9. Trends in exposure to second hand smoke at home among children and nonsmoker adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2016-01-15

    Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for the years 1999-2012 were used to evaluate trends in exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) at home among children aged 3-11 years and nonsmoker adolescents aged 12-19 years. A total of 12,815 children and 10,269 adolescents were included in the analyses. Serum cotinine was used as a biomarker for exposure to SHS at home. Regression models with log10 transformed values of serum cotinine as dependent variables and age, race/ethnicity, NHANES survey year, and family poverty income ratio as a surrogate measure of socioeconomic status were used in models for those with and without exposure to SHS at home. In addition, for those with exposure to SHS at home, number of smokers smoking inside home and number of cigarettes smoked at home every day were also used as independent variables. There was a biennial increase of 1.05 ng/L in adjusted serum cotinine levels for children with exposure to SHS at home over the period of 1999-2012. Serum cotinine levels among nonsmoker adolescents with exposure to SHS at home did not change over time. When there was no exposure to SHS at home, there was a statistically significant downward trend for serum cotinine levels for both children and nonsmoker adolescents. Serum cotinine levels attributable to SHS exposure increased with age among nonsmoker adolescents (p≤0.02) but decreased with age among children (p<0.01). For a unit decrease in family poverty income ratio, SHS exposure as measured by serum cotinine levels (Table 6) increased by 1.18 ng/L among children and by 1.30 ng/L among nonsmoker adolescents. In general, observed serum cotinine levels associated with SHS exposure at home were higher for children than they were for nonsmoker adolescents. PMID:26519575

  10. Retrospective analysis of changing characteristics of treatment-seeking smokers: implications for further reducing smoking prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Leyro, Teresa M; Crew, Erin E; Bryson, Susan W; Lembke, Anna; Bailey, Steffani R; Prochaska, Judith J; Henriksen, Lisa; Fortmann, Stephen P; Killen, Joel D; Killen, Diana T; Hall, Sharon M; David, Sean P

    2016-01-01

    Objective The goal of the current study was to empirically compare successive cohorts of treatment-seeking smokers who enrolled in randomised clinical trials in a region of the USA characterised by strong tobacco control policies and low smoking prevalence, over the past three decades. Design Retrospective treatment cohort comparison. Setting Data were collected from 9 randomised clinical trials conducted at Stanford University and the University of California, San Francisco, between 1990 and 2013. Participants Data from a total of 2083 participants were included (Stanford, n=1356; University of California San Francisco, n=727). Primary and secondary outcomes One-way analysis of variance and covariance, χ2 and logistic regression analyses were used to examine relations between nicotine dependence, cigarettes per day, depressive symptoms and demographic characteristics among study cohorts. Results Similar trends were observed at both settings. When compared to earlier trials, participants in more recent trials smoked fewer cigarettes, were less nicotine-dependent, reported more depressive symptoms, were more likely to be male and more likely to be from a minority ethnic/racial group, than those enrolled in initial trials (all p's<0.05). Analysis of covariances revealed that cigarettes per day, nicotine dependence and current depressive symptom scores were each significantly related to trial (all p's<0.001). Conclusions Our findings suggest that more recent smoking cessation treatment-seeking cohorts in a low prevalence region were characterised by less smoking severity, more severe symptoms of depression and were more likely to be male and from a minority racial/ethnic group. PMID:27357195

  11. Is grand-parental smoking associated with adolescent obesity? A three-generational study

    PubMed Central

    Dougan, Marcelle M.; Field, Alison E.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Glynn, Robert J.; Willett, Walter C.; Michels, Karin B.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives Data from previous studies consistently suggest that maternal smoking is positively associated with obesity later in life. Whether this association persists across generations is unknown. We examined whether grand-parental smoking was positively associated with overweight status in adolescence. Subject/Methods Participants were grandmother-mother-child triads in the Nurses’ Health Study II (NHS II), the Nurses Mothers’ Cohort Study, and the Growing up Today Study (GUTS). Grandmothers provided information on their and their partner’s smoking during pregnancy with the child’s mother. Information on child's weight and height at ages 12 (N = 3094) and 17 (N = 3433) was obtained from annual or biennial GUTS questionnaires. We used logistic regression to estimate ORs of being overweight or obese, relative to normal weight. Results Grand-maternal smoking during pregnancy was not associated with overweight status in adolescence. After adjusting for covariates, the OR of being overweight or obese relative to normal weight at age 12 years in girls whose grandmothers smoked 15+ cigarettes daily during pregnancy was 1.21 (95% CI 0.74–1.98; ptrend = 0.31) and 1.07 (0.65–1.77; ptrend = 0.41) in boys. Grand-paternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with being overweight or obese at age 12 in girls only, but not at age 17 for either sex: the OR for being overweight or obese at age 12 was 1.38 (95% CI 1.01–1.89; ptrend = 0.03) in girls, and 1.31 (95% CI 0.97–1.76; ptrend = 0.07) in boys. Among children of non-smoking mothers, the OR for granddaughter obesity for grand-paternal smoking was attenuated and no longer significant [OR 1.28 (95% CI 0.87–1.89; ptrend = 0.18)]. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the association between maternal smoking and offspring obesity may not persist beyond the first generation. However, grand-paternal smoking may affect overweight status of the granddaughter, likely through the association between

  12. Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... Smoking harms nearly every organ of the body. Cigarette smoking causes 87 percent of lung cancer deaths. ... of the same problems as smokers do. E-cigarettes often look like cigarettes, but they work differently. ...

  13. Clusters of Factors Identify A High Prevalence of Pregnancy Involvement Among US Adolescent Males.

    PubMed

    Lau, May; Lin, Hua; Flores, Glenn

    2015-08-01

    The study purpose was to use recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) to identify factors that, when clustered, are associated with a high prevalence of pregnancy involvement among US adolescent males. The National Survey of Family Growth is a nationally representative survey of individuals 15-44 years old. RPA was done for the 2002 and 2006-2010 cycles to identify factors which, when combined, identify adolescent males with the highest prevalence of pregnancy involvement. Pregnancy-involvement prevalence among adolescent males was 6 %. Two clusters of adolescent males have the highest pregnancy-involvement prevalence, at 84-87 %. In RPA, the highest pregnancy-involvement prevalence (87 %) was seen in adolescent males who ever HIV tested, had >4 lifetime sexual partners, reported less than an almost certain chance of feeling less physical pleasure with condom use, had an educational attainment of <11th grade, and had ≤2 sexual partners in the past 12 months. Adolescent males who ever HIV tested, had >4 lifetime sexual partners, reported less than an almost certain chance of feeling less physical pleasure with condom use, had an educational attainment ≥11th grade, were >17 years old, and had their first contraceptive education ≥10th grade, had a pregnancy-involvement prevalence of 84 %. Pregnancy-prevention efforts among adolescent males who have been involved in a pregnancy may need to target risk factors identified in clusters with the highest pregnancy prevalence to prevent subsequent pregnancies in these adolescent males and improve their future outcomes. PMID:25724537

  14. [Smoking initiation and watching television, video, DVD among adolescents in Poland].

    PubMed

    Kowalewska, Anna; Mazur, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the relationship between smoking initiation and the time spent watching TV, video, DVD by adolescents 11, 13, and 15-year-old in Poland. The research was conducted in 2010 as a part of Health Behaviour in School-aged Children: A WHO Collaborative Cross-national Study (HBSC) in a sample of 4751 students, using a standard, international HBSC questionnaire. It was found that there is a relationship between smoking attempts made by the young people and time spent watching TV during weekdays. In the analyzes using logistic regression combined variable relating to the time to watch TV on weekdays and weekends was used. Nearly a quarter of respondents (24.3%) were qualified to the group of adolescents spending too much time in front of the screen. Age was the strongest predictor of smoking onset. Between 11 and 13 years of age the risk of taking the first cigarette increased three times, and between 11 and 15 years of age more than seven times. Relative risk of smoking attempts related to gender and frequency of watching television, video or DVD was both equal to 1.5. In smoking prevention focused on adolescents it is should be better to pay more attention on constructive leisure time activities, and the role of parents in shaping pro-health attitudes. This is particularly important in the initial stages of schooling, when to develop and enhance the psychosocial competences as a the protective factor of risk taking behaviors among adolescents. PMID:23421048

  15. Accuracy and Importance of Projections From a Dynamic Simulation Model of Smoking Prevalence in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Méndez, David

    2012-01-01

    We compared projections from a dynamic model of US adult smoking prevalence with official estimates of prevalence from the National Health Interview Survey. Ten years after they were made, the model projections closely fit the National Health Interview Survey estimates for 2005 and 2010. We conclude that a verified model of adult smoking prevalence can assist governmental authorities in establishing aspirational but feasible targets for tobacco control. By extension, carefully crafted models can help in goal setting in multiple areas of public health. PMID:22994165

  16. Smoking, substance use, and mental health correlates in urban adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Groth, Susan W; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne

    2011-08-01

    This study examined the associations among smoking tobacco and/or cannabis with alcohol use, depression, disordered eating and healthy behaviors among adolescent girls enrolled in an HIV prevention intervention randomized trial. Baseline self-reported behaviors from 744 sexually active, low-income, urban participants were collected using an audio computer assisted self interview. Girls ranged in age from 15 to 19 years old with a mean age of 16.5. Over 16% of girls reported smoking cigarettes, 41% smoked cannabis and 12% used both substances. Girls who smoked either substance had higher scores for depression symptoms, alcohol use and disordered eating when compared to nonsmokers. Girls who used both substances were at a higher risk for alcohol use, depression symptoms and disordered eating. The association of cannabis and tobacco with the other health related issues differed depending on age, indicating that assessment and targeting of health behavior interventions may differ depending on a girl's age. Disordered eating, depressive symptoms and cannabis use were higher among these adolescent girls than previously documented in the literature, suggesting that to improve the health of this population multi-focused interventions must target girls before they have engaged in smoking. PMID:21107998

  17. Effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy on offspring blood pressure in late adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Högberg, Lovisa; Cnattingius, Sven; D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Lundholm, Cecilia; Iliadou, Anastasia N

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Previous studies suggest that maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with elevated offspring blood pressure during childhood. We aimed to investigate whether this association remained in late adolescence and, if so, whether it could be attributed to an intrauterine effect or to familial confounding. Methods We used a national cohort of 87 223 young Swedish men born between 1983 and 1988 with information on both maternal smoking during pregnancy and blood pressure at military conscription. The cohort included 780 full brothers discordant for maternal smoking. Generalized estimation equations were used to estimate regression coefficients (b) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Results We found a small but significant increase in both SBP and DBP for young men whose mothers had been daily smokers during pregnancy compared with sons of nonsmoking mothers: 0.26 (95% CI 0.09 to 0.44) and 0.45mmHg (95% CI 0.31 to 0.59) for SBP and DBP, respectively. In a within-sibling analysis comparing full brothers discordant for maternal smoking exposure, point estimates were similar but not statistically significant: 0.85 (95% CI _0.19 to 1.90) for DBP and 0.81 (_0.56 to 2.19) for SBP. Conclusion Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with a small but statistically significant increase in offspring blood pressure in late adolescence. Because the association does not appear to be explained by familial confounding, our results support an intrauterine effect of prenatal smoking exposure on blood pressure in late adolescence. PMID:22388229

  18. Factors Contributing to Regular Smoking in Adolescents in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Can, Gamze; Topbas, Murat; Oztuna, Funda; Ozgun, Sukru; Can, Emine; Yavuzyilmaz, Asuman

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The objectives of this study were to determine the levels of lifetime cigarette use, daily use, and current use among young people (aged 15-19 years) and to examine the risk factors contributing to regular smoking. Methods: The number of students was determined proportionately to the numbers of students in all the high schools in the…

  19. Adolescent Smoking and Tertiary Education: Opposing Pathways linking Socioeconomic Background to Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Green, Michael J; Leyland, Alastair H; Sweeting, Helen; Benzeval, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims If socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with more adolescent smoking, but less participation in tertiary education, and smoking and tertiary education are both associated with heavier drinking, these may represent opposing pathways to heavy drinking. This paper examines contextual variation in the magnitude and direction of these associations. Design Comparing cohort studies. Setting UK Participants Were from the 1958 National Child Development Study (NCDS58; N=15,672), 1970 British birth cohort study (BCS70; N=12,735), and the West of Scotland Twenty-07 1970s cohort (T07; N=1,515). Measurements Participants self-reported daily smoking and weekly drinking in adolescence (age 16) and heavy drinking (>14/21 units in past week) in early adulthood (ages 22-26). Parental occupational class (manual vs. non-manual) indicated socioeconomic background. Education beyond age 18 was coded as tertiary. Models were adjusted for parental smoking and drinking, family structure and adolescent psychiatric distress. Findings Respondents from a manual class were more likely to smoke and less likely to enter tertiary education (e.g. in NCDS58 probit coefficients were 0.201 and -0.765 respectively; p<0.001 for both) than respondents from a non-manual class. Adolescent smokers were more likely to drink weekly in adolescence (0.346; p<0.001) and more likely to drink heavily in early adulthood (0.178; p<0.001) than adolescent non-smokers. Respondents who participated in tertiary education were more likely to drink heavily in early adulthood (0.110 for males, 0.182 for females; p<0.001 for both) than respondents with no tertiary education. With some variation in magnitude, these associations were consistent across all three cohorts. Conclusions In Britain, young adults are more likely to drink heavily both if they smoke and participate in tertiary education (college and university) despite socioeconomic background being associated in opposite directions with these

  20. Real-Time Readiness to Quit and Peer Smoking within a Text Message Intervention for Adolescent Smokers: Modeling Mechanisms of Change.

    PubMed

    Mason, Michael; Mennis, Jeremy; Way, Thomas; Floyd Campbell, Leah

    2015-12-01

    The psychological construct, readiness to change, is established as a central construct within behavioral change theories such as motivational interviewing (MI). Less is known about the interplay of mechanisms for change within adolescent treatment populations. Understanding the timing and interactive influence that adolescents' readiness to stop smoking and peer smoking have on subsequent tobacco use is important to advance intervention research. Toward this end, we used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) data from an automated texting smoking intervention randomized controlled trial to model the interactive effects of readiness to stop smoking and friends smoking on adolescent tobacco use. Two hundred adolescents were randomized into experimental treatment or attention control conditions, provided smart phones, and were followed for 6 months. African American youth represented the majority of the sample. We collected monthly EMA data for 6 months on friends smoking and readiness to stop smoking as well as survey outcome data. We tested a moderated mediation model using bias corrected bootstrapping to determine if the indirect effect of treatment on cigarettes smoked through readiness to stop smoking was moderated by friends smoking. Findings revealed that readiness to stop smoking mediated the effects of treatment on cigarettes smoked for those adolescents with fewer friends smoking, but not for those with more friends smoking. These results support importance of peer-focused interventions with urban adolescents and provide target mechanisms for future research. PMID:26297323

  1. Evaluation of the Prevalence of Drug Abuse and Smoking in Parents of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Parvaresh, Nooshin; Mazhari, Shahrzad; Mohamadi, Neda; Mohamadi, Najmeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects 5% of children. In addition to pharmacotherapy, non-drug treatments such as appropriate parenting are also very important in the treatment of these children. Diagnosis and treatment of parents with psychiatric disorders and substance abuse and evaluation of the frequency of these disorders in parents is critical. Methods In this case-control study, 200 parents were studied. The target population included parents of 7 to 12 year-old children who referred to child and adolescent psychiatric clinics. The control group included parents of children who referred to child non-psychiatric clinics. The parents were evaluated via a demographic information form, and structured interviews based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV) for nicotine and drug addiction. Then, the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) was used to assess their anxiety and depression. Findings Among the studied parents, the comparison of drug abuse, smoking, and stress showed significant differences between the two groups. In terms of depression and ADHD, the difference between the case and control groups was not statistically significant. Conclusion The higher prevalence of these disorders in parents of children with ADHD may indicate the possible role of this disorder in the etiology. PMID:27274792

  2. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Substance Use and Misuse among Kosovar Adolescents; Cross Sectional Study of Scholastic, Familial-, and Sports-Related Factors of Influence

    PubMed Central

    Tahiraj, Enver; Cubela, Mladen; Ostojic, Ljerka; Rodek, Jelena; Zenic, Natasa; Sekulic, Damir; Lesnik, Blaz

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is considered to be the most important period for the prevention of substance use and misuse (SUM). The aim of this study was to investigate the problem of SUM and to establish potentially important factors associated with SUM in Kosovar adolescents. Multi-stage simple random sampling was used to select participants. At the end of their high school education, 980 adolescents (623 females) ages 17 to 19 years old were enrolled in the study. The prevalence of smoking, alcohol consumption (measured by Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test–AUDIT), and illegal drug use (dependent variables), as well as socio-demographic, scholastic, familial, and sports-related factors (independent variables), were assessed. Boys smoke cigarettes more often than girls with daily-smoking prevalence of 16% among boys and 9% among girls (OR = 1.85, 95% = CI 1.25–2.75). The prevalence of harmful drinking (i.e., AUDIT scores of >10) is found to be alarming (41% and 37% for boys and girls, respectively; OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 0.87–1.48), while 17% of boys and 9% of girls used illegal drugs (OR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.35–2.95). The behavioral grade (observed as: excellent–average-poor) is the factor that was most significantly correlated with SUM both in boys and girls, with lower behavioral grades among those adolescents who consume substances. In girls, lower maternal education levels were associated with a decreased likelihood of SUM, whereas sports achievement was negatively associated with risky drinking. In boys, sports achievement decreased the likelihood of daily smoking. Information on the factors associated with SUM should be disseminated among sports and school authorities. PMID:27196918

  3. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Substance Use and Misuse among Kosovar Adolescents; Cross Sectional Study of Scholastic, Familial-, and Sports-Related Factors of Influence.

    PubMed

    Tahiraj, Enver; Cubela, Mladen; Ostojic, Ljerka; Rodek, Jelena; Zenic, Natasa; Sekulic, Damir; Lesnik, Blaz

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is considered to be the most important period for the prevention of substance use and misuse (SUM). The aim of this study was to investigate the problem of SUM and to establish potentially important factors associated with SUM in Kosovar adolescents. Multi-stage simple random sampling was used to select participants. At the end of their high school education, 980 adolescents (623 females) ages 17 to 19 years old were enrolled in the study. The prevalence of smoking, alcohol consumption (measured by Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-AUDIT), and illegal drug use (dependent variables), as well as socio-demographic, scholastic, familial, and sports-related factors (independent variables), were assessed. Boys smoke cigarettes more often than girls with daily-smoking prevalence of 16% among boys and 9% among girls (OR = 1.85, 95% = CI 1.25-2.75). The prevalence of harmful drinking (i.e., AUDIT scores of >10) is found to be alarming (41% and 37% for boys and girls, respectively; OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 0.87-1.48), while 17% of boys and 9% of girls used illegal drugs (OR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.35-2.95). The behavioral grade (observed as: excellent-average-poor) is the factor that was most significantly correlated with SUM both in boys and girls, with lower behavioral grades among those adolescents who consume substances. In girls, lower maternal education levels were associated with a decreased likelihood of SUM, whereas sports achievement was negatively associated with risky drinking. In boys, sports achievement decreased the likelihood of daily smoking. Information on the factors associated with SUM should be disseminated among sports and school authorities. PMID:27196918

  4. Estimating the Impact of Raising Prices and Eliminating Discounts on Cigarette Smoking Prevalence in the United States.

    PubMed

    Marynak, Kristy L; Xu, Xin; Wang, Xu; Holmes, Carissa Baker; Tynan, Michael A; Pechacek, Terry

    2016-01-01

    The average retail price per pack of cigarettes is less than $6, which is substantially lower than the $10 per-pack target established in 2014 by the Surgeon General to reduce the smoking rate. We estimated the impact of three cigarette pricing scenarios on smoking prevalence among teens aged 12-17 years, young adults aged 18-25 years, and adults aged ≥26 years, by state: (1) $0.94 federal tax increase on cigarettes, as proposed in the fiscal year 2017 President's budget; (2) $10 per-pack retail price, allowing discounts; and (3) $10 per-pack retail price, eliminating discounts. We conducted Monte Carlo simulations to generate point estimates of reductions in cigarette smoking prevalence by state. We found that each price scenario would substantially reduce cigarette smoking prevalence. A $10 per-pack retail price eliminating discounts could result in 637,270 fewer smokers aged 12-17 years; 4,186,954 fewer smokers aged 18-25 years; and 7,722,460 fewer smokers aged ≥26 years. Raising cigarette prices and eliminating discounts could substantially reduce cigarette smoking prevalence as well as smoking-related death and disease. PMID:27453597

  5. Prevalence of diagnosed depression in adolescents with history of concussion

    PubMed Central

    Chrisman, Sara P.D.; Richardson, Laura P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies in adults have suggested concussion and other brain injury presents a risk factor for depression. The goal of our study was to analyze the association between previous concussion and current depression diagnosis in a large nationally-representative adolescent dataset. Methods Retrospective cohort study using the National Survey of Children’s Health 2007–2008, a nationally-representative survey conducted via random digit dialing. Data were obtained by parental report. We included youth 12–17 years old without a current concussion (N=36,060), and evaluated the association between previous concussion (binary) and current depression diagnosis (binary) using multiple logistic regression to control for age, sex, parental mental health and socioeconomic status. Results After controlling for age, sex, parental mental health, and socioeconomic status, history of concussion was associated with a 3.3 fold greater risk for depression diagnosis (95%CI: 2.0–5.5). Other factors significantly associated with depression diagnosis included poor or fair parental mental health (OR: 3.7, 95%CI: 2.8–4.9), and older age (15–17 years vs. 12–14 years, OR: 1.4, 95%CI: 1.1–1.8). Sex of the subject was not significantly related to depression diagnosis. Being above 200% of the poverty level was associated with approximately a 50% decreased risk of depression diagnosis (95%CI: 35–70%). Conclusions History of concussion was associated with a higher prevalence of diagnosed depression in a large nationally-representative adolescent dataset. Clinicians should screen for depression in their adolescent patients with concussion. Future studies should confirm this association using prospective methodology, and examine potential treatment approaches. PMID:24355628

  6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality and prevalence: the associations with smoking and poverty—a BOLD analysis

    PubMed Central

    Burney, Peter; Jithoo, Anamika; Kato, Bernet; Janson, Christer; Mannino, David; Niżankowska-Mogilnicka, Ewa; Studnicka, Michael; Tan, Wan; Bateman, Eric; Koçabas, Ali; Vollmer, William M; Gislason, Thorarrin; Marks, Guy; Koul, Parvaiz A; Harrabi, Imed; Gnatiuc, Louisa; Buist, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a commonly reported cause of death and associated with smoking. However, COPD mortality is high in poor countries with low smoking rates. Spirometric restriction predicts mortality better than airflow obstruction, suggesting that the prevalence of restriction could explain mortality rates attributed to COPD. We have studied associations between mortality from COPD and low lung function, and between both lung function and death rates and cigarette consumption and gross national income per capita (GNI). Methods National COPD mortality rates were regressed against the prevalence of airflow obstruction and spirometric restriction in 22 Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) study sites and against GNI, and national smoking prevalence. The prevalence of airflow obstruction and spirometric restriction in the BOLD sites were regressed against GNI and mean pack years smoked. Results National COPD mortality rates were more strongly associated with spirometric restriction in the BOLD sites (<60 years: men rs=0.73, p=0.0001; women rs=0.90, p<0.0001; 60+ years: men rs=0.63, p=0.0022; women rs=0.37, p=0.1) than obstruction (<60 years: men rs=0.28, p=0.20; women rs=0.17, p<0.46; 60+ years: men rs=0.28, p=0.23; women rs=0.22, p=0.33). Obstruction increased with mean pack years smoked, but COPD mortality fell with increased cigarette consumption and rose rapidly as GNI fell below US$15 000. Prevalence of restriction was not associated with smoking but also increased rapidly as GNI fell below US$15 000. Conclusions Smoking remains the single most important cause of obstruction but a high prevalence of restriction associated with poverty could explain the high ‘COPD’ mortality in poor countries. PMID:24353008

  7. The Protective Influence of Family Bonding on Smoking Initiation in Adolescents by Racial/Ethnic and Age Subgroups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahabee-Gittens, E. Melinda; Khoury, Jane C.; Huang, Bin; Dorn, Lorah D.; Ammerman, Robert T.; Gordon, Judith S.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examined the associations among family bonding factors and the initiation of smoking by race/ethnicity and age group among nonsmokers at Wave 1. Overall, 18% of the sample initiated smoking by Wave 2. For younger African-American and Hispanic youths, high maternal…

  8. Multilevel Analysis of the Impact of School-Level Tobacco Policies on Adolescent Smoking: The Case of Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Hove, Thomas; Oh, Hyun Jung

    2013-01-01

    Background: In efforts to curb and prevent youth smoking, school tobacco policies have become an important and effective strategy. This study explores the degrees and types of tobacco-free school policy (TFSP) enforcement that are associated with adolescent smoking. Methods: A multilevel analysis was performed using 983 students who are nested in…

  9. Prevalence and factors associated with physical fighting among Malaysian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mat Hussin, Siti Fatimah; Abd Aziz, Nur Shahida; Hasim, Hazrin; Sahril, Norhafizah

    2014-09-01

    Physical fighting among adolescents is one manifestation of interpersonal violence that is an important issue globally, but attention to this problem in Malaysia has been limited. We analyzed data available from the Malaysia Global School-Based Health Survey conducted in 2012. Of the 25 507 respondents, 27.4% reported having been in a physical fight in the past 12 months. Being bullied (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.01; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.67-3.39) was significantly and highly associated with involvement in physical fighting. Smoking (aOR = 2.56; 95% CI = 2.20-2.97), males (aOR = 1.77; 95% CI = 1.62-1.93), using drugs (aOR = 1.73; 95% CI = 1.09-2.15), and drinking alcohol (aOR = 1.42; 95% CI = 1.24-1.63) were other factors associated with physical fighting. Parental supervision showed no significant association with physical fighting. These findings indicate that more attention needs to be given to bullying at school by school authorities and parents. PMID:25038192

  10. Exposure to Cigarette Advertising and Adolescents' Intentions to Smoke: The Moderating Role of the Developing Self-Concept

    PubMed Central

    Tharp-Taylor, Shannah; Fryer, Craig S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Increased exposure to cigarette advertisements is associated with increases in adolescent smoking but the reasons for this association are not known. This study evaluated whether the developmental maturity of the self-concept, operationalized as self-conflict, moderated smoking intentions following exposure to cigarette advertisements among adolescents who have never smoked. Methods Eighty-seven adolescents (ages 11–17): (a) completed measures of self-conflict; (b) were exposed to 30 contemporary cigarette advertisements; and (c) rated their intentions to smoke following exposure to each ad. Results Younger adolescents with higher numbers of self-conflicts who also said that cigarette advertising was relevant to them had stronger smoking intentions compared to younger adolescents with lower numbers of self-conflicts after exposure to cigarette advertising. Self-conflict did not play as strong a role with older adolescents. Conclusions Younger adolescents (i.e., middle school aged) who are having the most difficulty figuring out “who they are” are most susceptible to the effects of cigarette advertising. PMID:18356185

  11. The Interplay of Friendship Networks and Social Networking Sites: Longitudinal Analysis of Selection and Influence Effects on Adolescent Smoking and Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Daniel; Fujimoto, Kayo; Valente, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the coevolution of adolescent friendships and peer influences with respect to their risk behaviors and social networking site use. Methods. Investigators of the Social Network Study collected longitudinal data during fall 2010 and spring 2011 from 10th-grade students in 5 Southern California high schools (n = 1434). We used meta-analyses of stochastic actor-based models to estimate changes in friendship ties and risk behaviors and the effects of Facebook and MySpace use. Results. Significant shifts in adolescent smoking and drinking occurred despite little change in overall prevalence rates. Students with higher levels of alcohol use were more likely to send and receive friendship nominations and become friends with other drinkers. They were also more likely to increase alcohol use if their friends drank more. Adolescents selected friends with similar Facebook and MySpace use habits. Exposure to friends’ risky online pictures increased smoking behaviors but had no significant effects on alcohol use. Conclusions. Our findings support a greater focus on friendship selection mechanisms in school-based alcohol use interventions. Social media platforms may help identify at-risk adolescent groups and foster positive norms about risk behaviors. PMID:24922126

  12. Prevalence and Degree of Childhood and Adolescent Overweight in Rural, Urban, and Suburban Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Richard D.; Meyer, Mary C.; Lehman, Salli C.; Trowbridge, Fredrick L.; Bason, James J.; Yurman, Katy H.; Yin, Zenong

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence and severity of child and adolescent overweight (OW) in the United States have been documented, but little is known regarding the prevalence of OW and "Extent of Overweight" (EOW) in individual states or specific regions within states. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of OW and EOW in school-aged youths from 4…

  13. Prevalence of Pervasive Developmental Disorders in Children and Adolescents with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bildt, Annelies; Sytema, Sjoerd; Kraijer, Dirk; Minderaa, Ruud

    2005-01-01

    Background: Insight into the prevalence of pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) in children and adolescents with mental retardation (MR) is known to be of clinical importance. However, estimating this prevalence is complicated. The literature reports prevalence rates ranging from 3% through 50%. This variation seems to be related to the concepts…

  14. A systematic review of longitudinal studies on the association between depression and smoking in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chaiton, Michael O; Cohen, Joanna E; O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Rehm, Jurgen

    2009-01-01

    Background It is well-established that smoking and depression are associated in adolescents, but the temporal ordering of the association is subject to debate. Methods Longitudinal studies in English language which reported the onset of smoking on depression in non clinical populations (age 13-19) published between January 1990 and July 2008 were selected from PubMed, OVID, and PsychInfo databases. Study characteristics were extracted. Meta-analytic pooling procedures with random effects were used. Results Fifteen studies were retained for analysis. The pooled estimate for smoking predicting depression in 6 studies was 1.73 (95% CI: 1.32, 2.40; p < 0.001). The pooled estimate for depression predicting smoking in 12 studies was 1.41 (95% CI: 1.21, 1.63; p < 0.001). Studies that used clinical measures of depression were more likely to report a bidirectional effect, with a stronger effect of depression predicting smoking. Conclusion Evidence from longitudinal studies suggests that the association between smoking and depression is bidirectional. To better estimate these effects, future research should consider the potential utility of: (a) shorter intervals between surveys with longer follow-up time, (b) more accurate measurement of depression, and (c) adequate control of confounding. PMID:19772635

  15. Determinants of Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) among Non Smoking Adolescents (Aged 11–17 Years Old) in Greece: Results from the 2004–2005 GYTS Study

    PubMed Central

    Rachiotis, George; Siziya, Seter; Muula, Adamson S.; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel; Papastergiou, Panagiotis; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the determinants of exposure to ETS among Greek adolescents aged 11–17 years old. The GYTS questionnaire was completed by 5,179 adolescents. About 3 in 4 responders (76.8%) were exposed to ETS at home, and 38.5% were exposed to ETS outside of the home. Gender, age group, parental and close friends smoking status were significant determinants of adolescent’s exposure to ETS. The results of the study could be valuable for the implementation of public health initiatives in Greece aiming to reduce the burden of adolescent’s exposure to passive smoking. PMID:20195445

  16. Adolescents' leisure activities, parental monitoring and cigarette smoking - a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Adolescent participation in leisure activities is developmentally beneficial, but certain activities may increase health compromising behaviours, such as tobacco smoking. A limited range of leisure activities has been studied, with little research on out-of-school settings where parental supervision is a potential protective factor. Tobacco smoking is an important, potentially modifiable health determinant, so understanding associations between adolescent leisure activities, parental monitoring, demographic factors and daily smoking may inform preventive strategies. These associations are reported for a New Zealand adolescent sample. Methods Randomly selected schools (n = 145) participated in the 2006 Youth In-depth Survey, a national, biennial study of Year 10 students (predominantly 14-15 years). School classes were randomly selected and students completed a self-report questionnaire in class time. Adjustment for clustering at the school level was included in all analyses. Since parental monitoring and demographic variables potentially confound relations between adolescent leisure activities and smoking, variables were screened before multivariable modelling. Given prior indications of demographic differences, gender and ethnic specific regression models were built. Results and Discussion Overall, 8.5% of the 3,161 students were daily smokers, including more females (10.5%) than males (6.5%). In gender and ethnic specific multivariate analysis of associations with daily smoking (adjusted for age, school socioeconomic decile rating, leisure activities and ethnicity or gender, respectively), parental monitoring exhibited a consistently protective, dose response effect, although less strongly among Māori. Attending a place of worship and going to the movies were protective for non-Māori, as was watching sports, whereas playing team sport was protective for all, except males. Attending a skate park was a risk factor for females and Māori which

  17. Personal, interpersonal, and cultural predictors of stages of cigarette smoking among adolescents in Johannesburg, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Brook, J S; Morojele, N K; Brook, D W; Zhang, C; Whiteman, M

    2006-01-01

    Objective This study examined the personal, parental, peer, and cultural predictors of stage of smoking among South African urban adolescents. Design A cross‐sectional design was employed. A stratified random approach based on census data was used to obtain the sample. Analyses were conducted using logistic regression. Setting The study took place in communities in and around Johannesburg, South Africa. Subjects Participants consisted of 731 adolescents in the age range of 12–17 years old. The sample was 47% male and 53% female, and contained four ethnic classifications: white, black, Indian, and “coloured” (a South African term for mixed ancestry). Methods A structured, in‐person interview was administered to each participant in private by a trained interviewer, after obtaining consent. Main outcome measures The dependent variables consisted of three stages of smoking: non‐smoking, experimental smoking, and regular smoking. The independent measures were drawn from four domains: personal attributes, parental, peer, and cultural influences. Results Factors in all four domains significantly predicted three different stages of smoking. Personal attributes (internalising and externalising) distinguished among the three stages. Parental factors (for example, affection) reduced the odds of being a regular smoker compared with an experimental smoker or non‐smoker, but did not differentiate experimental smokers from non‐smokers. Findings from the peer domain (for example, peer substance use) predicted an increase in the risk of being a regular smoker compared with an experimental smoker or non‐smoker. In the cultural domain, ethnic identification predicted a decrease in the risk of being a regular smoker compared with an experimental smoker, whereas discrimination and victimisation predicted an increase in the risk of being an experimental smoker compared with a non‐smoker. Conclusions All the domains were important for all four ethnic groups. Four

  18. An Integration of Parents’ and Best Friends’ Smoking, Smoking-Specific Cognitions, and Nicotine Dependence in Relation to Readiness to Quit Smoking: A Comparison between Adolescents with and without Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Kleinjan, Marloes; van den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the impact of parents’ and best friends’ smoking, nicotine dependence, and craving on smoking-specific cognitions, and readiness to quit in adolescents with and without asthma. Methods Structural equation analyses were applied to data from a sample of 1,120 daily smoking adolescents, 83 of whom had asthma. Results Adolescents with asthma felt more ready to quit, and cognitions were more strongly related to readiness to quit among adolescents with asthma than among adolescents without asthma. Moreover, best friends’ smoking seemed more relevant to the cognitions of adolescents with asthma. Nicotine dependence and craving were strongly related to cognitions, and to readiness to quit in both groups. The relation between craving and readiness to quit, however, was stronger among participants with asthma. Conclusions Reduction of nicotine dependence and craving is essential for both groups. Youth with asthma may benefit even more from cognitive-based cessation services than healthy youth. The finding that adolescents with asthma are relatively more ready to quit, and that their cognitions are more easily affected can be turned into advantages in asthma-specific cessation services. PMID:18287108

  19. Predictors and Sequelae of Smoking Topography Over the Course of a Single Cigarette in Adolescent Light Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Veilleux, Jennifer C.; Kassel, Jon D.; Heinz, Adrienne J.; Braun, Ashley; Wardle, Margaret C.; Greenstein, Justin; Evatt, Daniel P.; Conrad, Megan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to determine whether adolescent smokers, who varied in their smoking histories and symptoms of nicotine dependence, exhibit any decrease in puff volume and duration similar to that typically seen in dependent adolescent and adult smokers. Moreover, we examined whether puffing trajectories were moderated by individual difference factors, as well as whether puffing topography over the course of smoking a single cigarette was predictive of an escalation in dependence symptoms. Methods We assessed smoking topography (puff number, duration, volume, maximum flow rate [velocity], and inter-puff interval) over the course of smoking a single cigarette in a sample of 78 adolescent light smokers, using hierarchical linear modeling. We examined moderators (anxiety, depression, nicotine dependence) of the topographic trajectories, as well as whether smoking topography predicted any change in dependence over a 2-year period. Results Puff volume and puff duration decreased over the course of smoking the cigarette, whereas puff velocity and inter-puff interval increased. Slopes for puff volume and duration were moderated by anxiety and depressive symptoms. Moreover, individuals with a less “typical” topography pattern (exhibited stable or increasing volume and duration over the course of smoking the cigarette) demonstrated a heightened dependence escalation in the subsequent 2 years. Conclusion Our findings suggest that adolescent light smokers self-regulate nicotine during the course of smoking a single cigarette, similar to that reported in dependent adolescent and adult smokers. However, single cigarette self-regulation was influenced by certain affective factors. Implications of these findings and future directions for adolescent smoking research are discussed. PMID:21257117

  20. Smoking Status Moderates the Contribution of Social-Cognitive and Environmental Determinants to Adolescents' Smoking Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Victoir, An; Eertmans, A.; Van den Broucke, S.; Van den Bergh, O.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, it was tested whether attitudes, self-efficacy, social influences and the perception of the school and home environments had different associations with intentions for adolescent non-smokers, occasional smokers and daily smokers. A regression model allowing for separate slopes of social-cognitive and environment variables accounted…

  1. Dieting and smoking initiation in early adolescent girls and boys: a prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Austin, S B; Gortmaker, S L

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This analysis tested the relation between dieting frequency and risk of smoking initiation in a longitudinal sample of adolescents. METHODS: From 1995 to 1997, 1295 middle school girls and boys participated in a nutrition and physical activity intervention study. The prospective association between dieting frequency at baseline and smoking initiation 2 years later was tested. RESULTS: Compared with girls who reported no dieting at baseline, girls who dieted up to once per week had 2 times the adjusted odds of becoming smokers (odds ratio = 2.0; 95% confidence interval = 1.1, 3.5), and girls who dieted more often had 4 times the adjusted odds of becoming smokers (odds ratio = 3.9; 95% confidence interval = 1.5, 10.4). CONCLUSIONS: Dieting among girls may exacerbate risk of initiating smoking, with increasing risk with greater dieting frequency. PMID:11236412

  2. Enrichment in Pre-Kindergarten Life Predicts Initiation of Cigarette Smoking in Asian American and Hispanic/Latino Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xinguang; Weiss, Jie Wu

    2007-01-01

    The risk of tobacco use during adolescence may be traced back to early childhood, the time when a child is most vulnerable to environmental influence. We examined daily-life enrichment during pre-kindergarten period as a predictor of initiation of cigarette smoking among Asian American and Hispanic/Latino children during adolescence. Survey data…

  3. Group-Randomized Trial of a Proactive, Personalized Telephone Counseling Intervention for Adolescent Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Kealey, Kathleen A.; Mann, Sue L.; Marek, Patrick M.; Ludman, Evette J.; Liu, Jingmin; Bricker, Jonathan B.

    2009-01-01

    Background The Hutchinson Study of High School Smoking randomized trial was designed to rigorously evaluate a proactive, personalized telephone counseling intervention for adolescent smoking cessation. Methods Fifty randomly selected Washington State high schools were randomized to the experimental or control condition. High school junior smokers were proactively identified (N = 2151). Trained counselors delivered the motivational interviewing plus cognitive behavioral skills training telephone intervention to smokers in experimental schools during their senior year of high school. Participants were followed up, with 88.8% participation, to outcome ascertainment more than 1 year after random assignment. The main outcome was 6-months prolonged abstinence from smoking. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results The intervention increased the percentage who achieved 6-month prolonged smoking abstinence among all smokers (21.8% in the experimental condition vs 17.7% in the control condition, difference = 4.0%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = −0.2 to 8.1, P = .06) and in particular among daily smokers (10.1% vs 5.9%, difference = 4.1%, 95% CI = 0.8 to 7.1, P = .02). There was also generally strong evidence of intervention impact for 3-month, 1-month, and 7-day abstinence and duration since last cigarette (P = .09, .015, .01, and .03, respectively). The intervention effect was strongest among male daily smokers and among female less-than-daily smokers. Conclusions Proactive identification and recruitment of adolescents via public high schools can produce a high level of intervention reach; a personalized motivational interviewing plus cognitive behavioral skills training counseling intervention delivered by counselor-initiated telephone calls is effective in increasing teen smoking cessation; and both daily and less-than-daily teen smokers participate in and benefit from telephone-based smoking cessation intervention. PMID:19822836

  4. Prevalence of High Blood Pressure, Heart Disease, Thalassemia, Sickle-Cell Anemia, and Iron-Deficiency Anemia among the UAE Adolescent Population

    PubMed Central

    Barakat-Haddad, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of high blood pressure, heart disease, and medical diagnoses in relation to blood disorders, among 6,329 adolescent students (age 15 to 18 years) who reside in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Findings indicated that the overall prevalence of high blood pressure and heart disease was 1.8% and 1.3%, respectively. Overall, the prevalence for thalassemia, sickle-cell anemia, and iron-deficiency anemia was 0.9%, 1.6%, and 5%, respectively. Bivariate analysis revealed statistically significant differences in the prevalence of high blood pressure among the local and expatriate adolescent population in the Emirate of Sharjah. Similarly, statistically significant differences in the prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia were observed among the local and expatriate population in Abu Dhabi city, the western region of Abu Dhabi, and Al-Ain. Multivariate analysis revealed the following significant predictors of high blood pressure: residing in proximity to industry, nonconventional substance abuse, and age when smoking or exposure to smoking began. Ethnicity was a significant predictor of heart disease, thalassemia, sickle-cell anemia, and iron-deficiency anemia. In addition, predictors of thalassemia included gender (female) and participating in physical activity. Participants diagnosed with sickle-cell anemia and iron-deficiency anemia were more likely to experience different physical activities. PMID:23606864

  5. Trajectories of Cigarette Smoking Beginning in Adolescence Predict Insomnia in the Mid Thirties

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Yeon; Brook, Judith S.; Finch, Stephen J.; Brook, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Insomnia is increasingly recognized as a public health concern in modern society. Insomnia diagnoses appear to be increasing and are associated with poor health outcomes. They may cost $100 billion annually in health services. Objective Given the adverse consequences of insomnia such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and depression, the present study was designed to examine the relationship of the trajectories of earlier cigarette smoking and later insomnia. The ultimate goal is to reduce the prevalence of insomnia. Methods 674 participants (53% African Americans, 47% Puerto Ricans, 60% females) were surveyed at 6 points in time. We employed the growth mixture model to obtain the trajectories of cigarette smoking from age 14 to 32. We used logistic regression analyses to examine the associations between the trajectories of smoking and insomnia. Results Males were less likely to have insomnia than females (Adjusted odds ratio: AOR=0.34, p<.05). A higher Bayesian posterior probability (BPP) for the chronic smoking trajectory group (AOR=2.69, p<.05) and for the moderate smoking trajectory group (AOR=5.33, p<.01) was associated with an increased likelihood of having insomnia at age 36 compared with the BPP of the no or low smoking trajectory group. Conclusions Prevention and treatment programs for individuals who suffer from insomnia should be implemented in parallel with programs for smoking cessation. From a public health perspective, our longitudinal study that examined the association between earlier smoking trajectories and later insomnia suggests that treatments designed to reduce or cease smoking may lessen the occurrence of symptoms of insomnia. PMID:27008539

  6. Association of smokeless tobacco use and smoking in adolescents in the US: Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, R. Constance

    2014-01-01

    Background Using smokeless tobacco and smoking are risk behaviors for oral cancer, soft tissue lesions, caries, periodontal disease and other oral conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine adolescent smokeless tobacco use and smoking. Methods The study was a cross-sectional analysis of participants with complete data on smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and other variables of interest in the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n=9655). Descriptive analysis and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed. Results The unadjusted odds ratio for smokeless tobacco use and smoking was 9.68 (95% CI: 7.72, 12.13, p<.0001); the adjusted odds ratio was 3.92 (95%CI: 2.89, 5.31, p<.0001). Adolescents using smokeless tobacco were more likely to be male, to smoke, and to have engaged in binge drinking. Conclusions Adolescents who are using smokeless tobacco are more likely to also be engaging in concomitant smoking and are participating in other risk-taking behaviors. Practice implications Dentists are involved in helping patients in tobacco cessation. The strong association of smoking with smokeless tobacco needs to be considered in designing cessation programs for adolescents. PMID:23904581

  7. Parenting style and adolescent depressive symptoms, smoking, and academic achievement: ethnic, gender, and SES differences.

    PubMed

    Radziszewska, B; Richardson, J L; Dent, C W; Flay, B R

    1996-06-01

    This paper examines whether the relationship between parenting style and adolescent depressive symptoms, smoking, and academic grades varies according to ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status. Four parenting styles are distinguished, based on patterns of parent-adolescent decision making: autocratic (parents decide), authoritative (joint process but parents decide), permissive (joint process but adolescent decides), and unengaged (adolescent decides). The sample included 3993 15-year-old White, Hispanic, African-American, and Asian adolescents. Results are generally consistent with previous findings: adolescents with authoritative parents had the best outcomes and those with unengaged parents were least well adjusted, while the permissive and the autocratic styles produced intermediate results. For the most part, this pattern held across ethnic and sociodemographic subgroups. There was one exception, suggesting that the relationship between parenting styles, especially the unengaged style, and depressive symptoms may vary according to gender and ethnicity. More research is needed to replicate and explain this pattern in terms of ecological factors, cultural norms, and socialization goals and practices. PMID:8740470

  8. Close friend and group influence on adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Urberg, K A; Değirmencioğlu, S M; Pilgrim, C

    1997-09-01

    The relative influence of adolescents closest friends and their friendship group on their cigarette smoking and alcohol use was investigated in a short-term, longitudinal study of 1,028 students in the 6th, 8th, and 10th grades in 2 school systems. The amount of influence over the school year was modest in magnitude and came from the closest friend for initiation of cigarette and alcohol use. Only the friendship group use predicted transition into current cigarette use, whereas only the close friend use predicted transition into current alcohol use. Both group and close friends independently contributed to the prediction of adolescents' drinking to intoxication. No difference in the amount of influence, was found between stable and unstable close friendships or friendship groups; neither grade nor gender of the adolescents related to the amount of influence. PMID:9300216

  9. Prevalence and predictors of smoking in “smoke-free” bars. Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Nagelhout, Gera E.; Mons, Ute; Allwright, Shane; Guignard, Romain; Beck, Francois; Fong, Geoffrey T.; de Vries, Hein; Willemsen, Marc C.

    2015-01-01

    National level smoke-free legislation is implemented to protect the public from exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS). The first aim of this study was to investigate how successful the smoke-free hospitality industry legislation in Ireland (March 2004), France (January 2008), the Netherlands (July 2008), and Germany (between August 2007 and July 2008) was in reducing smoking in bars. The second aim was to assess individual smokers’ predictors of smoking in bars post-ban. The third aim was to examine country differences in predictors and the fourth aim to examine differences between educational levels (as an indicator of socioeconomic status). This study used nationally representative samples of 3,147 adult smokers from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys who were surveyed pre- and post-ban. The results reveal that while the partial smoke-free legislation in the Netherlands and Germany was effective in reducing smoking in bars (from 88% to 34% and from 87% to 44% respectively), the effectiveness was much lower than the comprehensive legislation in Ireland and France which almost completely eliminated smoking in bars (from 97% to 3% and from 84% to 3% respectively). Smokers who were more supportive of the ban, were more aware of the harm of SHS, and who had negative opinions of smoking were less likely to smoke in bars post-ban. Support for the ban was a stronger predictor in Germany. SHS harm awareness was a stronger predictor among less educated smokers in the Netherlands and Germany. The results indicate the need for strong comprehensive smoke-free legislation without exceptions. This should be accompanied by educational campaigns in which the public health rationale for the legislation is clearly explained. PMID:21497973

  10. "These Things Don't Happen in Greece": A Qualitative Study of Greek Young People's Attitudes to Smoking, Secondhand Smoke and the Smokefree Legislation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamvakas, Ioannis; Amos, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Greece has the highest smoking prevalence in the European Union, with adolescents having high levels of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). In July 2009, national smokefree legislation was implemented in Greece. This study explored Greek young people's attitudes to smoking, SHS and the impending legislation. Semi-structured qualitative interviews…

  11. Allelic Variation of Calsyntenin 2 (CLSTN2) Modulates the Impact of Developmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure on Mnemonic Processing in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, Leslie K.; Picciotto, Marina R.; Heath, Christopher J.; Mencl, W. Einar; Gelernter, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Background Exposure to nicotine in tobacco smoke during development has been linked to subsequent deficits in attention and memory. The present study tested for evidence that genetic variation may contribute to individual differences in vulnerability to the effects of developmental exposure to tobacco smoke on memory and medial temporal lobe function in adolescents. Methods Verbal and visuospatial memory were assessed and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were acquired in 101 adolescents systematically characterized for prenatal and adolescent exposure to tobacco smoke, while they performed an encoding and recognition memory task. The impact of allelic variation at loci within CLSTN2 (encoding synaptic protein calsyntenin 2) and KIBRA, shown previously to modulate early and delayed recall of words, on the dependent measures was examined. Results KIBRA genotype did not exert significant main or interacting effects with prenatal or adolescent exposure to tobacco smoke on verbal or visuospatial memory. Previous observations of a beneficial effect of the CLSTN2 C allele on verbal recall were replicated. Adolescent exposure to tobacco smoke reversed this beneficial effect and was associated with increased activation of parahippocampal gyrus during early and delayed recognition in CLTSN2 C allele carriers. While the CLSTN2 C allele conferred enhanced functional connectivity between brain regions subserving accurate verbal recognition, adolescent exposure to tobacco smoke reversed this effect. Conclusions These findings extend previous work demonstrating that calsyntenins play an essential role in learning and indicate that this role is modulated both by CLSTN2 genotype and, during adolescent development, by exposure to tobacco smoke. PMID:19058786

  12. [Smoking and sexual behavior of junior college students (report II). Relation to alcohol consumption and problematic behavior during adolescence].

    PubMed

    Maruyama, K; Nishi, Y; Yamashita, N

    1991-04-01

    A survey was performed on 581 junior college women regarding smoking, sexual behavior, alcohol use and problem behavior during adolescence to assess possible mutual relationships. The results are as follows: 1) Of these women, 37% experienced smoking; 9% were habitual smokers; 39% experienced kissing; 18% experienced sexual intercourse; 86% experienced alcohol drinking. 2) Many of the women had cross-experience in the combination of smoking, sexual behavior and alcohol drinking. A mutual relationship among these behaviors is suggested. 3) Many of the women who experienced smoking or sexual behavior had either experienced or considered problem behaviors during adolescence including attempted suicide, running away from home, bullying, etc. Poor adaptation to their home or school appears to be a factor associated with tendency toward smoking and sexual behavior. PMID:1958876

  13. IS CIGARETTE SMOKING RELATED TO ALCOHOL USE DURING THE 8 YEARS FOLLOWING TREATMENT FOR ADOLESCENT ALCOHOL AND OTHER DRUG ABUSE?

    PubMed Central

    MYERS, MARK G.; DORAN, NEAL M.; BROWN, SANDRA A.

    2007-01-01

    Aims The present study examined the relationship between cigarette smoking and alcohol use outcomes over an 8-year period following treatment for adolescent alcohol and other drug (AOD) use disorders. Methods The present study was based on a sample of 166 adolescents recruited during inpatient AOD abuse treatment. Included in this study were 123 (74% of the full sample) participants, of whom 41% were female, 81% identified themselves as White and who averaged 15.9 years of age (SD = 1.3) when entering treatment. Data for the present study were drawn from interviews conducted at the time of treatment and 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-years post-treatment. Results Twenty six percent of participants had quit smoking for >1 year at the 8-year assessment, while 44% reported persistent smoking over time. Overall smoking rates decreased significantly over time. Subjects associated with the highest alcohol involvement trajectory reported significantly greater likelihood of persistent smoking as well as higher current smoking and cigarette consumption across time points. Conclusions The significant declines observed in smoking from adolescence into young adulthood were contrary to expectations, indicating that this behaviour may be less stable than previously thought among adolescent AOD abusers. Smoking involvement over time was greater within the highest alcohol use trajectory, consistent with previous evidence for a positive relationship between these behaviours. However, when compared with the general population smoking rates remained very high regardless of alcohol involvement. Thus, individuals treated for AOD abuse as adolescents remained at elevated risk for tobacco related disease regardless of post-treatment AOD use outcomes. PMID:17526632

  14. Acne scars in 18-year-old male adolescents: a population-based study of prevalence and associated factors*

    PubMed Central

    Lauermann, Fernanda Tcatch; de Almeida Jr., Hiram Larangeira; Duquia, Rodrigo Pereira; de Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins; Breunig, Juliano de Avelar

    2016-01-01

    Background Acne vulgaris is a pilosebaceous follicle disorder affecting over 85% of adolescents to some degree. It frequently causes psychological distress that may persist into adulthood due to scarring. Little information about post-acne scarring epidemiology is available. Objectives To describe prevalence, distribution patterns and associated factors of acne scarring in young males, drawing on a representative population sample from a southern Brazilian city. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken during presentation for military service, which is compulsory for all 18-year-old males. A questionnaire was applied, covering topics like diet, smoking habits, ethnicity, family structure, socio-economic level, as well as specific questions about active acne and resulting scars. Dermatologists conducted the clinical examination. Results A total of 2,201 male adolescents were interviewed and examined. The overall prevalence of acne scarring was 22%. The malar region was the most frequently involved, present in 80% of affected individuals, followed by the frontal region (31.5%), back (17%), anterior chest (8.2%) and mentonian region (6.4%). Correlation between the intensity of clinical acne and the presence of scars was found, but no association was observed with educational level, smoking, ethnicity, obesity or socio-economic status. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of acne scars among this population. This is the first study to ascertain a correlation between acne scarring and factors such as socio-economic status and educational level. The direct relation between acne severity and scarring indicates that prompt and effective treatment is the best way to reduce scarring. PMID:27438194

  15. TABADO: "Evaluation of a smoking cessation program among Adolescents in Vocational Training Centers": Study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Most of the efforts to reduce teenagers' tobacco addiction have focused on smoking prevention and little on smoking cessation. A smoking cessation program (TABADO study), associating pharmacologic and cognitive-behavioural strategy, on a particularly vulnerable population (vocational trainees), was developed. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of the program which was offered to all smokers in a population aged 15 to 20 years in Vocational Training Centers (VTC). This paper presents the TABADO study protocol. Methods The study is quasi-experimental, prospective, evaluative and comparative and takes place during the 2 years of vocational training. The final population will be composed of 2000 trainees entering a VTC in Lorraine, France, during the 2008-2009 period. The intervention group (1000 trainees) benefited from the TABADO program while no specific intervention took place in the "control" group (1000 trainees) other than the treatment and education services usually available. Our primary outcome will be the tobacco abstinence rate at 12 months. Discussion If the program proves effective, it will be a new tool in the action against smoking in populations that have been seldom targeted until now. In addition, the approach could be expanded to other young subjects from socially disadvantaged backgrounds in the context of a public health policy against smoking among adolescents. Trial registration Clinical trial identification number is NTC00973570. PMID:19912627

  16. Smoking cessation among Norwegian adolescents and young adults: preferred cessation methods.

    PubMed

    Wiium, Nora; Overland, Simon; Aarø, Leif E

    2011-04-01

    Despite generally declining smoking rates, particularly among young people, a large number of people remain smokers and many young people still pick up smoking. Helping smokers quit therefore remains a high priority for the public health sector. In the present study we examined adolescents and young adults' preferences regarding cessation methods and if these differed between genders and depended on smoking frequency. The data came from a nationally representative survey in Norway among 16-20 year olds. Only regular (weekly and daily) smokers were included in the statistical analyses (n = 509, 51% females). The findings suggest that the majority of both male (83.6%) and female (78.4%) smokers would prefer to quit smoking without help. More males than females reported that they would consider using snus as a cessation aid, while females more often reported willingness to attend cessation classes or use brochures and diaries as cessation aids. Both males and females had similar preferences albeit low, regarding the use of health services, nicotine gum or patches and internet and sms-services to quit smoking. Daily smokers would more often than weekly smokers prefer to attend cessation classes, seek help from health services, use nicotine gum or patches or use brochures and diaries. In contrast, weekly smokers preferred to use snus as a cessation aid more often than daily smokers. Identifying and making appropriate cessation methods attractive may lead to successful quitting and consequently public health gains. PMID:21054423

  17. Cigarette Graphic Warning Labels and Smoking Prevalence in Canada: A Critical Examination and Reformulation of the FDA Regulatory Impact Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jidong; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Fong, Geoffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Background The estimated effect of cigarette graphic warning labels (GWLs) on smoking rates is a key input to FDA's regulatory impact analysis (RIA), required by law as part of its rulemaking process. However, evidence on the impact of GWLs on smoking prevalence is scarce. Objective The goal of this paper is to critically analyze FDA's approach to estimating the impact of GWLs on smoking rates in its RIA, and to suggest a path forward to estimating the impact of the adoption of GWLs in Canada on Canadian national adult smoking prevalence. Methods A quasi-experimental methodology was employed to examine the impact of adoption of GWLs in Canada in 2000, using the U.S. as a control. Findings We found a statistically significant reduction in smoking rates after the adoption of GWLs in Canada in comparison to the U.S. Our analyses show that implementation of GWLs in Canada reduced smoking rates by 2.87 to 4.68 percentage points, a relative reduction of 12.1 to 19.6% — 33 to 53 times larger than FDA's estimates of a 0.088 percentage point reduction. We also demonstrated that FDA's estimate of the impact was flawed because it is highly sensitive to the changes in variable selection, model specification, and the time period analyzed. Conclusions Adopting GWLs on cigarette packages reduces smoking prevalence. Applying our analysis of the Canadian GWLs, we estimate that if the U.S. had adopted GWLs in 2012, the number of adult smokers in the U.S. would have decreased by 5.3 to 8.6 million in 2013. Our analysis demonstrates that FDA's approach to estimating the impact of GWLs on smoking rates is flawed. Rectifying these problems before this approach becomes the norm is critical for FDA's effective regulation of tobacco products. PMID:24218057

  18. [SMOKING PREVALENCE AND RISK FOR THE SMOKING- RELATED LOSS OF HEALTH OF THE POPULATION OF THE KRASNOIARSK KRAĬ].

    PubMed

    Goryaev, D V; Tikhonova, I V; Dogadin, F V

    2015-01-01

    There are presented data on the consumption of tobacco in the Krasnoyarsk Territory in the context of age-sex and social groups. Representatives of the workers specialties, students were shown to smoke more frequently, men smoke 2 times more often than women. For the population of the Krasnoyarsk Territory there were evaluated carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks for the loss of health, related with the factor of tobacco smoking. The significant portion of residents was established to accept tobacco smoking. The lack of a purposeful policy on the formation of the image of a non-smoker does as not only increase the interest in this bad habit from the part of young people as well determined the early age of the beginning of smoking, but also stimulates the continuation of smoking in an older age. The measures aimed at the reduction or cessation of smoking: education the population and informing about the dangers of smoking, promotion of healthy lifestyles; offensive disciplinary, civil, administrative responsibility; measures aimed on the increase in the cost, the provision of (free) medical care aimed at the treatment of tobacco dependence. PMID:26155638

  19. Smoking among Saudi students: a review of risk factors and early intentions of smoking.

    PubMed

    Almutairi, Khalid M

    2014-10-01

    This review aims to determine the prevalence of smoking among Saudi students and to study and to identify, synthesize and summarize the predictors that initiate smoking among students in different ages in Saudi Arabia. Different databases were searched (Web of Science, Google Scholar, Pub Med and Science Direct) with keywords. This search was carried out in October 2013. Studies that included were evaluated for methodological soundness by giving a quality score based on Russell and Gregory's criteria. A total 12 relevant articles were included in this review. The findings show that the prevalence of smoking is still in higher rates. The age of smoking was started among adolescents ranged from 10 to 15 years old while from university students were from 16 years old. The main reason for smoking among adolescents was influenced by friends. Among college students were peer pressure followed by the stress, media and imitation of others. Curiosity was a reason for having tried smoking and parents was perceived to be the first source for smoking. Religion was considered the main factor against smoking among the adolescent non-smokers and health consideration among college students. Appropriate smoking control programs on adolescent should be initiated they become the future professionals of the society. Smoking control programs should be considered in this group. PMID:24984600

  20. Social Influences, and Attitudes and Beliefs Associated with Smoking among Border Latino Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalela, Patricia; Velez, Luis F.; Ramirez, Amelie G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Adolescent smoking rates have declined among all ethnic groups since the late 1990s. However, despite the recent declines and intervention efforts, today smoking remains a serious problem among youth, with a quarter of adolescents being current smokers by the time they complete 12th grade. This problem is particularly prevalent among…

  1. The effects of interview mode on smoking attitudes and behavior: self-report among female Latino adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, C P; Tanjasiri, S P

    1996-06-01

    Although a substantial literature compares data on health-related behaviors collected by face-to-face and telephone interview formats, little attention has been paid to the comparability of responses regarding cigarette-smoking-related behavior, particularly among Latino youth. This study compares telephone and face-to-face interview methods for assessing smoking behaviors, attitudes, and beliefs among Latina adolescents. Data indicated no significant differences in demographic characteristics or smoking-related behaviors between the face-to-face and telephone groups. However, respondents interviewed face-to-face were significantly more likely to express dislike of smokers and state that quitting smoking was easy. PMID:8806163

  2. Effects of Parental Smoking on Exercise Systolic Blood Pressure in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hacke, Claudia; Weisser, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    Background In adults, exercise blood pressure seems to be more closely related to cardiovascular risk than resting blood pressure; however, few data are available on the effects of familial risk factors, including smoking habits, on exercise blood pressure in adolescents. Methods and Results Blood pressure at rest and during exercise, parental smoking, and other familial risk factors were investigated in 532 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years (14.6±1.5 years) in the Kiel EX.PRESS. (EXercise PRESSure) Study. Exercise blood pressure was determined at 1.5 W/kg body weight using a standardized submaximal cycle ergometer test. Mean resting blood pressure was 113.1±12.8/57.2±7.1 mm Hg, and exercise blood pressure was 149.9±19.8/54.2±8.6 mm Hg. Parental smoking increased exercise systolic blood pressure (+4.0 mm Hg, 3.1 to 4.9; P=0.03) but not resting blood pressure of the subjects (adjusted for age, sex, height, body mass index percentile, fitness). Parental overweight and familial hypertension were related to both higher resting and exercise systolic blood pressure values, whereas associations with an inactive lifestyle and a low educational level of the parents were found only with adolescents’ blood pressure during exercise. The cumulative effect of familial risk factors on exercise systolic blood pressure was more pronounced than on blood pressure at rest. Conclusions Parental smoking might be a novel risk factor for higher blood pressure, especially during exercise. In addition, systolic blood pressure during a submaximal exercise test was more closely associated with familial risk factors than was resting blood pressure, even in adolescents. PMID:25964207

  3. Prevalence of Internet Addiction and Correlations with Family Factors among South Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Soo Kyung; Kim, Jae Yop; Cho, Choon Bum

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of Internet addiction among South Korean adolescents and explored family factors associated with such addiction. The study participants were middle and high school students residing in Seoul. One-tenth (10.7%) of the 903 adolescents surveyed scored at least 70 on the Internet Addiction Scale. These youths…

  4. Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse: Prevalence and Correlates among Adolescents Living in Rural Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Mei-Sang; Yang, Ming-Jen; Su, Yi-Ching; Wang, Mei-Hua; Lan, Chu-Mei

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aims of this cross-sectional survey study were to examine the prevalence and correlates of childhood physical and sexual abuse in adolescents living in the rural areas of Taiwan. Method: A sample of indigenous (n = 756) and non-indigenous (n = 928) adolescents was randomly selected from junior high schools in the rural areas of…

  5. Prevalence and Determinants of Suicide Ideation among Lebanese Adolescents: Results of the GSHS Lebanon 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahfoud, Ziyad R.; Afifi, Rema A.; Haddad, Pascale H.; DeJong, Jocelyn

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined prevalence and risk factors for suicide ideation in 5038 Lebanese adolescents using Global School Health Survey data. Around 16% of Lebanese adolescents thought of suicide. Multivariate logistic regression models showed that risk factors for suicide ideation included poor mental health (felt lonely, felt worried, felt…

  6. Prevalence of Obesity-Related Chronic Health Conditions in Overweight Adolescents with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaki, Kiyoshi; Rimmer, James H.; Lowry, Brienne D.; Vogel, Lawrence C.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of 15 common obesity-related chronic health conditions was examined in a convenience sample of adolescents, ages 12-18 years old, with mobility and non-mobility limitations (n=208 and 435, respectively). In both groups, overweight adolescents (BMI[greater than or equal to] 85th %ile) had a significantly higher number of…

  7. Exploration of the Prevalence and Correlates of Substance Use among Sheltered Adolescents in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sookyung; Kim, Hae Sung; Kim, Haeryun; Sung, Kgu-taik

    2007-01-01

    Substance use among sheltered adolescents is very serious in South Korea--a nation in the process of rapid industrialization and urbanization. However, few studies have investigated substance use among the adolescents which is a growing concern of the changing society of this nation. This study examined the prevalence of substance use and explored…

  8. Ethnicity and Adolescent Depression: Prevalence, Access to Services, and Promising Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagstaff, Amanda E.; Polo, Antonio J.

    2012-01-01

    Depression is more common among adolescents of ethnic minority backgrounds, who also are less likely to receive professional help. This article presents information about prevalence of depression and service use across ethnic groups, and then outlines several promising intervention programs that are designed for adolescents suffering from…

  9. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury and Gender: Patterns of Prevalence, Methods, and Locations among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sornberger, Michael J.; Heath, Nancy L.; Toste, Jessica R.; McLouth, Rusty

    2012-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among adolescents is a growing concern. However, little is known about gender and features of this behavior. Gender differences in NSSI among a sample of 7,126 adolescents were investigated, 1,774 of whom reported having engaged in NSSI. Gender differences in prevalence, method, and location of NSSI were examined.…

  10. Prevalence and Sociodemographic Correlates of Lifetime Substance Use among a Rural and Diverse Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Michael J.; Drescher, Christopher F.; Smitherman, Todd A.; Tull, Matthew T.; Heiden, Laurie; Damon, John D.; Hight, Terry L.; Young, John

    2013-01-01

    Background: Data are limited regarding the prevalence of substance use among adolescents in rural and ethnically diverse communities. This study examined rates and sociodemographic correlates of lifetime substance use among adolescents in Mississippi, a rural state that is the poorest in the country (21.3% poverty rate) and has the largest…

  11. Workplace and home smoking restrictions and racial/ethnic variation in the prevalence and intensity of current cigarette smoking among women by poverty status, TUS‐CPS 1998–1999 and 2001–2002

    PubMed Central

    Shavers, Vickie L; Fagan, Pebbles; Alexander, Linda A Jouridine; Clayton, Richard; Doucet, Jennifer; Baezconde‐Garbanati, Lourdes

    2006-01-01

    Study objective Recognition of the health consequences of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke has led government agencies and many employers to establish policies that restrict cigarette smoking in public and workplaces. This cross sectional study examines the association of workplace smoking policies and home smoking restrictions with current smoking among women. Design Participants were employed US women ages 18–64 who were self respondents to the 1998–1999 or 2000–2001 tobacco use supplement to the current population survey supplements. Cross tabulations and multivariate logistic regression analyses examine the association of selected demographic characteristics, occupation, income, workplace and home smoking policies/restrictions with current smoking, consumption patterns, and quit attempts among women by poverty level for five race/ethnic groups. Main results The prevalence of either having an official workplace or home smoking policy that completely banned smoking increased with increased distance from the poverty level threshold. A complete ban on home smoking was more frequently reported by African American and Hispanic women although Hispanic women less frequently reported an official workplace smoking policy. In general, policies that permitted smoking in the work area or at home were associated with a higher prevalence of current smoking but this varied by poverty level and race/ethnicity. Home smoking policies that permitted smoking were associated with lower adjusted odds of having a least one quit attempt for nearly all poverty level categories but there was no association between having one quit attempt and workplace policies. Conclusion Home smoking policies were more consistently associated with a lower prevalence of current smoking irrespective of poverty status or race/ethnicity than workplace policies. These findings underscore the importance of examining tobacco control policies in multiple domains (work and home) as well as by race

  12. Prevalence of asthma–COPD overlap syndrome among primary care asthmatics with a smoking history: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kiljander, Toni; Helin, Timo; Venho, Kari; Jaakkola, Antero; Lehtimäki, Lauri

    2015-01-01

    Background: The overlap between asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an important clinical phenomenon. However, the prevalence of asthma–COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) is not known. Aims: To investigate the prevalence of ACOS among asthmatic patients with a smoking history, and evaluate the factors predicting ACOS in this patient group. Methods: We investigated 190 primary care asthma patients with no previous diagnosis of COPD, but who were either current or ex-smokers, with a smoking history of at least 10 pack-years. Spirometry was performed on all the patients while they were taking their normal asthma medication. Patients were considered to have ACOS if their postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity was <0.70. Results: Fifty-two (27.4%) of the patients were found to have ACOS. Age ⩾60 years and smoking for ⩾20 pack-years were the best predictors of ACOS. If both of these criteria were met, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for ACOS was 6.08 (2.11–17.49), compared with the situation where neither of these criteria were fulfilled. Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of ACOS among primary health care asthmatics with a positive smoking history but no previous diagnosis of COPD. In this population, age over 60 years and a smoking history of more than 20 pack-years were the best predictors of ACOS. PMID:26182124

  13. Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... harms nearly every organ of the body. Cigarette smoking causes 87 percent of lung cancer deaths. It is also responsible for many other ... you quit, the greater the benefit. NIH: National Cancer Institute

  14. Changes in Smoking Prevalence, Attitudes, and Beliefs over 4 Years Following a Campus-Wide Anti-Tobacco Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lechner, William V.; Meier, Ellen; Miller, Mary Beth; Wiener, Josh L.; Fils-Aime, Yvon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined the effectiveness of an institutional intervention aimed at decreasing prevalence of tobacco use and exposure to smoke on campus over a 4-year period. Participants: Participants were undergraduate students (N = 4,947) enrolled at a large Midwestern university between 2007 and 2010. Methods: In 2008, tobacco…

  15. [What measures can be taken to reduce the number of smoking adolescents and young women?].

    PubMed

    Errard-Lalande, G; Halimi, A

    2005-04-01

    A proper understanding of the factors exposing adolescents and young women to the risk of smoking dependence is necessary to develop effective preventive measures. These measures will be different depending on whether they are designed for adolescents and young women in general or for the context of pregnancy. For adolescents, efforts should be continued to provide information about smoking and the dangers of tobacco as well as about the social manipulation involved. The image of a natural, active woman, free of tobacco and capable of making her own decisions should be promoted. Health education and communication professionals should make use of different media with an audience among the young. Messages should be validated with a target population before diffusion. A better coherence between the adult and young populations concerning legal obligations and mutual respect is significantly useful. Educational structures (schools and universities) should participate in long-term community projects implicating peer groups and trained professionals. Values which should be reinforced include self-esteem, affirmation of personal competence and difference, self-respect and respect of others. Early identification of factors favoring psychosocial vulnerability at this age is indispensable to facilitate referral to professional support and care centers, the number of which remains insufficient to date. Support when ceasing smoking, based on individual and group assistance, should take into account the individual's phase of maturation, and must be proposed and operated by trained professionals working in a network. During pregnancy, it is crucial to recognize that the woman's specific physical and psychological situation is a unique opportunity to propose a new approach to smoking, taking into consideration the fragile context during this period of maturation and its impact on the woman's general life. Beyond sociopolitical measures and a philosophical debate on the position of

  16. Cigarette pack design and adolescent smoking susceptibility: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Allison; MacKintosh, Anne Marie; Moodie, Crawford; Richardson, Sol; Hastings, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To compare adolescents’ responses to three different styles of cigarette packaging: novelty (branded packs designed with a distinctive shape, opening style or bright colour), regular (branded pack with no special design features) and plain (brown pack with a standard shape and opening and all branding removed, aside from brand name). Design Cross-sectional in-home survey. Setting UK. Participants Random location quota sample of 1025 never smokers aged 11–16 years. Main outcome measures Susceptibility to smoking and composite measures of pack appraisal and pack receptivity derived from 11 survey items. Results Mean responses to the three pack types were negative for all survey items. However, ‘novelty’ packs were rated significantly less negatively than the ‘regular’ pack on most items, and the novelty and regular packs were rated less negatively than the ‘plain’ pack. For the novelty packs, logistic regressions, controlling for factors known to influence youth smoking, showed that susceptibility was associated with positive appraisal and also receptivity. For example, those receptive to the innovative Silk Cut Superslims pack were more than four times as likely to be susceptible to smoking than those not receptive to this pack (AOR=4.42, 95% CI 2.50 to 7.81, p<0.001). For the regular pack, an association was found between positive appraisal and susceptibility but not with receptivity and susceptibility. There was no association with pack appraisal or receptivity for the plain pack. Conclusions Pack structure (shape and opening style) and colour are independently associated, not just with appreciation of and receptivity to the pack, but also with susceptibility to smoke. In other words, those who think most highly of novelty cigarette packaging are also the ones who indicate that they are most likely to go on to smoke. Plain packaging, in contrast, was found to directly reduce the appeal of smoking to adolescents. PMID:24056481

  17. Peer Influences: The Impact of Online and Offline Friendship Networks on Adolescent Smoking and Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Grace C.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Soto, Daniel; Fujimoto, Kayo; Pentz, Mary Ann; Jordan-Marsh, Maryalice; Valente, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Online social networking sites (SNSs) have become a popular mode of communication between adolescents. However, little is known about the effects of social online activity on health behaviors. The authors examine the use of SNSs between friends and the degree to which SNS activities relate to face-to-face peer influences and adolescent risk behaviors. Methods Longitudinal egocentric friendship network data along with adolescent social media use and risk behaviors were collected from 1,563 tenth grade students across five Southern California high schools. Measures of online and offline peer influences were computed and assessed using fixed effects models. Results The frequency of adolescent SNS use and the number of their closest friends on the same SNS were not significantly associated with risk behaviors. However, exposure to friends’ online pictures of partying or drinking was significantly associated with both smoking (β=.07, p<.001) and alcohol use (β=.08, p<.05). While adolescents with drinking friends had higher risk levels for drinking, adolescents without drinking friends were more likely to be affected by increasing exposure to risky online pictures (β=−.10, p<.10). Myspace and Facebook had demographically distinct user characteristics and had differential effects on risk behaviors. Conclusions Exposure to risky online content had a direct impact on adolescents’ risk behaviors and significantly interacted with risk behaviors of their friends. These results provide evidence that friends’ online behaviors should be considered a viable source of peer influence and that increased efforts should focus on educating adolescents on the negative effects of risky online displays. PMID:24012065

  18. Prevalence of Bulimic Behaviors and Trends in Eating Attitudes among Turkish Late Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiziltan, Gul; Karabudak, Efsun; Unver, Sibel; Sezgin, Emine; Unal, Ayse

    2006-01-01

    The eating attitudes and the prevalence of bulimic behaviors in a group of 300 late adolescents were investigated using the key questions from the Bulimia Investigatory Test, Edinburgh (BITE), and additional questions. Only four subjects (1.3%) scored above the cut-off point on the BITE, and prevalence rates of males and females were the same.…

  19. Prevalence of Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders in Chile: A Community Epidemiological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicente, Benjamin; Saldivia, Sandra; de la Barra, Flora; Kohn, Robert; Pihan, Ronaldo; Valdivia, Mario; Rioseco, Pedro; Melipillan, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Background: In Latin America, there is limited research on the prevalence of mental disorders in children and adolescents. This Chilean survey is the first national representative survey in the Latin American region to examine the prevalence of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV (DSM-IV) psychiatric disorders in the region in children and…

  20. Susceptibility to Smoking among Adolescents and Its Implications for Mexico’s Tobacco Control Programs. Analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2003–2004 and 2006–2007

    PubMed Central

    Valdés-Salgado, Raydel; Reynales-Shiguematsu, Luz Myriam; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo C; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio

    2009-01-01

    Smoking prevention efforts should either prevent target groups from becoming susceptible to smoking or prevent susceptible adolescents from progressing to becoming regular smokers. To describe the prevalence of susceptibility to smoking among never smoker students from cities that applied the GYTS in 2003 and 2006. The GYTS uses a two-stage cluster sample survey design that produces representative samples of students aged 12–15 years enrolled in public, private, and technical schools. The survey was undertaken at 399 schools in 9 cities. The GYTS surveyed 33,297 students during the academic years 2003–04 and 2006–07. Among never smokers, about 25% are likely to initiate smoking in the next 12 months. There are no differences in susceptibility to smoking by gender. When comparing results from 2003 and 2006, the susceptibility index has not changed, but for one city. The GYTS results are useful for monitoring susceptibility to smoking among adolescents and provide evidence for strengthening the efforts of tobacco control programs in Mexico. PMID:19440444

  1. Web-based support as an adjunct to group-based smoking cessation for adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Mermelstein, Robin; Turner, Lindsey

    2008-01-01

    Although group-based programs remain the most common treatment approach for adolescent smoking cessation, success rates for these programs have been relatively modest, and their reach may be limited. Web-based adjuncts may be one way to boost the efficacy and reach of group-based approaches. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of enhancing the American Lung Association’s Not on Tobacco program (NOT) with a Web-based adjunct (NOT Plus). Twenty-nine high schools were randomly assigned to either the NOT program alone or to the NOT Plus condition, which included access to a specially designed Web site for teens, along with proactive phone calls from the group facilitator to the participant. Self-reported smoking behavior was obtained at end-of-program and at a 3-month follow-up. Using hierarchical linear modeling, accounting for the clustering of students in schools, and controlling for student gender, grade, race, and baseline smoking rate, there was a marginally significant (p = .06) condition effect at end-of-treatment and a significant effect at 3-month follow-up (p < .05) favoring the NOT Plus condition. Approximately 57% of adolescents reported visiting the Web site, and among the NOT Plus condition, use of the Web site was associated with cessation significantly at end-of-program (p < .05), but not at 3 months. Adolescents in urban schools were more likely to access the Web site than those in rural schools. Participants who visited the Web site rated it positively on several dimensions. Reasons for not using the Web site will be discussed, as well as its value as an adjunct. PMID:17491173

  2. Design and Implementation of an Effective Telephone Counseling Intervention for Adolescent Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Ludman, Evette J.; Marek, Patrick M.; Mann, Sue L.; Bricker, Jonathan B.; Peterson, Arthur V.

    2009-01-01

    Background Effective smoking cessation for youth is urgently needed, but the literature guiding such efforts is nascent. We evaluated the implementation of a proactive intervention for adolescent smoking cessation that incorporated motivational interviewing (MI) and cognitive behavioral skills training (CBST). Methods We proactively identified 1058 smokers via classroom survey of enrolled juniors in 25 experimental high schools. After parental consent was obtained, trained counselors telephoned participants to invite their participation and deliver personalized smoking cessation counseling that combined MI and CBST. Implementation quality was assessed via weekly supervision of counselors, monitoring of counselor adherence to protocol via review of 5% of each counselor’s calls, and formal evaluation of counselor fidelity to MI via review of a random sample of 19.8% of counseling calls using the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity Code. Results Among identified smokers, 948 (89.6%) were eligible for intervention by age (≥18 years) or parental consent, 736 (70%) agreed to participate in telephone counseling, 691 (65%) completed one or more counseling calls, and 499 (47%) completed all planned calls. Telephone delivery of the personalized MI and CBST counseling intervention to a general population of adolescents was done with greater than 90% adherence to the intervention protocol. Review of the random sample of counselors’ calls demonstrated that more than 85% of counselors’ calls met or exceeded benchmark scores for four of six evaluated behaviors: MI spirit (99.1%), empathy (96.2%), ratio of reflections to questions (97.2%), and MI adherent (85.7%). Conclusion An effective proactive telephone counseling intervention consisting of MI and CBST can be successfully implemented with reach and fidelity in a general population of adolescent smokers. PMID:19822837

  3. Prevalence of low back pain in adolescent athletes - an epidemiological investigation.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, C P; Zwingenberger, S; Walther, A; Reuter, U; Kasten, P; Seifert, J; Günther, K-P; Stiehler, M

    2014-07-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a common symptom in the populations of western countries, and adolescent athletes seem to be prone to LBP. The main objective of this study was to analyze the point (LBP within the last 48 h), 1-year (LBP within the last 12 months) and lifetime (LBP within the entire life) prevalence rates of LBP in adolescent athletes participating in various sports. We also assessed the characteristics of LBP and its association with potential risk factors. To this end, 272 competitive adolescent athletes involved in 31 different sports (158 males, 113 females, 15.4 ± 2.0 years, body mass index [BMI] 20.3 ± 2.4 kg/m(2)) were enrolled in a 10-month prospective clinical trial that included a questionnaire and physical examination. We found a point prevalence of 14%, a 1-year prevalence of 57%, and a lifetime prevalence of 66% for LBP. The mean age of first appearance of LBP was 13.1 ± 2.0 years. The lifetime prevalence was significantly higher in volleyball than in biathletes (74.3 vs. 45.7%, p = 0.015). Our findings confirm that LBP is a common symptom in adolescent athletes; LBP prevalence correlates with sports participation and individual competitive level. Adolescent athletes with LBP should receive a thorough diagnostic work-up and adapt training and technique correspondingly when indicated. PMID:24424960

  4. Prevalence of acne vulgaris in Chinese adolescents and adults: a community-based study of 17,345 subjects in six cities.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yiwei; Wang, Tinglin; Zhou, Cheng; Wang, Xiaoyan; Ding, Xiaolan; Tian, Shan; Liu, Ying; Peng, Guanghui; Xue, Shuqi; Zhou, June; Wang, Renli; Meng, Xuemei; Pei, Guangde; Bai, Yunhua; Liu, Qing; Li, Hang; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2012-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition in adolescents. The prevalence of acne is thought to vary between ethnic groups and countries. A large-scale community-based study was performed in six cities in China to determine the prevalence and possible risk factors for acne in the Chinese population. A total of 17,345 inhabitants were included in this study. Of these, 1,399 were found to have acne. No acne was found in subjects under 10 years of age, and only 1.6% in the 10-year-old group had acne. Prevalence then increased rapidly with age, up to 46.8% in the 19-year-old group. After that, it declined gradually with age. Acne was rare in people over 50 years of age. In subjects in their late teens and 20s, acne was more prevalent in males, while in those over 30 years of age it was more prevalent in females. In subjects with acne, 68.4% had mild; 26.0% had moderate and 5.6% had severe acne. In adult acne, persistent acne was much more common (83.3%) than late-onset acne (16.7%). Smoking and drinking were found to be associated with adolescent acne, while no association was found between diet and acne. These results suggest that the prevalence of acne in the Chinese population is lower than that in Caucasian populations, and that adult acne is not uncommon in Chinese subjects. PMID:21710106

  5. Approximating a Giving Up Smoking Dynamic on Adolescent Nicotine Dependence in Fractional Order

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we consider giving up smoking dynamic on adolescent nicotine dependence. First, we use the Caputo derivative to develop the model in fractional order. Then we apply two different numerical methods to compute accurate approximate solutions of this new model in fractional order and compare their results. In order to do this, we consider the generalized Euler method (GEM) and multi-step generalized differential transform method (MSGDTM). We also show the unique positive solution for this model and present numerical results graphically. PMID:27105426

  6. Approximating a Giving Up Smoking Dynamic on Adolescent Nicotine Dependence in Fractional Order.

    PubMed

    Zeb, Anwar; Zaman, Gul; Erturk, Vedat Suat; Alzalg, Baha; Yousafzai, Faisal; Khan, Madad

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we consider giving up smoking dynamic on adolescent nicotine dependence. First, we use the Caputo derivative to develop the model in fractional order. Then we apply two different numerical methods to compute accurate approximate solutions of this new model in fractional order and compare their results. In order to do this, we consider the generalized Euler method (GEM) and multi-step generalized differential transform method (MSGDTM). We also show the unique positive solution for this model and present numerical results graphically. PMID:27105426

  7. Prevalence of and factors associated with daily smoking among Inner Mongolia medical students in China: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To date, no study on smoking behavior of medical students in Inner Mongolia has been reported. The aim of the present study was to determine the 1-month prevalence of and factors associated with daily smoking among medical students in Inner Mongolia of China, to assist interventions designed to reduce the smoking behavior of medical college students in this region. Methods During December 2010 and January 2011 a cross-sectional survey was conducted among medical students at the Inner Mongolia Medical College using a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of three sections: students’ basic information, attitude on smoking behavior, and smoking status of the student daily smokers. Students who smoked every day in the last 30 days were regarded as daily smokers. Factors associated with smoking were identified using binary logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 6044 valid surveys were returned. The overall prevalence of daily smoking was 9.8% while the prevalence of daily smoking among males and females were 29.4% and 1.7%, respectively. Males in the Faculty of Medicine Information Management had the highest daily smoking rate (48.9%). Logistic regression models found that the main factors associated with daily smoking among male medical students were highest year of study (OR = 3.62; CI: 1.18–11.05); attitude towards smoking behavior Do not care about people smoking around you (OR = 2.75; CI: 2.08–3.64); and Smoking is harmful to their health (OR = 4.40; CI: 2.21–8.75). The main factor associated with daily smoking among female medical students was attitude towards smoking behavior Eliminate smoking on campus (OR = 0.11; CI: 0.06–0.23). Both for male and female medical students, there was no association between ethnicity and cigarette daily smoking. In regard to smoking status, more than 60% of daily smokers began smoking in high school, 61.3% smoked less than 5 cigarettes per day, 62.9% of the

  8. Pricing Policies And Control of Tobacco in Europe (PPACTE) project: cross-national comparison of smoking prevalence in 18 European countries.

    PubMed

    Gallus, Silvano; Lugo, Alessandra; La Vecchia, Carlo; Boffetta, Paolo; Chaloupka, Frank J; Colombo, Paolo; Currie, Laura; Fernandez, Esteve; Fischbacher, Colin; Gilmore, Anna; Godfrey, Fiona; Joossens, Luk; Leon, Maria E; Levy, David T; Nguyen, Lien; Rosenqvist, Gunnar; Ross, Hana; Townsend, Joy; Clancy, Luke

    2014-05-01

    Limited data on smoking prevalence allowing valid between-country comparison are available in Europe. The aim of this study is to provide data on smoking prevalence and its determinants in 18 European countries. In 2010, within the Pricing Policies And Control of Tobacco in Europe (PPACTE) project, we conducted a face-to-face survey on smoking in 18 European countries (Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Croatia, England, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain and Sweden) on a total of 18 056 participants, representative for each country of the population aged 15 years or older. Overall, 27.2% of the participants were current smokers (30.6% of men and 24.1% of women). Smoking prevalence was highest in Bulgaria (40.9%) and Greece (38.9%) and lowest in Italy (22.0%) and Sweden (16.3%). Smoking prevalence ranged between 15.7% (Sweden) and 44.3% (Bulgaria) for men and between 11.6% (Albania) and 38.1% (Ireland) for women. Multivariate analysis showed a significant inverse trend between smoking prevalence and the level of education in both sexes. Male-to-female smoking prevalence ratios ranged from 0.85 in Spain to 3.47 in Albania and current-to-ex prevalence ratios ranged from 0.68 in Sweden to 4.28 in Albania. There are considerable differences across Europe in smoking prevalence, and male-to-female and current-to-ex smoking prevalence ratios. Eastern European countries, lower income countries and those with less advanced tobacco control policies have less favourable smoking patterns and are at an earlier stage of the tobacco epidemic. PMID:24441832

  9. Determinants of oral cancer at the national level: just a question of smoking and alcohol drinking prevalence?

    PubMed

    Petti, Stefano; Scully, Crispian

    2010-07-01

    In addition to individual-based prevention strategies, the burden of oral cancer could be decreased by controlling its national level determinants. Population-based studies have found smoking, drinking, and wealth to be associated with oral cancer incidence and mortality rates. However, these studies merely reported trends, or did not account for confounders or for intercorrelation between predictor variables. This ecologic study sought to investigate oral cancer determinants at the country level. The male, age-standardized mortality rate was the dependent variable. The explanatory variables, obtained from reliable international agencies, were life expectancy, frequency of physicians, gross national product (GNP), expenditure on health, literacy rate, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence, smoking prevalence, alcohol drinking prevalence, drinking modality, average daily calorie consumption, and average calorie intake from fruit and vegetables. Common factor analysis was used to generate a new dimension that incorporated all of the strongly intercorrelated variables. These were life expectancy, physician frequency, GNP, expenditure on health, literacy rate, calorie consumption, smoking prevalence, and drinking modality. According to this dimension, arbitrarily called the country development level (CDL), countries were split into quartiles. The ecologic risk for high mortality from oral cancer, estimated using logistic regression analysis, was three to five times higher among the second, third, and fourth CDL quartiles than among the first CDL quartile, which included the highest-income countries. HIV, drinking prevalence, and fruit and vegetable intake did not affect significantly mortality. These results suggest that it might be possible to improve oral cancer mortality by modifying country-based determinants related to aberrant lifestyles (not only smoking and drinking prevalence) and improving healthcare system efficiency, approximately estimated by CDL

  10. The roles of sex, anxious reactivity to bodily arousal, and anxiety sensitivity in coping motives for cigarette smoking among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bilsky, Sarah A; Feldner, Matthew T; Knapp, Ashley A; Rojas, Sasha M; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W

    2016-06-01

    Evidence suggests that smoking to cope among adolescents is associated with a number of problematic outcomes (e.g., greater smoking frequency, higher rates of dependence). It is thus imperative to better understand factors that may increase the likelihood of smoking to cope among adolescents. Research suggests anxiety sensitivity (AS) is associated with smoking to cope among adults, although the link between AS and coping motives for cigarette use among youth is less clear. Gender differences have also been noted in AS. The current study investigates this association using a biological challenge paradigm. Specifically, the indirect effects of anxious reactivity to bodily arousal on the relation between the physical and mental AS factors and coping motives for cigarette smoking were examined within a sample of 108 adolescent cigarette smokers. Gender was examined as a moderator. Results suggested significant indirect effects of self-reported anxiety in response to bodily arousal on the relation between physical AS and coping motives for cigarette smoking. This indirect effect was moderated by gender, such that it was significant for females but not males. Models examining AS mental concerns and psychophysiological responding to the challenge were not significant. These results suggest that, relative to their low AS counterparts, female adolescents high in physical concerns respond with elevated anxiety in response to interoceptive arousal and, in turn, endorse elevated coping-related smoking motives. Findings are discussed in terms of implications for understanding the nature and origins of coping-related smoking motives and how such information can be used to inform intervention efforts. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27054780

  11. Exploration of the prevalence and correlates of substance use among sheltered adolescents in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Sookyung; Kim, Hae Sung; Kim, Haeryun; Sung, Kgu-taik

    2007-01-01

    Substance use among sheltered adolescents is very serious in South Korea--a nation in the process of rapid industrialization and urbanization. However, few studies have investigated substance use among the adolescents which is a growing concern of the changing society of this nation. This study examined the prevalence of substance use and explored risk factors that predict substance abuse by sheltered adolescents. Through a questionnaire survey of sheltered adolescents, data on substance use and the risk factors were collected. The sample of the adolescents included 44 (33.3%) males and 88 (67.2%) females; their mean age was 15.8 years (SD = 1.62). The results of a logistic regression analysis showed that alcohol expectancy, physical abuse, and peer pressure were all statistically significantly associated with substance abuse. Findings on the critical issues are expected to lead to the development of urgently needed prevention programs for the high-risk adolescents in South Korea. PMID:18047242

  12. An exploratory randomized controlled trial of a novel high-school-based smoking cessation intervention for adolescent smokers using abstinence-contingent incentives and cognitive behavioral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cavallo, Dana A.; Cooney, Judith L.; Schepis, Ty S.; Kong, Grace; Liss, Thomas B.; Liss, Amanda K.; McMahon, Thomas J.; Nich, Charla; Babuscio, Theresa; Rounsaville, Bruce J.; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Background There are few effective smoking cessation interventions for adolescent smokers. We developed a novel intervention to motivate tobacco use behavior change by 1) enhancing desire to quit through the use of abstinence-contingent incentives (CM), 2) increasing cessation skills through the use of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and 3) removing cessation barriers through delivery within high schools. Methods An exploratory four-week, randomized controlled trial was conducted in Connecticut high schools to dismantle the independent and combined effects of CM and CBT; smokers received CM alone, CBT alone, or CM+CBT. Participants included 82 adolescent smokers seeking smoking cessation treatment. The primary outcome was seven-day end-of-treatment (EOT) point prevalence (PP) abstinence, determined using self-reports confirmed using urine cotinine levels. Secondary outcomes included one-day EOT PP abstinence and cigarette use during treatment and follow up. Results Among participants who initiated treatment (n=72), group differences in seven-day EOT-PP abstinence were observed (χ2=10.48, p<0.01) with higher abstinence in the CM+CBT (36.7%) and CM (36.3%) conditions when compared with CBT (0%). One-day EOT-PP abstinence evidenced similar effects (χ2= 10·39, p<0·01; CM+CBT: 43%, CM: 43%, CBT: 4·3%). Survival analyses indicated differences in time to first cigarette during treatment (χ2=8·73, p =·003; CBT: Day 3, CM: Day 9, CM+CBT: Day 20). At one-and three-month follow ups, while no differences were observed, the CM alone group had the slowest increase in cigarette use. Conclusions High-school, incentive-based smoking cessation interventions produce high rates of short-term abstinence among adolescent smokers; adding cognitive behavioral therapy does not appear to further enhance outcomes. PMID:23523130

  13. Analysis of the Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Hearing Loss in Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seok Min; Park, Il-Seok; Kim, Yong Bok; Hong, Seok Jin; Lee, Byungho

    2016-01-01

    Background Hearing loss can lead to a number of disabilities, subsequently reducing the quality of life. In general, hearing thresholds of adolescents are better than adults and the elderly. However, occasionally, adolescents acquire hearing loss for a number of reasons. In this study, our goal was to estimate the prevalence of hearing loss in the Korean population and to investigate the factors related to hearing thresholds in adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) between 2010 and 2012. We enrolled a total of 1,658 participants, ages 13 to 18 years. We investigated the prevalence of hearing loss and the factors associated with hearing thresholds at various frequencies (0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 KHz). Results Weighted prevalence of unilateral and bilateral hearing loss in Korean adolescents was 2.2% and 0.4%, respectively. Weighted prevalence of hearing thresholds ≥ 20 dB at speech and high frequencies were 3.1% and 5.0%, respectively, for unilateral hearing loss and 0.7% and 1.9%, respectively, for bilateral. Age group, tympanometric data, and household income were significantly related to unilateral or bilateral hearing thresholds ≥ 20 dB at speech frequencies. Earphone use in noisy places was associated with bilateral hearing thresholds ≥ 20 dB at high frequencies. Conclusions The prevalence of hearing loss in Korean adolescents was 2.6% using the general standard threshold associated with hearing loss. However, the prevalence of hearing thresholds ≥ 20 dB for speech and high frequencies was much higher. The results from this study provide an estimate of hearing loss in adolescents and suggest the need for early detection and hearing preservation programs among adolescents. PMID:27513659

  14. A Study of Smoking Disparity and Factors Associated with Children Smoking Behavior in the Mountain and City Schools in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hsiao-Ling; Chen, Ted; Chen, Fu-Li; Magnus, Jeanette; Rice, Janet; Yen, Yea-Yin; Hsu, Chih-Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Background: While higher smoking prevalences have been better described for adults and adolescents in the mountainous areas than in the plain area in Taiwan, no studies have previously examined whether this disparity begins with children in elementary schools. The purpose of this study was thus designed to explore clustering in smoking behavior…

  15. Prevalence of Eating Disorders Among Adolescents in the Northwest of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rauof, Maryam; Ebrahimi, Hossein; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Malek, Ayyoub; Babapour Kheiroddin, Jalil

    2015-01-01

    Background: Perceived sociocultural pressure to be thin has an important impact on disordered eating during early and middle adolescence, but less is known about late adolescence. Adolescents face special problems that are less common during childhood. Several studies indicate that the prevalence of eating disorders has been increased among adolescents. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence, prevalence and correlates of eating disorders (ED) among adolescents in two cities of Iran, Urmia and Tabriz. Patients and Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey in which 1990 adolescent boys and girls were selected through multistage random sampling. The study was based on self-report questionnaires including eating attitudes test (EAT-26) and DSM-IV criteria for the presence of eating disorders. To analyze the obtained data we calculated measures of central tendency and dispersion, linear and logistic regression and Fisher’s exact test. Results: According to diagnostic criteria of EAT-26, 492 students (24.2%) were at risk of ED and scored above the recommended cut-off point on EAT-26. Among 1990 students, a total of 51 cases (0.25%) of eating disorder (14 anorexia nervosa, 18 bulimia nervosa, and 19 eating disorder not otherwise specified) were diagnosed. Conclusions: The obtained prevalence of ED in our study was higher than previous studies in Iran. We found high numbers of boys with ED. Overweight adolescents were shown to be more susceptible to strict dieting than normal-weight adolescents. These results suggest that it is necessary to provide screening and treatment services for Iranian adolescents. Further research is needed to develop intervention programs to control eating disorders among Iranian adolescents. PMID:26568851

  16. Obesity, school obesity prevalence, and adolescent childbearing among U.S. young women.

    PubMed

    Kane, Jennifer B; Frisco, Michelle L

    2013-07-01

    In the United States, adolescent obesity reduces young women's odds of forming romantic and sexual partnerships but increases the likelihood of risky sexual behavior when partnerships occur. This led us to conduct a study examining the relationship between adolescent obesity and adolescent childbearing. Our study has two aims. We draw from prior research to develop and test competing hypotheses about the association between adolescent obesity and young women's risk of an adolescent birth. Drawing from risk regulation theory, we also examine whether the association between obesity and young women's risk of an adolescent birth may vary across high schools with different proportions of obese adolescents. Multilevel logistic regression models are used to analyze data from 4242 female students in 102 U.S. high schools who participated in Wave I (1994-1995) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Results are the first to show that obesity reduces female adolescents' odds of childbearing, but that this association is not uniform across schools with different proportions of obese students. As the obesity prevalence in a school increases, so do obese young women's odds of childbearing. We conclude that understanding whether and how obesity is associated with young women's odds of having an adolescent birth requires attention to the weight context of high schools. PMID:23702216

  17. Smoking-attributable mortality and years of potential life lost in 16 Brazilian capitals, 2003: a prevalence-based study

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa, Paulo CRP; Barreto, Sandhi M; Passos, Valéria MA

    2009-01-01

    Background To establish the impact of tobacco smoking on mortality is essential to define and monitor public health interventions in developing countries. Methods The Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity and Economic Costs (SAMMEC) software was used to estimate the smoking attributable mortality (SAM) in 15 Brazilian State Capitals and the Federal District for the year 2003. Smoking prevalence and mortality data of people aged 35 years or older were obtained for each city from the Brazilian Household Survey on Non Communicable Diseases Risk Factors (2002–2003) and from the Brazilian Mortality System (2003), respectively. Results In 2003, of the 177,543 deaths of persons aged 35 years and older 24,222 (13.64%) were attributable to cigarette smoking. This total represents 18.08% of all male deaths (n = 16,896) and 8.71% (n = 7,326) of all female deaths in these cities. The four leading causes of smoking-attributable death were chronic airways obstruction (4,419 deaths), ischemic heart disease (4,417 deaths), lung cancer (3,682 deaths), and cerebrovascular disease (3,202 deaths). Cigarette smoking accounted for 419,935 years of potential life lost (YPLL) (279,990 YPLL for men and 139,945 YPLL for women) in the same period. Conclusion Tobacco use caused one out of five male deaths and one out of ten female deaths in the sixteen cities in 2003. Four leading causes of smoking attributable deaths (ischemic heart disease, chronic airways obstruction, lung cancer and cerebrovascular disease) accounted for 64.9% of SAM. Effective and comprehensive actions must be taken in order to slow this epidemic in Brazil. PMID:19558658

  18. Empirical development of brief smoking prevention videotapes which target African-American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sussman, S; Parker, V C; Lopes, C; Crippens, D L; Elder, P; Scholl, D

    1995-07-01

    Two studies are described which provide evaluations for two brief videotapes developed as supplemental materials in the prevention of tobacco use among African-American adolescents. One videotape (the "soap opera") provides a more general audience-oriented presentation of prevention material and it was filmed primarily at a shopping mall, whereas the other videotape (the "rap") provides a "hip-hop generation" presentation, and it was filmed primarily at an outdoor hangout. The first study compared the two videotapes against each other. The second study compared the two videotapes combined in the same presentation, controlling for order of presentation, against a discussion group control. The results of the two studies indicated few differences in receptivity to the two videotapes among primarily African-American and Latino young adolescents. The rap videotape was rated as more accurate in its depiction of the African-American lifestyle, although both videotapes were equally liked. When shown together, the videotapes were not found to be superior in decreasing behavioral intention to smoke compared to a discussion group control. No change in trial of smoking was observed within or across conditions measured over a pre-post summer interval. These data suggest that "culturally sensitive" videotapes have no more of a short-term effect on youth than do other types of brief interventions which involve minority implementers. PMID:7591353

  19. Prevalence of Mobile Phone Dependence in Secondary School Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Nikhita, Chimatapu Sri; Jadhav, Pradeep R

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Mobile phones have become an essential part of modern human life. They have many attributes which makes them very attractive to both young and old. There has been an increasing trend of use of mobile phones among students. Data has now started emerging with respect to the negative physical and psychological consequences of excessive use of mobile phones. New research has shown excessive use of mobile phones leading to development of symptoms suggestive of dependence syndrome. Aim To study the prevalence of Mobile Phone Dependence (MPD) in secondary school adolescents. Setting and Design Cross-sectional, observational study conducted in secondary section of English-medium schools at Navi Mumbai (India). Materials and Methods Four hundred and fifteen students studying in 8th, 9th and 10th standards of schools at Navi Mumbai (India) having personal mobile phone were randomly included in the study. Participant information like age, gender, family type, phone type, duration of use per day and years of mobile phone usage was recorded. They were administered an MPD questionnaire based upon the dependence syndrome criteria as per ICD-10. According to their responses, participants who fulfilled three or more of the diagnostic criteria were rated as having MPD. Results Mobile Phone Dependence was found in 31.33% of sample students. It was significantly associated with gender (p=0.003, OR=1.91, CI: 1.23-2.99), family type (p=0.0012), type of mobile phone used (p<0.001, OR=2.6, CI: 1.63-4.35), average time per day spent using mobile phone (p<0.001) and years of mobile phone usage (p =0.004, OR=2.4, CI: 1.31-4.55). Conclusion Mobile Phone Dependence has been found to be an emerging public health problem. There is need to recognize and identify early the growing trends and negative consequences of inappropriate mobile phone use in young users so as to generate awareness, and plan educational and treatment interventions, if need be, so as to prevent a major public

  20. [Youth Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stare, Russell K., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This issue of the newsletter "Prevention Forum" focuses on smoking among adolescents. The articles are as follows: (1) "Where There's Smoke--Will Prevention Put Out the Fire?" (Joanne Burgess), an overview of the Surgeon General's report "Preventing Tobacco Use among Young People," including interviews with prevention and anti-smoking activists;…

  1. How long will today's new adolescent smoker be addicted to cigarettes?

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, J P; Gilpin, E

    1996-01-01

    This study estimated the expected smoking duration for young smokers who have started recently. Data from National Health Interview Surveys were combined to model the ages at which smoking prevalence will decline to various percentages of the peak smoking prevalence for each successive birth cohort. Smoking-cessation ages were then estimated for the males and females born from 1975 through 1979. The median cessation age for those in this cohort who start smoking as adolescents is expected to be 33 years for males and 37 years for females. Thus, 50% of these adolescent males may smoke for at least 16 years and 50% of these adolescent females may smoke for at least 20 years, based on a median age of initiation of 16 to 17 years. Despite the decline in the median age of US smokers who quit, these data predict that smoking will be a long-term addiction for many adolescents who start now. PMID:8633747

  2. Human chorionic somatomammotropin in normal adolescent primiparous pregnancy. I. Effect of smoking.

    PubMed

    Moser, R J; Hollingsworth, D R; Carlson, J W; Lamotte, L

    1974-12-15

    Human chorionic somatomammotropin (HCS) levels were studied in normal smoking and nonsmoking primiparous adolescent pregnancies. 136 teenagers, aged 12-18 years, were divided into groups: nonsmokers, deep, and shallow inhalers, long, and short puffers, high, and low tar, and high, and low nicotin. Shallow inhaling and low nicotine exposure patients were found to have a later age of menarche than did nonsmokers (13.2 vs. 12.3 years, p=.03). The mean body weight of the mothers who smoked was slightly less (61 gm) than that of nonsmoking mothers. Except for long puffers, overall, smokers had significantly lower HCS values throughout pregnancy than noosmokers (p = .48 high tar-p = .002 low tar). However, in the third trimester those with the lowest smoking exposures had the lowest HCS values and the heavier smokers had slightly higher mean values than nonsmokers. These data suggest that HCS production may be more sensitive to low tar and nicotine exposure with possible tolerance or even stimulation occurring in larger doses. PMID:4432896

  3. Insomnia in Adults: The Impact of Earlier Cigarette Smoking from Adolescence to Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Judith S.; Zhang, Chenshu; Seltzer, Nathan; Brook, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined the role of cigarette smoking beginning in adolescence and extending to the fifth decade of life on insomnia at average age 43 in the Children and Adults in the Community Study. Methods: Participants were originally assessed in 1983 and came from a community-based random sample of individuals living in two upstate New York counties. Participants were assessed over eight waves of data collection that spanned approximately 29 years, from mean ages 14.1 (T1) to 42.9 (T8). We classified the longitudinal trajectories of cigarette use. Five cigarette use trajectory groups were identified: heavy/continuous smokers, late starters, occasional smokers, quitters/decreasers, and nonsmokers. Results: The results of the logistic regression analysis of adult insomnia for the Bayesian posterior probability (BPP) of the heavy/continuous smokers when compared to the BPP of nonsmokers was statistically significant - adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of 3.35 (95% CI=[1.06, 10.56], p<0.05) – after adjustment for control variables. Conclusions: The findings highlight the importance of heavy chronic smoking as contributing to insomnia. Clinicians should focus their efforts of smoking prevention and treatment on younger individuals, as well as promoting cessation among older adult smokers in order to decrease the likelihood of insomnia. PMID:25325299

  4. Fatherhood in adolescence: prevalence and associated factors in a community sample of youngsters.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Milene Maria Saalfeld de; Branco, Jerônimo Costa; Souza, Luciano Dias de Mattos; Silva, Ricardo Azevedo da; Lara, Diogo Rizzato; Mota, Denise Marques; Jansen, Karen

    2015-11-01

    This article aims to assess the prevalence of fatherhood in adolescence (FA) and associated factors in a community sample of 14 to 35 year-old men. Cross-sectional population-based study realized in the urban area of the city of Pelotas-RS, Brazil. The sample was selected by clusters, according to the city census. This sub-study only comprised sexually active men. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire in the participants' homes. The sample was composed for 934 men. The prevalence of fatherhood in adolescence was 8% (n = 75). We verified higher prevalence of FA among those that reported paternal absenc